Science.gov

Sample records for early physical contact

  1. The Role of Physical Contact and Association in Early Contamination Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Belk, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Children were asked whether someone would get sick from drinking juice placed near a bug. Some preschoolers and most seven- and eight-year olds recognized the need for physical contact with the bug to make the juice noxious, whereas some believed the mere presence of a contaminant made it noxious. Thus, associational contamination sometimes plays…

  2. Physical contact and financial risk taking.

    PubMed

    Levav, Jonathan; Argo, Jennifer J

    2010-06-01

    We show that minimal physical contact can increase people's sense of security and consequently lead them to increased risk-taking behavior. In three experiments, with both hypothetical and real payoffs, a female experimenter's light, comforting pat on the shoulder led participants to greater financial risk taking. Further, this effect was both mediated and moderated by feelings of security in both male and female participants. Finally, we established the boundary conditions for the impact of physical contact on risk-taking behaviors by demonstrating that the effect does not occur when the touching is performed by a male and is attenuated when the touch consists of a handshake. The results suggest that subtle physical contact can be strongly influential in decision making and the willingness to accept risk.

  3. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC.

  4. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  5. Physical Education in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…

  6. Contact material optimization and contact physics in metal-contact microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenyin

    Metal-contact MEMS switches hold great promise for implementing agile radio frequency (RF) systems because of their small size, low fabrication cost, low power consumption, wide operational band, excellent isolation and exceptionally low signal insertion loss. Gold is often utilized as a contact material for metal-contact MEMS switches due to its excellent electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. However contact wear and stiction are the two major failure modes for these switches due to its material softness and high surface adhesion energy. To strengthen the contact material, pure gold was alloyed with other metal elements. We designed and constructed a new micro-contacting test facility that closely mimic the typical MEMS operation and utilized this facility to efficiently evaluate optimized contact materials. Au-Ni binary alloy system as the candidate contact material for MEMS switches was systematically investigated. A correlation between contact material properties (etc. microstructure, micro-hardness, electrical resistivity, topology, surface structures and composition) and micro-contacting performance was established. It was demonstrated nano-scale graded two-phase Au-Ni film could possibly yield an improved device performance. Gold micro-contact degradation mechanisms were also systematically investigated by running the MEMS switching tests under a wide range of test conditions. According to our quantitative failure analysis, field evaporation could be the dominant failure mode for highfield (> critical threshold field) hot switching; transient thermal-assisted wear could be the dominant failure mode for low-field hot switching; on the other hand, pure mechanical wear and steady current heating (1 mA) caused much less contact degradation in cold switching tests. Results from low-force (50 muN/micro-contact), low current (0.1 mA) tests on real MEMS switches indicated that continuous adsorbed films from ambient air could degrade the switch contact

  7. A review of micro-contact physics for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metal contact switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toler, Benjamin F.; Coutu, Ronald A., Jr.; McBride, John W.

    2013-10-01

    Innovations in relevant micro-contact areas are highlighted, these include, design, contact resistance modeling, contact materials, performance and reliability. For each area the basic theory and relevant innovations are explored. A brief comparison of actuation methods is provided to show why electrostatic actuation is most commonly used by radio frequency microelectromechanical systems designers. An examination of the important characteristics of the contact interface such as modeling and material choice is discussed. Micro-contact resistance models based on plastic, elastic-plastic and elastic deformations are reviewed. Much of the modeling for metal contact micro-switches centers around contact area and surface roughness. Surface roughness and its effect on contact area is stressed when considering micro-contact resistance modeling. Finite element models and various approaches for describing surface roughness are compared. Different contact materials to include gold, gold alloys, carbon nanotubes, composite gold-carbon nanotubes, ruthenium, ruthenium oxide, as well as tungsten have been shown to enhance contact performance and reliability with distinct trade offs for each. Finally, a review of physical and electrical failure modes witnessed by researchers are detailed and examined.

  8. Physical and reliability issues in MEMS microrelays with gold contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafontan, Xavier; Pressecq, Francis; Perez, Guy; Dufaza, Christian; Karam, Jean Michel

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents the work we have done on micro-relays with gold micro-contacts in MUMPs. Firstly, the theoretical physical principles of MEMS micro-relay are described. This study is divided in two parts: the micro-contact and the micro-actuator. The micro-contact part deals with resistance of constriction, contact area, adhesion, arcing and wear. Whereas the micro-actuator part describes general principles, contact force, restoring force and actuator reliability. Then, in a second part, an innovative electrostatic relay design in MUMPs is presented. The concept, the implementation and the final realization are discussed. Then, in the third part, characterization results are reported. This part particularly focuses on the micro-contact study. Conduction mode, contact area, mechanical and thermal deformation, and adhesion energies are presented.

  9. Knee contact forces are not altered in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meireles, S; De Groote, F; Reeves, N D; Verschueren, S; Maganaris, C; Luyten, F; Jonkers, I

    2016-03-01

    This study calculated knee contact forces (KCF) and its relations with knee external knee adduction moments (KAM) and/or flexion moments (KFM) during the stance phase of gait in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA), classified based on early joint degeneration on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We aimed at assessing if altered KCF are already present in early structural degeneration. Three-dimensional motion and ground reaction force data in 59 subjects with medial compartment knee OA (N=23 established OA, N=16 early OA, N=20 controls) were used as input for a musculoskeletal model. KAM and KFM, and KCF were estimated using OpenSim software. No significant differences were found between controls and subjects with early OA. In early OA patients, KAM significantly explained 69% of the variance associated with the first peaks KCF but only KFM contributed to the second peaks KCF. The multiple correlation, combining KAM and KFM, showed to be higher. However, only 20% of the variance of second peak KCF was explained by both moments in established OA. KCF are not increased in patients with early OA, suggesting that knee joint overload is more a consequence of further joint degeneration in more advanced stages of OA. Additionally, our results clearly show that KAM is not sufficient to predict joint loading at the end of the stance, where KFM contributes substantially to the loading, especially in early OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early microbial contact, the breast milk microbiome and child health.

    PubMed

    Rautava, S

    2016-02-01

    The significance of contact with microbes in early life for subsequent health has been the subject of intense research during the last 2 decades. Disturbances in the establishment of the indigenous intestinal microbiome caused by cesarean section delivery or antibiotic exposure in early life have been linked to the risk of immune-mediated and inflammatory conditions such as atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and obesity later in life. Distinct microbial populations have recently been discovered at maternal sites including the amniotic cavity and breast milk, as well as meconium, which have previously been thought to be sterile. Our understanding of the impact of fetal microbial contact on health outcomes is still rudimentary. Breast milk is known to modulate immune and metabolic programming. The breast milk microbiome is hypothesized to guide infant gut colonization and is affected by maternal health status and mode of delivery. Immunomodulatory factors in breast milk interact with the maternal and infant gut microbiome and may mediate some of the health benefits associated with breastfeeding. The intimate connection between the mother and the fetus or the infant is a potential target for microbial therapeutic interventions aiming to support healthy microbial contact and protect against disease.

  11. Friend and Family Contact and Support in Early Widowhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored the relative contributions of friends and family to the social and emotional well-being of women and men in the first 2–6 months following the death of their spouse or partner. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-eight widowed men (39%) and women aged 50 and older completed self-administered questionnaires that included measures of contact and satisfaction with friends and family, as well as measures of affective (i.e., grief and depression) and self-evaluative (i.e., coping self-efficacy, mastery, self-esteem) responses to loss. Results. Regression analyses supported the positive features of social support and interaction but particularly highlight the role of friends: ease of contact and satisfaction with friendship support were associated with more positive self-evaluative aspects of loss; greater frequency of friendship help was associated with more negative affective reactions, whereas higher satisfaction with friendship support was associated with more positive affective reactions. Discussion. These analyses support the voluntary and socializing functions of friendship and social support, bolstering individuals during stressful life transitions, advancing our understanding of the underexamined and particularly distinct functions of friendship in the early phases of spousal loss. PMID:24170717

  12. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  13. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions

    PubMed Central

    Newman, George E.; Bloom, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person’s immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people’s expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions. PMID:24567388

  14. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions.

    PubMed

    Newman, George E; Bloom, Paul

    2014-03-11

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person's immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people's expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions.

  15. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  16. Physics of direct-contact ultrasonic cloth drying process

    SciT

    Peng, Chang; Ravi, Saitej; Patel, Viral K.

    Existing methods of drying fabrics involve energy-intensive thermal evaporation of moisture from clothes. Drying fabrics using high-frequency vibrations of piezoelectric transducers can substantially reduce drying time and energy consumption. In this method, vibrational energy generates instability on the liquid-air interface and mechanically ejects water from a wet fabric. For the first time, the physics of the ultrasonic fabric drying process in direct-contact mode is studied. The kinematic and thermal responses of water droplets and fabrics on piezoelectric crystal transducers and metal mesh–based transducers are studied. The results suggest that on piezoelectric crystal transducers, the response of a droplet subjected tomore » ultrasonic excitation is dictated by the relative magnitude of the surface tension and the ultrasonic excitation forces. The drying process for a fabric on the studied transducers consists of two regimes—vibrational and thermal. When the water content is high, the vibrational forces can eject bulk water rapidly. But the more strongly bound water within the smaller fabric pores evaporates by the thermal energy generated as a result of the viscous losses. Our study finds that a metal mesh–based transducer is more suitable for dewatering fabrics, as it facilitates the ejection of water from the fabric–transducer interface to the opposite side of the mesh. A demonstration unit developed consumes 10–20% of the water latent heat energy at water contents greater than 20%.« less

  17. Physics of direct-contact ultrasonic cloth drying process

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Chang; Ravi, Saitej; Patel, Viral K.; ...

    2017-02-27

    Existing methods of drying fabrics involve energy-intensive thermal evaporation of moisture from clothes. Drying fabrics using high-frequency vibrations of piezoelectric transducers can substantially reduce drying time and energy consumption. In this method, vibrational energy generates instability on the liquid-air interface and mechanically ejects water from a wet fabric. For the first time, the physics of the ultrasonic fabric drying process in direct-contact mode is studied. The kinematic and thermal responses of water droplets and fabrics on piezoelectric crystal transducers and metal mesh–based transducers are studied. The results suggest that on piezoelectric crystal transducers, the response of a droplet subjected tomore » ultrasonic excitation is dictated by the relative magnitude of the surface tension and the ultrasonic excitation forces. The drying process for a fabric on the studied transducers consists of two regimes—vibrational and thermal. When the water content is high, the vibrational forces can eject bulk water rapidly. But the more strongly bound water within the smaller fabric pores evaporates by the thermal energy generated as a result of the viscous losses. Our study finds that a metal mesh–based transducer is more suitable for dewatering fabrics, as it facilitates the ejection of water from the fabric–transducer interface to the opposite side of the mesh. A demonstration unit developed consumes 10–20% of the water latent heat energy at water contents greater than 20%.« less

  18. Physically separating printed circuit boards with a resilient, conductive contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John D. (Inventor); Montalvo, Alberto (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A multi-board module provides high density electronic packaging in which multiple printed circuit boards are stacked. Electrical power, or signals, are conducted between the boards through a resilient contact. One end of the contact is located at a via in the lower circuit board and soldered to a pad near the via. The top surface of the contact rests against a via of the facing printed circuit board.

  19. Holding the baby: early mother-infant contact after childbirth and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Kruske, Sue

    2014-05-01

    to describe the timing, type and duration of initial infant contact and associated demographic and clinical factors in addition to investigating the impact of early contact on breastfeeding and maternal health and well being after birth. data from a recent population survey of women birthing in Queensland, Australia were used to describe the nature of the first hold and associated demographic characteristics. Initial comparisons, with subsequent adjustment for type of birthing facility and mode of childbirth, were used to assess associations between timing, type and duration of initial contact and outcomes. Further analyses were conducted to investigate a dose-response relationship between duration of first contact and outcomes. women who had an unassisted vaginal birth held their infant sooner, and for longer than women who had an assisted vaginal birth or caesarean and were more satisfied with their early contact. Multivariate models showed a number of demographic and clinical interventions contributing to timing, duration and type of first contact with type of birthing facility (public/private), area of residence, and assisted birth as prominent factors. For women who had a vaginal birth; early, skin-to-skin, and longer duration of initial contact were associated with high rates of breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding at discharge, but not breastfeeding at 13 weeks. Some aspects of early contact were associated with improved maternal well being. However, these associations were not found for women who had a caesarean birth. With longer durations of first contact, a dose-response effect was found for breastfeeding. results of the study provide a description of current practice in Queensland, Australia and factors impacting on early contact. For vaginal births, findings add to the evidence in support of early skin-to-skin contact for an extended period. It is suggested that all research in this area should consider the effects of early contact separately for

  20. Physical Fitness and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2006-01-01

    The state of children's fitness is the responsibility of all who are involved with children. As early childhood professionals, they have a duty to educate the whole (thinking, feeling, "moving") child. Moreover, teachers of preschoolers can be more realistic than parents in their assessment of children's physical inactivity levels, and preschool…

  1. The physical challenges of early breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Christa M

    2006-11-01

    Breastfeeding rates have recently increased in the United States and Canada and a majority of women now initiate breastfeeding. Feminist scholarship on breastfeeding has addressed a variety of issues related to women's breastfeeding experiences but has tended to ignore or downplay the potentially physically challenging aspects of early breastfeeding. This study, based on semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 52 women from Canada and the United States conducted at approximately one month postpartum, examines women's experiences of pain and discomfort associated with breastfeeding. The findings demonstrate that many women experienced pain and discomfort and that they were generally surprised by the extent, intensity and duration of discomfort and pain, which ranged from mild to severe. Several women indicated that the physical impact of breastfeeding affected their relationship with their baby; others indicated that they became hesitant to continue the practice due to feelings of physical vulnerability, pain and/or discomfort. Lastly, women's experiences of the physical implications of breastfeeding were influenced in part by assistance provided by health care practitioners, in both positive and negative ways. The practice of breastfeeding has the potential to challenge women's physicality. Feminist scholars addressing the topic of breastfeeding, women's postpartum health, and embodiment must more directly and comprehensively account for the potentially negative physical implications and demands associated with early breastfeeding.

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae Eradicates Preformed Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms through a Mechanism Requiring Physical Contact.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faidad; Wu, Xueqing; Matzkin, Gideon L; Khan, Mohsin A; Sakai, Fuminori; Vidal, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (Sau) strains are a main cause of disease, including nosocomial infections which have been linked to the production of biofilms and the propagation of antibiotic resistance strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A previous study found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) strains kill planktonic cultures of Sau strains. In this work, we have further evaluated in detail the eradication of Sau biofilms and investigated ultrastructural interactions of the biofilmicidal effect. Spn strain D39, which produces the competence stimulating peptide 1 (CSP1), reduced Sau biofilms within 8 h of inoculation, while TIGR4, producing CSP2, eradicated Sau biofilms and planktonic cells within 4 h. Differences were not attributed to pherotypes as other Spn strains producing different pheromones eradicated Sau within 4 h. Experiments using Transwell devices, which physically separated both species growing in the same well, demonstrated that direct contact between Spn and Sau was required to efficiently eradicate Sau biofilms and biofilm-released planktonic cells. Physical contact-mediated killing of Sau was not related to production of hydrogen peroxide as an isogenic TIGR4Δ spx B mutant eradicated Sau bacteria within 4 h. Confocal micrographs confirmed eradication of Sau biofilms by TIGR4 and allowed us to visualize ultrastructural point of contacts between Sau and Spn. A time-course study further demonstrated spatial colocalization of Spn chains and Sau tetrads as early as 30 min post-inoculation (Pearson's coefficient >0.72). Finally, precolonized biofilms produced by Sau strain Newman, or MRSA strain USA300, were eradicated by mid-log phase cultures of washed TIGR4 bacteria within 2 h post-inoculation. In conclusion, Spn strains rapidly eradicate pre-colonized Sau aureus biofilms, including those formed by MRSA strains, by a mechanism(s) requiring bacterium-bacterium contact, but independent from the production of hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  4. Predicting protein contact map using evolutionary and physical constraints by integer programming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Jinbo

    2013-07-01

    Protein contact map describes the pairwise spatial and functional relationship of residues in a protein and contains key information for protein 3D structure prediction. Although studied extensively, it remains challenging to predict contact map using only sequence information. Most existing methods predict the contact map matrix element-by-element, ignoring correlation among contacts and physical feasibility of the whole-contact map. A couple of recent methods predict contact map by using mutual information, taking into consideration contact correlation and enforcing a sparsity restraint, but these methods demand for a very large number of sequence homologs for the protein under consideration and the resultant contact map may be still physically infeasible. This article presents a novel method PhyCMAP for contact map prediction, integrating both evolutionary and physical restraints by machine learning and integer linear programming. The evolutionary restraints are much more informative than mutual information, and the physical restraints specify more concrete relationship among contacts than the sparsity restraint. As such, our method greatly reduces the solution space of the contact map matrix and, thus, significantly improves prediction accuracy. Experimental results confirm that PhyCMAP outperforms currently popular methods no matter how many sequence homologs are available for the protein under consideration. http://raptorx.uchicago.edu.

  5. Early Spacelab physics and astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the scientific problems which will be investigated during the early Spacelab physics and astronomy missions are reviewed. The Solar Terrestrial Programs will include the Solar Physics Spacelab Payloads (SPSP) and the Atmospheres, Magnetospheres and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) missions. These missions will study the sun as a star and the influence of solar phenomena on the earth, including sun-solar wind interface, the nature of the solar flares, etc. The Astrophysics Spacelab Payloads (ASP) programs are divided into the Ultraviolet-Optical Astronomy and the High Energy Astrophysics areas. The themes of astrophysics Spacelab investigations will cover the nature of the universe, the fate of matter and the life cycles of stars. The paper discusses various scientific experiments and instruments to be used in the early Spacelab missions.

  6. Particle physics in the very early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  7. What do bonobos (Pan paniscus) understand about physical contact?

    PubMed

    Helme, Anne E; Call, Josep; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2006-08-01

    The present study aimed to test what bonobos (Pan paniscus) understand about contact. The task consisted of a clear horizontal tube containing a piece of food and a stick with a disk attached. The bonobos chose which side to push or pull the stick for the disk to contact the food and make it accessible. There were 9 variations in tube design, which differed in the positions of the stick, disk, and food. All 5 bonobos passed at least 1 configuration. A recent study (A. E. Helme, N. S. Clayton, & N. J. Emery, 2006) found that rooks could learn only tube configurations that provided an asymmetrical stick cue, whereas bonobos did not demonstrate an understanding of contact but showed more individual variation, attending to the positions of the food, disk, and stick. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  9. On the physically based modeling of surface tension and moving contact lines with dynamic contact angles on the continuum scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M.; Keller, F.; Säckel, W.; Hirschler, M.; Kunz, P.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Nieken, U.

    2016-04-01

    The description of wetting phenomena is a challenging problem on every considerable length-scale. The behavior of interfaces and contact lines on the continuum scale is caused by intermolecular interactions like the Van der Waals forces. Therefore, to describe surface tension and the resulting dynamics of interfaces and contact lines on the continuum scale, appropriate formulations must be developed. While the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model is well-engineered for the description of interfaces, there is still a lack of treatment of contact lines, which are defined by the intersection of an ending fluid interface and a solid boundary surface. In our approach we use a balance equation for the contact line and extend the Navier-Stokes equations in analogy to the extension of a two-phase interface in the CSF model. Since this model depicts a physically motivated approach on the continuum scale, no fitting parameters are introduced and the deterministic description leads to a dynamical evolution of the system. As verification of our theory, we show a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model and simulate the evolution of droplet shapes and their corresponding contact angles.

  10. Neuromuscular and inflammatory responses to handball small-sided games: the effects of physical contact.

    PubMed

    Dello Iacono, A; Eliakim, A; Padulo, J; Laver, L; Ben-Zaken, S; Meckel, Y

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical contact on neuromuscular impairments and inflammatory response during handball small-sided games. Using a counterbalanced design, 12 elite male junior handball players were divided into two groups: contact (C-SSG) and no-contact (NC-SSG), performing both contact and no-contact small-sided games, in reverse order on two training sessions separated by 5 days. The methodology and rules were identical for the two SSG regimens, with the only difference being the inclusion or prohibition of upper body use for physical contacts. Upper and lower body neuromuscular performances and blood concentrations of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 were assessed before and immediately after the games. During small-sided games, video analysis was used to establish the physical contact counts. Significant differences were found in most upper and lower limbs muscles kinetic variables and in the physical contact events (all P < 0.001) following the two training regimens. There was an increase in IL-6 after C-SSG and no changes following NC-SSG (P < 0.05 and P = 0.12, respectively). Moreover, a strong correlation was found between the number of physical contacts and IL-6 responses (r = 0.971, P < 0.001) in C-SSG. This study indicates that an inflammatory response and large upper and lower body neuromuscular impairments result from physical contact in elite handball players. These outcomes outline the specific physiological profile of C-SSG that, in turn, might be used by practitioners and coaches as a practical approach to strategically select exercises in athlete's overall training program. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Crepidula Slipper Limpets Alter Sex Change in Response to Physical Contact with Conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan; Collin, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Chemical signaling, especially signaling with waterborne cues, is an important mode of communication between conspecifics of aquatic organisms. Although conspecific associations play an important role in sex allocation of sequential hermaphroditic slipper limpets, the mode of signaling is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the effects of conspecifics on animal size and time of sex change in the tropical slipper limpet Crepidula cf. marginalis are mediated by waterborne cues. In our experiment, pairs of snails (one small and one large) were kept in cups, either together or partitioned off with fine or coarse mesh, or partitioned, but switched from side to side to allow contact with the cup mate's pedal mucus. The larger snails that were allowed contact with the smaller companions grew faster, and generally changed sex sooner, than did the larger snails in the barrier treatments, which allowed no physical contact. The smaller snails that were allowed contact with the larger cup mate delayed sex change compared to those separated from their cup mates. We were, therefore, able to reject the hypothesis that waterborne cues mediate communication between these snails. Our results suggest that the cue that affects size and time to sex change requires some kind of physical interaction that is lost when the snails are separated. Furthermore, contact with another snail's pedal mucus does not compensate for the loss of physical contact. Since males often attach to the shell of larger females, direct contact may mediate this kind of physical interaction via positional information, physical stimulation, or contact-based chemical communication. Whatever the cue, contact with conspecifics influences both partners, resulting in, surprisingly, a higher growth rate in the larger animal and delayed sex change in the smaller animal. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  12. Disease-avoidance processes and stigmatization: cues of substandard health arouse heightened discomfort with physical contact.

    PubMed

    Park, Justin H; van Leeuwen, Florian; Chochorelou, Ypapanti

    2013-01-01

    An evolutionary approach to stigmatization suggests that disease-avoidance processes contribute to some instances of social exclusion. Disease-avoidance processes are over-inclusive, targeting even non-threatening individuals who display cues of substandard health. We investigated whether such cues motivate avoidance of physical contact in particular. In Studies 1 and 2, targets with disease (e.g., leprosy) or atypical morphologies (e.g., amputated leg, obesity) were found to arouse differentially heightened discomfort with physical (versus nonphysical) contact, whereas a criminal target (stigmatized for disease-irrelevant reasons) was found to arouse elevated discomfort for both types of contact. Study 3 used a between-subjects design that eliminated the influence of extraneous factors. A diseased target was found to arouse differentially heightened discomfort with physical (versus nonphysical) contact, and to do so more strongly than any other type of target.

  13. Lactobacilli require physical contact to reduce staphylococcal TSST-1 secretion and vaginal epithelial inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Younes, Jessica A; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-06-01

    ITALIC! Staphylococcus aureusbiofilms can be found on vaginal epithelia, secreting toxins and causing inflammation. The co-vaginal species ITALIC! Lactobacilluscan alter staphylococcal-induced epithelial secretion of inflammatory cytokines and quench staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion. It is hypothesized that these effects of lactobacilli require direct physical contact between lactobacilli, staphylococci and the epithelium. Indeed, lactobacilli only reduced ITALIC! S. aureus-induced inflammatory cytokine expression when allowed physical contact with vaginal epithelial cells. Furthermore, a reduction in toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion only occurred when a probiotic ITALIC! Lactobacillusstrain was allowed contact, but not when being physically separated from ITALIC! S. aureus Bacterial-probe atomic force microscopy demonstrated that lactobacilli and staphylococci strongly adhere to epithelial cells, while lactobacilli adhere stronger to staphylococci than staphylococci to each other, giving lactobacilli opportunity to penetrate and reside in staphylococcal biofilms, as visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy with fluorescence ITALIC! in situhybridization probes. These results identify that physical contact and biochemical signaling by lactobacilli are intrinsically linked mechanisms that reduce virulence of ITALIC! S. aureusbiofilm. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, E R; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N

    2007-07-18

    Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, covered across the back with a warm blanket, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, behavior, and physiological adaptation in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's and Neonatal Group's Trials Registers (August 2006), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1976 to 2006). Randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty studies involving 1925 participants (mother-infant dyads), were included. Data from more than two trials were available for only 8-of-64 outcome measures. We found statistically significant and positive effects of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (10 trials; 552 participants) (odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 3.07), and breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (weighted mean difference (WMD) 42.55, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79). Trends were found for improved summary scores for maternal affectionate love/touch during observed breastfeeding (four trials; 314 participants) (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.52, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98) and maternal attachment behavior (six trials; 396 participants) (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.72) with early SSC. SSC infants cried for a shorter length of time (one trial; 44 participants) (WMD -8.01, 95% CI -8.98 to -7.04). Late preterm infants had

  15. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2012-05-16

    Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future physiology and behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was significantly higher in SSC infants (two trials, 94 infants) (MD 10.56 mg/dL, 95% CI 8.40 to 12.72).The

  16. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother’s bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically ‘sensitive period’ for programming future physiology and behavior. Objectives To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI −1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was

  17. Pelvis morphology suggests that early Mesozoic birds were too heavy to contact incubate their eggs.

    PubMed

    Charles Deeming, D; Mayr, Gerald

    2018-05-01

    Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds, but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species, eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has not yet been investigated. We estimated maximal egg breadth for a range of Mesozoic avian taxa from the width of the pelvic canal defined by the pubic symphysis. Known elongation ratios of Mesozoic bird eggs allowed us to predict egg mass and hence the load mass an egg could endure before cracking. These values were compared to the predicted body masses of the adult birds based on skeletal remains. Based on 21 fossil species, we show that for nonornithothoracine birds body mass was 187% of the load mass of the eggs. For Enantiornithes, body mass was 127% greater than the egg load mass, but some early Cretaceous ornithuromorphs were 179% heavier than their eggs could support. Our indirect approach provides the best evidence yet that early birds could not have sat on their eggs without running the risk of causing damage. We suggest that contact incubation evolved comparatively late in birds. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  19. Physical contact between human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells modulates cytosolic and nuclear calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ghada S; Jacques, Danielle; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Magder, Sheldon; Bkaily, Ghassan

    2018-05-14

    The interaction between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone. There is, however, no information on whether direct physical communication regulates the intracellular calcium levels of human VECs (hVECs) and (or) human VSMCs (hVSMCs). Thus, the objective of the study is to verify whether co-culture of hVECs and hVSMCs modulates cytosolic ([Ca 2+ ] c ) and nuclear calcium ([Ca 2+ ] n ) levels via physical contact and (or) factors released by both cell types. Quantitative 3D confocal microscopy for [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n measurement was performed in cultured hVECs or hVSMCs or in co-culture of hVECs-hVSMCs. Our results show that: (1) physical contact between hVECs-hVECs or hVSMCs-hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n in these 2 cell types; (2) physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs induces a significant increase only of [Ca 2+ ] n of hVECs without affecting the level of [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of hVSMCs; and (3) preconditioned culture medium of hVECs or hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of both types of cells. We concluded that physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs only modulates [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs. The increase of [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs may modulate nuclear functions that are calcium dependent.

  20. Early Developments in Argumentation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    An evaluation of four seventeenth and eighteenth century essays on optics revealed early trends in the evolution of scientific articles. The later articles showed a growing tendency to (1) separate practice from pure knowledge, (2) organize information around problems of knowledge and theory rather than around chronological events, (3) emphasize…

  1. Does contact by a family nurse practitioner decrease early school absence?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in nursing literature. This article describes a nursing intervention to decrease early school absence in two elementary schools K-3 (N = 449) and a Head Start program (N = 130). The Head Start Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) contacted families of chronically and excessively absent students by telephone, clinic visit at school, or home visit. The aggregate percentage attendance was evaluated by grades (preschool to third grade), schools (Head Start, Elementary Schools 1 and 2), and grades and schools and compared with publicly available school district aggregate data. There were statistically significant increases in attendance from Year 1 to Year 2 at p < .05 at the elementary level but not at the Head Start level. Student demographics, types of contacts, absence reasons (including sick child), and medical diagnoses are described.

  2. Early skin-to-skin contact after cesarean section: A randomized clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Martina; Aldrian, Lisa; Scheuchenegger, Anna; Mautner, Eva; Herzog, Sereina A.; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Lang, Uwe; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Klaritsch, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early bonding by skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has been demonstrated to be beneficial for mothers and newborns following vaginal delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intraoperative bonding (early SSC) after cesarean section on neonatal adaptation, maternal pain and stress response. Study design This prospective, randomized-controlled pilot study was performed at a single academic tertiary hospital (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, Austria) between September 2013 and January 2014. Women were randomly assigned to intraoperative (“early”) SCC (n = 17) versus postoperative (“late”) SCC (n = 18). Main variables investigated were neonatal transition (Apgar score, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and temperature), maternal pain perception and both maternal and neonatal stress response by measuring the stress biomarkers salivary free cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. Results There was no evidence for differences in parameters reflecting neonatal transition or stress response between the ‘Early SSC Group’ and the ‘Late SSC Group’. Maternal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels as well as maternal wellbeing and pain did not differ between the groups. However, the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the ‘Early SSC Group’ compared to the ‘Late SSC Group’ (p = 0.004). Conclusions This study did not reveal significant risks for the newborn in terms of neonatal transition when early SSC is applied in the operating room. Maternal condition and stress marker levels did not differ either, although the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the ‘Early SSC Group’ compared to the ‘Late SSC Group’, which may indicate a stressor sign due to intensive activation of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary-system. This needs to be further evaluated in a larger prospective randomized trial. Trial

  3. Physical conditions on the early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I

    2006-01-01

    The formation of the Earth as a planet was a large stochastic process in which the rapid assembly of asteroidal-to-Mars-sized bodies was followed by a more extended period of growth through collisions of these objects, facilitated by the gravitational perturbations associated with Jupiter. The Earth's inventory of water and organic molecules may have come from diverse sources, not more than 10% roughly from comets, the rest from asteroidal precursors to chondritic bodies and possibly objects near Earth's orbit for which no representative class of meteorites exists today in laboratory collections. The final assembly of the Earth included a catastrophic impact with a Mars-sized body, ejecting mantle and crustal material to form the Moon, and also devolatilizing part of the Earth. A magma ocean and steam atmosphere (possibly with silica vapour) existed briefly in this period, but terrestrial surface waters were below the critical point within 100 million years after Earth's formation, and liquid water existed continuously on the surface within a few hundred million years. Organic material delivered by comets and asteroids would have survived, in part, this violent early period, but frequent impacts of remaining debris probably prevented the continuous habitability of the Earth for one to several hundred million years. Planetary analogues to or records of this early time when life began include Io (heat flow), Titan (organic chemistry) and Venus (remnant early granites). PMID:17008213

  4. Physical conditions on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Lunine, Jonathan I

    2006-10-29

    The formation of the Earth as a planet was a large stochastic process in which the rapid assembly of asteroidal-to-Mars-sized bodies was followed by a more extended period of growth through collisions of these objects, facilitated by the gravitational perturbations associated with Jupiter. The Earth's inventory of water and organic molecules may have come from diverse sources, not more than 10% roughly from comets, the rest from asteroidal precursors to chondritic bodies and possibly objects near Earth's orbit for which no representative class of meteorites exists today in laboratory collections. The final assembly of the Earth included a catastrophic impact with a Mars-sized body, ejecting mantle and crustal material to form the Moon, and also devolatilizing part of the Earth. A magma ocean and steam atmosphere (possibly with silica vapour) existed briefly in this period, but terrestrial surface waters were below the critical point within 100 million years after Earth's formation, and liquid water existed continuously on the surface within a few hundred million years. Organic material delivered by comets and asteroids would have survived, in part, this violent early period, but frequent impacts of remaining debris probably prevented the continuous habitability of the Earth for one to several hundred million years. Planetary analogues to or records of this early time when life began include Io (heat flow), Titan (organic chemistry) and Venus (remnant early granites).

  5. The Role of Early Education Teachers in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniszewski, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To identify factors responsible for deficiencies in early physical education (PE) at school, especially those related to the competence of teachers. Material and methods: A group of 54 early education female teachers aged 25-53 years were subjected to a questionnaire survey and to interviews. The results were analysed by using…

  6. Professional Socialization Experiences of Early Career Urban Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara Barnard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how three physical education (PE) teachers' professional socialization programmes influenced their early careers in urban schools in the US. Using cultural relevance theory and occupational socialization theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for a period of six weeks each.…

  7. Communicative interactions between visually impaired mothers and their sighted children: analysis of gaze, facial expressions, voice and physical contacts.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, S; Galati, D; Schmidt, S

    2015-11-01

    Social and emotional development of infants and young children is largely based on the communicative interaction with their mother, or principal caretaker (Trevarthen ). The main modalities implied in this early communication are voice, facial expressions and gaze (Stern ). This study aims at analysing early mother-child interactions in the case of visually impaired mothers who do not have access to their children's gaze and facial expressions. Spontaneous play interactions between seven visually impaired mothers and their sighted children aged between 6 months and 3 years were filmed. These dyads were compared with a control group of sighted mothers and children analysing four modalities of communication and interaction regulation: gaze, physical contacts, verbal productions and facial expressions. The visually impaired mothers' facial expressions differed from the ones of sighted mothers mainly with respect to forehead movements, leading to an impoverishment of conveyed meaning. Regarding the other communicative modalities, results suggest that visually impaired mothers and their children use compensatory strategies to guaranty harmonic interaction despite the mother's impairment: whereas gaze results the main factor of interaction regulation in sighted dyads, physical contacts and verbal productions assume a prevalent role in dyads with visually impaired mothers. Moreover, visually impaired mother's children seem to be able to differentiate between their mother and sighted interaction partners, adapting differential modes of communication. The results of this study show that, in spite of the obvious differences in the modes of communication, visual impairment does not prevent a harmonious interaction with the child. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sexuality and Physical Contact in National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Martha K.; Waite, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample. Method. We describe the new measures and compare the distributions of each across gender and age groups, in some cases by partnership status. Results. Two components of sexuality decrease with age among both men and women: frequency of finding an unknown person sexually attractive and receptivity to a partner’s sexual overtures. In contrast, the inclination to make one’s self sexually attractive to others was a more complicated function of partner status, gender, and age: partnered women and unpartnered men made the most effort, with the more effortful gender’s effort decreasing with age. Both men and women find nonsexual physical contact appealing but sexual physical contact is more appealing to men than women. Finally, two fifths of men and women report dissatisfaction with their partner’s frequency of caring behaviors that make later sexual interactions pleasurable, and a fifth of women and a quarter of men who had vaginal sex in the past year report dissatisfaction with amount of foreplay. Discussion. These data offer the opportunity to characterize sexual motivation in older adulthood more precisely and richly and to examine how the context of sexual experience and the nonsexual aspects of physical intimacy correlate with sexual behavior, enjoyment, and problems. PMID:25360027

  9. Sexuality and physical contact in National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project Wave 2.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adena M; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample. We describe the new measures and compare the distributions of each across gender and age groups, in some cases by partnership status. Two components of sexuality decrease with age among both men and women: frequency of finding an unknown person sexually attractive and receptivity to a partner's sexual overtures. In contrast, the inclination to make one's self sexually attractive to others was a more complicated function of partner status, gender, and age: partnered women and unpartnered men made the most effort, with the more effortful gender's effort decreasing with age. Both men and women find nonsexual physical contact appealing but sexual physical contact is more appealing to men than women. Finally, two fifths of men and women report dissatisfaction with their partner's frequency of caring behaviors that make later sexual interactions pleasurable, and a fifth of women and a quarter of men who had vaginal sex in the past year report dissatisfaction with amount of foreplay. These data offer the opportunity to characterize sexual motivation in older adulthood more precisely and richly and to examine how the context of sexual experience and the nonsexual aspects of physical intimacy correlate with sexual behavior, enjoyment, and problems. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Opening wedge trapezial osteotomy as possible treatment for early trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis: a biomechanical investigation of radial subluxation, contact area, and contact pressure.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Tahseen; Salas, Christina; Morrell, Nathan; Lansing, Letitia; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M; Mercer, Deana

    2012-04-01

    Radial subluxation and cartilage thinning have been associated with initiation and accelerated development of osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Few investigators have reported on the benefits of opening wedge trapezial osteotomy for altering the contact mechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint as a possible deterrent to the initiation or progression of osteoarthritis. We used cadaveric specimens to determine whether opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium was successful in reducing radial subluxation of the metacarpal base and to quantify the contact area and pressure on the trapezial surface during simulated lateral pinch. We used 8 fresh-frozen specimens in this study. The flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, adductor pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis tendons were each loaded to simulate the thumb in lateral pinch position. We measured radial subluxation from anteroposterior radiographs before and after placement of a 15° wedge. We used real-time sensors to analyze contact pressure and contact area distribution on the trapezium. Center of force in the normal joint under lateral pinch loading was primarily located in the dorsal region of the trapezium. After wedge placement, contact pressure increased in the ulnar-dorsal region by 76%. Mean contact area increased in the ulnar-dorsal region from 0.05 to 0.07 cm(2), and in the ulnar-volar region from 0.003 to 0.024 cm(2). The average reduction in joint subluxation was 64%. The 15° opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium reduced radial subluxation of the metacarpal on the trapezium and increased contact pressure and contact area away from the diseased compartments of the trapezial surface. Trapezial osteotomy addresses the 2 preeminent theories about the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. By reducing radial subluxation and altering contact pressure and contact area, trapezial osteotomy may prove an alternative to first

  11. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Bergman, Nils; Anderson, Gene C; Medley, Nancy

    2016-11-25

    Mother-infant separation post birth is common. In standard hospital care, newborn infants are held wrapped or dressed in their mother's arms, placed in open cribs or under radiant warmers. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and should last continually until the end of the first breastfeeding. SSC involves placing the dried, naked baby prone on the mother's bare chest, often covered with a warm blanket. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neuro-behaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time frame immediately post birth may represent a 'sensitive period' for programming future physiology and behavior. To assess the effects of immediate or early SSC for healthy newborn infants compared to standard contact on establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding and infant physiology. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 December 2015), made personal contact with trialists, consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr Susan Ludington, and reviewed reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials that compared immediate or early SSC with usual hospital care. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included 46 trials with 3850 women and their infants; 38 trials with 3472 women and infants contributed data to our analyses. Trials took place in 21 countries, and most recruited small samples (just 12 trials randomized more than 100 women). Eight trials included women who had SSC after cesarean birth. All infants recruited to trials were healthy, and the majority were full term. Six trials studied late preterm infants (greater than 35 weeks' gestation). No included trial met all criteria for good quality with respect to methodology and reporting

  12. Physical Modeling of Contact Processes on the Cutting Tools Surfaces of STM When Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerov, V. A.; Uteshev, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes how to create an optimization model of the process of fine turning of superalloys and steel tools from STM on CNC machines, flexible manufacturing units (GPM), machining centers. Creation of the optimization model allows you to link (unite) contact processes simultaneously on the front and back surfaces of the tool from STM to manage contact processes and the dynamic strength of the cutting tool at the top of the STM. Established optimization model of management of the dynamic strength of the incisors of the STM in the process of fine turning is based on a previously developed thermomechanical (physical, heat) model, which allows the system thermomechanical approach to choosing brands STM (domestic and foreign) for cutting tools from STM designed for fine turning of heat resistant alloys and steels.

  13. Contact lens physical properties and lipid deposition in a novel characterized artificial tear solution

    PubMed Central

    Heynen, Miriam; Kay, Lise M.M.; Dominici, Claudia Yvette; Khan, Warda; Ng, Wendy W.S.; Jones, Lyndon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To characterize various properties of a physiologically-relevant artificial tear solution (ATS) containing a range of tear film components within a complex salt solution, and to measure contact lens parameters and lipid deposition of a variety of contact lens materials after incubation in this ATS. Methods A complex ATS was developed that contains a range of salts, proteins, lipids, mucin, and other tear film constituents in tear-film relevant concentrations. This ATS was tested to confirm that its pH, osmolality, surface tension, and homogeneity are similar to human tears and remain so throughout the material incubation process, for up to 4 weeks. To confirm that silicone hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens materials do not alter in physical characteristics beyond what is allowed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 18369–2. The diameter, center thickness, and calculated base curve were measured for five different lens materials directly out of the blister pack, after a rinse in saline and then following a two week incubation in the modified ATS. To test the ATS and the effect of its composition on lipid deposition, two lens materials were incubated in the ATS and a modified version for several time points. Both ATS solutions contained trace amounts of carbon-14 cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine, such that deposition of these specific lipids could be quantified using standard methods. Results This ATS is a complex mixture that remains stable at physiologically relevant pH (7.3–7.6), osmolality (304–306 mmol/kg), surface tension (40–46 dynes/cm) and homogeneity over an incubation period of three weeks or more. The physical parameters of the lenses tested showed no changes beyond that allowed by the ISO guidelines. Incubations with the ATS found that balafilcon A lenses deposit significantly more cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine than omafilcon A lenses (p<0.05) and that removing lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G

  14. Early Adversity, Psychopathology, and Latent Class Profiles of Global Physical Health From Preschool Through Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Diana J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L

    The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence; explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period; and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning 10 years. Semistructured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children's psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3 and 6 years. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child's physical health problems (ages 3-13) and reported on the family's income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Growth mixture modeling revealed 2 trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3 to 13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Estimate [Est] = 0.05, p < .001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est = -0.01, p = .012), and psychosocial adversity (Est = 0.02, p = .015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ = 0.31, p = .050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ = -0.29, p < .021). These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems.

