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Sample records for early physical medicine

  1. Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. Review Date 10/23/2017 Updated by: Andrew W. ...

  2. Why Physics in Medicine?

    PubMed

    Samei, Ehsan; Grist, Thomas M

    2018-05-18

    Despite its crucial role in the development of new medical imaging technologies, in clinical practice, physics has primarily been involved in the technical evaluation of technologies. However, this narrow role is no longer adequate. New trajectories in medicine call for a stronger role for physics in the clinic. The movement toward evidence-based, quantitative, and value-based medicine requires physicists to play a more integral role in delivering innovative precision care through the intentional clinical application of physical sciences. There are three aspects of this clinical role: technology assessment based on metrics as they relate to expected clinical performance, optimized use of technologies for patient-centered clinical outcomes, and retrospective analysis of imaging operations to ensure attainment of expectations in terms of quality and variability. These tasks fuel the drive toward high-quality, consistent practice of medical imaging that is patient centered, evidence based, and safe. While this particular article focuses on imaging, this trajectory and paradigm is equally applicable to the multitudes of the applications of physics in medicine. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physics and medicine: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2012-04-21

    Nowadays, the term medical physics usually refers to the work of physicists employed in hospitals, who are concerned mainly with medical applications of radiation, diagnostic imaging, and clinical measurement. This involvement in clinical work began barely 100 years ago, but the relation between physics and medicine has a much longer history. In this report, I have traced this history from the earliest recorded period, when physical agents such as heat and light began to be used to diagnose and treat disease. Later, great polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci and Alhazen used physical principles to begin the quest to understand the function of the body. After the scientific revolution in the 17th century, early medical physicists developed a purely mechanistic approach to physiology, whereas others applied ideas derived from physics in an effort to comprehend the nature of life itself. These early investigations led directly to the development of specialties such as electrophysiology, biomechanics, and ophthalmology. Physics-based medical technology developed rapidly during the 19th century, but it was the revolutionary discoveries about radiation and radioactivity at the end of the century that ushered in a new era of radiation-based medical diagnosis and treatment, thereby giving rise to the modern medical physics profession. Subsequent developments in imaging in particular have revolutionised the practice of medicine. We now stand on the brink of a new revolution in post-genomic personalised medicine, with physics-based techniques again at the forefront. As before, these techniques are often the unpredictable fruits of earlier investment in basic physics research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The physical problems in medicine].

    PubMed

    Bao, Shang-lian; Wang, Wei-dong; Fan, Tie-shuan

    2007-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the basic sciences to support the human health are chemistry, physics and informatics. Chemistry is the base of pharmacy. Physics is the base of medical instruments and equipments (MIE). The diagnosis and therapy of diseases are relying on informatics. Therefore, as the fusion results of physics and medicine, medical physics is the creative source science of MIE. Among all diagnosis tools, medical imaging devices are the fastest-developed and the most-complicated MIE since Roentgen discovered X-ray which was quickly used in medical diagnosis in 1895. Among all treatment tools, the radiotherapeutical devices are the most-widely used and the most effective MIE for tumor treatments since Mrs. Courier found the nature radiation isotope Radium at the end of 19th century and began to use it in tumor therapy. Although the research and development (R&D) of so-complicated MIE need many subjects of science and engineering, the kernel science is medical physics. With the results of more than 50 years' development in developed countries, medical physics has defined its own field, which is the medical imaging physics and the radiotherapeutical physics. But, the definition has been expanded to be wider and wider. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the establishment of Medical Physics in China. In order to develop medical physics in china, the bases of R&D and clinical practice should be also built.

  5. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC.

  6. Find a Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Physician

    MedlinePlus

    ... password Create a new account American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 9700 W. Bryn Mawr Ave ... Physiatry About Physiatry History of the Specialty About Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Find a PM&R Physician ...

  7. Physical Education in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…

  8. Making Early Modern Medicine: Reproducing Swedish Bitters.

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto; Fors, Hjalmar

    2016-05-01

    Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the 1730s to the present. In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin. The paper delineates the compositional history of Swedish Bitters and the medical rationale underlying its composition. It also describes how we go about to reproduce the medicine in a laboratory using early modern pharmaceutical methods, and analyse it using contemporary methods of pharmaceutical chemistry. Our aim is twofold: first, to show how reproducing medicines may provide a path towards a deeper understanding of the role of sensual and practical knowledge in the wider context of early modern medical culture; and second, how it may yield interesting results from the point of view of contemporary pharmaceutical science.

  9. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  10. What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Horden, Peregrine

    2011-01-01

    The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

  11. The contribution of Medical Physics to Nuclear Medicine: looking back - a physicist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Brian F

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of Nuclear Medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a Nuclear Medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of Medical Physics to Nuclear Medicine. Contributions of Medical Physics are presented from the early discovery of radioactivity, development of first imaging devices, computers and emission tomography to recent development of hybrid imaging. There is evidence of significant contribution of Medical Physics throughout the development of Nuclear Medicine.

  12. [Early Greek medicine and Plato's cosmology].

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kee-Bag

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of Early greek medicine on Plato's Cosmology. Alcmaeon holds that health depends on proportion (equality; isonomia) or proportioned mixture of opposing factors. This notion dominated nearly all greek medicine, and also influenced Plato's cosmology greatly. Generally each greek doctors believed that man consisted of opposing factors, though these are designated differently. Alcmaeon takes powers - hot and dry, cold and hot, vitter, sweet and the rest as those factors. On the other hand, Philistion of Locri adopts the four element theory of Empedocles. He conceives that human body as a mixture of the four elements, and health consists in proportion of these opposing four element, basically as Alcmaeon. This notion is accepted by Plato. Only Plato differs from Philistion in that he doesn't consider the four elements as the ultimate factors. In Timaeus Plato explain that the Demiourgos constructed the four elements through introducing 'proportion' into the primitive materials (the oppositives) by means of shapes and numbers. And Plato thinks that the cosmic body and soul was constructed basically in the same way as the four elements. This is true of the human body and soul. Also Plato explicates diseases from standpoint of proportion or symmetry. Moreover according to Philebus, the good states (i.e. 'health', 'music', 'season' etc) in the cosmos arises out of the right mixture of the limit and the unlimited. In the other word this mixture is proportioned mixture of the oppositives by aid of ratios. In short Plato believes that both the cosmos itself and the good states s proportioned mixture of the oppositives. Thus Plato' cosmology is fundamentally based upon Alcmaeon's or Philistion's concept of Health.

  13. Empower: access to medicine - working towards early access.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer Bryant; Turgoose, James; Hargrave, James

    2015-01-01

    Empower: Access to Medicine's contribution will document the founding of Empower: Access to Medicine and tactics used to create a lobbying campaign designed to facilitate the debate around barriers to medical innovation and patient access to medicines. The article will detail the evolution of the campaign's goals and the potential solutions to an expensive and slow system. Specifically the submission will look at the influence that Empower: Access to Medicine had on the Government's thinking and development of an early access scheme.

  14. Nuclear Medicine Physics: The Basics. 7th ed.

    PubMed

    Mihailidis, Dimitris

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear Medicine Physics: The Basics. 7th ed. Ramesh Chandra, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer Business. Philadelphia, 2012. Softbound, 224 pp. Price: $69.99. ISBN: 9781451109412. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Systematic Review of Chinese Medicine for Miscarriage during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy. PMID:24648851

  16. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  17. BOOK REVIEW Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakov, Slavik

    2010-11-01

    This is a multi-author handbook (66 authors) aiming to describe various applications of physics to medicine and biology, from anatomy and physiology to medical equipment. This unusual reference book has 44 chapters organized in seven sections: 1. Anatomical physics; 2. Physics of perception; 3. Biomechanics; 4. Electrical physics; 5. Diagnostic physics; 6. Physics of accessory medicine; 7. Physics of bioengineering. Each chapter has separate page numbering, which is inconvenient but understandable with the number of authors. Similarly there is some variation in the emphasis of chapters: for some the emphasis is more technical and for others clinical. Each chapter has a separate list of references. The handbook includes hundreds of diagrams, images and tables, making it a useful tool for both medical physicists/engineers and other medical/biology specialists. The first section (about 40 pages) includes five chapters on physics of the cell membrane; protein signaling; cell biology and biophysics of the cell membrane; cellular thermodynamics; action potential transmission and volume conduction. The physics of these is well explained and illustrated with clear diagrams and formulae, so it could be a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapters on cellular thermodynamics and action potential transmission have a very good balance of technical/clinical content. The second section (about 85 pages) includes six chapters on medical decision making; senses; somatic senses: touch and pain; hearing; vision; electroreception. Again these are well illustrated and a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapter on hearing stands out with good balance and treatment of material, but some other chapters contain less physics and are close to typical physiological explanations. One could query the inclusion of the chapter on medical decision making, which also needs more detail. The third section (about 80 pages) includes eight chapters on biomechanics

  18. Thirty years from now: future physics contributions in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Dale L

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine physician each take a backward and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here, we provide a forward look from the medical physicist's perspective. The author examines a number of developments in nuclear medicine and discusses the ways in which physics has contributed to these. Future developments are postulated in the context of an increasingly personalised approach to medical diagnostics and therapies. A skill set for the next generation of medical physicists in nuclear medicine is proposed in the context of the increasing complexity of 'Molecular Imaging' in the next three decades. The author sees a shift away from 'traditional' roles in instrumentation QA to more innovative approaches in understanding radiobiology and human disease.

  19. Early medicine and surgery in Calgary.

    PubMed

    Troy, M T

    1976-09-01

    The medical history of the Calgary area can be divided into three periods: the early period before the coming of the North West Mounted Police in 1874, the middle period from 1875 to 1905, during which Fort Calgary was built and the first surgeons settled in the West, and the third period from 1905 to the present. George Alexander Kennedy was the first surgeon of the middle period. He encouraged proper sanitation, fresh air, and avoidance of cold, damp and dirt. He recommended special treatment for various systemic diseases, used chloroform in October 1880 and was known to have treated skull fractures, extradural hemorrhages, prostatic obstruction, postabortion hemorrhage, ascites and pleural effusion. Henderson, Brett, Lindsay, Rouleau, Lafferty and Mackid were the other six pioneer surgeons of the middle period. Mackid's son Ludwig took over his father's practice after studying in Europe and the United States. When he died in November 1975 at the age of 93, the last link with the pioneer surgeons of Calgary was broken.

  20. The Modern Value of Early Writings in Medicine and Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Peck, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates three examples supporting the modern value of early writings in dentistry and medicine. First, by studying cases described in works published long before the era of genetic science, we are able to develop new hypotheses about familial conditions and their genetic roots. Tooth transposition is presented as an example. Second, old writings may lead us to valuable historical insights and perspectives in medicine that can be revealed only in retrospective analysis. An example of this kind of historical analysis uncovers why dentistry became unnaturally separated from mainstream medicine in the 19th century. Third, early writings become keys to unlocking forgotten knowledge that enriches our understanding of historically significant people and events. The discovery of Norman Kingsley's long forgotten pyrographic paintings after Rembrandt portraits is used as an example. Libraries, the traditional custodians of these valued old texts, must continue to be supported, and not undermined by the paperless digital revolution. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  1. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  2. Introducing the Institute of Physics in Engineering and Medicine (IPEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2014-04-01

    profile of the medical physics and bioengineering sectors. We seek to influence science and healthcare policy-makers through responses to consultations, high-level committee representation and policy statements. By providing expert spokespeople, we help to ensure accurate media coverage of IPEM-related issues. For example, in 2012 we contributed to the development of new European Commission regulations on medical implants and diagnostic devices. We also worked with the Science Media Centre to provide a press briefing on the subject that led to informed coverage by national media outlets, including BBC Radio 4's Today programme, The Times and the British Medical Journal. Enhancing science and technology in healthcare IPEM works to uphold the quality, safety and effectiveness of science and technology in healthcare. We do this by influencing healthcare policy and practice, helping to set international standards and guidelines and conducting surveys and audits. Our special interest groups (SIGs) provide specialized expertise on a range of topics (see table 1). For example, the Radiotherapy SIG was recently consulted on the distribution of the UK Department of Health's #23m Radiotherapy Innovation Fund. Table 1. IPEM special interest groups (SIGs). Clinical engineering Diagnostic radiology Informatics and computing Nuclear medicine Radiotherapy Magnetic resonance Radiation protection Physiological measurement Rehabilitation and biomechanics Ultrasound and non-ionizing radiation High-quality education and training We aim to maintain high standards of professional development for healthcare scientists, engineers and technicians. In the UK, we are an important source of accreditation for training centres. We also offer training and other support for trainees, such as the trainee network which enables early career healthcare scientists and engineers to collaborate and support each other. Through IPEM, members can seek professional registration on the Science Council and

  3. Physical Fitness and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2006-01-01

    The state of children's fitness is the responsibility of all who are involved with children. As early childhood professionals, they have a duty to educate the whole (thinking, feeling, "moving") child. Moreover, teachers of preschoolers can be more realistic than parents in their assessment of children's physical inactivity levels, and preschool…

  4. The physical challenges of early breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Christa M

    2006-11-01

    Breastfeeding rates have recently increased in the United States and Canada and a majority of women now initiate breastfeeding. Feminist scholarship on breastfeeding has addressed a variety of issues related to women's breastfeeding experiences but has tended to ignore or downplay the potentially physically challenging aspects of early breastfeeding. This study, based on semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 52 women from Canada and the United States conducted at approximately one month postpartum, examines women's experiences of pain and discomfort associated with breastfeeding. The findings demonstrate that many women experienced pain and discomfort and that they were generally surprised by the extent, intensity and duration of discomfort and pain, which ranged from mild to severe. Several women indicated that the physical impact of breastfeeding affected their relationship with their baby; others indicated that they became hesitant to continue the practice due to feelings of physical vulnerability, pain and/or discomfort. Lastly, women's experiences of the physical implications of breastfeeding were influenced in part by assistance provided by health care practitioners, in both positive and negative ways. The practice of breastfeeding has the potential to challenge women's physicality. Feminist scholars addressing the topic of breastfeeding, women's postpartum health, and embodiment must more directly and comprehensively account for the potentially negative physical implications and demands associated with early breastfeeding.

  5. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  6. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  7. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p <0.001) and for agreement on performance of the five physical examinations (0.79-0.92 p <0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, performance of the general physical examination was already below

  8. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Haring, Catharina M; Cools, Bernadette M; van der Meer, Jos Wm; Postma, Cornelis T

    2014-04-08

    Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p <0.001) and for agreement on performance of the five physical examinations (0.79-0.92 p <0.001). In conclusion, performance of the general physical examination was already below expectation at the end of the internal

  9. Early Spacelab physics and astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the scientific problems which will be investigated during the early Spacelab physics and astronomy missions are reviewed. The Solar Terrestrial Programs will include the Solar Physics Spacelab Payloads (SPSP) and the Atmospheres, Magnetospheres and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) missions. These missions will study the sun as a star and the influence of solar phenomena on the earth, including sun-solar wind interface, the nature of the solar flares, etc. The Astrophysics Spacelab Payloads (ASP) programs are divided into the Ultraviolet-Optical Astronomy and the High Energy Astrophysics areas. The themes of astrophysics Spacelab investigations will cover the nature of the universe, the fate of matter and the life cycles of stars. The paper discusses various scientific experiments and instruments to be used in the early Spacelab missions.

  10. Particle physics in the very early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  11. Evolution viewed from physics, physiology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2017-10-06

    Stochasticity is harnessed by organisms to generate functionality. Randomness does not, therefore, necessarily imply lack of function or 'blind chance' at higher levels. In this respect, biology must resemble physics in generating order from disorder. This fact is contrary to Schrödinger's idea of biology generating phenotypic order from molecular- level order, which inspired the central dogma of molecular biology. The order originates at higher levels, which constrain the components at lower levels. We now know that this includes the genome, which is controlled by patterns of transcription factors and various epigenetic and reorganization mechanisms. These processes can occur in response to environmental stress, so that the genome becomes 'a highly sensitive organ of the cell' (McClintock). Organisms have evolved to be able to cope with many variations at the molecular level. Organisms also make use of physical processes in evolution and development when it is possible to arrive at functional development without the necessity to store all information in DNA sequences. This view of development and evolution differs radically from that of neo-Darwinism with its emphasis on blind chance as the origin of variation. Blind chance is necessary, but the origin of functional variation is not at the molecular level. These observations derive from and reinforce the principle of biological relativity, which holds that there is no privileged level of causation. They also have important implications for medical science.

  12. Burnout and Physical Activity in Minnesota Internal Medicine Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Shawn M.; Odo, Nnaemeka U.; Duran, Alisa M.; Pereira, Anne G.; Mandel, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity plays an important role in the amelioration of several mental health disorders; however, its relationship with burnout has not yet been clarified. Objective To determine the association between achievement of national physical activity guidelines and burnout in internal medicine resident physicians. Methods A Web-based survey of internal medicine resident physicians at the University of Minnesota and Hennepin County Medical Center was conducted from September to October 2012. Survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Of 149 eligible residents, 76 (51.0%) completed surveys, which were used in the analysis. Burnout prevalence, determined by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was 53.9% (41 of 76). Prevalence of failure to achieve US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines was 40.8% (31 of 76), and 78.9% (60 of 76) of residents reported that their level of physical activity has decreased since they began medical training. Residents who were able to meet physical activity guidelines were less likely to be burned out than their fellow residents (OR, 0.38, 95% CI 0.147–0.99). Conclusions Among internal medicine resident physicians, achievement of national physical activity guidelines appears to be inversely associated with burnout. Given the high national prevalence of burnout and inactivity, additional investigation of this relationship appears warranted. PMID:26140116

  13. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  14. A core physical examination in internal medicine: what should students do and how about their supervisors?

    PubMed

    Haring, Catharina M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Postma, Cornelis T

    2013-09-01

    Performance of a focused physical examination will induce a high cognitive load for medical students in the early phase of the clinical clerkships. To come to a workable and clinically applicable standard physical examination for medical students to be used in every new patient in the daily clinical practice of internal medicine. A questionnaire held among physicians that supervise students during the clerkship of internal medicine in one Dutch training region. Of the complete list of physical examination 55 items were considered to be an integral part of the standard general physical examination for medical students. Most emphasized were elements of the physical examination aimed at general parameters, thorax and abdomen, vascular status, lymph nodes, spinal column, skin and some parts of the neurological examination. The standard physical examinations performed by supervisors themselves contain fewer items than they expected from the students. The expectations a supervisor has towards the student correlates with the frequency with which they apply the various components in their own physical examination. This study provides us with a 'core' physical examination for medical students that can be applied in the early phase of the clinical clerkships.

  15. Synergism of Nanomaterials with Physical Stimuli for Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2017-03-21

    Developing innovative tools that facilitate the understanding of sophisticated biological systems has been one of the Holy Grails in the physical and biological sciences. In this Commentary, we discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges in the use of nanomaterials as a precision tool for biology and medicine.

  16. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  17. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  18. Implementation of formal learning objectives during a physical medicine and rehabilitation sports medicine rotation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jay; Laskowski, Edward R; Newcomer-Aney, Karen L; Thompson, Jeffrey M; Schaefer, Michael P; Morfe, Erasmus G

    2005-04-01

    To develop and implement formal learning objectives during a physical medicine and rehabilitation sports medicine rotation and characterize resident experiences with the objectives over a 16-mo period. Prospective, including learning objective development, implementation, and postrotation survey. A total of 69 learning objectives were developed by physical medicine and rehabilitation staff physician consensus, including 39 core objectives. Eighteen residents completed 4-wk sports medicine rotations from January 2003 through April 2004. Residents completed an average of 31 total objectives (45%; range, 3-52), of which 24 (62%; range, 3-35) were core. Residents completed the highest percentage of knee (60%), shoulder (57%), and ankle-foot (57%) objectives and reported that objectives related to these areas were most effective to facilitate learning. In general, residents reported that objective content was good and that the objectives delineated important concepts to learn during the rotation. Seventeen of 18 residents indicated that the objectives should be permanently implemented into the sports rotation and that similar objectives should be developed for other rotations. Based on our experience and the recommendations of residents, the average resident should be able to complete approximately 30 objectives during a typical 4-wk rotation. Successful implementation of specific, consensus-derived learning objectives is possible within the context of a busy clinical practice. Our initial physician staff and resident experience with the objectives suggests that this model may be useful as a supplementary educational tool in physical medicine and rehabilitation residency programs.

  19. Why evidence-based medicine is a good approach in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Thesis.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S

    2014-10-01

    According to a good definition, evidence-based medicine (EBM) is: "The explicit, conscientious, and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients (and populations)". More appropriate in a clinical context like that of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) is looking at evidence based clinical practice (EBCP), whose definition is: "The integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values". In the past the term evidence-based physical and rehabilitation medicine (EBPRM) was also proposed. In this thesis, after some historical notes on EBM and on PRM, we will discuss why in our view EBPRM must be the real foundation of our everyday PRM clinical practice.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine use during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; Mclay, James S

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and explore predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use during early pregnancy. A questionnaire survey of pregnant women (500) attending for mid trimester scan at the maternity services in Grampian, North-East Scotland. Outcome measures included; CAM used; vitamins and minerals used; independent predictors of use; views and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The response rate was 66%. Two thirds of respondents (63%) reported using CAM, excluding vitamins and minerals, during early pregnancy. Respondents reported using a total of 28 different CAM modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (37% of respondents, 25 different products). The independent predictors of CAM use identified were: use by family and friends (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.3, p<0.001); ethnicity (non-white British) (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.8, p<0.001); and use prior to pregnancy (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.014). In comparison to prescribed medicines, most users were uncertain if CAM were safer (63%), more effective (66%), free from possible adverse effects (46%) or drug-CAM interactions (50%). Despite the majority of respondents being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, CAM modalities and CAM products are widely used during the early stages of pregnancy in this study population. The role of family and friends rather than health professionals in the decision to use CAM may be of concern and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physics and Its Interfaces with Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ricardo N.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.

    2013-08-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject that integrates knowledge from a variety of fields of science, including, but not limited to, chemistry, biology, and physics. The area of drug design involves the cooperative work of scientists with a diverse range of backgrounds and technical skills, trying to tackle complex problems using an integration of approaches and methods. One important contribution to this field comes from physics through studies that attempt to identify and quantify the molecular interactions between small molecules (drugs) and biological targets (receptors), such as the forces that govern the interactions, the thermodynamics of the drug-receptor interactions, and so on. In this context, the interfaces of physics, medicinal chemistry, and drug design are of vital importance for the development of drugs that not only have the right chemistry but also the right intermolecular properties to interact at the macromolecular level, providing useful information about the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of drugs. This article highlights some of the most important connections between physics and medicinal chemistry in the design of new drugs.

  2. Occupational Stress and Physical Symptoms among Family Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So-Myung; Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Go-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of occupational stress and physical symptoms among family medicine residents and investigate the effect of subscales of occupational stress on physical symptoms. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1,152 family medicine residents was carried out via e-mail from April 2010 to July 2010. The response rate was 13.1% and the R (ver. 2.9.1) was used for the analysis of completed data obtained from 150 subjects. The questionnaire included demographic factors, resident training related factors, 24-items of the Korean Occupational Stress Scales and Korean Versions of the Wahler Physical Symptom Inventory. Results The total score of occupational stress of family medicine residents was relatively low compared to that of average workers. The scores of 'high job demand', 'inadequate social support', 'organizational injustice', and 'discomfort in occupational climate' were within the top 50%. Parameters associated with higher occupational stress included level of training, on-duty time, daily patient load, critical patient assigned, total working days, night duty day, sleep duration, and sleep quality. The six subscales of occupational stress, except for 'Job insecurity', had a significant positive correlation with physical symptom scores after adjustment had been made for potential confounders (total score, r = 0.325 and P < 0.001; high job demand, r = 0.439 and P < 0.001). Conclusion After the adjustment had been made for potential confounders, the total score of occupational stress and six subscales in family medicine residents showed a significant positive correlation with physical symptom scores. PMID:23372906

  3. Musculoskeletal education in physical medicine and rehabilitation residency programs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jay; Krabak, Brian J; Malanga, Gerard A; Moutvic, Margaret A

    2004-10-01

    To characterize current musculoskeletal (MSK) education experiences in physical medicine and rehabilitation residency programs and to identify perceived barriers to providing more extensive MSK education experiences. In addition, to establish utilization patterns for the PASSOR Physical Examination Core Competencies List. Between March and November 2003, all 81 physical medicine and rehabilitation residency program directors were asked to complete an MSK education survey developed by the authors. A total of 69 of 81 program directors (86%) responded after multiple contacts. The most frequently utilized MSK education formats were MSK lecture series, MSK departmental conferences, and physical examination workshops. Potential barriers to expanded MSK education included money, time, and staff number. Given unlimited resources, most residency programs would greatly increase utilization of visiting lecturers, CD-ROMs/DVDs, objective structured clinical examinations, and physical examination videos. Of the 30 program directors who recalled receiving the Core Competencies List, only 40% (12 of 30) have formally integrated the list into their residency training. Barriers to implementation included logistical challenges and lack of direction regarding implementation. Residency program directors indicate a strong interest in expanding resident MSK education through the use of CD-ROMs/DVDs, physical examination videos, objective structured clinical examinations, and visiting lecturer programs. CD-ROMs/DVDs and videos represent particularly attractive educational formats for supplementing resident MSK education due to the advantages of central production, nominal costs, widespread distribution, multimedia capabilities, and accessibility. These educational formats should be considered for targeted educational initiatives to enhance resident MSK education, regardless of residency program size or resources.

  4. The role of physical medicine and rehabilitation in haemophiliac patients.

    PubMed

    De la Corte-Rodriguez, Hortensia; Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Physical medicine and rehabilitation aim to evaluate, diagnose and treat disability in haemophiliac patients, while preventing injury or deterioration. They also aim to maintain the greatest degree of functional capacity and independence in patients with haemophilia, or to return them to that state. Rehabilitation, together with clotting factor replacement therapy, has revolutionized the management of these patients in developed countries and reduced their morbidity/mortality rates. A knowledge of the musculoskeletal signs and symptoms of haemophilia is essential for providing a treatment which is suitable and customized. Physical medicine and rehabilitation techniques, which are based on physical means, are intended to reduce the impact which these injuries and their consequences or sequelae can have on the quality of life of patients with haemophilia. Under ideal haemostatic control conditions (primary prophylaxis), people with haemophilia could achieve good physical condition which will allow them to enjoy both physical activity and a daily life without limitations. Currently, children undergoing primary prophylaxis are quite close to this ideal situation. For these physical activities to be carried out, the safest possible situations must be sought.

  5. The role of physical examinations and education in prospective medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.; Mockbee, J.; Snow, C. K.; Compton, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's prospective medicine program, with the principal elements of physical examinations and an educational program for health awareness is described. Participation in the voluntary physical examination program is increasing. In 1976 13,621 employees were given partial or complete examination in NASA Health Units. From the 941 examinations performed at NASA Headquarters in 1976, 522 principal findings were detected. Equipment and techniques in exercise EKG, tonometry, and colonoscopy were partially responsible for this high rate. The health awareness program includes consultations with physicians, training devices and courses, health bulletins, and special screening programs. Epidemiological studies, now underway, will be used to evaluate the health awareness programs.

  6. Early predictors of career achievement in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Brancati, F L; Mead, L A; Levine, D M; Martin, D; Margolis, S; Klag, M J

    1992-03-11

    To identify early personal and scholastic factors that predict academic career choice and long-term career achievement among academic physicians. A longitudinal cohort study. Nine hundred forty-four male physicians who graduated from The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, from 1948 through 1964. Career achievement outcomes included attained faculty rank in 1990 and the number of citations (20 to 24 years after graduation) to published work. Of the 944 physicians, 424 (45%) had chosen academic careers. Scholastic performance and research experience in medical school were independently associated with having chosen an academic career (P less than .001). Among academicians, higher attained rank in 1990 was independently associated with the following: (1) membership in Alpha Omega Alpha (relative risk [RR] = 4.94, P = .0001); (2) rank in the top third of the graduating class (RR = 2.68, P = .01); and (3) research experience in medical school (RR = 3.11, P = .0001). These three factors were also independently associated with more citations to participants' published work (P less than .05). These data suggest that scholastic performance and research experience during medical school predict career achievement in academic medicine over 20 years in the future.

  7. The contribution of medical physics to nuclear medicine: a physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ell, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the second in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here is a backward look from a nuclear medicine physician's perspective.

  8. [Peripheral facial paralysis: the role of physical medicine and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Matos, Catarina

    2011-12-01

    Peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) is a consequence of the peripheral neuronal lesion of the facial nerve (FN). It can be either primary (Bell`s Palsy) or secondary. The classical clinical presentation typically involves both stages of the hemiface. However, there may be other symptoms (ex. xerophthalmia, hyperacusis, phonation and deglutition changes) that one should recall. Clinical evaluation includes rigorous muscle tonus and sensibility search in the FN territory. Some useful instruments allow better objectivity in the patients' evaluation (House-Brackmann System, Facial Grading System, Functional Evaluation). There are clear referral criteria to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Treatment of Bell`s Palsy may include pharmacotherapy, neuromuscular training (NMT), physical methods and surgery. In the NMT field the several treatment techniques are systematized. Therapeutic strategies should be problem-oriented and adjusted to the patient's symptoms and signs. Physical methods are reviewed. In about 15-20 % of patients permanent sequelae subside after 3 months of evolution. PFP is commonly a multidisciplinary condition. Therefore, it is important to review strategies that Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation may offer.

  9. 75 FR 44172 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0493] RIN 0910-ZA37 Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of... document proposed to amend certain neurological and physical medicine device regulations to establish... to amend certain neurological device and physical medicine device regulations to establish special...

  10. 75 FR 17093 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0493] RIN 0910-ZA37 Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of... proposing to amend certain neurological device and physical medicine device regulations to establish special..., FDA is proposing to amend the physical medicine devices regulation at Sec. 890.5850 (21 CFR 890.5850...

  11. Electrodiagnostic medicine skills competency in physical medicine and rehabilitation residents: a method for development and assessment.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Cuccurullo, Sara; Lee, Joseph; Petagna, Ann; Strax, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    This project sought to create an educational module including evaluation methodology to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents in electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with neuromuscular problems, and to verify acquired competencies in those electrodiagnostic skills through objective evaluation methodology. Sixteen residents were trained by board-certified neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic medicine physicians through technical training, lectures, and review of self-assessment examination (SAE) concepts from the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation syllabus provided in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. After delivery of the educational module, knowledge acquisition and skill attainment were measured in (1) clinical skill in diagnostic procedures via a procedure checklist, (2) diagnosis and ability to design a patient-care management plan via chart simulated recall (CSR) exams, (3) physician/patient interaction via patient surveys, (4) physician/staff interaction via 360-degree global ratings, and (5) ability to write a comprehensive patient-care report and to document a patient-care management plan in accordance with Medicare guidelines via written patient reports. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To test the success of the standardized educational module, data were collected on an ongoing basis. Objective measures compared resident SAE scores in electrodiagnostics (EDX) before and after institution of the comprehensive EDX competency module in a PM&R residency program. Fifteen of 16 residents (94%) successfully demonstrated proficiency in every segment of the evaluation element of the educational module by the end of their PGY-4 electrodiagnostic rotation. The resident who did not initially pass underwent remedial coursework and passed on the second attempt. Furthermore, the

  12. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity."

  13. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the elderly arthritic patient.

    PubMed

    Schutt, A H

    1977-02-01

    The basic conservative therapy programs for elderly patients with arthritis include adequate physical rest and mental relaxation, analgesics, aspirin, and physical rehabilitation consisting of occupational and physical therapy with a good home therapy program providing appropriate balance between rest and activity. Proper protection from trauma and overuse of the involved joints, and appropriate nutrition can afford optimal improvement in health status and general resistance. Proper orientation of the patient regarding the nature of his disease and treatment program usually is required to obtain his full cooperation. A kind, encouraging, and understanding approach is most helpful in the elderly patient. Physical rehabilitation can help to relieve pain, decrease edema and deformities, improve muscle weakness and incoordination, and increase stamina. Difficulties with gait, transfers, and self-care can be solved or improved. Physical medicine and rehabilitation measures are important components of the challenging treatment of patients of all age groups who are afflicted with severe arthritis. It is most important to tailor these components of the treatment program to the problem presented by geriatric arthritic patients.

  14. Smallpox vaccination: an early start of modern medicine in America.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980. Before its eradication thedisease had a mortality rate upwards of 50% and had a significant impact on society. During theAmerican Revolutionary war, smallpox outbreaks were impeding the American war effort until1777 when George Washington carried out a mass inoculation campaign in the ContinentalArmy that reduced the mortality from smallpox to less than 2%. Inoculation was an early formof vaccination that used live virus from active pustules to induce a milder, but still sometimesdeadly, case of disease. Washington has been credited with helping to ease the burden ofsmallpox on the Army which improved the odds of success against the British. When EdwardJenner's vaccine reached America it was more readily accepted by political and medical leadersdue the success of Washington's inoculation campaign. The Founding Fathers argued thatsmallpox vaccination was the greatest discovery in modern medicine and they were likely correctthat it helped to usher in the modern era of vaccinology.

  15. Aspects of physical medicine and rehabilitation in geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Pils, Katharina

    2016-02-01

    Specialists in physical medicine and rehabilitation are important partners during the ageing process: health promotion and prevention for fit elderly people, training and rehabilitation for prefrail people and support for frail people focusing on usage of what is left and dignity in the latest period of life. The main focus is the relationship between IC diagnoses and functioning in everyday life based on the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). The diseases lead to possible treatments; functioning shows the importance of rehabilitative strategies in a team approach. Physiatrists are experts on this complex issue.The main goal of rehabilitative strategies during life course is to maintain function, improve quality of life and delay dependency and need of care.Three settings are chosen to show the different aspects of physical medicine and rehabilitation: health promotion and prevention, rehabilitation and palliative-rehabilitative procedures in long-term care. The non-pharmaceutical treatment of pain, the geriatric assessment, knowledge in discharge management and team communications are important skills.

  16. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  17. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  18. EVIDENCE – BASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Lehecka, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    A push for the use of evidence‐based medicine and evidence‐based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence‐based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision‐making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well‐being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence‐based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy. PMID:23091778

  19. Evidence - based medicine/practice in sports physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Manske, Robert C; Lehecka, B J

    2012-10-01

    A push for the use of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence-based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision-making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well-being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence-based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.

  20. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "spinal cord injury".

    PubMed

    Albert, T; Beuret Blanquart, F; Le Chapelain, L; Fattal, C; Goossens, D; Rome, J; Yelnik, A P; Perrouin Verbe, B

    2012-09-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These documents describe the needs for or a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. The patients after spinal cord injury are divided into five categories according to the severity of the impairments, each one being treated according to the same six parameters according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO), while taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence the needs of these patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "stroke patients".

    PubMed

    Yelnik, A-P; Schnitzler, A; Pradat-Diehl, P; Sengler, J; Devailly, J-P; Dehail, P; D'anjou, M-C; Rode, G

    2011-11-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These documents describe the needs for a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Stroke patients are divided into four categories according to the severity of the impairments, each one being treated according to the same six parameters according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO), while taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence the needs of these patients. 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Interdisciplinary team working in physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Vera; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Christodoulou, Nicolas; Varela, Enrique; Giustini, Alessandro; Delarque, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Effective team working plays a crucial role in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM). As part of its role of optimizing and harmonizing clinical practice across Europe, the Professional Practice Committee of Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section reviewed patterns of team working and debated recommendations for good practice at a meeting of national UEMS delegates held in Riga, Latvia, in September 2008. This consensus statement is derived from that discussion and from a review of the literature concerning team working. Effective team working produces better patient outcomes (including better survival rates) in a range of disorders, notably following stroke. There is limited published evidence concerning what constitute the key components of successful teams in PRM programmes. However, the theoretical basis for good team working has been well-described in other settings and includes agreed aims, agreement and understanding on how best to achieve these, a multi-professional team with an appropriate range of knowledge and skills, mutual trust and respect, willingness to share knowledge and expertise and to speak openly. UEMS PRM Section strongly recommends this pattern of working. PRM specialists have an essential role to play in interdisciplinary teams; their training and specific expertise enable them to diagnose and assess severity of health problems, a prerequisite for safe intervention. Training spans 4-5 years in Europe, and includes knowledge and critical analysis of evidence-based rehabilitation strategies. PRM physicians are therefore well-placed to coordinate PRM programmes and to develop and evaluate new management strategies. Their broad training also means that they are able to take a holistic view of an individual patient's care.

  3. Early Developments in Argumentation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    An evaluation of four seventeenth and eighteenth century essays on optics revealed early trends in the evolution of scientific articles. The later articles showed a growing tendency to (1) separate practice from pure knowledge, (2) organize information around problems of knowledge and theory rather than around chronological events, (3) emphasize…

  4. Physical conditions on the early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I

    2006-01-01

    The formation of the Earth as a planet was a large stochastic process in which the rapid assembly of asteroidal-to-Mars-sized bodies was followed by a more extended period of growth through collisions of these objects, facilitated by the gravitational perturbations associated with Jupiter. The Earth's inventory of water and organic molecules may have come from diverse sources, not more than 10% roughly from comets, the rest from asteroidal precursors to chondritic bodies and possibly objects near Earth's orbit for which no representative class of meteorites exists today in laboratory collections. The final assembly of the Earth included a catastrophic impact with a Mars-sized body, ejecting mantle and crustal material to form the Moon, and also devolatilizing part of the Earth. A magma ocean and steam atmosphere (possibly with silica vapour) existed briefly in this period, but terrestrial surface waters were below the critical point within 100 million years after Earth's formation, and liquid water existed continuously on the surface within a few hundred million years. Organic material delivered by comets and asteroids would have survived, in part, this violent early period, but frequent impacts of remaining debris probably prevented the continuous habitability of the Earth for one to several hundred million years. Planetary analogues to or records of this early time when life began include Io (heat flow), Titan (organic chemistry) and Venus (remnant early granites). PMID:17008213

  5. Physical conditions on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Lunine, Jonathan I

    2006-10-29

    The formation of the Earth as a planet was a large stochastic process in which the rapid assembly of asteroidal-to-Mars-sized bodies was followed by a more extended period of growth through collisions of these objects, facilitated by the gravitational perturbations associated with Jupiter. The Earth's inventory of water and organic molecules may have come from diverse sources, not more than 10% roughly from comets, the rest from asteroidal precursors to chondritic bodies and possibly objects near Earth's orbit for which no representative class of meteorites exists today in laboratory collections. The final assembly of the Earth included a catastrophic impact with a Mars-sized body, ejecting mantle and crustal material to form the Moon, and also devolatilizing part of the Earth. A magma ocean and steam atmosphere (possibly with silica vapour) existed briefly in this period, but terrestrial surface waters were below the critical point within 100 million years after Earth's formation, and liquid water existed continuously on the surface within a few hundred million years. Organic material delivered by comets and asteroids would have survived, in part, this violent early period, but frequent impacts of remaining debris probably prevented the continuous habitability of the Earth for one to several hundred million years. Planetary analogues to or records of this early time when life began include Io (heat flow), Titan (organic chemistry) and Venus (remnant early granites).

  6. The European physical and rehabilitation medicine journal network: historical notes on national journals.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S; Ilieva, E; Moslavac, S; Zampolini, M; Giustini, A

    2010-06-01

    In the last 40 years, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has made significant steps forward in Europe with the foundation of the European Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (EFPMR) (1963) which gave rise to the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) (2004) the European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (1970), the PRM Section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (1974), and the European Board of PRM (1991). Our journal, formerly Europa Medico-physica (1964), the official journal of the EFPMR, now European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) and official journal of the ESPRM since 2008, is distinct for its steadfast European vocation, long-standing Mediter-ranean interests and connections with various national scientific societies. Jointly with the ESPRM, efforts are under way to set up the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN). The aim of this article is to present a profile of the national journals in the EPRMJN so as to give a better overview of how the scientific part of PRM in Europe has developed within a national perspective. A profile of the following national journals is presented: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (France), Fizikalna i rehabilitacijska medicina (Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine) (Croatia), Neurorehabilitation (Bulgaria), Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Portuguese Society Journal (Portugal), Physical Medicine, Rehabilitaton, Health (Bulgaria), Physikalische Medizin - Rehabilitationsmedizin - Kurort-medizin/Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Germany and Austria) Prevention and Rehabilitation (Bulgaria), Rehabilitacija (Rehabilitation) (Slovenia), Rehabilitación (Madr) (Spain), Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Turkey). Some national journals in Europe have a very long history and tradition of research and education. Having a better knowledge of these realities, usually

  7. Physical activity assessment and counseling in Quebec family medicine groups.

    PubMed

    Baillot, Aurélie; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Paré, Alex; Poder, Thomas G; Brown, Christine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2018-05-01

    To determine how often primary health care providers (PHCPs) in family medicine groups (FMGs) assess physical activity (PA) levels, provide PA counseling (PAC), and refer patients to exercise professionals; to describe patients' PA levels, physical fitness, and satisfaction regarding their PA management in FMGs; to describe available PA materials in FMGs and PHCPs' PAC self-efficacy and PA knowledge; and to identify characteristics of patients and PHCPs that determine the assessment of PA and PAC provided by PHCPs. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires and a medical chart audit. Ten FMGs within the Integrated University Health Network of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Forty FPs, 24 nurses, and 439 patients. Assessment of PA level and PAC provided by PHCPs. Overall, 51.9% of the patients had had their PA level assessed during the past 18 months, but only 21.6% received PAC from at least 1 of the PHCPs. Similar percentages were found among the inactive (n = 244) and more active (n = 195) patients. The median PAC self-efficacy score of PHCPs was 70.2% (interquartile range 52.0% to 84.7%) and the median PA knowledge score was 45.8% (interquartile range 41.7% to 54.2%), with no significant differences between nurses and FPs. In multivariate analysis, 34% of the variance in PAC provided was explained by assessment of PA level, overweight or obese status, type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, less FP experience, lower patient annual family income, more nurse encounters, and a higher patient physical component summary of quality of life. The rates of assessment of PA and provision of PAC in Quebec FMGs were low, even though most of the patients were inactive. Initiatives to support PHCPs and more resources to assess PA levels and provide PAC should be implemented. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  8. The Role of Early Education Teachers in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniszewski, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To identify factors responsible for deficiencies in early physical education (PE) at school, especially those related to the competence of teachers. Material and methods: A group of 54 early education female teachers aged 25-53 years were subjected to a questionnaire survey and to interviews. The results were analysed by using…

  9. Professional Socialization Experiences of Early Career Urban Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara Barnard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how three physical education (PE) teachers' professional socialization programmes influenced their early careers in urban schools in the US. Using cultural relevance theory and occupational socialization theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for a period of six weeks each.…

  10. Children's Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580-1720.

    PubMed

    Newton, Hannah

    2010-12-01

    Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors' casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of 'children's physic' existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children's physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child's humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children's bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature.

  11. Early Physical Rehabilitation in the ICU: A Review for the Neurohospitalist

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Nusr, Rasha; Feldman, Dorianne; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in critical care have resulted in improved intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. However, improved ICU survival has resulted in a growing number of ICU survivors living with long-term sequelae of critical illness, such as impaired physical function and quality of life (QOL). In addition to critical illness, prolonged bed rest and immobility may lead to severe physical deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness. ICU-acquired weakness is associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation and weaning, longer ICU and hospital stay, and increased mortality. These physical impairments may last for years after ICU discharge. Early Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) interventions in the ICU may attenuate or prevent the weakness and physical impairments occurring during critical illness. This article reviews the evidence regarding safety, feasibility, barriers, and benefits of early PM&R interventions in ICU patients and discusses the limited existing data on early PM&R in the neurological ICU and future directions for early PM&R in the ICU. PMID:23983871

  12. Graduate Medical Education Funding and Curriculum in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: A Survey of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department Chairs.

    PubMed

    Perret, Danielle; Knowlton, Tiffany; Worsowicz, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    This national survey highlights graduate medical education funding sources for physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residency programs as well as perceived funding stability, alignment of the current funding and educational model, the need of further education in postacute care settings, and the practice of contemporary PM&R graduates as perceived by PM&R department/division chairs. Approximately half of the reported PM&R residency positions seem to be funded by Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services; more than 40% of PM&R chairs believe that their residency program is undersized and nearly a quarter feel at risk for losing positions. A total of 30% of respondents report PM&R resident experiences in home health, 15% in long-term acute care, and 52.5% in a skilled nursing facility/subacute rehabilitation facility. In programs that do not offer these experiences, most chairs feel that this training should be included. In addition, study results suggest that most PM&R graduates work in an outpatient setting. Based on the results that chairs strongly feel the need for resident education in postacute care settings and that most graduates go on to practice in outpatient settings, there is a potential discordance for our current Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services graduate medical education funding model being linked to the acute care setting.

  13. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  14. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Jerry D.; Clements, Jessica B.; Coffey, Charles W.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gress, Dustin A.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Mawlawi, Osama R.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Pizzuitello, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to: Estimate the demand for board‐certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5–10 years,Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, andIdentify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists. As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face‐to‐face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission. PACS number: 01.40.G‐ PMID:26699325

  15. Early Adversity, Psychopathology, and Latent Class Profiles of Global Physical Health From Preschool Through Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Diana J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L

    The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence; explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period; and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning 10 years. Semistructured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children's psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3 and 6 years. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child's physical health problems (ages 3-13) and reported on the family's income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Growth mixture modeling revealed 2 trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3 to 13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Estimate [Est] = 0.05, p < .001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est = -0.01, p = .012), and psychosocial adversity (Est = 0.02, p = .015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ = 0.31, p = .050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ = -0.29, p < .021). These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems.

  16. Early adversity, psychopathology, and latent class profiles of global physical health from preschool through early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Diana J.; Belden, Andy C.; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M.; Luby, Joan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence, explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period, and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Methods Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning ten years. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children’s psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3–6. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child’s physical health problems (ages 3–13), as well as reported on the family’s income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Results Growth mixture modeling revealed two trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3–13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Est= 0.05, p<.001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est= −0.01, p=.012), and psychosocial adversity (Est=0.02, p=.015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ= 0.31, p=.050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ= −0.29, p<.021). Conclusions These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems

  17. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine.

    PubMed

    Demaitre, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient.

  18. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  19. Sports, Physical Activity and Recreation in Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Ralph B.

    Sports and physical recreation activities have been part of American life since the days of the early settlers. Although the settlers were faced with problems of survival, accounts of life in the colonies in the 1600's carry mention of bowling in the streets, play with bows and arrows, and ice skating. Other activities to gain popularity before…

  20. Tactility and the body in early Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2005-03-01

    If visual inspection of corpses was central to the development of anatomy in modern Europe, one may ask which of the senses was important for the emergence of the predominant currents of scholarly medical knowledge and practice in third- and second-century B.C.E. China? This article argues that it was tactile perception prompted by a tactile exploration of living bodies. The evidence, derived from a close reading of the Mawangdui medical manuscripts, the 105th chapter of the Records of the Historian, and selected passages from the Huang Di's Inner Canon, points to three important trends: first, the tactile exploration of the extremities led to a rich vocabulary of compound words for pain as localized in specific body parts; second, the tactile exploration of the mai gave rise to an even richer vocabulary on qualities of touch in pulse diagnostics; and third, the tactile exploration of the abdomen led to the assessment of the quality of the internal viscera with words that generally were used for describing the tactile quality of skin and flesh. This finding may appear surprising in the light of later developments during the dynastic history of Chinese medicine where tactile exploration of abdomen and extremities would appear unseemly. The author suggests that extensive tactile explorations of the body were possible before Confucius' teachings became a predominant aspect of state ideology.

  1. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  2. Trajectories of physical discipline: early childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample.

  3. Hospitalist and Internal Medicine Leaders' Perspectives of Early Discharge Challenges at Academic Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hemali; Fang, Margaret C; Mourad, Michelle; Green, Adrienne; Wachter, Robert M; Murphy, Ryan D; Harrison, James D

    2018-06-01

    Improving early discharges may improve patient flow and increase hospital capacity. We conducted a national survey of academic medical centers addressing the prevalence, importance, and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives. We assembled a list of hospitalist and general internal medicine leaders at 115 US-based academic medical centers. We emailed each institutional representative a 30-item online survey regarding early-discharge initiatives. The survey included questions on discharge prioritization, the prevalence and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives, and barriers to implementation. We received 61 responses from 115 institutions (53% response rate). Forty-seven (77%) "strongly agreed" or "agreed" that early discharge was a priority. "Discharge by noon" was the most cited goal (n = 23; 38%) followed by "no set time but overall goal for improvement" (n = 13; 21%). The majority of respondents reported early discharge as more important than obtaining translators for non-English-speaking patients and equally important as reducing 30-day readmissions and improving patient satisfaction. The most commonly reported factors delaying discharge were availability of postacute care beds (n = 48; 79%) and patient-related transport complications (n = 44; 72%). The most effective early discharge initiatives reported involved changes to the rounding process, such as preemptive identification and early preparation of discharge paperwork (n = 34; 56%) and communication with patients about anticipated discharge (n = 29; 48%). There is a strong interest in increasing early discharges in an effort to improve hospital throughput and patient flow. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. The contribution of physics to Nuclear Medicine: physicians' perspective on future directions.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Pryma, Daniel A

    2014-12-01

    Advances in Nuclear Medicine physics enabled the specialty of Nuclear Medicine and directed research in other aspects of radiotracer imaging, ultimately leading to Nuclear Medicine's emergence as an important component of current medical practice. Nuclear Medicine's unique ability to characterize in vivo biology without perturbing it will assure its ongoing role in a practice of medicine increasingly driven by molecular biology. However, in the future, it is likely that advances in molecular biology and radiopharmaceutical chemistry will increasingly direct future developments in Nuclear Medicine physics, rather than relying on physics as the primary driver of advances in Nuclear Medicine. Working hand-in-hand with clinicians, chemists, and biologists, Nuclear Medicine physicists can greatly enhance the specialty by creating more sensitive and robust imaging devices, by enabling more facile and sophisticated image analysis to yield quantitative measures of regional in vivo biology, and by combining the strengths of radiotracer imaging with other imaging modalities in hybrid devices, with the overall goal to enhance Nuclear Medicine's ability to characterize regional in vivo biology.

  5. Medicine Ball for All: A Novel Program that Enhances Physical Fitness in School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery; Mediate, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of medicine ball training. Specifically, it describes "Medicine Ball for All," a physical activity program designed to provide children and teenagers with a meaningful learning experience that is consistent with their developmental needs. The article focuses on developing a safe, successful, and inexpensive…

  6. Early reactions to Harvey's circulation theory: the impact on medicine.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Steven A

    2004-09-01

    In early 17th century Europe, scientific concepts were still based largely on ancient philosophical and theological explanations. During this same era, however, experimentation began to take hold as a legitimate component of scientific investigation. In 1628, the English physician William Harvey announced a revolutionary theory stating that blood circulates repeatedly throughout the body. He relied on experimentation, comparative anatomy and calculation to arrive at his conclusions. His theory contrasted sharply with the accepted beliefs of the time, which were based on the 1400-year-old teachings of Galen and denied the presence of circulation. As with many new ideas, Harvey's circulation theory was received with a great deal of controversy among his colleagues. An examination of their motives reveals that many proponents agreed with his theory largely because of the logic of his argument and his use of experimentation and quantitative methods. However, some proponents agreed for religious, mystical and philosophical reasons, while some were convinced only because of the change in public opinion with time. Many opposed the circulation theory because of their rigid commitment to ancient doctrines, the questionable utility of experimentation, the lack of proof that capillaries exist, and a failure to recognize the clinical applications of his theory. Other opponents were motivated by personal resentments and professional "territorialism." Beyond the immediate issues and arguments, however, the controversy is important because it helped establish use of the scientific method.

  7. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    PubMed

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  8. Medicine and Physical Education: A Successful Education Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firor, W. B.; And Others

    Since 1977, the Department of Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, has participated in adult fitness and recreation instruction at the College of Education. The department has offered two programs for selected students: (1) a formal course and practicum in cardiac rehabilitation for selected students; and (2) a summer studentship in…

  9. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    PubMed

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  10. Physical Aggression During Early Childhood: Trajectories and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Séguin, Jean R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Zelazo, Philip D.; Boivin, Michel; Pérusse, Daniel; Japel, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Physical aggression in children is a major public health problem. Not only is childhood physical aggression a precursor of the physical and mental health problems that will be visited on victims, but also aggressive children themselves are at higher risk of alcohol and drug abuse, accidents, violent crimes, depression, suicide attempts, spouse abuse, and neglectful and abusive parenting. Furthermore, violence commonly results in serious injuries to the perpetrators themselves. Although it is unusual for young children to harm seriously the targets of their physical aggression, studies of physical aggression during infancy indicate that by 17 months of age, the large majority of children are physically aggressive toward siblings, peers, and adults. This study aimed, first, to identify the trajectories of physical aggression during early childhood and, second, to identify antecedents of high levels of physical aggression early in life. Such antecedents could help to understand better the developmental origins of violence later in life and to identify targets for preventive interventions. Methods A random population sample of 572 families with a 5-month-old newborn was recruited. Assessments of physical aggression frequency were obtained from mothers at 17, 30, and 42 months after birth. Using a semiparametric, mixture model, distinct clusters of physical aggression trajectories were identified. Multivariate logit regression analysis was then used to identify which family and child characteristics, before 5 months of age, predict individuals on a high-level physical aggression trajectory from 17 to 42 months after birth. Results Three trajectories of physical aggression were identified. The first was composed of children who displayed little or no physical aggression. These individuals were estimated to account for ~28% of the sample. The largest group, estimated at ~58% of the sample, followed a rising trajectory of modest aggression. Finally, a group

  11. Maturational differences in physical self- perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Niven, Alisa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Knowles, Anne-Marie; Stephenson, Claire

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 +/- 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.

  12. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  13. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  14. The uses of isospin in early nuclear and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Arianna

    2017-11-01

    This paper reconstructs the early history of isospin up to and including its employment in 1951sbnd 52 to conceptualize high-energy pion-proton scattering. Studying the history of isospin serves as an entry point for investigating the interplay of theoretical and experimental practices in early nuclear and particle physics, showing the complexity of processes of knowledge construction which have often been presented as straightforward both in physicists' recollections and in the historiography of science. The story of isospin has often been told in terms of the discovery of the first ;intrinsic property; of elementary particles, but I will argue that the isospin formalism emerged and was further developed because it proved to be a useful tool to match theory and experiment within the steadily broadening field of high-energy (nuclear) physics. Isospin was variously appropriated and adapted in the course of two decades, before eventually the physical-mathematical implications of its uses started being spelled out. The case study also highlights some interesting features of high-energy physics around 1950: the contribution to post-war research of theoretical methods developed before and during the war, the role of young theoretical post-docs in mediating between theorists and experimenters, and the importance of traditional formalisms such as those of spin and angular momentum as a template both for formalizing and conceptualizing experimental results.

  15. Medicinal exploitation of inorganic substances in the Levant in the Medieval and early Ottoman periods.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2002-11-01

    Various minerals, metals, clays, and rocks were among the natural medicinal substances used by physicians and pharmacists in early times in different cultures, for example, the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Classical physicians such as Hippocrates and Dioscorides mention tens of inorganic medicinal substances in their writings. Many references to minerals and chemicals are also found in the Muslim medical literature of the Eastern and Western Caliphates. The historical research presented in this article focuses on the inorganic substances applied as remedies by the medieval and early Ottoman (7th-17th) inhabitants of the Levant. The article is based upon a literature review covering tens of different historical sources, from the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Relevant information was found in the works of physicians such as al-Tamimi, Benevenutus, Ibn al-Baytar, Daud al-Antaki, and Hayyim Vital. The research revealed evidences of the medicinal uses of fifteen inorganic substances: Alum, Arsenic, Sulphide, Asphalt, Jew's stone, Earth sp., Galena, Haematite, iron, Lead, Pyrite, Salt, Sulphur, Thermal water, Green Vitriol, and Zinc. Inorganic materials comprise 5.2% of the list of medicinal substances. The geographic origin of most of these substances is the Levant, in which two geo-historical centers have been recorded: the Rift Valley and the northern region of the Levant, including upper Galilee, Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon. A notable tendency to use these substances for treating diseases of the skin, the eyes, the sexual organs, and haemorrhoids was detected.

  16. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical Fitness & Sports Medicine. Specialized Bibliography Series No. 1988-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrias, Karen, Comp.; And Others

    The subjects covered in this bibliogaphy (1,406 citations) include the history of sports and sports medicine, sports injuries, physical fitness throughout various stages of life, and the current status of physical fitness in the United States. The first section includes journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers in three areas: history…

  18. Women in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Leadership issues.

    PubMed

    Wong, E Y; Cardenas, D D

    2001-02-01

    Academic medical centers share the triple missions of education, research, and clinical care, particularly in vulnerable populations. They are well positioned to have a significant impact on reducing health disparities between patients from diverse backgrounds, both now and in future generations. A key component to realizing this goal lies in increasing the number of women in academic medicine. Women bring a fresh perspective to the investigative process, often targeting gender is a better way of providing preventive services, and patient satisfaction studies have shown that many patients prefer women physicians.

  19. Synchronisation and coupling analysis: applied cardiovascular physics in sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kramer, Jan; Muller, Andreas; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is a physiological process with an internal program of a number of well defined sleep stages and intermediate wakefulness periods. The sleep stages modulate the autonomous nervous system and thereby the sleep stages are accompanied by different regulation regimes for the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The differences in regulation can be distinguished by new techniques of cardiovascular physics. The number of patients suffering from sleep disorders increases unproportionally with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop highly-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Methods of cardiovascular physics are used to analyze heart rate, blood pressure and respiration to detect changes of the autonomous nervous system in different diseases. Data driven modeling analysis, synchronization and coupling analysis and their applications to biosignals in healthy subjects and patients with different sleep disorders are presented. Newly derived methods of cardiovascular physics can help to find indicators for these health risks.

  20. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  1. Physical Education Curriculum Priorities: "Safe" Exercise Is Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among America's youth is critical in helping to combat chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, finding the right sporting activities for the youth is important, as is making appropriate biomechanical adjustments or behavior modifications that create a safer means of participation. In this article, the…

  2. Medicine and Physiotherapy students: are they physically active? Comparative research on Spanish and German population.

    PubMed

    Zeńczak-Praga, Krystyna; Pluto-Prondzinska, Joanna; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-23

    Despite the fact that regular physical activity is beneficial to human life, there are still more and more overweight and obese people throughout the world today. Healthy habits taken from home or socioeconomic situation are factors which might influence on regular physical activity. People who lead a healthy lifestyle in childhood are also active during adulthood. On the other hand academic life might promote less healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of physical activity of both German and Spanish students of Medicine and Physiotherapy. The study involved 100 Spanish and 100 German students aged from 19 to 24 years. Based on Eurobarometer 72.3, the respondents were asked a set of questions regarding physical activity. The chi-squared test (χ2) and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. The vast majority of students presented a normal BMI value, but it was not related to high physical activity. More than one-third of all students seldom practised any sports. The Spanish students usually did some form of physical activity outdoors, whereas the German students exercised in a fitness centre. Lack of time was to the Medicine and Physiotherapy students the most significant factor that did not allow them to be more physically active. Medicine and Physiotherapy students should be more physically active in order to promote a good, healthy lifestyle model to society and there should be more physical activity education to encourage more students to practise sports.

  3. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  4. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Özçakar, L; Franchignoni, F; Frontera, W; Negrini, S

    2013-04-01

    Case reports (CR) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side-effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. Yet, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AJPMR) and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, we discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well-written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  5. Physical Inactivity and the Economic and Health Burdens Due to Cardiovascular Disease: Exercise as Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; O'Donovan, Gary; Murphy, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Leisure time physical activity, or exercise, has been described as today's best buy in public health. Physical inactivity is responsible for around 10% of all deaths and physical inactivity costs global healthcare systems billions of dollars each year. Here, we describe the human and economic costs of cardiovascular disease. Then, we explain that physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The evidence of the role of physical activity in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is reviewed and we make the case that exercise is medicine.

  6. Tsunami Early Warning via a Physics-Based Simulation Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. M.; Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Ward, S. N.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Through independent efforts, physics-based simulations of earthquakes, tsunamis, and atmospheric signatures of these phenomenon have been developed. With the goal of producing tsunami forecasts and early warning tools for at-risk regions, we join these three spheres to create a simulation pipeline. The Virtual Quake simulator can produce thousands of years of synthetic seismicity on large, complex fault geometries, as well as the expected surface displacement in tsunamigenic regions. These displacements are used as initial conditions for tsunami simulators, such as Tsunami Squares, to produce catalogs of potential tsunami scenarios with probabilities. Finally, these tsunami scenarios can act as input for simulations of associated ionospheric total electron content, signals which can be detected by GNSS satellites for purposes of early warning in the event of a real tsunami. We present the most recent developments in this project.

  7. Early evaluation and value-based pricing of regenerative medicine technologies.

    PubMed

    Koerber, Florian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Rogowski, Wolf

    2013-11-01

    Since the first pioneering scientists explored the potential of using human cells for therapeutic purposes the branch of regenerative medicine has evolved to become a mature industry. The focus has switched from 'what can be done' to 'what can be commercialized'. Timely health economic evaluation supports successful marketing by establishing the value of a product from a healthcare system perspective. This article reports results from a research project on early health economic evaluation in collaboration with developers, clinicians and manufacturers. We present an approach to determine an early value-based price for a new treatment of cartilage defects of the knee from the area of regenerative medicine. Examples of using evaluation results for the purpose of business planning, market entry, preparing the coverage decision and managed entry are discussed.

  8. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: adults with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pradat-Diehl, P; Joseph, P-A; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Luauté, J; Tasseau, F; Remy-Neris, O; Azouvi, P; Sengler, J; Bayen, É; Yelnik, A; Mazaux, J-M

    2012-11-01

    This document is part of a series of guidelines documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These reference documents focus on a particular pathology (here patients with severe TBI). They describe for each given pathology patients' clinical and social needs, PRM care objectives and necessary human and material resources of the pathology-dedicated pathway. 'Care pathways in PRM' is therefore a short document designed to enable readers (physician, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer, finance manager) to have a global understanding of available therapeutic care structures, organization and economic needs for patients' optimal care and follow-up. After a severe traumatic brain injury, patients might be divided into three categories according to impairment's severity, to early outcomes in the intensive care unit and to functional prognosis. Each category is considered in line with six identical parameters used in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (World Health Organization), focusing thereafter on personal and environmental factors liable to affect the patients' needs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. The early universe as a probe of new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Christopher Shane

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics has been verified to unprecedented precision in the last few decades. However there are still phenomena in nature which cannot be explained, and as such new theories will be required. Since terrestrial experiments are limited in both the energy and precision that can be probed, new methods are required to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this dissertation, I demonstrate how these theories can be probed by searching for remnants of their effects in the early Universe. In particular I focus on three possible extensions of the Standard Model: the addition of massive neutral particles as dark matter, the addition of charged massive particles, and the existence of higher dimensions. For each new model, I review the existing experimental bounds and the potential for discovering new physics in the next generation of experiments. For dark matter, I introduce six simple models which I have developed, and which involve a minimum amount of new physics, as well as reviewing one existing model of dark matter. For each model I calculate the latest constraints from astrophysics experiments, nuclear recoil experiments, and collider experiments. I also provide motivations for studying sub-GeV mass dark matter, and propose the possibility of searching for light WIMPs in the decay of B-mesons and other heavy particles. For charged massive relics, I introduce and review the recently proposed model of catalyzed Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In particular I review the production of 6Li by this mechanism, and calculate the abundance of 7Li after destruction of 7Be by charged relics. The result is that for certain natural relics CBBN is capable of removing tensions between the predicted and observed 6Li and 7Li abundances which are present in the standard model of BBN. For extra dimensions, I review the constraints on the ADD model from both astrophysics and collider experiments. I then calculate the constraints on this model

  10. The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    The intergalactic medium—the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies—is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer

  11. [Physical fingerprint for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine extract powders].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Bing; Sun, Fei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Na; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-06-01

    The physical properties of both raw materials and excipients are closely correlated with the quality of traditional Chinese medicine preparations in oral solid dosage forms. In this paper, based on the concept of the chemical fingerprint for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine products, the method of physical fingerprint for quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine extract powders was proposed. This novel physical fingerprint was built by the radar map, and consisted of five primary indexes (i.e. stackablity, homogeneity, flowability, compressibility and stability) and 12 secondary indexes (i.e. bulk density, tap density, particle size<50 μm percentage, relative homogeneity index, hausner ratio, angle of repose, powder flow time, inter-particle porosity, Carr index, cohesion index, loss on drying, hygroscopicity). Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) extract was taken for an example. This paper introduced the application of physical fingerprint in the evaluation of source-to-source and batch-to-batch quality consistence of PNS extract powders. Moreover, the physical fingerprint of PNS was built by calculating the index of parameters, the index of parametric profile and the index of good compressibility, in order to successfully predict the compressibility of the PNS extract powder and relevant formulations containing PNS extract powder and conventional pharmaceutical excipients. The results demonstrated that the proposed method could not only provide new insights into the development and process control of traditional Chinese medicine solid dosage forms. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Careers in Medical Physics and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amols, Howard

    2006-03-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members is based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.

  13. [Professor Jules Gavarret (1809-1890) and the application of mathematics and physics to medicine].

    PubMed

    Beyneix, A

    2001-01-01

    Professor Jules Gavarret has undertaken pretigious offices, has accumulated various titles and honours and has left an abundant bibliography about physics and chemistry of life phenomenon. To recount the career of one of the academics who were benefited the traditional medicine of the progress achieved in physical and mathematical sciences give us the opportunity of recalling one of the great Parisian personalities of 19th Century who had not been appreciated for too long.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: The Physics of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Douglas

    2007-11-01

    The physics of the very small and the very large were successfully brought together in the 1980s through the idea of 'the universe as a particle accelerator'. The manifesto of this new campaign was laid out in the book 'The Early Universe' by Kolb and Turner in 1990. For at least the next decade that book was to be found on the shelves of every theorist (and many experimentalists) who professed an interest in this topic. But science marches on, and the last 10 15 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the physics of the very earliest times and the very largest scales. Experimentally our world-view has changed utterly, through exquisitely precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, galaxy clustering and supernova distances, with a refinement of the basic inflationary big bang paradigm into the new 'standard cosmological model'. And in tandem with these changes has been the development of new theoretical ideas, particularly involving dark energy and connections between string/brane theory and cosmology. So what is the new book for the shelves of today's cohort of young Rockys and Mikes? Despite a recent number of promising-sounding cosmology books, there is nothing at the advanced level which is broad enough to be a general introduction to the 'early universe' topic. Perhaps the best of the bunch is 'The Physics of the Early Universe', edited by E Papantonopoulos as part of Springer's series 'Lecture notes in physics'. This is a set of 9 review articles given as part of a 2003 summer school on Syros Island, Greece. Although far from perfect, the core of this book provides a solid introduction to current research in early universe physics, which should be useful for PhD students or postdoctoral researchers who want the real thing. The book starts with a competent introduction by Kyriakos Tamvakis, serving essentially as a summary of where we were in Kolb and Turner's text. We have learned since then, however, that inflation is really all

  15. 78 FR 39649 - Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 890 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0568] Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed order; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  16. Future Directions in Medical Physics: Models, Technology, and Translation to Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    The application of physics in medicine has been integral to major advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Two primary areas represent the mainstay of medical physics research in the last century: in radiation therapy, physicists have propelled advances in conformal radiation treatment and high-precision image guidance; and in diagnostic imaging, physicists have advanced an arsenal of multi-modality imaging that includes CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET as indispensible tools for noninvasive screening, diagnosis, and assessment of treatment response. In addition to their role in building such technologically rich fields of medicine, physicists have also become integral to daily clinical practice in these areas. The future suggests new opportunities for multi-disciplinary research bridging physics, biology, engineering, and computer science, and collaboration in medical physics carries a strong capacity for identification of significant clinical needs, access to clinical data, and translation of technologies to clinical studies. In radiation therapy, for example, the extraction of knowledge from large datasets on treatment delivery, image-based phenotypes, genomic profile, and treatment outcome will require innovation in computational modeling and connection with medical physics for the curation of large datasets. Similarly in imaging physics, the demand for new imaging technology capable of measuring physical and biological processes over orders of magnitude in scale (from molecules to whole organ systems) and exploiting new contrast mechanisms for greater sensitivity to molecular agents and subtle functional / morphological change will benefit from multi-disciplinary collaboration in physics, biology, and engineering. Also in surgery and interventional radiology, where needs for increased precision and patient safety meet constraints in cost and workflow, development of new technologies for imaging, image registration, and robotic assistance can leverage

  17. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [Physical medicine in hospital. Minimum standards in a physical medical department in acute inpatient areas in rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Reißhauer, A; Liebl, M E

    2012-07-01

    Standards for what should be available in terms of equipment and services in a department of physical medicine caring for acute inpatients do not exist in Germany. The profile of a department determines the therapeutic services it focuses on and hence the technical facilities required. The German catalogue of operations and procedures defines minimum thresholds for treatment. In the opinion of the authors a department caring for inpatients with acute rheumatic diseases must, as a minimum, have the facilities and equipment necessary for offering thermotherapeutic treatment. Staff trained in physical therapeutic procedures and occupational therapy is also crucial. Moreover, it is desirable that the staff should be trained in manual therapy.