  15. Early adversity, psychopathology, and latent class profiles of global physical health from preschool through early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Diana J.; Belden, Andy C.; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M.; Luby, Joan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence, explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period, and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Methods Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning ten years. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children’s psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3–6. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child’s physical health problems (ages 3–13), as well as reported on the family’s income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Results Growth mixture modeling revealed two trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3–13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Est= 0.05, p<.001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est= −0.01, p=.012), and psychosocial adversity (Est=0.02, p=.015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ= 0.31, p=.050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ= −0.29, p<.021). Conclusions These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems

  16. On the Boundary Conditions at an Oscillating Contact Line: A Physical/Numerical Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlin, Marc; Schultz, William W.

    1996-01-01

    We will pursue an improved physical understanding and mathematical model for the boundary condition at an oscillating contact line at high Reynolds number. We expect that the body force is locally unimportant for earth-based systems, and that the local behavior may dominate the mechanics of partially-filled reservoirs in the microgravity environment. One important space-based application for this contact-line study is for Faraday-waves. Oscillations in the direction of gravity (or acceleration) can dominate the fluid motion during take-off and reentry with large steady-state accelerations and in orbit, where fluctuations on the order of 10(exp -4)g occur about a zero mean. Our experience with Faraday waves has shown them to be 'cleaner' than those produced by vertical or horizontal oscillation of walls. They are easier to model analytically or computationally, and they do not have strong vortex formation at the bottom of the plate. Hence many, if not most, of the experiments will be performed in this manner. The importance of contact lines in the microgravity environment is well established. We will compare high resolution measurements of the velocity field (lO micro-m resolution) using particle-tracking and particle-image velocimetry as the fluid/fluid interface is approached from the lower fluid. The spatial gradients in the deviation provide additional means to determine an improved boundary condition and a measure of the slip region. Dissipation, the size of the eddy near the contact line, and hysteresis will be measured and compare to linear and nonlinear models of viscous and irrotational but dissipative models.

  17. The Physical Effects of Contact and Close-Distance Gunfire on Sweatshirt Fleece.

    PubMed

    Kusluski, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    Powder stippling caused by the impact of propellant particles during close-distance gunfire has been previously described on skin and solid objects only. Additionally, radial tearing has been described as clear evidence of a contact-distance shot, requiring no further testing. Patterns of discrete perforating holes (referred to here as "stippling perforations") and other physical damage on sweatshirt fleece fabrics were prepared. Using the firearm and ammunition in this study, stippling perforations were observed to a maximum muzzle-to-target distance of 35 cm (10 inches). In addition, radial tearing and disintegration were present (and often more extensive) at greater than contact distance. The presence of stippling perforations could augment muzzle-to-target distance estimates generated using the Griess test, or allow distance estimates when the Griess test is not feasible. Unlike what has been previously reported, testing on the original evidence (or similar substitute) is warranted when physical damage is used to estimate shooting distance. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  19. Sports, Physical Activity and Recreation in Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Ralph B.

    Sports and physical recreation activities have been part of American life since the days of the early settlers. Although the settlers were faced with problems of survival, accounts of life in the colonies in the 1600's carry mention of bowling in the streets, play with bows and arrows, and ice skating. Other activities to gain popularity before…

  20. Physical distance, genetic relationship, age, and leprosy classification are independent risk factors for leprosy in contacts of patients with leprosy.

    PubMed

    Moet, F Johannes; Pahan, David; Schuring, Ron P; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan H

    2006-02-01

    Close contacts of patients with leprosy have a higher risk of developing leprosy. Several risk factors have been identified, including genetic relationship and physical distance. Their independent contributions to the risk of developing leprosy, however, have never been sufficiently quantified. Logistic-regression analysis was performed on intake data from a prospective cohort study of 1037 patients newly diagnosed as having leprosy and their 21,870 contacts. Higher age showed an increased risk, with a bimodal distribution. Contacts of patients with paucibacillary (PB) leprosy with 2-5 lesions (PB2-5) and those with multibacillary (MB) leprosy had a higher risk than did contacts of patients with single-lesion PB leprosy. The core household group had a higher risk than other contacts living under the same roof and next-door neighbors, who again had a higher risk than neighbors of neighbors. A close genetic relationship indicated an increased risk when blood-related children, parents, and siblings were pooled together. Age of the contact, the disease classification of the index patient, and physical and genetic distance were independently associated with the risk of a contact acquiring leprosy. Contact surveys in leprosy should be not only focused on household contacts but also extended to neighbors and consanguineous relatives, especially when the patient has PB2-5 or MB leprosy.

  1. Daily patterns of communication and contact between Italian early adolescents and their friends.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Schneider, Barry H; Dalessio, Maria; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Coplan, Robert J; Koszycki, Diana; Flament, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore patterns of communication between adolescents and their friends across both "online" and "in-person" contexts. The participants were adolescents (n = 727) aged 11-16 years attending middle schools in urban and rural areas of Italy. Participants completed daily logs of their in-person and online contacts with friends for 20 consecutive school days. Girls reported more total contacts with their friends than did boys as well as friendships that were closer and more intimate. However, boys indicated more contact than girls via electronic communication and online. Contacts with peers in general were less frequent among the older participants, perhaps because of increasing academic demands. Participants who complemented in-person contact with friends with electronic contact were less lonely than their counterparts who were less versatile in accessing different modalities of making contact with friends.

  2. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  3. Trajectories of physical discipline: early childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample.

  4. Immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeni; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommends that mothers and newborns have skin-to-skin contact immediately after a vaginal birth, and as soon as the mother is alert and responsive after a Caesarean section. Skin-to-skin contact can be defined as placing a naked infant onto the bare chest of the mother. Caesarean birth is known to reduce initiation of breastfeeding, increase the length of time before the first breastfeed, reduce the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding, significantly delay the onset of lactation and increase the likelihood of supplementation. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence on the facilitation of immediate (within minutes) or early (within 1 h) skin-to-skin contact following Caesarean section for healthy mothers and their healthy term newborns, and identify facilitators, barriers and associated maternal and newborn outcomes. A range of electronic databases were searched for papers reporting research findings published in English between January 2003 and October 2013. Seven papers met the criteria. This review has provided some evidence that with appropriate collaboration skin-to-skin contact during Caesarean surgery can be implemented. Further evidence was provided, albeit limited, that immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section may increase breastfeeding initiation, decrease time to the first breastfeed, reduce formula supplementation in hospital, increase bonding and maternal satisfaction, maintain the temperature of newborns and reduce newborn stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Physical Aggression During Early Childhood: Trajectories and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Séguin, Jean R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Zelazo, Philip D.; Boivin, Michel; Pérusse, Daniel; Japel, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Physical aggression in children is a major public health problem. Not only is childhood physical aggression a precursor of the physical and mental health problems that will be visited on victims, but also aggressive children themselves are at higher risk of alcohol and drug abuse, accidents, violent crimes, depression, suicide attempts, spouse abuse, and neglectful and abusive parenting. Furthermore, violence commonly results in serious injuries to the perpetrators themselves. Although it is unusual for young children to harm seriously the targets of their physical aggression, studies of physical aggression during infancy indicate that by 17 months of age, the large majority of children are physically aggressive toward siblings, peers, and adults. This study aimed, first, to identify the trajectories of physical aggression during early childhood and, second, to identify antecedents of high levels of physical aggression early in life. Such antecedents could help to understand better the developmental origins of violence later in life and to identify targets for preventive interventions. Methods A random population sample of 572 families with a 5-month-old newborn was recruited. Assessments of physical aggression frequency were obtained from mothers at 17, 30, and 42 months after birth. Using a semiparametric, mixture model, distinct clusters of physical aggression trajectories were identified. Multivariate logit regression analysis was then used to identify which family and child characteristics, before 5 months of age, predict individuals on a high-level physical aggression trajectory from 17 to 42 months after birth. Results Three trajectories of physical aggression were identified. The first was composed of children who displayed little or no physical aggression. These individuals were estimated to account for ~28% of the sample. The largest group, estimated at ~58% of the sample, followed a rising trajectory of modest aggression. Finally, a group

  6. Maturational differences in physical self- perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Niven, Alisa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Knowles, Anne-Marie; Stephenson, Claire

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 +/- 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.

  7. The uses of isospin in early nuclear and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Arianna

    2017-11-01

    This paper reconstructs the early history of isospin up to and including its employment in 1951sbnd 52 to conceptualize high-energy pion-proton scattering. Studying the history of isospin serves as an entry point for investigating the interplay of theoretical and experimental practices in early nuclear and particle physics, showing the complexity of processes of knowledge construction which have often been presented as straightforward both in physicists' recollections and in the historiography of science. The story of isospin has often been told in terms of the discovery of the first ;intrinsic property; of elementary particles, but I will argue that the isospin formalism emerged and was further developed because it proved to be a useful tool to match theory and experiment within the steadily broadening field of high-energy (nuclear) physics. Isospin was variously appropriated and adapted in the course of two decades, before eventually the physical-mathematical implications of its uses started being spelled out. The case study also highlights some interesting features of high-energy physics around 1950: the contribution to post-war research of theoretical methods developed before and during the war, the role of young theoretical post-docs in mediating between theorists and experimenters, and the importance of traditional formalisms such as those of spin and angular momentum as a template both for formalizing and conceptualizing experimental results.

  8. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early local differentiation of the cell wall matrix defines the contact sites in lobed mesophyll cells of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Giannoutsou, E; Sotiriou, P; Apostolakos, P; Galatis, B

    2013-10-01

    The morphogenesis of lobed mesophyll cells (MCs) is highly controlled and coupled with intercellular space formation. Cortical microtubule rings define the number and the position of MC isthmi. This work investigated early events of MC morphogenesis, especially the mechanism defining the position of contacts between MCs. The distributions of plasmodesmata, the hemicelluloses callose and (1 → 3,1 → 4)-β-d-glucans (MLGs) and the pectin epitopes recognized by the 2F4, JIM5, JIM7 and LM6 antibodies were studied in the cell walls of Zea mays MCs. Matrix cell wall polysaccharides were immunolocalized in hand-made sections and in sections of material embedded in LR White resin. Callose was also localized using aniline blue in hand-made sections. Plasmodesmata distribution was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Before reorganization of the dispersed cortical microtubules into microtubule rings, particular bands of the longitudinal MC walls, where the MC contacts will form, locally differentiate by selective (1) deposition of callose and the pectin epitopes recognized by the 2F4, LM6, JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, (2) degradation of MLGs and (3) formation of secondary plasmodesmata clusterings. This cell wall matrix differentiation persists in cell contacts of mature MCs. Simultaneously, the wall bands between those of future cell contacts differentiate with (1) deposition of local cell wall thickenings including cellulose microfibrils, (2) preferential presence of MLGs, (3) absence of callose and (4) transient presence of the pectins identified by the JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies. The wall areas between cell contacts expand determinately to form the cell isthmi and the cell lobes. The morphogenesis of lobed MCs is characterized by the early patterned differentiation of two distinct cell wall subdomains, defining the sites of the future MC contacts and of the future MC isthmi respectively. This patterned cell wall differentiation precedes cortical microtubule

  10. Disorders of Arousal From Sleep and Violent Behavior: The Role of Physical Contact and Proximity

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To review medical and legal case reports to determine how many appear to support the belief that violence against other individuals that occurs during Disorders of Arousal - sleepwalking, confusional arousal, and sleep terrors – is triggered by direct physical contact or close proximity to that individual and does not occur randomly or spontaneously. Design: Historical review of case reports in the medical and legal literature. Measurements and Results: A total of 32 cases drawn from medical and legal literature were reviewed. Each case contained a record of violence associated with Disorders of Arousal; in each, details of the violent behavior were available. Violent behaviors associated with provocations and/or close proximity were found to be present in 100% of confusional arousal patients and 81% of sleep terror patients. Violent behaviors were associated with provocation or close proximity in 40%–90% of sleepwalking cases, depending on whether the legal verdict and other factors were taken into account. Often the provocation was quite minor and the response greatly exaggerated. The specific manner in which the violence was triggered differed among sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors. Conclusions: In the cases reviewed, violent behavior directed against other individuals associated with Disorders of Arousal most frequently appeared to follow direct provocation by, or close proximity to, another individual. Sleepwalkers most often did not seek out victims, but rather the victims sought out or encountered the sleepwalker. These conclusions are tempered by several limitations: the selection of cases was not random and may not represent an accurate sample of violent behaviors associated with Disorders of Arousal. Also, final verdicts by juries in reported legal cases should not be confused with scientific proof of the presence or absence of sleepwalking. The pathophysiology of Disorders of Arousal with and without violent

  11. Taking two to tango: fMRI analysis of improvised joint action with physical contact

    PubMed Central

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction. In contrast, following showed a far more sensory, externally-oriented pattern, revealing areas involved in somatosensation, proprioception, motion tracking, social cognition, and outcome monitoring. We also had participants perform a “mutual” condition in which the movement patterns were pre-learned and the roles were symmetric, thereby minimizing any tendency toward either leading or following. The mutual condition showed greater activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing and social reward than did leading or following. Finally, the analysis of improvisation revealed the dual importance of motor-planning and working-memory areas. We discuss these results in terms of theories of both joint action and improvisation. PMID:29324862

  12. Non-Contact Temperature Requirements (NCTM) for drop and bubble physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hmelo, Anthony B.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    Many of the materials research experiments to be conducted in the Space Processing program require a non-contaminating method of manipulating and controlling weightless molten materials. In these experiments, the melt is positioned and formed within a container without physically contacting the container's wall. An acoustic method, which was developed by Professor Taylor G. Wang before coming to Vanderbilt University from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has demonstrated the capability of positioning and manipulating room temperature samples. This was accomplished in an earth-based laboratory with a zero-gravity environment of short duration. However, many important facets of high temperature containerless processing technology have not been established yet, nor can they be established from the room temperature studies, because the details of the interaction between an acoustic field an a molten sample are largely unknown. Drop dynamics, bubble dynamics, coalescence behavior of drops and bubbles, electromagnetic and acoustic levitation methods applied to molten metals, and thermal streaming are among the topics discussed.

  13. Tsunami Early Warning via a Physics-Based Simulation Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. M.; Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Ward, S. N.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Through independent efforts, physics-based simulations of earthquakes, tsunamis, and atmospheric signatures of these phenomenon have been developed. With the goal of producing tsunami forecasts and early warning tools for at-risk regions, we join these three spheres to create a simulation pipeline. The Virtual Quake simulator can produce thousands of years of synthetic seismicity on large, complex fault geometries, as well as the expected surface displacement in tsunamigenic regions. These displacements are used as initial conditions for tsunami simulators, such as Tsunami Squares, to produce catalogs of potential tsunami scenarios with probabilities. Finally, these tsunami scenarios can act as input for simulations of associated ionospheric total electron content, signals which can be detected by GNSS satellites for purposes of early warning in the event of a real tsunami. We present the most recent developments in this project.

  14. Physical validation of a patient-specific contact finite element model of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Li, Wendy; James Rudert, M; Tochigi, Yuki; Brown, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to determine the extent to which computational ankle contact finite element (FE) results agreed with experimentally measured tibio-talar contact stress. Two cadaver ankles were loaded in separate test sessions, during which ankle contact stresses were measured with a high-resolution (Tekscan) pressure sensor. Corresponding contact FE analyses were subsequently performed for comparison. The agreement was good between FE-computed and experimentally measured mean (3.2% discrepancy for one ankle, 19.3% for the other) and maximum (1.5% and 6.2%) contact stress, as well as for contact area (1.7% and 14.9%). There was also excellent agreement between histograms of fractional areas of cartilage experiencing specific ranges of contact stress. Finally, point-by-point comparisons between the computed and measured contact stress distributions over the articular surface showed substantial agreement, with correlation coefficients of 90% for one ankle and 86% for the other. In the past, general qualitative, but little direct quantitative agreement has been demonstrated with articular joint contact FE models. The methods used for this validation enable formal comparison of computational and experimental results, and open the way for objective statistical measures of regional correlation between FE-computed contact stress distributions from comparison articular joint surfaces (e.g., those from an intact versus those with residual intra-articular fracture incongruity).

  15. Does Infant Carrying Promote Attachment? An Experimental Study of the Effects of Increased Physical Contact on the Development of Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisfeld, Elizabeth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study of low-income, inner-city mothers and their 13-month-old infants supported the hypothesis that increased physical contact achieved through the use of a soft baby carrier makes mothers more responsive to their infants and promotes the formation of more secure attachment between infants and mothers. (RH)

  16. The early universe as a probe of new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Christopher Shane

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics has been verified to unprecedented precision in the last few decades. However there are still phenomena in nature which cannot be explained, and as such new theories will be required. Since terrestrial experiments are limited in both the energy and precision that can be probed, new methods are required to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this dissertation, I demonstrate how these theories can be probed by searching for remnants of their effects in the early Universe. In particular I focus on three possible extensions of the Standard Model: the addition of massive neutral particles as dark matter, the addition of charged massive particles, and the existence of higher dimensions. For each new model, I review the existing experimental bounds and the potential for discovering new physics in the next generation of experiments. For dark matter, I introduce six simple models which I have developed, and which involve a minimum amount of new physics, as well as reviewing one existing model of dark matter. For each model I calculate the latest constraints from astrophysics experiments, nuclear recoil experiments, and collider experiments. I also provide motivations for studying sub-GeV mass dark matter, and propose the possibility of searching for light WIMPs in the decay of B-mesons and other heavy particles. For charged massive relics, I introduce and review the recently proposed model of catalyzed Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In particular I review the production of 6Li by this mechanism, and calculate the abundance of 7Li after destruction of 7Be by charged relics. The result is that for certain natural relics CBBN is capable of removing tensions between the predicted and observed 6Li and 7Li abundances which are present in the standard model of BBN. For extra dimensions, I review the constraints on the ADD model from both astrophysics and collider experiments. I then calculate the constraints on this model

  17. Effect of the meniscus contact angle during early regimes of spontaneous imbibition in nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Karna, Nabin Kumar; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens H; Zambrano, Harvey A

    2016-11-30

    Nanoscale capillarity has been extensively investigated; nevertheless, many fundamental questions remain open. In spontaneous imbibition, the classical Lucas-Washburn equation predicts a singularity as the fluid enters the channel consisting of an anomalous infinite velocity of the capillary meniscus. Bosanquet's equation overcomes this problem by taking into account fluid inertia predicting an initial imbibition regime with constant velocity. Nevertheless, the initial constant velocity as predicted by Bosanquet's equation is much greater than those observed experimentally. In the present study, large scale atomistic simulations are conducted to investigate capillary imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels with heights between 4 and 18 nm. We find that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends on the height of the channel. We also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of the meniscus contact angle. Moreover, during the subsequent visco-inertial regime, as the influence of viscosity increases, the meniscus contact angle is found to be time dependent for all the channels under study. Furthermore, we propose an expression for the time evolution of the dynamic contact angle in nanochannels which, when incorporated into Bosanquet's equation, satisfactorily explains the initial capillary rise.

  18. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    PubMed

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  19. The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    The intergalactic medium—the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies—is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer

  20. Direct physical contact between intercalated cells in the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arteriole in mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Liu, Ning-Yu; Andreasen, Arne; Thomsen, Jesper S; Cao, Liu; Christensen, Erik I; Zhai, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Recent physiological studies in the kidney proposed the existence of a secondary feedback mechanism termed 'crosstalk' localized after the macula densa. This newly discovered crosstalk contact between the nephron tubule and its own afferent arteriole may potentially revolutionize our understanding of renal vascular resistance and electrolyte regulation. However, the nature of such a crosstalk mechanism is still debated due to a lack of direct and comprehensive morphological evidence. Its exact location along the nephron, its prevalence among the different types of nephrons, and the type of cells involved are yet unknown. To address these issues, computer assisted 3-dimensional nephron tracing was applied in combination with direct immunohistochemistry on plastic sections and electron microscopy. 'Random' contacts in the cortex were identified by the tracing and excluded. We investigated a total of 168 nephrons from all cortical regions. The results demonstrated that the crosstalk contact existed, and that it was only present in certain nephrons (90% of the short-looped and 75% of the long-looped nephrons). The crosstalk contacts always occurred at a specific position--the last 10% of the distal convoluted tubule. Importantly, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the cells found in the tubule wall at the contact site were always type nonA-nonB intercalated cells. In conclusion, the present work confirmed the existence of a post macula densa physical crosstalk contact.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: The Physics of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Douglas

    2007-11-01

    The physics of the very small and the very large were successfully brought together in the 1980s through the idea of 'the universe as a particle accelerator'. The manifesto of this new campaign was laid out in the book 'The Early Universe' by Kolb and Turner in 1990. For at least the next decade that book was to be found on the shelves of every theorist (and many experimentalists) who professed an interest in this topic. But science marches on, and the last 10 15 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the physics of the very earliest times and the very largest scales. Experimentally our world-view has changed utterly, through exquisitely precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, galaxy clustering and supernova distances, with a refinement of the basic inflationary big bang paradigm into the new 'standard cosmological model'. And in tandem with these changes has been the development of new theoretical ideas, particularly involving dark energy and connections between string/brane theory and cosmology. So what is the new book for the shelves of today's cohort of young Rockys and Mikes? Despite a recent number of promising-sounding cosmology books, there is nothing at the advanced level which is broad enough to be a general introduction to the 'early universe' topic. Perhaps the best of the bunch is 'The Physics of the Early Universe', edited by E Papantonopoulos as part of Springer's series 'Lecture notes in physics'. This is a set of 9 review articles given as part of a 2003 summer school on Syros Island, Greece. Although far from perfect, the core of this book provides a solid introduction to current research in early universe physics, which should be useful for PhD students or postdoctoral researchers who want the real thing. The book starts with a competent introduction by Kyriakos Tamvakis, serving essentially as a summary of where we were in Kolb and Turner's text. We have learned since then, however, that inflation is really all

  2. WW Geminorum: An Early B-type Eclipsing Binary Evolving into the Contact Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Yang, Y.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G.

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q ph = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the period studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P mod = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10-8 day yr-1, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.

  3. Disorders of arousal from sleep and violent behavior: the role of physical contact and proximity.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Mark R

    2007-08-01

    To review medical and legal case reports to determine how many appear to support the belief that violence against other individuals that occurs during Disorders of Arousal - sleepwalking, confusional arousal, and sleep terrors - is triggered by direct physical contact or close proximity to that individual and does not occur randomly or spontaneously. Historical review of case reports in the medical and legal literature. A total of 32 cases drawn from medical and legal literature were reviewed. Each case contained a record of violence associated with Disorders of Arousal; in each, details of the violent behavior were available. Violent behaviors associated with provocations and/or close proximity were found to be present in 100% of confusional arousal patients and 81% of sleep terror patients. Violent behaviors were associated with provocation or close proximity in 40%-90% of sleepwalking cases, depending on whether the legal verdict and other factors were taken into account. Often the provocation was quite minor and the response greatly exaggerated. The specific manner in which the violence was triggered differed among sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors. In the cases reviewed, violent behavior directed against other individuals associated with Disorders of Arousal most frequently appeared to follow direct provocation by, or close proximity to, another individual. Sleepwalkers most often did not seek out victims, but rather the victims sought out or encountered the sleepwalker. These conclusions are tempered by several limitations: the selection of cases was not random and may not represent an accurate sample of violent behaviors associated with Disorders of Arousal. Also, final verdicts by juries in reported legal cases should not be confused with scientific proof of the presence or absence of sleepwalking. The pathophysiology of Disorders of Arousal with and without violent behavior could be associated with normally occurring deactivation of the

  4. Does Contact by a Family Nurse Practitioner Decrease Early School Absence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in…

  5. A measure of early physical functioning (EPF) post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Finch, Lois E; Higgins, Johanne; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Mayo, Nancy E

    2008-07-01

    To develop a comprehensive measure of Early Physical Functioning (EPF) post-stroke quantified through Rasch analysis and conceptualized using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). An observational cohort study. A cohort of 262 subjects (mean age 71.6 (standard deviation 12.5) years) hospitalized post-acute stroke. Functional assessments were made within 3 days of stroke with items from valid and reliable indices commonly utilized to evaluate stroke survivors. Information on important variables was also collected. Principal component and Rasch analysis confirmed the factor structure, and dimensionality of the measure. Rasch analysis combined items across ICF components to develop the measure. Items were deleted iteratively, those retained fit the model and were related to the construct; reliability and validity were assessed. A 38-item unidimensional measure of the EPF met all Rasch model requirements. The item difficulty matched the person ability (mean person measure: -0.31; standard error 0.37 logits), reliability of the person-item-hierarchy was excellent at 0.97. Initial validity was adequate. The 38-item EPF measure was developed. It expands the range of assessment post acute stroke; it covers a broad spectrum of difficulty with good initial psychometric properties that, once revalidated, can assist in planning and evaluating early interventions.

  6. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Physical Development and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  7. Modeling the Influence of Early Skin-to-Skin Contact on Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Sample of Hispanic Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Linares, Ana M; Wambach, Karen; Rayens, Mary K; Wiggins, Amanda; Coleman, Elizabeth; Dignan, Mark B

    2017-10-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of breastfeeding in Hispanics, this study evaluated the influence of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on initiation and sustained exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 1 month postpartum. Two-thirds of the women in the sample participated in early SSC. At discharge, over half of the women were EBF; this proportion decreased to one-third at 1 month postpartum. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables in the model, participation in early SSC was associated with a greater than sevenfold increase in the odds of EBF at discharge (p = .005) but was not predictive of EBF at 1 month post-discharge (p = .7). Younger maternal age and increased prenatal infant feeding intention were associated with an increased likelihood of EBF across both timepoints. Promoting early SSC may help with initiation of EBF, while further breastfeeding support may be needed to maintain EBF following discharge for this vulnerable population.

  8. WW Geminorum: An early B-type eclipsing binary evolving into the contact phase

    SciT

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G.

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q {sub ph} = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the periodmore » studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P {sub mod} = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10{sup –8} day yr{sup –1}, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.« less

  9. Physical processes in wheel-rail contact and its implications on vehicle-track interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, K.; Meierhofer, A.; Müller, G.; Dietmaier, P.

    2015-05-01

    Friction within the wheel-rail contact highly influences all aspects of vehicle-track interaction. Models describing this frictional behaviour are of high relevance, for example, for reliable predictions on drive train dynamics. It has been shown by experiments, that the friction at a certain position on rail is not describable by only one number for the coefficient of friction. Beside the contact conditions (existence of liquids, solid third bodies, etc.) the vehicle speed, normal loading and contact geometry are further influencing factors. State-of-the-art models are not able to account for this sufficiently. Thus, an Extended-Creep-Force-Model was developed taking into account effects from third body layers. This model is able to describe all considered effects. In this way, a significant improvement of the prediction quality with respect to all aspects of vehicle-track interaction is expected.

  10. A methodology to model physical contact between structural components in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Annappa A.

    1993-01-01

    Two components of a structure which are located side by side, will come in contact by certain force and will transfer the compressive force along the contact area. If the force acts in the opposite direction, the elements will separate and no force will be transferred. If this contact is modeled, the load path will be correctly represented, and the load redistribution results in more realistic stresses in the structure. This is accomplished by using different sets of rigid elements for different loading conditions, or by creating multipoint constraint sets. Comparison of these two procedures is presented for a 4 panel unit (PU) stowage drawer installed in an experiment rack in the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-2) payload.

  11. The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Till, Kevin; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Weakley, Jonathon; Rock, Andrew; Jones, Ben

    2017-07-01

    Repeated physical contact in rugby union is thought to contribute to post-match fatigue; however, no evidence exists on the effect of contact activity during field-based training on fatigue responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of contact during training on fatigue markers in rugby union players. Twenty academy rugby union players participated in the cross-over study. The magnitude of change in upper- and lower-body neuromuscular function (NMF), whole blood creatine kinase concentration [CK] and perception of well-being was assessed pre-training (baseline), immediately and 24 h post-training following contact and non-contact, field-based training. Training load was measured using mean heart rate, session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and microtechnology (Catapult Optimeye S5). The inclusion of contact during field-based training almost certainly increased mean heart rate (9.7; ±3.9%) and sRPE (42; ±29.2%) and resulted in likely and very likely greater decreases in upper-body NMF (-7.3; ±4.7% versus 2.7; ±5.9%) and perception of well-being (-8.0; ±4.8% versus  -3.4; ±2.2%) 24 h post-training, respectively, and almost certainly greater elevations in [CK] (88.2; ±40.7% versus 3.7; ±8%). The exclusion of contact from field-based training almost certainly increased running intensity (19.8; ±5%) and distance (27.5; ±5.3%), resulting in possibly greater decreases in lower-body NMF (-5.6; ±5.2% versus 2.3; ±2.4%). Practitioners should be aware of the different demands and fatigue responses of contact and non-contact, field-based training and can use this information to appropriately schedule such training in the weekly microcycle.

  12. The importance of skin–to–skin contact for early initiation of breastfeeding in Nigeria and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Khan, Shane M; Carvajal–Aguirre, Liliana; Brodish, Paul; Amouzou, Agbessi; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Skin–to–skin contact (SSC) between mother and newborn offers numerous protective effects, however it is an intervention that has been under–utilized. Our objectives are to understand which newborns in Bangladesh and Nigeria receive SSC and whether SSC is associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding. Methods Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used to study the characteristics of newborns receiving SSC for non–facility births in Nigeria (DHS 2013) and for both facility and non–facility births in Bangladesh (DHS 2014). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for key socio–demographic, maternal and newborn–related factors. Results Only 10% of newborns in Nigeria and 26% of newborns in Bangladesh received SSC. In the regression models, SSC was significantly associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding in both countries (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.15–1.76 for Nigeria; OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55, for Bangladesh). Findings from the regression analysis for Bangladesh revealed that newborns born by Cesarean section had a 67% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born by normal delivery (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.26–0.43). Also in Bangladesh newborns born in a health facility had a 30% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born in non–facility environments (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.92). Early initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with parity, urban residence and wealth in Nigeria. Geographic area was significant in the regression analyses for both Bangladesh and Nigeria. Conclusions Coverage of SSC is very low in the two countries, despite its benefits for newborns without complications. SSC has the potential to save newborn lives. There is a need to prioritize training of health providers on the implementation of essential newborn care including SSC

  13. The importance of skin-to-skin contact for early initiation of breastfeeding in Nigeria and Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Khan, Shane M; Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana; Brodish, Paul; Amouzou, Agbessi; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-12-01

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and newborn offers numerous protective effects, however it is an intervention that has been under-utilized. Our objectives are to understand which newborns in Bangladesh and Nigeria receive SSC and whether SSC is associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used to study the characteristics of newborns receiving SSC for non-facility births in Nigeria (DHS 2013) and for both facility and non-facility births in Bangladesh (DHS 2014). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for key socio-demographic, maternal and newborn-related factors. Only 10% of newborns in Nigeria and 26% of newborns in Bangladesh received SSC. In the regression models, SSC was significantly associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding in both countries (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.76 for Nigeria; OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55, for Bangladesh). Findings from the regression analysis for Bangladesh revealed that newborns born by Cesarean section had a 67% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born by normal delivery (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.43). Also in Bangladesh newborns born in a health facility had a 30% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born in non-facility environments (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92). Early initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with parity, urban residence and wealth in Nigeria. Geographic area was significant in the regression analyses for both Bangladesh and Nigeria. Coverage of SSC is very low in the two countries, despite its benefits for newborns without complications. SSC has the potential to save newborn lives. There is a need to prioritize training of health providers on the implementation of essential newborn care including SSC. Community engagement is also needed to ensure that all women and

  14. Early skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding behavior in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thukral, Anu; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Agarwal, Ramesh; Gupta, Nandita; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate if early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) improves breast-feeding (BF) behavior and exclusive BF (EBF) rates in term infants at 48 h of age. Term infants born by normal delivery were randomized at birth to either early SSC (n = 20) or conventional care (controls; n = 21). SSC was continued for at least 2 h after birth. Subsequently, one BF session of the infants was video recorded at about 48 h of life. The primary outcome, infants' BF behavior at 48 h of life, was assessed using the modified infant Breast-Feeding Assessment Tool (BAT; a score consisting of infant's readiness to feed, sucking, rooting and latching, each item scored from 0 to 3) by three independent masked observers. The secondary outcomes were EBF rates at 48 h and 6 weeks of age and salivary cortisol level of infants at 6 h of age. Baseline characteristics including birth weight and gestation were comparable between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the BAT scores between the groups [median: 8, interquartile range (IQR) 5-10 vs. median 9, IQR 5-10; p = 0.6]. EBF rates at 48 h and at 6 weeks were, however, significantly higher in the early-SSC group than in the control group [95.0 vs. 38.1%; relative risk (RR): 2.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.4-4.3 and 90 vs. 28.6%; RR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.6-6.3]. Early SSC did not improve BF behavior at discharge but significantly improved the EBF rates of term neonates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Physical self-esteem--a ten-year follow-up study from early adolescence to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Raustorp, Anders; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-02-01

    One variable that has been consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity is perceived activity competence. Perceived physical (or sport) competence is considered a sub-domain to the physical self-esteem or self-worth (i.e., a person's valuation of what is good and worthy in their self-description). This study aimed to describe levels of and inter-correlations among physical self-esteem, physical activity, and body mass index in a longitudinal design spanning adolescence to early adulthood. At mean ages of 12.7, 15.7, 17.7 and 22.7 years, we measured perceived physical self-esteem in 39 (22 boys) Swedish adolescents. Physical activity (steps/day) for four consecutive schooldays, height, and weight were also measured. No significant difference between the four time points for any variable of perceived physical self-esteem was seen, neither in boys nor girls. In general, all physical self-variables revealed non-linear trajectories across time, where the general trend was an increase during the younger ages followed by a decrease during older ages. At ages 12 and 15 years in boys and girls physical condition and physical strength as well as body attractiveness and physical strength, respectively, had the strongest correlations to physical self-esteem. At age 17 and 22 years sports competence had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in girls, while body attractiveness and physical strength had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in boys. An overall stability in physical self-esteem was found. However the impact of a sub-domain upon physical self-esteem vary during adolescence and early adulthood. Such information may be useful when creating physical activity programs that support and develop physical self-esteem.

  16. Multiplex PCR technique could be an alternative approach for early detection of leprosy among close contacts--a pilot study from India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Surajita; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Gupta, Soma; Mahapatra, Prasanta Sinha; Gupta, Siddhartha; Guha, Samudra; Bandhopadhayay, Debasis; Ghosal, Chaitry; Paine, Suman Kalyan; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Biswas, Nibir; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-08-24

    Implementation of Multi drug Therapy (MDT) regimen has resulted in the decline of the total number of leprosy cases in the world. Though the prevalence rate has been declining, the incidence rate remains more or less constant and high in South East Asian countries particularly in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Srilanka. Leprosy, particularly that of multibacillary type spreads silently before it is clinically detected. An early detection and treatment would help to prevent transmission in the community. Multiplex PCR (M-PCR) technique appears to be promising towards early detection among contacts of leprosy cases. A total of 234 paucibacillary (PB) and 205 multibacillary (MB) leprosy cases were studied in a community of an endemic area of Bankura district of West Bengal (Eastern India). They were assessed by smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and M-PCR technique. These patients were treated with Multidrug Therapy (MDT) as prescribed by WHO following detection. A total of 110 MB and 72 PB contacts were studied by performing M-PCR in their nasal swab samples. 83.4% of MB patients were observed to be positive by smear examination for AFB and 89.2% by M-PCR. While 22.2% of PB patients were found to be positive by smear examination for AFB, 80.3% of these patients were positive by M-PCR. Among leprosy contacts (using M-PCR), 10.9% were found to be positive among MB contacts and 1.3% among PB contacts. Interestingly, two contacts of M-PCR positive MB cases developed leprosy during the period of two years follow up. The M-PCR technique appears to be an efficient tool for early detection of leprosy cases in community based contact tracing amongst close associates of PB and MB cases. Early contact tracing using a molecular biology tool can be of great help in curbing the incidence of leprosy further.

  17. Measurement of Contact Behavior Including Slippage of Cuff When Using Wearable Physical Assistant Robot.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Shogo; Yamada, Yoji; Ishiguro, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Continuous use of wearable robots can cause skin injuries beneath the cuffs of robots. To prevent such injuries, understanding the contact behavior of the cuff is important. Thus far, this contact behavior has not been studied because of the difficulty involved in measuring the slippage under the cuff. In this study, for the first time, the relative displacement, slippage, and interaction force and moment at the thigh cuff of a robot during sit-to-stand motion were measured using an instrumented cuff, which was developed for this purpose. The results indicated that the slippage and relative displacement under the cuff was uneven because of the rotation of the cuff, which suggests that the risk of skin injuries is different at different positions. Especially, the skin closer to the hip showed larger dynamism, with a maximum slippage of approximately 10 mm and a displacement of 20 mm during motion. Another important phenomenon was the individual difference among subjects. During motion, the interaction force, moment, and slippage of some subjects suddenly increased. Such behavior results in stress concentration, which increases the risk of skin injuries. These analyses are intended to understand how skin injuries are caused and to design measures to prevent such injuries.

  18. Determination of physical and chemical states of lubricants in concentrated contacts, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A Fourier emission infrared microspectrometer, set up on a vibration-proof optical table and interfaced to a dedicated minicomputer, was used to record infrared emission spectra from elastohydrodynamic bearing contacts. Its range was extended to cover the entire mid-infrared from 2 to 15 micron. A series of experiments with 5P4E polyphenyl ether showed the existence of a temperature gradient through the lubricant in an ehd contact, which is perpendicular to the flow direction. The experiments also show marked polarization of some of the spectral bands, indicating a molecular alignment. Alignment is less evident at high pressure than at low pressure. To account for this behavior, a model is suggested along the lines developed for the conformational changes observed in long-chain polymers when subjected to increased pressure--to accommodate closer packing, molecules become kinked and curl up. Experiments with a traction fluid showed periodic changes of flow pattern associated with certain spectral changes. These observations will be studied further. A study by infrared attenuated total reflection spectrophotometry was undertaken to determine whether gamma irradiation would change polyethylene wear specimens. The results were negative.

  19. Enhanced Metal Contacts to Carbon Nanotube Networks through Chemical and Physical Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Nathanael David

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an emerging class of nano-structured carbon materials which are currently being studied for applications which would benefit from their desirable electrical and mechanical properties. Potential benefits such as improved current density, flexure tolerance, weight savings, and even radiation tolerance have led to their implementation into numerous devices and structures, many of which are slated for use in space environments. The role of CNTs can be quite diverse, with varied CNT electronic-types and morphologies dictated by the specific application. Despite numerous CNT types and morphologies employed by these technologies, a common link between nearly all of these devices and structures is metal contact to CNTs, where the metal components often provide the link between the carbon nanotubes and the external system. In this work, a variety of CNT-metal systems were characterized in terms of metal morphology analysis and CNT-metal electrical and mechanical interactions, in response to chemical and structural modifications. A large portion of the work additionally focuses on ion irradiation environments. A diverse number of experiments related to CNT-metal interactions will be discussed. For instance, electrochemical interactions between ion-irradiated single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs) and metal salt solutions were utilized to selectively deposit Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) onto the SWCNTs. A direct correlation was established between defect density and Au-NP areal density, resulting in a method for rapid spatial profiling of ion-irradiation induced defects in SWCNTs. The effect of ion irradiation on the CNT-metal interface was also investigated and it was found that the contact resistance of Ag-SWCNT structures increases, while the specific contact resistance decreases. The increase in overall contact resistance was attributed to increased series resistance in the system due to damage of the bulk SWCNT films, while the decrease in specific contact

  20. Affect of Early Skin-to-Skin Mother-Infant Contact in the Maintenance of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Experience in a Health Department in Spain.

    PubMed

    Vila-Candel, Rafael; Duke, Kiri; Soriano-Vidal, F Javier; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to result in extensive physical and psychological benefits for both the mother and the newborn. However, the rate and duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low worldwide. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) immediately after birth has demonstrated results that support the argument for breastfeeding continuation. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBF 3 months postpartum and the effect of early SSC in maintaining optimal EBF practices for mothers and their healthy newborns. We conducted an observational, retrospective study in Spain from 2013 to 2015. Pregnant women were interviewed immediately postpartum and again at 3 months postpartum regarding variables associated with breastfeeding initiation and continuation. There were 1,071 women recruited. Early SSC was performed in 92% of vaginal births but only 57% of urgent cesarean births. Of women breastfeeding at discharge, 69.5% performed SSC with their newborn. We found that 68.6% of women were exclusively breastfeeding by discharge and 46.7% by 3 months postpartum. Type of feeding at discharge, country of origin, and parity were found to be associated with each other ( p = .003, p = .001, respectively). Early SSC was also significantly associated with type of feeding at discharge, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months postpartum ( p < .001). Hypogalactia (19.8%) was the most frequently reported factor for breastfeeding discontinuation. Breastfeeding promotion interventions are likely to improve breastfeeding rates at 3 months postpartum. Social and economic factors should be taken into account when such programs are planned to be implemented.