  19. A measure of early physical functioning (EPF) post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Finch, Lois E; Higgins, Johanne; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Mayo, Nancy E

    2008-07-01

    To develop a comprehensive measure of Early Physical Functioning (EPF) post-stroke quantified through Rasch analysis and conceptualized using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). An observational cohort study. A cohort of 262 subjects (mean age 71.6 (standard deviation 12.5) years) hospitalized post-acute stroke. Functional assessments were made within 3 days of stroke with items from valid and reliable indices commonly utilized to evaluate stroke survivors. Information on important variables was also collected. Principal component and Rasch analysis confirmed the factor structure, and dimensionality of the measure. Rasch analysis combined items across ICF components to develop the measure. Items were deleted iteratively, those retained fit the model and were related to the construct; reliability and validity were assessed. A 38-item unidimensional measure of the EPF met all Rasch model requirements. The item difficulty matched the person ability (mean person measure: -0.31; standard error 0.37 logits), reliability of the person-item-hierarchy was excellent at 0.97. Initial validity was adequate. The 38-item EPF measure was developed. It expands the range of assessment post acute stroke; it covers a broad spectrum of difficulty with good initial psychometric properties that, once revalidated, can assist in planning and evaluating early interventions.

  20. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Physical Development and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  1. The long-term effects of maternal depression: early childhood physical health as a pathway to offspring depression.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia; Najman, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have highlighted the long-term negative effects of maternal depression on offspring physical, social, and emotional development, but longitudinal research is needed to clarify the pathways by which maternal depression during pregnancy and early childhood affects offspring outcomes. The current study tested one developmental pathway by which maternal depression during pregnancy might negatively impact offspring mental health in young adulthood, via poor physical health in early childhood. The sample consisted of 815 Australian youth and their mothers who were followed for 20 years. Mothers reported on their own depressive symptoms during pregnancy and offspring early childhood. Youth completed interviews about health-related stress and social functioning at age 20 years, and completed a questionnaire about their own depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Path analysis indicated that prenatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted worse physical health during early childhood for offspring, and this effect was partially explained by ongoing maternal depression in early childhood. Offspring poor physical health during childhood predicted increased health-related stress and poor social functioning at age 20. Finally, increased health-related stress and poor social functioning predicted increased levels of depressive symptoms later in young adulthood. Maternal depression had a significant total indirect effect on youth depression via early childhood health and its psychosocial consequences. Poor physical health in early childhood and its effects on young adults' social functioning and levels of health related stress is one important pathway by which maternal depression has long-term consequences for offspring mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Resident Use of iPad Mini Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, William; Boimbo, Sandra; Akuthota, Venu

    2015-05-01

    Previous research on the use of tablet devices in residency programs has been undertaken in radiology and medicine or with standard-sized tablet devices. With new, smaller tablet devices, there is an opportunity to assess their effect on resident behavior. This prospective study attempts to evaluate resident behavior after receiving a smaller tablet device. To evaluate whether smaller tablet computers facilitate residents' daily tasks. Prospective study that administered surveys to evaluate tablet computer use. Residency program. Thirteen physical medicine and rehabilitation residents. Residents were provided 16-GB iPad Minis and surveyed with Redcap to collect usage information at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Survey analysis was conducted using SAS (SAS, Cary, NC) for descriptive analysis. To evaluate multiple areas of resident education, the following tasks were selected: accessing e-mail, logging duty hours, logging procedures, researching clinical information, accessing medical journals, reviewing didactic presentations, and completing evaluations. Then, measurements were taken of: (1) residents' response to how tablet computers made it easier to access the aforementioned tasks; and (2) residents' response to how tablet computers affected the frequency they performed the aforementioned tasks. After being provided tablet computers, our physical medicine and rehabilitation residents reported significantly greater access to e-mail, medical journals, and didactic material. Also, receiving tablet computers was reported to increase the frequency that residents accessed e-mail, researched clinical information, accessed medical journals, reviewed didactic presentations, and completed evaluations. After receiving a tablet computer, residents reported an increase in the use of calendar programs, note-taking programs, PDF readers, online storage programs, and file organization programs. These physical medicine and rehabilitation residents reported tablet computers

  3. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864.

    .

  4. Solvents of pus-medicines with physical-chemical aggressive action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.; Reshetnikov, A.; Kopylov, M.; Chernova, L.

    2017-01-01

    In laboratory and clinical conditions was studied rheology of pus and sulfuric tubes after their interaction with aqueous solutions of drugs from different pharmacological groups. It is shown that solutions of almost all medicines can influence or not influence on their rheology, because local action is determined not by the name, dose or route of administration of medicines. It is established that only physical-chemical properties of fluids and physical-chemical factors of their interaction with dense pus can give them the ability to dissolve or thickening pus. We found that deliberate change physical-chemical properties of medicines solutions from various pharmacological groups, namely, raising the temperature to +42°C, increasing the alkalinity above pH 8.1 and aeration as for example by introducing carbon dioxide under pressure of 0.2 ATM, or by introducing hydrogen peroxide in 0.5 - 3%, turning them into solvents of pus, ear wax and sulfuric tubes. Discovered that solutions of drugs with such physical-chemical activity may turn thick pus and solid sulfur tube in a homogeneous liquid after a few minutes after injecting them into these biological mass.

  5. Children’s Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580–1720

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Summary Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors’ casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of ‘children’s physic’ existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children’s physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child’s humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children’s bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature. PMID:26306061

  6. The European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in 2008: a year in a paper.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) established the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN) with a view to increase scientific knowledge among physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) specialists and to foster collaboration among the national, regional (multinational) and European PRM journals. In this connection, this paper gives the readers of national and regional, and European PRM journals a complete overview of the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM), the official ESPRM journal, and a review of the papers published in 2008. The evolution of the EJPRM in the last five years was analyzed, and the papers published in 2008 were systematically reviewed and classified by content and discussed. The EJPRM is listed in PubMed and Current Contents; at now the unofficial 2008 Impact Factor is 1.14, like the Impact Factor, also the independent SCImago Journal Rate and Cites per Doc (two years) have increased steadily since 2005. The EJPRM published 72 papers in 2008, with a well balanced coverage of different rehabilitation topics. The rejection rate is around 40%; the review and publication times are 1.2 and 10.0 months, respectively. The published papers are presented here by topic, highlighting multi-journal initiatives (such as the EPRMJN and the Euro-American Focus with the American Journal of PRM), monographic Special Sections, systematic Cochrane PRM reviews, original papers and case reports, and other contents including the Internet Bookshelf. This paper represents the start of the EPRMJN collaborative efforts to increase scientific knowledge among PRM specialists in Europe, independently of the language in which papers are published.

  7. Attitudes of students in medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, and physical therapy toward interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Rose, Molly A; Smith, Kellie; Veloski, J Jon; Lyons, Kevin J; Umland, Elena; Arenson, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    With the growing interest in interprofessional education and practice, methods to evaluate the effectiveness of related curricular activities are essential. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to assess the attitudes of students in medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, and physical therapy toward interprofessional education using the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale and Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and (2) to compare data with normative data previously reported. The two instruments were administered to 474 first-year students in medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, and physical therapy who completed the forms in the context of a workshop at the conclusion of the first year of an interprofessional health mentor program. Differences among professions were reported. Students in medicine and physical therapy rated members of their own professions significantly higher in the areas of competence/autonomy and need for cooperation as compared with those in nursing and occupational therapy. Along with reporting similarities and differences, the results provide additional normative data on these tools that can be used when choosing tools to evaluate interprofessional education attitudes.

  8. Yoga and Physical Rehabilitation Medicine: A Research Partnership in Integrative Care

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, KR; Acevedo, AT; Dietz, L; Brandon, Z; Andrade, R; Wallen, GR

    2014-01-01

    Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress management with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to be considered as viable care options integrative studies need to offer a comprehensive design and include clinicians familiar with the disease process of the study populations. A review of the literature reveals a dearth of information related to the collaboration between yoga and physical rehabilitation medicine. This article discusses the collaboration with physical rehabilitation medicine to collect relevant pre- and post-intervention measures for an on-going pilot acceptability/feasibility yoga study for minority patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. An interdisciplinary clinical research team selected psychosocial and physical measures for a community sample of bilingual minority patients, not typically identified as practicing yoga. Sixteen female adults aged 40–63 years (mean =51) completed baseline physical assessments using single leg stance, functional reach test, time up and go test, timed up from the floor test and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand measures. Baseline values show an average level of functional ability prior to beginning the intervention. Preliminary results indicate some improvement; however, selected measures may not have the sensitivity and specificity needed to identify significant change. In this study, combining interdisciplinary perspectives enhanced the quality of the research study design. The experience of this interdisciplinary clinical research team opens the discussion for future collaborations. PMID:24765541

  9. Overcoming early barriers to PCMH practice improvement in family medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Douglas H; Deaner, Nicole; O'Neill, Caitlin; Jortberg, Bonnie T; degruy, Frank Verloin; Dickinson, W Perry

    2011-01-01

    Residency programs face inevitable challenges as they redesign their practices for higher quality care and resident training. Identifying and addressing early barriers can help align priorities and thereby augment the capacity to change. Evaluation of the Colorado Family Medicine Residency PCMH Project included iterative qualitative analysis of field notes, interviews, and documents to identify early barriers to change and strategies to overcome them. Nine common but not universal barriers were identified: (1) a practice's history reflected some negative past experiences with quality improvement or routines incompatible with transformative change, (2) leadership gaps were evident in unprepared practice leaders or hierarchical leadership, (3) resistance and skepticism about change were expressed through cynicism aimed at change or ability to change, (4) unproductive team processes were reflected in patterns of canceled meetings, absentee leaders, or lack of accountability, (5) knowledge gaps about the Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) were apparent from incomplete dissemination about the project or planned changes, (6) EHR implementation distracted focus or stalled improvement activity, (7) sponsoring organizations' constraints emerged from staffing rules and differing priorities, (8) insufficient staff participation resulted from traditional role expectations and structures, and (9) communication was hampered by ineffective methods and part-time faculty and residents. Early barriers responded to varying degrees to specific interventions by practice coaches. Some barriers that interfere with practices getting started with cultural and structural transformation can be addressed with persistent attention and reflection from on-site coaches and by realigning the talents, leaders, and priorities already in these residency programs.

  10. Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum: Early 18th century botanical drawings of medicinal plants from colonial Ceylon.

    PubMed

    Van Andel, Tinde; Scholman, Ariane; Beumer, Mieke

    2018-04-27

    snakebites. Many plants are characterised by their humoral properties, of which 'warming' is the most prevalent. Plant species were mostly used for their roots (28%), bark (16%) or leaves (11%). More Tamil names (260) were documented than Sinhalese (208). More than half of the Tamil names and 36% of the Sinhalese names are still used today. The author was probably a VOC surgeon based in northern Sri Lanka, who travelled around the island to document medicinal plant use. Less than half of the species were previously documented from Ceylon by the famous VOC doctor and botanist Paul Hermann in the 1670s. Further archival research is needed to identify the maker of this manuscript. Although the maker of this early 18th century manuscript remains unknown, the detailed, 300-year-old information on medicinal plant use in the Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum represents an important ethnobotanical treasure for Sri Lanka, which offers ample opportunities to study changes and continuation of medicinal plant names and practices over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel bedside cardiopulmonary physical diagnosis curriculum for internal medicine postgraduate training.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Brian Thomas; Niessen, Timothy; Gelber, Allan Charles; Clark, Bennett; Lee, Yizhen; Madrazo, Jose Alejandro; Manesh, Reza Sedighi; Apfel, Ariella; Lau, Brandyn D; Liu, Gigi; Canzoniero, Jenna VanLiere; Sperati, C John; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Brotman, Daniel J; Traill, Thomas A; Cayea, Danelle; Durso, Samuel C; Stewart, Rosalyn W; Corretti, Mary C; Kasper, Edward K; Desai, Sanjay V

    2017-10-06

    Physicians spend less time at the bedside in the modern hospital setting which has contributed to a decline in physical diagnosis, and in particular, cardiopulmonary examination skills. This trend may be a source of diagnostic error and threatens to erode the patient-physician relationship. We created a new bedside cardiopulmonary physical diagnosis curriculum and assessed its effects on post-graduate year-1 (PGY-1; interns) attitudes, confidence and skill. One hundred five internal medicine interns in a large U.S. internal medicine residency program participated in the Advancing Bedside Cardiopulmonary Examination Skills (ACE) curriculum while rotating on a general medicine inpatient service between 2015 and 2017. Teaching sessions included exam demonstrations using healthy volunteers and real patients, imaging didactics, computer learning/high-fidelity simulation, and bedside teaching with experienced clinicians. Primary outcomes were attitudes, confidence and skill in the cardiopulmonary physical exam as determined by a self-assessment survey, and a validated online cardiovascular examination (CE). Interns who participated in ACE (ACE interns) by mid-year more strongly agreed they had received adequate training in the cardiopulmonary exam compared with non-ACE interns. ACE interns were more confident than non-ACE interns in performing a cardiac exam, assessing the jugular venous pressure, distinguishing 'a' from 'v' waves, and classifying systolic murmurs as crescendo-decrescendo or holosystolic. Only ACE interns had a significant improvement in score on the mid-year CE. A comprehensive bedside cardiopulmonary physical diagnosis curriculum improved trainee attitudes, confidence and skill in the cardiopulmonary examination. These results provide an opportunity to re-examine the way physical examination is taught and assessed in residency training programs.

  12. Physical self-esteem--a ten-year follow-up study from early adolescence to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Raustorp, Anders; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-02-01

    One variable that has been consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity is perceived activity competence. Perceived physical (or sport) competence is considered a sub-domain to the physical self-esteem or self-worth (i.e., a person's valuation of what is good and worthy in their self-description). This study aimed to describe levels of and inter-correlations among physical self-esteem, physical activity, and body mass index in a longitudinal design spanning adolescence to early adulthood. At mean ages of 12.7, 15.7, 17.7 and 22.7 years, we measured perceived physical self-esteem in 39 (22 boys) Swedish adolescents. Physical activity (steps/day) for four consecutive schooldays, height, and weight were also measured. No significant difference between the four time points for any variable of perceived physical self-esteem was seen, neither in boys nor girls. In general, all physical self-variables revealed non-linear trajectories across time, where the general trend was an increase during the younger ages followed by a decrease during older ages. At ages 12 and 15 years in boys and girls physical condition and physical strength as well as body attractiveness and physical strength, respectively, had the strongest correlations to physical self-esteem. At age 17 and 22 years sports competence had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in girls, while body attractiveness and physical strength had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in boys. An overall stability in physical self-esteem was found. However the impact of a sub-domain upon physical self-esteem vary during adolescence and early adulthood. Such information may be useful when creating physical activity programs that support and develop physical self-esteem.

  13. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  14. Survey of physician requirements in six specialties: manpower needs in anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report was prepared to assist the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC) in its efforts to model physician manpower requirements in six specialties: anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and radiology. The purpose of this report is to (1) survey and present the existing literature on manpower requirements in each of these six specialties, and (2) discuss the special problems present in each specialty in modeling manpower requirements, and where possible, suggest possible avenues of resolution.

  15. Honorary authorship: frequency and associated factors in physical medicine and rehabilitation research articles.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Shan, Rodney Li Pi; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalences of perceived honorary authorship and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-defined honorary authorship, and identify factors affecting each rate in the physical medicine and rehabilitation literature. Internet-based survey. Not applicable. First authors of articles published in 3 major physical medicine and rehabilitation journals between January 2009 and December 2011 were surveyed in June and July 2012 (N=1182). Not applicable. The reported prevalences of perceived and ICMJE-defined honorary authorship were the primary outcome measures, and multiple factors were analyzed to determine whether they were associated with these measures. The response rate was 27.3% (248/908). The prevalences of perceived and ICMJE-defined honorary authorship were 18.0% (44/244) and 55.2% (137/248), respectively. Factors associated with perceived honorary authorship in the multivariate analysis included the suggestion that an honorary author should be included (P<.0001), being a medical resident or fellow (P=.0019), listing "reviewed manuscript" as 1 of the nonauthorship tasks (P=.0013), and the most senior author deciding the authorship order (P=.0469). Living outside North America was independently associated with ICMJE-defined honorary authorship (P=.0079) in the multivariate analysis. In the univariate analysis, indicating that the most senior author decided authorship order was significantly associated with ICMJE-defined honorary authorship (P=<.001). Our results suggest that honorary authorship does occur in a significant proportion of the physical medicine and rehabilitation literature. Additionally, we found several factors associated with perceived and ICMJE-defined honorary authorship and a discrepancy between the 2 rates. Further studies with larger response rates are recommended to further explore this topic. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Introduction of an Evidence-based Medicine Course to Preclinical Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Weiner, Michael; Breitfeld, Philip P; Brahmi, Fran; Dickerson, Keith L; Weiner, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) has been increasingly integrated into medical education curricula. Using an observational research design, we evaluated the feasibility of introducing a 1-month problem-based EBM course for 139 first-year medical students at a large university center. We assessed program performance through the use of a web-based curricular component and practice exam, final examination scores, student satisfaction surveys, and a faculty questionnaire. Students demonstrated active involvement in learning EBM and ability to use EBM principles. Facilitators felt that students performed well and compared favorably with residents whom they had supervised in the past year. Both faculty and students were satisfied with the EBM course. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that early introduction of EBM principles as a short course to preclinical medical students is feasible and practical. PMID:11903776

  17. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  18. The effect of a simple educational intervention on interest in early abortion training among family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.

  19. Ultrasound for internal medicine physicians: the future of the physical examination.

    PubMed

    Dulohery, Megan M; Stoven, Samantha; Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kurklinksy, Andrew; Halvorsen, Andrew; McDonald, Furman S; Bhagra, Anjali

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of compact ultrasound (US) devices, it is easier for physicians to enhance their physical examinations through the use of US. However, although this new tool is widely available, few internal medicine physicians have US training. This study sought to understand physicians' baseline knowledge and skill, provide education in US principles, and demonstrate that proper use of compact US devices is a skill that can be quickly learned. Training was performed at the Mayo Clinic in June 2010 and June 2011. The participants consisted of internal medicine residents. The workshop included didactics and hands-on US experiences with human and cadaver models in a simulation center. Pretests and posttests of residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills with US were completed. We reassessed the 2010 group in the spring of 2012 with a long-term retention survey for knowledge and confidence in viewing images. A total of 136 interns completed the workshop. Thirty-nine residents completed the long-term retention survey. Posttest assessments showed a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of US imaging, confidence in identifying structures, image identification, and image acquisition (P < .0001). In the long-term retention study, knowledge of US imaging and confidence in identifying structures did decline. This educational intervention resulted in improvement in US knowledge and image acquisition. However, the knowledge diminished over time, suggesting that further education is needed if US is to become an important component of internal medicine training and practice. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Quixotic medicine: physical and economic laws perilously disregarded in health care and medical education.

    PubMed

    Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J

    2008-12-01

    Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.

  1. Move to Learn, Learn to Move: Prioritizing Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei; Montague, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    The global childhood trend towards obesity and unhealthy lifestyles is a growing concern. Childcare settings have been identified as the most influential factors for children's physical activity, and physical activity habits are better formed and maintained if started in early childhood. As a result, early childhood education environments are in…

  2. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  3. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  4. The Italian Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (SIMFER) recommendations for neck pain.

    PubMed

    Monticone, Marco; Iovine, Roberto; de Sena, Giampaolo; Rovere, Giancarlo; Uliano, Domenico; Arioli, Giovanni; Bonaiuti, Donatella; Brugnoni, Guido; Ceravolo, Gabriella; Cerri, Cesare; Dalla Toffola, Elena; Fiore, Pietro; Foti, Calogero

    2013-01-01

    The paper represents the Italian Society of Physical " and Rehabilitation Medicine (SIMFER) recommendations to Neck Pain. We searched the principal scientific databases for papers concerning the main approaches to NP, including international guidelines, clinical trials of high methodological value and systematic reviews without any temporal limits. The recommendations were graded on the basis of the National Plan for Guidelines of the Italian Istituto Superiore di Sanità, which includes the level of evidence and strength of the recommendation. The principal sections of the recommendations deal with the Evaluation and Therapy for Neck Pain. The first describes the main evidence concerning the evaluation of patients with NP with or without limb involvement and/or headache: medical history, physical examination, neurological examination, laboratory tests, electrodiagnostics, diagnostic imaging and self-administered questionnaires. The second describes the best evidence synthesis concernig the therapy for Neck Pain: education, exercise, medical therapy, manual therapy, traction, physical therapy, acupuncture, orthoses, multimodal treatment, behavioural treatment.

  5. Correlates of recreational physical activity in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ning, Y; Williams, M A; Dempsey, J C; Sorensen, T K; Frederick, I O; Luthy, D A

    2003-06-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits of a physically active lifestyle, over 25% of American adults report that they never engage in regular recreational physical activity. Little is known about the determinants of physical activity among pregnant women. We investigated the predictors of physical activity in 386 normotensive pregnant women. Participants provided information about the type, frequency and duration of each physical activity performed during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. We calculated odd ratios (OR) for active compared with inactive women using logistic regression models. Approximately 61% of women reported participating in some regular physical activity during pregnancy. Walking, swimming, gardening and jogging were the most common activities. Physical activity as an adolescent (OR 4.0) and during the year before pregnancy (OR 48.9) were the strongest predictors of physical activity in pregnancy. Active women who continued to exercise during pregnancy decreased the average intensity of their exercise and the weekly duration of exercise compared with the year before pregnancy. Nulliparas were twice as likely to engage in physical activity as compared with multiparas. Education and income were positively related with physical activity. Non-White women were 40-60% less likely to engage in physical activity as compared with White women. Smokers were also less likely to engage in physical activity. High protein intake was positively associated with physical activity, while the opposite was true for high carbohydrate intake. The identification of determinants of physical activity in pregnancy has important implications for developing strategies aimed at promoting a physically active lifestyle among young women.

  6. Rheology and physical-chemical characteristics of the solutions of the medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.

    2015-04-01

    In the laboratory studied the dynamics of rheology of water solutions with plasma- inflammatory and antiseptic funds when mixing them with blood, plasma and pus under the influence of the following physical and chemical factors of local interaction: gravity, specific gravity, temperature, relative viscosity, internal pressure, sparkling water, total concentration of the ingredients, surface activity, volume of acid and osmotic activity of medicines. Found that the rheology of biological liquids improve hyperthermic, highly alkaline and highly carbonated solution medicines. For the dilution of pus, dense festering mass of sulfur plugs and tear stones invited to apply heated to +39 - +42°C with aqueous solution of 0.5 - 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5 - 10% sodium bicarbonate saturated with carbon dioxide to excess pressure 0.2 ATM.

  7. An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

  8. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-01

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  9. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  10. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678

  11. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  12. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  13. The early history of x-ray diagnosis with emphasis on the contributions of physics 1895-1915.

    PubMed

    Mould, R F

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of physics to the development of x-ray diagnosis was vital in the early years of this century following Röntgen's discovery of x-rays in November 1895. This review records some of the highlights during the period 1895-1915. Much of the information presented has been buried in libraries for more than 50 years and the selection of illustrations and text will be largely unknown to today's readership of Physics in Medicine and Biology. It is also a celebration of what could be achieved in physics before the occurrence of the technological revolution involving not only computer applications but also the disappearance of the small independent x-ray companies into today's multinational companies. Research and development is nowadays just too expensive for much independent practical high-technology contributions without financial backing. Hence this review takes us to those bygone years of experimental physics in home laboratories, poorly equipped university physics laboratories and of the lecture-demonstrations of the period. The sections are presented in a logical order beginning with the discovery of x-rays, followed by x-ray tube technology to the advent of the hot cathode Coolidge tube, with the third and final section covering diagnostic radiology physics. It has been compiled from personal research over 35 years in libraries worldwide, drawing on textbooks, journals, popular magazines, newspapers, x-ray company catalogues and museum exhibits. I have included a certain amount of anecdotal information, because after all, much of the early commentaries were indeed anecdotal--and make very interesting reading. Finally it is commented that although this review is devoted to x-ray diagnosis, x-ray therapy should not be forgotten, and readers are referred to another review by the author on early therapeutic advances.

  14. Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…

  15. The PM&R Journal Implements a Social Media Strategy to Disseminate Research and Track Alternative Metrics in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, William N; Silver, Julie K; Katz, Matthew S

    2018-05-01

    Implementation science is an evolving part of translating evidence into clinical practice and public health policy. This report describes how a social media strategy for the journal PM&R using metrics, including alternative metrics, contributes to the dissemination of research and other information in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation. The primary goal of the strategy was to disseminate information about rehabilitation medicine, including but not limited to new research published in the journal, to health care professionals. Several different types of metrics were studied, including alternative metrics that are increasingly being used to demonstrate impact in academic medicine. A secondary goal was to encourage diversity and inclusion of the physiatric workforce-enhancing the reputations of all physiatrists by highlighting their research, lectures, awards, and other accomplishments with attention to those who may be underrepresented. A third goal was to educate the public so that they are more aware of the field and how to access care. This report describes the early results following initiation of PM&R's coordinated social media strategy. Through a network of social media efforts that are strategically integrated, physiatrists and their associated institutions have an opportunity to advance their research and clinical agendas, support the diverse physiatric workforce, and educate the public about the field to enhance patient awareness and access to care. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness and feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs for geriatric hospitalized patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Old adults admitted to the hospital are at severe risk of functional loss during hospitalization. Early in-hospital physical rehabilitation programs appear to prevent functional loss in geriatric patients. The first aim of this review was to investigate the effect of early physical rehabilitation programs on physical functioning among geriatric patients acutely admitted to the hospital. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs. Methods Two searches, one for physical functioning and one for feasibility, were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation tracking. To be included articles had to report on in-hospital early physical rehabilitation of patients aged 65 years and older with an outcome measure of physical functioning. Studies were excluded when the treatment was performed on specialized units other than geriatric units. Randomized controlled trials were included to examine the effect of early physical rehabilitation on physical functioning, length of stay and discharge destination. To investigate feasibility also non randomized controlled trials were added. Results Fifteen articles, reporting on 13 studies, described the effect on physical functioning. The early physical rehabilitation programs were classified in multidisciplinary programs with an exercise component and usual care with an exercise component. Multidisciplinary programs focussed more on facilitating discharge home and independent ADL, whereas exercise programs aimed at improving functional outcomes. At time of discharge patients who had participated in a multidisciplinary program or exercise program improved more on physical functional tests and were less likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared to patients receiving only usual care. In addition, multidisciplinary programs reduced the length of hospital stay significantly. Follow-up interventions improved

  17. Effectiveness and feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs for geriatric hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kosse, Nienke M; Dutmer, Alisa L; Dasenbrock, Lena; Bauer, Jürgen M; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2013-10-10

    Old adults admitted to the hospital are at severe risk of functional loss during hospitalization. Early in-hospital physical rehabilitation programs appear to prevent functional loss in geriatric patients. The first aim of this review was to investigate the effect of early physical rehabilitation programs on physical functioning among geriatric patients acutely admitted to the hospital. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs. Two searches, one for physical functioning and one for feasibility, were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation tracking. To be included articles had to report on in-hospital early physical rehabilitation of patients aged 65 years and older with an outcome measure of physical functioning. Studies were excluded when the treatment was performed on specialized units other than geriatric units. Randomized controlled trials were included to examine the effect of early physical rehabilitation on physical functioning, length of stay and discharge destination. To investigate feasibility also non randomized controlled trials were added. Fifteen articles, reporting on 13 studies, described the effect on physical functioning. The early physical rehabilitation programs were classified in multidisciplinary programs with an exercise component and usual care with an exercise component. Multidisciplinary programs focussed more on facilitating discharge home and independent ADL, whereas exercise programs aimed at improving functional outcomes. At time of discharge patients who had participated in a multidisciplinary program or exercise program improved more on physical functional tests and were less likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared to patients receiving only usual care. In addition, multidisciplinary programs reduced the length of hospital stay significantly. Follow-up interventions improved physical functioning after

  18. Observation of early childhood physical aggression: a psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical aggression was observed twice in a laboratory setting, the first time when children were 1-3 years old, and again 1 year later. Observed physical aggression was significantly related to concurrent mother-rated physical aggression for 2- to 4-year-olds, but not to maternal ratings of nonaggressive externalizing problems, indicating the measure's discriminant validity. However, we did not find significant 1-year stability of observed physical aggression in any of the age groups, whereas mother-rated physical aggression was significantly stable for all ages. The observational measure shows promise, but may have assessed state rather than trait aggression in our study. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    PubMed

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  20. Available Tools to Facilitate Early Patient Access to Medicines in the EU and the USA: Analysis of Conditional Approvals and the Implications for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Richer, Étienne; Melien, Øyvind; Ballensiefen, Wolfgang; Brand, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Scientific knowledge and our understanding of the human body and diseases have limited any possible treatment tailoring to each patient. The technological advances enabling the integration of various data sets (e.g. '-omics', microbiome, epigenetics and environmental exposure) have facilitated a greater understanding of the human body, the molecular basis of disease and all the factors influencing disease onset, progression and response to treatment, thereby ushering in the era of personalized medicine. We evaluate the regulatory approaches available to facilitate early patient access to efficacious and safe compounds in the EU and the USA in order to make more informed recommendations in the future as to the gaps in regulations for early patient access. An in-depth analysis of conditional approvals (EU) and accelerated approvals (USA) is performed based on the publicly available information (European public assessment reports and a summary review of products approved under both programmes). The types of product, indications, time to approval and type of evidence submitted were analysed. Between 2007 and early 2015, 17 products were conditionally approved in the EU and 25 in the USA, most of them in the area of oncology and based on evidence from phase II clinical trial data. Early approval of promising products based on data from early phases of development is already possible in the EU and the USA. Some of the improvements could entail implementing a rolling assessment of evidence in Europe and extending the scope of early dialogues. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A little something from physics for medicine (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 April 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled "A little something from physics for medicine", was held on 23 April 2014 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The agenda posted on the website of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS, http://www.gpad.ac.ru, included the following reports: (1) Rumyantsev S A (D Rogachev Federal Research and Clinical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology, Moscow) "Translational medicine as a basis of progress in hematology/oncology"; (2) Akulinichev S V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Promising nuclear medicine research at the INR, RAS"; (3) Nikitin P P (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Biosensorics: new possibilities provided by marker-free optical methods and magnetic nanoparticles for medical diagnostics"; (4) Alimpiev S S, Nikiforov S M, Grechnikov A A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "New approaches in laser mass-spectrometry of organic objects". The publication of the article based on the oral report No. 2 is presented below. • Promising nuclear medicine research in the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, V V Akulinichev Physics-Uspekhi, 2014, Volume 57, Number 12, Pages 1239-1243

  2. Physical Activity Opportunities Within the Schedule of Early Care and Education Centers.

    PubMed

    Mazzucca, Stephanie; Hales, Derek; Evenson, Kelly R; Ammerman, Alice; Tate, Deborah F; Berry, Diane C; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for young children's health and overall development, but few studies have investigated how early care and education centers allot time for physical activity, along with measured individual physical activity levels for indoor/outdoor activities during a typical day. Fifty early care and education centers in central North Carolina participated in 4 full-day observations, and 559 children aged 3-5 years within centers wore accelerometers assessing physical activity during observation days. Observation and physical activity data were linked and analyzed for associations between child activity and type of classroom activity. Children averaged 51 (13) minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity and 99 (18) minutes per day of light physical activity while in child care. Children averaged 6 (10) and 10 (13) minutes per day of observed outdoor and indoor daily teacher-led physical activity, respectively. Outdoor time averaged 67 (49) minutes per day, and physical activity levels were higher during outdoor time than during common indoor activities (center time, circle time, and TV time). Physical activity levels varied between indoor and outdoor class activities. Policy and program-related efforts to increase physical activity in preschoolers should consider these patterns to leverage opportunities to optimize physical activity within early care and education centers.

  3. Locating Quality Physical Education in Early Years Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Elizabeth; Weston, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Government Ministers, health care professionals and sporting organisations throughout the UK are presently engaged in the promotion of extending the length of time each school child spends participating in quality physical education. Agendas may differ from a crackdown on obesity and sedentary lifestyles to basking in reflected glory of British…

  4. The Early Universe and High-Energy Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, David N.

    1983-01-01

    Many properties of new particle field theories can only be tested by comparing their predictions about the physical conditions immediately after the big bang with what can be reconstructed about this event from astronomical data. Facts/questions about big bang, unified field theories, and universe epochs/mass are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  5. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…

  6. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p < 0.05). For boys, physical activity at 11 and 18 years were inversely related to continuous medication (p < 0.05). More physically active boys and those with less screen time in adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age.

  7. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Tara L; Tomayko, Emily J; Meinen, Amy M; Hoiting, Jill; Saxler, Courtney; Cullen, Bridget

    2016-07-20

    Early childcare and education (ECE) is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led) activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2-5 years, in the ECE setting. Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (-4.4 ± 14.2 % time, -29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02). Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = -0.37, p < 0.05) and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the

  8. Replication and Extension of the Early Childhood Friendship Project: Effects on Physical and Relational Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper-DeMarco, Kimberly E.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.; Celenza, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    A replication of a preventive early childhood intervention study for reducing relational and physical aggression and peer victimization was conducted (Ostrov et al., 2009). The present study expanded on the original 6-week program, and the revised Early Childhood Friendship Project (ECFP) 8-week program consisted of developmentally appropriate…

  9. Daily Physical Activity Patterns During the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Watts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls. Patients with mild AD and controls (n = 92) recruited from the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center Registry, wore the Actigraph GT3X+ for seven days, and provided objective physical function (VO2 max) and mobility data. Using multivariate linear regression, we explored whether individuals with mild AD had different daily average and diurnal physical activity patterns compared to controls independent of non-cognitive factors that may affect physical activity, including physical function and mobility. We found that mild AD was associated with less moderate-intensity physical activity (p < 0.05), lower peak activity (p < 0.01), and lower physical activity complexity (p < 0.05) particularly during the morning. Mild AD was not associated with greater sedentary activity or less lower-intensity physical activity across the day after adjusting for non-cognitive covariates. These findings suggest that factors independent of physical capacity and mobility may drive declines in moderate-intensity physical activity, and not lower-intensity or sedentary activity, during the early stage of AD. This underscores the importance of a better mechanistic understanding of how cognitive decline and AD pathology impact physical activity. Findings emphasize the potential value of designing and testing time-of-day specific physical activity interventions targeting individuals in the early stages of AD, prior to significant declines in mobility and physical function.

  10. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  11. Role of Rehabilitation Medicine and Physical Agents in the Treatment of Cancer-Associated Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cheville, Andrea L.; Basford, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of rehabilitation medicine– and physical modality–based approaches to cancer pain management, and to highlight the fact that these approaches are generally used in conjunction and that a majority are focused on minimizing pain during periods of mobility and the performance of activities of daily living. Methods We performed a nonsystematic literature review and provide a description of the current standard of care. Results Rehabilitative and physical modalities used to manage pain can be grouped into four categories: those that modulate nociception, stabilize or unload painful structures, influence physiological processes that indirectly influence nociception, or alleviate pain arising from the overloading of muscles and connective tissues that often occurs after surgery or with sarcopenia in late-stage cancer. Most modalities have been pragmatically refined over the years, and many have an evidence base, although few have been explicitly validated in the oncologic setting. With few exceptions, they are patient controlled and free of adverse effects. Conclusion Physical modalities and rehabilitation medicine offer a range of pain management approaches that may serve as beneficial adjuncts to the conventional systemic and interventional analgesic strategies used to control cancer-related pain. These approaches may be particularly beneficial to patients with movement-associated pain and those who are ambivalent regarding pharmacoanalgesia. PMID:24799472

  12. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "patients after rotator cuff tear surgery".

    PubMed

    Ribinik, P; Calmels, P; Barrois, B; Le Moine, F; Yelnik, A P

    2011-11-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (Sofmer) and the French Federation of PRM (Fedmer). These documents describe the needs for or a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Patients after rotator cuff tear surgery are classified into four care sequences and two clinical categories, taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence patients' needs, in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) (WHO). 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "patients after total knee arthroplasty".

    PubMed

    Ribinik, P; Le Moine, F; de Korvin, G; Coudeyre, E; Genty, M; Rannou, F; Yelnik, A; Calmels, P

    2012-11-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These documents describe the needs for or a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Patients after total knee arthroplasty are classified into three care sequences and two clinical categories, each one being treated with the same six parameters according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO), while taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence the needs of these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "patients after knee ligament surgery".

    PubMed

    Calmels, P; Ribinik, P; Barrois, B; Le Moine, F; Yelnik, A-P

    2011-11-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (Sofmer) and the French Federation of PRM (Fedmer). These documents describe the needs for or a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Patients after knee ligament surgery are classified into four care sequences and two clinical categories, taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence patients' needs, in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning (WHO). 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "patients after total hip arthroplasty".

    PubMed

    Ribinik, P; Le Moine, F; de Korvin, G; Coudeyre, E; Genty, M; Rannou, F; Yelnik, A; Calmels, P

    2012-11-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These documents describe the needs for or a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Patients after total hip arthroplasty are classified into three care sequences and two clinical categories, each one being treated with the same six parameters according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO), while taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence the needs of these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer rehabilitation in Austria--aspects of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Maehr, Bruno; Keilani, Mohammad; Wiltschke, Christoph; Hassler, Marco; Licht, Thomas; Marosi, Christine; Huetterer, Elisabeth; Cenik, Fadime; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    In Austria, cancer rehabilitation is an important issue in the management of cancer patients. Survival rates and survival time of cancer patients are increasing, and cancer rehabilitation is an important part in the treatment and care of cancer patients with the goal to improve functional status, quality of life, and (social) participation. Today, in Austria there are approximately 600 beds for inpatient rehabilitation. The field of outpatient rehabilitation will maybe be expanded after evaluating the existing pilot projects. Beside other specialities, the field of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) plays an important role in cancer rehabilitation. In cancer rehabilitation, especially activating modalities from PM&R such as exercise are very important and well-accepted parts to improve functional status, quality of life, and participation of patients.

  17. The Development and Evolution of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Taiwan from 1958 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Lien, I-Nan; Wu, Pei-Shen; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lew, Henry L

    2017-03-01

    The field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) began its development in Taiwan since 1958, and has gradually evolved into a profession that provides a diversity of clinical services and educational activities. The objectives of this brief report were to (1) review its background and milestones in the past 6 decades, (2) describe the current role and function of its Academy of PM&R, (3) present the content and format of its board certification process, focusing on (a) residency training requirements, (b) self-assessment examination, board certification process, and (c) maintenance of certification through continued education. Some challenges and opportunities are also discussed toward the end of this article. It is hoped that this report may serve as a reference material for other countries as they develop or improve their PM&R residency programs.

  18. Embedding Physical Activity and Nutrition in Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiner, Penny Low; Qiu, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The infant and toddler years provide a window of opportunity to establish healthy habits as part of daily routines and activities that prevent childhood obesity. Early care and education programs have the opportunity to make a significant impact on physical development when they promote healthy eating and physical activity in their daily routines.…

  19. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  20. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  1. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  2. Too Early for Physics? Effect of Class Meeting Time on Student Evaluations of Teaching in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports observations that show a significant effect of class meeting time on student evaluations of teaching for an introductory college physics class. Students in a lecture section with an early-morning meeting time gave the class and instructors consistently lower ratings than those in an otherwise nearly identical section that met an…

  3. How Prospective Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Trainees Rank Residency Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Auriemma, Michael J; Whitehair, Curtis L

    2018-03-01

    Since the inception of the National Resident Matching Program, multiple studies have investigated the factors applicants consider important to ranking prospective residency programs. However, only 2 previous studies focused on prospective physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) trainees, and the most recent of these studies was published in 1993. It is unknown whether these previous studies are reflective of current prospective PM&R residents. To assess various factors that contribute to prospective PM&R residents' decision making in choosing a residency program and compare these findings with previous studies. An anonymous, voluntary questionnaire. A single PM&R residency program. All applicants to a single PM&R residency program. All applicants to our PM&R residency program were invited to participate in a 44-item, 5-point Likert-based questionnaire. Applicants were asked to rate the importance of various factors as they related to constructing their residency rank list. Means and standard deviations were calculated for items included in the survey. A response rate of 26% was obtained, with the responses of 98 applicants (20%) ultimately analyzed. The highest rated factors included "perceived happiness of current residents," "opportunities for hands-on procedure training," "perceived camaraderie among current residents," "perceived camaraderie among faculty and current residents," "perceived quality of current residents," and "perceived work/life balance among current residents." Although male and female respondents demonstrated similar ranking preferences, an apparent difference was detected between how genders rated the importance of "whether the program projects a favorable environment for women" and "whether the program projects a favorable environment for minorities." As compared with previous PM&R applicants, current prospective trainees seem to place greater importance on skill acquisition over didactic teaching. Prospective PM&R residents highly value

  4. Roots of Physical Medicine, Physical Therapy, and Mechanotherapy in the Netherlands in the 19th Century: A Disputed Area within the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Terlouw, Thomas J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Physical medicine, which in the context of this article includes mechanotherapy, hydrotherapy, balneotherapy, electrotherapy, light therapy, air therapy, and thermotherapy, became a new field of labor in the healthcare domain in the Netherlands around 1900. This article gives an account of the introduction and development of mechanotherapy as a professional activity in the Netherlands in the 19th century. Mechanotherapy, which historically included exercises, manipulations, and massage, was introduced in this country around 1840 and became one of the core elements of physical medicine towards the end of that century. In contrast to what one might expect, mostly physical education teachers, referred to as “heilgymnasts,” dedicated themselves to this kind of treatment, whereas only a few physicians were active in this field until the 1880s. When, in the last quarter of the 19th century, differentiation and specialization within the medical profession took place, physicians specializing in physical medicine and orthopaedics began to claim the field of mechanotherapy exclusively for themselves. This led to tensions between them and the group of heilgymnasts that had already been active in this field for decades. The focus of attention in this article is on interprofessional relationships, on the roles played by the different professional organizations in the fields of physical education and medicine, the local and national governments, and the judicial system, and on the social, political, and cultural circumstances under which developments in the field of mechanotherapy took place. The article concludes with the hypothesis that the intra- and inter-occupational rivalries discussed have had a negative impact on the academic development of physical medicine, orthopaedics, and heilgymnastics/physical therapy in the Netherlands in the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19066646

  5. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Manoel C. S.; Barbosa, Maurício F.; Diniz, Tiego A.; Codogno, Jamile S.; Freitas, Ismael F.; Fernandes, Rômulo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. Method: The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Results: Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Conclusion: Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity. PMID:25372009

  6. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lima, Manoel C S; Barbosa, Maurício F; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b95%CI=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity.

  7. MO-AB-206-00: Nuclear Medicine Physics and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Bemore » able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT

  8. Black Contributions to the Early History of Western Medicine: Lack of Recognition as a Cause of Black Under-Representation in US Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    During several millenia, blacks in ancient Egypt made numerous contributions to medicine and were acknowledged as the inventors of the art of medicine. They produced the earliest physicians, medical knowledge, and medical literature. They contributed to the development of medicine in ancient Greece. Ancient writers, including Herodotus, Isocrates, and Diodorus, affirm this. Modern presentations of ancient medicine, however, deprive blacks of the knowledge of their early contributions to medicine by ignoring or subtly misrepresenting the black identity of the ancient Egyptians. Blacks are currently under-represented in US medical schools. It is proposed that the recognition of the contributions of blacks to the early history of Western medicine would inspire black students to study medicine. PMID:423296

  9. Description and Early Outcomes of a Comprehensive Curriculum Redesign at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Heather L; O'Brien, Celia L; Curry, Raymond H; Green, Marianne M; Baker, James F; Kushner, Robert F; Thomas, John X; Corbridge, Thomas C; Corcoran, Julia F; Hauser, Joshua M; Garcia, Patricia M

    2017-09-26

    In 2012, the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine launched a redesigned curriculum addressing the four primary recommendations in the 2010 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching report on reforming medical education. This new curriculum provides a more standardized evaluation of students' competency achievement through a robust portfolio review process coupled with standard evaluations of medical knowledge and clinical skills. It individualizes learning processes through curriculum flexibility, enabling students to take electives earlier and complete clerkships in their preferred order. The new curriculum is integrated both horizontally and vertically, combining disciplines within organ-based modules and deliberately linking elements (science in medicine, clinical medicine, health and society, professional development) and threads (medical decision making, quality and safety, teamwork and leadership, lifestyle medicine, advocacy and equity) across the three phases that replaced the traditional four-year timeline. It encourages students to conduct research in an area of interest and commit to lifelong learning and self-improvement. The curriculum formalizes the process of professional identity formation and requires students to reflect on their experiences with the informal and hidden curricula, which strongly shape their identities.The authors describe the new curriculum structure, explain their approach to each Carnegie report recommendation, describe early outcomes and challenges, and propose areas for further work. Early data from the first cohort to progress through the curriculum show unchanged United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 scores, enhanced student research engagement and career exploration, and improved student confidence in the patient care and professional development domains.

  10. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  11. [Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment - Revised Version - Joint Recommendations of the German Society of Rehabilitation Science and the German Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mau, Wilfried; Liebl, Max Emanuel; Deck, Ruth; Lange, Uwe; Smolenski, Ulrich Christian; Walter, Susanne; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Since the first publication of learning objectives for the interdisciplinary subject "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment" in undergraduate medical education in 2004 a revision is reasonable due to heterogenous teaching programmes in the faculties and the introduction of the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives in Medicine as well as the "Masterplan Medical Education 2020". Therefore the German Society of Rehabilitation Science and the German Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation started a structured consensus process using the DELPHI-method to reduce the learning objectives and arrange them more clearly. Objectives of particular significance are emphasised. All learning objectives are assigned to the cognitive and methodological level 1 or to the action level 2. The learning objectives refer to the less detailed National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives in Medicine. The revised learning objectives will contribute to further progress in competence based and more homogenous medical teaching in core objectives of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, and Naturopathic Treatment in the faculties. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Suzuki, Cláudio Shigueki; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2013-01-01

    the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  13. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  14. Implications of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs.

    PubMed

    Childs, John D; Fritz, Julie M; Wu, Samuel S; Flynn, Timothy W; Wainner, Robert S; Robertson, Eric K; Kim, Forest S; George, Steven Z

    2015-04-09

    Initial management decisions following a new episode of low back pain (LBP) are thought to have profound implications for health care utilization and costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs within the Military Health System (MHS). Patients presenting to a primary care setting with a new complaint of LBP from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were identified from the MHS Management Analysis and Reporting Tool. Descriptive statistics, utilization, and costs were examined on the basis of timing of referral to physical therapy and adherence to practice guidelines over a 2-year period. Utilization outcomes (advanced imaging, lumbar injections or surgery, and opioid use) were compared using adjusted odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals. Total LBP-related health care costs over the 2-year follow-up were compared using linear regression models. 753,450 eligible patients with a primary care visit for LBP between 18-60 years of age were considered. Physical therapy was utilized by 16.3% (n = 122,723) of patients, with 24.0% (n = 17,175) of those receiving early physical therapy that was adherent to recommendations for active treatment. Early referral to guideline adherent physical therapy was associated with significantly lower utilization for all outcomes and 60% lower total LBP-related costs. The potential for cost savings in the MHS from early guideline adherent physical therapy may be substantial. These results also extend the findings from similar studies in civilian settings by demonstrating an association between early guideline adherent care and utilization and costs in a single payer health system. Future research is necessary to examine which patients with LBP benefit early physical therapy and determine strategies for providing early guideline adherent care.

  15. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  16. Modeling and Reality in Early Twentieth-Century Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Suman

    2011-04-01

    Towards the end of 1913, Arnold Sommerfeld, Professor of theoretical physics at Munich University, sent a letter of congratulations to a young Niels Bohr. The Dane's now-classic trilogy of papers, which coupled Rutherford's conception of the atom with a ``planetary'' configuration of electrons, had just appeared. Sommerfeld saw the calculation of the Rydberg constant as a singular triumph and immediately spotted an opportunity to try to explain the Zeeman effect. Yet he also sounded a note of caution, confessing that he remained ``somewhat skeptical'' of atomic models in general. In this, of course, he was hardly alone. Bohr's atom was a particularly egregious example of a peculiar model, one requiring what even its creator considered ``horrid assumptions.'' Nonetheless, success bred conviction. Expanding upon Bohr's original ideas, Sommerfeld soon produced the so-called ``Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions,'' using them to calculate a myriad of results. Experimental evidence, Sommerfeld argued in 1915, showed that quantised electron-paths ``correspond exactly to reality'' and possess ``real existence.'' This kind of realism would not, of course, last long. In 1925, Werner Heisenberg (earlier a student of Sommerfeld's) made scepticism about the details of the Bohr model into a methodological dictum, one later enshrined in the ``Copenhagen interpretation'' of quantum mechanics. This paper uses Sommerfeld's work from the turn of the twentieth century to the mid-1920s as a window onto a landscape involving multiple contestations over the legitimacy of atomic modelling. The surprise that greeted Heisenberg's and others' phenomenological insistences, we will see, can only be understood with reference to what should be considered a ``realist interlude'' in the history of twentieth century atomic physics, one inspired by the astonishing successes of Rutherford's and Bohr's imaginings.

  17. A survey of the role of the UK physicist in nuclear medicine: a report of a joint working group of the British Institute of Radiology, British Nuclear Medicine Society, and the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tindale, W B; Thorley, P J; Nunan, T O; Lewington, V; Shields, R A; Williams, N R

    2003-01-01

    Guidelines for the provision of physics support to nuclear medicine were published in 1999 by a joint working group of the British Institute of Radiology, the British Nuclear Medicine Society, and the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Following publication of the guidelines, a survey was conducted by the working group to gather data on the actual level of physicist support in UK hospitals of different types and on the activities undertaken by physicists. The data were collected in the 12 months following the publication of guidelines and cover different hospital models and seven UK regions. The results provide evidence that many of the smaller units - small teaching hospitals and, particularly, small district general hospitals - have insufficient physics support. Although, on average, there is good agreement between the guidelines and the survey data for medium and large district general hospitals, there is wide variation in the level of physics provision between hospitals delivering apparently similar services. This emphasizes the need for national guidelines, against which institutions may be bench-marked and which may be used as a recommendation for the staffing levels necessary to ensure services are delivered safely and standards are not compromised. The complexity and variety of workload is an important factor in determining the level of physics support. As services develop, it is vital that this aspect is recognized to ensure that appropriate resources are available for the required physics input, even if any new service represents only a modest clinical throughput in terms of patient numbers.

  18. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  19. Community-Based Healthy Living Medicine, With a Focus on K-12, Physical Education, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sally S

    Childhood obesity is one of the country's most significant health problems. Researchers estimate that 32.2% of children and adolescents ages 2 to 19 in the United States are overweight and obese (Skinner and Skelton, 2014). The prevalence of childhood obesity in 2011-2014 was 17.0% and extreme obesity was 5.8% among US children and adolescents aged 2 to 19years (Ogden et al., 2016). The high rates of obesity and diabetes, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity in children and adolescents makes cardiovascular risk reduction in this population critical. There is a strong body of evidence that showed practicing healthful lifestyle behaviors can reduce the risk of these chronic diseases. The goal of this article is to outline the current research and evaluation with policy and practice efforts, and strategies to accelerate the translation of replicable nutrition and physical education interventions for successful implementation of Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Medicine among children and adolescents K-12. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical health, mental health, and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine services among Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Stephanie Brooks; Hull, Amanda; Lockwood, Courtney; Eickhoff, Christine; Sullivan, Patrick; Reinhard, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Gulf War veterans represent a unique subset of the veteran population. It has been challenging to identify interventions that result in improvements in physical and mental health for this population. Recently, there has been recognition of a potential role for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. This paper examines the characteristics of Gulf War and non-Gulf War veterans referred to a CAM clinic, and explores the utilization of services by this population. Participants included 226 veterans enrolled in a CAM clinic at a Veterans Affairs medical center, 42 of whom were Gulf War veterans. Self-report measures of physical/mental health were administered, and service utilization was obtained from participants' medical records for a 6-month period. Gulf War veterans enrolled in the program reported more severe physical and mental health symptoms than non-Gulf War veterans. However, examining only veterans who participated in services in the 6 months following enrollment, the 2 groups reported similar symptom severity. Both groups were similar in their attendance of individual acupuncture and iRest yoga nidra, although Gulf War veterans attended fewer sessions of group acupuncture. Although Gulf War veterans who enroll in a CAM program may have more severe symptoms than non-Gulf War veterans, those who actually participate in services are similar to non-Gulf War veterans on these measures. These groups also differ in their pattern of service utilization. Future research should explore the reasons for these differences, and to identify ways to promote treatment engagement with this population.

  1. Trends in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Publications Over the Past 16 Years.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Michael; Cismariu-Potash, Keren; Ratmansky, Motti; Shaklai, Sharon; Amir, Hagay; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva

    2016-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that the number of publications in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) has increased over the last 16 years in a linear fashion, and to compare the trends in publication between the pediatric and adult literature. We evaluated all MEDLINE articles from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2013, using Medical Subject Headings categories of rehabilitation. An age filter separated adult and pediatric articles. We divided articles into those with a low level of scientific evidence such as letters and editorials, and those with a high level of evidence such as controlled trials and meta-analyses. We used regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the year of publication on the number of publications of each type. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. MEDLINE reported a total of 98,501 adult publications and 30,895 pediatric publications during the evaluated period. There was a significant linear increase in the total number of publications in adult and pediatric rehabilitation publications with multiplication factors of 3.3 and 2.9, respectively. Importantly, publications with a high level of evidence showed larger multiplication factors compared with those with a low level of evidence (5.5 and 5.1 vs 2.1 and 2.0) for the adult and pediatric literature. The number of publications in the PMR field, especially those with a high level of scientific evidence, has increased linearly over the years, reflecting the rapid evolution of both adult and pediatric PMR. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Results Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Conclusion Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary. PMID:25961736

  3. Physical activity, sedentary time and physical capability in early old age: British birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Andrew J M; Simmons, Rebecca K; Kuh, Diana; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1 standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary.

  4. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  5. Efficacy of a checklist as part of a physical medicine and rehabilitation clerkship to teach medical students musculoskeletal physical examination skills: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Eric L; Cruz, Eduardo; Salim, Sara Z; Jani, Jay B; Stitik, Todd P; Foye, Patrick M; DeLisa, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a checklist as part of a physical medicine clerkship to teach medical students physical examination maneuvers. This is a prospective study performed on fourth year medical students enrolled in a 2-wk mandatory clerkship of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. At the start and end of the rotation, the participating students were tested by performing 20 physical examination maneuvers on an investigator who was both the standardized patient and the evaluator. At the end of the rotation, the students also completed a survey. Data were analyzed using the Bernoulli trial model, with the percentage of students who performed the maneuver correctly on the pretest as the a priori probability. A full Bonferroni correction was applied. The authors enrolled 141 of the 176 fourth year medical students; 121 completed testing. At prerotation, approximately 35% of the physical examination maneuvers were performed correctly; at postrotation, 82%. For 19 of 20 maneuvers, the improvement was statistically significant at P < 0.01. The survey results indicated that the students felt that they had limited exposure to musculoskeletal examination skills at prerotation, that this rotation helped them achieve competency in performing the maneuvers, and that this would improve their future patient care irrespective of field of choice. Considering the high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and the anticipated rise in the future, the authors strongly recommend teaching musculoskeletal physical examination maneuvers in medical school, which can be accomplished via a mandatory physical medicine and rehabilitation rotation. The authors conclude that checklists as part of this rotation can effectively help in teaching physical examination skills to medical students.

  6. Early-Onset Physical Frailty in Adults with Diabesity and Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lori J; Bittel, Daniel C; Bittel, Adam J; Sinacore, David R

    2017-12-07

    Diabesity (obesity and diabetes mellitus) has been identified as a potential contributor to early-onset frailty. Impairments contributing to early onset of physical frailty in this population are not well understood, and there is little evidence of the impact of peripheral neuropathy on frailty. The purpose of this study was to determine impairments that contribute to early-onset physical frailty in individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy. We studied 105 participants, 82 with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy (57 years of age, body mass index [BMI] 31 kg/m 2 ); 13 with diabesity only (53 years of age, BMI 34 kg/m 2 ) and 10 obese controls (67 years of age, BMI 32 kg/m 2 ). Peripheral neuropathy was determined using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments; physical frailty was classified using the 9-item, modified Physical Performance Test; and knee extension and ankle plantarflexion peak torques were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. Participants with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy were 7.4 times more likely to be classified as physically frail. Impairments in lower-extremity function were associated with classification of frailty. Individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy are particularly likely to be classified as frail. Earlier identification and interventions aimed at improving lower-extremity function may be important to mitigate the early-onset functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Maturation on Physical Self-Perceptions and the Relationship with Physical Activity in Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G.; Fawkner, Samantha G.; Henretty, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N = 150; mean age = 12.79 plus or minus 0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and…

  8. [Strategies of medical self-authorization in early modern medicine: the example of Volcher Coiter (1534-1576)].

    PubMed

    Gross, Dominik; Steinmetzer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Based on the example of Volcher Coiter--a town physician at Nuremberg and one of the leading anatomists in early modern medicine--, this essay points out that the authoritative status of contemporary physicians mainly was predicated on an interplay of self-fashioning and outside perception. It provides ample evidence that Coiter made use of several characteristic rhetorical and discourse-related strategies of self-authorisation such as the participation in social networks, a highly convincing technique of self-fashioning by emphasizing particular erudition, the presentation of academic medicine as a science authorised by god and the concurrent devaluation of non-academic healers. Furthermore, graphic and visual strategies of self-authorisation could be ascertained: Coiter took care for a premium typography of his books. He also used his talent as a graphic artist in his books to visualise his medical concepts. Moreover, the so-called 'Nuremberg Portrait' of Coiter served to illustrate his outstanding authority.

  9. Impact of a required fourth-year medical student rotation in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Clinton E; Mali, Jimmy; Mendoza, Paola Maria; Musick, David; Sembrano, Roderick

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a 2-wk required rotation in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) on fourth-year medical students' knowledge of PM&R and attitude toward teamwork in patient care. Survey results on attitudes toward a team approach to patient care and knowledge in PM&R were compared prerotation and postrotation. One hundred thirty-eight fourth-year medical students participated in this 2-yr study. The combined response rates for the attitude and knowledge surveys were 62% and 56%, respectively. As measured by a pretest and posttest self-reported knowledge assessment, the rotation increased knowledge of PM&R (P ≤ 0.05). Four aspects of the rotation that were rated higher by students from the second year of the rotation were role and responsibility definition, incorporation of current literature, enhancement of clinical skills, and general rotation satisfaction. The rotation provides an experience for medical students to increase their knowledge of PM&R.

  10. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Potential Effects on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Boninger, Joseph W.; Gans, Bruce M.; Chan, Leighton

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to review pertinent areas of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to determine the PPACA’s impact on physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). The law, and related newspaper and magazine articles, was reviewed. The ways in which provisions in the PPACA are being implemented by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other government organizations were investigated. Additionally, recent court rulings on the PPACA were analyzed to assess the law’s chances of successful implementation. The PPACA contains a variety of reforms that, if implemented, will significantly impact the field of PM&R. Many PPACA reforms change how rehabilitative care is delivered by integrating different levels of care and creating uniform quality metrics to assess quality and efficiency. These quality metrics will ultimately be tied to new, performance-based payment systems. While the law contains ambitious initiatives that may, if unsuccessful or incorrectly implemented, negatively impact PM&R, it also has the potential to greatly improve the quality and efficiency of rehabilitative care. A proactive approach to the changes the PPACA will bring about is essential for the health of the field. PMID:22459177

  11. Gender differences regarding career issues and promotion in academic physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Amy O; Kevorkian, C George; Rintala, Diana H

    2007-11-01

    To assess gender differences in academic progress and attitudes toward promotion in academic physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). A survey was sent to members of the Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP). Questions addressed demographics, job description, hours worked, childcare responsibilities, publications, career aspirations, mentoring, and familiarity with promotion and tenure policies. Respondents were also asked about the relative importance of career aspects including the perceived benefits of and obstacles to promotion. Responses were anonymous. Women spent less time on scholarly activities. Women considered the fact that they disliked writing and did not know how to do research to be more important obstacles to promotion than did men. Women were more likely to have part-time appointments and lower academic rank. They had fewer children at home but greater responsibility for child care. Women were less likely to aspire to become full professor, they met less often with their department chair/supervisor, and they published fewer papers. Men and women reported equal career satisfaction. There are several gender differences in the values, attitudes, and priorities in academic PM&R. Women respondents were generally less interested in traditional academic pursuits than were their male counterparts.

  12. Challenges and Recommendations for Placebo Controls in Randomized Trials in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fregni, Felipe; Imamura, Marta; Chien, Hsin Fen; Lew, Henry L.; Boggio, Paulo; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Riberto, Marcelo; Hsing, Wu Tu; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Furlan, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other specialties, the field of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) has not received the deserved recognition from clinicians and researchers in the scientific community. One of the reasons is the lack of sound evidence to support the traditional PRM treatments. The best way to change this disadvantage is through well-conducted clinical research, such as the standard placebo or sham-controlled randomized clinical trials. Therefore, having placebo groups in clinical trials is essential to improve the level of evidence-based practice in PRM that ultimately translates in a better clinical care. To address the challenges for the use of placebo in PRM randomized clinical trials, and to create useful recommendations, we convened a working group during the inaugural International Symposium in Placebo (February 2009, in Sao Paulo, Brazil) in which the following topics were discussed: (1) current status of randomized clinical trials in PRM, (2) challenges for the use of placebo in PRM, (3) bioethical issues, (4) use of placebo in acupuncture trials and for the treatment of low-back pain, (5) mechanisms of placebo, and (6) insights from other specialties. The current article represents the consensus report from the working group. PMID:20090428

  13. An individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy for tension-type headache - two experimental case studies.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Anne; Lagerlöf, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of an individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy, based on a functional behavioral analysis (FBA), for tension-type headache (TTH). Two case studies with A1-A2-B-A3 design of two patients with TTH was conducted. Outcome variables were headache frequency, headache index (mean intensity), consumption of analgesics, self-efficacy in headache management (Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale [HMSE]), disability, and perceived loss of happiness for activities with family and friends. The results showed that headache frequency and headache index decreased for one of the patients. Self-efficacy in headache management increased markedly for both patients. A behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy based on an FBA can be a way for physical therapists to handle patients with TTH. Future investigations should focus on large group studies with longer observation periods.

  14. Concept and treatment of hydrocephalus in the Greco-Roman and early Arabic medicine.

    PubMed

    Grunert, P; Charalampaki, P; Ayyad, A

    2007-10-01

    In the ancient medical literature hydrocephalus was not often described although its existence and symptomatology were well known. Most detailed descriptions of hydrocephalus including the surgical treatment are extant in the encyclopaedic works on medicine of the physicians Oreibasios and Aetios from Amida from the 4th and 6th centuries AD, respectively. Because of their broad scientific interests, this type of physicians, typical for the late Roman empire, were known as philosophy-physicians (iota alpha tau rho o sigma o phi iota sigma tau alpha iota). They defined hydrocephalus in contrast to our present understanding as a fluid collection excluding abscesses visible as a bulging tumour localised either outside or inside the skull of an infant. They classified the hydrocephalus similar as stated first by Galen in the 2nd century AD in four types corresponding to the assumed anatomic localisation of the fluid collection: 1st Type between the skin and the pericranium corresponding to the subgaleal haematoma or caput succedaneum of the newborn in our terminology, 2nd Type between the pericranium and the skull corresponding to the cephal haematoma after delivery, 3rd Type between skull and the meninges with increased head circumference, bone sutures being increasingly driven apart corresponding most likely to the hydrocephalus in our understanding, and 4th Type between the menings and the brain characterised by severe neurological deficit with lethal prognosis corresponding probably to all pathologies which were accompanied by an excessive increase of the intracranial pressure with a bulging fontanel. Due to the lack of autopsies in ancient times, the hydrocephalus was never linked to the pathology of the ventricles. All forms of hydrocephalus were believed to be caused by improper handling of the head by the midwife during delivery. Only the extracranial fluid collections, but not hydrocephalus in our sense, were considered to be suitable for surgical treatment

  15. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-02-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent's own education. Young adults aged 18-29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity. Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent's own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent's own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education. There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.

  16. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  18. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  19. Premenstrual symptoms are associated with psychological and physical symptoms in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Susanne; Einsle, Franziska; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The reproductive life of women is characterised by a number of distinct reproductive events and phases (e.g. premenstrual phase, peripartum, perimenopause). The hormonal transitions during these phases are often associated with both psychological and physical symptoms. Associations between these reproductive phases have been shown by numerous studies. However, the relationship between symptoms during the premenstrual phase and during early pregnancy has received little attention thus far, although early pregnancy is a time of dramatic hormonal as well as physical adaptation. Findings are based on a prospective longitudinal study with N = 306 pregnant women (MARI study). Three hundred five women that had menstrual bleeding in the year before pregnancy rated the severity of psychological and physical symptoms during premenstrual phases in the year preceding pregnancy. Besides this, they rated the severity of the same symptoms during early pregnancy (weeks 10 to 12 of gestation). The overall severity of premenstrual symptoms was significantly associated with the overall severity of early pregnancy symptoms (b = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.5; p < 0.001). The overall severity of early pregnancy symptoms was best predicted by the severity of premenstrual irritability. The best predictor for a particular symptom in early pregnancy mostly was the corresponding premenstrual symptom. The associations between premenstrual and early pregnancy symptoms support the reproductive hormone sensitivity hypothesis that some women are prone to repeatedly experience specific psychological and physical symptoms during different reproductive phases. The findings further imply that the nature of symptoms might be rather consistent between different reproductive phases.

  20. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe. Introductions, Executive Summary, and Methodology.

    PubMed

    2018-04-01

    The White Book (WB) of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe is produced by the 4 European PRM Bodies (European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine - EARM, European Society of PRM - ESPRM, European Union of Medical Specialists - PRM Section, European College of PRM-ECPRM served by the European Union of Medical Specialists-PRM Board) and constitutes the reference book for PRM physicians in Europe. It has now reached its third edition; the first was published in 1989 and the second in 2006/2007. The WB has multiple purposes, including providing a unifying framework for European countries, to inform decision-makers on European and national level, to offer educational material for PRM trainees and physicians and information about PRM to the medical community, other rehabilitation professionals and the public. The WB states the importance of PRM, a primary medical specialty that is present all over Europe, with a specific corpus disciplinae, a common background and history throughout Europe. PRM is internationally recognized and a partner of major international bodies, including the World Health Organization (WHO). PRM activities are strongly based on the documents of the United Nations (UN) and WHO, such as the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006), the World Report on Disability (2011), the WHO Global Disability Action Plan 2014-2021 (2014) and the WHO initiative "Rehabilitation 2030: a call for action" (2017). The WB is organized in 4 sections, 11 chapters and some appendices. The WB starts with basic definitions and concepts of PRM and continues with why rehabilitation is needed by individuals and society. Rehabilitation focuses not only on health conditions but also on functioning. Accordingly, PRM is the medical specialty that strives to improve functioning of people with a health condition or experiencing disability. The fundamentals of PRM, the history of the PRM specialty, and the structure and activities of PRM

  1. "Physics Stories": How the Early Technologies of High Voltage and High Vacuum Led to "Modern Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-05-01

    Some of you may remember the 1979 television series "Connections" that was written and narrated by James Burke, a British science writer. Burke's technique was to choose a number of seemingly unrelated ideas and show how they led to developments in science and technology. This is an enjoyable business, even if some of the connections seem to be stretched at times, and led to a book by Burke. In a number of talks that I have given over the years, I have made somewhat less fanciful connections that suggest how the technologies of high vacuum and high voltage led to what used to be called "modern physics." Today we might limit the "modern" era to the years from 1890 to 1920 that gave the first workable theories of small-scale physics.