  1. Brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus): a model for differentiating the role of social networks and physical contact on parasite transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Bisanzio, Donal; Galvis, Nelson; Link, Andrés; Di Fiore, Anthony; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-05-26

    Elevated risk of disease transmission is considered a major cost of sociality, although empirical evidence supporting this idea remains scant. Variation in spatial cohesion and the occurrence of social interactions may have profound implications for patterns of interindividual parasite transmission. We used a social network approach to shed light on the importance of different aspects of group-living (i.e. within-group associations versus physical contact) on patterns of parasitism in a neotropical primate, the brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus), which exhibits a high degree of fission-fusion subgrouping. We used daily subgroup composition records to create a 'proximity' network, and built a separate 'contact' network using social interactions involving physical contact. In the proximity network, connectivity between individuals was homogeneous, whereas the contact network highlighted high between-individual variation in the extent to which animals had physical contact with others, which correlated with an individual's age and sex. The gastrointestinal parasite species richness of highly connected individuals was greater than that of less connected individuals in the contact network, but not in the proximity network. Our findings suggest that among brown spider monkeys, physical contact impacts the spread of several common parasites and supports the idea that pathogen transmission is one cost associated with social contact. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Move to Learn, Learn to Move: Prioritizing Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei; Montague, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    The global childhood trend towards obesity and unhealthy lifestyles is a growing concern. Childcare settings have been identified as the most influential factors for children's physical activity, and physical activity habits are better formed and maintained if started in early childhood. As a result, early childhood education environments are in…

  3. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  4. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  5. Correlates of recreational physical activity in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ning, Y; Williams, M A; Dempsey, J C; Sorensen, T K; Frederick, I O; Luthy, D A

    2003-06-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits of a physically active lifestyle, over 25% of American adults report that they never engage in regular recreational physical activity. Little is known about the determinants of physical activity among pregnant women. We investigated the predictors of physical activity in 386 normotensive pregnant women. Participants provided information about the type, frequency and duration of each physical activity performed during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. We calculated odd ratios (OR) for active compared with inactive women using logistic regression models. Approximately 61% of women reported participating in some regular physical activity during pregnancy. Walking, swimming, gardening and jogging were the most common activities. Physical activity as an adolescent (OR 4.0) and during the year before pregnancy (OR 48.9) were the strongest predictors of physical activity in pregnancy. Active women who continued to exercise during pregnancy decreased the average intensity of their exercise and the weekly duration of exercise compared with the year before pregnancy. Nulliparas were twice as likely to engage in physical activity as compared with multiparas. Education and income were positively related with physical activity. Non-White women were 40-60% less likely to engage in physical activity as compared with White women. Smokers were also less likely to engage in physical activity. High protein intake was positively associated with physical activity, while the opposite was true for high carbohydrate intake. The identification of determinants of physical activity in pregnancy has important implications for developing strategies aimed at promoting a physically active lifestyle among young women.

  6. Reactions to Eye Contact Initiated by Physically Attractive and Unattractive Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rall, Marilyn; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Explored the effects of physical attractiveness and eye gaze on subjects' (N=93) reactions to both male and female confederates. Results showed that subjects reported discomfort with the gaze of both the attractive and the unattractive confederates and that women tended to receive slightly more return gazes than did men. (LLL)

  7. An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

  8. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-01

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  9. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  10. A social activity and physical contact-based routing algorithm in mobile opportunistic networks for emergency response to sudden disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Lin, Yaguang; Zhang, Shanshan; Cai, Zhipeng

    2017-05-01

    Sudden disasters such as earthquake, flood and hurricane necessitate the employment of communication networks to carry out emergency response activities. Routing has a significant impact on the functionality, performance and flexibility of communication networks. In this article, the routing problem is studied considering the delivery ratio of messages, the overhead ratio of messages and the average delay of messages in mobile opportunistic networks (MONs) for enterprise-level emergency response communications in sudden disaster scenarios. Unlike the traditional routing methods for MONS, this article presents a new two-stage spreading and forwarding dynamic routing algorithm based on the proposed social activity degree and physical contact factor for mobile customers. A new modelling method for describing a dynamic evolving process of the topology structure of a MON is first proposed. Then a multi-copy spreading strategy based on the social activity degree of nodes and a single-copy forwarding strategy based on the physical contact factor between nodes are designed. Compared with the most relevant routing algorithms such as Epidemic, Prophet, Labelled-sim, Dlife-comm and Distribute-sim, the proposed routing algorithm can significantly increase the delivery ratio of messages, and decrease the overhead ratio and average delay of messages.

  11. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678

  12. Brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus): a model for differentiating the role of social networks and physical contact on parasite transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Bisanzio, Donal; Galvis, Nelson; Link, Andrés; Di Fiore, Anthony; Gillespie, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated risk of disease transmission is considered a major cost of sociality, although empirical evidence supporting this idea remains scant. Variation in spatial cohesion and the occurrence of social interactions may have profound implications for patterns of interindividual parasite transmission. We used a social network approach to shed light on the importance of different aspects of group-living (i.e. within-group associations versus physical contact) on patterns of parasitism in a neotropical primate, the brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus), which exhibits a high degree of fission–fusion subgrouping. We used daily subgroup composition records to create a ‘proximity’ network, and built a separate ‘contact’ network using social interactions involving physical contact. In the proximity network, connectivity between individuals was homogeneous, whereas the contact network highlighted high between-individual variation in the extent to which animals had physical contact with others, which correlated with an individual's age and sex. The gastrointestinal parasite species richness of highly connected individuals was greater than that of less connected individuals in the contact network, but not in the proximity network. Our findings suggest that among brown spider monkeys, physical contact impacts the spread of several common parasites and supports the idea that pathogen transmission is one cost associated with social contact. PMID:25870396

  13. Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…

  14. Absolute Parameters and Physical Nature of the Low-amplitude Contact Binary HI Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, A.; Christopoulou, P.-E.

    2015-05-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the low-amplitude contact binary HI Dra based on the new VRcIc CCD photometric light curves (LCs) combined with published radial velocity (RV) curves. Our completely covered LCs were analyzed using PHOEBE and revealed that HI Dra is an overcontact binary with low fill-out factor f = 24 ± 4(%) and temperature difference between the components of 330 K. Two spotted models are proposed to explain the LC asymmetry, between which the A subtype of W UMa type eclipsing systems, with a cool spot on the less massive and cooler component, proves to be more plausible on evolutionary grounds. The results and stability of the solutions were explored by heuristic scan and parameter perturbation to provide a consistent and reliable set of parameters and their errors. Our photometric modeling and RV curve solution give the following absolute parameters of the hot and cool components, respectively: Mh = 1.72 ± 0.08 {{M}⊙ } and Mc = 0.43 ± 0.02 {{M}⊙ }, Rh = 1.98 ± 0.03 {{R}⊙ } and Rc = 1.08 ± 0.02 {{R}⊙ }, and Lh = 9.6 ± 0.1 {{L}⊙ } and Lc = 2.4 ± 0.1 {{L}⊙ }. Based on these results the initial masses of the progenitors (1.11 ± 0.03 {{M}⊙ } and 2.25 ± 0.07 {{M}⊙ }, respectively) and a rough estimate of the age of the system of 2.4 Gyr are discussed.

  15. Impact of Cosmetics on the Physical Dimension and Optical Performance of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Luensmann, Doerte; Yu, Mili; Yang, Jeffery; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of cosmetics on silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens shape, lens power, and optical performance. In this in vitro experiment, 7 SiHy materials were coated with 9 marketed brands of cosmetics, including hand creams (HCs) (3), eye makeup removers (MRs) (3), and mascaras (3). Diameter, sagittal depth, and base curve were determined using the Chiltern (Optimec Limited), whereas lens power and optical performance were assessed using the Contest Plus (Rotlex). Six replicates were used for each lens and cosmetic combination. Measurements were repeated after a cleaning cycle using a one-step hydrogen peroxide solution. Makeup removers had the greatest impact on diameter, sagittal depth, and base curve, resulting in changes of up to 0.5, 0.15, and 0.77 mm, respectively. The HCs and mascaras had little impact on these parameters; however, differences were observed between lens types. Optical performance was reduced with all mascaras, and a decrease of greater than 2 units on a 0 to 10 scale (10=uniform power distribution) was seen for 5 lens types exposed to waterproof mascara (P<0.01). Most HCs and MRs had minimal impact on image quality. Lens power did not change with any of the cosmetics (± 0.25 diopter; P>0.05). Lens cleaning resulted in some recovery of the lens parameters, and efficiency varied between cosmetics. Some eye MRs and waterproof mascaras changed the shape and optical performance of some SiHy lenses. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications for SiHy lens wearers using cosmetics.

  16. Effectiveness and feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs for geriatric hospitalized patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Old adults admitted to the hospital are at severe risk of functional loss during hospitalization. Early in-hospital physical rehabilitation programs appear to prevent functional loss in geriatric patients. The first aim of this review was to investigate the effect of early physical rehabilitation programs on physical functioning among geriatric patients acutely admitted to the hospital. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs. Methods Two searches, one for physical functioning and one for feasibility, were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation tracking. To be included articles had to report on in-hospital early physical rehabilitation of patients aged 65 years and older with an outcome measure of physical functioning. Studies were excluded when the treatment was performed on specialized units other than geriatric units. Randomized controlled trials were included to examine the effect of early physical rehabilitation on physical functioning, length of stay and discharge destination. To investigate feasibility also non randomized controlled trials were added. Results Fifteen articles, reporting on 13 studies, described the effect on physical functioning. The early physical rehabilitation programs were classified in multidisciplinary programs with an exercise component and usual care with an exercise component. Multidisciplinary programs focussed more on facilitating discharge home and independent ADL, whereas exercise programs aimed at improving functional outcomes. At time of discharge patients who had participated in a multidisciplinary program or exercise program improved more on physical functional tests and were less likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared to patients receiving only usual care. In addition, multidisciplinary programs reduced the length of hospital stay significantly. Follow-up interventions improved

  17. Effectiveness and feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs for geriatric hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kosse, Nienke M; Dutmer, Alisa L; Dasenbrock, Lena; Bauer, Jürgen M; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2013-10-10

    Old adults admitted to the hospital are at severe risk of functional loss during hospitalization. Early in-hospital physical rehabilitation programs appear to prevent functional loss in geriatric patients. The first aim of this review was to investigate the effect of early physical rehabilitation programs on physical functioning among geriatric patients acutely admitted to the hospital. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs. Two searches, one for physical functioning and one for feasibility, were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation tracking. To be included articles had to report on in-hospital early physical rehabilitation of patients aged 65 years and older with an outcome measure of physical functioning. Studies were excluded when the treatment was performed on specialized units other than geriatric units. Randomized controlled trials were included to examine the effect of early physical rehabilitation on physical functioning, length of stay and discharge destination. To investigate feasibility also non randomized controlled trials were added. Fifteen articles, reporting on 13 studies, described the effect on physical functioning. The early physical rehabilitation programs were classified in multidisciplinary programs with an exercise component and usual care with an exercise component. Multidisciplinary programs focussed more on facilitating discharge home and independent ADL, whereas exercise programs aimed at improving functional outcomes. At time of discharge patients who had participated in a multidisciplinary program or exercise program improved more on physical functional tests and were less likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared to patients receiving only usual care. In addition, multidisciplinary programs reduced the length of hospital stay significantly. Follow-up interventions improved physical functioning after

  18. Observation of early childhood physical aggression: a psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical aggression was observed twice in a laboratory setting, the first time when children were 1-3 years old, and again 1 year later. Observed physical aggression was significantly related to concurrent mother-rated physical aggression for 2- to 4-year-olds, but not to maternal ratings of nonaggressive externalizing problems, indicating the measure's discriminant validity. However, we did not find significant 1-year stability of observed physical aggression in any of the age groups, whereas mother-rated physical aggression was significantly stable for all ages. The observational measure shows promise, but may have assessed state rather than trait aggression in our study. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Reverse engineering physical models employing a sensor integration between 3D stereo detection and contact digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Lin, Grier C. I.

    1997-12-01

    A vision-drive automatic digitization process for free-form surface reconstruction has been developed, with a coordinate measurement machine (CMM) equipped with a touch-triggered probe and a CCD camera, in reverse engineering physical models. The process integrates 3D stereo detection, data filtering, Delaunay triangulation, adaptive surface digitization into a single process of surface reconstruction. By using this innovative approach, surface reconstruction can be implemented automatically and accurately. Least-squares B- spline surface models with the controlled accuracy of digitization can be generated for further application in product design and manufacturing processes. One industrial application indicates that this approach is feasible, and the processing time required in reverse engineering process can be significantly reduced up to more than 85%.

  20. Physical-mechanical image of the cell surface on the base of AFM data in contact mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubtseva, M. N.; Starodubtsev, I. E.; Yegorenkov, N. I.; Kuzhel, N. S.; Konstantinova, E. E.; Chizhik, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of the cell surface are well-known markers of a cell state. The complex of the parameters characterizing the cell surface properties, such as the elastic modulus (E), the parameters of adhesive (Fa), and friction (Ff) forces can be measured using atomic force microscope (AFM) in a contact mode and form namely the physical-mechanical image of the cell surface that is a fundamental element of the cell mechanical phenotype. The paper aims at forming the physical-mechanical images of the surface of two types of glutaraldehyde-fixed cancerous cells (human epithelial cells of larynx carcinoma, HEp-2c cells, and breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 cells) based on the data obtained by AFM in air and revealing the basic difference between them. The average values of friction, elastic and adhesive forces, and the roughness of lateral force maps, as well as dependence of the fractal dimension of lateral force maps on Z-scale factor have been studied. We have revealed that the response of microscale areas of the HEp-2c cell surface having numerous microvilli to external mechanical forces is less expressed and more homogeneous in comparison with the response of MCF-7 cell surface.

  1. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    PubMed

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  2. Physical Activity Opportunities Within the Schedule of Early Care and Education Centers.

    PubMed

    Mazzucca, Stephanie; Hales, Derek; Evenson, Kelly R; Ammerman, Alice; Tate, Deborah F; Berry, Diane C; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for young children's health and overall development, but few studies have investigated how early care and education centers allot time for physical activity, along with measured individual physical activity levels for indoor/outdoor activities during a typical day. Fifty early care and education centers in central North Carolina participated in 4 full-day observations, and 559 children aged 3-5 years within centers wore accelerometers assessing physical activity during observation days. Observation and physical activity data were linked and analyzed for associations between child activity and type of classroom activity. Children averaged 51 (13) minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity and 99 (18) minutes per day of light physical activity while in child care. Children averaged 6 (10) and 10 (13) minutes per day of observed outdoor and indoor daily teacher-led physical activity, respectively. Outdoor time averaged 67 (49) minutes per day, and physical activity levels were higher during outdoor time than during common indoor activities (center time, circle time, and TV time). Physical activity levels varied between indoor and outdoor class activities. Policy and program-related efforts to increase physical activity in preschoolers should consider these patterns to leverage opportunities to optimize physical activity within early care and education centers.

  3. In vitro analysis of the physical properties of contact lens blister pack solutions.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kara L; Jones, Lyndon

    2011-04-01

    Since the initial development of silicone hydrogels, many modifications to the bulk and surface properties of the lenses have been undertaken to improve the wettability and comfort of the lenses. Recently, manufacturers have incorporated various "wetting agents" or surface-active agents into the blister packaging solutions (BPSs) of the lenses to improve initial comfort of the lens on eye. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the pH, surface tension (ST), viscosity, and osmolality of BPSs for a variety of silicone hydrogel and polyHEMA-based hydrogel lenses. In addition, two saline solutions were tested for comparison purposes. The pH, osmolality, ST, and viscosity were measured for the BPSs for lotrafilcon B and lotrafilcon A and lotrafilcon B with a "modified BPS" (m-lotrafilcon A, m-lotrafilcon B) (CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA); balafilcon A (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY); galyfilcon A, senofilcon A, and narafilcon A (Johnson & Johnson, Jacksonville, FL); and comfilcon A and enfilcon A (CooperVision, Pleasanton, CA) and BPSs from two conventional polyHEMA-based materials-etafilcon A (Johnson & Johnson) and omafilcon A (CooperVision). The two saline solutions tested were Unisol (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) and Softwear Saline (CIBA Vision). The pH results for the two saline solutions and all BPSs remained in the pH range of tears (6.6-7.8). The ST of the modified BPS was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than the original non-modified BPS. Viscosity measurements ranged between 0.90 and 1.00 cP for all BPSs and saline solutions, except for the modified BPS, which had significantly higher viscosities (p < 0.001). Osmolality measurements were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between BPSs made by the same manufacturer but were significantly different compared with BPSs made by different manufacturers (p < 0.05). The incorporation of wetting agents and surfactants into BPSs does alter the physical properties of the BPSs, which may have clinical implications

  4. Locating Quality Physical Education in Early Years Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Elizabeth; Weston, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Government Ministers, health care professionals and sporting organisations throughout the UK are presently engaged in the promotion of extending the length of time each school child spends participating in quality physical education. Agendas may differ from a crackdown on obesity and sedentary lifestyles to basking in reflected glory of British…

  5. The Early Universe and High-Energy Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, David N.

    1983-01-01

    Many properties of new particle field theories can only be tested by comparing their predictions about the physical conditions immediately after the big bang with what can be reconstructed about this event from astronomical data. Facts/questions about big bang, unified field theories, and universe epochs/mass are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  6. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…

  7. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Tara L; Tomayko, Emily J; Meinen, Amy M; Hoiting, Jill; Saxler, Courtney; Cullen, Bridget

    2016-07-20

    Early childcare and education (ECE) is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led) activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2-5 years, in the ECE setting. Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (-4.4 ± 14.2 % time, -29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02). Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = -0.37, p < 0.05) and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the

  8. On the zero-bias anomaly and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts near pinch-off.

    PubMed

    Xiang, S; Xiao, S; Fuji, K; Shibuya, K; Endo, T; Yumoto, N; Morimoto, T; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y

    2014-03-26

    We investigate the linear and non-linear conductance of quantum point contacts (QPCs), in the region near pinch-off where Kondo physics has previously been connected to the appearance of the 0.7 feature. In studies of seven different QPCs, fabricated in the same high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction, the linear conductance is widely found to show the presence of the 0.7 feature. The differential conductance, on the other hand, does not generally exhibit the zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) that has been proposed to indicate the Kondo effect. Indeed, even in the small subset of QPCs found to exhibit such an anomaly, the linear conductance does not always follow the universal temperature-dependent scaling behavior expected for the Kondo effect. Taken collectively, our observations demonstrate that, unlike the 0.7 feature, the ZBA is not a generic feature of low-temperature QPC conduction. We furthermore conclude that the mere observation of the ZBA alone is insufficient evidence for concluding that Kondo physics is active. While we do not rule out the possibility that the Kondo effect may occur in QPCs, our results appear to indicate that its observation requires a very strict set of conditions to be satisfied. This should be contrasted with the case of the 0.7 feature, which has been apparent since the earliest experimental investigations of QPC transport.

  9. Replication and Extension of the Early Childhood Friendship Project: Effects on Physical and Relational Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper-DeMarco, Kimberly E.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.; Celenza, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    A replication of a preventive early childhood intervention study for reducing relational and physical aggression and peer victimization was conducted (Ostrov et al., 2009). The present study expanded on the original 6-week program, and the revised Early Childhood Friendship Project (ECFP) 8-week program consisted of developmentally appropriate…

  10. Daily Physical Activity Patterns During the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Watts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls. Patients with mild AD and controls (n = 92) recruited from the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center Registry, wore the Actigraph GT3X+ for seven days, and provided objective physical function (VO2 max) and mobility data. Using multivariate linear regression, we explored whether individuals with mild AD had different daily average and diurnal physical activity patterns compared to controls independent of non-cognitive factors that may affect physical activity, including physical function and mobility. We found that mild AD was associated with less moderate-intensity physical activity (p < 0.05), lower peak activity (p < 0.01), and lower physical activity complexity (p < 0.05) particularly during the morning. Mild AD was not associated with greater sedentary activity or less lower-intensity physical activity across the day after adjusting for non-cognitive covariates. These findings suggest that factors independent of physical capacity and mobility may drive declines in moderate-intensity physical activity, and not lower-intensity or sedentary activity, during the early stage of AD. This underscores the importance of a better mechanistic understanding of how cognitive decline and AD pathology impact physical activity. Findings emphasize the potential value of designing and testing time-of-day specific physical activity interventions targeting individuals in the early stages of AD, prior to significant declines in mobility and physical function.

  11. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  12. Embedding Physical Activity and Nutrition in Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiner, Penny Low; Qiu, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The infant and toddler years provide a window of opportunity to establish healthy habits as part of daily routines and activities that prevent childhood obesity. Early care and education programs have the opportunity to make a significant impact on physical development when they promote healthy eating and physical activity in their daily routines.…

  13. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  14. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  15. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  16. Too Early for Physics? Effect of Class Meeting Time on Student Evaluations of Teaching in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports observations that show a significant effect of class meeting time on student evaluations of teaching for an introductory college physics class. Students in a lecture section with an early-morning meeting time gave the class and instructors consistently lower ratings than those in an otherwise nearly identical section that met an…

  17. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Manoel C. S.; Barbosa, Maurício F.; Diniz, Tiego A.; Codogno, Jamile S.; Freitas, Ismael F.; Fernandes, Rômulo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. Method: The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Results: Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Conclusion: Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity. PMID:25372009

  18. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lima, Manoel C S; Barbosa, Maurício F; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b95%CI=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity.

  19. Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido--contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics--.

    PubMed

    K M Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, "pseudo growth curves" of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the "density length" of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics.

  20. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  1. Implications of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs.

    PubMed

    Childs, John D; Fritz, Julie M; Wu, Samuel S; Flynn, Timothy W; Wainner, Robert S; Robertson, Eric K; Kim, Forest S; George, Steven Z

    2015-04-09

    Initial management decisions following a new episode of low back pain (LBP) are thought to have profound implications for health care utilization and costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs within the Military Health System (MHS). Patients presenting to a primary care setting with a new complaint of LBP from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were identified from the MHS Management Analysis and Reporting Tool. Descriptive statistics, utilization, and costs were examined on the basis of timing of referral to physical therapy and adherence to practice guidelines over a 2-year period. Utilization outcomes (advanced imaging, lumbar injections or surgery, and opioid use) were compared using adjusted odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals. Total LBP-related health care costs over the 2-year follow-up were compared using linear regression models. 753,450 eligible patients with a primary care visit for LBP between 18-60 years of age were considered. Physical therapy was utilized by 16.3% (n = 122,723) of patients, with 24.0% (n = 17,175) of those receiving early physical therapy that was adherent to recommendations for active treatment. Early referral to guideline adherent physical therapy was associated with significantly lower utilization for all outcomes and 60% lower total LBP-related costs. The potential for cost savings in the MHS from early guideline adherent physical therapy may be substantial. These results also extend the findings from similar studies in civilian settings by demonstrating an association between early guideline adherent care and utilization and costs in a single payer health system. Future research is necessary to examine which patients with LBP benefit early physical therapy and determine strategies for providing early guideline adherent care.

  2. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  3. Modeling and Reality in Early Twentieth-Century Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Suman

    2011-04-01

    Towards the end of 1913, Arnold Sommerfeld, Professor of theoretical physics at Munich University, sent a letter of congratulations to a young Niels Bohr. The Dane's now-classic trilogy of papers, which coupled Rutherford's conception of the atom with a ``planetary'' configuration of electrons, had just appeared. Sommerfeld saw the calculation of the Rydberg constant as a singular triumph and immediately spotted an opportunity to try to explain the Zeeman effect. Yet he also sounded a note of caution, confessing that he remained ``somewhat skeptical'' of atomic models in general. In this, of course, he was hardly alone. Bohr's atom was a particularly egregious example of a peculiar model, one requiring what even its creator considered ``horrid assumptions.'' Nonetheless, success bred conviction. Expanding upon Bohr's original ideas, Sommerfeld soon produced the so-called ``Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions,'' using them to calculate a myriad of results. Experimental evidence, Sommerfeld argued in 1915, showed that quantised electron-paths ``correspond exactly to reality'' and possess ``real existence.'' This kind of realism would not, of course, last long. In 1925, Werner Heisenberg (earlier a student of Sommerfeld's) made scepticism about the details of the Bohr model into a methodological dictum, one later enshrined in the ``Copenhagen interpretation'' of quantum mechanics. This paper uses Sommerfeld's work from the turn of the twentieth century to the mid-1920s as a window onto a landscape involving multiple contestations over the legitimacy of atomic modelling. The surprise that greeted Heisenberg's and others' phenomenological insistences, we will see, can only be understood with reference to what should be considered a ``realist interlude'' in the history of twentieth century atomic physics, one inspired by the astonishing successes of Rutherford's and Bohr's imaginings.

  4. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  5. The integration of audio-tactile information is modulated by multimodal social interaction with physical contact in infancy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Myowa, Masako

    2018-04-01

    Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio - tactile (A-T) information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal 'A-T' condition), and not being tickled (unimodal 'A' condition). Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants' brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Children's Spatial Placements of Dolls Which 'Like' Each Other and of Dolls Which 'Dislike' Each Other: Role of Eye Contact and Physical Proximity in 'Personal Space'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lauren Jay; Strommen, Ellen A.

    A study was conducted of children's expression of social as well as spatial relations in their placement of dolls. The study was designed to determine how both face contact and physical distance varied according to the social relationship ascribed to the dolls. It was hoped to find out, through this, whether' children's working definitions of…

  7. Contact tracing and antiviral prophylaxis in the early stages of a pandemic: the probability of a major outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joshua V; Black, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Antiviral prophylaxis forms a significant component of health management plans for many countries around the world. A number of studies have shown that the delays typically encountered in distributing these antivirals to households, following the first infectious case, can result in their efficacy being severely reduced. Here, we investigate the use of contact tracing as a method to reduce the delays and hence mitigate the reduction in efficacy of antivirals. We assess the usefulness of contact tracing in terms of the probability of a major outbreak. It is found, with parameter distributions appropriate to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and distributions reflecting commonly experienced delays, that standard contact tracing renders an outbreak impossible approximately one in five times compared with approximately one in ten times in its absence. A contact-tracing efficiency of 50% would see further improvements with an outbreak being impossible approximately one in four times, and a reduction of the median probability of a major outbreak from 0.41 to below 0.27. © The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Results Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Conclusion Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary. PMID:25961736

  9. Physical activity, sedentary time and physical capability in early old age: British birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Andrew J M; Simmons, Rebecca K; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1 standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary.

  10. Early Physical Rehabilitation in the ICU: A Review for the Neurohospitalist

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Nusr, Rasha; Feldman, Dorianne; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in critical care have resulted in improved intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. However, improved ICU survival has resulted in a growing number of ICU survivors living with long-term sequelae of critical illness, such as impaired physical function and quality of life (QOL). In addition to critical illness, prolonged bed rest and immobility may lead to severe physical deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness. ICU-acquired weakness is associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation and weaning, longer ICU and hospital stay, and increased mortality. These physical impairments may last for years after ICU discharge. Early Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) interventions in the ICU may attenuate or prevent the weakness and physical impairments occurring during critical illness. This article reviews the evidence regarding safety, feasibility, barriers, and benefits of early PM&R interventions in ICU patients and discusses the limited existing data on early PM&R in the neurological ICU and future directions for early PM&R in the ICU. PMID:23983871

  11. Early-Onset Physical Frailty in Adults with Diabesity and Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lori J; Bittel, Daniel C; Bittel, Adam J; Sinacore, David R

    2017-12-07

    Diabesity (obesity and diabetes mellitus) has been identified as a potential contributor to early-onset frailty. Impairments contributing to early onset of physical frailty in this population are not well understood, and there is little evidence of the impact of peripheral neuropathy on frailty. The purpose of this study was to determine impairments that contribute to early-onset physical frailty in individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy. We studied 105 participants, 82 with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy (57 years of age, body mass index [BMI] 31 kg/m 2 ); 13 with diabesity only (53 years of age, BMI 34 kg/m 2 ) and 10 obese controls (67 years of age, BMI 32 kg/m 2 ). Peripheral neuropathy was determined using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments; physical frailty was classified using the 9-item, modified Physical Performance Test; and knee extension and ankle plantarflexion peak torques were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. Participants with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy were 7.4 times more likely to be classified as physically frail. Impairments in lower-extremity function were associated with classification of frailty. Individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy are particularly likely to be classified as frail. Earlier identification and interventions aimed at improving lower-extremity function may be important to mitigate the early-onset functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE +20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD AND THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

    SciT

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko, E-mail: shunya@aysheaia.phys.keio.ac.jp

    This paper reports the discovery of evidence for physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an exterior giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in the HCN J  = 1–0, HCO{sup +} J  = 1–0, CS J  = 2–1, H{sup 13}CN J  = 1–0, SiO J  = 2–1, SO N{sub J}  = 2{sub 3}–1{sub 2}, and HC{sub 3}N J  = 11–10 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Based on our examination of the position–velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found that an emission “bridge” may be connecting the +20 km s{sup −1} cloudmore » (M–0.13–0.08) and the negative-longitude extension of the CND. Analyses of line intensity ratios imply that the chemical property of the bridge is located between the +20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the CND. We introduce a new interpretation that a part of the CND may be colliding with the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the collision may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. Such collisional events could promote mass accretion onto the CND or into the inner ionized cavity, which may be further tested by proper motion studies.« less

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Maturation on Physical Self-Perceptions and the Relationship with Physical Activity in Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G.; Fawkner, Samantha G.; Henretty, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N = 150; mean age = 12.79 plus or minus 0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and…

  14. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-02-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent's own education. Young adults aged 18-29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity. Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent's own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent's own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education. There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.

  15. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  17. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  18. Premenstrual symptoms are associated with psychological and physical symptoms in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Susanne; Einsle, Franziska; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The reproductive life of women is characterised by a number of distinct reproductive events and phases (e.g. premenstrual phase, peripartum, perimenopause). The hormonal transitions during these phases are often associated with both psychological and physical symptoms. Associations between these reproductive phases have been shown by numerous studies. However, the relationship between symptoms during the premenstrual phase and during early pregnancy has received little attention thus far, although early pregnancy is a time of dramatic hormonal as well as physical adaptation. Findings are based on a prospective longitudinal study with N = 306 pregnant women (MARI study). Three hundred five women that had menstrual bleeding in the year before pregnancy rated the severity of psychological and physical symptoms during premenstrual phases in the year preceding pregnancy. Besides this, they rated the severity of the same symptoms during early pregnancy (weeks 10 to 12 of gestation). The overall severity of premenstrual symptoms was significantly associated with the overall severity of early pregnancy symptoms (b = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.5; p < 0.001). The overall severity of early pregnancy symptoms was best predicted by the severity of premenstrual irritability. The best predictor for a particular symptom in early pregnancy mostly was the corresponding premenstrual symptom. The associations between premenstrual and early pregnancy symptoms support the reproductive hormone sensitivity hypothesis that some women are prone to repeatedly experience specific psychological and physical symptoms during different reproductive phases. The findings further imply that the nature of symptoms might be rather consistent between different reproductive phases.

  19. "Physics Stories": How the Early Technologies of High Voltage and High Vacuum Led to "Modern Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-05-01

    Some of you may remember the 1979 television series "Connections" that was written and narrated by James Burke, a British science writer. Burke's technique was to choose a number of seemingly unrelated ideas and show how they led to developments in science and technology. This is an enjoyable business, even if some of the connections seem to be stretched at times, and led to a book by Burke. In a number of talks that I have given over the years, I have made somewhat less fanciful connections that suggest how the technologies of high vacuum and high voltage led to what used to be called "modern physics." Today we might limit the "modern" era to the years from 1890 to 1920 that gave the first workable theories of small-scale physics.

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical and Sedentary Activities of Early Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines physical and sedentary activities of early adolescent boys and girls using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a method that can link mood and behaviors in specific social situations. Twenty-seven assessments were collected across 7 days from 82 participating adolescents, three times in seventh grade and one time in eighth…

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Individual Interest in Middle School Physical Education: Perspectives of Early-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Cothran, Donetta J.; Jenkins, Jayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has revealed the positive impact that interest development can have on achievement outcomes with early-adolescents in physical education (PE). Interest is considered a psychological state of engaging and willingness to reengage in specific content that develops over time; however, little work to date has examined interest…

  2. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  3. Letters from Early Career Academics: The Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Field of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Enright, Eimear; Rynne, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Taking our lead from Rainer Maria Rilke's (1929) "Letters to a Young Poet", our broader project aimed to create a space for dialogue and intergenerational learning between Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) Early Career Academics (ECAs) and members of the PESP professoriate. This paper focuses specifically on the experiences of…

  4. Early Parenting and Children's Relational and Physical Aggression in the Preschool and Home Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…

  5. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  6. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  7. An Intervention for Relational and Physical Aggression in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…

  8. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after delivery results in early recognition of own mother's milk odour.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Mizuno, N; Shinohara, T; Noda, M

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effects of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth on infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and breastfeeding duration until 1 y of age. Sixty healthy, full-term neonates were randomly assigned to group A with skin-to-skin contact and group B without. One and 4 d after birth, infant responses to the following odour stimuli were observed: own mother's milk, another mother's milk, formula, orange juice and distilled water. Infant facial action was videotaped and the frequency of mouthing movements was evaluated for each stimulus. Nutritional assessment, focused particularly on breastfeeding, was performed every 3 mo on participating infants. Statistical analysis comparing the frequency of mouthing movements with the aforementioned five different odour exposures was performed by ANOVA with Fisher's PLSD. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test was used to compare breastfeeding rates between groups. Infants in both groups responded differently to mother's milk odour (either their own or another mother's milk) compared to the other stimuli on days 1 and 4. However, infants in group A demonstrated a larger difference in mouthing movements between their own and another mother's milk odour at 4 d of age (2.6 +/- 1.6) compared to infants in group B (0.9 +/- 2.0, p = 0.01). Infants in group A were breastfed an average of 1.9 mo longer than the others. Our study provides evidence that mother-infant skin-to-skin contact for more than 50 min immediately after birth results in enhanced infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and longer breastfeeding duration.

  9. Parent and peer predictors of physical aggression and conflict management in romantic relationships in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Collins, W Andrew

    2005-06-01

    Violence between romantic partners is widespread, but developmental precursors of perpetration and victimization are little understood. Among participants followed from birth to 23 years of age, familial and extrafamilial childhood and adolescent relationships were examined in connection with couple violence in early adulthood. Predictors included early childhood physical abuse and witnessing of parental partner violence, features of parent-child interactions at the age of 13 years, and close friendship quality at the age of 16 years. Controlling for early familial violence, intrusive or overly familiar behavior in videotaped parent-child collaborations at 13 years of age consistently predicted violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood. Friendship quality at the age of 16 years contributed over and above familial predictors. Understanding the role of both familial and extrafamilial close relationship precursors may lead to effective strategies for ameliorating the problem of romantic partner violence. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  10. The mediational role of physical activity, social contact and stroke on the association between age, education, employment and dementia in an Asian older adult population.

    PubMed

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Peh, Chao Xu; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chua, Boon Yiang; Verma, Swapna; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Shafie, Saleha; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-03-20

    Our study aimed to investigate the pathways by which socio-demographic factors, modifiable health and lifestyle risk factors influence each other, and subsequently, lead to dementia. We used data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study, a nationally representative survey of the older adult population aged 60 years and above in Singapore. Dementia diagnosis was established using 10/66 dementia criteria. Structural equation modelling (SEM) without latent variable was applied to confirm the hypothesized model. The results of SEM supported the hypothesized model (χ 2 = 14.999, df = 10, p = 0.132). The final model showed that those aged 75-84 years and 85 years and over (vs. 60-74 years), having no formal education, who had completed primary or secondary education (vs. completed tertiary), who were homemakers and retired (vs. paid work), and with a history of stroke were directly associated with higher odds of having dementia, while those who had more frequent contact with friends and neighbors as well as being physically active were directly associated with lower odds of having dementia diagnosis. The study also found that physical activity, more frequent contact with friends and stroke played a significant role as mediators in these relationships. The overall pathways model explained 57.7% of the variance in dementia. Our results suggest that physical activity, social contact and stroke were potential mediators in the relationship between age, education, employment and dementia. Intervention programmes focusing on physical activity such as exercise and social contact may be useful in reducing the risk of dementia among older adults.

  11. Birth order and physical fitness in early adulthood: evidence from Swedish military conscription data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p < 0.000) standard deviations lower than first-born children. The association exists both in small (3 or less children) and large families (4 or more children), in high and low socioeconomic status families, and amongst cohorts born in the 1960s and the 1970s. While in the whole population the birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early and extraordinary peaks in physical performance come with a longevity cost

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Paul L; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory postulates a trade-off between development and maintenance. This trade-off is observed when comparing life histories of different animal species. In humans, however, it is debated if variation in longevity is explained by differences in developmental traits. Observational studies found a trade-off between early and high fecundity and longevity in women. Development encompasses more than fecundity and also concerns growth and physical performance. Here, we show a life history trade-off between early and above average physical performance and longevity in male Olympic athletes. Athletes who peaked at an earlier age showed 17-percent increased mortality rates (95% CI 8-26% per SD, p<0.001) and athletes who ranked higher showed 11-percent increased mortality rates (95% CI 1-22% per SD, p=0.025). Male athletes who had both an early and extraordinary peak performance suffered a 4.7-year longevity cost. (95% CI 2.1-7.5 years, p=0.001). This is the first time a life history trade-off between physical performance and longevity has been found in humans. This finding deepens our understanding of early developmental influences on the variation of longevity in humans. PMID:27540872

  13. The effects of self-directed home exercise with serial telephone contacts on physical functions and quality of life in elderly people at high risk of locomotor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kana; Sakuma, Mayumi; Ogisho, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kozo; Chosa, Etsuo; Endo, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is essential for maintaining quality of life (QOL) in elderly individuals. However, adherence to exercise programs is low. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of a self-directed home exercise program with serial telephone contacts to encourage exercise adherence among elderly individuals at high risk of locomotor dysfunction. We recruited community-dwelling adults (ァ65 years) in Niigata, Japan, who were targets of the long-term care prevention project for locomotor dysfunction but did not participate in the government-sponsored prevention programs. The study was conducted from November 2011 to October 2012. Participants received exercise instruction and performed exercises independently for 3 months with serial telephone contacts. The single-leg stance and five-times sit-to-stand tests were used to assess physical function. The SF-8 was used to measure health-related QOL. Ninety-seven participants were enrolled in the study, representing 2.5% of eligible people;87 completed the intervention. Scores from physical function tests were significantly improved by the intervention, as were 7 of eight SF-8 subscales. Adherence was 85.4% for the single-leg standing exercise and 82.1% for squatting. Thus, self-directed home exercise with serial telephone contacts improved physical function and health-related QOL, representing a promising model for preventing the need for long-term care due to locomotor dysfunction.

  14. Early intervention services of children with physical disabilities: complexity of child and family needs.

    PubMed

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    To gain insight into the special issues confronting parents when accessing early intervention for children with physical disabilities where child and/or family characteristics indicate complex needs within the unique Australian context. Qualitative interviews with families receiving early intervention for their children with physical disabilities (N=10). Families with complex circumstances such as having children with high support needs, those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and single-parent families were recruited to the study. Families where parents had mental or health issues, parents/other family members had an identified disability, and/or where families lived in regional or rural locations were also purposively sampled. Participants highlighted issues around (i) the nature of early intervention services provided; (ii) the ways in which services were structured; and (ii) managing their child's needs/planning into the future. Parents stressed the importance of having access to a variety of early intervention services aside from therapy. They also emphasised the need for greater clarity about what to expect from services, the intensity of therapy, other services they could access and how long they would be able to receive these. Despite their complex circumstances and needs, participants' experiences of accessing early intervention services were largely consistent with the broader research literature. Of the parents interviewed, those with health problems and single mothers expressed most apprehension about managing their child's needs and planning for the future. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity in Early and Late Adulthood in Relation to Later Life Physical Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Pajala, Satu; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Oksa, Heikki; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) has beneficial effects on older age physical functioning, but longitudinal studies with follow-ups extending up to decades are few. We investigated the association between leisure-time PA (LTPA) and occupational PA (OPA) from early to late adulthood in relation to later life performance-based physical functioning. The study involved 1260 people aged 60 to 79 years who took part in assessments of physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] test, 10-m maximal walking test, and grip strength test). Participants' data on earlier life LTPA/OPA (age range 25 to 74 years) were received from the previous studies (average follow-up 13.4 years). Logistic, linear, and censored regression models were used to assess the associations between LTPA/OPA earlier in life and subsequent physical functioning. A high level of LTPA earlier in life was associated with a lower risk of having difficulties on the SPPB test (odds ratio [OR]: 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.58) and especially on the chair rise test (OR: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64) in old age. Heavy manual work predicted difficulties on SPPB (OR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.22-2.98) and the chair rise test (OR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69) and poorer walking speed (β = .10, P = .005). This study highlights the importance of LTPA on later life functioning, but also indicates the inverse effects that may be caused by heavy manual work.