  2. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical and Sedentary Activities of Early Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines physical and sedentary activities of early adolescent boys and girls using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a method that can link mood and behaviors in specific social situations. Twenty-seven assessments were collected across 7 days from 82 participating adolescents, three times in seventh grade and one time in eighth…

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of Individual Interest in Middle School Physical Education: Perspectives of Early-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Cothran, Donetta J.; Jenkins, Jayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has revealed the positive impact that interest development can have on achievement outcomes with early-adolescents in physical education (PE). Interest is considered a psychological state of engaging and willingness to reengage in specific content that develops over time; however, little work to date has examined interest…

  4. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  5. Letters from Early Career Academics: The Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Field of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Enright, Eimear; Rynne, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Taking our lead from Rainer Maria Rilke's (1929) "Letters to a Young Poet", our broader project aimed to create a space for dialogue and intergenerational learning between Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) Early Career Academics (ECAs) and members of the PESP professoriate. This paper focuses specifically on the experiences of…

  6. Early Parenting and Children's Relational and Physical Aggression in the Preschool and Home Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…

  7. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  8. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  9. An Intervention for Relational and Physical Aggression in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…

  10. [A historical perspective on the evolution of the concepts of motor activity and physical exercise in medicine].

    PubMed

    Conti, Andrea A; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2008-02-01

    A historical analysis of Western medicine clearly indicates high attention to the body dimension and to corporeal functions. Even if what today may be defined "the science of physical exercise in medicine" goes back only to the last fifty years, the great Mediterranean cultures have always dedicated great care to the harmonic development of the human body. The importance of the role of physical exercise in maintaining an appropriate health status is mentioned in the Hippocratic Corpus (V-IV century before Christ). In the contemporaneous Hippocratic Oath one may read that the physicians of the Hippocratic School are called upon to "regulate the lifestyle of sick people in the light of their well being". At that time the prescriptions regarding patients' lifestyle, taking into account the limited effectiveness of therapeutic measures, were primarily concentrated on an appropriate diet and motor activity. This historical review describes the evolution of physical activity in medicine with regard to the current awareness of its relevance at every stage of life; the presentation of the historical roots of the concepts of motor activity and of physical exercise and of their progress through time aims at defining their current preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative roles.

  11. Cross-sectional study of self-reported physical activity, eating habits and use of complementary medicine in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Arnoud J; Thürlimann, Beat; Baumann, Michael; Mark, Michael; Stoll, Sarah; Schwizer, Madeleine; Dietrich, Daniel; Ruhstaller, Thomas

    2013-03-25

    Besides conventional adjuvant therapies, many breast cancer survivors engage in various activities like exercise, diet and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in order to improve their prognosis. Little is known about specific interests and willingness to participate in institutional programs (e.g. exercise classes). We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with early breast cancer assessing current physical activity (PA, e.g. 30 minutes brisk walking), attention to eating habits ("diet"), use of CAM, and interest in learning more about these fields. Patients indicating interest in PA counselling received a voucher for a free instruction by a certified physiotherapist. Data were analysed for factors predictive for engagement in the three fields using a stepwise multivariate logistic approach. Of 342 consecutive patients, 232 (69%) reported to be physically active more than once per week, 299 (87%) paying special attention to nutrition (in most cases fruits, "balanced diet", low fat), and 159 (46%) use of CAM (vitamins, special teas, homeopathy, herbal medicine, mistletoe). Factors predictive for PA were use of CAM, higher age, and fewer worries about the future. Swiss nationality at birth, physical activity and higher education were predictive for diet; whereas physical activity, higher education and lower age were predictive for use of CAM. No associations between any of the above variables and breast cancer characteristics were found. Around half of the patients reported interest in receiving more information and willingness to attend special counselling. Of 166 vouchers, only 7 (4%) were eventually utilized. A high proportion of breast cancer survivors report PA, following a specific diet and use of CAM. There were no disease related factors associated with such pursuits, but an association between patient related factors and these fields was observed suggesting general health awareness in some patients. Around half of the patients were

  12. Comment from the Editor to the Special Issue: “Big Data and Precision Medicine Series I: Lung Cancer Early Diagnosis”

    PubMed Central

    Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    With this Editorial we want to present the Special Issue “Big Data and Precision Medicine Series I: Lung Cancer Early Diagnosis” to the scientific community, which aims to gather experts on the early detection of lung cancer in order to implement common efforts in the fight against cancer. PMID:29425180

  13. Laser-polarized noble gases: a powerful probe for biology, medicine, and subatomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    For over a decade, laser-polarized noble gases such as ^3He and ^129Xe have proven useful for a wide range of scientific inquiries. These include investigations of pulmonary disease using the polarized gas as a signal source for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), measurements of various aspects of nucleon structure, and tests of fundamental symmetries. Early efforts were often limited by expensive and bulky laser systems, but ongoing advancements in solid-state lasers have enabled increasingly large volumes of polarized gas to be produced with steadily improved polarization. Equally important have been advances in the fundamental understanding of spin exchange. This has led, for example, to the introduction of hybrid mixtures of alkali metals that can increase the efficiency of spin exchange by an order of magnitude. As a consequence of these advances, the figure of merit for polarized nuclear targets has increased by roughly three orders of magnitude in comparison to early accelerator-based experiments. And in MRI applications, it has become possible to pursue increasingly sophisticated imaging protocols that provide a wide range of diagnostic information. Even the earliest noble-gas MR images of the gas space of the human lung provided unprecedented resolution. More recent work includes the use of diffusion-sensitizing pulse sequences to study lung microstructure, and tagging techniques that enable the visualization (in real-time MRI movies) of gas flow during breathing. The range of applications of laser-polarized noble gases is continuing to grow, and it is notable that with an improved understanding of the underlying physics, it is quite likely that the capabilities of this useful technology will expand for some time to come.

  14. Fate of abstracts presented at the 2008 European Congress of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Allart, E; Beaucamp, F; Tiffreau, V; Thevenon, A

    2015-08-01

    The subsequent full-text publication of abstracts presented at a scientific congress reflects the latter's scientific quality. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the publication rate for abstracts presented at the 2008 European Congress of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ECPRM), characterize the publications and identify factors that were predictive of publication. It is a bibliography search. We used the PubMed database to search for subsequent publication of abstracts. We screened the abstracts' characteristics for features that were predictive of publication among abstracts features, such the status of the authors, the topic and the type of work. We performed univariate analyses and a logistic regression analysis. Of 779 abstracts presented at ECPRM 2008, 169 (21.2%) were subsequently published. The mean time to publication was 12±15.7 months and the mean impact factor of the publishing journals was 2.05±2.1. In a univariate analysis, university status (P<10-6), geographic origin (P=10-3), oral presentation (P<10-6), and original research (P<10-6) (and particularly multicentre trials [P<0.01] and randomized controlled trials [P=10-3]) were predictive of publication. In a logistic regression analysis, oral presentation (odds ratio [OR]=0.37) and university status (OR=0.36) were significant, independent predictors of publication. ECPRM 2008 publication rate and impact factor were relatively low, when compared with most other national and international conferences in this field. University status, the type of abstract and oral presentation were predictive of subsequent publication.

  15. Determination of clinically relevant content for a musculoskeletal anatomy curriculum for physical medicine and rehabilitation residents.

    PubMed

    Lisk, Kristina; Flannery, John F; Loh, Eldon Y; Richardson, Denyse; Agur, Anne M R; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-01-01

    To address the need for more clinical anatomy training in residency education, many postgraduate programs have implemented structured anatomy courses into their curriculum. Consensus often does not exist on specific content and level of detail of the content that should be included in such curricula. This article describes the use of the Delphi method to identify clinically relevant content to incorporate in a musculoskeletal anatomy curriculum for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) residents. A two round modified Delphi involving PM&R experts was used to establish the curricular content. The anatomical structures and clinical conditions presented to the expert group were compiled using multiple sources: clinical musculoskeletal anatomy cases from the PM&R residency program at the University of Toronto; consultation with PM&R experts; and textbooks. In each round, experts rated the importance of each curricular item to PM&R residency education using a five-point Likert scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was used to determine consensus at the end of each round and agreement scores were used as an outcome measure to determine the content to include in the curriculum. The overall internal consistency in both rounds was 0.99. A total of 37 physiatrists from across Canada participated and the overall response rate over two rounds was 97%. The initial curricular list consisted of 361 items. After the second iteration, the list was reduced by 44%. By using a national consensus method we were able to objectively determine the relevant anatomical structures and clinical musculoskeletal conditions important in daily PM&R practice. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. [Knowledge of physical and rehabilitation medicine among physicians and medical students in Poland].

    PubMed

    Tederko, Piotr; Krasuski, Marek; Nyka, Izabella; Denes, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) since 1959 has been a basic medical specialty in Poland. Recently PRM is practiced by around 1,12% of professionally active physicians in Poland. Due to specificity and unfavorable health care regulations PRM may be inadequately perceived by the medical profession in Poland. Evaluation of basic knowledge of PRM in PRM trainees, non-PRM specialists and medical students in Poland. 500 respondents (225 non-PRM specialists--NPRMS, 61 PRM trainees--PRMT and 214 medical students who accomplished undergraduate education in PRM--MS) underwent testing with an anonymous questionnaire elaborated at Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary and modified at Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. SELECTED RESULTS: 404 (80,8%) respondents (88.3% MS; 68.9% NPRMS and 98.3% PRMT) perceived PRM as a basic medical specialty. 49.1% of MS, 47.1% of NPRMS and 73.4% of PRMT noticed the leading role of a PRM physician in comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with exemplary disabilities. 408 (81.6%) participants (77.6% MS, 82.2% NPRMS and 93.4% PRMT) knew who was eligible to refer a patient to PRM physician. Rate of disabled persons in Poland was properly reported by 330 (66%) participants (63.1% MS; 69.3% NPRMS and 63.9% PRMT). Correct definition of disability was given by 256 (51.2%) respondents (65%) MS, 33.8% NPRMS and 67.2% PRMT), whereas 200 (40%) participants (43.5% MS; 31.1% NPRMS and 60.7% PRMT were familiar with the definition of PRM. Poor knowledge of PRM role in health care system among MS and NPRMS and Low awareness of cardinal PRM issues among PRMT reflects inadequate undergraduate and postgraduate education in PRM, disadvantageous healthcare system solutions and misleading information in mass media in Poland. Education on PRM role in a contemporary healthcare should be urgently improved.

  17. The historical social positioning of nursing and medicine: implications for career choice, early socialization and interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2014-03-01

    For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions.

  18. Parent and peer predictors of physical aggression and conflict management in romantic relationships in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Collins, W Andrew

    2005-06-01

    Violence between romantic partners is widespread, but developmental precursors of perpetration and victimization are little understood. Among participants followed from birth to 23 years of age, familial and extrafamilial childhood and adolescent relationships were examined in connection with couple violence in early adulthood. Predictors included early childhood physical abuse and witnessing of parental partner violence, features of parent-child interactions at the age of 13 years, and close friendship quality at the age of 16 years. Controlling for early familial violence, intrusive or overly familiar behavior in videotaped parent-child collaborations at 13 years of age consistently predicted violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood. Friendship quality at the age of 16 years contributed over and above familial predictors. Understanding the role of both familial and extrafamilial close relationship precursors may lead to effective strategies for ameliorating the problem of romantic partner violence. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Three decades of citation classics: the most cited articles in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Powell, Aaron J; Conlee, Erin M; Chang, Douglas G

    2014-09-01

    With the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation recently celebrating its 75th anniversary, it is an opportune time to assess the impact and influence that physiatric articles and research have had on the field, as well as the greater scientific community. One useful metric of scientific impact is citation count, which is the most common method for analyzing the magnitude of scientific recognition of an individual article. This study presents 2 reading lists of influential physiatric academic journal articles drawn from the Web of Science index based on citation count. The first list contains the top 25 most-cited articles during the last 3 decades from the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and PM&R. The second list contains the top 10 articles in 20 different physiatric topical areas. This topical list was generated via an expanded search without limitation of time span or journal. This allowed for the identification of influential physiatric articles not found in the field's 3 major publications from the United States. Although citation index is not a direct measure of quality or importance, it offers one form of quantitative assessment of scientific impact. This assessment contributes to the identification of trends, which illustrate the evolution of scope and focus of physiatry research. The lists of most-cited articles presented in this review can be used to provide historical context to physiatry's existing body of research, direct future evidence-based research efforts, and help guide educators as they select resident reading lists or journal club materials. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Birth order and physical fitness in early adulthood: evidence from Swedish military conscription data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p < 0.000) standard deviations lower than first-born children. The association exists both in small (3 or less children) and large families (4 or more children), in high and low socioeconomic status families, and amongst cohorts born in the 1960s and the 1970s. While in the whole population the birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early and extraordinary peaks in physical performance come with a longevity cost

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Paul L; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory postulates a trade-off between development and maintenance. This trade-off is observed when comparing life histories of different animal species. In humans, however, it is debated if variation in longevity is explained by differences in developmental traits. Observational studies found a trade-off between early and high fecundity and longevity in women. Development encompasses more than fecundity and also concerns growth and physical performance. Here, we show a life history trade-off between early and above average physical performance and longevity in male Olympic athletes. Athletes who peaked at an earlier age showed 17-percent increased mortality rates (95% CI 8-26% per SD, p<0.001) and athletes who ranked higher showed 11-percent increased mortality rates (95% CI 1-22% per SD, p=0.025). Male athletes who had both an early and extraordinary peak performance suffered a 4.7-year longevity cost. (95% CI 2.1-7.5 years, p=0.001). This is the first time a life history trade-off between physical performance and longevity has been found in humans. This finding deepens our understanding of early developmental influences on the variation of longevity in humans. PMID:27540872

  2. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  3. Early intervention services of children with physical disabilities: complexity of child and family needs.

    PubMed

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    To gain insight into the special issues confronting parents when accessing early intervention for children with physical disabilities where child and/or family characteristics indicate complex needs within the unique Australian context. Qualitative interviews with families receiving early intervention for their children with physical disabilities (N=10). Families with complex circumstances such as having children with high support needs, those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and single-parent families were recruited to the study. Families where parents had mental or health issues, parents/other family members had an identified disability, and/or where families lived in regional or rural locations were also purposively sampled. Participants highlighted issues around (i) the nature of early intervention services provided; (ii) the ways in which services were structured; and (ii) managing their child's needs/planning into the future. Parents stressed the importance of having access to a variety of early intervention services aside from therapy. They also emphasised the need for greater clarity about what to expect from services, the intensity of therapy, other services they could access and how long they would be able to receive these. Despite their complex circumstances and needs, participants' experiences of accessing early intervention services were largely consistent with the broader research literature. Of the parents interviewed, those with health problems and single mothers expressed most apprehension about managing their child's needs and planning for the future. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  4. Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity in Early and Late Adulthood in Relation to Later Life Physical Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Pajala, Satu; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Oksa, Heikki; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) has beneficial effects on older age physical functioning, but longitudinal studies with follow-ups extending up to decades are few. We investigated the association between leisure-time PA (LTPA) and occupational PA (OPA) from early to late adulthood in relation to later life performance-based physical functioning. The study involved 1260 people aged 60 to 79 years who took part in assessments of physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] test, 10-m maximal walking test, and grip strength test). Participants' data on earlier life LTPA/OPA (age range 25 to 74 years) were received from the previous studies (average follow-up 13.4 years). Logistic, linear, and censored regression models were used to assess the associations between LTPA/OPA earlier in life and subsequent physical functioning. A high level of LTPA earlier in life was associated with a lower risk of having difficulties on the SPPB test (odds ratio [OR]: 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.58) and especially on the chair rise test (OR: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64) in old age. Heavy manual work predicted difficulties on SPPB (OR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.22-2.98) and the chair rise test (OR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69) and poorer walking speed (β = .10, P = .005). This study highlights the importance of LTPA on later life functioning, but also indicates the inverse effects that may be caused by heavy manual work.

  5. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One

  6. Early brain development toward shaping of human mind: an integrative psychoneurodevelopmental model in prenatal and perinatal medicine.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Radovan; Maas, Lili M; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2013-01-01

    The article introduces an integrative psychoneurodevelopmental model of complex human brain and mind development based on the latest findings in prenatal and perinatal medicine in terms of integrative neuroscience. The human brain development is extraordinarily complex set of events and could be influenced by a lot of factors. It is supported by new insights into the early neuro-ontogenic processes with the help of structural 3D magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging of fetal human brain. Various factors and targets for neural development including birth weight variability, fetal and early-life programming, fetal neurobehavioral states and fetal behavioral responses to various stimuli and others are discussed. Molecular biology reveals increasing sets of genes families as well as transcription and neurotropic factors together with critical epigenetic mechanisms to be deeply employed in the crucial neurodevelopmental events. Another field of critical importance is psychoimmuno-neuroendocrinology. Various effects of glucocorticoids as well as other hormones, prenatal stress and fetal HPA axis modulation are thought to be of special importance for brain development. The early postnatal period is characterized by the next intense shaping of complex competences, induced mainly by the very unique mother - newborn´s interactions and bonding. All these mechanisms serve to shape individual human mind with complex abilities and neurobehavioral strategies. Continuous research elucidating these special competences of human fetus and newborn/child supports integrative neuroscientific approach to involve various scientific disciplines for the next progress in human brain and mind research, and opens new scientific challenges and philosophic attitudes. New findings and approaches in this field could establish new methods in science, in primary prevention and treatment strategies, and markedly contribute to the development of modern integrative and personalized

  7. Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

  8. Early Sexual Intercourse: Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Wijtzes, Anne; van de Bongardt, Daphne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Bannink, Rienke; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands. The analysis sample consisted of 2,141 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years (mean age at baseline = 12.2 years, SD = 0.43). Physical activity (e.g., sports outside school), screen time (e.g., computer use), and early sexual intercourse initiation were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models were tested to assess the associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time (separately and simultaneously) with early sexual intercourse initiation, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographics and substance use). Interaction effects with gender were tested to assess whether these associations differed significantly between boys and girls. Results The only physical activity behavior that was a significant predictor of early sexual intercourse initiation was sports club membership. Adolescent boys and girls who were members of a sports club) were more likely to have had early sex (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.33, 3.56. Significant gender interaction effects indicated that boys who watched TV ≥2 hours/day (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.08, 3.68) and girls who used the computer ≥2 hours/day (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.76, 8.69) were also significantly more likely to have engaged in early sex. Conclusion These findings have implications for professionals in general pediatric healthcare, sexual health educators, policy makers, and parents, who should be aware of these possible prospective links between sports club membership, TV watching (for boys), and computer use (for girls), and early sexual intercourse initiation. However, continued research on determinants of adolescents’ early sexual initiation is needed to further contribute to

  9. Leadership component of type A behavior predicts physical activity in early midlife.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolin; Telama, Risto; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Hintsa, Taina; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2012-03-01

    Research on the long-term effects of Type A behavior and its components in the prediction of physical activity in adulthood is scarce and there is a lack of prospective data that are able to show such an association. We examined the relations between components of Type A behavior and physical activity from youth to early midlife. The sample included 2,031 participants (43.8% of males) aged 9 to 24 years in 1986 from the Young Finns Study. Type A behavior was measured by the Hunter-Wolf A-B Rating Scale at three phases in 1986, 1989, and 2001. Physical activity was assessed using a short self-report questionnaire at five phases between 1986 and 2007. High Type A leadership was associated with high physical activity in 1986 (r = 0.37, P < 0.01), 1989 (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) and 2001 (r = 0.31, P < 0.01), and youth leadership also predicted high adult physical activity (P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, education, occupation, smoking, body mass index, and baseline physical activity, the association remained significant. There was also a bidirectional association between Type A leadership and physical activity. Persistent physical activity during the adult years was associated with a higher Type A leadership than persistent physical inactivity (Cohen's d = 0.34, P < 0.001), even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations of other components of Type A behavior, i.e., hard-driving, eagerness-energy, and aggression with physical activity were marginal. There is a direct relation between Type A leadership and physical activity at different development phases that maybe bidirectional.

  10. Views of Adolescent Female Youth on Physical Activity During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yungblut, Hope E.; Schinke, Robert J.; McGannon, Kerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes. Key points Please provide 3-5 bullet points of the study. Inductive qualitative methodologies can encourage the much-needed voice of female youth in sport and physical activity research. Vignettes serve, not only as a method to illustrate data, but also as a medium to teach contextually relevant information to participants and sport science service providers. The barriers and solutions to female youth engagement in physical activity are best understood through the perspectives of the intended participant. Female youth can serve as central informants in the development and analysis of research projects relating to female youth physical activity. PMID:24149121

  11. Early life stress and physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2013-01-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20) and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

  12. Design Principles for resilient cyber-physical Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Experiences, Design Patterns, and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensch, S.; Wächter, J.; Schnor, B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are safety-critical IT-infrastructures that serve the purpose of potentially saving lives or assets by observing real-world phenomena and issuing timely warning products to authorities and communities. An EWS consists of sensors, communication networks, data centers, simulation platforms, and dissemination channels. The components of this cyber-physical system may all be affected by both natural hazards and malfunctions of components alike. Resilience engineering so far has mostly been applied to safety-critical systems and processes in transportation (aviation, automobile), construction and medicine. Early warning systems need equivalent techniques to compensate for failures, and furthermore means to adapt to changing threats, emerging technology and research findings. We present threats and pitfalls from our experiences with the German and Indonesian tsunami early warning system, as well as architectural, technological and organizational concepts employed that can enhance an EWS' resilience. The current EWS is comprised of a multi-type sensor data upstream part, different processing and analysis engines, a decision support system, and various warning dissemination channels. Each subsystem requires a set of approaches towards ensuring stable functionality across system layer boundaries, including also institutional borders. Not only must services be available, but also produce correct results. Most sensors are distributed components with restricted resources, communication channels and power supply. An example for successful resilience engineering is the power capacity based functional management for buoy and tide gauge stations. We discuss various fault-models like cause and effect models on linear pathways, interaction of multiple events, complex and non-linear interaction of assumedly reliable subsystems and fault tolerance means implemented to tackle these threats.

  13. A longitudinal examination of the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Henretty, Joan M

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N=150; mean age=12.79+/-0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Pubertal Development Scale on two occasions 12 months apart. The results demonstrated a decrease in overall physical activity levels over 12 months which was not influenced by maturational status or physical characteristics. Additional analysis indicated that physical self-perceptions partially accounted for the explained variance in physical activity change, with physical condition being an important individual predictor of physical activity. Further analysis indicated that body mass was an important individual predictor of changes in perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth. At this age maturation has a limited influence on the physical activity behaviours of early adolescent girls and although the variance in physical activity was partly accounted for by physical self-perceptions, this was a relatively small contribution and other factors related to this drop in physical activity need to be considered longitudinally.

  14. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 5. The PRM organizations in Europe: structure and activities.

    PubMed

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper addresses the structure, organization and activities of PRM bodies in Europe. There are four main bodies, the Section of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) very close to the European Union and is committed to define the professional competencies of PRM, the quality management and accreditation and with the Board the educational matters. The European College of PRM is served by the UEMS PRM Board and its main activities are analyzed below in the description of the Board of the UEMS PRM Section. The European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) mainly dedicated to promoting research in rehabilitation and create a network of knowledge of PRM across the Europe. The European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine mainly dedicated to defining the ethical issues in rehabilitation and finding strategies for better educational approaches in rehabilitation. There are 2 further bodies (the regional Fora) aimed to create bridges across the Mediterranean area (Mediterranean Forum of PRM) and across the northern Europe including the eastern countries such as Russia, Belarus and Ukraine (Baltic and North Sea Forum of PRM). To support the knowledge, we have in Europe 7 main journals dedicated to Rehabilitation with a growing impact factor. Last but not least the PRM bodies have an important role across the world with a connection with the International Society of PRM and WHO. The UEMS Section approved motion of international collaboration. In conclusion, PRM activity in Europe is not limited to the official border but in the network included eastern countries and Mediterranean area. The European extended network is strongly connected with the international PRM bodies, first of all the International Society of PRM.

  15. Physical education and academic achievement in elementary school: data from the early childhood longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E; Lee, Sarah M; Maynard, L Michele; Brown, David R; Kohl, Harold W; Dietz, William H

    2008-04-01

    We examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinal study of students in kindergarten through fifth grade. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999, which employed a multistage probability design to select a nationally representative sample of students in kindergarten (analytic sample = 5316). Time spent in physical education (minutes per week) was collected from classroom teachers, and academic achievement (mathematics and reading) was scored on an item response theory scale. A small but significant benefit for academic achievement in mathematics and reading was observed for girls enrolled in higher amounts (70-300 minutes per week) of physical education (referent: 0-35 minutes per week). Higher amounts of physical education were not positively or negatively associated with academic achievement among boys. Among girls, higher amounts of physical education may be associated with an academic benefit. Physical education did not appear to negatively affect academic achievement in elementary school students. Concerns about adverse effects on achievement may not be legitimate reasons to limit physical education programs.

  16. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activitieson Physical Activity among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women’s physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines effects of pregnant women’s (1) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (2) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. We used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. We also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887

  17. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.

  18. Knowledge, Engagement, and Perceptions of the American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines for Cardiovascular Physical Activity: A University Undergraduate Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George Milton

    2010-01-01

    Background: The early onset of chronic disease is a major health concern facing the nation. Leading health indicators support physical activity to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates among individuals. The college years represent a time of transition and potential for improved adherence to positive health behaviors. As institutions of higher…

  19. Early changes in physical tree characteristics during an oak decline event in the Ozark highlands

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich

    2006-01-01

    An oak decline event is severely affecting up to 120 000 ha in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. Results of early changes in physical tree characteristics during that event are presented. In the fall and winter of 1999 and 2000, we established research plots on a site that would become a center of severe oak decline. In August 2000, standing trees > 14 cm in...

  20. Testing Drugs and Trying Cures: Experiment and Medicine in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine; Rankin, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    This article examines traditions of testing drugs (as substances) and trying cures (on patients) in medieval and early modern Europe. It argues that the history of drug testing needs to be a more central story to overall histories of scientific experiment. The practice of conducting thoughtful-and sometimes contrived-tests on drugs has a rich and varied tradition dating back to antiquity, which expanded in the Middle Ages and early modern period. Learned physicians paired text-based knowledge (reason) with hands-on testing (experience or experiment) in order to make claims about drugs' properties or effects on humans. Lay practitioners similarly used hands-on testing to gain knowledge of pharmaceutical effects. Although drug testing practices expanded in scale, actors, and sites, therpublished a work extolling the virtues of drugs froe was significant continuity from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.

  1. [Physician from Constance doctor of medicine Georg Vogelin (1508-1542), an early follower of Copernicus].

    PubMed

    Burmeister, K H

    1999-01-01

    Georg Vogelin was born in Constance as the son of the town clerk. He studied the artes liberales and medicine at Wittenberg (since 1523) and Montpellier (since 1527). From 1531 onwards he practiced as a medical doctor in Constance. In 1542 Vogelin died of the plague in Constance. Vogelin was very close friends with the medical doctor Achilles Pirmin Gasser (1505-1577) and Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574), a well known pupil of Copernicus. He was amongst the first supporters of the teachings of Copernicus. Gasser, who published the second edition of Rheticus' "Narratio prima" (Basle 1541), dedicated this edition to Georg Vogelin. In this book Vogelin published a poem in Latin. In the poem he described the teachings of Copernicus ("Terraque iam currit, credita stare prius") and recommended the academic community to approve Copernicus' theory.

  2. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  3. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    PubMed

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.

  4. Performing arts medicine-a bibliographic retrospective of the early literature: an historical examination of bibliographic references pre-1975.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2013-03-01

    Performing arts medicine (PAM) emerged as a medical specialty around 1985. Prior to this time, relatively few publications addressed the identification and concerns of musicians' and dancers' medical problems. To determine what number and types of publications occurred prior to the actual beginnings of PAM as a discipline, and to determine how these original topics compared with present-day publications, a retrospective review of the current bibliographic database of the Performing Arts Medicine Association (PAMA) was undertaken. Out of a total of 12,600 entries to date, 489 references were found published from 1798 through 1974, which represent only 3.9% of the current database listings. One-sixth of the references were originally written in a language other than English. Journal articles were by far the most numerous type of publication. Topics with the highest number of entries included the neurobiology of music (n=77), dental/orofacial matters (71), and biographical accounts of composers or musicians and their illnesses (59). Other frequently published topics included hearing loss, physiology of playing instruments, and instrumental technique and teaching. Early topics with multiple publications included composers' biographies, dystonias, and surgery to improve finger independence for playing piano. Subjects whose publications occurred principally in the last two decades of this review included dermatological disorders, hearing loss, and ballet physiology, teaching, and technique. Those which remain popular to the present day include hearing loss, performance anxiety, focal dystonia, and dental/orofacial problems.

  5. Dissemination, analysis, and implementation of the World Report on Disability: the roadmap of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bethge, Matthias; Stucki, Gerold; Li, Jianan; Lains, Jorge; Olver, John; Frontera, Walter; von Groote, Per; Giustini, Alessandro; Imamura, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine has recognized the World Report on Disability as a guide for its future activities and endorsed its responsibility to disseminate, to analyze, and to implement the report's recommendations. The activities of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine on the global stage are embedded in a strategy that includes national and regional associations. This article reports on recent and forthcoming activities of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine regarding the World Report on Disability and identifies five major challenges that will impact future International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine activities. These challenges relate to (1) education and training, (2) the support of strong role models, (3) disaster management, (4) the development of innovative rehabilitation services, and (5) rehabilitation research.

  6. Efficacy of early physical therapy in severe Bell's palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; De Seta, Daniele; Bertoli, Gianantonio; Prosperini, Luca; Toni, Danilo; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Filipo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bell's palsy (BP) is the most frequent form of peripheral palsy of the facial nerve. Prognosis for recovery is good for most patients; in the remaining cases, different grades of residual impairment persist. Physical therapy, in association with drug administration, aims to improve outcomes. To assess the efficacy of early physical therapy in association with standard drug administration versus pharmacological therapy only, in terms of time to maximum gains and grade of recovery of function, and to examine who will most benefit from rehabilitation. From June 2008 to May 2010, 232 individuals were evaluated. The 87 patients meeting the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned to the experimental group (prednisone and valacyclovir plus physical therapy, n = 39) or the control group (pharmacological therapy, n = 48) within 10 days of onset. Intention-to-treat analyses were done. The physical therapy had a significant effect on grade (P = .038) and time (P = .044) to recovery only in patients presenting with severe facial palsy (House-Brackmann [HB] grade V/VI). No significant differences were found between the study and control groups for outcome of synkinesis. Physical therapy appears to be effective only in the more severe BP (baseline HB grade V/VI), whereas less severe BP (baseline HB grade IV) results in complete spontaneous recovery, regardless of physical therapy.

  7. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  8. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years) were screened. Results A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood. PMID:29387718

  9. The Relationship of Self-Concept and Perceived Athletic Competence to Physical Activity Level and Gender among Turkish Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, F. Hulya Asci S. Nazan; Isler, Ayse Kin

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept and perceived athletic competence of Turkish early adolescents in relation to physical activity level and gender. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for gender and physical activity level but no significant gender by physical activity interaction. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant…

  10. ‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  11. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  12. Mechanisms Underlying the Association Between Early-Life Adversity and Physical Health: Charting a Course for the Future.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nicole R; Lane, Richard D; McLaughlin, Katie A

    Early-life adversities (ELA) are associated with subsequent pervasive alterations across a wide range of neurobiological systems and psychosocial factors that contribute to accelerated onset of health problems and diseases. In this article, we provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in research on ELA, based on the articles published in this Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. We focus on the following: 1) the distinction between specific versus general aspects of ELA with regard to the nature of exposure (e.g., physical and sexual abuse, emotional abuse or neglect, relative socioeconomic deprivation), biological and behavioral correlates of ELA, and differences across diseases; 2) the importance of timing in the critical phases of exposure to ELA; and 3) adaptive versus dysfunctional responses to ELA and their consequences for biological and behavioral risk factors for adverse health outcomes. This article concludes with outlining important new targets for research in this area, including the neurobiology of affect as a mechanism linking ELA to adverse health outcomes, and the need for large-scale longitudinal investigations of multisystem processes relevant to ELA in diverse samples, starting prenatally, continuing to late adolescence, and with long-term follow-up assessments that enable evaluation of incident disease outcomes.

  13. A value proposition for early physical therapist management of neck pain: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Horn, Maggie E; Brennan, Gerard P; George, Steven Z; Harman, Jeffrey S; Bishop, Mark D

    2016-07-12

    Neck pain is one of the most common reasons for entry into the healthcare system. Recent increases in healthcare utilization and medical costs have not correlated with improvements in health. Therefore there is a need to identify management strategies for neck pain that are effective for the patient, cost efficient for the payer and provided at the optimal time during an episode of neck pain. One thousand five hundred thirty-one patients who underwent physical therapist management with a primary complaint of non-specific neck pain from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 were identified from the Rehabilitation Outcomes Management System (ROMS) database at Intermountain Healthcare. Patients reporting duration of symptoms less than 4 weeks were designated as undergoing "early" management and patients with duration of symptoms greater than 4 weeks were designated as receiving "delayed" management. These groups were compared using binary logistic regression to examine odds of achieving Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) on the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Separate generalized linear modeling examined the effect of timing of physical therapist management on the metrics of value and efficiency. Patients who received early physical therapist management had increased odds of achieving MCID on the NDI (aOR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.57, 2.56) and MCID on the NPRS (aOR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.42, 2.38), when compared to patients receiving delayed management. Patients who received early management demonstrated the greatest value in decreasing disability with a 2.27 percentage point change in NDI score per 100 dollars, best value in decreasing pain with a 0.38 point change on the NPRS per 100 dollars. Finally, patients receiving early management were managed more efficiently with a 3.44 percentage point change in NDI score per visit and 0.57 point change in NPRS score per visit. These findings suggest that healthcare systems

  14. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  15. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Results Participants’ mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. Conclusion This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA. PMID:22554167

  16. Impact of Physical Activity in Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Health: Can Motion Be Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Gannon L.; Chughtai, Morad; Khlopas, Anton; Newman, Jared M.; Khan, Rafay; Shaffiy, Shervin; Nadhim, Ali; Bhave, Anil; Mont, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is a well-known therapeutic tool for various types of medical conditions, including vasculopathic diseases such as coronary artery disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Additionally, increased physical activity has been proposed as a therapy to improve musculoskeletal health; however, there are conflicting reports about physical activity potentially leading to degenerative musculoskeletal disease, especially osteoarthritis (OA). Additionally, although physical activity is known to have its benefits, it is unclear as to what amount of physical activity is the most advantageous. Too much, as well as not enough exercise can have negative consequences. This could impact how physicians advise their patients about exercise intensity. Multiple studies have evaluated the effect of physical activity on various aspects of health. However, there is a paucity of systematic studies which review cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health as outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to assess how physical activity impacts these aspects of health. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of various levels of physical activity on: 1) cardiovascular and 2) musculoskeletal health. The review revealed that physical activity may decrease cardiovascular disease and improve OA symptoms, and therefore, motion can be considered a “medicine”. However, because heavy activity can potentially lead to increased OA risk, physicians should advise their patients that excessive activity can also potentially impact their health negatively, and should be done in moderation, until further study. PMID:28392856

  17. American Influence on Chinese Physics Study in the Early Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2016-01-01

    To save China from the perils she faced in the early twentieth century, the majority of the Chinese seemed to agree that it was necessary to strengthen the country by developing shiye or industry and commerce. For this purpose, they overhauled China's education system and sent a large number of students to study overseas. Many of them enrolled in American colleges, sponsored either by governmental grants or by private funds. As American physics advanced rapidly during the early twentieth century, Chinese physicists studying in top US institutions received first-class professional training. They later went on to become a main driving force in Chinese physics development. The study-in-America programs were apparently more successful than other study-overseas programs. Among other factors, the historical lessons learned from the aborted Chinese Educational Mission in the 1870s, the prevalent and long-time presence of American mission schools in China, and stable public and private funding contributed to their success. American-trained Chinese physicists not only advanced physics study in China but also played leading roles in the development of Chinese science and technology during the twentieth century. This fertile and far-reaching American influence has been embedded in all their accomplishments.

  18. Factors associated with changes in leisure time physical activity during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2013-05-01

    To identify key factors involved in modifying leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during early pregnancy. A prospective study was conducted of 1175 pregnant women who attended a scheduled visit at Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain, at 20-22 weeks of pregnancy. The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect data regarding participation in any LTPA or physical activity performed according to society recommendations during early pregnancy and in the year before pregnancy. A polytomous regression model was used to identify factors associated with LTPA. Approximately 20.0% of the women did not engage in any LTPA, and 68.0% did not achieve the recommendations for exercise, either before or during pregnancy. Desirable changes related to performing any LTPA or the society recommendations for LTPA during pregnancy were associated with university level of education (aOR, 3.64 [95% CI, 1.54-8.56] and aOR, 1.75 [95% CI, 0.67-4.57], respectively) and smoking cessation at pregnancy (aOR, 2.05 [95% CI, 0.97-4.35] and aOR, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.31-17.83], respectively). Few women achieved the minimum recommendations for exercise before or during pregnancy. Nevertheless, adoption of healthy lifestyle choices during pregnancy seemed to promote other healthy habits, such as participation in LTPA. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is Intelligence in Early Adulthood Associated With Midlife Physical Performance Among Danish Males?

    PubMed

    Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-04-01

    Insights into the causes of variances in physical performance are important to prevent mobility limitations in old age. We examined associations between intelligence in early adulthood and midlife physical performance. Data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank were analyzed using linear regression. In total, 2,848 male cohort members had intelligence scores from conscription and physical performance measures from midlife. In adjusted models, a 1 SD increase in intelligence resulted in 1.10 more chair-rises (p < .001), a 1.03 cm higher jump (p < .001), a 3.69% smaller balance area (p < .001), a 0.71 kg increase in handgrip strength (p < .001), and a 5.03 N increase in back force (p < .001). Results for flexibility and abdominal force were not significant. Public health interventions should focus on addressing people with different cognitive abilities and bear in mind that prevention of mobility limitations might need to start early in life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Prediction of early summer rainfall over South China by a physical-empirical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2014-10-01

    In early summer (May-June, MJ) the strongest rainfall belt of the northern hemisphere occurs over the East Asian (EA) subtropical front. During this period the South China (SC) rainfall reaches its annual peak and represents the maximum rainfall variability over EA. Hence we establish an SC rainfall index, which is the MJ mean precipitation averaged over 72 stations over SC (south of 28°N and east of 110°E) and represents superbly the leading empirical orthogonal function mode of MJ precipitation variability over EA. In order to predict SC rainfall, we established a physical-empirical model. Analysis of 34-year observations (1979-2012) reveals three physically consequential predictors. A plentiful SC rainfall is preceded in the previous winter by (a) a dipole sea surface temperature (SST) tendency in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, (b) a tripolar SST tendency in North Atlantic Ocean, and (c) a warming tendency in northern Asia. These precursors foreshadow enhanced Philippine Sea subtropical High and Okhotsk High in early summer, which are controlling factors for enhanced subtropical frontal rainfall. The physical empirical model built on these predictors achieves a cross-validated forecast correlation skill of 0.75 for 1979-2012. Surprisingly, this skill is substantially higher than four-dynamical models' ensemble prediction for 1979-2010 period (0.15). The results here suggest that the low prediction skill of current dynamical models is largely due to models' deficiency and the dynamical prediction has large room to improve.

  1. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be awaremore » of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.« less

  2. Research on Early Warning of Chinese Food Safety Based on Social Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghuan; Niu, Wenyuan; Li, Qianqian

    Based on social physics, this paper designs the index system of food safety, builds early warning model of food safety, calculates the degree of food safety, and assesses the state of early warning of 2007 in China. The result shows the degree of food safety is near 0.7 in securer state, belonging to slight emergency. It is much lower in eastern areas of developed regions, belonging to insecure state in the mass. That the food safety is ensured in major grain producing areas, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Xinjiang is the prerequisite of realizing the food safety of China. The result also shows four significant indices, grain production capacity, grain circulation order, grain demand and grain supply, which are important indicatio to control food safety.

  3. Therapeutic ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation: characterization and assessment of its physical effects on joint-mimicking phantoms.

    PubMed

    Lioce, Elisa Edi Anna Nadia; Novello, Matteo; Durando, Gianni; Bistolfi, Alessandro; Actis, Maria Vittoria; Massazza, Giuseppe; Magnetto, Chiara; Guiot, Caterina

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study described here was to quantitatively assess thermal and mechanical effects of therapeutic ultrasound (US) by sonicating a joint-mimicking phantom, made of muscle-equivalent material, using clinical US equipment. The phantom contains two bone disks simulating a deep joint (treated at 1 MHz) and a superficial joint (3 MHz). Thermal probes were inserted in fixed positions. To test the mechanical (cavitational) effects, we used a latex balloon filled with oxygen-loaded nanobubbles; the dimensions of the oxygen-loaded nanobubbles were determined before and after sonication. Significant increases in temperature (up to 17°C) with fixed field using continuous waves were detected both in front of and behind the bones, depending on the US mode (continuous wave vs. pulsed wave) and on the treatment modality (fixed vs. massage). We found no significant differences in mechanical effects. Although limited by the in vitro design (no blood perfusion, no metabolic compensation), the results can be used to guide operators in their choice of the best US treatment modality for a specific joint. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emerging New Physics with Major Implications for Energy Technology, Biology, and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2003-03-01

    In the past 15 years, reproducible experiments and prototype technological devices have emerged that may revolutionize much of physics and chemistry(despite the common perception that modern physics is on very solid ground and is nearing a "Theory of Everything"). This new physics has flourished despite very strong opposition by the entrenched foundational paradigms within physics and chemistry ( not to forget vested financial interests within academia). In fact, beginning with "cold fusion" (more generically low-energy nuclear reactions, LENR), one of the most important discoveries of the late 20th Century has been the irrefutable proof of the failure of the physics establishment to deal ethically and appropriately with potential and real paradigm shifts, when its "sacred writ" ( i.e. Its textbooks) -- are threatened with the need for massive revision.

  5. Role of forensic medicine in evaluating non-fatal physical violence against women by their husbands in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abedr-Rahman, Hasan; Salameh, Hafsah Omar; Salameh, Rakiz J; Alabdallat, Laith I; Al-Abdallat, Imad M

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a major health problem in most nations, but to date, there has been little awareness of the extent or seriousness of this issue in Jordan. Forensic medical practitioners play a significant role in diagnosing, evaluating and reporting these cases. The Jordanian judicial system is dependent on forensic reports. This study aims to assess the role of forensic medicine in evaluating the physical injuries sustained by women who are abused by their husbands. A retrospective review of 158 forensic reports of Jordanian women alleging assault by their husbands and who were seen at Jordan University Hospital over the period 2010-2015. Of the 158 women who presented, 87 had multiple injuries. The majority of injuries were soft tissue injuries, but others included fractures, tympanic membrane perforation, burns and neck contusions. Twelve women were pregnant at the time of the assessment. The period of incapacity caused by these injuries (an important factor for the Jordanian judicial system) was between 1 and 14 days. Intimate partner violence can present with a range of injuries from relatively minor to potentially disabling or life threatening. Forensic medicine has a role in documenting and evaluating these injuries and advising the judicial system in these cases. These are all key elements in increasing the awareness of the nature and extent of this behavior and its impact on women (and men) and the wider society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River Basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  7. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomics-Driven Precision Medicine for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: Early Results from the COMPASS Trial.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw L; Fischer, Sandra E; Denroche, Robert E; Jang, Gun-Ho; Dodd, Anna; Creighton, Sean; Southwood, Bernadette; Liang, Sheng-Ben; Chadwick, Dianne; Zhang, Amy; O'Kane, Grainne M; Albaba, Hamzeh; Moura, Shari; Grant, Robert C; Miller, Jessica K; Mbabaali, Faridah; Pasternack, Danielle; Lungu, Ilinca M; Bartlett, John M S; Ghai, Sangeet; Lemire, Mathieu; Holter, Spring; Connor, Ashton A; Moffitt, Richard A; Yeh, Jen Jen; Timms, Lee; Krzyzanowski, Paul M; Dhani, Neesha; Hedley, David; Notta, Faiyaz; Wilson, Julie M; Moore, Malcolm J; Gallinger, Steven; Knox, Jennifer J

    2018-03-15

    Purpose: To perform real-time whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA sequencing (RNASeq) of advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) to identify predictive mutational and transcriptional features for better treatment selection. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced PDAC were prospectively recruited prior to first-line combination chemotherapy. Fresh tumor tissue was acquired by image-guided percutaneous core biopsy for WGS and RNASeq. Laser capture microdissection was performed for all cases. Primary endpoint was feasibility to report WGS results prior to first disease assessment CT scan at 8 weeks. The main secondary endpoint was discovery of patient subsets with predictive mutational and transcriptional signatures. Results: Sixty-three patients underwent a tumor biopsy between December 2015 and June 2017. WGS and RNASeq were successful in 62 (98%) and 60 (95%), respectively. Genomic results were reported at a median of 35 days (range, 19-52 days) from biopsy, meeting the primary feasibility endpoint. Objective responses to first-line chemotherapy were significantly better in patients with the classical PDAC RNA subtype compared with those with the basal-like subtype ( P = 0.004). The best progression-free survival was observed in those with classical subtype treated with m-FOLFIRINOX. GATA6 expression in tumor measured by RNA in situ hybridization was found to be a robust surrogate biomarker for differentiating classical and basal-like PDAC subtypes. Potentially actionable genetic alterations were found in 30% of patients. Conclusions: Prospective genomic profiling of advanced PDAC is feasible, and our early data indicate that chemotherapy response differs among patients with different genomic/transcriptomic subtypes. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1344-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  10. Early Natufian remains: evidence for physical conflict from Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Bocquentin, Fanny; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the establishment of farming communities direct physical evidence for human conflict was rarely reported from archaeological contexts. Here we present a case of an Early Natufian (14,500-13,000 cal B.P.) projectile, classified as Helwan lunate, embedded inside the seventh or eighth thoracic vertebra sequence of a mature middle age adult male. Due to calcareous concretion four vertebras were still in anatomical connection when uncovered by F. Turville-Petre, during his excavations at Kebara cave (Mt. Carmel) in 1931.

  11. The role of physical activity enjoyment in the pathways from the social and physical environments to physical activity of early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Budd, Elizabeth L; McQueen, Amy; Eyler, Amy A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Auslander, Wendy F; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-06-01

    Most girls experience a notable decline in physical activity (PA) in early adolescence, increasing their risk for harmful health outcomes. Enjoyment for PA (i.e., positive feelings toward PA) is a determinant of PA among girls during adolescence and sustained PA throughout adulthood. Previous studies recommended increasing girls' PA enjoyment in order to increase their PA, but did not include environmental-level strategies for how families, schools, or communities do this. To gain insight on such strategies, this study examines the role of PA enjoyment as a mediator of social and physical environments to moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA of early adolescent girls. Cross-sectional, secondary analyses, using structural equation modeling, were conducted on a U.S. national dataset of 1721 sixth grade girls from the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls in 2003. Mediation model fit parameters included χ 2 (292, N = 1721) = 947.73 p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04 (90% CI = 0.03, 0.04), and SRMR = 0.037 suggesting overall good fit. There were no indirect effects on PA through PA enjoyment from the social or physical environmental factors. To PA, there were significant direct effects only from social support from friends (β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.22). To PA enjoyment, there were significant direct effects from social support from family (β = 0.15, CI = 0.08, 0.23), school climate (teachers β = 0.15, CI = 0.10, 0.21 and boys β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.20), and neighborhood environment (β = 0.10, CI = 0.04, 0.17). The findings of this study identified several direct effects of the social and physical environment on PA enjoyment that can begin to inform environmental-level strategies for increasing PA enjoyment among early adolescent girls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships Between Weight Change and Physical and Psychological Distress in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2018-05-26

    Weight gain and unfavorable changes in body composition are common in a growing population of breast cancer survivors, but the etiology of these changes is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between weight change and symptoms of physical and psychological distress in the first 12 months of completing treatment in women who had completed treatment for breast cancer. Physical distress and psychological distress were assessed using the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Distress Thermometer, and the Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Weight change in 28 women since the completion of treatment (mean, 6.4 ± 4.4 months) ranged from -6.0 kg to +5.2 kg (mean, -0.4 ± 3.2), with 6 women gaining and 7 women losing an average of 3.5 ± 1.0 and 5.1 ± 0.8 kg, respectively. Rotterdam mean scores for physical (17.5 ± 9.0) and psychological distress (27.1 ± 16.9) were similar to previous findings for patients with early-stage breast cancer in active treatment and appear to be markedly higher than distress levels previously reported in cancer-free adults. Distress levels, based on the Distress Thermometer, were moderate to severe in 35% of women. Fatigue was common and associated with interference in daily living for some women. Fatigue duration was negatively correlated with weight change (P = -0.46, P < .05). Symptoms of physical and psychological distress persist for some women in the first year after completing treatment and may associate with weight change. These findings underscore a need for ongoing assessment and supportive care across the breast cancer trajectory and may guide dietary counseling aimed at promoting healthy body weight and overall health in early survivorship.

  13. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 7. The clinical field of competence: PRM in practice.

    PubMed

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe this paper deals with the scope and competencies of PRM starting from its definition as the "medicine of functioning." PRM uses the rehabilitative health strategy as its core strategy together with the curative strategy. According to the complexity of disabling health conditions, PRM also refers to prevention and maintenance and provides information to the patients and other caregivers. The rehabilitation process according to the so-called rehabilitation cycle including an assessment and definition of the (individual) rehabilitation goals, assignment to the rehabilitation program evaluation of individual outcomes. PRM physicians treat a wide spectrum of diseases and take a transversal across most of the medical specialties. They also focus on many functional problems such as immobilization, spasticity, pain syndromes, communication disorders, and others. The diagnosis in PRM is the interaction between the medical diagnosis and a PRM-specific functional assessment. The latter is based on the ICF conceptual framework, and obtained through functional evaluations and scales: these are classified according to their main focus on impairments, activity limitations or participation restrictions; environmental and personal factors are included as barriers or facilitators. Interventions in PRM are either provided directly by PRM physicians or within the PRM team. They include a wide range of treatments, including medicines, physical therapies, exercises, education and many others. Standardized PRM programs are available for many diseases and functional problems. In most cases rehabilitation is performed in multi-professional teams working in a collaborative way, as well as with other disciplines under the leadership of a PRM physician and it is a patient-centered approach. Outcomes of PRM interventions and programs, showed reduction of impairments in body functions, activity limitations

  14. MAOA-uVNTR and early physical discipline interact to influence delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexis C; Dodge, Kenneth A; Latendresse, Shawn J; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Budde, John P; Goate, Alison M; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-06-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N = 250) by parent, teacher, and self-report using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype.

  15. MAOA uVNTR and Early Physical Discipline Interact to Influence Delinquent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002, Kim-Cohen et al. 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. Method This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N=250) by parent, teacher, and self report using Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. Results We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. Conclusion The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype. PMID:19951362

  16. Clinical aviation medicine : a physical-conditioning program for cardiac patients - a progress report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1966-06-01

    Twenty men with well-documented episodes of myocardial infarction participated in a physical-conditioning program for 3 months or longer during the past 2 years. The activity consisted of intermittent jogging, calesthenics [sic], and competitive game...

  17. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  18. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  19. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692

  20. Physical Activity Throughout Adolescence and Hba1c in Early Adulthood: Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Priscila M; Mielke, Grégore I; Horta, Bernardo L; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is responsible for 7% of diabetes deaths worldwide, but little is known whether low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence increase the risk of diabetes in early adulthood. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA throughout adolescence and HbA1c concentration in early adulthood. HbA1c was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PA was assessed by self-report at the ages of 11, 15, and 18 years and by accelerometry at the ages of 13 (subsample) and 18 years. The loss percentages of follow up were 12.5% at 11 years, 14.4% at 15 years, and 18.7% at 18 years. At 18 years, boys showed higher HbA1c than girls. At age 18 years, accelerometrybased PA at 18 years was inversely related to HbA1c levels in boys. Self-reported leisure-time PA at ages 11, 15, and 18 were unrelated to HbA1c in both genders. PA at 13 years of age was unrelated to HbA1c among both genders. In trajectory analysis, PA and accelerometer PA trajectories were not associated with later HbA1c. Objectively measured PA at 18 years was cross-sectionally inversely associated with HbA1c in boys only. No prospective associations were identified.

  1. Maternal depression and physical health problems in early pregnancy: findings of an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Perlen, Susan; Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Brown, Stephanie J

    2013-03-01

    to investigate the relationship between physical health problems and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. baseline questionnaire, prospective pregnancy cohort study. six metropolitan public maternity hospitals in Victoria, Australia. 1507 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. nine per cent of women (131/1500) scored ≥ 13 on the EPDS indicating probable clinical depression in early pregnancy (mean gestation=15 weeks). The five most commonly reported physical health problems were as follows: exhaustion (86.9%), morning sickness (64.3%), back pain (45.6%), constipation (43.5%) and severe headaches or migraines (29.5%). Women scoring ≥ 13 on the EPDS reported a mean of six physical health problems compared with a mean of 3.5 among women scoring <13 on the EPDS. Women reporting five or more physical health problems had a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms (Adj OR=3.13, 95% CI 2.14-4.58) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, including maternal age. the findings from this large multi-centre study show that women experiencing a greater number of physical health problems are at increased risk of reporting depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. early detection and support for women experiencing physical and psychological health problems in pregnancy is an important aspect of antenatal care. The extent of co-morbid physical and psychological health problems underlines the need for comprehensive primary health care as an integral component of antenatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical and mental health conditions of young college students with different Traditional Chinese Medicine constitutions in Zhejiang Province of China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Heli; Zhu, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Huijuan; Jin, Lei

    2015-12-01

    To investigate Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) constitutions of youths in colleges, and their physical and mental health conditions of different TCM constitutions, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the TCM way to improve young people's physical and mental health. The Standard TCM Constitutions' Classification and Determination Questionnaire was used to measure the body health condition, and the Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of the National Student Physical Health Standards were used to determine mental and physical health conditions respectively in 1421 young participants validly answering the questionnaires in Zhejiang Province. The participants had a mean age of 19.96 years (SD = 0.95 years) with the majority of females (55.10%). One fourth of the 1421 participants were the Ping-he constitution and others were the tendency constitutions. Participants with Pinghe module (which has characteristics of moderate posture, rosy, energetic and is a healthy condition in TCM) were healthier than those with tendency constitutions in physical and mental health, with 65.81 ± 7.83 (men) and 77.99 ± 7.24 (women) scores in the physical test and around 1.25 scores in the mental health test. College students with combined biased constitutions were more likely suffer force, sensitive, depression and anxiety. Most of college students have a tendency or biased constitution which could be more likely to suffer suboptimal health status and diseases. Youths in college themselves and health providers should pay more attention to their potential health issues and make proper healthcare plan according to their own TCM constitution.

  3. [Correlation between physical characteristics of sticks and quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills prepared by plastic molded method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xian, Jiechen; Hong, Yanlong; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi

    2012-05-01

    To quantify the physical characteristics of sticks of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) honeyed pills prepared by the plastic molded method and the correlation of adhesiveness and plasticity-related parameters of sticks and quality of pills, in order to find major parameters and the appropriate range impacting pill quality. Sticks were detected by texture analyzer for their physical characteristic parameters such as hardness and compression action, and pills were observed by visual evaluation for their quality. The correlation of both data was determined by the stepwise discriminant analysis. Stick physical characteristic parameter l(CD) can exactly depict the adhesiveness, with the discriminant equation of Y0 - Y1 = 6.415 - 41.594l(CD). When Y0 < Y1, pills were scattered well; when Y0 > Y1, pills were adhesive with each other. Pills' physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr can exactly depict smoothness of pills, with the discriminant equation of Z0 - Z1 = -195.318 + 78.79l(AC) - 3 258. 982Ar + 3437.935Tr. When Z0 < Z1, pills were smooth on surface. When Z0 > Z1, pills were rough on surface. The stepwise discriminant analysis is made to show the obvious correlation between key physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr of sticks and appearance quality of pills, defining the molding process for preparing pills by the plastic molded and qualifying ranges of key physical characteristic parameters characterizing intermediate sticks, in order to provide theoretical basis for prescription screening and technical parameter adjustment for pills.

  4. WE-D-213-00: Preparing for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medicine Physics Exams

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance ofmore » all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging

  5. Bridging Empirical and Physical Approaches for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Adler, Robert; Kumar, Sujay; Harrison, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides typically occur and are evaluated at local scales, using slope-stability models to calculate coincident changes in driving and resisting forces at the hillslope level in order to anticipate slope failures. Over larger areas, detailed high resolution landslide modeling is often infeasible due to difficulties in quantifying the complex interaction between rainfall infiltration and surface materials as well as the dearth of available in situ soil and rainfall estimates and accurate landslide validation data. This presentation will discuss how satellite precipitation and surface information can be applied within a landslide hazard assessment framework to improve landslide monitoring and early warning by considering two disparate approaches to landslide hazard assessment: an empirical landslide forecasting algorithm and a physical slope-stability model. The goal of this research is to advance near real-time landslide hazard assessment and early warning at larger spatial scales. This is done by employing high resolution surface and precipitation information within a probabilistic framework to provide more physically-based grounding to empirical landslide triggering thresholds. The empirical landslide forecasting tool, running in near real-time at http://trmm.nasa.gov, considers potential landslide activity at the global scale and relies on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data and surface products to provide a near real-time picture of where landslides may be triggered. The physical approach considers how rainfall infiltration on a hillslope affects the in situ hydro-mechanical processes that may lead to slope failure. Evaluation of these empirical and physical approaches are performed within the Land Information System (LIS), a high performance land surface model processing and data assimilation system developed within the Hydrological Sciences Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LIS provides the

  6. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (173 ± 12%) compared with the controls (28 ± 8%) resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). Alliteration significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (52 ± 16%) compared with controls (13 ± 5%), resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). As minutes of exposure to moderate to vigorous PA increased, the change in picture naming (R(2) = .35, p < .05), alliteration (R(2) = .38, p < .05), and rhyming (R(2) = .42, p < .05), increased. A teacher-directed PA program is effective at increasing PA and improving early literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  7. An investigation of the early factors which influence women's career choices in physical science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Anneliese

    The composition of the workforce has begun to undergo a change. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that women, minorities, and immigrants will constitute 80 percent of the additions to the labor force between 1987 and the year 2000 (Oakes, 1990). The National Science Foundation projects that the United States may have a shortfall of 400,000 scientists and over 250,000 engineers by the year 2006 (Argonne, 1990). Since women are among those who are significantly underrepresented among individuals preparing for a career in science, thirty women who are currently pursuing a successful career in physical science and technology were interviewed. This study determined participants' perceptions of the factors that first influenced an early interest in physical science and technology. The investigation included perceptions regarding: (1) whether certain identifiable events or experiences influenced the decision to pursue science as a career and what those events and experiences were; (2) at what age these events occurred; (3) whether an adult(s) was influential and which adult(s) it was; and (4) identification of where these events and experiences occurred. The interview technique was selected as the best research method for collecting the qualitative and demographic data needed for this study. The results represent the participants' recollections of out-of-school and in-school activities, family, friends and teacher support, self-image during the formative years, parents as the most important factor which influenced an interest in physical science, and major obstacles that had to be overcome by the participants in order to pursue successful careers in physical science and technology. Also included is participants' advice to parents and teachers who want to encourage females to pursue a career in physical science and technology.

  8. Immersion francaise precoce: Education physique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Physical Education for Grades 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide for physical education is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. It is a translation of the regular physical education program and a compilation of references and supplementary teaching material. It is noted that because of the comparative lack of references in French, much of the reference…

  9. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  10. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  11. Curriculum for education and training of medical physicists in nuclear medicine: recommendations from the EANM Physics Committee, the EANM Dosimetry Committee and EFOMP.

    PubMed

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Bardies, Manuel; Belcari, Nicola; Caruana, Carmel J; Christofides, Stelios; Erba, Paola; Gori, Cesare; Lassmann, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus Nowak; Sattler, Bernhard; Waddington, Wendy

    2013-03-01

    To provide a guideline curriculum covering theoretical and practical aspects of education and training for Medical Physicists in Nuclear Medicine within Europe. National training programmes of Medical Physics, Radiation Physics and Nuclear Medicine physics from a range of European countries and from North America were reviewed and elements of best practice identified. An independent panel of experts was used to achieve consensus regarding the content of the curriculum. Guidelines have been developed for the specialist theoretical knowledge and practical experience required to practice as a Medical Physicist in Nuclear Medicine in Europe. It is assumed that the precondition for the beginning of the training is a good initial degree in Medical Physics at master level (or equivalent). The Learning Outcomes are categorised using the Knowledge, Skill and Competence approach along the lines recommended by the European Qualifications Framework. The minimum level expected in each topic in the theoretical knowledge and practical experience sections is intended to bring trainees up to the requirements expected of a Medical Physicist entering the field of Nuclear Medicine. This new joint EANM/EFOMP European guideline curriculum is a further step to harmonise specialist training of Medical Physicists in Nuclear Medicine within Europe. It provides a common framework for national Medical Physics societies to develop or benchmark their own curricula. The responsibility for the implementation and accreditation of these standards and guidelines resides within national training and regulatory bodies. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical medicine after limb transplantation. Therapeutic effects of physical procedures in the treatment of limb transplantation after cut-off by a threshing machine - Case report.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Jarosław; Pasek, Tomasz; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2018-06-20

    Introduction. The number of accidents in agriculture involving children as the victims continues to increase year-by-year. Parents often allow children to perform certain tasks, or even entrust them to perform such tasks as a duty. The paper presents results of treatment using a 3D magnetic field in a 31-year- old patient after transplantation of the upper extremity of the arm. Amputation of the extremity had been caused by an accident (hand cut-off by a threshing machine). The therapeutic cycle for the patient constituted of 3 series of 15 daily procedures, performed for 15 minutes. There was a break of 4 weeks between sessions. Additionally, the patient performed kinesitherapy exercises in the outpatient clinic. The results obtained regarding improvement of the functional condition of the limb showed that in the complex planning of treatment, the taking into account of the physical medicine procedures should be indispensable.

  13. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18-23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65-88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men's mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men.

  14. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  15. Continuity and change in social and physical aggression from middle childhood through early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Rosen, Lisa H

    2009-01-01

    For a sample followed from age 9-13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression.

  16. Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.; Rosen, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    For a sample followed from age 9–13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression. PMID:19685551

  17. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies.

  18. The treatment of facial palsy from the point of view of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Shafshak, T S

    2006-03-01

    There are evidences to support recommending the early intake of prednisone (in its appropriate dose of 1 mg/kg body weight for up to 70 or 80 mg/day) or the combined use of prednisone and acyclovir (or valacyclovir) within 72 h following the onset of paralysis in order to improve the outcome of Bell's palsy (BP). Although there may be a controversy about the role of physiotherapy in BP or facial palsy, it seemed that local superficial heat therapy, massage, exercises, electrical stimulation and biofeedback training have a place in the treatment of lower motor facial palsy. However, each modality has its indications. Moreover, some rehabilitative surgical methods might be of benefit for some patients with traumatic facial injuries or long standing paralysis without recovery, but early surgery in BP is usually not recommended. However, few may recommend early surgery in BP when there is 90-100% facial nerve degeneration. The efficacy of acupuncture, magnetic pellets and other modalities of physiotherapy needs further investigation. The general principles and the different opinions in treating and rehabilitating facial palsy are discussed and the need for further research in this field is suggested.

  19. [The scientific revolution in medicine of second half of XX - early XXI centuries: occurrence of new conceptions about human organism and essence of diseases].

    PubMed

    Stepin, V S; Zatravkin, S N

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of works of supreme Russian physiologists and pathologists of XX-XXI centuries. The analysis was applied on the basis concept of structure and dynamics of scientific cognition developed by one o the authors of the present article. The applied analysis permits affirming that during second half of XX-early XXI centuries in medicine occurred and continues to occurring transformations whose character and scope totally corresponds to scientific revolution and occurring and establishing in medicine new conceptions have all signs permitting referring them to post-neoclassic type of scientific rationality.

  20. Effect of Early Adult Patterns of Physical Activity and Television Viewing on Midlife Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tina D; Reis, Jared; Zhu, Na; Jacobs, David R; Launer, Lenore J; Whitmer, Rachel A; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood. To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition. Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015. We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (≥3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-thirds of the of the visits. We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5%) were female, 1771 (54.5%) were white, and 3015 (92.9%) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low

  1. [Contribution of the physical and rehabilitation medicine in pediatric plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Gottrand, L; Devinck, F; Martinot Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

    2016-10-01

    Physical, non-painful processes guide the scar reshaping in children in order to prevent growth anomalies due to cutaneous shrinkage. The objective of the surgical treatment, coordinated with the reeducation care, is to improve the physical abilities of the skin, to restore the function and avoid the deformations. Reeducation uses various techniques (i.e. sensitive-motility, massage and mobilizations) with or without physical agent (water, aspiration and touch-drive technique). Posture and positioning rely on the small or major aids, from orthosis to prosthesis. Compression is obtained by the adjustment of aids on molding and compression garment. Indications of the reeducation treatment depend on the timing of cutaneous covering and the advance of the healing process. It also depends on the underlying condition including skin traumas (frictions, wounds, burns), skin surgeries (purpura fulminans consequences, skin graft reconstruction after giant nevus resection, malignant lesion or vascular malformations). The final goal is the rehabilitation and development of the child and the adolescent in its entire somatopsychic dimension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/ modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved

  3. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information.

  4. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Institute of Medicine Early Infant Feeding Recommendations for Childhood Obesity Prevention: Implementation by Immigrant Mothers From Central America.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Kathleen F; Brito, Albert V; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Kermer, Deborah A; Pereddo, Graciela; Ramos, Katya M

    Describe implementation of Institute of Medicine (IOM) early infant feeding recommendations for child obesity prevention by immigrant mothers from Central America; examine potential relationships with food insecurity and postpartum depressive symptoms. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 318 mothers of 2month old infants at a large pediatric setting for low income families. Logistic regression models assessed feeding practices, food insecurity and postpartum depressive symptoms. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were low (9.4%); most mothers (62.7%) both breastfed and bottle fed their infants. Mothers who bottle fed at moderate and high intensity were twice as likely to affirm that if you give a baby a bottle, you should always make sure s/he finishes it (OR=2.30, 95% CI=1.13, 4.69; OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.26, 4.14). Food insecurity was experienced by 57% of mothers but postpartum depressive symptoms were low (Possible range=0-30; M=2.96, SD =3.6). However, for each increase in the postpartum depressive symptoms score, the likelihood of affirming a controlling feeding style increased by 11-13%. Immigrant mothers from Central America were more likely to both breastfeed and bottle feed (las dos cosas) than implement exclusive breastfeeding. Bottle feeding intensity was associated with a controlling feeding style. Infant well visits provide the ideal context for promoting IOM recommendations for the prevention of obesity among children of immigrant mothers from Central America. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of complementary and alternative medicine use with symptoms and physical functional performance among adults with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Schoffman, Danielle E; Hutto, Brent; Ortaglia, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Research shows high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in individuals with arthritis. Little is known about CAM use and objectively measured physical functional performance. The main objective was to determine if CAM use was associated with self-reported symptoms and physical functional performance in adults with arthritis. The secondary objectives were to describe the perceived helpfulness and correlates of CAM use. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a self-administered questionnaire and objectively measured physical functional performance prior to randomization to a self-paced exercise program or control condition (n = 401). We used the Fisher's exact test, analysis of variance, and general linear models to examine the association of CAM use with socio-demographic characteristics, symptoms and functional performance. Logistic regression computed the odds of perceiving CAM as helpful by level of use. Most respondents had used CAM (76%). Dietary supplements were the most-used (53.1%). Female gender and college education predicted greater number of modalities used. Compared to non-users, use of any CAM was associated with greater fatigue and lower grip strength; relaxation techniques with lower walk distance and gait speed; dietary change with greater pain and stiffness and lower walk distance; and yoga with lower pain and stiffness, greater walk distance, chair stands, seated reach and gait, but lower grip strength. Perceived help was positively associated with the number of modalities used. Associations between CAM and symptoms or functional performance were mixed. Only yoga showed positive associations; however, yoga practitioners were more physically active overall than non-practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A longitudinal twin study of physical aggression during early childhood: evidence for a developmentally dynamic genome.