  16. Silicone hydrogel mini-scleral contact lenses in early stage after corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Severinsky, Boris; Wajnsztajn, Denise; Frucht-Pery, Joseph

    2013-11-01

     The aim was to the evaluate performance of a novel silicone hydrogel mini-scleral contact lens (SHmS) for optical correction of keratoconus in the early stages after the corneal collagen cross-linking procedure (CXL).  We retrospectively analysed the visual acuity improvement and corneal adaptation in the first 10 eyes of nine patients fitted with SHmS lenses one to 3.5 months after corneal collagen cross-linking. The lenses were designed to rest over the patients' sclera and peri-limbal cornea and vault the central cornea with minimal support over it. Visual acuities with manifest refraction and contact lenses, refractive and topographical values (Kmin and Kmax) were evaluated on lens dispensing and after six month of lens wearing. Ocular physiological responses were evaluated using the Institute of Eye Research (IER) grading scales.  SHmS fitting was performed 2.1 ± 0.97 (SD) months after collagen cross-linking. Mean follow up was 10.9 ± 4.41 months (range six to 18 months). Mean decimal visual acuity with SHmS was 0.66 ± 0.22 (approximately 6/9 Snellen fraction, range 0.3 to 0.1) or 0.75 ± 0.14 (approximately 6/8.1, range 0.5 to 1.0), when omitting two amblyopic eyes. Nine (90 per cent) eyes were successfully fitted, that is, able to wear the lenses for 10 hours per day or longer. Mean wearing time was 11.7 hours (range six to 14) per day. No corneal neovascularisation or papillary reaction was found in all fitted eyes.  SHmS contact lenses provide successful visual rehabilitation shortly after corneal collagen cross-linking. This new soft contact lens design with scleral fixation and minimal apical touch was demonstrated to be safe shortly after collagen cross-linking, as the avoidance of contact with the treated zone minimises contact lens influence on corneal recovery. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  17. Early Sexual Intercourse: Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Wijtzes, Anne; van de Bongardt, Daphne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Bannink, Rienke; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands. The analysis sample consisted of 2,141 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years (mean age at baseline = 12.2 years, SD = 0.43). Physical activity (e.g., sports outside school), screen time (e.g., computer use), and early sexual intercourse initiation were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models were tested to assess the associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time (separately and simultaneously) with early sexual intercourse initiation, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographics and substance use). Interaction effects with gender were tested to assess whether these associations differed significantly between boys and girls. Results The only physical activity behavior that was a significant predictor of early sexual intercourse initiation was sports club membership. Adolescent boys and girls who were members of a sports club) were more likely to have had early sex (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.33, 3.56. Significant gender interaction effects indicated that boys who watched TV ≥2 hours/day (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.08, 3.68) and girls who used the computer ≥2 hours/day (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.76, 8.69) were also significantly more likely to have engaged in early sex. Conclusion These findings have implications for professionals in general pediatric healthcare, sexual health educators, policy makers, and parents, who should be aware of these possible prospective links between sports club membership, TV watching (for boys), and computer use (for girls), and early sexual intercourse initiation. However, continued research on determinants of adolescents’ early sexual initiation is needed to further contribute to

  18. Leadership component of type A behavior predicts physical activity in early midlife.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolin; Telama, Risto; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Hintsa, Taina; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2012-03-01

    Research on the long-term effects of Type A behavior and its components in the prediction of physical activity in adulthood is scarce and there is a lack of prospective data that are able to show such an association. We examined the relations between components of Type A behavior and physical activity from youth to early midlife. The sample included 2,031 participants (43.8% of males) aged 9 to 24 years in 1986 from the Young Finns Study. Type A behavior was measured by the Hunter-Wolf A-B Rating Scale at three phases in 1986, 1989, and 2001. Physical activity was assessed using a short self-report questionnaire at five phases between 1986 and 2007. High Type A leadership was associated with high physical activity in 1986 (r = 0.37, P < 0.01), 1989 (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) and 2001 (r = 0.31, P < 0.01), and youth leadership also predicted high adult physical activity (P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, education, occupation, smoking, body mass index, and baseline physical activity, the association remained significant. There was also a bidirectional association between Type A leadership and physical activity. Persistent physical activity during the adult years was associated with a higher Type A leadership than persistent physical inactivity (Cohen's d = 0.34, P < 0.001), even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations of other components of Type A behavior, i.e., hard-driving, eagerness-energy, and aggression with physical activity were marginal. There is a direct relation between Type A leadership and physical activity at different development phases that maybe bidirectional.

  19. Views of Adolescent Female Youth on Physical Activity During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yungblut, Hope E.; Schinke, Robert J.; McGannon, Kerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes. Key points Please provide 3-5 bullet points of the study. Inductive qualitative methodologies can encourage the much-needed voice of female youth in sport and physical activity research. Vignettes serve, not only as a method to illustrate data, but also as a medium to teach contextually relevant information to participants and sport science service providers. The barriers and solutions to female youth engagement in physical activity are best understood through the perspectives of the intended participant. Female youth can serve as central informants in the development and analysis of research projects relating to female youth physical activity. PMID:24149121

  20. Early life stress and physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2013-01-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20) and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

  1. Device Physics of Contact Issues for the Overestimation and Underestimation of Carrier Mobility in Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuan; Li, Gongtan; Di Pietro, Riccardo; Huang, Jie; Noh, Yong-Young; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo

    2017-09-01

    Very high values of carrier mobility have been recently reported in newly developed materials for field-effect transistors (FETs) or thin-film transistors (TFTs). However, there is an increasing concern of whether the values are overestimated. In this paper, we investigate how much contact resistance a FET or TFT can tolerate to allow the conventional current-voltage equations, which is derived for no contact resistance. We contend that mobility in transistors with resistive contact can be underestimated with the presence of the injection barrier, whereas mobility in transistors with gated Schottky contact can be overestimated by more than 10 times. The latter phenomenon occurs even in long-channel devices, and it becomes more severe when using low-k dielectrics. This is because the band bending and injection barrier experience a complicated evolution on account of electrostatic doping in the semiconducting layer; thus, they do not follow a capacitance approximation. When the band bending is weak, the accumulation is as weak as that in the subthreshold regime. Accordingly, the carrier concentration nonlinearly increases with the gate field. This mechanism can occur with or without exhibiting the "kink" feature in the transfer curves, which has been suggested as the signature of overestimation. For precision, carrier mobility should be presented against gate voltage and should be examined by other recommended extraction methods.

  2. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  3. A longitudinal examination of the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Henretty, Joan M

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N=150; mean age=12.79+/-0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Pubertal Development Scale on two occasions 12 months apart. The results demonstrated a decrease in overall physical activity levels over 12 months which was not influenced by maturational status or physical characteristics. Additional analysis indicated that physical self-perceptions partially accounted for the explained variance in physical activity change, with physical condition being an important individual predictor of physical activity. Further analysis indicated that body mass was an important individual predictor of changes in perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth. At this age maturation has a limited influence on the physical activity behaviours of early adolescent girls and although the variance in physical activity was partly accounted for by physical self-perceptions, this was a relatively small contribution and other factors related to this drop in physical activity need to be considered longitudinally.

  4. Physical education and academic achievement in elementary school: data from the early childhood longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E; Lee, Sarah M; Maynard, L Michele; Brown, David R; Kohl, Harold W; Dietz, William H

    2008-04-01

    We examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinal study of students in kindergarten through fifth grade. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999, which employed a multistage probability design to select a nationally representative sample of students in kindergarten (analytic sample = 5316). Time spent in physical education (minutes per week) was collected from classroom teachers, and academic achievement (mathematics and reading) was scored on an item response theory scale. A small but significant benefit for academic achievement in mathematics and reading was observed for girls enrolled in higher amounts (70-300 minutes per week) of physical education (referent: 0-35 minutes per week). Higher amounts of physical education were not positively or negatively associated with academic achievement among boys. Among girls, higher amounts of physical education may be associated with an academic benefit. Physical education did not appear to negatively affect academic achievement in elementary school students. Concerns about adverse effects on achievement may not be legitimate reasons to limit physical education programs.

  5. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activitieson Physical Activity among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women’s physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines effects of pregnant women’s (1) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (2) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. We used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. We also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887

  6. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.

  7. Early changes in physical tree characteristics during an oak decline event in the Ozark highlands

    Martin A. Spetich

    2006-01-01

    An oak decline event is severely affecting up to 120 000 ha in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. Results of early changes in physical tree characteristics during that event are presented. In the fall and winter of 1999 and 2000, we established research plots on a site that would become a center of severe oak decline. In August 2000, standing trees > 14 cm in...

  8. Comparison of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and oxygen saturation between early skin-to-skin contact with different initiation and duration times in healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsushima, Miyoko; Kawabe, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    There are few studies that compare the physiological and biological efficacies between different early skin-to-skin contacts (SSC) post birth. To investigate physiologically and biochemically how early SSC with different initiation and duration time influence the stress post birth for full-term infants. Non-experimental study. Study I; Thirty-two infants who began SSC 5 min or less [birth SSC, mean initiation time (standard deviation): 1.6 (1.1) min] after birth and 36 infants who did so more than 5 min [very early SSC, 26.3 (5.0) min] in heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) analysis. Study II; Eighteen infants who underwent SSC for 60 min or less [mean initiation time: 7.5 (12.2) min] and 61 infants who did so for more than 60 min [15.3 (12.5) min] in salivary cortisol analysis. HR and SpO(2) measured for 30 min post birth. Salivary cortisol concentration measured at 1 min, 60 min, and 120 min post birth. Birth SSC group reached HR stability of 120-160 bpm significantly faster than very early SSC group by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P=0.001 by log-rank test). As for SpO(2) stability of 92% and 96%, no significantly between-group difference was found. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower between 60 and 120 min after birth in SSC group, continuing for more than 60 min compared with SSC group for 60 min or less after adjustment for salivary cortisol level at 1 min besides the infant stress factors (P=0.046). Earlier SSC beginning within 5 min post birth and longer SSC continuing for more than 60 min within 120 min post birth are beneficial for stability of cardiopulmonary dynamics and the reduction of infant stress during the early period post birth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  10. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  11. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants.

  12. Early skin-to-skin contact or incubator for very preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Laila; Støen, Ragnhild; Rygh, Hilde; Sognnæs, Margunn; Follestad, Turid; Mohn, Hilde S; Nissen, Ingrid; Bergseng, Håkon

    2016-12-12

    Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of skin-to-skin care in the delivery room for very preterm infants born at gestational age 28 0 -31 6 weeks with birth weight >1000 grams. Infants with severe congenital malformations or need of intubation in the delivery room are excluded. A detailed checklist and a flowchart were prepared for the study, and all involved professionals (neonatologists, neonatal nurses, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, midwives) participated in medical simulation training prior to study start on February 1, 2014. A consultant in neonatology and a neonatal nurse are present at all deliveries. Infants with birth weight <1500 grams receive an intravenous line with glucose, amino acids, and caffeine citrate in the delivery room. Infants with gestational age <30 weeks are routinely put on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). After initial stabilization, infants are randomized to skin-to-skin care or are transferred to the nursery in an incubator. Primary outcome is cognitive development at 2 years measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Secondary outcomes are safety defined as hypothermia, respiratory failure, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, physiological stability after birth and motor, language and cognitive development at 1 year for the child, and mental health measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at discharge, and at 3 months and 2

  13. Efficacy of early physical therapy in severe Bell's palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; De Seta, Daniele; Bertoli, Gianantonio; Prosperini, Luca; Toni, Danilo; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Filipo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bell's palsy (BP) is the most frequent form of peripheral palsy of the facial nerve. Prognosis for recovery is good for most patients; in the remaining cases, different grades of residual impairment persist. Physical therapy, in association with drug administration, aims to improve outcomes. To assess the efficacy of early physical therapy in association with standard drug administration versus pharmacological therapy only, in terms of time to maximum gains and grade of recovery of function, and to examine who will most benefit from rehabilitation. From June 2008 to May 2010, 232 individuals were evaluated. The 87 patients meeting the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned to the experimental group (prednisone and valacyclovir plus physical therapy, n = 39) or the control group (pharmacological therapy, n = 48) within 10 days of onset. Intention-to-treat analyses were done. The physical therapy had a significant effect on grade (P = .038) and time (P = .044) to recovery only in patients presenting with severe facial palsy (House-Brackmann [HB] grade V/VI). No significant differences were found between the study and control groups for outcome of synkinesis. Physical therapy appears to be effective only in the more severe BP (baseline HB grade V/VI), whereas less severe BP (baseline HB grade IV) results in complete spontaneous recovery, regardless of physical therapy.

  14. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  15. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years) were screened. Results A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood. PMID:29387718

  16. Physically-based model of soil hydraulic properties accounting for variable contact angle and its effect on hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulos, Efstathios; Durner, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    The description of soil water movement in the unsaturated zone requires the knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, i.e. the water retention and the hydraulic conductivity function. A great amount of parameterizations for this can be found in the literature, the majority of which represent the complex pore space of soils as a bundle of cylindrical capillary tubes of various sizes. The assumption of zero contact angles between water and surface of the grains is also made. However, these assumptions limit the predictive capabilities of these models, leading often to errors in the prediction of water dynamics in soils. We present a pore-scale analysis for equilibrium liquid configuration in angular pores taking pore-scale hysteresis and the effect of contact angle into account. Furthermore, we propose a derivation of the hydraulic conductivity function, again as a function of the contact angle. An additional parameter was added to the conductivity function in order take into account effects which are not included in the analysis. Finally, we upscale our model from the pore to the sample scale by assuming a gamma statistical distribution of the pore sizes. Closed-form expressions are derived for both water retention and conductivity functions. The new model was tested against experimental data from multistep inflow/outflow (MSI/MSO) experiments for a sandy material. They were conducted using ethanol and water as the wetting liquid. Ethanol was assumed to form a zero contact angle with the soil grains. By keeping constant the parameters fitted from the ethanol MSO experiment we could predict the ethanol MSI dynamics based on our theory. Furthermore, by keeping constant the pore size distribution parameters from the ethanol experiments we could also predict very well the water dynamics for the MSO experiment. Lastly, we could predict the imbibition dynamics for the water MSI experiment by introducing a finite value of the contact angle. Most importantly, the

  17. The Relationship of Self-Concept and Perceived Athletic Competence to Physical Activity Level and Gender among Turkish Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, F. Hulya Asci S. Nazan; Isler, Ayse Kin

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept and perceived athletic competence of Turkish early adolescents in relation to physical activity level and gender. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for gender and physical activity level but no significant gender by physical activity interaction. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant…

  18. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  19. A value proposition for early physical therapist management of neck pain: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Horn, Maggie E; Brennan, Gerard P; George, Steven Z; Harman, Jeffrey S; Bishop, Mark D

    2016-07-12

    Neck pain is one of the most common reasons for entry into the healthcare system. Recent increases in healthcare utilization and medical costs have not correlated with improvements in health. Therefore there is a need to identify management strategies for neck pain that are effective for the patient, cost efficient for the payer and provided at the optimal time during an episode of neck pain. One thousand five hundred thirty-one patients who underwent physical therapist management with a primary complaint of non-specific neck pain from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 were identified from the Rehabilitation Outcomes Management System (ROMS) database at Intermountain Healthcare. Patients reporting duration of symptoms less than 4 weeks were designated as undergoing "early" management and patients with duration of symptoms greater than 4 weeks were designated as receiving "delayed" management. These groups were compared using binary logistic regression to examine odds of achieving Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) on the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Separate generalized linear modeling examined the effect of timing of physical therapist management on the metrics of value and efficiency. Patients who received early physical therapist management had increased odds of achieving MCID on the NDI (aOR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.57, 2.56) and MCID on the NPRS (aOR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.42, 2.38), when compared to patients receiving delayed management. Patients who received early management demonstrated the greatest value in decreasing disability with a 2.27 percentage point change in NDI score per 100 dollars, best value in decreasing pain with a 0.38 point change on the NPRS per 100 dollars. Finally, patients receiving early management were managed more efficiently with a 3.44 percentage point change in NDI score per visit and 0.57 point change in NPRS score per visit. These findings suggest that healthcare systems

  20. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  1. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Results Participants’ mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. Conclusion This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA. PMID:22554167

  2. American Influence on Chinese Physics Study in the Early Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2016-01-01

    To save China from the perils she faced in the early twentieth century, the majority of the Chinese seemed to agree that it was necessary to strengthen the country by developing shiye or industry and commerce. For this purpose, they overhauled China's education system and sent a large number of students to study overseas. Many of them enrolled in American colleges, sponsored either by governmental grants or by private funds. As American physics advanced rapidly during the early twentieth century, Chinese physicists studying in top US institutions received first-class professional training. They later went on to become a main driving force in Chinese physics development. The study-in-America programs were apparently more successful than other study-overseas programs. Among other factors, the historical lessons learned from the aborted Chinese Educational Mission in the 1870s, the prevalent and long-time presence of American mission schools in China, and stable public and private funding contributed to their success. American-trained Chinese physicists not only advanced physics study in China but also played leading roles in the development of Chinese science and technology during the twentieth century. This fertile and far-reaching American influence has been embedded in all their accomplishments.

  3. Factors associated with changes in leisure time physical activity during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2013-05-01

    To identify key factors involved in modifying leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during early pregnancy. A prospective study was conducted of 1175 pregnant women who attended a scheduled visit at Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain, at 20-22 weeks of pregnancy. The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect data regarding participation in any LTPA or physical activity performed according to society recommendations during early pregnancy and in the year before pregnancy. A polytomous regression model was used to identify factors associated with LTPA. Approximately 20.0% of the women did not engage in any LTPA, and 68.0% did not achieve the recommendations for exercise, either before or during pregnancy. Desirable changes related to performing any LTPA or the society recommendations for LTPA during pregnancy were associated with university level of education (aOR, 3.64 [95% CI, 1.54-8.56] and aOR, 1.75 [95% CI, 0.67-4.57], respectively) and smoking cessation at pregnancy (aOR, 2.05 [95% CI, 0.97-4.35] and aOR, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.31-17.83], respectively). Few women achieved the minimum recommendations for exercise before or during pregnancy. Nevertheless, adoption of healthy lifestyle choices during pregnancy seemed to promote other healthy habits, such as participation in LTPA. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is Intelligence in Early Adulthood Associated With Midlife Physical Performance Among Danish Males?

    PubMed

    Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-04-01

    Insights into the causes of variances in physical performance are important to prevent mobility limitations in old age. We examined associations between intelligence in early adulthood and midlife physical performance. Data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank were analyzed using linear regression. In total, 2,848 male cohort members had intelligence scores from conscription and physical performance measures from midlife. In adjusted models, a 1 SD increase in intelligence resulted in 1.10 more chair-rises (p < .001), a 1.03 cm higher jump (p < .001), a 3.69% smaller balance area (p < .001), a 0.71 kg increase in handgrip strength (p < .001), and a 5.03 N increase in back force (p < .001). Results for flexibility and abdominal force were not significant. Public health interventions should focus on addressing people with different cognitive abilities and bear in mind that prevention of mobility limitations might need to start early in life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Prediction of early summer rainfall over South China by a physical-empirical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2014-10-01

    In early summer (May-June, MJ) the strongest rainfall belt of the northern hemisphere occurs over the East Asian (EA) subtropical front. During this period the South China (SC) rainfall reaches its annual peak and represents the maximum rainfall variability over EA. Hence we establish an SC rainfall index, which is the MJ mean precipitation averaged over 72 stations over SC (south of 28°N and east of 110°E) and represents superbly the leading empirical orthogonal function mode of MJ precipitation variability over EA. In order to predict SC rainfall, we established a physical-empirical model. Analysis of 34-year observations (1979-2012) reveals three physically consequential predictors. A plentiful SC rainfall is preceded in the previous winter by (a) a dipole sea surface temperature (SST) tendency in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, (b) a tripolar SST tendency in North Atlantic Ocean, and (c) a warming tendency in northern Asia. These precursors foreshadow enhanced Philippine Sea subtropical High and Okhotsk High in early summer, which are controlling factors for enhanced subtropical frontal rainfall. The physical empirical model built on these predictors achieves a cross-validated forecast correlation skill of 0.75 for 1979-2012. Surprisingly, this skill is substantially higher than four-dynamical models' ensemble prediction for 1979-2010 period (0.15). The results here suggest that the low prediction skill of current dynamical models is largely due to models' deficiency and the dynamical prediction has large room to improve.

  6. A Systematic Review of Human Bat Rabies Virus Variant Cases: Evaluating Unprotected Physical Contact with Claws and Teeth in Support of Accurate Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Dato, Virginia M; Campagnolo, Enzo R; Long, Jonah; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    In the United States and Canada, the most recent documented cases of rabies have been attributed to bat rabies viruses (RABV). We undertook this systematic review in an effort to summarize and enhance understanding of the risk of infection for individuals who have been potentially exposed to a suspect or confirmed rabid bat. United States rabies surveillance summaries documented a total of 41 human bat-rabies virus variant verified non-transplant cases between 1990 and 2015. All cases were fatal. Seven (17.1%) of 41 cases reported a bite from a bat. Ten (24.3%) cases had unprotected physical contact (UPC); these included seven cases that had a bat land or crawl on them (contact with claws) and one case that touched a bat's teeth. Seven (17.1%) cases had probable UPC. Insectivorous bat teeth are extremely sharp and highly efficient for predation upon arthropod prey. Bats also have sharp claws on the end of their thumbs and feet. One of the most common bat RABV variants has an ability to replicate in non-neural cells. Questioning individuals about unprotected contact with bat teeth and claws (including a bat landing or crawling on a person) may help identify additional exposures.

  7. A Systematic Review of Human Bat Rabies Virus Variant Cases: Evaluating Unprotected Physical Contact with Claws and Teeth in Support of Accurate Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Campagnolo, Enzo R.; Long, Jonah; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States and Canada, the most recent documented cases of rabies have been attributed to bat rabies viruses (RABV). We undertook this systematic review in an effort to summarize and enhance understanding of the risk of infection for individuals who have been potentially exposed to a suspect or confirmed rabid bat. United States rabies surveillance summaries documented a total of 41 human bat-rabies virus variant verified non-transplant cases between 1990 and 2015. All cases were fatal. Seven (17.1%) of 41 cases reported a bite from a bat. Ten (24.3%) cases had unprotected physical contact (UPC); these included seven cases that had a bat land or crawl on them (contact with claws) and one case that touched a bat’s teeth. Seven (17.1%) cases had probable UPC. Insectivorous bat teeth are extremely sharp and highly efficient for predation upon arthropod prey. Bats also have sharp claws on the end of their thumbs and feet. One of the most common bat RABV variants has an ability to replicate in non-neural cells. Questioning individuals about unprotected contact with bat teeth and claws (including a bat landing or crawling on a person) may help identify additional exposures. PMID:27459720

  8. Research on Early Warning of Chinese Food Safety Based on Social Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghuan; Niu, Wenyuan; Li, Qianqian

    Based on social physics, this paper designs the index system of food safety, builds early warning model of food safety, calculates the degree of food safety, and assesses the state of early warning of 2007 in China. The result shows the degree of food safety is near 0.7 in securer state, belonging to slight emergency. It is much lower in eastern areas of developed regions, belonging to insecure state in the mass. That the food safety is ensured in major grain producing areas, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Xinjiang is the prerequisite of realizing the food safety of China. The result also shows four significant indices, grain production capacity, grain circulation order, grain demand and grain supply, which are important indicatio to control food safety.

  9. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Convergence of topological domain boundaries, insulators, and polytene interbands revealed by high-resolution mapping of chromatin contacts in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Michael R; Haines, Jenna E

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput assays of three-dimensional interactions of chromosomes have shed considerable light on the structure of animal chromatin. Despite this progress, the precise physical nature of observed structures and the forces that govern their establishment remain poorly understood. Here we present high resolution Hi-C data from early Drosophila embryos. We demonstrate that boundaries between topological domains of various sizes map to DNA elements that resemble classical insulator elements: short genomic regions sensitive to DNase digestion that are strongly bound by known insulator proteins and are frequently located between divergent promoters. Further, we show a striking correspondence between these elements and the locations of mapped polytene interband regions. We believe it is likely this relationship between insulators, topological boundaries, and polytene interbands extends across the genome, and we therefore propose a model in which decompaction of boundary-insulator-interband regions drives the organization of interphase chromosomes by creating stable physical separation between adjacent domains. PMID:29148971

  11. Early Natufian remains: evidence for physical conflict from Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Bocquentin, Fanny; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the establishment of farming communities direct physical evidence for human conflict was rarely reported from archaeological contexts. Here we present a case of an Early Natufian (14,500-13,000 cal B.P.) projectile, classified as Helwan lunate, embedded inside the seventh or eighth thoracic vertebra sequence of a mature middle age adult male. Due to calcareous concretion four vertebras were still in anatomical connection when uncovered by F. Turville-Petre, during his excavations at Kebara cave (Mt. Carmel) in 1931.

  12. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  13. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  14. The role of physical activity enjoyment in the pathways from the social and physical environments to physical activity of early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Budd, Elizabeth L; McQueen, Amy; Eyler, Amy A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Auslander, Wendy F; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-06-01

    Most girls experience a notable decline in physical activity (PA) in early adolescence, increasing their risk for harmful health outcomes. Enjoyment for PA (i.e., positive feelings toward PA) is a determinant of PA among girls during adolescence and sustained PA throughout adulthood. Previous studies recommended increasing girls' PA enjoyment in order to increase their PA, but did not include environmental-level strategies for how families, schools, or communities do this. To gain insight on such strategies, this study examines the role of PA enjoyment as a mediator of social and physical environments to moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA of early adolescent girls. Cross-sectional, secondary analyses, using structural equation modeling, were conducted on a U.S. national dataset of 1721 sixth grade girls from the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls in 2003. Mediation model fit parameters included χ 2 (292, N = 1721) = 947.73 p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04 (90% CI = 0.03, 0.04), and SRMR = 0.037 suggesting overall good fit. There were no indirect effects on PA through PA enjoyment from the social or physical environmental factors. To PA, there were significant direct effects only from social support from friends (β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.22). To PA enjoyment, there were significant direct effects from social support from family (β = 0.15, CI = 0.08, 0.23), school climate (teachers β = 0.15, CI = 0.10, 0.21 and boys β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.20), and neighborhood environment (β = 0.10, CI = 0.04, 0.17). The findings of this study identified several direct effects of the social and physical environment on PA enjoyment that can begin to inform environmental-level strategies for increasing PA enjoyment among early adolescent girls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships Between Weight Change and Physical and Psychological Distress in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2018-05-26

    Weight gain and unfavorable changes in body composition are common in a growing population of breast cancer survivors, but the etiology of these changes is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between weight change and symptoms of physical and psychological distress in the first 12 months of completing treatment in women who had completed treatment for breast cancer. Physical distress and psychological distress were assessed using the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Distress Thermometer, and the Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Weight change in 28 women since the completion of treatment (mean, 6.4 ± 4.4 months) ranged from -6.0 kg to +5.2 kg (mean, -0.4 ± 3.2), with 6 women gaining and 7 women losing an average of 3.5 ± 1.0 and 5.1 ± 0.8 kg, respectively. Rotterdam mean scores for physical (17.5 ± 9.0) and psychological distress (27.1 ± 16.9) were similar to previous findings for patients with early-stage breast cancer in active treatment and appear to be markedly higher than distress levels previously reported in cancer-free adults. Distress levels, based on the Distress Thermometer, were moderate to severe in 35% of women. Fatigue was common and associated with interference in daily living for some women. Fatigue duration was negatively correlated with weight change (P = -0.46, P < .05). Symptoms of physical and psychological distress persist for some women in the first year after completing treatment and may associate with weight change. These findings underscore a need for ongoing assessment and supportive care across the breast cancer trajectory and may guide dietary counseling aimed at promoting healthy body weight and overall health in early survivorship.

  16. Repeated sensory contact with aggressive mice rapidly leads to an anticipatory increase in core body temperature and physical activity that precedes the onset of aversive responding.

    PubMed

    Pardon, Marie-Christine; Kendall, David A; Pérez-Diaz, Fernando; Duxon, Mark S; Marsden, Charles A

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated whether the 'psychological threat' induced by sensory contact with an aggressive conspecific would be a sufficient factor in inducing behavioural and physiological disturbances. Repeated sensory contact with an aggressive mouse (social threat) in a partitioned cage was compared with repeated exposure to a novel partitioned cage in male NMRI mice. We first examined parameters of stress responsiveness (body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, frequency of self-grooming and defecation). The temperature and physical activity responses to stress were also recorded during and after the 4 weeks of stress using radiotelemetry. Finally, cognitivo-emotional performance was assessed after acute stress and 2 and 4 weeks of stress by measuring decision making, sequential alternation performance and behaviour in the elevated T-maze. Social threat had a greater impact than novel cage exposure on most parameters of stress responsiveness, although mice did not habituate to either stressor. Social threat rapidly led to an anticipatory rise in core body temperature and physical activity before the scheduled stress sessions. Such anticipation developed within the first week and persisted for 9 days after ending the stress procedure. Some memory impairment in the sequential alternation test was found in stressed mice, independent of the stressor. After 4 weeks of stress, inhibitory avoidance in the elevated T-maze was enhanced in socially stressed mice and reduced in novel cage mice. The sustained anticipation of stress in the social threat group preceded aversive responding. It remains to be established whether anticipation contributes to the development of aversive responses.

  17. MAOA-uVNTR and early physical discipline interact to influence delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexis C; Dodge, Kenneth A; Latendresse, Shawn J; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Budde, John P; Goate, Alison M; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-06-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N = 250) by parent, teacher, and self-report using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype.

  18. MAOA uVNTR and Early Physical Discipline Interact to Influence Delinquent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002, Kim-Cohen et al. 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. Method This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N=250) by parent, teacher, and self report using Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. Results We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. Conclusion The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype. PMID:19951362

  19. Contact us

    DCIO R&A DCIO CS In the News Library Contact us contact us Contact the Department of Defense Public Queries for DOD General questions or comments concerning the DOD Veteran Affairs Public questions or comments concerning the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Army Public questions or comments concerning

  20. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  1. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  2. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692

  3. Physical Activity Throughout Adolescence and Hba1c in Early Adulthood: Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Priscila M; Mielke, Grégore I; Horta, Bernardo L; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is responsible for 7% of diabetes deaths worldwide, but little is known whether low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence increase the risk of diabetes in early adulthood. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA throughout adolescence and HbA1c concentration in early adulthood. HbA1c was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PA was assessed by self-report at the ages of 11, 15, and 18 years and by accelerometry at the ages of 13 (subsample) and 18 years. The loss percentages of follow up were 12.5% at 11 years, 14.4% at 15 years, and 18.7% at 18 years. At 18 years, boys showed higher HbA1c than girls. At age 18 years, accelerometrybased PA at 18 years was inversely related to HbA1c levels in boys. Self-reported leisure-time PA at ages 11, 15, and 18 were unrelated to HbA1c in both genders. PA at 13 years of age was unrelated to HbA1c among both genders. In trajectory analysis, PA and accelerometer PA trajectories were not associated with later HbA1c. Objectively measured PA at 18 years was cross-sectionally inversely associated with HbA1c in boys only. No prospective associations were identified.

  4. Maternal depression and physical health problems in early pregnancy: findings of an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Perlen, Susan; Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Brown, Stephanie J

    2013-03-01

    to investigate the relationship between physical health problems and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. baseline questionnaire, prospective pregnancy cohort study. six metropolitan public maternity hospitals in Victoria, Australia. 1507 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. nine per cent of women (131/1500) scored ≥ 13 on the EPDS indicating probable clinical depression in early pregnancy (mean gestation=15 weeks). The five most commonly reported physical health problems were as follows: exhaustion (86.9%), morning sickness (64.3%), back pain (45.6%), constipation (43.5%) and severe headaches or migraines (29.5%). Women scoring ≥ 13 on the EPDS reported a mean of six physical health problems compared with a mean of 3.5 among women scoring <13 on the EPDS. Women reporting five or more physical health problems had a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms (Adj OR=3.13, 95% CI 2.14-4.58) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, including maternal age. the findings from this large multi-centre study show that women experiencing a greater number of physical health problems are at increased risk of reporting depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. early detection and support for women experiencing physical and psychological health problems in pregnancy is an important aspect of antenatal care. The extent of co-morbid physical and psychological health problems underlines the need for comprehensive primary health care as an integral component of antenatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bridging Empirical and Physical Approaches for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Adler, Robert; Kumar, Sujay; Harrison, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides typically occur and are evaluated at local scales, using slope-stability models to calculate coincident changes in driving and resisting forces at the hillslope level in order to anticipate slope failures. Over larger areas, detailed high resolution landslide modeling is often infeasible due to difficulties in quantifying the complex interaction between rainfall infiltration and surface materials as well as the dearth of available in situ soil and rainfall estimates and accurate landslide validation data. This presentation will discuss how satellite precipitation and surface information can be applied within a landslide hazard assessment framework to improve landslide monitoring and early warning by considering two disparate approaches to landslide hazard assessment: an empirical landslide forecasting algorithm and a physical slope-stability model. The goal of this research is to advance near real-time landslide hazard assessment and early warning at larger spatial scales. This is done by employing high resolution surface and precipitation information within a probabilistic framework to provide more physically-based grounding to empirical landslide triggering thresholds. The empirical landslide forecasting tool, running in near real-time at http://trmm.nasa.gov, considers potential landslide activity at the global scale and relies on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data and surface products to provide a near real-time picture of where landslides may be triggered. The physical approach considers how rainfall infiltration on a hillslope affects the in situ hydro-mechanical processes that may lead to slope failure. Evaluation of these empirical and physical approaches are performed within the Land Information System (LIS), a high performance land surface model processing and data assimilation system developed within the Hydrological Sciences Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LIS provides the

  6. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (173 ± 12%) compared with the controls (28 ± 8%) resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). Alliteration significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (52 ± 16%) compared with controls (13 ± 5%), resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). As minutes of exposure to moderate to vigorous PA increased, the change in picture naming (R(2) = .35, p < .05), alliteration (R(2) = .38, p < .05), and rhyming (R(2) = .42, p < .05), increased. A teacher-directed PA program is effective at increasing PA and improving early literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  7. An investigation of the early factors which influence women's career choices in physical science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Anneliese

    The composition of the workforce has begun to undergo a change. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that women, minorities, and immigrants will constitute 80 percent of the additions to the labor force between 1987 and the year 2000 (Oakes, 1990). The National Science Foundation projects that the United States may have a shortfall of 400,000 scientists and over 250,000 engineers by the year 2006 (Argonne, 1990). Since women are among those who are significantly underrepresented among individuals preparing for a career in science, thirty women who are currently pursuing a successful career in physical science and technology were interviewed. This study determined participants' perceptions of the factors that first influenced an early interest in physical science and technology. The investigation included perceptions regarding: (1) whether certain identifiable events or experiences influenced the decision to pursue science as a career and what those events and experiences were; (2) at what age these events occurred; (3) whether an adult(s) was influential and which adult(s) it was; and (4) identification of where these events and experiences occurred. The interview technique was selected as the best research method for collecting the qualitative and demographic data needed for this study. The results represent the participants' recollections of out-of-school and in-school activities, family, friends and teacher support, self-image during the formative years, parents as the most important factor which influenced an interest in physical science, and major obstacles that had to be overcome by the participants in order to pursue successful careers in physical science and technology. Also included is participants' advice to parents and teachers who want to encourage females to pursue a career in physical science and technology.

  8. Immersion francaise precoce: Education physique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Physical Education for Grades 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide for physical education is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. It is a translation of the regular physical education program and a compilation of references and supplementary teaching material. It is noted that because of the comparative lack of references in French, much of the reference…

  9. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  10. Cost effectiveness of a mail-delivered individually tailored physical activity intervention for Latinas vs. a mailed contact control.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Britta; Gilmer, Todd; Pekmezi, Dori; Napolitano, Melissa A; Marcus, Bess H

    2015-11-11

    Physical inactivity is high in Latinas, as are chronic health conditions. There is a need for physical activity (PA) interventions that are not only effective but have potential for cost-effective widespread dissemination. The purpose of this paper was to assess the costs and cost effectiveness of a Spanish-language print-based mail-delivered PA intervention that was linguistically and culturally adapted for Latinas. Adult Latinas (N = 266) were randomly assigned to receive mail-delivered individually tailored intervention materials or wellness information mailed on the same schedule (control). PA was assessed at baseline, six months (post-intervention) and 12 months (maintenance phase) using the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Interview. Costs were calculated from a payer perspective, and included personnel time (wage, fringe, and overhead), materials, equipment, software, and postage costs. At six months, the PA intervention cost $29/person/month, compared to $15/person/month for wellness control. These costs fell to $17 and $9 at 12 months, respectively. Intervention participants increased their PA by an average of 72 min/week at six months and 94 min/week at 12 months, while wellness control participants increased their PA by an average of 30 min/week and 40 min/week, respectively. At six months, each minute increase in PA cost $0.18 in the intervention group compared to $0.23 in wellness control, which fell to $0.07 and $0.08 at 12 months, respectively. The incremental cost per increase in physical activity associated with the intervention was $0.15 at 6 months and $0.05 at 12 months. While the intervention was more costly than the wellness control, costs per minute of increase in PA were lower in the intervention. The print-based mail-delivered format has potential for broad, cost-effective dissemination, which could help address disparities in this at-risk population. NCT01583140; Date of Registration: 03/06/2012; Funding Source of Trial: National

  11. Efficacy of early skin-to-skin contact on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Despite multiple benefits of breast milk, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding in developing countries are low. To evaluate the efficacy of early skin -to -skin contact (SSC) on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 6 weeks of age among term neonates born by vaginal delivery. Term neonates born by vaginal delivery and did not require any resuscitation were randomized at birth to SSC (n=100) and control (n=100) group. Immediately after clamping the umbilical cord, SSC group neonates were placed on the bare bosom of mother and control group neonates were placed under a radiant warmer for a period of 45 minutes each while mothers underwent management of the third stage of labor and episiotomy repair. Pain experienced by mother during episiotomy repair was recorded using a numerical pain scale The primary outcome evaluated was the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks of postnatal age. A significantly higher proportion of neonates were exclusively breastfeed at 6 weeks of age in the SSC group than in the control group (72% vs. 57.6%, p=0.04, relative risk: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0 -1.6). The pain score during episiotomy repair in mothers of the SSC group was significantly lower than the control group (4.74±0.85 versus 5.34±0.81; P <0.01). Early SSC significantly improved the rate of exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks of age among healthy term neonates. An important additional effect was a decrease in the amount of pain that mothers in the SSC group experienced during episiotomy repair.

  12. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18-23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65-88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men's mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men.

  13. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  14. Continuity and change in social and physical aggression from middle childhood through early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Rosen, Lisa H

    2009-01-01

    For a sample followed from age 9-13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression.

  15. Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.; Rosen, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    For a sample followed from age 9–13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression. PMID:19685551

  16. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies.

  17. Effect of Early Adult Patterns of Physical Activity and Television Viewing on Midlife Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tina D; Reis, Jared; Zhu, Na; Jacobs, David R; Launer, Lenore J; Whitmer, Rachel A; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood. To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition. Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015. We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (≥3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-thirds of the of the visits. We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5%) were female, 1771 (54.5%) were white, and 3015 (92.9%) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low

  18. Do human figure diagrams help alleged victims of sexual abuse provide elaborate and clear accounts of physical contact with alleged perpetrators?

    PubMed

    Teoh, Yee-San; Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E; Larsson, Anneli S

    2010-02-01

    The present study examined whether the use of human figure diagrams within a well-structured interview was associated with more elaborate and clearer accounts about physical contact that had occurred in the course of an alleged abuse. The sample included investigative interviews of 88 children ranging from 4 to 13 years of age. Children were interviewed using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol, and were then asked a series of questions in association with unclothed gender-neutral outline diagrams of a human body. A new coding scheme was developed to examine the types and clarity of touch-related information. Use of the HFDs was associated with reports of new touches not mentioned before and elaborations regarding the body parts reportedly touched. The HFDs especially helped clarify reports by the oldest rather than the youngest children. The clarity of children's accounts of touch was also greater when details were sought using recall prompts.

  19. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  20. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  1. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A longitudinal twin study of physical aggression during early childhood: evidence for a developmentally dynamic genome.

    PubMed

    Lacourse, E; Boivin, M; Brendgen, M; Petitclerc, A; Girard, A; Vitaro, F; Paquin, S; Ouellet-Morin, I; Dionne, G; Tremblay, R E

    2014-09-01

    Physical aggression (PA) tends to have its onset in infancy and to increase rapidly in frequency. Very little is known about the genetic and environmental etiology of PA development during early childhood. We investigated the temporal pattern of genetic and environmental etiology of PA during this crucial developmental period. Participants were 667 twin pairs, including 254 monozygotic and 413 dizygotic pairs, from the ongoing longitudinal Quebec Newborn Twin Study. Maternal reports of PA were obtained from three waves of data at 20, 32 and 50 months. These reports were analysed using a biometric Cholesky decomposition and linear latent growth curve model. The best-fitting Cholesky model revealed developmentally dynamic effects, mostly genetic attenuation and innovation. The contribution of genetic factors at 20 months substantially decreased over time, while new genetic effects appeared later on. The linear latent growth curve model revealed a significant moderate increase in PA from 20 to 50 months. Two separate sets of uncorrelated genetic factors accounted for the variation in initial level and growth rate. Non-shared and shared environments had no effect on the stability, initial status and growth rate in PA. Genetic factors underlie PA frequency and stability during early childhood; they are also responsible for initial status and growth rate in PA. The contribution of shared environment is modest, and perhaps limited, as it appears only at 50 months. Future research should investigate the complex nature of these dynamic genetic factors through genetic-environment correlation (r GE) and interaction (G×E) analyses.

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    J8 | Force Structure, Resources & Assessment Contact Home : Contact Chairman's Social Media Chairman's Flicker Chairman's Blog SEAC's Social Media SEAC's Facebook SEAC's Flicker SEAC's Twitter Joint Staff's Social Media Joint Staff's Facebook Joint Staff's Flicker Joint Staff 's Twitter Social Media

  4. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important

  5. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  6. Similarities and differences in physical self-concept of males and females during late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cağlar, Emine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in physical self-concept of Turkish late adolescents and early adults. A total of 715 high school and 1,125 university students voluntarily participated and were administered the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. The findings indicate significant sex and age differences on multiple dimensions of physical self, and that males and high school students scored higher on almost all subscales of physical self. However, analysis did not reveal any significant age and sex interactions on physical self. In conclusion, males and females differ from each other on how they perceived themselves on the multiple dimensions of physical self, and developmental age changes were evident in physical self.

  7. Towards a physical classification of early-type galaxies. Profile of a key programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, R.; Capaccioli, M.; Macchetto, F.; Nieto, J.-L.

    1989-03-01

    Hubble was the first who succeeded in classifying galaxies within a scheme of some physical meaning. Although it soon became clear that Hubble's tuning fork does not represent an evolutionary sequence, this essential diagram has proven to be a powerful tool especially for the understanding of late-type galaxies. On the other hand, the "early-type" sequence of elliptical (E) and SO galaxies is less satisfying, because it does not seem to reflect a unique sequence of physical properties. The SO class, although conceived to bridge the gap between disk- and disk-Iess galaxies, has often been abused to host ellipticals exhibiting peculiarities incompatible with their definition as structureless objects. For the elliptical galaxies themselves, "ellipticity" has been found to be essentially meaningless with regard to their angular momentum properties, and shows Iittle, if any, correlation with other global parameters. This fact became apparent after the first stellar kinematical measurements of luminous ellipticals (Bertola and Capaccioli 1975, IIlingworth 1977); E galaxies are not necessarily f1attened by rotation and may have anisotropie velocity dispersions (Binney 1978).

  8. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents’ sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further. PMID:20333456

  9. Functional and physical abilities in the early continuum of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joon-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Jaebong; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The early cognitive continuum has been emphasized recently. We sought to characterize the functional and physical aspects of the cognitive continuum in subjects with no cognitive impairment (NCI), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), nonamnestic (NA-MCI), and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (A-MCI). Furthermore, we identified the potential diagnostic utility of specific functional tasks. A total of 702 participants, aged ≥65 years and defined as NCI, SCI, NA-MCI, and A-MCI according to the original Petersen criteria, were included. They completed the Korean basic (K-ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scales (K-IADL) and the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Significant differences were observed between the different cognitive status groups in three items and total scores on the K-ADL, six items and total scores on the K-IADL and POMA. Controlling for confounding factors revealed that subjects from the A-MCI group performed poorly at bathing, shopping, handling money, and the sum of assorted functional items. These findings demonstrated the declining feature of functional and physical performance according to the cognitive continuum, with A-MCI being discriminative with respect to specific functional tasks as compared to milder cognitive statuses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Early adolescent sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms: a comparative analysis of five nations.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-10-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents' sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further.

  11. Contact allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Pustišek, Nives; Žužul, Kristina; Švigir, Alen

    2018-06-01

    Contact allergies are common cause of eczema in all age groups and are one of the most common causes of occupational disability. Contact dermatitis (CD) can be divided into irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Distinguishing between irritant and allergic triggers of CD by clinical and histologic examinations can be challenging. The approach to patients with CD should consist of a detailed (work and leisure) history, skin examination, patch tests with allergens based on history, physical examination, education on materials that contain the allergen and adequate therapy and prevention.

  12. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  13. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido —Contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics—

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Hiroyuki K. M.; YOKOYAMA, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, “pseudo growth curves” of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the “density length” of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics. PMID:18941290

  15. Physical activity communication between oncology providers and patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nyrop, Kirsten A; Deal, Allison M; Williams, Grant R; Guerard, Emily J; Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-02-01

    National guidelines recommend that patients with a cancer diagnosis engage in regular physical activity to reduce cancer-related fatigue, maintain quality of life and physical function, and improve overall prognosis and survival. This study investigates oncology provider communications about physical activity during routine clinic visits with patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer. This study used a retrospective chart review for documentation of inquiries or recommendations pertaining to physical activity in clinician notes and after-visit patient summaries. In a 1-month period, 55 oncology providers had 361 encounters (clinic visits) with early-stage cancer patients. Thirty-five percent of these encounters included a provider communication about "physical activity," "exercise," or "activity." Encounters with a medical oncologist resulted in a physical activity communication 55% of the time, whereas encounters with other clinician specialties did so 20% of the time (P < .0001). The likelihood of a physical activity communication increased with patient age (P < .001). When the encounter was with a patient who was being seen for surveillance, chemotherapy, or endocrine treatment, the rate of physical activity communications was significantly higher (46%, 37%, and 58%, respectively) than the rate when the visit was during radiation treatment or surgery (6% and 19%, respectively; P < .0001). This study shows that it is feasible for oncology providers to have physical activity communications during routine clinic visits; however, the frequency of physical activity communications varies among providers. Interventions are needed to remind and encourage all oncology providers to encourage their patients with early-stage cancer to be physically active. . © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  16. Early work-related physical exposures and low back pain in midlife: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Raitakari, O T; Solovieva, S

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether heavy physical workload in young adulthood increases the risk of local and radiating low back pain (LBP) in midlife. Longitudinal nationally representative Young Finns Study data among women (n=414) and men (n=324), aged 18-24 years in 1986 (baseline), were used. Physical heaviness of work was reported at baseline and follow-up (2007), and local and radiating LBP at follow-up. Covariates were age, smoking and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical heaviness of work and LBP. Additionally, the mediating effect of back pain at baseline was examined (the Sobel test). After adjustment for the covariates, and as compared with sedentary/light physical workload, heavy physical workload was associated with radiating LBP among women (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.62 to 10.31) and men (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.82). Among men, early back pain mediated the association (p value from the Sobel test=0.006). Among women, early exposure to physically heavy work showed the most consistent associations, while early and late exposures were associated with radiating and local LBP among men. Persistently heavy physical work was associated with radiating LBP among women and men. Physically heavy work at a young age can have a long-lasting effect on the risk of LBP, radiating LBP in particular. These results highlight the need to consider early and persistent exposures to prevent the adverse consequences of physical workload for the low back. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. The long-term effects of maternal depression: early childhood physical health as a pathway to offspring depression.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia; Najman, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have highlighted the long-term negative effects of maternal depression on offspring physical, social, and emotional development, but longitudinal research is needed to clarify the pathways by which maternal depression during pregnancy and early childhood affects offspring outcomes. The current study tested one developmental pathway by which maternal depression during pregnancy might negatively impact offspring mental health in young adulthood, via poor physical health in early childhood. The sample consisted of 815 Australian youth and their mothers who were followed for 20 years. Mothers reported on their own depressive symptoms during pregnancy and offspring early childhood. Youth completed interviews about health-related stress and social functioning at age 20 years, and completed a questionnaire about their own depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Path analysis indicated that prenatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted worse physical health during early childhood for offspring, and this effect was partially explained by ongoing maternal depression in early childhood. Offspring poor physical health during childhood predicted increased health-related stress and poor social functioning at age 20. Finally, increased health-related stress and poor social functioning predicted increased levels of depressive symptoms later in young adulthood. Maternal depression had a significant total indirect effect on youth depression via early childhood health and its psychosocial consequences. Poor physical health in early childhood and its effects on young adults' social functioning and levels of health related stress is one important pathway by which maternal depression has long-term consequences for offspring mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early physical health conditions and school readiness skills in a prospective birth cohort of U.S. children.

    PubMed

    Kull, Melissa A; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2015-10-01

    Extant research identifies associations between early physical health disparities and impaired functioning in adulthood, but limited research examines the emergence of these associations in the early years of children's lives. This study draws on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N = 5900) to assess whether a host of early health indicators measured from birth to age five are associated with children's cognitive and behavioral skills at age five. After adjusting for child and family characteristics, results revealed that children's neonatal risks (prematurity or low birth weight) and reports of poor health and hospitalizations were associated with lower cognitive skills, and neonatal risks and poor health predicted lower behavioral functioning at age five. Some of the association between neonatal risks and school readiness skills were indirect, functioning through children's poor health and hospitalization. Analyses further found that associations between early physical health and children's school readiness skills were consistent across subgroups defined by family income and child race/ethnicity, suggesting generalizability of results. Findings emphasize the need for more interdisciplinary research, practice, and policy related to optimizing child well-being across domains of physical health and development in the early years of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Teachers' Knowledge and Skills in Implementing a Physical Education Curriculum: A New Zealand Early Childhood Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Claire; Smith, Jessica; McLaughlin, Tara; Ali, Ajmol; Conlon, Cathryn; Mugridge, Owen; Foster, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    In order to support children's physical health and well-being in early childhood education programmes, it is important to understand how teacher practices concerned with physical activity and nutrition can be addressed effectively. Current evidence suggests that young children's opportunities for physical activity in early childhood are…

  20. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 35. Usatine RP, Riojas M. Diagnosis and management of contact dermatitis. Am Fam Physician . 2010;82( ...

  1. Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (59th, Las Vegas, Nevada, April 11-13, 1987). No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M., Ed.; Eckert, Helen M., Ed.

    Eleven conference papers explore physical activity in ancient societies as well as human adaptation of physical activities in modern society. The following papers are included: (1) "Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations: An Evolutionary View" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "How Active Were Early Populations? or Squeezing the Fossil Record"…

  2. Documenting the conversion from traditional to Studio Physics formats at the Colorado School of Mines: Process and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent; Ruskell, Todd G.

    2008-10-01

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) has taught its first-semester introductory physics course using a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format for several years. Over the past year we have converted the second semester of our calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics II) to a Studio Physics format, starting from a traditional lecture-based format. In this paper, we document the early stages of this conversion in order to better understand which features succeed and which do not, and in order to develop a model for switching to Studio that keeps the time and resource investment manageable. We describe the recent history of the Physics II course and of Studio at Mines, discuss the PER-based improvements that we are implementing, and characterize our progress via several metrics, including pre/post Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) scores, Colorado Learning About Science Survey scores (CLASS), solicited student comments, failure rates, and exam scores.

  3. Smoking, breastfeeding, physical inactivity, contact with animals, and size of the family influence the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: A Slovak case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Tibor; Toth, Jozef; Koller, Tomas; Krajcovicova, Anna; Oravcova, Stanislava; Zelinkova, Zuzana; Huorka, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not known but is likely to involve a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. Smoking has been associated consistently with a higher risk of Crohn's disease (CD), while appendectomy and smoking appear to diminish the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). The roles of other environmental factors are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of CD and UC with several environmental risk factors. This case-control study included 338 patients (190 CD, 148 UC) and 355 controls. All subjects completed a detailed questionnaire regarding breastfeeding duration, history of helminthic infections, allergic diseases, appendectomy, household size, housing type, contact with specific domestic animals, physical activity, and smoking. Associations between risk factors and CD and UC were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, CD associated with smoking at diagnosis (odds ratio, OR, 3.7, 95% CI 2.2-6.2; p < 0.001), being breastfed for <6 months (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.4; p < 0.001), and less than two childhood sporting activities weekly (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.0; p < 0.001) and inversely associated with frequent contact with cats in childhood (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9; p < 0.03). UC associated with less than two sporting weekly activities in childhood (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, p = 0.02), fewer household members in childhood (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.98, p = 0.03), and being breastfed for <6 months (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.02-2.8, p = 0.04). A composite environmental risk index for CD revealed that 47 and 14% of the controls and patients with CD had no risk factors, respectively, and that 14 and 38% of the controls and patients with CD had at least two risk factors, respectively. CD and UC associated with infrequent childhood sports activities and short breastfeeding. Furthermore, CD associated with smoking and infrequent contact

  4. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  5. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Results Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Conclusion Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time. PMID:26709924

  6. Determinants of Objectively Measured Physical Functional Performance in Early to Mid-stage Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Benzi M.; Brown, R. Preston; Aerts, Shanae; Schenkman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) may lead to functional limitations through both motor and non-motor symptoms. While patients with advanced disease have well-documented and profound functional limitations, less is known about the determinants of function in early to mid-stage disease where interventions may be more likely to benefit and preserve function. Objective The objective of the current study was to identify motor, cognitive and gait determinants of physical functional performance in patients with early to mid-stage PD. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a randomized clinical trial of exercise. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants 121 patients with early to mid-stage PD. Methods Our functional performance outcomes included: 1) the Continuous Scale Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP; primary outcome); 2) the timed up and go (TUG) tests; and Section 2 (Activities of Daily Living) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Explanatory variables included measures of disease severity, motor function, cognitive function, balance and gait. Step-wise linear regression models were used to determine correlations between explanatory variables and outcome measures. Results In our regression models the CS-PFP significantly correlated with walking endurance (six minute walk; r2 = 0.12, p < .0001), turning ability (360 degree turn; r2 = .03, p = .002), attention (brief test of attention; r2 = .01, p = .03), overall cognitive status (Mini-mental State Examination; r2 = .01, p = .04) and bradykinesia (timed tapping; r2 = .02, p = .02). The TUG significantly correlated with walking speed (5 meter walk; r2 = 0.33, p <.0001), stride length (r2 = 0.25, p <.0001), turning ability (360 turn r2 = .05, p = .0003) and attention (r2 = .016, p = .03). Section 2 of the UPDRS was significantly correlated with endurance (r2 = .09, p < .0001), turning ability (r2 = .03, p = .001) and attention (r2 = .01, p = .03). Conclusions

  7. Effect of physical effectiveness on digestibility of ration for cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, B; Grubic, G; Djordjevic, N; Bozickovic, A; Ivetic, A; Davidovic, V

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a diet particle size on nutrient digestibility in cows in early lactation. Treatments were diets with forage to concentrate ratio 43:57% in diet dry matter, with four different physically effective fibres (peNDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) and peNDF content of TMRs (total mixed ration) were determined using Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) with two (pef8.0 , peNDF8.0) or three (pef1.18, peNDF1.18) sieves. The reducing of cut length of forages and particle size of diets did not affect on dry matter intake, while decreased peNDF intake by 16.34 and 8.83%, for peNDF8.0 and peNDF1.18 respectively. Apparent total tract digestibility of the nutrients was measured using two indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent insoluble lignin (ADL). Decreasing of forages cut length significantly increased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 48.39% to 53.84% and from 53.9% to 58.66%, of crude protein from 73.96% to 79.24% and from 71.56% to 77.90%, with contemporary decreasing of non-fibre carbohydrate from 90.89% to 84.81% and from 91.99% to 86.80%, with AIA or ADL as indicator respectively. Dietary value of net energy for lactation (NEL) and energy intake was not affected by the peNDF content of the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  9. Early Validation Evidence of a Canadian Practitioner-Based Assessment of Physical Literacy in Physical Education: Passport for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Mandigo, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Physical and Health Education Canada has developed and implemented a formative, criterion-referenced, and practitioner-based national (Canadian) online educational assessment and support resource called Passport for Life (PFL). It was developed to support the awareness and advancement of physical literacy among PE students and teachers. PFL…

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Daniel D.; Collings, Paul J.; Clemes, Stacy A.; Costa, Silvia; Santorelli, Gillian; Griffiths, Paula; Barber, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in young children (<5 years) is complex. Objective measures have high validity but require specialist expertise, are expensive, and can be burdensome for participants. A proxy-report instrument for young children that accurately measures PA and ST is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ). In a setting where English and Urdu are the predominant languages spoken by parents of young children, a sample of 196 parents and their young children (mean age 3.2 ± 0.8 years) from Bradford, UK took part in the study. A total of 156 (79.6%) questionnaires were completed in English and 40 (20.4%) were completed in transliterated Urdu. A total of 109 parents took part in the reliability aspect of the study, which involved completion of the EY-PAQ on two occasions (7.2 days apart; standard deviation (SD) = 1.1). All 196 participants took part in the validity aspect which involved comparison of EY-PAQ scores against accelerometry. Validty anaylsis used all data and data falling with specific MVPA and ST boundaries. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC) and validity by Bland–Altman plots and rank correlation coefficients. The test re-test reliability of the EY-PAQ was moderate for ST (ICC = 0.47) and fair for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)(ICC = 0.35). The EY-PAQ had poor agreement with accelerometer-determined ST (mean difference = −87.5 min·day−1) and good agreement for MVPA (mean difference = 7.1 min·day−1) limits of agreement were wide for all variables. The rank correlation coefficient was non-significant for ST (rho = 0.19) and significant for MVPA (rho = 0.30). The EY-PAQ has comparable validity and reliability to other PA self-report tools and is a promising population-based measure of young children’s habitual MVPA but not ST. In situations when objective methods are not

  11. Physically based approaches incorporating evaporation for early warning predictions of rainfall-induced landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Alfredo; Rianna, Guido; Pagano, Luca

    2018-02-01

    In the field of rainfall-induced landslides on sloping covers, models for early warning predictions require an adequate trade-off between two aspects: prediction accuracy and timeliness. When a cover's initial hydrological state is a determining factor in triggering landslides, taking evaporative losses into account (or not) could significantly affect both aspects. This study evaluates the performance of three physically based predictive models, converting precipitation and evaporative fluxes into hydrological variables useful in assessing slope safety conditions. Two of the models incorporate evaporation, with one representing evaporation as both a boundary and internal phenomenon, and the other only a boundary phenomenon. The third model totally disregards evaporation. Model performances are assessed by analysing a well-documented case study involving a 2 m thick sloping volcanic cover. The large amount of monitoring data collected for the soil involved in the case study, reconstituted in a suitably equipped lysimeter, makes it possible to propose procedures for calibrating and validating the parameters of the models. All predictions indicate a hydrological singularity at the landslide time (alarm). A comparison of the models' predictions also indicates that the greater the complexity and completeness of the model, the lower the number of predicted hydrological singularities when no landslides occur (false alarms).

  12. Occupational contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lushniak, Boris D

    2004-01-01

    The dermatologist should be aware of the many facets of occupational skin diseases, which can be caused by physical, chemical, and biological insults. The most common manifestation of occupational skin diseases is contact dermatitis (both irritant and allergic). Three factors point out the importance of occupational skin diseases as diseases that have a public health impact: 1) occupational skin diseases are common; 2) they often have a poor prognosis; and 3) they result in a noteworthy economic impact for society and for an individual. They are also diseases amenable to public health interventions. Specific industries and exposures may put a worker at risk of occupational contact dermatitis. The accuracy of the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis is related to the skill level, experience, and knowledge of the medical professional who makes the diagnosis and confirms the relationship with a workplace exposure. Prevention of occupational contact dermatitis is important, and a variety of prevention strategies are available.

  13. Contact Line Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  14. Early Socioeconomic Adversity and Young Adult Physical Illness: The Role of Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Kwon, Josephine A.; Oshri, Assaf; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the psycho-physiological inter and intra-individual processes that mediate the linkage between childhood/adolescent socioeconomic adversities and adult health outcomes. Specifically, the proposed model examined the roles of youth depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as mediators that explain the link between early adversity and young adults’ general health and physical illnesses after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and earlier general health reports. Methods Using a nationally representative sample of 12,424 from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study used growth curve modeling to consider both the severity (initial level) as well as the change over time (deterioration or elevation) as psycho-physiological mediators, thereby acknowledging multiple facets of depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as psych-physiological mediators of early adversity to adult health. Results Results provide evidence for (a) the influence of early childhood and early adolescent cumulative socioeconomic adversity on both the initial levels and changes over time of depressive symptoms and BMI and (b) the independent influences depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories on the general health and the physical illnesses of young adults Conclusions These findings contribute valuable knowledge to existing research by elucidating how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on physical health problems in young adulthood; further, this information suggests effective intervention and prevention programs should incorporate multiple facets (severity and change over time) of multiple mechanisms (psychological and physiological). PMID:24856408

  15. Body Size at Birth, Physical Development and Cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulker, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich sample created from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between body size at birth and early childhood cognitive skills is mediated by physical development indicators. Consistent with existing evidence from other countries, we find a significant relationship between body…

  16. A Comparison of Student Knowledge between Traditional and Blended Instruction in a Physical Education in Early Childhood Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannousi, Maria; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning model combines different advantages of face to face education and e-learning to ensure an effective learning environment for students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of traditional and blended instruction, in students' knowledge in a Physical Education in Early Childhood course. For the purpose of this…

  17. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  18. "Letters to an Early Career Academic": Learning from the Advice of the Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Eimear; Rynne, Steven B.; Alfrey, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Taking our lead from Rilke's "Letters to a Young Poet," this project represents our attempt to stimulate dialogue between 30 physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) early career academics (ECAs) and 11 PESP professors. First, the ECAs were invited to write a narrative around their experiences as PESP ECAs. Second, a narrative…

  19. Tinkering through Transition: On "Doctoring" as an Early-Career Academic in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Benjamin; Christensen, Erin; Occhino, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the notion of "making it" as an early-career academic in physical education and sport pedagogy. In it, we draw on the tradition of material semiotics to reflect on our shared journeys from doctoral student to beginning scholar and beyond. By attuning ourselves to the relationality, materiality and precariousness of…

  20. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends…

  1. Association Between Early Life Adversity and Risk for Poor Emotional and Physical Health in Adolescence: A Putative Mechanistic Neurodevelopmental Pathway.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna; Whalen, Diana; Tillman, Rebecca; Belden, Andy

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. However, the mechanism of this effect, critical to enhancing public health, remains poorly understood. To investigate the neurodevelopmental trajectory of the association between early ACEs and adolescent general and emotional health outcomes. A prospective longitudinal study that began when patients were aged 3 to 6 years who underwent neuroimaging later at ages 7 to 12 years and whose mental and physical health outcomes were observed at ages 9 to 15 years. Sequential mediation models were used to investigate associations between early ACEs and brain structure, emotion development, and health outcomes longitudinally. Children were recruited from an academic medical center research unit. Early life adversity. Early ACEs in children aged 3 to 7 years; volume of a subregion of the prefrontal cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, in children aged 6 to 12 years; and emotional awareness, depression severity, and general health outcomes in children and adolescents aged 9 to 15 years. The mean (SD) age of 119 patients was 9.65 (1.31) years at the time of scan. The mean (SD) ACE score was 5.44 (3.46). The mean (SD) depression severity scores were 2.61 (1.78) at preschool, 1.77 (1.58) at time 2, and 2.16 (1.64) at time 3. The mean (SD) global physical health scores at time 2 and time 3 were 0.30 (0.38) and 0.33 (0.42), respectively. Sequential mediation in the association between high early ACEs and emotional and physical health outcomes were found. Smaller inferior frontal gyrus volumes and poor emotional awareness sequentially mediated the association between early ACEs and poor general health (model parameter estimate = 0.002; 95% CI, 0.0002-0.056) and higher depression severity (model parameter estimate = 0.007; 95% CI, 0.001-0.021) in adolescence. An increase from 0 to 3 early ACEs was associated with 15% and 25% increases in depression severity and

  2. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  3. Music and Physical Play: What Can We Learn from Early Childhood Teachers in Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Amy; Sherwood, Elizabeth; Mbugua, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Sharing classroom practices across international borders can add new dimensions to teaching methods, no matter where one calls home. With this idea in mind, the authors (two U.S. early childhood teacher educators and a Kenyan-born U.S. early childhood teacher) have corresponded for several years through e-mail with a small group of early childhood…

  4. Steps to Enhance Early Recovery After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Lessons Learned From a Physical Activity Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    This pilot study tested and refined a free-living physical activity intervention. The investigators evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determined preliminary effects on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life. This pilot study used a 1-group, pretest-posttest design. The free-living physical activity intervention consisted of an education component and 6 weeks of gradually increasing physical activity after discharge from the hospital. The intervention was designed to increase steps by 10% weekly. Subjects were assessed before transplantation and during the seventh week after discharge from the hospital after completing the intervention. Pretest-posttest scores were analyzed with paired t tests. Subject wore the physical activity tracker for an average of 38 of 42 days and met their physical activity goals 57% of the time. Subjects reported significantly less physical fatigue after the free-living physical activity intervention compared with baseline (P = .05). Improvements in quality of life approached significance (P = .06). The findings demonstrate that the free-living physical activity intervention implemented during the very early recovery period after transplantation is feasible and acceptable. The intervention potentially reduces fatigue and improves quality of life. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously given the pilot nature of the study. The evidence supports continued investigation.

  5. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    PubMed

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents׳ perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children׳s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contact Us

    Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Contact Us NPIC staff Call us (toll free): 800-858-7378 We have trained pesticide specialists available to help you free of charge from 8:00am to 12:00pm

  7. Contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gurwood, A S; Altenderfer, D S

    2001-01-01

    Anatomically, the eyelid can be divided microscopically into (1) skin, which is made up of epidermis and dermis; (2) submucosa (3) muscular layer; (4) submuscular layer (dense connective tissue); (5) fibrous layer; and (6) palpebral conjunctiva. The thin nature of the eyelid makes it susceptible to inflammation resulting from allergy. Minimum levels of irritants contacting the adnexal area can penetrate the skin to initiate the allergic cascade. Allergic reactions that involve the eye may begin via contact to the skin, but often involve the conjunctiva. Eczema is the general term that describes the superficial inflammatory process involving the epidermis. Contact eczema is characterized by varying elements of epidermal erythema, papules, and vesicles. Allergic dermatoconjunctivitis connotes involvement of both the skin and conjunctiva. A 24-year-old man came to the clinic with a red, swollen left eye. Based on the history, the constellation of signs and symptoms (lack of diffuse or focal pain, presence of periorbital and conjunctival edema, absence of fever), and failed resolution after treatment with injectable antibiotics, the diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction secondary to toxic/chemical exposure was made. Speedy resolution was accomplished using a sequenced therapy, which included oral antihistamines, topical cycloplegics, topical antibiotics, topical steroids, and palliative therapies. Optometrists should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of contact eczema and allergic dermatoconjunctivitis. Treatment includes management of the skin and adnexae, as well as the ocular manifestations.

  8. Simulation of blast-induced early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul A; Ford, Corey C

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm3 voxels) five material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female data set. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior, and lateral directions. Three-dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric stress within the first 2 ms of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 ms time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early-time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  9. Physical activity and coronary artery calcification in two cohorts of women representing early and late postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Storti, Kristi L; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Underwood, Darcy A; Kuller, Lewis H; Kriska, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity (PA) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among two cohorts of postmenopausal (PM) women representing early and late postmenopause. The cross-sectional relationship between PA and CAC was examined in 173 younger PM women (mean age ± SD, 56.8 ± 2.9 y) from the Women on the Move Through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) study and 121 older PM women (mean age ± SD, 73.9 ± 3.8 y) from the Walking Women Follow-up (WWF) study who had complete PA and CAC data. PA was measured objectively using a pedometer over a 7-day period in both cohorts. CAC was assessed using electron beam tomography. Descriptive statistics were used to describe median levels of PA and CAC, as well as proportions of detectable CAC (0 vs > 0). Fifty-seven percent of WOMAN study participants and 74% of WWF study participants had detectable CAC. The median (interquartile range) CAC score was 1.4 (0-23.3) for participants in the WOMAN study and 38.8 (0-264.4) among WWF study participants. Median (interquartile range) step counts were 6,447 (4,823-8,722) steps per day in the WOMAN study and 5,466 (3,610-7,576) steps per day for WWF study participants. Among WWF study participants, there was a statistically significant inverse association between pedometer steps and CAC (P for trend = 0.002); no association was found among WOMAN study participants. Among older PM women, higher levels of PA were associated with lower CAC. However, the relationship was not observed in PM women, likely due to the lower prevalence of CAC in this age group.

  10. Physical Activity Levels in Early Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Going, Scott B.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Rankin, Lucinda; Kasle, Shelley; Cornett, Michelle; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity (PA) is recommended for osteoarthritis (OA) management to reduce pain and improve function. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the level and pattern of PA in male and female knee OA patients to determine adherence to CDC/ACSM and EPAC recommendations for PA. Methods: Early OA patients (n = 255, 76% women, 54.6 ± 7.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) having radiographic status of Kellgren and Lawrence-defined grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee wore an accelerometer (Actigraph MTI) for 6-7 contiguous days. Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA intensities were defined as accelerometer recordings of 100 to 2,224, 2,225 to 5,950, and > 5,950 counts per minute, respectively. Results: Subjects wore accelerometers for 6.8 ± 0.3 days and 13.8 ± 2.2 hours per day (hr/day) and spent much more (P < 0.001) time in MPA (23.6 ± 17.2 min/day) compared to VPA (0.95 ± 3.5 min/day). Males spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in all PA intensities than females. Only 30% of subjects achieved recommended PA levels. The proportion of males (47%) achieving the recommendation was significantly (P = 0.04) higher than females (24%). Conclusion: Knee OA patients accumulate little vigorous PA and most (70%) do not achieve recommended levels for moderate or greater intensity PA. New strategies to increase levels of PA in this population are needed. PMID:18759320

  11. Low Temperature Physics at Yale in the late 30's through the early 50's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Robert

    2006-03-01

    The low temperature program at Yale was initiated by C. T. Lane (1904-1991) in the fall of 1937 when he was appointed to the teaching staff as an instructor in the department of Physics. Following his doctorate from McGill in 1929 he investigated the magnetic susceptibilities of ``soft'' metals supported by the National Research Council of Canada, the Commissioners of the 1851 Exhibition and a Sterling Fellowship at Yale. Arranged by Louis McKeehan, with 5000 from the new George Sheffield research fund, he started the construction of a Kapitza type helium liquefier. The machine was largely completed in the fall of 1939, yet liquid helium was not made until early December 1940 due to the need for extensive on line purification of the gas. Returning in 1945 from war research, Lane and Henry A. Fairbank (Ph.D 1944) continued the metals work along with new thrusts into Second Sound , properties of helium^ three impurities in liquid helium and starting in the 50's on rotating He II. In 1933 both Lane and Onsager were awarded Sterling Fellowships, which initiated a stimulating experimental- theoretical exchange continuing until they both retired. The best-known example was the rediscovery at Yale of the deHaas-van Alphen effect, previously observed only in bismuth, in zinc; where upon Onsager and his students provided new insights into our understanding of the Fermi surface of metals. With the development of new instrumentation one observed vast changes in experimental style during this period. The evolution of the production of liquid helium from Lane's device though the Collins machine to the commodity business of today now makes experiments of huge size and importance possible.

  12. Physical Activity and Motor Competence Present a Positive Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Across Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rodrigo A; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R; Bugge, Anna; Moller, Niels C; Anderson, Lars B; Stodden, David F

    2017-06-01

    The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations. Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO 2 peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09). PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO 2 peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

  13. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Links Between Physical Activity and Self-Esteem in Early Adolescent Non-Hispanic Females

    PubMed Central

    Schmalz, Dorothy L.; Deane, Glenn D.; Birch, Leann L.; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: For decades, researchers have proclaimed the positive psychosocial benefits of participation in physical activity. However, recent meta-analyses of the literature have found infrequent and inconclusive empirical support for the link between physical activity and psychosocial well-being. In this study, we use data from a longitudinal study to explore the links between participation in physical activity and global self-esteem among girls from childhood into early adolescence and the direction of this relationship. Methods: Participants included 197 non-Hispanic white girls. Girls' participation in physical activity and their global self-esteem were assessed when they were 9, 11, and 13 years old. Panel regression was used to assess the lagged effect of physical activity on self-esteem and the lagged effect of self-esteem on physical activity, controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES) and girls' body mass index (BMI). Results: A significant lagged effect of physical activity on self-esteem was identified. Specifically, higher physical activity at ages 9 and 11 years predicted higher self-esteem at ages 11 and 13 years respectively, controlling for covariates. Positive effects of physical activity on self-esteem were most apparent at age 11 and for girls with higher BMI. No support was gained for the lagged effect of self-esteem on physical activity. Conclusions: Results suggest that participating in physical activity can lead to positive self-esteem among adolescent girls, particularly for younger girls and those at greatest risk of overweight. These findings highlight the necessity of promoting physical activity among adolescent girls as a method of fostering positive self-worth. PMID:18023784

  14. Social marketing approaches to nutrition and physical activity interventions in early care and education centres: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S

    2017-12-01

    Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Educational differences in continuing or restarting drinking in early and late pregnancy: role of psychological and physical problems.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2014-01-01

    Many women continue drinking alcohol during pregnancy. This study aimed to describe educational differences in continued drinking in early and late pregnancy and to examine the contribution of psychological and physical factors to the explanation of educational differences. We examined 4,885 women enrolled in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Information on alcohol intake during pregnancy was based on self-reports at the 16th week of gestation and at 3 months postpartum. Only women who reported alcohol intake before pregnancy were included. Explanatory factors were alcohol intake before pregnancy, psychological problems, and physical problems. The risk of continued drinking in early pregnancy was increased in higher educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% CI [1.25, 1.60]); in addition, in late pregnancy, higher educated women had an increased risk of restarting (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.37, 2.04]) and continuing drinking (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.36, 2.30]). The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and all physical and psychological problems together explained 17.1% and 8.8% of the educational differences in continued drinking in early pregnancy, respectively. Higher educated women are more likely to continue drinking during pregnancy. The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and physical and psychological problems contributed to the explanation of continued drinking. However, other factors may play a greater role, such as cultural factors and social norms.

  16. Recent achievements in MgB 2 physics and applications: A large-area SQUID magnetometer and point-contact spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnelli, R. S.; Daghero, D.; Calzolari, A.; Ummarino, G. A.; Tortello, M.; Stepanov, V. A.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Rogacki, K.; Karpinski, J.; Portesi, C.; Monticone, E.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.

    2006-03-01

    In the first part of the present paper we discuss the fabrication and the characterization of an MgB2-based SQUID magnetometer with a directly coupled large-area pick-up loop, made on an MgB2 film deposited by an all in situ technique. The coarse structure of the SQUID was defined by optical lithography and Ar-ion milling, while the two nanobridges acting as weak links in the superconducting loop were made by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The device was characterized at different temperatures and showed Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K as well as a noise level already compatible with the recording of an adult magnetocardiogram. In the second part, concerning the fundamental physics of MgB2, we present the results of very recent point-contact measurements on Mg1-xMnxB2 single crystals with 34.1 ⩾ Tc ⩾ 13.3 K (i.e. 0.37% ⩽ x ⩽ 1.5%). The experimental conductance curves were fitted with the generalized two-band BTK model and their behaviour in magnetic fields was studied to check if both the order parameters (OPs) of the σ and π bands were present in the whole doping range. The dependence of the OPs (evaluated through the fit) on the Andreev critical temperature of the junctions is analyzed in the framework of the two-band Eliashberg theory by including the effects of magnetic impurities. The results give an evidence of a dominant effect of the magnetic impurities on the σ-band channel.

  17. High-level physical activity in childhood seems to protect against low back pain in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wedderkopp, N; Kjaer, P; Hestbaek, L; Korsholm, L; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2009-02-01

    The evidence on the impact of physical activity on back pain in children and adolescents has been contradicting. It has also been shown that the physical activity cannot accurately be estimated in children using questionnaires. The aim of this study was to establish if physical activity in childhood had any impact on back pain reporting in early adolescence (3 years later), using an objective instrumental measurement of physical activity. Prospective cohort study. Representative random sample of Danish children from the city of Odense sampled at age 9 years and followed-up at age 12 years. The 1-month period prevalence of back pain (neck pain, mid back pain, and low back pain) was established using a structured interview. Physical activity was assessed with the MTI-accelerometer. The accelerometer provides a minute-by-minute measure of the physical activity performed. An overall measure of physical activity and time spent in high activity were studied in relation to back pain using logistic regression. The analyses were performed on the total sample and then stratified on back pain (yes/no) at baseline. High physical activity (HPA) levels seem to protect against future low back pain and appear to actually "treat" and reduce the odds of future mid back pain. When comparing the least active children to the most active children, the least active had a multivariate odds ratio of 3.3 of getting low back pain and 2.7 of getting mid back pain 3 years later. When stratified on back pain at baseline, this effect on mid back pain was especially noticeable in children who had had mid back pain already at baseline, with an odds ratio of 7.2. HPA in childhood seems to protect against low back pain and mid back pain in early adolescence. Larger prospective studies with repetitive follow-ups and preferably intervention studies should be performed, to see if these findings can be reproduced.

  18. The early history of x-ray diagnosis with emphasis on the contributions of physics 1895-1915.

    PubMed

    Mould, R F

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of physics to the development of x-ray diagnosis was vital in the early years of this century following Röntgen's discovery of x-rays in November 1895. This review records some of the highlights during the period 1895-1915. Much of the information presented has been buried in libraries for more than 50 years and the selection of illustrations and text will be largely unknown to today's readership of Physics in Medicine and Biology. It is also a celebration of what could be achieved in physics before the occurrence of the technological revolution involving not only computer applications but also the disappearance of the small independent x-ray companies into today's multinational companies. Research and development is nowadays just too expensive for much independent practical high-technology contributions without financial backing. Hence this review takes us to those bygone years of experimental physics in home laboratories, poorly equipped university physics laboratories and of the lecture-demonstrations of the period. The sections are presented in a logical order beginning with the discovery of x-rays, followed by x-ray tube technology to the advent of the hot cathode Coolidge tube, with the third and final section covering diagnostic radiology physics. It has been compiled from personal research over 35 years in libraries worldwide, drawing on textbooks, journals, popular magazines, newspapers, x-ray company catalogues and museum exhibits. I have included a certain amount of anecdotal information, because after all, much of the early commentaries were indeed anecdotal--and make very interesting reading. Finally it is commented that although this review is devoted to x-ray diagnosis, x-ray therapy should not be forgotten, and readers are referred to another review by the author on early therapeutic advances.

  19. Contact Us

    Naval History Contact Us Command Addresses (SNDL) FAQ Leadership Secretary of the Navy Under Secretary Chiefs of Staff Defense.gov U.S. Army U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine Corps U.S. Coast Guard Naval History https://awards.navy.mil Naval Heritage And History Command http://www.history.navy.mil/about-us

  20. TVDG Contacts

    for Sandy Fax By Fax: 1 631 344 4583 Attention Chuck Carlson EMail By E-Mail: Send E-Mail to Chuck Group Leader James Alessi Telephone: 1-631-344-4004 E-Mail: Peter Thieberger Information can be returned 1 631 344 4581. An organizational list of staff members and how to contact them. The BNL E-Mail and

  1. Difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal as early signs of psychosis in adolescents--the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    PubMed

    Mäki, P; Koskela, S; Murray, G K; Nordström, T; Miettunen, J; Jääskeläinen, E; Veijola, J M

    2014-08-01

    Social withdrawal is among the first signs of the prodromal state of psychosis seen in clinical samples. The aim of this prospective study was to find out whether difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal precede first episode psychosis in the young general population. The members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=6274) completed the PROD-screen questionnaire in 2001-2002. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to detect both new psychotic and non-psychotic disorders requiring hospitalisation during 2003-2008. Twenty-three subjects developed psychosis and 89 developed a non-psychotic mental disorder requiring hospitalisation during the follow-up. Of those who developed psychosis, 35% had reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others and 30% social withdrawal in adolescence. In hospitalised non-psychotic disorder, the corresponding precentages were 10 and 13% and in the control group without hospital-treated mental disorder 9 and 11%. The differences between psychotic and non-psychotic hospitalised subjects (P<0.01) as well as controls (P<0.001) were statistically significant regarding difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others. In this general population-based sample self-reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others in adolescence preceded psychosis specifically compared to hospitalised non-psychotic mental disorders and controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing physical activity and sedentary time among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers enrolled in early learning programs: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patricia; Maltby, Alana M; Burke, Shauna M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2016-09-01

    Establishing appropriate physical activity and sedentary behaviours during early childhood is important to ensure children accrue the many associated health benefits. While physical activity levels have been reported as low within early learning programs, little research has explored the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian preschoolers classified as overweight within these facilities. The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers classified as overweight and nonoverweight in early learning programs. Direct assessment of physical activity and sedentary time of 216 preschool-aged children was collected via Actical accelerometers during early learning hours, while body mass index percentile was calculated based on preschoolers' objectively measured height and weight. Results of three 3-way ANOVAs suggest that rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity, total physical activity, and sedentary time (p > 0.05) did not significantly differ based on weight status, sex, and type of early learning facility. This study is one of few that has examined differences in overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers' sedentary time, and adds to the limited research exploring physical activity levels among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers during early learning hours. Given the high rates of sedentary time reported, programming within early learning facilities is necessary to support preschoolers, regardless of weight status, to achieve increased physical activity levels and decreased sedentary time.

  3. Children's Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580-1720.

    PubMed

    Newton, Hannah

    2010-12-01

    Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors' casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of 'children's physic' existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children's physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child's humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children's bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature.

  4. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Early Care and Education in Three States, 2014-2016.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-08-31

    The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P < .01) but did not change significantly from post-assessment to follow-up assessment. ECELC shows promise as an approach to incorporate professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.

  5. A method for modeling contact dynamics for automated capture mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    Logicon Control Dynamics develops contact dynamics models for space-based docking and berthing vehicles. The models compute contact forces for the physical contact between mating capture mechanism surfaces. Realistic simulation requires proportionality constants, for calculating contact forces, to approximate surface stiffness of contacting bodies. Proportionality for rigid metallic bodies becomes quite large. Small penetrations of surface boundaries can produce large contact forces.

  6. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0160 TITLE: Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves... designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of... Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Oscar E

  7. Prospective randomized study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an early versus delayed postoperative physical therapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated patient outcomes and rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a postoperative physical therapy protocol with early passive motion compared with a delayed protocol that limited early passive motion. The study enrolled 68 patients (average age, 63.2 years) who met inclusion criteria. All patients had a full-thickness crescent-shaped tear of the supraspinatus that was repaired using a transosseous equivalent suture-bridge technique along with subacromial decompression. In the early group, 33 patients were randomized to passive elevation and rotation that began at postoperative day 2. In the delayed group, 35 patients began the same protocol at 6 weeks. Patients were monitored clinically for a minimum of 12 months, and rotator cuff healing was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Both groups had similar improvements in preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (early group: 43.9 to 91.9, P < .0001; delayed group: 41.0 to 92.8, P < .0001) and Simple Shoulder Test scores (early group: 5.5 to 11.1, P < .0001; delayed group: 5.1 to 11.1, P < .0001). There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction, rotator cuff healing, or range of motion between the early and delayed groups. Patients in the early group and delayed group both demonstrated very similar outcomes and range of motion at 1 year. There was a slightly higher rotator cuff healing rate in the delayed passive range of motion group compared with the early passive range of motion group (91% vs 85%). Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contact spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors (Review). I - Physical and methodological principles of the contact spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors. Experimental results for La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 and their discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianson, I. K.