    PubMed

    Lacourse, E; Boivin, M; Brendgen, M; Petitclerc, A; Girard, A; Vitaro, F; Paquin, S; Ouellet-Morin, I; Dionne, G; Tremblay, R E

    2014-09-01

    Physical aggression (PA) tends to have its onset in infancy and to increase rapidly in frequency. Very little is known about the genetic and environmental etiology of PA development during early childhood. We investigated the temporal pattern of genetic and environmental etiology of PA during this crucial developmental period. Participants were 667 twin pairs, including 254 monozygotic and 413 dizygotic pairs, from the ongoing longitudinal Quebec Newborn Twin Study. Maternal reports of PA were obtained from three waves of data at 20, 32 and 50 months. These reports were analysed using a biometric Cholesky decomposition and linear latent growth curve model. The best-fitting Cholesky model revealed developmentally dynamic effects, mostly genetic attenuation and innovation. The contribution of genetic factors at 20 months substantially decreased over time, while new genetic effects appeared later on. The linear latent growth curve model revealed a significant moderate increase in PA from 20 to 50 months. Two separate sets of uncorrelated genetic factors accounted for the variation in initial level and growth rate. Non-shared and shared environments had no effect on the stability, initial status and growth rate in PA. Genetic factors underlie PA frequency and stability during early childhood; they are also responsible for initial status and growth rate in PA. The contribution of shared environment is modest, and perhaps limited, as it appears only at 50 months. Future research should investigate the complex nature of these dynamic genetic factors through genetic-environment correlation (r GE) and interaction (G×E) analyses.

  8. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important

  9. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  10. Similarities and differences in physical self-concept of males and females during late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cağlar, Emine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in physical self-concept of Turkish late adolescents and early adults. A total of 715 high school and 1,125 university students voluntarily participated and were administered the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. The findings indicate significant sex and age differences on multiple dimensions of physical self, and that males and high school students scored higher on almost all subscales of physical self. However, analysis did not reveal any significant age and sex interactions on physical self. In conclusion, males and females differ from each other on how they perceived themselves on the multiple dimensions of physical self, and developmental age changes were evident in physical self.

  11. Towards a physical classification of early-type galaxies. Profile of a key programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, R.; Capaccioli, M.; Macchetto, F.; Nieto, J.-L.

    1989-03-01

    Hubble was the first who succeeded in classifying galaxies within a scheme of some physical meaning. Although it soon became clear that Hubble's tuning fork does not represent an evolutionary sequence, this essential diagram has proven to be a powerful tool especially for the understanding of late-type galaxies. On the other hand, the "early-type" sequence of elliptical (E) and SO galaxies is less satisfying, because it does not seem to reflect a unique sequence of physical properties. The SO class, although conceived to bridge the gap between disk- and disk-Iess galaxies, has often been abused to host ellipticals exhibiting peculiarities incompatible with their definition as structureless objects. For the elliptical galaxies themselves, "ellipticity" has been found to be essentially meaningless with regard to their angular momentum properties, and shows Iittle, if any, correlation with other global parameters. This fact became apparent after the first stellar kinematical measurements of luminous ellipticals (Bertola and Capaccioli 1975, IIlingworth 1977); E galaxies are not necessarily f1attened by rotation and may have anisotropie velocity dispersions (Binney 1978).

  12. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents’ sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further. PMID:20333456

  13. Functional and physical abilities in the early continuum of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joon-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Jaebong; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The early cognitive continuum has been emphasized recently. We sought to characterize the functional and physical aspects of the cognitive continuum in subjects with no cognitive impairment (NCI), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), nonamnestic (NA-MCI), and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (A-MCI). Furthermore, we identified the potential diagnostic utility of specific functional tasks. A total of 702 participants, aged ≥65 years and defined as NCI, SCI, NA-MCI, and A-MCI according to the original Petersen criteria, were included. They completed the Korean basic (K-ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scales (K-IADL) and the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Significant differences were observed between the different cognitive status groups in three items and total scores on the K-ADL, six items and total scores on the K-IADL and POMA. Controlling for confounding factors revealed that subjects from the A-MCI group performed poorly at bathing, shopping, handling money, and the sum of assorted functional items. These findings demonstrated the declining feature of functional and physical performance according to the cognitive continuum, with A-MCI being discriminative with respect to specific functional tasks as compared to milder cognitive statuses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Early adolescent sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms: a comparative analysis of five nations.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-10-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents' sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further.

  15. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  16. Effectiveness of Home-Based Exercises Without Supervision by Physical Therapists for Patients With Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Kosuke; Asakawa, Takashi; Kamide, Naoto; Yorimoto, Keisuke; Yoneda, Masaki; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Sawada, Makoto; Komori, Tetsuo

    2018-03-31

    To verify the effects of structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist in patients with early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A historical controlled study that is part of a multicenter collaborative study. Rehabilitation departments at general hospitals and outpatient clinics with a neurology department. Patients (N=21) with ALS were enrolled and designated as the home-based exercise (Home-EX) group, and they performed unsupervised home-based exercises. As a control group, 84 patients with ALS who underwent supervised exercise with a physical therapist for 6 months were extracted from a database of patients with ALS and matched with the Home-EX group in terms of their basic attributes and clinical features. The Home-EX group was instructed to perform structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist that consisted of muscle stretching, muscle training, and functional training for 6 months. The primary outcome was the score on the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), which is composed of 3 domains: bulbar function, limb function, and respiratory function. The score ranges from 0 to 48 points, with a higher score indicating better function. In the Home-EX group, 15 patients completed the home-based exercises for 6 months, and 6 patients dropped out because of medical reasons or disease progression. No adverse events were reported. The Home-EX group was found to have a significantly higher respiratory function subscore and total score on the ALSFRS-R than the control group at follow-up (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist could be used to alleviate functional deterioration in patients with early-stage ALS. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Pushing the physical limits of spectroscopic imaging for new biology and better medicine (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-02-01

    In vivo molecular spectroscopic imaging is not a simple addition of a spectrometer to a microscope. Innovations are needed to break the physical limits in sensitivity, depth, speed and resolution perspectives. I will present our most recent advances in modality development, biological application, and clinical translation. My talk will focus on the development of mid-infrared photothermal microscope for depth-resolved vibrational imaging of living cells (Science Advances, in press), the discovery of a metabolic signature in cancer stem cells by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging (Cell Stem Cell, in press), and the development of an intravascular vibrational photoacoustic catheter for label-free sensing of lipid laden plaques (Scientific Report 2016, 6:25236).

  19. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: Physical, psychological, and chemical hazards

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports physical, psychological, and chemical hazards relevant to western Canadian veterinarians as obtained by a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Nine-three percent (750/806) of veterinarians reported some form of injury during the previous 5 years; 17% of respondents (131/791) indicated injuries that resulted in 1 or more days off work. Median stress levels were similar across work environments; overall, 7% (57/813) indicated either no stress or severe stress, while 53% (428/813) indicated moderate stress. Twenty percent (3/15) of food animal practitioners and 37% (114/308) of companion animal practitioners who took X-rays reported accidental exposure. Accidental exposure to gas anesthetic was reported by 69% (394/570) of those in private practice. Exposure to chemicals occurred in all work environments. Veterinarians in western Canada are at risk of minor to severe injury due to both animal and non-animal related causes. PMID:22851776

  20. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: physical, psychological, and chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports physical, psychological, and chemical hazards relevant to western Canadian veterinarians as obtained by a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Nine-three percent (750/806) of veterinarians reported some form of injury during the previous 5 years; 17% of respondents (131/791) indicated injuries that resulted in 1 or more days off work. Median stress levels were similar across work environments; overall, 7% (57/813) indicated either no stress or severe stress, while 53% (428/813) indicated moderate stress. Twenty percent (3/15) of food animal practitioners and 37% (114/308) of companion animal practitioners who took X-rays reported accidental exposure. Accidental exposure to gas anesthetic was reported by 69% (394/570) of those in private practice. Exposure to chemicals occurred in all work environments. Veterinarians in western Canada are at risk of minor to severe injury due to both animal and non-animal related causes.

  1. Physical frailty, sarcopenia, and the enablement of autonomy: philosophical issues in geriatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Blasimme, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Physical frailty and loss of muscular mass (sarcopenia) are believed to be predictors of age-related conditions, such as disability and loss of autonomy. In this paper, I show that what in political and moral philosophy has come to be known as "the capability approach" may indeed provide much needed conceptual clarification in the area of frailty research. Other than being useful at the theoretical level, the capability approach can definitely help in the implementation of clinical guidelines and public health measures aimed at translating the results that are accumulating from frailty research. I will first briefly review the main philosophical tenets of the capability approach, and then analyze how they relate to current debates about frailty and sarcopenia by introducing the notion of "enablement". Finally, I will show how my analysis bears on both clinical research in this domain and public policy aimed at tackling some of the age-related issues in an aging society.

  2. Physical activity communication between oncology providers and patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nyrop, Kirsten A; Deal, Allison M; Williams, Grant R; Guerard, Emily J; Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-02-01

    National guidelines recommend that patients with a cancer diagnosis engage in regular physical activity to reduce cancer-related fatigue, maintain quality of life and physical function, and improve overall prognosis and survival. This study investigates oncology provider communications about physical activity during routine clinic visits with patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer. This study used a retrospective chart review for documentation of inquiries or recommendations pertaining to physical activity in clinician notes and after-visit patient summaries. In a 1-month period, 55 oncology providers had 361 encounters (clinic visits) with early-stage cancer patients. Thirty-five percent of these encounters included a provider communication about "physical activity," "exercise," or "activity." Encounters with a medical oncologist resulted in a physical activity communication 55% of the time, whereas encounters with other clinician specialties did so 20% of the time (P < .0001). The likelihood of a physical activity communication increased with patient age (P < .001). When the encounter was with a patient who was being seen for surveillance, chemotherapy, or endocrine treatment, the rate of physical activity communications was significantly higher (46%, 37%, and 58%, respectively) than the rate when the visit was during radiation treatment or surgery (6% and 19%, respectively; P < .0001). This study shows that it is feasible for oncology providers to have physical activity communications during routine clinic visits; however, the frequency of physical activity communications varies among providers. Interventions are needed to remind and encourage all oncology providers to encourage their patients with early-stage cancer to be physically active. . © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  3. The treatment of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in China: a study comparing expectations and treatment satisfaction in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Xudong, Zhao; Anselm, Kathrin; Kern, Stephanie; Wirsching, Michael; Schaefert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) in China. This study investigates the treatment expectations and treatment satisfaction of patients with MUS in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In a cross-sectional survey, n = 96 (10.3%) out of 931 participating patients were screened positive for multiple somatoform symptoms. These patients answered questionnaires concerning symptom duration, number of doctor visits, functional impairment, emotional distress, treatment expectations, treatment satisfaction, and empathy in the consultation. The physicians filled in a questionnaire about applied or recommended treatment. Most of the patients from psychosomatic medicine wanted psychotherapy. In TCM, 55% of the patients had already received TCM treatment and most of them wanted to continue TCM treatment. Patients in biomedicine did not express clear expectations; most of them had had no previous treatment. A combination of treatment methods was most prevalent in biomedicine in comparison to psychosomatic medicine and TCM. The outcome from the patients' point of view was significantly better in TCM than in psychosomatic medicine and biomedicine. Psychosomatic medicine's strength was the empathetic physician-patient interaction. From a biopsychosocial perspective, these results suggest that various treatment approaches with various emphases can be effective depending on the patient's complaints, his illness beliefs, and what the physician offers. The results will be verified in a larger multicenter longitudinal study.

  4. Early work-related physical exposures and low back pain in midlife: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Raitakari, O T; Solovieva, S

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether heavy physical workload in young adulthood increases the risk of local and radiating low back pain (LBP) in midlife. Longitudinal nationally representative Young Finns Study data among women (n=414) and men (n=324), aged 18-24 years in 1986 (baseline), were used. Physical heaviness of work was reported at baseline and follow-up (2007), and local and radiating LBP at follow-up. Covariates were age, smoking and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical heaviness of work and LBP. Additionally, the mediating effect of back pain at baseline was examined (the Sobel test). After adjustment for the covariates, and as compared with sedentary/light physical workload, heavy physical workload was associated with radiating LBP among women (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.62 to 10.31) and men (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.82). Among men, early back pain mediated the association (p value from the Sobel test=0.006). Among women, early exposure to physically heavy work showed the most consistent associations, while early and late exposures were associated with radiating and local LBP among men. Persistently heavy physical work was associated with radiating LBP among women and men. Physically heavy work at a young age can have a long-lasting effect on the risk of LBP, radiating LBP in particular. These results highlight the need to consider early and persistent exposures to prevent the adverse consequences of physical workload for the low back. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Development of medicine-intended isotope production technologies at Yerevan Physics Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisyan, Albert; Avagyan, Robert; Kerobyan, Ivetta; Dallakyan, Ruben; Harutyunyan, Gevorg; Melkonyan, Aleksandr

    2015-05-01

    Accelerator-based 99mTc and 123I isotopes production technologies were created and developed at A.Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (former Yerevan Physics Institute - YerPhI). The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum (for 99mTc production) and natural xenon (for 123I production) using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the YerPhI. We have developed and tested the extraction of 99mTc and 123I from the irradiated natural MoO3 and natural Xe, respectively. The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The current activity is devoted to creation and development of the technology of direct production 99mTc on the 100Mo as target materials using the proton beam from an IBA C18/18 cyclotron. The proton cyclotron C18/18 (producer - IBA, Belgium) was purchased and will be installed nearby AANL (YerPhI) till end 2014. The 18 MeV protons will be used to investigate accelerator-based schemes for the direct production of 99mTc. Main topics of studies will include experimental measurement of 99mTc production yield for different energies of protons, irradiation times, intensities, development of new methods of 99mTc extraction from irradiated materials, development of target preparation technology, development of target material recovery methods for multiple use and others.

  6. Early physical health conditions and school readiness skills in a prospective birth cohort of U.S. children.

    PubMed

    Kull, Melissa A; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2015-10-01

    Extant research identifies associations between early physical health disparities and impaired functioning in adulthood, but limited research examines the emergence of these associations in the early years of children's lives. This study draws on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N = 5900) to assess whether a host of early health indicators measured from birth to age five are associated with children's cognitive and behavioral skills at age five. After adjusting for child and family characteristics, results revealed that children's neonatal risks (prematurity or low birth weight) and reports of poor health and hospitalizations were associated with lower cognitive skills, and neonatal risks and poor health predicted lower behavioral functioning at age five. Some of the association between neonatal risks and school readiness skills were indirect, functioning through children's poor health and hospitalization. Analyses further found that associations between early physical health and children's school readiness skills were consistent across subgroups defined by family income and child race/ethnicity, suggesting generalizability of results. Findings emphasize the need for more interdisciplinary research, practice, and policy related to optimizing child well-being across domains of physical health and development in the early years of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Teachers' Knowledge and Skills in Implementing a Physical Education Curriculum: A New Zealand Early Childhood Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Claire; Smith, Jessica; McLaughlin, Tara; Ali, Ajmol; Conlon, Cathryn; Mugridge, Owen; Foster, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    In order to support children's physical health and well-being in early childhood education programmes, it is important to understand how teacher practices concerned with physical activity and nutrition can be addressed effectively. Current evidence suggests that young children's opportunities for physical activity in early childhood are…

  8. Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (59th, Las Vegas, Nevada, April 11-13, 1987). No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M., Ed.; Eckert, Helen M., Ed.

    Eleven conference papers explore physical activity in ancient societies as well as human adaptation of physical activities in modern society. The following papers are included: (1) "Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations: An Evolutionary View" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "How Active Were Early Populations? or Squeezing the Fossil Record"…

  9. Documenting the conversion from traditional to Studio Physics formats at the Colorado School of Mines: Process and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent; Ruskell, Todd G.

    2008-10-01

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) has taught its first-semester introductory physics course using a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format for several years. Over the past year we have converted the second semester of our calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics II) to a Studio Physics format, starting from a traditional lecture-based format. In this paper, we document the early stages of this conversion in order to better understand which features succeed and which do not, and in order to develop a model for switching to Studio that keeps the time and resource investment manageable. We describe the recent history of the Physics II course and of Studio at Mines, discuss the PER-based improvements that we are implementing, and characterize our progress via several metrics, including pre/post Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) scores, Colorado Learning About Science Survey scores (CLASS), solicited student comments, failure rates, and exam scores.

  10. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  11. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Results Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Conclusion Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time. PMID:26709924

  12. Determinants of Objectively Measured Physical Functional Performance in Early to Mid-stage Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Benzi M.; Brown, R. Preston; Aerts, Shanae; Schenkman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) may lead to functional limitations through both motor and non-motor symptoms. While patients with advanced disease have well-documented and profound functional limitations, less is known about the determinants of function in early to mid-stage disease where interventions may be more likely to benefit and preserve function. Objective The objective of the current study was to identify motor, cognitive and gait determinants of physical functional performance in patients with early to mid-stage PD. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a randomized clinical trial of exercise. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants 121 patients with early to mid-stage PD. Methods Our functional performance outcomes included: 1) the Continuous Scale Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP; primary outcome); 2) the timed up and go (TUG) tests; and Section 2 (Activities of Daily Living) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Explanatory variables included measures of disease severity, motor function, cognitive function, balance and gait. Step-wise linear regression models were used to determine correlations between explanatory variables and outcome measures. Results In our regression models the CS-PFP significantly correlated with walking endurance (six minute walk; r2 = 0.12, p < .0001), turning ability (360 degree turn; r2 = .03, p = .002), attention (brief test of attention; r2 = .01, p = .03), overall cognitive status (Mini-mental State Examination; r2 = .01, p = .04) and bradykinesia (timed tapping; r2 = .02, p = .02). The TUG significantly correlated with walking speed (5 meter walk; r2 = 0.33, p <.0001), stride length (r2 = 0.25, p <.0001), turning ability (360 turn r2 = .05, p = .0003) and attention (r2 = .016, p = .03). Section 2 of the UPDRS was significantly correlated with endurance (r2 = .09, p < .0001), turning ability (r2 = .03, p = .001) and attention (r2 = .01, p = .03). Conclusions

  13. Effect of physical effectiveness on digestibility of ration for cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, B; Grubic, G; Djordjevic, N; Bozickovic, A; Ivetic, A; Davidovic, V

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a diet particle size on nutrient digestibility in cows in early lactation. Treatments were diets with forage to concentrate ratio 43:57% in diet dry matter, with four different physically effective fibres (peNDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) and peNDF content of TMRs (total mixed ration) were determined using Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) with two (pef8.0 , peNDF8.0) or three (pef1.18, peNDF1.18) sieves. The reducing of cut length of forages and particle size of diets did not affect on dry matter intake, while decreased peNDF intake by 16.34 and 8.83%, for peNDF8.0 and peNDF1.18 respectively. Apparent total tract digestibility of the nutrients was measured using two indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent insoluble lignin (ADL). Decreasing of forages cut length significantly increased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 48.39% to 53.84% and from 53.9% to 58.66%, of crude protein from 73.96% to 79.24% and from 71.56% to 77.90%, with contemporary decreasing of non-fibre carbohydrate from 90.89% to 84.81% and from 91.99% to 86.80%, with AIA or ADL as indicator respectively. Dietary value of net energy for lactation (NEL) and energy intake was not affected by the peNDF content of the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  15. Early Validation Evidence of a Canadian Practitioner-Based Assessment of Physical Literacy in Physical Education: Passport for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Mandigo, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Physical and Health Education Canada has developed and implemented a formative, criterion-referenced, and practitioner-based national (Canadian) online educational assessment and support resource called Passport for Life (PFL). It was developed to support the awareness and advancement of physical literacy among PE students and teachers. PFL…

  16. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 6. Knowledge and skills of PRM physicians.

    PubMed

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanisms both physical and behavioral which are at the base of PRM physicians' work. After a discussion on the development and evolution of PRM that leads to its unique and specific approach, the mechanisms considered include: - repairing processes (and potential of recovery evaluation): repairing processes are mainly related to the quantity and natural history of diseases and impairments, while potential of recovery is also linked to the individual and environmental factors; PRM physicians work on impairments to favor healing or recovery, and propose rehabilitation if there is a potential of recovery: this is related to the prognostic role of PRM physicians; - learning processes: PRM is the specialty of teaching new physical ways and behavioral approaches to make patients participate at best through improvement of impairments and modification of activities; in this perspective, during repair and rehabilitation processes, PRM physicians and the rehabilitation team are teachers of new motor and behavioral strategies; - compensatory processes (adaptation/habilitation/rehabilitation): PRM physicians teach patients how to adapt to the new (acquired) health condition using compensatory mechanisms based on other body structures/functions, behavioral changes and/or assistive devices (or technical aids) (prosthesis and orthosis); during growth PRM physicians aim at allowing a complete (and compensatory) development of the intact function, not to be impaired by the original disease; compensatory processes are related to activities; - management skills: PRM physicians are managers of people and resources; they manage patients and their caregivers, to teach and allow them to reach the best possible participation, also focusing on maintenance; they lead the team, with the aim to make it

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Daniel D.; Collings, Paul J.; Clemes, Stacy A.; Costa, Silvia; Santorelli, Gillian; Griffiths, Paula; Barber, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in young children (<5 years) is complex. Objective measures have high validity but require specialist expertise, are expensive, and can be burdensome for participants. A proxy-report instrument for young children that accurately measures PA and ST is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ). In a setting where English and Urdu are the predominant languages spoken by parents of young children, a sample of 196 parents and their young children (mean age 3.2 ± 0.8 years) from Bradford, UK took part in the study. A total of 156 (79.6%) questionnaires were completed in English and 40 (20.4%) were completed in transliterated Urdu. A total of 109 parents took part in the reliability aspect of the study, which involved completion of the EY-PAQ on two occasions (7.2 days apart; standard deviation (SD) = 1.1). All 196 participants took part in the validity aspect which involved comparison of EY-PAQ scores against accelerometry. Validty anaylsis used all data and data falling with specific MVPA and ST boundaries. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC) and validity by Bland–Altman plots and rank correlation coefficients. The test re-test reliability of the EY-PAQ was moderate for ST (ICC = 0.47) and fair for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)(ICC = 0.35). The EY-PAQ had poor agreement with accelerometer-determined ST (mean difference = −87.5 min·day−1) and good agreement for MVPA (mean difference = 7.1 min·day−1) limits of agreement were wide for all variables. The rank correlation coefficient was non-significant for ST (rho = 0.19) and significant for MVPA (rho = 0.30). The EY-PAQ has comparable validity and reliability to other PA self-report tools and is a promising population-based measure of young children’s habitual MVPA but not ST. In situations when objective methods are not

  18. Physically based approaches incorporating evaporation for early warning predictions of rainfall-induced landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Alfredo; Rianna, Guido; Pagano, Luca

    2018-02-01

    In the field of rainfall-induced landslides on sloping covers, models for early warning predictions require an adequate trade-off between two aspects: prediction accuracy and timeliness. When a cover's initial hydrological state is a determining factor in triggering landslides, taking evaporative losses into account (or not) could significantly affect both aspects. This study evaluates the performance of three physically based predictive models, converting precipitation and evaporative fluxes into hydrological variables useful in assessing slope safety conditions. Two of the models incorporate evaporation, with one representing evaporation as both a boundary and internal phenomenon, and the other only a boundary phenomenon. The third model totally disregards evaporation. Model performances are assessed by analysing a well-documented case study involving a 2 m thick sloping volcanic cover. The large amount of monitoring data collected for the soil involved in the case study, reconstituted in a suitably equipped lysimeter, makes it possible to propose procedures for calibrating and validating the parameters of the models. All predictions indicate a hydrological singularity at the landslide time (alarm). A comparison of the models' predictions also indicates that the greater the complexity and completeness of the model, the lower the number of predicted hydrological singularities when no landslides occur (false alarms).

  19. Early Socioeconomic Adversity and Young Adult Physical Illness: The Role of Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Kwon, Josephine A.; Oshri, Assaf; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the psycho-physiological inter and intra-individual processes that mediate the linkage between childhood/adolescent socioeconomic adversities and adult health outcomes. Specifically, the proposed model examined the roles of youth depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as mediators that explain the link between early adversity and young adults’ general health and physical illnesses after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and earlier general health reports. Methods Using a nationally representative sample of 12,424 from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study used growth curve modeling to consider both the severity (initial level) as well as the change over time (deterioration or elevation) as psycho-physiological mediators, thereby acknowledging multiple facets of depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as psych-physiological mediators of early adversity to adult health. Results Results provide evidence for (a) the influence of early childhood and early adolescent cumulative socioeconomic adversity on both the initial levels and changes over time of depressive symptoms and BMI and (b) the independent influences depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories on the general health and the physical illnesses of young adults Conclusions These findings contribute valuable knowledge to existing research by elucidating how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on physical health problems in young adulthood; further, this information suggests effective intervention and prevention programs should incorporate multiple facets (severity and change over time) of multiple mechanisms (psychological and physiological). PMID:24856408

  20. Body Size at Birth, Physical Development and Cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulker, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich sample created from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between body size at birth and early childhood cognitive skills is mediated by physical development indicators. Consistent with existing evidence from other countries, we find a significant relationship between body…

  1. A Comparison of Student Knowledge between Traditional and Blended Instruction in a Physical Education in Early Childhood Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannousi, Maria; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning model combines different advantages of face to face education and e-learning to ensure an effective learning environment for students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of traditional and blended instruction, in students' knowledge in a Physical Education in Early Childhood course. For the purpose of this…

  2. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  3. "Letters to an Early Career Academic": Learning from the Advice of the Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Eimear; Rynne, Steven B.; Alfrey, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Taking our lead from Rilke's "Letters to a Young Poet," this project represents our attempt to stimulate dialogue between 30 physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) early career academics (ECAs) and 11 PESP professors. First, the ECAs were invited to write a narrative around their experiences as PESP ECAs. Second, a narrative…

  4. Tinkering through Transition: On "Doctoring" as an Early-Career Academic in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Benjamin; Christensen, Erin; Occhino, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the notion of "making it" as an early-career academic in physical education and sport pedagogy. In it, we draw on the tradition of material semiotics to reflect on our shared journeys from doctoral student to beginning scholar and beyond. By attuning ourselves to the relationality, materiality and precariousness of…

  5. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends…

  6. Survey of medical students’ attitude and knowledge toward physical medicine and rehabilitation in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Khosrawi, Saeed; Ramezanian, Hadis; Mollabashi, Roya

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) is a specialized clinical field of musculoskeletal diseases and physical impairment that is unknown for most of the medical students. AIMS: This study aimed to assess medical students’ attitude and knowledge toward PMR and its role in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal diseases. SETTING AND DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was done on 175 medical students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 2015 to 2016. Sample population was selected by random sampling among 350 students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were evaluated by a research-made questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. This questionnaire included 36 questions divided in four parts including demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and performance ranking. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Statistical test for quantitative and qualitative variables was carried out by mean ± standard deviation and percentage or number, respectively. For analyzing variables, Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used. RESULTS: In this study, 150 medical students with a mean age of 24.48 ± 1.48 years participated of which 40% of them were male. The mean score of Student's knowledge about PMR and its role in diagnosis and treatment of disorders was 5.16 ± 1.90, and 91.3% had low level of knowledge. The mean score of student's attitude toward PMR and its role in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal problems was 3.33 ± 0.46, and 69.3% had attitude level above the average. Evaluation of student's performance showed that when they manage patients with musculoskeletal problems as general physician, they refer the patients to physiatrists at the first step if it is necessary. CONCLUSION: Understanding the factors influencing the attitudes and knowledge of medical students is prime to help establishing the roles, providing proper facilities, carrying out successful planning to train expert

  7. Association Between Early Life Adversity and Risk for Poor Emotional and Physical Health in Adolescence: A Putative Mechanistic Neurodevelopmental Pathway.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna; Whalen, Diana; Tillman, Rebecca; Belden, Andy

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. However, the mechanism of this effect, critical to enhancing public health, remains poorly understood. To investigate the neurodevelopmental trajectory of the association between early ACEs and adolescent general and emotional health outcomes. A prospective longitudinal study that began when patients were aged 3 to 6 years who underwent neuroimaging later at ages 7 to 12 years and whose mental and physical health outcomes were observed at ages 9 to 15 years. Sequential mediation models were used to investigate associations between early ACEs and brain structure, emotion development, and health outcomes longitudinally. Children were recruited from an academic medical center research unit. Early life adversity. Early ACEs in children aged 3 to 7 years; volume of a subregion of the prefrontal cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, in children aged 6 to 12 years; and emotional awareness, depression severity, and general health outcomes in children and adolescents aged 9 to 15 years. The mean (SD) age of 119 patients was 9.65 (1.31) years at the time of scan. The mean (SD) ACE score was 5.44 (3.46). The mean (SD) depression severity scores were 2.61 (1.78) at preschool, 1.77 (1.58) at time 2, and 2.16 (1.64) at time 3. The mean (SD) global physical health scores at time 2 and time 3 were 0.30 (0.38) and 0.33 (0.42), respectively. Sequential mediation in the association between high early ACEs and emotional and physical health outcomes were found. Smaller inferior frontal gyrus volumes and poor emotional awareness sequentially mediated the association between early ACEs and poor general health (model parameter estimate = 0.002; 95% CI, 0.0002-0.056) and higher depression severity (model parameter estimate = 0.007; 95% CI, 0.001-0.021) in adolescence. An increase from 0 to 3 early ACEs was associated with 15% and 25% increases in depression severity and

  8. Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: Basic Science, Early Results, and Potential Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Saltzman, Bryan M; Yanke, Adam B; Cole, Brian J

    2016-09-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM)-derived products have been successfully used in ophthalmology, plastic surgery, and wound care, but little is known about their potential applications in orthopaedic sports medicine. To provide an updated review of the basic science and preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of AM-derived products and to review their current applications in sports medicine. Systematic review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The search term amniotic membrane was used alone and in conjunction with stem cell, orthopaedic, tissue engineering, scaffold, and sports medicine. The search identified 6870 articles, 80 of which, after screening of the titles and abstracts, were considered relevant to this study. Fifty-five articles described the anatomy, basic science, and nonorthopaedic applications of AM-derived products. Twenty-five articles described preclinical and clinical trials of AM-derived products for orthopaedic sports medicine. Because the level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis, a current concepts review on the anatomy, physiology, and clinical uses of AM-derived products is presented. Amniotic membranes have many promising applications in sports medicine. They are a source of pluripotent cells, highly organized collagen, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory cytokines, immunomodulators, and matrix proteins. These properties may make it beneficial when applied as tissue engineering scaffolds, improving tissue organization in healing, and treatment of the arthritic joint. The current body of evidence in sports medicine is heavily biased toward in vitro and animal studies, with little to no human clinical data. Nonetheless, 14 companies or distributors offer commercial AM products. The preparation and formulation of these products alter their biological and mechanical properties, and a thorough understanding of these

  9. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  10. Stories from early-career women physicians who have left academic medicine: a qualitative study at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Levine, Rachel B; Lin, Fenny; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M; Carrese, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    The number of women in academic medicine has steadily increased, although gender parity still does not exist and women leave academics at somewhat higher rates than men. The authors investigated the reasons why women leave careers in academic medicine. Semistructured, one-on-one interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 with 20 women physicians who had left a single academic institution to explore their reasons for opting out of academic careers. Data analysis was iterative, and an editing analysis style was used to derive themes. A lack of role models for combining career and family responsibilities, frustrations with research (funding difficulties, poor mentorship, competition), work-life balance, and the institutional environment (described as noncollaborative and biased in favor of male faculty) emerged as key factors associated with a decision to leave academic medicine for respondents. Faced with these challenges, respondents reevaluated their priorities and concluded that a discrepancy existed between their own and institutional priorities. Many respondents expressed divergent views with the institutional norms on how to measure success and, as a consequence, felt that they were undervalued at work. Participants report a disconnection between their own priorities and those of the dominant culture in academic medicine. Efforts to retain women faculty in academic medicine may include exploring the aspects of an academic career that they value most and providing support and recognition accordingly.

  11. Music and Physical Play: What Can We Learn from Early Childhood Teachers in Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Amy; Sherwood, Elizabeth; Mbugua, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Sharing classroom practices across international borders can add new dimensions to teaching methods, no matter where one calls home. With this idea in mind, the authors (two U.S. early childhood teacher educators and a Kenyan-born U.S. early childhood teacher) have corresponded for several years through e-mail with a small group of early childhood…

  12. [Antônio Moniz de Souza, the 'Man of Brazilian Nature': science and medicinal plants in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Laura Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Early nineteenth century Brazil saw a vibrant movement to study nature, including a number of expeditions aimed at gathering a corpus of knowledge on Brazilian flora. One of the main goals of these expeditions was to map and identify plant species of economic and therapeutic value. The government undertook and sponsored various initiatives, and it was within this context that the Bahian voyager Antônio Moniz de Souza engaged in his activities. He traveled through areas of the Brazilian territory in the first decades of the nineteenth century, observing, cataloging, and collecting products from the three kingdoms, especially plants with medicinal powers. This study of Moniz de Souza pinpoints and analyzes important features in the exploration of nature and knowledge and the use of medicinal plants during this timeframe.

  13. Steps to Enhance Early Recovery After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Lessons Learned From a Physical Activity Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    This pilot study tested and refined a free-living physical activity intervention. The investigators evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determined preliminary effects on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life. This pilot study used a 1-group, pretest-posttest design. The free-living physical activity intervention consisted of an education component and 6 weeks of gradually increasing physical activity after discharge from the hospital. The intervention was designed to increase steps by 10% weekly. Subjects were assessed before transplantation and during the seventh week after discharge from the hospital after completing the intervention. Pretest-posttest scores were analyzed with paired t tests. Subject wore the physical activity tracker for an average of 38 of 42 days and met their physical activity goals 57% of the time. Subjects reported significantly less physical fatigue after the free-living physical activity intervention compared with baseline (P = .05). Improvements in quality of life approached significance (P = .06). The findings demonstrate that the free-living physical activity intervention implemented during the very early recovery period after transplantation is feasible and acceptable. The intervention potentially reduces fatigue and improves quality of life. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously given the pilot nature of the study. The evidence supports continued investigation.