    1991-03-01

    Research in the field of high-temperature superconductors based on methods of tunneling and microcontact spectroscopy is reviewed in a systematic manner. The theoretical principles of the methods are presented, and various types of contacts are described and classified. Attention is given to deviations of the measured volt-ampere characteristics from those predicted by simple theoretical models and those observed for conventional superconductors. Results of measurements of the energy gap and fine structure of volt ampere characteristic derivatives are presented for La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4.

  9. Mathematics, Experiments, and Theoretical Physics: The Early Days of the Sommerfeld School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    1999-10-01

    The names of his students read like a Who's Who of the pioneers in modern physics Peter Debye, Peter Paul Ewald, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Hans A. Bethe - to name only the most prominent. In retrospect, the success of Sommerfeld's school of modern theoretical physics tends to overshadow its less glorious beginnings. A century ago, theoretical physics was not yet considered as a distinct discipline. In this article I emphasize more the haphazard beginnings than the later achievements of Sommerfeld's school, which mirrored the state of theoretical physics before it became an independent discipline.

  10. New insight into the physics of atmospheres of early type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of mass loss and stellar winds from hot stars are discussed. The mass loss rate of early type stars increases by about a factor of 100 to 1000 during their evolution. This seems incompatible with the radiation driven wind models and may require another explanation for the mass loss from early type stars. The winds of early type stars are strongly variable and the stars may go through active phases. Eclipses in binary systems by the stellar winds can be used to probe the winds. A few future IUE studies are suggested.

  11. The relationship of self-concept and perceived athletic competence to physical activity level and gender among Turkish early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aşçi, F H; Koşar, S N; Işler, A K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-concept and perceived athletic competence of Turkish early adolescents in relation to physical activity level and gender. Self-concept was assessed using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, and perceived athletic competence was assessed by means of the Athletic Competence subscale of Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children. In addition, the Weekly Activity Checklist was used for assessing physical activity level. Males and females were assigned to low and high physical activity level groups based on their mean scores. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for gender and physical activity level, but there was no significant gender by physical activity interaction. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant main effect for physical activity level on perceived athletic competence but not global self-concept. In addition, univariate analysis did not reveal a significant difference in either global self-concept or perceived athletic competence with respect to gender.

  12. Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives and Experiences When Teaching FMS to Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Natalie J.; Hanna, Lisa; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda; Morgan, Philip J.; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency. Method: In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate…

  13. Physical Education, Youth Sport and Lifelong Participation: The Importance of Early Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, David

    2005-01-01

    The PESSCLS strategy for physical education and youth sport in England has received an unprecedented level of funding from the Blair government during its term in office. In this article, it is proposed that there are structural problems with the delivery of physical education and school sport in England that the PESSCLS strategy and associated…

  14. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  15. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  16. Perceptions of physical activity and walking in an early stage after stroke or acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, Karin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Danielsson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury. A qualitative study was conducted, among persons with stroke (n = 8) or acquired brain injury (n = 2) from a rehabilitation unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held about perceptions and experiences of walking and physical activity in general. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with categories that were determined inductively. Physical activity in general and walking ability more specifically were considered very important by the participants. However, physical activity was, regardless of exercising habits pre-injury, associated with different kinds of negative feelings and experiences. Commonly reported internal barriers in the current study were; fatigue, fear of falling or getting hurt in traffic, lack of motivation and depression. Reported external barriers were mostly related to walking, for example; bad weather, uneven ground, lack of company or noisy or too busy surroundings. Persons with stroke or acquired brain injury found it difficult to engage in and sustain an eligible level of physical activity. Understanding individual concerns about motivators and barriers surrounding physical activity may facilitate the work of forming tailor-made rehabilitation for these groups, so that the levels of physical activity and walking can increase.

  17. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An exploration of Early Childhood Education students’ knowledge and preparation to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early childhood educators play an important role in influencing preschoolers’ physical activity levels. The current study sought to explore Early Childhood Education (ECE) students’ physical activity-related knowledge and educational experience during their formal training in Ontario. Methods A total of 1,113 ECE students from 20 Ontario Colleges completed the study survey (online or on paper), which examined students’ physical activity course content; awareness of physical activity guidelines; understanding of health-related benefits of physical activity; self-efficacy to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers; self-reported physical activity levels; as well as physical activity-related resource needs. Descriptive statistics and independent samples t-tests were used to analyze the quantitative findings. Results Survey results identified that 72.1% of ECE students had not completed any physical activity/physical education specific courses, while only 28.7% were familiar with, and 2.0% accurately reported, the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years. Only 10.5% of ECE students reported personal physical activity behaviors consistent with national recommendations for adults (150 minutes/week). ECE students’ mean overall task self-efficacy to facilitate physical activity was 7.37 (SD = 1.64). Self-efficacy was significantly higher (p < .05) when students had taken one or more courses devoted to physical activity/physical education, as well as when students engaged in sufficient physical activity to meet the national guidelines for adults (p < .05). Conclusions The results indicate that the current ECE college curriculum represents an excellent opportunity to provide future childcare providers with enriched physical activity-related training and support, such as physical activity guidelines, workshops, and new ideas for activities. Emphasizing the health benefits of physical activity for adults might be important

  19. Early primary care physician contact and health service utilisation in a large sample of recently released ex-prisoners in Australia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold-Reed, Diane; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Lennox, Nick; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1 month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6 months following release. Design A cohort from the Passports study with a mean follow-up of 219 (±44) days postrelease. Associations were assessed using a multivariate Andersen-Gill model, controlling for a range of other factors. Setting Face-to-face, baseline interviews were conducted in a sample of prisoners within 6 weeks of expected release from seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, from 2008 to 2010, with telephone follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6 months postrelease. Participants From an original population-based sample of 1325 sentenced adult (≥18 years) prisoners, 478 participants were excluded due to not being released from prison during follow-up (n=7, 0.5%), loss to follow-up (n=257, 19.4%), or lacking exposure data (n=214, 16.2%). A total of 847 (63.9%) participants were included in the analyses. Exposure Primary care physician contact within 1 month of follow-up as a dichotomous measure. Main outcome measures Adjusted time-to-event hazard rates for hospital, mental health, alcohol and other drug and subsequent primary care physician service utilisations assessed as multiple failure time-interval data. Results Primary care physician contact prevalence within 1 month of follow-up was 46.5%. One-month primary care physician contact was positively associated with hospital (adjusted HR (AHR)=2.07; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.09), mental health (AHR=1.65; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19), alcohol and other drug (AHR=1.48; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) and subsequent primary care physician service utilisation (AHR=1.47; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.72) over 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Engagement with primary care physician services soon after prison release increases health service utilisation during the critical community transition period for ex-prisoners. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical

  20. Physical Therapy and Infants with Down's Syndrome: The Effects of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    The neuromotor development of Down's syndrome (DS) infants is reviewed, current physical therapy approaches are cited, a neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) approach is described, and a study on the effects of NDT on motor performance in DS infants is reported. (SB)

  1. Physical examination of the hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula to detect early dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abreo, Kenneth; Amin, Bakhtiar M; Abreo, Adrian P

    2018-04-01

    The maintenance of vascular access patency for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis is necessary for survival. Many nephrologists, nurse practitioners, and nurses have limited experience with the physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula. In this review, we define key terms used in the assessment of an arteriovenous fistula. We discuss the arteriovenous fistula physical exam, including details of inspection, palpation, and auscultation. Using these concepts, we review the abnormal findings that can assist practitioners in determining the location of a stenosis. We review the existing literature that validates physical exam findings with gold standard tests such as ultrasound and angiography. Finally, we review data supporting the value of training physicians and nurses in arteriovenous fistula physical examination.

  2. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2017-08-01

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. A comparison between the 19th century early proposals and the 20th-21st centuries realized projects intended to contact other planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence; Bilodeau, Bénédicte

    2012-09-01

    Methods dealing with how to contact other planets that are supposed to be inhabited by “intelligent” civilizations have begun more than one century and a half ago. The historical question has been already treated in several studies and the aim of this paper is not to provide details on that aspect. On the other hand, it could be interesting to make a comparison between the different approaches to contact planets, formulated at different epochs (even if obviously techniques were not in the same state of advancement). The most important characteristics of the earliest messages, remained only on a theoretical form, will be presented. The main features of modern messages, which have been concretely realized, will also be emphasized. Drawing a parallel between these two series of projects could demonstrate what has been considered as unavoidable by both pioneer and modern messages creators, while it has not been proved that the first ones have had any influence on the second ones. The common points emerging from this comparison could then (perhaps) help to select adequate models for an intelligible message intended to ETs, particularly concerning the language forms. Besides this, the differences could illustrate the human cultural advances in the field of METI and underline the tendencies that have been chosen in that field since the last decades.

  4. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  5. Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 1404: Cluster Plasma Physics Revealed by an Infalling Early-type Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Roediger, Elke; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM), as a magnetized and highly ionized fluid, provides an ideal laboratory to study plasma physics under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved on Earth. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy that is being gas stripped as it falls through the ICM of the Fornax Cluster. We use the new Chandra X-ray observations of NGC 1404 to study ICM microphysics. The interstellar medium of NGC 1404 is characterized by a sharp leading edge, 8 kpc from the Galaxy center, and a short downstream gaseous tail. Contact discontinuities are resolved on unprecedented spatial scales (0.″5 = 45 pc) due to the combination of the proximity of NGC 1404, the superb spatial resolution of Chandra, and the very deep (670 ks) exposure. At the leading edge, we observe sub-kiloparsec-scale eddies generated by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) and put an upper limit of 5% Spitzer on the isotropic viscosity of the hot cluster plasma. We also observe mixing between the hot cluster gas and the cooler galaxy gas in the downstream stripped tail, which provides further evidence of a low viscosity plasma. The assumed ordered magnetic fields in the ICM ought to be smaller than 5 μG to allow KHI to develop. The lack of an evident magnetic draping layer just outside the contact edge is consistent with such an upper limit.

  6. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 1404: CLUSTER PLASMA PHYSICS REVEALED BY AN INFALLING EARLY-TYPE GALAXY

    SciT

    Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul

    The intracluster medium (ICM), as a magnetized and highly ionized fluid, provides an ideal laboratory to study plasma physics under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved on Earth. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy that is being gas stripped as it falls through the ICM of the Fornax Cluster. We use the new Chandra X-ray observations of NGC 1404 to study ICM microphysics. The interstellar medium of NGC 1404 is characterized by a sharp leading edge, 8 kpc from the Galaxy center, and a short downstream gaseous tail. Contact discontinuities are resolved on unprecedented spatial scales (0.″5 = 45 pc)more » due to the combination of the proximity of NGC 1404, the superb spatial resolution of Chandra , and the very deep (670 ks) exposure. At the leading edge, we observe sub-kiloparsec-scale eddies generated by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) and put an upper limit of 5% Spitzer on the isotropic viscosity of the hot cluster plasma. We also observe mixing between the hot cluster gas and the cooler galaxy gas in the downstream stripped tail, which provides further evidence of a low viscosity plasma. The assumed ordered magnetic fields in the ICM ought to be smaller than 5 μ G to allow KHI to develop. The lack of an evident magnetic draping layer just outside the contact edge is consistent with such an upper limit.« less

  7. Depletion of HPV16 early genes induces autophagy and senescence in a cervical carcinogenesis model, regardless of viral physical state.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Saini, Harpreet K; Murray, Matthew J; Caffarel, Maria M; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn; Barker, Emily M; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Stanley, Margaret A; Enright, Anton J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    In cervical carcinomas, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be integrated into host chromosomes or remain extra-chromosomal (episomal). We used the W12 cervical keratinocyte model to investigate the effects of HPV16 early gene depletion on in vitro cervical carcinogenesis pathways, particularly effects shared by cells with episomal versus integrated HPV16 DNA. Importantly, we were able to study the specific cellular consequences of viral gene depletion by using short interfering RNAs known not to cause phenotypic or transcriptional off-target effects in keratinocytes. We found that while cervical neoplastic progression in vitro was characterized by dynamic changes in HPV16 transcript levels, viral early gene expression was required for cell survival at all stages of carcinogenesis, regardless of viral physical state, levels of early gene expression or histology in organotypic tissue culture. Moreover, HPV16 early gene depletion induced changes in host gene expression that were common to both episome-containing and integrant-containing cells. In particular, we observed up-regulation of autophagy genes, associated with enrichment of senescence and innate immune-response pathways, including the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In keeping with these observations, HPV16 early gene depletion induced autophagy in both episome-containing and integrant-containing W12 cells, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagosomes, punctate expression of the autophagy marker LC3, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and reduced levels of the autophagy substrate p62. Consistent with the reported association between autophagy and senescence pathways, HPV16 early gene depletion induced expression of the senescence marker beta-galactosidase and increased secretion of the SASP-related protein IGFBP3. Together, these data indicate that depleting HR-HPV early genes would be of potential therapeutic benefit in all cervical carcinogenesis pathways, regardless of viral

  8. Is early rehabilitation a myth? Physical inactivity in the first week after myocardial infarction and stroke.

    PubMed

    Lay, Sarah; Bernhardt, Julie; West, Tanya; Churilov, Leonid; Dart, Anthony; Hayes, Kate; Cumming, Toby B

    2015-12-18

    To compare physical activity levels of patients in the first week after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted an observational study using behavioural mapping. MI patients were consecutively recruited from Alfred Hospital, Melbourne. Data for stroke patients (Royal Perth Hospital or Austin Hospital, Melbourne) were retrieved from an existing database. Patients were observed for 1 min every 10 min from 8 am to 5 pm. At each observation, the patient's highest level of physical activity, location and people present were recorded. Details of physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were recorded by the therapists. Proportion of the day spent physically inactive was lower in MI (n = 32, median 48%) than stroke (n = 125, median 59%) patients, but this difference was not significant in univariate or multivariate (adjusting for age, walking ability and days post-event) regression. Time spent physically active was higher in MI (median 23%) than stroke (median 10%) patients (p = 0.009), but this difference did not survive multivariate adjustment (p = 0.67). More stroke patients (78%) than MI patients (19%) participated in therapy. This study provides the first objective data on physical activity levels of acute MI patients. While they were more active than acute stroke patients, the difference was largely attributable to walking ability. Implications for rehabilitation In the first week after myocardial infarction, patients spent about half the day physically inactive (even though 81% were able to walk independently). Similar levels of inactivity were seen in a comparable cohort of acute stroke patients, suggesting that environmental factors play an important role. There appears to be wide scope for increasing levels of physical rehabilitation after acute cardiovascular events, though optimal timing and dose remain unclear.

  9. Early postnatal nutrition determines adult physical activity and energy expenditure in female mice

    Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...

  10. "Intensive Mothering" in the Early Years: The Cultivation and Consolidation of (Physical) Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…

  11. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  12. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…

  13. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  14. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  15. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  17. Physical and Sexual Abuse and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder in Youths Receiving Outpatient Services: Frequent, but Not Specific

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N=829, M= 10.9 years old ±3.4 SD, 60 % male, 69 % African American, and 18 % with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21 %, sexual abuse in 20 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11 % of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16 %, sexual abuse in 15 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5 % of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment. PMID:25118660

  18. Family Socioeconomic Status, Cortisol, and Physical Health in Early Childhood: The Role of Advantageous Neighborhood Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Hagan, Melissa J; Boyce, W Thomas; Adler, Nancy E; Bush, Nicole R

    2018-06-01

    Children from families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) evidence greater physiological dysregulation and poorer health. Despite recognition of environmental contributors, little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics. The present study examined the moderating role of community-level risks and resources on the relation of family SES to children's daily cortisol output and physical health during the kindergarten year. In fall and spring of kindergarten, children's (N = 338) daily total cortisol was measured and parents and teachers rated children's global physical health. Parents reported family SES. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using the Child Opportunity Index, a population-level tool that evaluates the quality of multiple domains of neighborhood attributes. In fall, children reared in lower SES family environments had higher cortisol when residing in lower quality (lower opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.097, p < .001), but there was no relation between family SES and children's cortisol in more advantaged (higher opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.023, p = .36). Lower family SES was prospectively associated with poorer physical health in spring (controlling for fall health) only among children living in lower opportunity neighborhoods (b = -.250, p = .018) and was unrelated to physical health among children residing in higher opportunity neighborhoods (b = .042, p = .70). Higher opportunity neighborhoods may protect against the negative consequences of low family SES on children's stress physiology and physical health. Public health interventions that bolster neighborhood opportunities may benefit young children reared in socioeconomically disadvantaged family environments.

  19. Early Physical Therapy vs Usual Care in Patients With Recent-Onset Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Julie M; Magel, John S; McFadden, Molly; Asche, Carl; Thackeray, Anne; Meier, Whitney; Brennan, Gerard

    2015-10-13

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in primary care. Guidelines recommend delaying referrals for physical therapy. To evaluate whether early physical therapy (manipulation and exercise) is more effective than usual care in improving disability for patients with LBP fitting a decision rule. Randomized clinical trial with 220 participants recruited between March 2011 and November 2013. Participants with no LBP treatment in the past 6 months, aged 18 through 60 years (mean age, 37.4 years [SD, 10.3]), an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score of 20 or higher, symptom duration less than 16 days, and no symptoms distal to the knee in the past 72 hours were enrolled following a primary care visit. All participants received education. Early physical therapy (n = 108) consisted of 4 physical therapy sessions. Usual care (n = 112) involved no additional interventions during the first 4 weeks. Primary outcome was change in the ODI score (range: 0-100; higher scores indicate greater disability; minimum clinically important difference, 6 points) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in the ODI score at 4-week and 1-year follow-up, and change in pain intensity, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) score, fear-avoidance beliefs, quality of life, patient-reported success, and health care utilization at 4-week, 3-month, and 1-year follow-up. One-year follow-up was completed by 207 participants (94.1%). Using analysis of covariance, early physical therapy showed improvement relative to usual care in disability after 3 months (mean ODI score: early physical therapy group, 41.3 [95% CI, 38.7 to 44.0] at baseline to 6.6 [95% CI, 4.7 to 8.5] at 3 months; usual care group, 40.9 [95% CI, 38.6 to 43.1] at baseline to 9.8 [95% CI, 7.9 to 11.7] at 3 months; between-group difference, -3.2 [95% CI, -5.9 to -0.47], P = .02). A significant difference was found between groups for the ODI score after 4 weeks (between-group difference, -3.5 [95% CI, -6.8 to -0.08], P = .045

  20. Preferences for Explanation Generality Develop Early in Biology But Not Physics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Angie M; Sheskin, Mark; Johnson, Samuel G B; Keil, Frank C

    2017-04-11

    One of the core functions of explanation is to support prediction and generalization. However, some explanations license a broader range of predictions than others. For instance, an explanation about biology could be presented as applying to a specific case (e.g., "this bear") or more generally across "all animals." The current study investigated how 5- to 7-year-olds (N = 36), 11- to 13-year-olds (N = 34), and adults (N = 79) evaluate explanations at varying levels of generality in biology and physics. Findings revealed that even the youngest children preferred general explanations in biology. However, only older children and adults preferred explanation generality in physics. Findings are discussed in light of differences in our intuitions about biological and physical principles. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Early-life predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in midadulthood: findings from a prospective British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Much adult physical inactivity research ignores early-life factors from which later influences may originate. In the 1958 British birth cohort (followed from 1958 to 2008), leisure-time inactivity, defined as activity frequency of less than once a week, was assessed at ages 33, 42, and 50 years (n = 12,776). Early-life factors (at ages 0-16 years) were categorized into 3 domains (i.e., physical, social, and behavioral). We assessed associations of adult inactivity 1) with factors within domains, 2) with the 3 domains combined, and 3) allowing for adult factors. At each age, approximately 32% of subjects were inactive. When domains were combined, factors associated with inactivity (e.g., at age 50 years) were prepubertal stature (5% lower odds per 1-standard deviation higher height), hand control/coordination problems (14% higher odds per 1-point increase on a 4-point scale), cognition (10% lower odds per 1-standard deviation greater ability), parental divorce (21% higher odds), institutional care (29% higher odds), parental social class at child's birth (9% higher odds per 1-point reduction on a 4-point scale), minimal parental education (13% higher odds), household amenities (2% higher odds per increase (representing poorer amenities) on a 19-point scale), inactivity (8% higher odds per 1-point reduction in activity on a 4-point scale), low sports aptitude (13% higher odds), and externalizing behaviors (i.e., conduct problems) (5% higher odds per 1-standard deviation higher score). Adjustment for adult covariates weakened associations slightly. Factors from early life were associated with adult leisure-time inactivity, allowing for early identification of groups vulnerable to inactivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Multigrid contact detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

    2007-03-01

    Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

  3. Improved Electrical Contact For Dowhhole Drilling Networks

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2005-08-16

    An electrical contact system for transmitting information across tool joints while minimizing signal reflections that occur at the tool joints includes a first electrical contact comprising an annular resilient material. An annular conductor is embedded within the annular resilient material and has a surface exposed from the annular resilient material. A second electrical contact is provided that is substantially equal to the first electrical contact. Likewise, the second electrical contact has an annular resilient material and an annular conductor. The two electrical contacts configured to contact one another such that the annular conductors of each come into physical contact. The annular resilient materials of each electrical contact each have dielectric characteristics and dimensions that are adjusted to provide desired impedance to the electrical contacts.

  4. Associations Between Cannabis Use and Physical Health Problems in Early Midlife: A Longitudinal Comparison of Persistent Cannabis vs Tobacco Users.

    PubMed

    Meier, Madeline H; Caspi, Avshalom; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hancox, Robert J; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Thomson, W Murray; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-07-01

    After major policy changes in the United States, policymakers, health care professionals, and the general public seek information about whether recreational cannabis use is associated with physical health problems later in life. To test associations between cannabis use over 20 years and a variety of physical health indexes at early midlife. Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973 and followed to age 38 years, with 95% retention (the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study). We tested whether cannabis use from ages 18 to 38 years was associated with physical health at age 38, even after controlling for tobacco use, childhood health, and childhood socioeconomic status. We also tested whether cannabis use from ages 26 to 38 years was associated with within-individual health decline using the same measures of health at both ages. We assessed frequency of cannabis use and cannabis dependence at ages 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years. We obtained laboratory measures of physical health (periodontal health, lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health), as well as self-reported physical health, at ages 26 and 38 years. The 1037 study participants were 51.6% male (n = 535). Of these, 484 had ever used tobacco daily and 675 had ever used cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years and within-individual decline in periodontal health from ages 26 to 38 years. For example, cannabis joint-years from ages 18 to 38 years was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years, even after controlling for tobacco pack-years (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18; P <.001). Additionally, cannabis joint-years from ages 26 to 38 years was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years, even after accounting for periodontal health at age 26 years and tobacco pack-years (β = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05-0.16; P <.001) However, cannabis use was

  5. Subsequent health-care utilization associated with early physical therapy for new episodes of low back pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Karvelas, Deven A; Rundell, Sean D; Friedly, Janna L; Gellhorn, Alfred C; Gold, Laura S; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Bresnahan, Brian W; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-03-01

    The association between early physical therapy (PT) and subsequent health-care utilization following a new visit for low back pain is not clear, particularly in the setting of acute low back pain. This study aimed to estimate the association between initiating early PT following a new visit for an episode of low back pain and subsequent back pain-specific health-care utilization in older adults. This is a prospective cohort study. Data were collected at three integrated health-care systems in the United States through the Back Pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) registry. We recruited 4,723 adults, aged 65 and older, presenting to a primary care setting with a new episode of low back pain. Primary outcome was total back pain-specific relative value units (RVUs), from days 29 to 365. Secondary outcomes included overall RVUs for all health care and use of specific health-care services including imaging (x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or computed tomography [CT]), emergency department visits, physician visits, PT, spinal injections, spinal surgeries, and opioid use. We compared patients who had early PT (initiated within 28 days of the index visit) with those not initiating early PT using appropriate, generalized linear models to adjust for potential confounding variables. Adjusted analysis found no statistically significant difference in total spine RVUs between the two groups (ratio of means 1.19, 95% CI of 0.72-1.96, p=.49). For secondary outcomes, only the difference between total spine imaging RVUs and total PT RVUs was statistically significant. The early PT group had greater PT RVUs; the ratio of means was 2.56 (95% CI of 2.17-3.03, p<.001). The early PT group had greater imaging RVUs; the ratio of means was 1.37 (95% CI of 1.09-1.71, p=.01.) CONCLUSIONS: We found that in a group of older adults presenting for a new episode of low back pain, the use of early PT is not associated with any statistically significant difference in subsequent

  6. Early Childhood Teachers' and Staff Members' Perceptions of Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derscheid, Linda E.; Umoren, Josephine; Kim, So-Yeun; Henry, Beverly W.; Zittel, Lauriece L.

    2010-01-01

    Child care teachers and staff are important influences on preschoolers' nutrition and physical activity habits, and their views may be influenced by education level, years of field experience, and program involvement. For the 360 participants surveyed, responses on 5 of 18 survey items significantly differed by education level (e.g., less…

  7. Psychosocial Influences on Physical, Verbal, and Indirect Bullying Among Japanese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Mikayo; Asakura, Takashi; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Although bullying among Japanese youth is a current major concern, psychosocial influences on bullying are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with physical, verbal, and indirect bullying among Japanese adolescents. Junior high school students between seventh and ninth grade (N =…

  8. Collaborative Learning in Physical Education Teachers' Early-Career Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keay, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Background/context: Professional development is an important element of professional practice and teachers are expected to engage in activities that not only improve practice but also have a positive impact on pupil learning. Physical educators worldwide have acknowledged the need to improve the continuing education of teachers and have called…

  9. Early-life effects on adult physical activity: Concepts, relevance, and experimental approaches

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of...

  10. Physical Activity Promotes Academic Achievement and a Healthy Lifestyle when Incorporated into Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadie, Ben R.; Brown, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of physical inactivity within children have enormous personal health consequences. These health conditions have the potential to impact the economic vitality of society as a whole. Studies have indicated that inactive children are far more likely to suffer from obesity, type II diabetes, and hypertension than their…

  11. Maternal low intensity physical exercise prevents obesity in offspring rats exposed to early overnutrition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Pavanello, Audrei; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Prates, Kelly Valério; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Alves, Vander Silva; de Almeida, Douglas Lopes; Moreira, Veridiana Mota; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Vieira, Elaine; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; da Silva Rodrigues, Marcos Ricardo; Rinaldi, Wilson; Malta, Ananda; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2017-08-09

    Low intensity exercise during pregnancy and lactation may create a protective effect against the development of obesity in offspring exposed to overnutrition in early life. To test these hypotheses, pregnant rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Sedentary and Exercised, low intensity, on a rodent treadmill at 30% VO 2Max /30-minute/session/3x/week throughout pregnancy and the lactation. Male offspring were raised in small litters (SL, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, 9 pups/dam) as models of early overnutrition and normal feed, respectively. Exercised mothers showed low mesenteric fat pad stores and fasting glucose and improved glucose-insulin tolerance, VO 2max during lactation and sympathetic activity. Moreover, the breast milk contained elevated levels of insulin. In addition, SL of sedentary mothers presented metabolic dysfunction and glucose and insulin intolerance and were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic in adulthood. SL of exercised mothers showed lower fat tissue accretion and improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia and glycemia. The results suggest that maternal exercise during the perinatal period can have a possible reprogramming effect to prevent metabolic dysfunction in adult rat offspring exposed to early overnutrition, which may be associated with the improvement in maternal health caused by exercise.

  12. Does physical activity in leisure time early in pregnancy reduce the incidence of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension?

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Karlijn C; Wolf, Hans; Boer, Kees; van der Wal, Marcel F; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the association of physical activity in leisure time with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in nulliparous women. Population based prospective cohort study. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All pregnant women in Amsterdam between January 2003 and March 2004 who were nulliparous with a singleton pregnancy and who delivered after 24 weeks. At their first prenatal care visit, women were invited to fill out a questionnaire with sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. Physical activity in leisure time in the past week was measured using questions about walking, cycling, playing sports and other activities in leisure time. The amount of minutes and intensity of each activity was studied using four categories: no, low, moderate or high activity. By using multivariate logistic regression, we adjusted for sociodemographic and medical confounders. Incidence of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Results. A total of 12,377 women were invited with a response rate of 67%; 3,679 nulliparous women were included. The incidence of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension was 3.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The amount of time or intensity of physical activity in leisure time was not associated with a difference in risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Physical activity in leisure time early in pregnancy does not reduce the incidence of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension in an unselected population of nulliparous women.

  13. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development and prevention of violence among middle school students. Those students who reported having a boyfriend/girlfriend reported significantly more drug use and delinquent activity and were more likely to be male. Twenty-nine percent of youth with a boyfriend/girlfriend reported perpetrating physical aggression against their boyfriend/girlfriend. Parenting and peer variables were significant predictors of physical dating violence. However, gender moderated the association between parenting practices and physical dating violence, with parental monitoring inversely linked to dating violence for boys and parent support for nonaggression inversely linked to dating violence for girls. Parent support for aggression also moderated the association between peer deviancy and reported perpetration. Finally, gender moderated the interaction between peer deviancy and parent support for nonaggressive solutions. PMID:20183640

  14. Physical and cognitive fitness in young adulthood and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an early age.

    PubMed

    Longinetti, E; Mariosa, D; Larsson, H; Almqvist, C; Lichtenstein, P; Ye, W; Fang, F

    2017-01-01

    There is a clinical impression that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a higher level of physical fitness and lower body mass index (BMI) than average. However, there is a lack of literature examining the relationship between cognitive fitness and ALS risk. In this study we explored the associations of both physical and cognitive fitness with future risk of ALS. Data on physical fitness, BMI, intelligence quotient (IQ) and stress resilience were collected from 1 838 376 Swedish men aged 17-20 years at conscription during 1968-2010. Their subsequent ALS diagnoses were identified through the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs from flexible parametric models were used to assess age-specific associations of physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience with ALS. We identified 439 incident ALS cases during follow-up (mean age at diagnosis: 48 years). Individuals with physical fitness above the highest tertile tended to have a higher risk of ALS before the age of 45 years (range of HRs: 1.42-1.75; statistically significant associations at age 41-43 years) compared with others. Individuals with BMI ≥ 25 tended to have a lower risk of ALS at all ages (range of HRs: 0.42-0.80; statistically significant associations at age 42-48 years) compared with those with BMI < 25. Individuals with IQ above the highest tertile had a statistically significantly increased risk of ALS at an age of 56 years and above (range of HRs: 1.33-1.81), whereas individuals with stress resilience above the highest tertile had a lower risk of ALS at an age of 55 years and below (range of HRs: 0.47-0.73). Physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience in young adulthood might be associated with the development of ALS at an early age. © 2016 EAN.

  15. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline) adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015). The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001) and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08) predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18). Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13). A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04) and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001) were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06). Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06) and lower perceived land

  16. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  17. A review of early influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Mesa, Tatiana; Salas, Carlos F

    2017-07-01

    Promoting physical activity (PA) is a key component of preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Despite well-documented benefits of PA, globally, rates of PA among young children have declined over the past decades, and most children are not accruing sufficient PA daily. Helping children develop the foundation for PA habits early in life is critical for the promotion of health in childhood and prevention of chronic diseases later in life, and will ultimately promote longer and healthier lives for individuals and the general population. The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of current evidence on influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries. A systematic review of three databases was performed. Studies conducted in high-income countries and published from 2000 onward that addressed influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children were identified and reviewed. Additionally, reference lists of identified articles and relevant published reviews were reviewed. Studies that met the following inclusion criteria were considered: (a) sample included preschoolers (age ≤5 years); (b) PA and/or sedentary behaviors or factors associated with PA and/or sedentary behaviors was assessed; (c) published in English; (d) used either quantitative or qualitative methods; and (e) conducted in a high-income country. Data were extracted from selected studies to identify influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children and organized using the social-ecological model according to multiple levels of influence. Results from included studies identify multiple factors that influence PA and sedentary behaviors of young children in high-income countries at the various levels of the social-ecological model including intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, organizational, and policy. Given pediatric nurses' role as primary care providers, and their frequent and continued contact with parents

  18. Victimization from Mental and Physical Bullying and Substance Use in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Haviland, Amelia; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between victimization from mental and physical bullying and use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and inhalants among middle school students. Self-report data were analyzed from 926 ethnically diverse sixth through eighth grade students (43% white, 26% Latino, 7% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 3% African American, 14% mixed ethnic origin, and 5% “other”) ages 11 – 14 years from southern California. Substance use was collected at two time points (fall 2004 and spring 2005) during an academic year. Models were run for each substance separately. Results supported an association between victimization from bullying and substance use. Youths who experienced each type of bullying (mental or physical) separately or in combination were more likely to report use of each substance in spring 2005. This finding held after controlling for gender, grade level, ethnicity and substance use in fall 2004. PMID:19398162

  19. Physics of the very early Universe: what can we learn from cosmological observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondolo, Paolo

    Cosmological observations are starting to probe the evolution of the Universe before nucleosyn- thesis. The observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background and in the distribution of matter can be traced back to their origin during inflation, and the inflaton potential has begun to be unraveled. A future probe of the first microseconds would be the detection of weakly-interacting massive particles as dark matter. Discovery of supersymmetric particles at odds with the standard cosmological lore may open an experimental window on the physics at the highest energies, per- haps as far as superstring theory. This presentation will overview two topics on the physics of the Universe before nucleosynthesis: (1) slow-roll, natural and chain inflation in the landscape, and

  20. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. Of the 438 articles accessed, 20 qualified for inclusion, of which 16 and 4 were quantitative and qualitative articles, respectively, and mainly quality-of-life assessments. Time of measurement ranged from time of diagnosis to 9 years after the surgical procedure. The total number of patients included in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, with both early and late interrelated effects, and by the side effects of adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can early physical therapy positively affect the onset of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome? A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Bruno; Sommella, Nadia; Ciardi, Gianluca; Raiano, Enza; Scala, Iris; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Servodio Iammarrone, Clemente

    2018-02-19

    The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill. A retrospective study was carried out on a cohort of 86 children with Down Syndrome. The knowledge of the exact age of walking onset and information about comorobities and rehabilitation practised since birth were the eligibility criteria. The average age at which walking began in the sample was 26 months (Standard Deviation = 9.66). Some patient characteristics proved to be related negatively to the walking onset: gender male, trisomy 21, improved joint ligamentous laxity. When practised, early physical therapy was able to contrast the delay in walking. NDT-Bobath is a well-known and valid instrument for a child with Down syndrome to attain his highest possible psychomotor functioning level. This study pointed out for the first time ever its capability to contrast the delay on walking onset, which can influences positively the development of the following motor and cognitive skills.

  2. Childhood Disadvantage and Health Problems in Middle and Later Life: Early Imprints on Physical Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks. PMID:27445413

  3. Childhood Disadvantage and Health Problems in Middle and Later Life: Early Imprints on Physical Health?

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Kenneth F; Schafer, Markus H; Wilkinson, Lindsay R

    2016-02-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks.

  4. The Mental and Physical Health Consequences of Changes in Private Insurance Before and After Early Retirement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the impact of private insurance coverage on the symptoms of depression, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in the years leading up to Medicare eligibility focusing on the transition from full-time work to early full retirement. Method. The Health and Retirement Study was used to (a) estimate 2-stage selection equations of (i) the transition to retirement and (ii) current insurance status, and (b) the impact of insurance coverage on health, net of endogeneity associated retirement and insurance coverage. Results. Employment-based insurance coverage was generally associated with better health. Moreover, being without employment-based insurance was particularly problematic during the transition to retirement. Non-group insurance only moderated the association between losing employment-based insurance and IADLs. Discussion. Results indicated that private insurance coverage is an important contextual factor for the health of early retirees. Those who maintain steady coverage tend to fare the best in retirement. This highlights the dynamic nature of changes in health in later life. PMID:25819976

  5. Educator engagement and interaction and children's physical activity in early childhood education and care settings: an observational study protocol.

    PubMed

    Tonge, Karen L; Jones, Rachel A; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Nguyen, Tuc V; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-02-07

    The benefits of regular physical activity for children are significant. Previous research has addressed the quantity and quality of children's physical activity while in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, yet little research has investigated the social and physical environmental influences on physical activity in these settings. The outcomes of this study will be to measure these social and physical environmental influences on children's physical activity using a combination of a real-time location system (RTLS) (a closed system that tracks the location of movement of participants via readers and tags), accelerometry and direct observation. This study is the first of its kind to combine RTLSs and accelerometer data in ECEC settings. It is a cross-sectional study involving ∼100 educators and 500 children from 11 ECEC settings in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. A RTLS and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers will be concurrently used to measure the level and location of the children's and educators' physical activity while in outside environments. Children and educators will wear accelerometers on their hip that record triaxial acceleration data at 100 Hz. Children and educators will also wear a tag watch on their wrist that transmits a signal to anchors of the RTLS and the triangulation of signals will identify their specific location. In addition to these, up to three random periods (10-25 min in length) will be used to collect observational data each day and assessed with the classroom assessment and scoring system to measure the quality of interactions. In conjunction with the real-time location system (RTLS) and accelerometers, these observations will measure the relationship between the quality of interactions and children's physical activity. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University of Wollongong Human Research

  6. Are Birth Weight, Early Growth, and Motor Development Determinants of Physical Activity in Children and Youth? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Øglund, Guro Pauck; Hildebrand, Maria; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to explore whether birth weight, early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in children and youth. We performed a systematic literature search on the possible early life determinants. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between birthweight and objectively measured physical activity. We identified 9 studies examining birth weight, in which none of the studies with objectively measured physical activity observed an association between birth weight and physical activity. The meta-analysis confirmed this result (b=-3.08, 95% CI -10.20, 4.04). The 3 studies examining early growth and physical activity in youth differ in methodology and the results are inconsistent. Two studies suggest an association between earlier motor development and physical activity and sport participation in youth. This was not confirmed in a third study. Our meta-analysis suggests that birth weight is not an important determinant of physical activity in youth. Available data does not allow firm conclusions whether early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in youth.

  7. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, N.E.; Girard, T.D.; Ely, E.W.; Pandharipande, P.P.; Morandi, A.; Hughes, C.G.; Graves, A.J.; Shintani, A.K.; Murphy, E.; Work, B.; Pun, B.T.; Boehm, L.; Gill, T.M.; Dittus, R.S.; Jackson, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. METHODS We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3-months, we also assessed cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%). RESULTS Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% [92–100%] of study days beginning 1.0 [1.0–1.0] day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% [10–26%], 67% [46–87%] and 75% [59–88%] of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed. PMID:24257969

  8. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial.

    PubMed

    Brummel, N E; Girard, T D; Ely, E W; Pandharipande, P P; Morandi, A; Hughes, C G; Graves, A J; Shintani, A; Murphy, E; Work, B; Pun, B T; Boehm, L; Gill, T M; Dittus, R S; Jackson, J C

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem-solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3 months, we also assessed cognitive, functional, and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or frequency (%). Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% (92-100%) of study days beginning 1.0 (1.0-1.0) day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients, and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% (10-26%), 67% (46-87%), and 75% (59-88%) of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional, and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment, and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed.

  9. Individual and social network predictors of physical bullying: a longitudinal study of Taiwanese early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Lee, Wonjae

    2014-01-01

    This study followed 125 7th-grade students in Taiwan for the entire school year and analyzed the individual and social network factors predicting their involvement in physical bullying over 5 waves of data. Using self-reports of bullying experiences, 20 classroom-level networks of bullying and friendship were constructed for 4 classrooms and 5 temporal points, from which 4 individual-level network measures were calculated. They included bully and victim centrality, popularity, and embeddedness in friendship networks. A series of mixed models for repeated measures were constructed to predict students' bully and victim centrality in bullying network at time t + 1. Compared to girls, boys were more likely to be both the bullies and victims. Lower self-esteem and higher family economic status contributed to victim centrality. Having parents married and living together predicted lower bully centrality. Higher educational level of parents predicted lower victim and bully centrality. Regarding the social network factors, students' bully centrality at t positively predicted their bully centrality at t + 1, whereas victim centrality predicted their subsequent victim centrality. Interaction effects between friendship network and bullying network were observed. Embeddedness in friendship network reduced victim centrality at t + 1 except for those students with low victim centrality at t. For those with high victim centrality at t, popularity increased their risk of physical victimization over time. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  10. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ≥ 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having <12 years education was associated with more MVPA time among South Asians in contrast to Western women. South Asian women are prone to low levels of PA during pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Balance quality assessment as an early indicator of physical frailty in older people.

    PubMed

    Chkeir, Aly; Safieddine, Doha; Bera, D; Collart, M; Novella, J L; Drame, M; Hewson, David J; Duchene, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is an increasingly common geriatric condition that results in an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as falls. The most widely-used means of detecting frailty is the Fried phenotype, which includes several objective measures such as grip strength and gait velocity. One method of screening for falls is to measure balance, which can be done by a range of techniques including the assessment of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) during a balance assessment. The Balance Quality Tester (BQT) is a device based on a commercial bathroom scale that can evaluate balance quality. The BQT provides instantaneously the position of the CoP (stabilogram) in both anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions and can estimate the vertical ground reaction force. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between balance quality assessment and physical frailty. Balance quality was compared to physical frailty in 186 older subjects. Rising rate (RR) was slower and trajectory velocity (TV) was higher in subjects classified as frail for both grip strength and gait velocity (p<;0.05). Balance assessment could be used in conjunction with functional tests of grip strength and gait velocity as a means of screening for frailty.

  12. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Harold David; Peacock, Ann; Miller, Yvette D.; Koh, Denise; Marshall, Alison L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n = 13) versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n = 15). Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD) were: Age  33 ± 4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI) 30.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range)}, increased by 60 (0–540) mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580) mins/week in the UC group (P = 0.234). Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period. PMID:22548057

  13. From Student of Physics to Historian of Science: T.S. Kuhn's Education and Early Career, 1940-1958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufbauer, Karl

    2012-12-01

    I first show that Kuhn came to have doubts about physics soon after entering college but did not make up his mind to leave the discipline until 1947-1948 when a close association with Harvard's President James B. Conant convinced him of the desirability of an alternative career in the history of science. I go on to maintain that it was realistic for Kuhn to prepare for such a career in essentially autodidactic ways both because he enjoyed Conant's patronage and because he could expect that his credentials in physics would be an asset in this relatively young interdisciplinary specialty. I then suggest that it was through his work as a teacher, researcher, and journeyman gatekeeper in the history of science that Kuhn gradually came to identify with the field. Finally, I argue that his training in physics, his teaching of general-education courses, and his hopes of influencing current philosophy of science helped shape his early practice as a historian of science. By way of epilogue, I briefly consider Kuhn's path from his tenuring at Berkeley in 1958 to the appearance of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962.

  14. High initiation and long duration of breastfeeding despite absence of early skin-to-skin contact in Karen refugees on the Thai-Myanmar border: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth is recommended as part of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) baby friendly health initiative to promote optimum breastfeeding. This paper reports rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in a low resource environment, where early SSC is not practised, and explores views of pregnant women and midwives surrounding breastfeeding and swaddling. Methods Data from records from a single hospital on the Thai-Myanmar border where refugee women gave birth during a one-year period (2010) were used to determine breastfeeding initiation rates and the time of the first breastfeed, and duration of breastfeeding of the previous alive child in multigravidae. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to obtain information from pregnant women attending antenatal care about their intended or previous duration of breastfeeding and views on breastfeeding. Interviews with local midwives explored reasons for high rates of breastfeeding in this setting and the practice of newborn swaddling. Results Of 1404 live births in 2010 in Maela refugee camp there were 982 evaluable mother-newborn pairs, including 80 infants born before 37 weeks gestation. Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge in term mother-newborn pairs was 91.2% (823/902) and 99.3% (896/902); and before 37 weeks gestation, 48.8% (39/80) and 98.8% (79/80). Reported duration of previous breastfeeding was 19 (range 2 to 72) months. During FGD all primigravidae (n = 17) intended to breastfeed and all multigravidae (n = 33) had previously breastfed; expected or previous duration of feeding was for more than one year or longer. The major theme identified during FGD was breastfeeding is “good”. Women stated their intention to breastfeed with certainty. This certainty was echoed during the interviews with midwifery staff. SSC requires a delay in early swaddling that in Karen people, with

  15. The early stages of massive star formation: tracing the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Hannah

    2015-04-01

    Molecules are essential to the formation of stars, by allowing radiation to escape the cloud and cooling to occur. Over 180 molecules have been detected in interstellar environments, ranging from comets to interstellar clouds. Their spectra are useful probes of the conditions in which these molecules form. Comparison of rest frequencies to observed frequencies can provide information about the velocity of gas and indicate physical structures. The density, temperature, and excitation conditions of gas can be determined directly from the spectra of molecules. Furthermore, by taking a chemical inventory of a particular object, one can gain an understanding of the chemical processes occurring within a cloud. The class of molecules known as complex molecules (>6 atoms), are of particular interest when probing the conditions in massive starforming environments, as they are observed to trace a more compact region than smaller molecules. This thesis details the work of my PhD, to explore how complex molecules can be used to trace the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores (HCs), one of the earliest stages of massive star formation. This work combines both the observations and chemical modelling of several different massive star-forming regions. We identify molecular transitions observed in the spectra of these regions, and calculate column densities and rotation temperatures of these molecules (Chapters 2 and 3). In Chapter 4, we chemically model the HCs, and perform a comparison between observational column densities and chemical modelling column densities. In Chapter 5, we look at the abundance ratio of three isomers, acetic acid, glycolaldehyde, and methyl formate, to ascertain whether this ratio can be used as an indicator of HC evolution. Finally, we explore the chemistry of the HC IRAS 17233-3606, to identify emission features in the spectra, and determine column densities and rotation temperatures of the detected molecules.

  16. Towards an optimal contact metal for CNTFETs.

    PubMed

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Seifert, Gotthard; Mothes, Sven; Claus, Martin; Schröter, Michael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-05-21

    Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at the scale of 10 nm, parameter-free models of electron transport become computationally prohibitively expensive. In our work we used a dedicated combination of the Green function formalism and density functional theory to perform an overall ab initio simulation of extended CNT-metal contacts of an arbitrary length (including infinite), a previously not achievable level of simulations. We provide a systematic and comprehensive discussion of metal-CNT contact properties as a function of the metal type and the contact length. We have found and been able to explain very uncommon relations between chemical, physical and electrical properties observed in CNT-metal contacts. The calculated electrical characteristics are in reasonable quantitative agreement and exhibit similar trends as the latest experimental data in terms of: (i) contact resistance for Lc = ∞, (ii) scaling of contact resistance Rc(Lc); (iii) metal-defined polarity of a CNTFET. Our results can guide technology development and contact material selection for downscaling the length of side-contacts below 10 nm.

  17. The levels of the GluN2A NMDA receptor subunit are modified in both the neonatal and adult rat brain by an early experience involving denial of maternal contact.

    PubMed

    Manatos, V; Stylianopoulou, F; Stamatakis, A

    2016-01-26

    The composition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor receptor in GluN2A/GluN2B subunits is important in determining its characteristics and its role in plasticity, a property of the brain which is known to be critically affected by early experiences. In the present work we employed an early experience model involving either receipt (RER) or denial (DER) of the expected reward of maternal contact within the context of learning by the pups of a T-maze on postnatal days (PND) 10-13. We investigated the effects of the RER and DER early experiences on GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and amygdala of the rat. We show that on PND13 the DER animals had lower GluN2A levels in the PFC. In adulthood DER males had higher GluN2A levels in the hippocampus, both under basal conditions and after exposure to a novel environment. The early experiences did not affect the response to the novelty. After exposure to a novel environment animals of all three groups (DER, RER, Control) responded with an increase in GluN2A levels in the brain areas examined. We did not detect any effects on GluN1 or GluN2B levels. The alterations in GluN2A levels observed in the DER animals could in part be responsible for their behavioral phenotype, described previously, which includes an increased susceptibility for the expression of depressive-like behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Probabilistic measurement of non-physical constructs during early childhood: Epistemological implications for advancing psychosocial science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezruczko, N.; Fatani, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    Social researchers commonly compute ordinal raw scores and ratings to quantify human aptitudes, attitudes, and abilities but without a clear understanding of their limitations for scientific knowledge. In this research, common ordinal measures were compared to higher order linear (equal interval) scale measures to clarify implications for objectivity, precision, ontological coherence, and meaningfulness. Raw score gains, residualized raw gains, and linear gains calculated with a Rasch model were compared between Time 1 and Time 2 for observations from two early childhood learning assessments. Comparisons show major inconsistencies between ratings and linear gains. When gain distribution was dense, relatively compact, and initial status near item mid-range, linear measures and ratings were indistinguishable. When Time 1 status was distributed more broadly and magnitude of change variable, ratings were unrelated to linear gain, which emphasizes problematic implications of ordinal measures. Surprisingly, residualized gain scores did not significantly improve ordinal measurement of change. In general, raw scores and ratings may be meaningful in specific samples to establish order and high/low rank, but raw score differences suffer from non-uniform units. Even meaningfulness of sample comparisons, as well as derived proportions and percentages, are seriously affected by rank order distortions and should be avoided.

  19. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  20. Rationale for New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Cathy; Silver, Lynn D; Kettel Khan, Laura; Leviton, Laura

    2014-10-16

    Childhood obesity is associated with health risks in childhood, and it increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with many chronic diseases. Therefore, implementing policies that may prevent obesity at young ages is important. In 2007, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented new regulations for early childhood centers to increase physical activity, limit screen time, and provide healthful beverage offerings (ie, restrict sugar-sweetened beverages for all children, restrict whole milk for those older than 2 years, restrict juice to beverages that are 100% juice and limit serving of juice to only 6 ounces per day, and make water available and accessible at all times). This article explains why these amendments to the Health Code were created, how information about these changes was disseminated, and what training programs were used to help ensure implementation, particularly in high-need neighborhoods.

  1. Circumnuclear Molecular Disks in Early-type Galaxies: Physical Properties and Precision Black Hole Mass Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boizelle, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    ALMA is now capable of providing the most precise determinations of the masses of supermassive black holes in early-type galaxies (ETGs). In ALMA Cycle 2 we began a program to map the molecular gas kinematics in nearby ETGs that host central dust disks as seen in Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These initial observations targeted CO(2-1) emission at ~0.3" resolution, corresponding roughly to the projected radii of influence of the central black holes. In all cases we detect significant (~108 M⊙) molecular gas reservoirs that are in dynamically cold rotation, providing the most sensitive probes of the inner gravitational potentials of luminous ETGs. Using these gas kinematics, we verify that these molecular disks are formally stable against gravitational fragmentation and collapse. In several galaxies we detect central high-velocity gas rotation that provides direct kinematic evidence for a black hole. For two of these targets, NGC 1332 and NGC 3258, we have obtained higher-resolution observations (0.044" and 0.09") in Cycles 3 and 4 that more fully map out the gas rotation within the gravitational sphere of influence. We present dynamical modeling results for these targets, demonstrating that ALMA observations can enable black hole mass measurements at a precision of 10% or better, with minimal susceptibility to the systematic uncertainties that affect other methods of black hole mass measurement in ETGs. We discuss the impact of future high-resolution ALMA observations on black hole demographics and their potential to refine the high-mass end of the black hole-host galaxy scaling relationships.

  2. Early Detection of Physical Activity for People With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Isuru S; Bevier, Wendy C; Castorino, Kristin; Pinsker, Jordan E; Seborg, Dale E; Doyle, Francis J; Dassau, Eyal

    2015-06-30

    Early detection of exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may allow changes in therapy to prevent hypoglycemia. Currently there is limited experience with automated methods that detect the onset and end of exercise in this population. We sought to develop a novel method to quickly and reliably detect the onset and end of exercise in these individuals before significant changes in blood glucose (BG) occur. Sixteen adults with T1DM were studied as outpatients using a diary, accelerometer, heart rate monitor, and continuous glucose monitor for 2 days. These data were used to develop a principal component analysis based exercise detection method. Subjects also performed 60 and 30 minute exercise sessions at 30% and 50% predicted heart rate reserve (HRR), respectively. The detection method was applied to the exercise sessions to determine how quickly the detection of start and end of exercise occurred relative to change in BG. Mild 30% HRR and moderate 50% HRR exercise onset was identified in 6 ± 3 and 5 ± 2 (mean ± SD) minutes, while completion was detected in 3 ± 8 and 6 ± 5 minutes, respectively. BG change from start of exercise to detection time was 1 ± 6 and -1 ± 3 mg/dL, and, from the end of exercise to detection time was 6 ± 4 and -17 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively, for the 2 exercise sessions. False positive and negative ratios were 4 ± 2% and 21 ± 22%. The novel method for exercise detection identified the onset and end of exercise in approximately 5 minutes, with an average BG change of only -6 mg/dL. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Physical Processes Dictate Early Biogeochemical Dynamics of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter in a Subtropical Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jason M.; Anderson, Russell; Lazzarino, Patrick; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Harvey, Omar R.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying links between pyOM dynamics, environmental factors and processes is central to predicting ecosystem function and response to future perturbations. In this study, changes in carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN) , pH and relative recalcitrance (R50) for pine- and cordgrass-derived pyOM were measured at 3-6 weeks intervals throughout the first year of burial in the soil. Objectives were to 1) identify key environmental factors and processes driving early-stage pyOM dynamics, and 2) develop quantitative relationships between environmental factors and changes in pyOM properties. The study was conducted in sandy soils of a forested ecosystem in the Longleaf pine range, US with a focus on links between changes in pyOM properties, fire history (FH), cumulative precipitation (Pcum), average temperature (Tavg) and soil residence time (SRT). Pcum, SRT and Tavg were the main factors controlling TC and TN accounting for 77-91% and 64-96% of their respective variability. Fire history, along with Pcum, SRT and Tavg, exhibited significant controlling effects on pyOM, pH and R50 - accounting for 48-91% and 88-93% of respective variability. Volatilization of volatiles and leaching of water-soluble components (in summer) and the sorption of exogenous organic matter (fall through spring) were most plausibly controlling pyOM dynamics in this study. Overall, our results point to climatic and land management factors and physicochemical process as the main drivers of pyOM dynamics in the pine ecosystems of the Southeastern US.

  4. Early involvement in physics through the study of the basics of digital electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, A. D.; Zuykov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation has a major impact on the results of a child's learning at school and a student's learning at the University. Moreover, school education creates a foundation for the study at the university, which is used by a student for in-depth and rapid development of specialized disciplines, reaching the level of independent research and development. The modern system of teaching physics at school is built in such a way that, basically, a teacher is demonstrating and a child is looking. Such a system, in addition to the logical lack of practical skills, leads to a significant reduction in the motivation for further engineering study, which is now a priority for Russia. There are original methods of practical teaching for students starting from the 5th grade, which allow each student to try to assemble on their own a variety of devices, reaching quick practical results. The principles of this technique are discussed in the article. Prototyping boards without solder were chosen as the basic platform to showcase the methodology.

  5. Early Exposure to Environmental Chaos and Children's Physical and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    Environmental chaos has been proposed as a central influence impeding children's health and development, with the potential for particularly pernicious effects during the earliest years when children are most susceptible to environmental insults. This study evaluated a high-risk sample, following 495 low-income children living in poor urban neighborhoods from infancy to age 6. Longitudinal multilevel models tested the main tenets of the ecobiodevelopmental theory, finding that: (1) numerous distinct domains of environmental chaos were associated with children's physical and mental health outcomes, including housing disorder, neighborhood disorder, and relationship instability, with no significant results for residential instability; (2) different patterns emerged in relation to the timing of exposure to chaos, with more proximal exposure most strongly associated with children's functioning; and (3) the intensity of chaos also was a robust predictor of child functioning. Contrary to expectations, neither biological vulnerability (proxied through low birth weight status), maternal sensitivity, nor maternal distress moderated the role of chaos. Rather, maternal psychological distress functioned as a pathway through which environmental chaos was associated with children's functioning.

  6. Early Exposure to Environmental Chaos and Children’s Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chaos has been proposed as a central influence impeding children’s health and development, with the potential for particularly pernicious effects during the earliest years when children are most susceptible to environmental insults. This study evaluated a high-risk sample, following 495 low-income children living in poor urban neighborhoods from infancy to age 6. Longitudinal multilevel models tested the main tenets of the ecobiodevelopmental theory, finding that: (1) numerous distinct domains of environmental chaos were associated with children’s physical and mental health outcomes, including housing disorder, neighborhood disorder, and relationship instability, with no significant results for residential instability; (2) different patterns emerged in relation to the timing of exposure to chaos, with more proximal exposure most strongly associated with children’s functioning; and (3) the intensity of chaos also was a robust predictor of child functioning. Contrary to expectations, neither biological vulnerability (proxied through low birth weight status), maternal sensitivity, nor maternal distress moderated the role of chaos. Rather, maternal psychological distress functioned as a pathway through which environmental chaos was associated with children’s functioning. PMID:25844016

  7. Effective Treatment for Rapid Improvement of Both Disease Activity and Self-Reported Physical Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Konijn, Nicole P C; van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Boers, Maarten; den Uyl, Debby; Ter Wee, Marieke M; Kerstens, Pit; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Nurmohamed, Michael; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Lems, Willem F

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationship between disease activity and self-reported physical activity (PA) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis during the first year of treatment with combination therapy. PA was measured with the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity at baseline, 13 weeks, 26 weeks, and 52 weeks after start of treatment in the context of the Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis-Light trial. The reported PA classified patients as meeting or not meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA guideline (cutoff: 150 minutes of moderate-to-intense activity per week). Other measurements included the Disease Activity Score (DAS). Since both treatment arms showed equal treatment effect, these were analyzed as 1 group with simple before-after analyses and generalized estimating equations (GEE). In these analyses, 140 patients (86% of the trial population, 66% women, mean age 52 years) with complete data were included. At entry, 69% of the patients met the WHO PA guideline, increasing to 90% at week 13, and remaining stable at 89% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Mean DAS improved from 4.0 to 1.8 during the first year of treatment (P < 0.001). In GEE analyses, DAS decreases were significantly associated with PA increases (P = 0.008). Patients with clinically relevant responses (expressed as DAS remission, European League Against Rheumatism good response or American College of Rheumatology criteria for 70% improvement response) showed higher PA levels compared to nonresponders, regardless of the definition of response, for both the WHO and Dutch PA guideline. Early rheumatoid arthritis patients using combination therapy improved both disease activity and PA, a beneficial effect persisting for at least 1 year. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Variability in soil-water retention properties and implications for physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria

    Thomas, Matthew A.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landsliding is a persistent hazard to human life and property. Despite the observed connection between infiltration through the unsaturated zone and shallow landslide initiation, there is considerable uncertainty in how estimates of unsaturated soil-water retention properties affect slope stability assessment. This source of uncertainty is critical to evaluating the utility of physics-based hydrologic modeling as a tool for landslide early warning. We employ a numerical model of variably saturated groundwater flow parameterized with an ensemble of texture-, laboratory-, and field-based estimates of soil-water retention properties for an extensively monitored landslide-prone site in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, USA. Simulations of soil-water content, pore-water pressure, and the resultant factor of safety show considerable variability across and within these different parameter estimation techniques. In particular, we demonstrate that with the same permeability structure imposed across all simulations, the variability in soil-water retention properties strongly influences predictions of positive pore-water pressure coincident with widespread shallow landsliding. We also find that the ensemble of soil-water retention properties imposes an order-of-magnitude and nearly two-fold variability in seasonal and event-scale landslide susceptibility, respectively. Despite the reduced factor of safety uncertainty during wet conditions, parameters that control the dry end of the soil-water retention function markedly impact the ability of a hydrologic model to capture soil-water content dynamics observed in the field. These results suggest that variability in soil-water retention properties should be considered for objective physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria.

  9. Do mental health problems in childhood predict chronic physical conditions among males in early adulthood? Evidence from a community-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, R D; Sourander, A; Duarte, C S; Niemelä, S; Multimäki, P; Nikolakaros, G; Helenius, H; Piha, J; Kumpulainen, K; Moilanen, I; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have documented associations between mental and physical health problems in cross-sectional studies, yet little is known about these relationships over time or the specificity of these associations. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between mental health problems in childhood at age 8 years and physical disorders in adulthood at ages 18-23 years. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between childhood mental health problems, reported by child, parent and teacher, and physical disorders diagnosed by a physician in early adulthood. Significant linkages emerged between childhood mental health problems and obesity, atopic eczema, epilepsy and asthma in early adulthood. Specifically, conduct problems in childhood were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of obesity and atopic eczema; emotional problems were associated with an increased likelihood of epilepsy and asthma; and depression symptoms at age 8 were associated with an increased risk of asthma in early adulthood. Our findings provide the first evidence of an association between mental health problems during childhood and increased risk of specific physical health problems, mainly asthma and obesity, during early adulthood, in a representative sample of males over time. These data suggest that behavioral and emotional problems in childhood may signal vulnerability to chronic physical health problems during early adulthood.

  10. Children’s Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580–1720

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Summary Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors’ casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of ‘children’s physic’ existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children’s physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child’s humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children’s bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature. PMID:26306061

  11. Severe physical violence between intimate partners during pregnancy: a risk factor for early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Claudia L; de Oliveira, Alessandra S D; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the role of severe physical violence during pregnancy (SPVP) between intimate partners in early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). A health services survey. The revised Conflict Tactics Scale was used to characterize SPVP; premature breast-feeding cessation was identified using a current status data approach, which was based on the information reported from food recall during the preceding 7 d. The cumulative hazard function was estimated by complementary log-log transformation models, which allowed the ensuing estimation of early breast-feeding cessation rates in different age groups and the ratio of rates of weaning between women exposed and not exposed to violence. Five large public primary health-care facilities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children under 5 months of age who were waiting to be consulted. SPVP is an independent risk factor of cessation of EBF since, after controlling for socio-economic, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, women exposed to violence presented an incidence density that was 31% higher than those who were not exposed (hazard ratio = 1·30, 95% CI 1·01, 1·69). The findings corroborate the hypothesis that SPVP is an important risk factor for EBF. This indicates the need for incentives to adequately train health-care personnel in dealing with lactating women in order to gain a broader view of breast-feeding beyond the biological aspects of lactation, including the maternal psychological dimension.

  12. Physical outcome and school performance of very-low-birthweight infants treated with minimal handling and early nasal CPAP.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Marianne; Kamper, Jens

    2006-09-01

    To describe physical outcome and school performance in a cohort of very-low-birthweight infants treated with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP)/minimal handling regimen with permissive hypercapnia, in comparison to siblings of normal birthweight. Neonatal and follow-up data from 213 very-low-birthweight infants from 1983-1988 were registered and a questionnaire concerning school achievements was sent to the families of survivors and siblings attending school. Mortality was 22%. Of the survivors, 4% had moderate-severe and 9% mild sequelae. Eighty-seven per cent of VLBW children and 95% of their siblings attended regular school. Average or above-average achievement was accomplished by 33 (65%) of the VLBW children and 34 (74%) of the siblings in mathematics, and 35 (69%) and 32 (68%), respectively, in reading/spelling. None of these differences reached statistical significance. However, the performance ratings correlated significantly with socio-economic conditions. In this study of infants treated with a regimen of early NCPAP/minimal handling, we found a relatively low incidence of handicaps and impairments. Nearly 90% attended ordinary schools, with near-average performances in mathematics and reading/spelling, which were not statistically different to their siblings. The overall results indicate that these infants fare at least as well as survivors after conventional treatment.

  13. Design Principles for resilient cyber-physical Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Experiences, Design Patterns, and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensch, S.; Wächter, J.; Schnor, B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are safety-critical IT-infrastructures that serve the purpose of potentially saving lives or assets by observing real-world phenomena and issuing timely warning products to authorities and communities. An EWS consists of sensors, communication networks, data centers, simulation platforms, and dissemination channels. The components of this cyber-physical system may all be affected by both natural hazards and malfunctions of components alike. Resilience engineering so far has mostly been applied to safety-critical systems and processes in transportation (aviation, automobile), construction and medicine. Early warning systems need equivalent techniques to compensate for failures, and furthermore means to adapt to changing threats, emerging technology and research findings. We present threats and pitfalls from our experiences with the German and Indonesian tsunami early warning system, as well as architectural, technological and organizational concepts employed that can enhance an EWS' resilience. The current EWS is comprised of a multi-type sensor data upstream part, different processing and analysis engines, a decision support system, and various warning dissemination channels. Each subsystem requires a set of approaches towards ensuring stable functionality across system layer boundaries, including also institutional borders. Not only must services be available, but also produce correct results. Most sensors are distributed components with restricted resources, communication channels and power supply. An example for successful resilience engineering is the power capacity based functional management for buoy and tide gauge stations. We discuss various fault-models like cause and effect models on linear pathways, interaction of multiple events, complex and non-linear interaction of assumedly reliable subsystems and fault tolerance means implemented to tackle these threats.

  14. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeanette H; Conley, Lene N; Hedegaard, Jakob; Nielsen, Mathilde; Young, Jette F; Oksbjerg, Niels; Hornshøj, Henrik; Bendixen, Christian; Thomsen, Bo

    2012-07-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact of unaccustomed exercise on global transcriptional profiles in porcine skeletal muscles. Using a combined microarray and candidate gene approach, we identified a suite of genes that are differentially expressed in muscles during postexercise recovery. Several members of the heat shock protein family and proteins associated with proteolytic events, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1, were significantly upregulated, suggesting that protein breakdown, prevention of protein aggregation and stabilization of unfolded proteins are important processes for restoration of cellular homeostasis. We also detected an upregulation of genes that are associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, including MUSTN1, ASB5 and CSRP3, possibly reflecting activation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to facilitate repair of muscle damage. In addition, exercise increased expression of the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NR4A3, which regulates metabolic functions associated with lipid, carbohydrate and energy homeostasis. Finally, we observed an unanticipated induction of the long non-coding RNA transcript NEAT1, which has been implicated in RNA processing and nuclear retention of adenosine-to-inosine edited mRNAs in the ribonucleoprotein bodies called paraspeckles. These findings expand the complexity of pathways affected by acute contractile activity of skeletal muscle, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular processes that occur in muscle tissue in the recovery phase.

  15. Early parental physical punishment and emotional and behavioural outcomes in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Scott, S; Lewsey, J; Thompson, L; Wilson, P

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether there is an association between being smacked by your main caregiver in the first two years and emotional and behavioural problems at age four. Secondary analysis of data from the Growing Up in Scotland Prospective Study (GUS). Scotland, UK. GUS birth cohort children, whose main caregiver had no concerns about their behaviour at 22 months. Ever smacked by main caregiver in first 22 months, as measured by caregiver self-report at 22 months. Emotional and behavioural problems as measured by parental assessment and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 46 months. Preschool children exposed to main caregiver smacking in the first two years were twice as likely to have emotional and behavioural problems as measured by parental assessment [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-3.2; absolute risk reduction (ARR) 17.8%, 95% CI 12.1-23.5] and SDQ (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.7; ARR 7.5%, 95% CI 3.7-11.5), as children never smacked by their main caregiver. The association remained significant after adjusting for child age and sex, caregiver age, sex, ethnicity, educational attainment and mental health status, sibling number, structural family transitions and socioeconomic status (adj. OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8-3.2 for parental assessment and adj. OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for SDQ). Parental use of physical punishment in the first two years may be a modifiable risk factor for emotional and behavioural difficulties in preschool children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. In vitro studies on the effect of physical cross-linking on the biological performance of aliphatic poly(urethane urea) for blood contact applications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, V; Kumari, T V; Jayabalan, M

    2001-01-01

    The effect of physical cross-linking in candidate cycloaliphatic and hydrophobic poly(urethane urea) (4,4'-methylenebis(cyclohexylisocyanate), H(12)MDI/hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene, HTPBD/hexamethylenediamine, HDA) and poly(ether urethane urea)s (H(12)MDI/HTPBD-PTMG/HDA) on the in vitro calcification and blood-material interaction was studied. All the candidate poly(urethane urea)s and poly(ether urethane urea)s elicit acceptable hemolytic activity, cytocompatibility, calcification, and blood compatibility in vitro. The studies on blood-material interaction reveal that the present poly(urethane urea)s are superior to polystyrene microtiter plates which were used for the studies on blood-material interaction. The present investigation reveals the influence of physical cross-link density on biological interaction differently with poly(urethane urea) and poly(ether urethane urea)s. The higher the physical cross-link density in the poly(urethane urea)s, the higher the calcification and consumption of WBC in whole blood. On the other hand, the higher the physical cross-link density in the poly(ether urethane urea)s, the lesser the calcification and consumption of WBC in whole blood. However a reverse of the above trend has been observed with the platelet consumption in the poly(urethane urea)s and poly(ether urethane urea)s.

  17. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of physical exam signs for early detection of critical illness in pediatric systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scott, Halden F; Donoghue, Aaron J; Gaieski, David F; Marchese, Ronald F; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2014-11-19

    Early detection of compensated pediatric septic shock requires diagnostic tests that are sensitive and specific. Four physical exam signs are recommended for detecting pediatric septic shock prior to hypotension (cold extremities, mental status, capillary refill, peripheral pulse quality); this study tested their ability to detect patients who develop organ dysfunction among a cohort of undifferentiated pediatric systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients. A prospective cohort of 239 pediatric emergency department patients <19 years with fever and tachycardia and undergoing phlebotomy were enrolled. Physicians recorded initial physical exams on a standardized form. Abstraction of the medical record determined outcomes including organ dysfunction, intensive care unit stay, serious bacterial infection, and therapies. Organ dysfunction occurred in 13/239 (5.4%) patients. Presence of at least one sign was significantly associated with organ dysfunction (Relative Risk: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.05-6.99), and presence of at least two signs had a Relative Risk = 4.98 (95% CI: 1.82-13.58). The sensitivity of exam findings ranged from 8-54%, specificity from 84-98%. Signs were associated with increased risk of intensive care and fluid bolus, but not with serious bacterial infection, intravenous antibiotics or admission. Altered mental status and peripheral pulse quality were significantly associated with organ dysfunction, while abnormal capillary refill time and presence of cold, mottled extremities were not. Certain recommended physical exam signs were associated with increased risk of organ dysfunction, a rare outcome in this undifferentiated pediatric population with fever and tachycardia. Sensitivity was low, while specificity was high. Additional research into optimally sensitive and specific diagnostic strategies is needed.

  19. Effect of Early ≤ 3 Mets (Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks) of Physical Activity on Patient's Outcome after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Asif Ali; Khalid, Zara; Farheen, Hania; Siddiqi, Furqan Ahmed; Amjad, Imran

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effect of <3 Mets (Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks) of physical activity on zero postoperative days for improving hemodynamic and respiratory parameters of patients after cardiac surgeries. Randomized control trial. BARMWTHospital, Rawalpindi, from March to August 2015. Arandomized controlled trial was conducted on 174 CABG and valvular heart disease patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. After selection of sample via non-probability purposive sampling, they were randomly allocated into interventional group (n=87) and control group (n=87). Treatment protocol for experimental group was ≤3 Mets of physical activity, i.e. chest physiotherapy, sitting over edge of bed, standing and sitting on chair at bedside, on zero postoperative day but the control group was treated with conventional treatment on first postoperative day. Pre- and post-treatment assessment was done in control and interventional groups on both zero and first postoperative days. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 21. The patients' mean age was 51.86 ±13.76 years. Male to female ratio was 132:42. Statistically significant differences in respiratory rate and SpO2 (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively) were found between both groups. Among ABG's, PCO2 and pH showed significant differences with p values of 0.039 and <0.001, respectively. No significant differences were observed between both groups regarding electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, p-values of 0.361, 0.575 and 0.120 respectively) and creatinine (p=0.783). Marked improvement in oxygen saturation, dyspnea and a fall in systolic BPwas seen in interventional group. There was also observed to be a reduction in the length of ICU stay among interventional group patients as frequency with percentage of total stay was compared to control group. Early physical activity (≤3 METS) post-cardiac surgeries prevent respiratory complications through improvement in dyspnea, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation.

  20. Progressive Resistance Training Improves Overall Physical Activity Levels in Patients With Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Going, Scott B.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Kasle, Shelley; Cussler, Ellen C.; Cornett, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Background Prescription of resistance training (RT) exercises is an essential aspect of management for knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, whether patients with knee OA who are randomly assigned to receive RT simply substitute RT for other modes of physical activity remains unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured RT intervention on overall levels of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in patients with early-onset knee OA. The study compared patients with early-onset OA who participated in an RT program, those who participated in a self-management (SM) program, and those who participated in both RT and SM. Because participants randomly assigned to receive the RT intervention may simply switch activity modes, resulting in little net effect, we assessed total MVPA in addition to tracking changes in strength (force-generating capacity). Design and Intervention This study was a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of SM alone, RT alone, and combined RT+SM on MVPA in patients with early OA of the knee. Setting The study was conducted on a university campus, with patient recruitment from the local community. Participants The participants in this study were 171 patients (74% women, 26% men) with knee OA. They had a mean age of 55.1 (SD=7.1) years, a mean body mass index of 27.6 (SD=4.2) kg/m2, and radiographic status of grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee, as defined by the Kellgren and Lawrence classification. They wore an accelerometer while awake (X̄=14.2 [SD=2.2] hours) for 5 to 7 contiguous days (X̄=6.8 [SD=0.5] days) at baseline and at 3 and 9 months of intervention. Results The participants engaged in MVPA a mean of 26.2 (SD=19.3) minutes per day at baseline. Both groups significantly increased their MVPA from baseline to 3 months (RT group by 18% [effect size (d)=0.26]; SM group by 22% [effect size (d)=0.25]), but only the RT group sustained those changes at 9 months

  1. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... your prescription expires Lens measurements The contact lens brand name and material Your doctor’s name and contact ... mail-order sellers may send you a different brand. Contact lenses may look the same, but materials ...

  2. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  3. "If I Had to Do It, Then I Would": Understanding Early Middle School Students' Perceptions of Physics and Physics-Related Careers by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and…

  4. Early risk pathways to physical versus relational peer aggression: The interplay of externalizing behavior and corporal punishment varies by child sex.

    PubMed

    Zulauf, Courtney A; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2018-03-01

    Children who aggress against their peers may use physical or relational forms, yet little research has looked at early childhood risk factors and characteristics that uniquely predict high levels of relational versus physical aggression in preadolescence. Accordingly, the main aim of our study was to link early corporal punishment and externalizing behavior to children's physical and relational peer aggression during preadolescence and to examine how these pathways differed by sex. Participants were 193, 3-year-old boys (39%) and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (5.5 years) and preadolescence (10.5 years). A series of autoregressive, cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between child externalizing problems and corporal punishment at ages 3 and 5.5 years, and their association with physical and relational aggression at age 10.5. Multiple group analysis was used to determine whether pathways differed by sex. Three developmental pathways were identified: (i) direct associations between stable childhood externalizing problems and later physical aggression; (ii) a direct pathway from early corporal punishment to preadolescent relational and physical peer aggression; and (iii) an indirect pathway from early corporal punishment to later physical aggression via continuing externalizing problems in middle childhood. Child sex moderated the nature of these pathways, as well as the direction of association between risk and outcome variables. These data advance our understanding of the etiology of distinct forms of peer aggression and highlight the potential for more efficacious prevention and intervention efforts in the early childhood years. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Physical activity reduces systemic blood pressure and improves early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children.

    PubMed

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Aggoun, Yacine; Marchand, Laetitia M; Martin, Xavier E; Herrmann, François R; Beghetti, Maurice

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical activity on systemic blood pressure (BP) and early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children. Hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are premature complications of obesity. We performed a 3-month randomized controlled trial with a modified crossover design: 44 pre-pubertal obese children (age 8.9 + or - 1.5 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to an exercise (n = 22) or a control group (n = 22). We recruited 22 lean children (age 8.5 + or - 1.5 years) for baseline comparison. The exercise group trained 60 min 3 times/week during 3 months, whereas control subjects remained relatively inactive. Then, both groups trained twice/week during 3 months. We assessed changes at 3 and 6 months in office and 24-h BP, arterial intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness, endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), body mass index (BMI), body fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max]), physical activity, and biological markers. Obese children had higher BP, arterial stiffness, body weight, BMI, abdominal fat, insulin resistance indexes, and C-reactive protein levels, and lower flow-mediated dilation, VO(2)max, physical activity, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than lean subjects. At 3 months, we observed significant changes in 24-h systolic BP (exercise -6.9 + or - 13.5 mm Hg vs. control 3.8 + or - 7.9 mm Hg, -0.8 + or - 1.5 standard deviation score [SDS] vs. 0.4 + or - 0.8 SDS), diastolic BP (-0.5 + or - 1.0 SDS vs. 0 + or - 1.4 SDS), hypertension rate (-12% vs. -1%), office BP, BMI z-score, abdominal fat, and VO(2)max. At 6 months, change differences in arterial stiffness and IMT were significant. A regular physical activity program reduces BP, arterial stiffness, and abdominal fat; increases cardiorespiratory fitness; and delays arterial wall remodeling in pre-pubertal obese children. (Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Arterial Function and

  6. Changes in the physical activity of acute stroke survivors between inpatient and community living with early supported discharge: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A; Rowe, P; Esson, D; Barber, M

    2016-12-01

    To describe and compare patterns of physical activity among stroke survivors during their hospital stay and community living with early supported discharge. Observational cohort study of physical activity before and after early supported discharge. UK National Health Service stroke units and participants' homes. Forty-one stroke survivors with a mean age of 69 (standard deviation 11) years, and a median Modified Rivermead Mobility Index of 33.5 [interquartile range (IQR) 25.8 to 35.3]. The primary outcome measures were time spent in sitting/standing/walking and number of steps taken, as recorded by a physical activity monitor. There were statistical differences (P<0.001) for all categories of physical activity. After early supported discharge to the community, participants took more than twice the number of steps {median 474 (IQR 189 to 773) vs. 1193 (IQR 512 to 2856), median difference 636 [95% confidence interval (CI) 262 to 931]} and spent more than double the time in standing [median 51 (IQR 22 to 128) minutes vs. 100 (IQR 51 to 178) minutes, median difference 28 (95% CI 11 to 68)] compared with their hospital stay. Community living with early supported discharge promoted higher levels of physical activity in medically stable stroke survivors. The near-doubling of activity may serve as a guideline for what is achievable during stroke rehabilitation. Number UKCRN 15472. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A unique mating strategy without physical contact during fertilization in Bombay Night Frogs (Nyctibatrachus humayuni) with the description of a new form of amplexus and female call.

    PubMed

    Willaert, Bert; Suyesh, Robin; Garg, Sonali; Giri, Varad B; Bee, Mark A; Biju, S D

    2016-01-01

    Anurans show the highest diversity in reproductive modes of all vertebrate taxa, with a variety of associated breeding behaviours. One striking feature of anuran reproduction is amplexus. During this process, in which the male clasps the female, both individuals' cloacae are juxtaposed to ensure successful external fertilization. Several types of amplexus have evolved with the diversification of anurans, and secondary loss of amplexus has been reported in a few distantly related taxa. Within Nyctibatrachus, a genus endemic to the Western Ghats of India, normal axillary amplexus, a complete loss of amplexus, and intermediate forms of amplexus have all been suggested to occur, but many species remain unstudied. Here, we describe the reproductive behaviour of N. humayuni, including a new type of amplexus. The dorsal straddle, here defined as a loose form of contact in which the male sits on the dorsum of the female prior to oviposition but without clasping her, is previously unreported for anurans. When compared to known amplexus types, it most closely resembles the form of amplexus observed in Mantellinae. Furthermore, we prove that, opposed to the situation in most anurans, male semen release happens before egg deposition. We hypothesize that the male ejaculates on the female's dorsum and that sperm subsequently runs from her back and hind legs before fertilizing the eggs. A second feature characterizing anuran breeding is the advertisement call, mostly produced solely by males. Despite recent descriptions of several new Nyctibatrachus species, few studies have explored their vocal repertoire. We describe both the male advertisement call and a female call for N. humayuni. The presence of a female call has not been reported within Nyctibatrachidae, and has been reported in less than 0.5% of anuran species. Altogether, our results highlight a striking diversity and several unique aspects of Nyctibatrachus breeding behaviour.

  8. A unique mating strategy without physical contact during fertilization in Bombay Night Frogs (Nyctibatrachus humayuni) with the description of a new form of amplexus and female call

    PubMed Central

    Suyesh, Robin; Garg, Sonali; Giri, Varad B.; Bee, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Anurans show the highest diversity in reproductive modes of all vertebrate taxa, with a variety of associated breeding behaviours. One striking feature of anuran reproduction is amplexus. During this process, in which the male clasps the female, both individuals’ cloacae are juxtaposed to ensure successful external fertilization. Several types of amplexus have evolved with the diversification of anurans, and secondary loss of amplexus has been reported in a few distantly related taxa. Within Nyctibatrachus, a genus endemic to the Western Ghats of India, normal axillary amplexus, a complete loss of amplexus, and intermediate forms of amplexus have all been suggested to occur, but many species remain unstudied. Here, we describe the reproductive behaviour of N. humayuni, including a new type of amplexus. The dorsal straddle, here defined as a loose form of contact in which the male sits on the dorsum of the female prior to oviposition but without clasping her, is previously unreported for anurans. When compared to known amplexus types, it most closely resembles the form of amplexus observed in Mantellinae. Furthermore, we prove that, opposed to the situation in most anurans, male semen release happens before egg deposition. We hypothesize that the male ejaculates on the female’s dorsum and that sperm subsequently runs from her back and hind legs before fertilizing the eggs. A second feature characterizing anuran breeding is the advertisement call, mostly produced solely by males. Despite recent descriptions of several new Nyctibatrachus species, few studies have explored their vocal repertoire. We describe both the male advertisement call and a female call for N. humayuni. The presence of a female call has not been reported within Nyctibatrachidae, and has been reported in less than 0.5% of anuran species. Altogether, our results highlight a striking diversity and several unique aspects of Nyctibatrachus breeding behaviour. PMID:27326376

  9. Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Service Standard Guidelines on Physical Facilities in Public and Private Early Childhood Education Centres Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…

  10. Contact electrification of insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacks, Daniel J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2011-11-01

    The electrostatic charge that is generated when two materials are contacted or rubbed and then separated is a well-known physical process that has been studied for more than 2500 years. Contact electrification occurs in many contexts, both natural and technological. For example, in dust storms the collisions between particles lead to electrostatic charging and in extreme cases, extraordinary lightning displays. In electrophotography, toner particles are intentionally charged to guide their deposition in well-defined patterns. Despite such a long history and so many important consequences, a fundamental understanding of the mechanism behind contact electrification remains elusive. An open question is what type of species are transferred between the surfaces to generate charge—experiments suggest various species ranging from electrons to ions to nanoscopic bits of material, and theoretical work suggests that non-equilibrium states may play an important role. Another open question is the contact electrification that occurs when two insulating materials with identical physical properties touch—since there is no apparent driving force, it is not clear why charge transfer occurs. A third open question involves granular systems—models and experiments have shown that a particle-size dependence for the charging often exists. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of contact electrification and highlight recent research efforts aimed at understanding these open questions.

  11. Contact Us | NREL

    Contact Us Contact Us Find a contact to help answer your question, resolve a website issue, or job or internship, or want to report an issue with the application process, contact us about careers

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Primary Care Management With or Without Early Physical Therapy for Acute Low Back Pain: Economic Evaluation of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Julie M; Kim, Minchul; Magel, John S; Asche, Carl V

    2017-03-01

    Economic evaluation of a randomized clinical trial. Compare costs and cost-effectiveness of usual primary care management for patients with acute low back pain (LBP) with or without the addition of early physical therapy. Low back pain is among the most common and costly conditions encountered in primary care. Early physical therapy after a new primary care consultation for acute LBP results in small clinical improvement but cost-effectiveness of a strategy of early physical therapy is unknown. Economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized clinical trial of patients with acute, nonspecific LBP consulting a primary care provider. All patients received usual primary care management and education, and were randomly assigned to receive four sessions of physical therapy or usual care of delaying referral consideration to permit spontaneous recovery. Data were collected in a randomized trial involving 220 participants age 18 to 60 with LBP <16 days duration without red flags or signs of nerve root compression. The EuroQoL EQ-5D health states were collected at baseline and after 1-year and used to compute the quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Direct (health care utilization) and indirect (work absence or reduced productivity) costs related to LBP were collected monthly and valued using standard costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed as incremental total costs divided by incremental QALYs. Early physical therapy resulted in higher total 1-year costs (mean difference in adjusted total costs = $580, 95% CI: $175, $984, P = 0.005) and better quality of life (mean difference in QALYs = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.005, 0.35, P = 0.008) after 1-year. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $32,058 (95% CI: $10,629, $151,161) per QALY. Our results support early physical therapy as cost-effective relative to usual primary care after 1 year for patients with acute, nonspecific LBP. 2.

  13. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Physical Modeling of Gate-Controlled Schottky Barrier Lowering of Metal-Graphene Contacts in Top-Gated Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huansheng; Huo, Zong-Liang; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2015-12-01

    A new physical model of the gate controlled Schottky barrier height (SBH) lowering in top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) under saturation bias condition is proposed based on the energy conservation equation with the balance assumption. The theoretical prediction of the SBH lowering agrees well with the experimental data reported in literatures. The reduction of the SBH increases with the increasing of gate voltage and relative dielectric constant of the gate oxide, while it decreases with the increasing of oxide thickness, channel length and acceptor density. The magnitude of the reduction is slightly enhanced under high drain voltage. Moreover, it is found that the gate oxide materials with large relative dielectric constant (>20) have a significant effect on the gate controlled SBH lowering, implying that the energy relaxation of channel electrons should be taken into account for modeling SBH in GFETs.

  15. Physical Modeling of Gate-Controlled Schottky Barrier Lowering of Metal-Graphene Contacts in Top-Gated Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huansheng; Huo, Zong-Liang; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2015-12-17

    A new physical model of the gate controlled Schottky barrier height (SBH) lowering in top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) under saturation bias condition is proposed based on the energy conservation equation with the balance assumption. The theoretical prediction of the SBH lowering agrees well with the experimental data reported in literatures. The reduction of the SBH increases with the increasing of gate voltage and relative dielectric constant of the gate oxide, while it decreases with the increasing of oxide thickness, channel length and acceptor density. The magnitude of the reduction is slightly enhanced under high drain voltage. Moreover, it is found that the gate oxide materials with large relative dielectric constant (>20) have a significant effect on the gate controlled SBH lowering, implying that the energy relaxation of channel electrons should be taken into account for modeling SBH in GFETs.

  16. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  17. Mechanisms Underlying the Association Between Early-Life Adversity and Physical Health: Charting a Course for the Future.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nicole R; Lane, Richard D; McLaughlin, Katie A

    Early-life adversities (ELA) are associated with subsequent pervasive alterations across a wide range of neurobiological systems and psychosocial factors that contribute to accelerated onset of health problems and diseases. In this article, we provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in research on ELA, based on the articles published in this Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. We focus on the following: 1) the distinction between specific versus general aspects of ELA with regard to the nature of exposure (e.g., physical and sexual abuse, emotional abuse or neglect, relative socioeconomic deprivation), biological and behavioral correlates of ELA, and differences across diseases; 2) the importance of timing in the critical phases of exposure to ELA; and 3) adaptive versus dysfunctional responses to ELA and their consequences for biological and behavioral risk factors for adverse health outcomes. This article concludes with outlining important new targets for research in this area, including the neurobiology of affect as a mechanism linking ELA to adverse health outcomes, and the need for large-scale longitudinal investigations of multisystem processes relevant to ELA in diverse samples, starting prenatally, continuing to late adolescence, and with long-term follow-up assessments that enable evaluation of incident disease outcomes.

  18. Future Directions in the Study of Early-Life Stress and Physical and Emotional Health: Implications of the Neuroimmune Network Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Nusslock, Robin; Miller, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with increased vulnerability to physical and emotional health problems across the lifespan. The recently developed neuroimmune network hypothesis proposes that one of the underlying mechanisms for these associations is that early-life stress amplifies bidirectional crosstalk between the brain and the immune system, contributing to several mental and physical health conditions that have inflammatory underpinnings, such as depression and coronary heart disease. Neuroimmune crosstalk is thought to perpetuate inflammation and neural alterations linked to early-life stress exposure, and also foster behaviors that can further compromise health, such as smoking, drug abuse and consumption of high-fat diets. The goal of the present review is to briefly summarize the neuroimmune network hypothesis and use it as a starting point for generating new questions about the role of early-life stress in establishing a dysregulated relationship between neural and immune signaling, with consequences for lifespan physical and emotional health. Specifically, we aim to discuss implications and future directions for theory and empirical research on early-life stress, as well as for interventions that may improve the health and well-being of children and adolescents living in adverse conditions.

  19. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  20. The Differential Impacts of Early Physical and Sexual Abuse and Internalizing Problems on Daytime Cortisol Rhythm in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of early physical and sexual abuse (EPA/SA) occurring in the first 5 years of life was investigated in relation to depressive and internalizing symptomatology and diurnal cortisol regulation. In a summer camp context, school-aged maltreated (n = 265) and nonmaltreated (n = 288) children provided morning and late afternoon saliva samples…

  1. The nucleotides responsible for the direct physical contact between the chromatin insulator protein CTCF and the H19 imprinting control region manifest parent of origin-specific long-distance insulation and methylation-free domains

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Vinod; Mariano, Piero; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Mattsson, Anita; Lobanenkov, Victor; Heuchel, Rainer; Ohlsson, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    The repression of the maternally inherited Igf2 allele has been proposed to depend on a methylation-sensitive chromatin insulator organized by the 11 zinc finger protein CTCF at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR). Here we document that point mutations of the nucleotides in physical contact with CTCF within the endogenous H19 ICR lead to loss of CTCF binding and Igf2 imprinting only when passaged through the female germline. This effect is accompanied by a significant loss of methylation protection of the maternally derived H19 ICR. Because CTCF interacts with other imprinting control regions, it emerges as a central factor responsible for interpreting and propagating gamete-derived epigenetic marks and for organizing epigenetically controlled expression domains. PMID:12629040

  2. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    SciT

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted ofmore » a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.« less

  3. Exploring direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction for early-career registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Greene, William H

    2014-08-01

    We explored direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction in a nationally representative sample of 1,141 early-career registered nurses. In the fully specified model, physical work environment had a non-significant direct effect on job satisfaction. The path analysis used to test multiple indirect effects showed that physical work environment had a positive indirect effect (p < .05) on job satisfaction through ten variables: negative affectivity, variety, workgroup cohesion, nurse-physician relations, quantitative workload, organizational constraints, distributive justice, promotional opportunity, local and non-local job opportunities. The findings make important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between physical work environment and job satisfaction. The results can inform health care leaders' insight about how physical work environment influences nurses' job satisfaction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of the electrical contact area in contact-mode scanning probe microscopy

    SciT

    Celano, Umberto, E-mail: celano@imec.be, E-mail: u.celano@gmail.com; Chintala, Ravi Chandra; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    The tunneling current through an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is used to evaluate the effective electrical contact area, which exists between tip and sample in contact-AFM electrical measurements. A simple procedure for the evaluation of the effective electrical contact area is described using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in combination with a thin dielectric. We characterize the electrical contact area for coated metal and doped-diamond tips operated at low force (<200 nN) in contact mode. In both cases, we observe that only a small fraction (<10 nm{sup 2}) of the physical contact (∼100 nm{sup 2}) is effectively contributing to the transportmore » phenomena. Assuming this reduced area is confined to the central area of the physical contact, these results explain the sub-10 nm electrical resolution observed in C-AFM measurements.« less

  5. A contact angle hysteresis model based on the fractal structure of contact line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuai; Ma, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle is one of the most popular concept used in fields such as wetting, transport and microfludics. In practice, different contact angles such as equilibrium, receding and advancing contact angles are observed due to hysteresis. The connection among these contact angles is important in revealing the chemical and physical properties of surfaces related to wetting. Inspired by the fractal structure of contact line, we propose a single parameter model depicting the connection of the three angles. This parameter is decided by the fractal structure of the contact line. The results of this model agree with experimental observations. In certain cases, it can be reduced to other existing models. It also provides a new point of view in understanding the physical nature of the contact angle hysteresis. Interestingly, some counter-intuitive phenomena, such as the binary receding angles, are indicated in this model, which are waited to be validated by experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced End-Contacts by Helium Ion Bombardment to Improve Graphene-Metal Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Kunpeng; Su, Yajuan; Zhan, Jun; Shahzad, Kashif; Zhu, Huilong; Zhao, Chao; Luo, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Low contact resistance between graphene and metals is of paramount importance to fabricate high performance graphene-based devices. In this paper, the impact of both defects induced by helium ion (He+) bombardment and annealing on the contact resistance between graphene and various metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt) were systematically explored. It is found that the contact resistances between all metals and graphene are remarkably reduced after annealing, indicating that not only chemically adsorbed metal (Pd) but also physically adsorbed metals (Ag and Pt) readily form end-contacts at intrinsic defect locations in graphene. In order to further improve the contact properties between Ag, Pd, and Pt metals and graphene, a novel method in which self-aligned He+ bombardment to induce exotic defects in graphene and subsequent thermal annealing to form end-contacts was proposed. By using this method, the contact resistance is reduced significantly by 15.1% and 40.1% for Ag/graphene and Pd/graphene contacts with He+ bombardment compared to their counterparts without He+ bombardment. For the Pt/graphene contact, the contact resistance is, however, not reduced as anticipated with He+ bombardment and this might be ascribed to either inappropriate He+ bombardment dose, or inapplicable method of He+ bombardment in reducing contact resistance for Pt/graphene contact. The joint efforts of as-formed end-contacts and excess created defects in graphene are discussed as the cause responsible for the reduction of contact resistance. PMID:28335286

  7. Who should swing the stethoscope? An audit of baseline physical examination and blood monitoring on new patients accepted by an early intervention in psychosis team.

    PubMed

    Crabb, Jim; McAllister, Mark; Blair, Alison

    2009-11-01

    It has been established that patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of physical illness and that physical health screening should be performed when an individual experiences a first episode of psychosis. The aim of the audit was to examine how physical health screening was achieved in the real world of an early intervention in psychosis (EIP) service in Scotland. Of particular interest was considering if primary or secondary care were more effective in providing specific physical health assessment for those presenting to the service. A case note audit was performed. The audit shows that physical examination and blood tests were being completed in the majority of service users under the care of the Esteem service. However, an unacceptably high number were not undergoing sufficient initial screening for metabolic syndrome or having baseline monitoring prior to commencing antipsychotic medication. Our results suggest that relying on primary care to provide physical health screening was not an effective approach in a population experiencing first-episode psychosis. Having a psychiatrist motivated to perform physical health screening within the EIP team may help to improve the uptake of physical health screening. Strategies to improve physical health screening in EIP services are discussed. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2018-07-01

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p < .01). The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was significantly correlated with pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Our findings suggested that infants with cyanotic CHD are likely at a greater risk of gross motor delays, the recovery of which might differ between infants with cyanotic and acyanotic CHD after cardiac surgery. Early postoperative physical therapy promotes gross motor recovery. Implications of Rehabilitation Infants and toddlers with cyanotic congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected

  9. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  10. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study.

    PubMed

    Mei, Hong; Johansson, Elin; Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001). Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children's PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05). PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children's PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.

  11. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciT

    Ford, Corey C.; Taylor, Paul Allen

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots ofmore » maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.« less

  12. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  13. Avoiding Cross-Contact

    MedlinePlus

    ... View more examples of cross-contact > Talking to Restaurant Personnel about Cross-Contact It is important to ... meals. Do not be nervous about calling a restaurant you would like to dine at. The chef ...

  14. Contact Us about Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  15. Analysis of North Carolina Community College Early Childhood Education Coursework on Nutrition, Health, and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Professional Development Report, Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Hamby, Deborah W.; Long, Anna Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The results from a content analysis of coursework required and offered at the 58 North Carolina Community Colleges to obtain an Associate in Applied Sciences Degree in early childhood education are described. The analyses were conducted to determine the likelihood that the courses could include content knowledge or practice on 12 infant and child…

  16. Physical Activity, Physical Self-Concept, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Extreme Early and Late Maturing Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Smart, Joanna E. Hunter; Rodrigues, Aristides M. M.; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested for differences in physical activity (PA), physical self-concept, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between the least and most biologically mature adolescent females within their respective chronological and academic year groups. A total of 222 British female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (X[bar] age = 12.7…

  17. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    DOEpatents

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  18. Contact solution algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Two algorithms for obtaining static contact solutions are described in this presentation. Although they were derived for contact problems involving specific structures (a tire and a solid rubber cylinder), they are sufficiently general to be applied to other shell-of-revolution and solid-body contact problems. The shell-of-revolution contact algorithm is a method of obtaining a point load influence coefficient matrix for the portion of shell surface that is expected to carry a contact load. If the shell is sufficiently linear with respect to contact loading, a single influence coefficient matrix can be used to obtain a good approximation of the contact pressure distribution. Otherwise, the matrix will be updated to reflect nonlinear load-deflection behavior. The solid-body contact algorithm utilizes a Lagrange multiplier to include the contact constraint in a potential energy functional. The solution is found by applying the principle of minimum potential energy. The Lagrange multiplier is identified as the contact load resultant for a specific deflection. At present, only frictionless contact solutions have been obtained with these algorithms. A sliding tread element has been developed to calculate friction shear force in the contact region of the rolling shell-of-revolution tire model.

  19. A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-Départ Santé cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, Stéphanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne

    2016-04-12

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern for public health. Given a majority of children in many countries spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centers, this environment represents a promising setting for implementing strategies to foster healthy behaviours for preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Healthy Start-Départ Santé was designed to promote physical activity, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers. The objectives of this study are to assess the effectiveness of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in improving physical activity levels, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers attending early childcare centers. This study follows a cluster randomized controlled trial design in which the childcare centers are randomly assigned to receive the intervention or serve as usual care controls. The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention is comprised of interlinked components aiming to enable families and educators to integrate physical activity and healthy eating in the daily lives of young children by influencing factors at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, physical environment and policy levels. The intervention period, spanning 6-8 months, is preceded and followed by data collections. Participants are recruited from 61 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan. Centers eligible for this study have to prepare and provide meals for lunch and have at least 20 children between the ages of 3 and 5. Centers are excluded if they have previously received a physical activity or nutrition promoting intervention. Eligible centers are stratified by province, geographical location (urban or rural) and language (English or French), then recruited and randomized using a one to one protocol for each stratum. Data collection is ongoing. The primary study outcomes are assessed using accelerometers (physical activity levels), the Test of Gross Motor

  20. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "If I had to do it, then I would": Understanding early middle school students' perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students' perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  2. Experiences of four parents with physical therapy and early mobility of their children in a pediatric critical care unit: A case series.

    PubMed

    Parisien, Rachel B; Gillanders, Kirstie; Hennessy, Erin K; Herterich, Lisa; Saunders, Kendra; Lati, Jamil; Dos Santos, Stephanie; Hassall, Alison; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into parents' experiences of physical therapy and early mobility (EM) for their children in a pediatric critical care unit (PCCU). We conducted a series of four qualitative case studies using in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews. We recruited parents of children who had undergone surgery and received at least one EM physical therapy intervention while intubated. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews to illuminate the factors that influenced EM experiences. Four parents participated in the study. We developed an overview of Parental Experiences with Physical Therapy and Early Mobility in a PCCU, which includes four themes that parents believed influenced their experiences: (1) environmental factors; (2) awareness of physical therapist and health care professional (HCP) roles; (3) communication among parents and HCPs; and (4) parental participation in their child's EM, within the overarching parental experiences in the PCCU. This study affords a preliminary understanding of parents' experiences with physical therapy and EM in a PCCU setting. Results provide an important foundation for future research on mobility in the context of pediatric critical care research and practice.

  3. Modeling Thermal Contact Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One difficulty in using cryocoolers is making good thermal contact between the cooler and the instrument being cooled. The connection is often made through a bolted joint. The temperature drop associated with this joint has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. The low temperature behavior of dry joints have shown some anomalous dependence on the surface condition of the mating parts. There is also some doubts on how well one can extrapolate from the test samples to predicting the performance of a real system. Both finite element and analytic models of a simple contact system have been developed. The model assumes (a) the contact is dry (contact limited to a small portion of the total available area and the spaces in-between the actual contact patches are perfect insulators), (b) contacts are clean (conductivity of the actual contact is the same as the bulk), (c) small temperature gradients (the bulk conductance may be assumed to be temperature independent), (d) the absolute temperature is low (thermal radiation effects are ignored), and (e) the dimensions of the nominal contact area are small compared to the thickness of the bulk material (the contact effects are localized near the contact). The models show that in the limit of actual contact area much less than the nominal area (a much less than A), that the excess temperature drop due to a single point of contact scales as a(exp -1/2). This disturbance only extends a distance approx. A(exp 1/2) into the bulk material. A group of identical contacts will result in an excess temperature drop that scales as n(exp -1/2), where n is the number of contacts and n dot a is constant. This implies that flat rough surfaces will have a lower excess temperature drop than flat polished surfaces.

  4. Contact reactions to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, A; Armenaka, M; Kalogeromitros, D; Koufou, V; Georgala, S

    1999-05-01

    The most common reaction to fragrances is contact dermatitis, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction; however, other reactions include immediate contact reactions (contact urticaria) and photo-allergic reactions. Fragrance mix (FM) and balsam of Peru (BP) are used to screen for fragrance allergy. To study the different types of allergic skin reactions to fragrance compounds. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to FM and BP were studied in 4,975 patients with suspected contact dermatitis by routine patch testing interpreted at 48 and 96 hours. In 664 of the patients, patch tests were read at 30 minutes to evaluate for immediate (wheal-and-flare) contact reactions and again at 48 and 96 hours. Photopatch tests to FM were performed in 111 patients with suspected photo-allergic dermatitis. Delayed contact reactions to FM occurred in 6.6% of females and 5.4% of males and to BP in 3.9% of females and 4.1% of males. Analysis of data over time (12 study years) showed an increased trend for reactions to fragrances, particularly in males. Sensitivity to other contact allergens (polysensitivity) was found in 62% of patients and polysensitivity presented more often with generalized contact dermatitis. The most sensitizing components of the fragrance mix that were tested in 38 patients were cinnamic alcohol, oak moss, and cinnamic aldehyde. There were 112 immediate patch test reactions to FM and 113 to BP in 664 patients. Immediate contact reactions were followed by delayed contact reactions in 13.4% of patients for FM and 8.8% for BP, representing a significant increase in the frequency of delayed contact reactions. Patients with immediate contact reactions to fragrances did not have a higher incidence of atopy (25.9%). No cases of positive photopatch test reactions to FM were seen. Fragrances commonly cause both delayed and immediate patch test reactions and patients with immediate contact reactions have an increase in delayed contact reactions to the same allergen.

  5. Comparative study of the detection of joint injury in early-stage rheumatoid arthritis by magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and finger joints and physical examination.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Mami; Kawakami, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Naoki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Fujikawa, Keita; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Kita, Junko; Okada, Akitomo; Koga, Tomohiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kamachi, Makoto; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Hideki; Ida, Hiroaki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Takao, Shoichiro; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Uetani, Masataka; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2011-03-01

    To verify whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven joint injury is sensitive as compared with joint injury determined by physical examination. MRI of the wrist and finger joints of both hands was examined in 51 early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by both plain and gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI. Synovitis, bone edema, and bone erosion (the latter two included as bone lesions at the wrist joints); metacarpophalangeal joints; and proximal interphalangeal joints were considered as MRI-proven joint injury. Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists had given a physical examination just before the MRI study. The presence of tender and/or swollen joints in the same fields as MRI was considered as joint injury on physical examination. The association of MRI-proven joint injury with physical examination-proven joint injury was examined. A total of 1,110 sites were available to be examined. MRI-proven joint injury was found in 521 sites, whereas the other 589 sites were normal. Physical examination-proven joint injury was found in 305 sites, which was significantly low as compared with MRI-proven joint injury (P = 1.1 × 10(-12) versus MRI). Joint injury on physical examination was not found in 81.5% of the sites where MRI findings were normal. Furthermore, an association of the severity of MRI-proven joint injury with that of joint injury on physical examination was clearly demonstrated (P = 1.6 × 10(-15), r(s) = 0.469). Our present data suggest that MRI is not only sensitive but accurately reflects the joint injury in patients with early-stage RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Early sport practice is related to lower prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in adults independently of overweight and current physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Zanesco, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Early sport practice prevents development of diseases in children/adolescents, but still unclear its effect over health in adulthood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the association between sport practice in early life and chronic diseases in adulthood. A retrospective population-based survey carried out in eight Brazilian cities with adults of both genders. Throughout a multistage random process 2720 adults (1096 male and 1624 female) were selected and interviewed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension were assessed in a face-to-face interview through a self-report, which was necessarily based on previous medical diagnosis. Early sport practice was assessed in childhood (7-10 years old) and adolescence (11-17 years old). Current physical activity and body mass index were assessed in adulthood throughout a face-to-face interview. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension were identified in 8.1% (95% CI, 7.1-9.2) and 23.5% (95% CI, 21.9-25.1) of the sample, respectively. Early sport practice during childhood and adolescence was associated with lower occurrence of arterial hypertension (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.73) and type 2 diabetes (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88) in adulthood. Independently of obesity and current physical activity, early sport practice in early life was positively associated with lower occurrence of chronic diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  8. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Oscar E. Suman, PhD...Multicenter Study of the Effect of In-Patient Exercise Training on Length of Hospitalization, Mental Health , and Physical Performance in Burned...Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance,” Proposal Log Number 13214039, Award Number W81XWH-14

  9. A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Ren, Hong; Yin, Zenong; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Kaizhen

    2014-05-05

    The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age = 4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children's physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (-1.2%, p < 0.0001), fat mass (-0.55 kg, p <0.0001), and body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: -0.74 seconds, p < 0.0001; BJ: 8.09 cm, p < 0.0001; TBT: 0.52 meters, p < 0.006; SR: 0.88 cm, p < 0.03; BBW: -2

  10. Short-term lower-body plyometric training improves whole body BMC, bone metabolic markers, and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (Δ%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

  11. Long-Term Placement Trajectories of Children Who Were Maltreated and Entered the Child Welfare System at an Early Age: Consequences for Physical and Behavioral Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Davis, Inger P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify children’s long-term placement trajectories following early child welfare involvement and the association of these trajectories with subsequent physical and behavioral well-being. Method Participants were 330 children who entered out-of-home care following a substantiated report of child abuse or neglect during infancy/early childhood and their caregivers. Participants were interviewed at child ages 4 and 12 years to assess children’s physical and behavioral well-being and every 2 years in between to determine child placements. Results Latent Class Analyses identified four stable placement trajectories (i.e., adopted [32%], kinship care [15%], stable reunified [27%], and stable foster care [9%]), and two unstable trajectories (i.e., disrupted reunified [12%] and unstable foster care [5%]). Logistic regressions revealed that children in the unstable trajectories had significantly poorer physical and behavioral well-being than children in stable trajectories. Conclusions and Relevance Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at risk for long-term placement instability and poorer physical and behavioral well-being. PMID:25834181

  12. Trends in brain oxygenation during mental and physical exercise measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): potential for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Monica S.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Mikkilineni, Shweta; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    Motivation: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because symptoms respond best to available treatments in the initial stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown that marked changes in brain oxygenation during mental and physical tasks can be used for noninvasive functional brain imaging to detect Alzheimer"s disease. The goal of our study is to explore the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mapping (NIRM) as a diagnostic tool for AD before the onset of significant morphological changes in the brain. Methods: A 16-channel NIRS brain imager was used to noninvasively measure spatial and temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced during verbal fluency task and physical activity. The experiments involved healthy subjects (n = 10) in the age range of 25+/-5 years. The NIRS signals were taken from the subjects' prefrontal cortex during the activities. Results and Conclusion: Trends of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the brain were observed. During the mental stimulation, the subjects showed significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin [HbO2] with a simultaneous decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin [Hb]. However, physical exercise caused a rise in levels of HbO2 with small variations in Hb. This study basically demonstrates that NIRM taken from the prefrontal cortex of the human brain is sensitive to both mental and physical tasks and holds potential to serve as a diagnostic means for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Long-Term Placement Trajectories of Children Who Were Maltreated and Entered the Child Welfare System at an Early Age: Consequences for Physical and Behavioral Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Villodas, Miguel T; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify children's long-term placement trajectories following early child welfare involvement and the association of these trajectories with subsequent physical and behavioral well-being. Participants were 330 children who entered out-of-home care following a substantiated report of child abuse or neglect during infancy/early childhood and their caregivers. Participants were interviewed at child ages 4 and 12 years to assess children's physical and behavioral well-being and every 2 years in between to determine child placements. Latent Class Analyses identified four stable placement trajectories (i.e., adopted [32%], kinship care [15%], stable reunified [27%], and stable foster care [9%]), and two unstable trajectories (i.e., disrupted reunified [12%] and unstable foster care [5%]). Logistic regressions revealed that children in the unstable trajectories had significantly poorer physical and behavioral well-being than children in stable trajectories. Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at risk for long-term placement instability and poorer physical and behavioral well-being. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Physical growth and cognitive skills in early-life: evidence from a nationally representative US birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Murasko, Jason E

    2013-11-01

    This paper establishes associations between length/height and cognitive skills in infancy, toddlerhood, and school-entry. The data come from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a representative longitudinal sample of US children born in 2001. A positive association between length/height and cognition is found as early as 9 months and continues through school-entry. These associations are robust to controls for birthweight and economic status. Early growth is also shown to be a stronger predictor of reading and math skills in kindergarten than attained height. Girls exhibit stronger evidence of this latter result than boys. These findings have implications for the interpretation of early life as a critical period for the growth-cognition relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  16. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Contacts to Semiconductor Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-03

    SiNW diameters and the amount of metal deposited, or alternatively, the atomic ratio between Pt and Si. The uniformity of the silicided NWs was...program. The Schottky contact is a metal silicide formed by rapid thermal annealing of the deposited contact metal . The θ- Ni2Si/n-Si NW Schottky...decision. unless so designated by other documentation. 14. ABSTRACT Metal contacts to semiconductor nanowires share similarities with their thin-film

  18. The Design and Implementation of a Physical Education Program to Promote Children's Creativity in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Trevlas, Efthimios; Konstadinidou, Elisavet

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and implement a physical education program to promote creativity in preschool children. The study was based on the following phases: (a) to design and formulate 20 physical education lessons in order to provide children with opportunities to develop their creative thinking through the use of movement…

  19. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  20. Contact lens complications.

    PubMed

    Suchecki, Jeanine K; Donshik, Peter; Ehlers, William H

    2003-09-01

    Complications associated with contact lenses range from mild to severe and occur with all lens modalities. Contact lens wear can cause a change in corneal physiology, which can lead to epithelial, stromal, and endothelial compromise. Other complications include lens deposition, allergic conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, peripheral infiltrates, microbial keratitis, and neovascularization. Pre-existing conditions can contribute to these complications, or they can occur in association with contact lens wear and care regimens. Patient-related factors, such as alteration of the recommended wearing or replacement schedules and noncompliance with recommended contact lens care regimens for economic reasons, convenience, or in error, contribute to contact lens-related complications and have led to difficulty in accurate determination of complication rates among the various lens wear modalities. Complications may require discontinuation of contact lenses, topical therapy, and changes in contact lens wearing schedules, materials, and care solutions. On initial lens fitting and follow-up evaluations, practitioners should review contact lens replacement and cleaning regimens with patients and discuss complications. To avoid serious complications, patients should be reminded to remove their contact lenses as soon as ocular irritation occurs, and to call their eye care practitioner immediately if symptoms persist.

  1. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  2. Job demand and control in mid-life and physical and mental functioning in early old age: do childhood factors explain these associations in a British birth cohort?

    PubMed Central

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adverse work-related exposures have been linked with decreased physical and mental functioning in later life, however, whether childhood factors explain the associations between work exposures and functioning is unknown. Our aim was to investigate if job demand and control in mid-life were related to self-reported physical and mental functioning in early old age and whether childhood factors explained these associations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants and outcome measures Data come from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a cohort with follow-up since birth in 1946. 1485 occupationally active study members had data available on job demand and control in mid-life and on physical and mental functioning assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire at 60–64 years. Results Those with higher job control in mid-life had better physical functioning than those who reported lower job control (β 0.51, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.01, p=0.04 adjusted for adult confounders). Those with higher job demand in mid-life had poorer mental functioning (β −0.82, 95% CI −1.14 to −0.51, p<0.001). Associations between job control and mental functioning were similar but less pronounced. Adjustment for childhood factors (father's and mother's educational attainment, parents’ interest in school at age 7 and cognitive ability at age 8) partially explained the association between job control and physical functioning, but did not explain the association between job demand and mental functioning. Conclusions Job demand and control in mid-life are differentially associated with mental and physical functioning in early old age and some of these associations may be partially explained by childhood factors. PMID:25319998

  3. Unstable child welfare permanent placements and early adolescent physical and mental health: The roles of adverse childhood experiences and post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Villodas, Miguel T; Cromer, Kelly D; Moses, Jacqueline O; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P

    2016-12-01

    Although researchers have found that child welfare placement disruptions are associated with elevated youth physical and mental health problems, the mechanisms that explain this association have not been previously studied. The present study built on a previous investigation of the physical and behavioral consequences of long-term permanent placement patterns among youth who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The current investigation (n=251) aimed to (a) report the early adolescent living situations of youth with different long-term placement patterns, and (b) to delineate the roles of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions in the association between unstable long-term placement patterns and physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Information about youth's living situations, ACEs, and physical and mental health was gathered prospectively from child protective services records and biannual caregiver and youth interviews when youth were 4-14 years old. The majority of youth remained with the same caregiver during early adolescence, but youth with chronically unstable permanent placement patterns continued to experience instability. Path analyses revealed that ACEs mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and elevated mental, but not physical, health problems during late childhood. Additionally, late childhood PTS mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and subsequent escalations in physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Findings highlight the importance of long-term permanency planning for youth who enter the child welfare system and emphasize the importance of trauma-focused assessment and intervention for these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of regional physically-based landslide early warning model: tuning of the input parameters and validation of the results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Tofani, Veronica; Rossi, Guglielmo; Salvatici, Teresa; Tacconi Stefanelli, Carlo; Rosi, Ascanio; Benedetta Masi, Elena; Pazzi, Veronica; Vannocci, Pietro; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    The Aosta Valley region is located in North-West Alpine mountain chain. The geomorphology of the region is characterized by steep slopes, high climatic and altitude (ranging from 400 m a.s.l of Dora Baltea's river floodplain to 4810 m a.s.l. of Mont Blanc) variability. In the study area (zone B), located in Eastern part of Aosta Valley, heavy rainfall of about 800-900 mm per year is the main landslides trigger. These features lead to a high hydrogeological risk in all territory, as mass movements interest the 70% of the municipality areas (mainly shallow rapid landslides and rock falls). An in-depth study of the geotechnical and hydrological properties of hillslopes controlling shallow landslides formation was conducted, with the aim to improve the reliability of deterministic model, named HIRESS (HIgh REsolution Stability Simulator). In particular, two campaigns of on site measurements and laboratory experiments were performed. The data obtained have been studied in order to assess the relationships existing among the different parameters and the bedrock lithology. The analyzed soils in 12 survey points are mainly composed of sand and gravel, with highly variable contents of silt. The range of effective internal friction angle (from 25.6° to 34.3°) and effective cohesion (from 0 kPa to 9.3 kPa) measured and the median ks (10E-6 m/s) value are consistent with the average grain sizes (gravelly sand). The data collected contributes to generate input map of parameters for HIRESS (static data). More static data are: volume weight, residual water content, porosity and grain size index. In order to improve the original formulation of the model, the contribution of the root cohesion has been also taken into account based on the vegetation map and literature values. HIRESS is a physically based distributed slope stability simulator for analyzing shallow landslide triggering conditions in real time and in large areas using parallel computational techniques. The software

  5. A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age = 4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (−1.2%, p < 0.0001), fat mass (−0.55 kg, p <0.0001), and body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: −0.74 seconds, p < 0.0001; BJ: 8.09 cm, p < 0.0001; TBT: 0

  6. Enhancing Intergenerational Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Penny A.; And Others

    This document is a curriculum module designed to assist secondary school home economic teachers in teaching students about aging. The three major purposes of this module are to provide data-based information on aging related to needs of students to enhance intergenerational contact; to facilitate the expansion of intergenerational contacts by…

  7. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  8. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision problems; this includes prescribing eyeglasses and contact lenses, but also doing eye surgery for other eye-related problems. An optometrist ... them clean. The most important thing about contact lenses is good hygiene to prevent infections in your eye. But the really fun part of new glasses ...

  9. Contacts | Galaxy of Images

    This site has moved! Please go to our new Image Gallery site! dot header Contact Us About the Image Galaxy For licensing and other usage questions, please contact: Image use and licensing ! Enter a search term and hit the search button to quickly find an image Go The above "Quick Search

  10. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  11. Measurement of compliance with New York City's regulations on beverages, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Lesesne, Catherine; Kakietek, Jakub; Breck, Andrew; Jernigan, Jan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    Policy interventions designed to change the nutrition environment and increase physical activity in child care centers are becoming more common, but an understanding of the implementation of these interventions is yet to be developed. The objective of this study was to explore the extent and consistency of compliance with a policy intervention designed to promote nutrition and physical activity among licensed child care centers in New York City. We used a multimethod cross-sectional approach and 2 independent components of data collection (Center Evaluation Component and Classroom Evaluation Component). The methods were designed to evaluate the impact of regulations on beverages served, physical activity, and screen time at child care centers. We calculated compliance scores for each evaluation component and each regulation and percentage agreement between compliance in the center and classroom components. Compliance with certain requirements of the beverage regulations was high and fairly consistent between components, whereas compliance with the physical activity regulation varied according to the data collection component. Compliance with the regulation on amount and content of screen time was high and consistent. Compliance with the physical activity regulation may be a more fluid, day-to-day issue, whereas compliance with the regulations on beverages and television viewing may be easier to control at the center level. Multiple indicators over multiple time points may provide a more complete picture of compliance - especially in the assessment of compliance with physical activity policies.

  12. A Combined Early Cognitive and Physical Rehabilitation Program for People Who Are Critically Ill: The Activity and Cognitive Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit (ACT-ICU) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, James C.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.; Schiro, Elena; Work, Brittany; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Gill, Thomas M.; Ely, E. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Background In the coming years, the number of survivors of critical illness is expected to increase. These survivors frequently develop newly acquired physical and cognitive impairments. Long-term cognitive impairment is common following critical illness and has dramatic effects on patients' abilities to function autonomously. Neuromuscular weakness affects similar proportions of patients and leads to equally profound life alterations. As knowledge of these short-term and long-term consequences of critical illness has come to light, interventions to prevent and rehabilitate these devastating consequences have been sought. Physical rehabilitation has been shown to improve functional outcomes in people who are critically ill, but subsequent studies of physical rehabilitation after hospital discharge have not. Post-hospital discharge cognitive rehabilitation is feasible in survivors of critical illness and is commonly used in people with other forms of acquired brain injury. The feasibility of early cognitive therapy in people who are critically ill remains unknown. Objective The purpose of this novel protocol trial will be to determine the feasibility of early and sustained cognitive rehabilitation paired with physical rehabilitation in patients who are critically ill from medical and surgical intensive care units. Design This is a randomized controlled trial. Setting The setting for this trial will be medical and surgical intensive care units of a large tertiary care referral center. Patients The participants will be patients who are critically ill with respiratory failure or shock. Intervention Patients will be randomized to groups receiving usual care, physical rehabilitation, or cognitive rehabilitation plus physical rehabilitation. Twice-daily cognitive rehabilitation sessions will be performed with patients who are noncomatose and will consist of orientation, memory, and attention exercises (eg, forward and reverse digit spans, matrix puzzles, letter

  13. Neighborhood Poverty Impacts Children's Physical Health and Well-Being over Time: Evidence from the Early Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushon, Jennifer A.; Vu, Lan T. H.; Janzen, Bonnie L.; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to investigate how neighborhoods and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage impact school readiness over time. School readiness was measured using the Early Development Instrument (EDI) for 3 populations of kindergartners in 2001, 2003, and 2005 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. EDI results…

  14. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs. PMID:28299299

  15. History of ``NANO''-Scale VERY EARLY Solid-State (and Liquid-State) Physics/Chemistry/Metallurgy/ Ceramics; Interstitial-Alloys Carbides/Nitrides/Borides/...Powders and Cermets, Rock Shocks, ...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, Colin; Siegel, Edward

    History of ``NANO'': Siegel-Matsubara-Vest-Gregson[Mtls. Sci. and Eng. 8, 6, 323(`71); Physica Status Solidi (a)11,45(`72)] VERY EARLY carbides/nitrides/borides powders/cermets solid-state physics/chemistry/metallurgy/ ceramics FIRST-EVER EXPERIMENTAL NANO-physics/chemistry[1968 ->Physica Status Solidi (a)11,45(`72); and EARLY NANO-``physics''/NANO-``chemistry'' THEORY(after: Kubo(`62)-Matsubara(`60s-`70s)-Fulde (`65) [ref.: Sugano[Microcluster-Physics, Springer('82 `98)

  16. Electrical properties of graphene-metal contacts.

    PubMed

    Cusati, Teresa; Fiori, Gianluca; Gahoi, Amit; Passi, Vikram; Lemme, Max C; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Iannaccone, Giuseppe

    2017-07-11

    The performance of devices and systems based on two-dimensional material systems depends critically on the quality of the contacts between 2D material and metal. A low contact resistance is an imperative requirement to consider graphene as a candidate material for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unfortunately, measurements of contact resistance in the literature do not provide a consistent picture, due to limitations of current graphene technology, and to incomplete understanding of influencing factors. Here we show that the contact resistance is intrinsically dependent on graphene sheet resistance and on the chemistry of the graphene-metal interface. We present a physical model of the contacts based on ab-initio simulations and extensive experiments carried out on a large variety of samples with different graphene-metal contacts. Our model explains the spread in experimental results as due to uncontrolled graphene doping and suggests ways to engineer contact resistance. We also predict an achievable contact resistance of 30 Ω·μm for nickel electrodes, extremely promising for applications.

  17. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  18. DoE Early Career Research Program: Final Report: Model-Independent Dark-Matter Searches at the ATLAS Experiment and Applications of Many-core Computing to High Energy Physics

    SciT

    Farbin, Amir

    2015-07-15

    This is the final report of for DoE Early Career Research Program Grant Titled "Model-Independent Dark-Matter Searches at the ATLAS Experiment and Applications of Many-core Computing to High Energy Physics".

  19. Surrogate modeling of deformable joint contact using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Eskinazi, Ilan; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    Deformable joint contact models can be used to estimate loading conditions for cartilage-cartilage, implant-implant, human-orthotic, and foot-ground interactions. However, contact evaluations are often so expensive computationally that they can be prohibitive for simulations or optimizations requiring thousands or even millions of contact evaluations. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel surrogate contact modeling method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The method uses special sampling techniques to gather input-output data points from an original (slow) contact model in multiple domains of input space, where each domain represents a different physical situation likely to be encountered. For each contact force and torque output by the original contact model, a multi-layer feed-forward ANN is defined, trained, and incorporated into a surrogate contact model. As an evaluation problem, we created an ANN-based surrogate contact model of an artificial tibiofemoral joint using over 75,000 evaluations of a fine-grid elastic foundation (EF) contact model. The surrogate contact model computed contact forces and torques about 1000 times faster than a less accurate coarse grid EF contact model. Furthermore, the surrogate contact model was seven times more accurate than the coarse grid EF contact model within the input domain of a walking motion. For larger input domains, the surrogate contact model showed the expected trend of increasing error with increasing domain size. In addition, the surrogate contact model was able to identify out-of-contact situations with high accuracy. Computational contact models created using our proposed ANN approach may remove an important computational bottleneck from musculoskeletal simulations or optimizations incorporating deformable joint contact models. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surrogate Modeling of Deformable Joint Contact using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Eskinazi, Ilan; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Deformable joint contact models can be used to estimate loading conditions for cartilage-cartilage, implant-implant, human-orthotic, and foot-ground interactions. However, contact evaluations are often so expensive computationally that they can be prohibitive for simulations or optimizations requiring thousands or even millions of contact evaluations. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel surrogate contact modeling method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The method uses special sampling techniques to gather input-output data points from an original (slow) contact model in multiple domains of input space, where each domain represents a different physical situation likely to be encountered. For each contact force and torque output by the original contact model, a multi-layer feed-forward ANN is defined, trained, and incorporated into a surrogate contact model. As an evaluation problem, we created an ANN-based surrogate contact model of an artificial tibiofemoral joint using over 75,000 evaluations of a fine-grid elastic foundation (EF) contact model. The surrogate contact model computed contact forces and torques about 1000 times faster than a less accurate coarse grid EF contact model. Furthermore, the surrogate contact model was seven times more accurate than the coarse grid EF contact model within the input domain of a walking motion. For larger input domains, the surrogate contact model showed the expected trend of increasing error with increasing domain size. In addition, the surrogate contact model was able to identify out-of-contact situations with high accuracy. Computational contact models created using our proposed ANN approach may remove an important computational bottleneck from musculoskeletal simulations or optimizations incorporating deformable joint contact models. PMID:26220591