  14. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    PubMed

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents׳ perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children׳s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In God and CAM we trust. Religious faith and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of women treated for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Turning to faith in God or a higher spiritual power is a common way of coping with life-threatening disease such as cancer. Little, however, is known about religious faith among cancer patients in secular societies. The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of religious faith among Danish breast cancer patients and at identifying whether socio-demographic, pre-cancer health status, clinical, and health behavior characteristics, including their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), were associated with their degree of faith. Information on faith in God or a higher spiritual power and use of CAM was provided by a nationwide sample of 3,128 recurrence-free Danish women who had received surgery for early-stage breast cancer 15-16 months earlier. Socio-demographic, clinical, and health status variables were obtained from national longitudinal registries, and health behaviors had been assessed at 3-4 months post-surgery. Of the women, 47.3% reported a high degree of faith (unambiguous believers), 35.9% some degree of faith (ambiguous believers), while the remaining 16.8% were non-believers. Unambiguous believers were more likely than ambiguous believers to experience their faith as having a positive impact on their disease and their disease-related quality-of-life. When compared to non-believers, unambiguous believers were also older, had poorer physical function, and were more frequent users of CAM, and more inclined to believe that their use of CAM would have a beneficial influence on their cancer. Disease- and treatment-related variables were unrelated to faith. While overall religious faith appears equally prevalent among Danish and US breast cancer patients, the majority of Danish breast cancer patients experienced ambiguous faith, whereas the majority of US patients have been found to express unambiguous faith. Our results suggest that future studies may benefit from exploring the role of faith for health behaviors, adherence to

  16. Maritime Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, J. Worth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a fascinating look at the practice of medicine aboard commercial and military ships in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Contemporary medical practice believed all diseases were created by one of four "humors." In spite of this, and the constant presence of disease, most seamen led relatively healthy lives. (MJP)

  17. Simulation of blast-induced early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul A; Ford, Corey C

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm3 voxels) five material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female data set. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior, and lateral directions. Three-dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric stress within the first 2 ms of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 ms time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early-time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  18. Physical activity and coronary artery calcification in two cohorts of women representing early and late postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Storti, Kristi L; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Underwood, Darcy A; Kuller, Lewis H; Kriska, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity (PA) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among two cohorts of postmenopausal (PM) women representing early and late postmenopause. The cross-sectional relationship between PA and CAC was examined in 173 younger PM women (mean age ± SD, 56.8 ± 2.9 y) from the Women on the Move Through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) study and 121 older PM women (mean age ± SD, 73.9 ± 3.8 y) from the Walking Women Follow-up (WWF) study who had complete PA and CAC data. PA was measured objectively using a pedometer over a 7-day period in both cohorts. CAC was assessed using electron beam tomography. Descriptive statistics were used to describe median levels of PA and CAC, as well as proportions of detectable CAC (0 vs > 0). Fifty-seven percent of WOMAN study participants and 74% of WWF study participants had detectable CAC. The median (interquartile range) CAC score was 1.4 (0-23.3) for participants in the WOMAN study and 38.8 (0-264.4) among WWF study participants. Median (interquartile range) step counts were 6,447 (4,823-8,722) steps per day in the WOMAN study and 5,466 (3,610-7,576) steps per day for WWF study participants. Among WWF study participants, there was a statistically significant inverse association between pedometer steps and CAC (P for trend = 0.002); no association was found among WOMAN study participants. Among older PM women, higher levels of PA were associated with lower CAC. However, the relationship was not observed in PM women, likely due to the lower prevalence of CAC in this age group.

  19. Physical Activity Levels in Early Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Going, Scott B.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Rankin, Lucinda; Kasle, Shelley; Cornett, Michelle; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity (PA) is recommended for osteoarthritis (OA) management to reduce pain and improve function. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the level and pattern of PA in male and female knee OA patients to determine adherence to CDC/ACSM and EPAC recommendations for PA. Methods: Early OA patients (n = 255, 76% women, 54.6 ± 7.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) having radiographic status of Kellgren and Lawrence-defined grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee wore an accelerometer (Actigraph MTI) for 6-7 contiguous days. Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA intensities were defined as accelerometer recordings of 100 to 2,224, 2,225 to 5,950, and > 5,950 counts per minute, respectively. Results: Subjects wore accelerometers for 6.8 ± 0.3 days and 13.8 ± 2.2 hours per day (hr/day) and spent much more (P < 0.001) time in MPA (23.6 ± 17.2 min/day) compared to VPA (0.95 ± 3.5 min/day). Males spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in all PA intensities than females. Only 30% of subjects achieved recommended PA levels. The proportion of males (47%) achieving the recommendation was significantly (P = 0.04) higher than females (24%). Conclusion: Knee OA patients accumulate little vigorous PA and most (70%) do not achieve recommended levels for moderate or greater intensity PA. New strategies to increase levels of PA in this population are needed. PMID:18759320

  20. Low Temperature Physics at Yale in the late 30's through the early 50's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Robert

    2006-03-01

    The low temperature program at Yale was initiated by C. T. Lane (1904-1991) in the fall of 1937 when he was appointed to the teaching staff as an instructor in the department of Physics. Following his doctorate from McGill in 1929 he investigated the magnetic susceptibilities of ``soft'' metals supported by the National Research Council of Canada, the Commissioners of the 1851 Exhibition and a Sterling Fellowship at Yale. Arranged by Louis McKeehan, with 5000 from the new George Sheffield research fund, he started the construction of a Kapitza type helium liquefier. The machine was largely completed in the fall of 1939, yet liquid helium was not made until early December 1940 due to the need for extensive on line purification of the gas. Returning in 1945 from war research, Lane and Henry A. Fairbank (Ph.D 1944) continued the metals work along with new thrusts into Second Sound , properties of helium^ three impurities in liquid helium and starting in the 50's on rotating He II. In 1933 both Lane and Onsager were awarded Sterling Fellowships, which initiated a stimulating experimental- theoretical exchange continuing until they both retired. The best-known example was the rediscovery at Yale of the deHaas-van Alphen effect, previously observed only in bismuth, in zinc; where upon Onsager and his students provided new insights into our understanding of the Fermi surface of metals. With the development of new instrumentation one observed vast changes in experimental style during this period. The evolution of the production of liquid helium from Lane's device though the Collins machine to the commodity business of today now makes experiments of huge size and importance possible.

  1. Physical Activity and Motor Competence Present a Positive Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Across Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rodrigo A; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R; Bugge, Anna; Moller, Niels C; Anderson, Lars B; Stodden, David F

    2017-06-01

    The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations. Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO 2 peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09). PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO 2 peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

  2. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Links Between Physical Activity and Self-Esteem in Early Adolescent Non-Hispanic Females

    PubMed Central

    Schmalz, Dorothy L.; Deane, Glenn D.; Birch, Leann L.; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: For decades, researchers have proclaimed the positive psychosocial benefits of participation in physical activity. However, recent meta-analyses of the literature have found infrequent and inconclusive empirical support for the link between physical activity and psychosocial well-being. In this study, we use data from a longitudinal study to explore the links between participation in physical activity and global self-esteem among girls from childhood into early adolescence and the direction of this relationship. Methods: Participants included 197 non-Hispanic white girls. Girls' participation in physical activity and their global self-esteem were assessed when they were 9, 11, and 13 years old. Panel regression was used to assess the lagged effect of physical activity on self-esteem and the lagged effect of self-esteem on physical activity, controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES) and girls' body mass index (BMI). Results: A significant lagged effect of physical activity on self-esteem was identified. Specifically, higher physical activity at ages 9 and 11 years predicted higher self-esteem at ages 11 and 13 years respectively, controlling for covariates. Positive effects of physical activity on self-esteem were most apparent at age 11 and for girls with higher BMI. No support was gained for the lagged effect of self-esteem on physical activity. Conclusions: Results suggest that participating in physical activity can lead to positive self-esteem among adolescent girls, particularly for younger girls and those at greatest risk of overweight. These findings highlight the necessity of promoting physical activity among adolescent girls as a method of fostering positive self-worth. PMID:18023784

  3. Social marketing approaches to nutrition and physical activity interventions in early care and education centres: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S

    2017-12-01

    Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Educational differences in continuing or restarting drinking in early and late pregnancy: role of psychological and physical problems.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2014-01-01

    Many women continue drinking alcohol during pregnancy. This study aimed to describe educational differences in continued drinking in early and late pregnancy and to examine the contribution of psychological and physical factors to the explanation of educational differences. We examined 4,885 women enrolled in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Information on alcohol intake during pregnancy was based on self-reports at the 16th week of gestation and at 3 months postpartum. Only women who reported alcohol intake before pregnancy were included. Explanatory factors were alcohol intake before pregnancy, psychological problems, and physical problems. The risk of continued drinking in early pregnancy was increased in higher educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% CI [1.25, 1.60]); in addition, in late pregnancy, higher educated women had an increased risk of restarting (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.37, 2.04]) and continuing drinking (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.36, 2.30]). The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and all physical and psychological problems together explained 17.1% and 8.8% of the educational differences in continued drinking in early pregnancy, respectively. Higher educated women are more likely to continue drinking during pregnancy. The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and physical and psychological problems contributed to the explanation of continued drinking. However, other factors may play a greater role, such as cultural factors and social norms.

  5. Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (p<0.001). The average error frequency per student in females (0.875) was lower than in males (1.375) although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.167). The average error frequency per student in cardiac (1.267) and pulmonary (1.389) examinations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p = 0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (p<0.001). These data suggest that PE skills in cardiac and pulmonary examinations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

  6. The association between physical medicine and rehabilitation service utilization and disability duration following work-related fracture.

    PubMed

    Young, Amanda; Muhlner, Stasia; Kurowski, Alicia; Cifuentes, Manuel

    2015-06-05

    Rural residents with work-related fractures utilize healthcare differently and return to work (RTW) sooner than their similarly-injured urban peers. To elucidate the relationship between physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) service usage and work-disability duration following work-related injury. Retrospective cohort study, employing a two-phase sequential analysis. The project involved a longitudinal analysis of PM&R utilization and work-disability duration of 2,216 people across the U.S. who fractured a bone, received PM&R services, and had at least seven days off work. In the first phase of the analysis each individual was assigned a PM&R utilization score based on how similar his or her usage was to that typical of rural residents. The second phase tested the relationship between assigned PM&R utilization scores and work-disability duration. Differences in urban versus rural PM&R utilization included less total PM&R services and fewer passive services in the first 8 weeks for rural claimants. Among those off work for more than a month, rural residents used more active services just prior to RTW, with a gradual decreasing of services leading up to RTW. Controlling for covariates, aggregate PM&R utilization scores were found to relate to time to first RTW (Hazard Ratio=1.66, p<0.005). Findings suggest that using services in a way that is more consistent with rural patterns is associated with decreased work-disability durations. Consistent with previous studies, results suggest that passive services, prolonged episodes of care, and failure to focus on transitioning to self-management are related to longer work-disability durations.

  7. Performance of physical examination skills in medical students during diagnostic medicine course in a University Hospital of Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (p<0.001). The average error frequency per student in females (0.875) was lower than in males (1.375) although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.167). The average error frequency per student in cardiac (1.267) and pulmonary (1.389) examinations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p = 0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (p<0.001). These data suggest that PE skills in cardiac and pulmonary examinations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students.

  8. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe. Chapter 2. Why rehabilitation is needed by individual and society.

    PubMed

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper describes the background to the context of PRM services and comprises the following: - Epidemiological Aspects of Functioning and Disability - Ethical Aspects and Human Rights - Rehabilitation and Health Systems - Economic Burden of Disability - Effects of Lack of Rehabilitation Health care service planning accounts for the burden of disability among society and the chapter describes the justification for specialist rehabilitation, the background of PRM and why making a functional diagnosis and a management plan based on function is its core competence. The chapter describes the increasing burden of disability due to conditions seen in PRM practice rather than on all those diseases contributing to physical disablement and does not include mental illness, learning disabilities, etc. Ten percent of Western Europe's population have a disability and are surviving longer, resulting in higher costs for health and social care and a greater impact of co-morbidities. The chapter also describes the impact and increased costs in the absence of rehabilitation. Not only is money spent on rehabilitation recovered with five to nine-fold savings (e.g. in return to work), but rehabilitation is effective in all phases of health conditions. Specialized rehabilitation (as delivered by PRM services) is highly cost-efficient for all neurological conditions, producing substantial savings in ongoing care costs, especially in high-dependency patients. Disability discrimination has been outlawed and the text describes the legal context and status of a person living in Europe with a disability. The second part highlights the United Nations Conventions on human rights, confirmed in the World Report on Disability, but also on the principles of ethical practice among PRM physicians. The third part addresses the variability of access to and funding of rehabilitation services across countries. The

  9. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  10. High-level physical activity in childhood seems to protect against low back pain in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wedderkopp, N; Kjaer, P; Hestbaek, L; Korsholm, L; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2009-02-01

    The evidence on the impact of physical activity on back pain in children and adolescents has been contradicting. It has also been shown that the physical activity cannot accurately be estimated in children using questionnaires. The aim of this study was to establish if physical activity in childhood had any impact on back pain reporting in early adolescence (3 years later), using an objective instrumental measurement of physical activity. Prospective cohort study. Representative random sample of Danish children from the city of Odense sampled at age 9 years and followed-up at age 12 years. The 1-month period prevalence of back pain (neck pain, mid back pain, and low back pain) was established using a structured interview. Physical activity was assessed with the MTI-accelerometer. The accelerometer provides a minute-by-minute measure of the physical activity performed. An overall measure of physical activity and time spent in high activity were studied in relation to back pain using logistic regression. The analyses were performed on the total sample and then stratified on back pain (yes/no) at baseline. High physical activity (HPA) levels seem to protect against future low back pain and appear to actually "treat" and reduce the odds of future mid back pain. When comparing the least active children to the most active children, the least active had a multivariate odds ratio of 3.3 of getting low back pain and 2.7 of getting mid back pain 3 years later. When stratified on back pain at baseline, this effect on mid back pain was especially noticeable in children who had had mid back pain already at baseline, with an odds ratio of 7.2. HPA in childhood seems to protect against low back pain and mid back pain in early adolescence. Larger prospective studies with repetitive follow-ups and preferably intervention studies should be performed, to see if these findings can be reproduced.

  11. Comparing physical activity and sedentary time among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers enrolled in early learning programs: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patricia; Maltby, Alana M; Burke, Shauna M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2016-09-01

    Establishing appropriate physical activity and sedentary behaviours during early childhood is important to ensure children accrue the many associated health benefits. While physical activity levels have been reported as low within early learning programs, little research has explored the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian preschoolers classified as overweight within these facilities. The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers classified as overweight and nonoverweight in early learning programs. Direct assessment of physical activity and sedentary time of 216 preschool-aged children was collected via Actical accelerometers during early learning hours, while body mass index percentile was calculated based on preschoolers' objectively measured height and weight. Results of three 3-way ANOVAs suggest that rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity, total physical activity, and sedentary time (p > 0.05) did not significantly differ based on weight status, sex, and type of early learning facility. This study is one of few that has examined differences in overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers' sedentary time, and adds to the limited research exploring physical activity levels among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers during early learning hours. Given the high rates of sedentary time reported, programming within early learning facilities is necessary to support preschoolers, regardless of weight status, to achieve increased physical activity levels and decreased sedentary time.

  12. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, E; Nelson, J; Hangiandreou, N

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in themore » last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and

  13. Expenditures of medicine use in hypertensive/diabetic elderly and physical activity and engagement in walking: cross secctional analysis of SABE Survey.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; de Fátima Nunes Marucci, Maria; Gobbo, Luis Alberto; de Almeida-Roediger, Manuela; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida; Lebrão, Maria Lucia

    2017-03-20

    The literature shows the inverse association between physical activity level (PAL) and chronic diseases that have a significant burden over health care costs. However, in upper-middle income countries and in elderly population this information are scarce. To describe the annual drug expenditures for the hypertensive and diabetic elderly population in Brazil and to analyze the association with PAL and engagement in walking. This cross sectional study is part of SABE Survey and comprised 806 hypertensive and/or diabetic elderly (≥60 years old). The annual expenditures of medicine use was estimated for all medications for hypertension and/or diabetes they were taking. The PAL was considered insufficient when moderate physical activity was <150 min/week or vigorous physical activity was < 75 min/week. Engagement in walking was considered by at least 1 day a week. All expenditures were presented through the descriptive values (in American Dollars US$) according PAL and engagement in walking. The association analysis between annual expenditures, PAL and engagement in walking were performed by multiple logistic regression models adjusted for gender, age and body mass index. The average annual cost was higher in diabetic and insufficient physically activity elderly. The 1-year estimated.cost was US$ 73386,09 and 295% higher in insufficiently physically active. Older people who reported not walking had a higher risk to higher annual expenditures of medicine use (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.03-2.40). The annual expenditures of medicine use for controlling hypertension and diabetes of Brazilian elderly were higher and inversely associated with physical activity level and engagement in walking.

  14. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Early Care and Education in Three States, 2014-2016.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-08-31

    The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P < .01) but did not change significantly from post-assessment to follow-up assessment. ECELC shows promise as an approach to incorporate professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.

  15. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0160 TITLE: Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves... designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of... Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Oscar E

  16. Prospective randomized study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an early versus delayed postoperative physical therapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated patient outcomes and rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a postoperative physical therapy protocol with early passive motion compared with a delayed protocol that limited early passive motion. The study enrolled 68 patients (average age, 63.2 years) who met inclusion criteria. All patients had a full-thickness crescent-shaped tear of the supraspinatus that was repaired using a transosseous equivalent suture-bridge technique along with subacromial decompression. In the early group, 33 patients were randomized to passive elevation and rotation that began at postoperative day 2. In the delayed group, 35 patients began the same protocol at 6 weeks. Patients were monitored clinically for a minimum of 12 months, and rotator cuff healing was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Both groups had similar improvements in preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (early group: 43.9 to 91.9, P < .0001; delayed group: 41.0 to 92.8, P < .0001) and Simple Shoulder Test scores (early group: 5.5 to 11.1, P < .0001; delayed group: 5.1 to 11.1, P < .0001). There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction, rotator cuff healing, or range of motion between the early and delayed groups. Patients in the early group and delayed group both demonstrated very similar outcomes and range of motion at 1 year. There was a slightly higher rotator cuff healing rate in the delayed passive range of motion group compared with the early passive range of motion group (91% vs 85%). Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mathematics, Experiments, and Theoretical Physics: The Early Days of the Sommerfeld School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    1999-10-01

    The names of his students read like a Who's Who of the pioneers in modern physics Peter Debye, Peter Paul Ewald, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Hans A. Bethe - to name only the most prominent. In retrospect, the success of Sommerfeld's school of modern theoretical physics tends to overshadow its less glorious beginnings. A century ago, theoretical physics was not yet considered as a distinct discipline. In this article I emphasize more the haphazard beginnings than the later achievements of Sommerfeld's school, which mirrored the state of theoretical physics before it became an independent discipline.

  18. New insight into the physics of atmospheres of early type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of mass loss and stellar winds from hot stars are discussed. The mass loss rate of early type stars increases by about a factor of 100 to 1000 during their evolution. This seems incompatible with the radiation driven wind models and may require another explanation for the mass loss from early type stars. The winds of early type stars are strongly variable and the stars may go through active phases. Eclipses in binary systems by the stellar winds can be used to probe the winds. A few future IUE studies are suggested.

  19. Development of electronic medical record charting for hospital-based transfusion and apheresis medicine services: Early adoption perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rebecca; Pantanowitz, Liron; Cloutier, Darlene; Provencher, Jean; McGirr, Joan; Stebbins, Jennifer; Cronin, Suzanne; Wherry, Josh; Fenton, Joseph; Donelan, Eileen; Johari, Vandita; Andrzejewski, Chester

    2010-01-01

    Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs) provide universal access to health care information across multidisciplinary lines. In pathology departments, transfusion and apheresis medicine services (TAMS) involved in direct patient care activities produce data and documentation that typically do not enter the EMR. Taking advantage of our institution's initiative for implementation of a paperless medical record, our TAMS division set out to develop an electronic charting (e-charting) strategy within the EMR. Methods: A focus group of our hospital's transfusion committee consisting of transfusion medicine specialists, pathologists, residents, nurses, hemapheresis specialists, and information technologists was constituted and charged with the project. The group met periodically to implement e-charting TAMS workflow and produced electronic documents within the EMR (Cerner Millenium) for various service line functions. Results: The interdisciplinary working group developed and implemented electronic versions of various paper-based clinical documentation used by these services. All electronic notes collectively gather and reside within a unique Transfusion Medicine Folder tab in the EMR, available to staff with access to patient charts. E-charting eliminated illegible handwritten notes, resulted in more consistent clinical documentation among staff, and provided greater realered. However, minor updates and corrections to documents as well as select work re-designs were required for optimal use of e-charting-time review/access of hemotherapy practices. No major impediments to workflow or inefficiencies have been encount by these services. Conclusion: Documentation of pathology subspecialty activities such as TAMS can be successfully incorporated into the EMR. E-charting by staff enhances communication and helps promote standardized documentation of patient care within and across service lines. Well-constructed electronic documents in the EMR may also enhance data mining

  20. The relationship of self-concept and perceived athletic competence to physical activity level and gender among Turkish early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aşçi, F H; Koşar, S N; Işler, A K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-concept and perceived athletic competence of Turkish early adolescents in relation to physical activity level and gender. Self-concept was assessed using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, and perceived athletic competence was assessed by means of the Athletic Competence subscale of Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children. In addition, the Weekly Activity Checklist was used for assessing physical activity level. Males and females were assigned to low and high physical activity level groups based on their mean scores. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for gender and physical activity level, but there was no significant gender by physical activity interaction. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant main effect for physical activity level on perceived athletic competence but not global self-concept. In addition, univariate analysis did not reveal a significant difference in either global self-concept or perceived athletic competence with respect to gender.

  1. Early aquatic physical therapy improves function and does not increase risk of wound-related adverse events for adults after orthopedic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Elizabeth M; Peiris, Casey L

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether early postoperative aquatic physical therapy is a low-risk and effective form of physical therapy to improve functional outcomes after orthopedic surgery. Databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, Embase, and PEDro were searched from the earliest date available until October 2011. Additional trials were identified by searching reference lists and citation tracking. Controlled trials evaluating the effects of aquatic physical therapy on adverse events for adults <3 months after orthopedic surgery. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and any disagreements were discussed until consensus could be reached. Searching identified 5069 potentially relevant articles, of which 8 controlled trials with 287 participants met inclusion criteria. A predefined data extraction form was completed in detail for each included study by 1 reviewer and checked for accuracy by another. Methodologic quality of included trials was assessed independently by 2 reviewers using the PEDro scale. Pooled analyses were performed using random effects model with inverse variance methods to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (continuous outcomes) and risk difference and 95% CIs (dichotomous outcomes). When compared with land-based physical therapy, early aquatic physical therapy does not increase the risk of wound-related adverse events (risk difference=.01, 95% CI -.05 to .07) and results in improved performance of activities of daily living (SMD=.33, 95% CI=.07-.58, I(2)=0%). There were no significant differences in edema (SMD=-.27, 95% CI=-.81 to .27, I(2)=58%) or pain (SMD=-.06, 95% CI=-.50 to .38, I(2)=32%). After orthopedic surgery aquatic physical therapy improves function and does not increase the risk of wound-related adverse events and is as effective as land-based therapy in terms of pain, edema, strength, and range of motion in the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of

  2. Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives and Experiences When Teaching FMS to Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Natalie J.; Hanna, Lisa; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda; Morgan, Philip J.; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency. Method: In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate…

  3. Physical Education, Youth Sport and Lifelong Participation: The Importance of Early Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, David

    2005-01-01

    The PESSCLS strategy for physical education and youth sport in England has received an unprecedented level of funding from the Blair government during its term in office. In this article, it is proposed that there are structural problems with the delivery of physical education and school sport in England that the PESSCLS strategy and associated…

  4. Perceptions of physical activity and walking in an early stage after stroke or acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, Karin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Danielsson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury. A qualitative study was conducted, among persons with stroke (n = 8) or acquired brain injury (n = 2) from a rehabilitation unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held about perceptions and experiences of walking and physical activity in general. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with categories that were determined inductively. Physical activity in general and walking ability more specifically were considered very important by the participants. However, physical activity was, regardless of exercising habits pre-injury, associated with different kinds of negative feelings and experiences. Commonly reported internal barriers in the current study were; fatigue, fear of falling or getting hurt in traffic, lack of motivation and depression. Reported external barriers were mostly related to walking, for example; bad weather, uneven ground, lack of company or noisy or too busy surroundings. Persons with stroke or acquired brain injury found it difficult to engage in and sustain an eligible level of physical activity. Understanding individual concerns about motivators and barriers surrounding physical activity may facilitate the work of forming tailor-made rehabilitation for these groups, so that the levels of physical activity and walking can increase.

  5. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  6. [Sexual hormone and traditional Chinese patent medicine for early postmenopausal women: effect on quality of life and cost-utility analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling-Ling; Xu, Liang-Zhi; Liu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Tang, Liu-Lin; Zhuang, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Xian; Qiao, Lin

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of Premarin and Kuntai capsule (a traditional Chinese patent medicine) on the quality of life (QOL) and their cost-utility in early postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven women with menopausal syndrome in the early postmenopausal stage were randomly allocated into Premarin group (0.3 mg/day and 0.6 mg/day alternately, n=29) and Kuntai group (4 g/day, n=28). The therapies lasted for one year and the patients were followed up every 3 months. The QOL of the patients was evaluated and the utility scores were obtained from rating scale to conduct a cost-utility analysis (CUA). At each follow-up examination, no significant difference was found in the QOL between the two groups (P>0.05). The QOL obviously increased after the 1-year-long therapy in both the groups, and Kuntai required longer treatment time than Premarin to take effect. The cost-utility ratio of Premarin and Kuntai were 13581.45 yuan/QALY (quality adjusted life year) and 25105.12 yuan/QALY, respectively. Both incremental cost analysis and sensitivity analysis showed that Kuntai was more costly than Premarin. The result of per-protocol analysis was consistent with that of intention-to-treat analysis. At early stage of menopause, the QOL of women with menopausal syndrome can be significantly improved by low-dose Premarin and Kuntai capsule, but the latter is more costly.

  7. Building human capacity through early childhood intervention: the Child Development Research Programme at the Tropical Medicine Research Institute, the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Powell, C A; Baker-Henningham, H

    2012-07-01

    Research conducted by the Child Development Research Group in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute has made significant contributions to the understanding of the importance of early nutrition and the home environment for children's development and the impact of psychosocial stimulation for disadvantaged and/or undernourished children. The work has provided critical evidence that has contributed to the increasing attention given to early childhood development in the work and policies of agencies such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). This review concerns research which documented the impact of malnutrition on children's development and for the first time demonstrated the benefits and necessity of psychosocial stimulation for improvement in development. Subsequent research was critical in establishing the importance of linear growth retardation (stunting) as a risk factor for poor child development. A twenty-two-year study of stunted children has demonstrated benefits through to adulthood in areas such as educational attainment, mental health and reduced violent behaviour from an early childhood home visiting programme that works through mothers to promote their children's development. The group's research has also demonstrated that it is feasible and effective to integrate the stimulation intervention into primary care services with benefits to children's development and mothers'child rearing knowledge and practices. The group is currently conducting a study to provide information needed for scaling-up of parenting programmes through evaluation of a new approach to improving parenting through health centres and a modified home visit programme.

  8. An exploration of Early Childhood Education students’ knowledge and preparation to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early childhood educators play an important role in influencing preschoolers’ physical activity levels. The current study sought to explore Early Childhood Education (ECE) students’ physical activity-related knowledge and educational experience during their formal training in Ontario. Methods A total of 1,113 ECE students from 20 Ontario Colleges completed the study survey (online or on paper), which examined students’ physical activity course content; awareness of physical activity guidelines; understanding of health-related benefits of physical activity; self-efficacy to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers; self-reported physical activity levels; as well as physical activity-related resource needs. Descriptive statistics and independent samples t-tests were used to analyze the quantitative findings. Results Survey results identified that 72.1% of ECE students had not completed any physical activity/physical education specific courses, while only 28.7% were familiar with, and 2.0% accurately reported, the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years. Only 10.5% of ECE students reported personal physical activity behaviors consistent with national recommendations for adults (150 minutes/week). ECE students’ mean overall task self-efficacy to facilitate physical activity was 7.37 (SD = 1.64). Self-efficacy was significantly higher (p < .05) when students had taken one or more courses devoted to physical activity/physical education, as well as when students engaged in sufficient physical activity to meet the national guidelines for adults (p < .05). Conclusions The results indicate that the current ECE college curriculum represents an excellent opportunity to provide future childcare providers with enriched physical activity-related training and support, such as physical activity guidelines, workshops, and new ideas for activities. Emphasizing the health benefits of physical activity for adults might be important

  9. Early adulthood determinants of mid-life leisure-time physical inactivity stability and change: Findings from a prospective birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Power, Chris

    2018-07-01

    Physical inactivity is highly prevalent. Knowledge is needed of influences on inactive lifestyles. We aimed to establish whether early adult factors predict subsequent inactivity patterns in mid-adulthood. Leisure-time inactivity (activity frequency<1/week) was assessed at 33y and 50y in the 1958 British Birth cohort (N=12,271). We assessed associations of early adult (23-33y) physical status, mental function, social, family and neighbourhood circumstances with four 33-50y patterns (never inactive, persistently inactive, deteriorating or improving) using multinomial logistic regression with and without adjustment for childhood factors (e.g. social class). Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33y and 50y (∼31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. Factors associated with persistent vs never inactive were: limiting illness (relative risk ratio (RRR):1.21(1.04,1.42) per number of ages exposed (0,1 or 2 times across ages 23y and 33y), obesity (1.33(1.16,1.54) per number of ages exposed), height (0.93(0.89,0.98) per 5cm), depression (1.32(1.19,1.47) per number of ages exposed); education (1.28(1.20,1.38) per decrease on 5-point scale) and neighbourhood (1.59(1.37,1.86) in 'industrial/local authority housing areas' and 1.33(1.12,1.58) in 'growth/metropolitan inner areas' vs 'suburbs, service, rural or seaside areas'). Associations were broadly similar for inactivity deterioration. Industrial/local authority housing areas (0.75(0.61,0.91)) and longer obesity exposure (0.78(0.64,0.95)) were associated with lower RRRs for improvement. Number of children was associated with improvement, although associations varied by age. Associations remained after adjustment for childhood factors. Several early adult factors are associated with inactivity persistence and deterioration; fewer with improvement. Obesity duration and neighbourhood lived in during young adulthood had long-lasting associations with inactivity patterns in mid-life. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine

  10. Physical Therapy and Infants with Down's Syndrome: The Effects of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    The neuromotor development of Down's syndrome (DS) infants is reviewed, current physical therapy approaches are cited, a neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) approach is described, and a study on the effects of NDT on motor performance in DS infants is reported. (SB)

  11. Physical examination of the hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula to detect early dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abreo, Kenneth; Amin, Bakhtiar M; Abreo, Adrian P

    2018-04-01

    The maintenance of vascular access patency for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis is necessary for survival. Many nephrologists, nurse practitioners, and nurses have limited experience with the physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula. In this review, we define key terms used in the assessment of an arteriovenous fistula. We discuss the arteriovenous fistula physical exam, including details of inspection, palpation, and auscultation. Using these concepts, we review the abnormal findings that can assist practitioners in determining the location of a stenosis. We review the existing literature that validates physical exam findings with gold standard tests such as ultrasound and angiography. Finally, we review data supporting the value of training physicians and nurses in arteriovenous fistula physical examination.

  12. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2017-08-01

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. The Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Initiative: early & active training for physicians in the genomic medicine era.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebecca L; Adem, Patricia V; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Atkinson, James B; Burke, Leah W; Cheung, Hoiwan; Dasgupta, Shoumita; DeLaGarza, Julia; Joseph, Loren; LeGallo, Robin; Lew, Madelyn; Lockwood, Christina M; Meiss, Alice; Norman, Jennifer; Markwood, Priscilla; Rizvi, Hasan; Shane-Carson, Kate P; Sobel, Mark E; Suarez, Eric; Tafe, Laura J; Wang, Jason; Haspel, Richard L

    2018-05-01

    Genomic medicine is transforming patient care. However, the speed of development has left a knowledge gap between discovery and effective implementation into clinical practice. Since 2010, the Training Residents in Genomics (TRIG) Working Group has found success in building a rigorous genomics curriculum with implementation tools aimed at pathology residents in postgraduate training years 1-4. Based on the TRIG model, the interprofessional Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Working Group was formed. Under the aegis of the Undergraduate Medical Educators Section of the Association of Pathology Chairs and representation from nine additional professional societies, UTRIG's collaborative goal is building medical student genomic literacy through development of a ready-to-use genomics curriculum. Key elements to the UTRIG curriculum are expert consensus-driven objectives, active learning methods, rigorous assessment and integration.

  14. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  15. Depletion of HPV16 early genes induces autophagy and senescence in a cervical carcinogenesis model, regardless of viral physical state.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Saini, Harpreet K; Murray, Matthew J; Caffarel, Maria M; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn; Barker, Emily M; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Stanley, Margaret A; Enright, Anton J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    In cervical carcinomas, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be integrated into host chromosomes or remain extra-chromosomal (episomal). We used the W12 cervical keratinocyte model to investigate the effects of HPV16 early gene depletion on in vitro cervical carcinogenesis pathways, particularly effects shared by cells with episomal versus integrated HPV16 DNA. Importantly, we were able to study the specific cellular consequences of viral gene depletion by using short interfering RNAs known not to cause phenotypic or transcriptional off-target effects in keratinocytes. We found that while cervical neoplastic progression in vitro was characterized by dynamic changes in HPV16 transcript levels, viral early gene expression was required for cell survival at all stages of carcinogenesis, regardless of viral physical state, levels of early gene expression or histology in organotypic tissue culture. Moreover, HPV16 early gene depletion induced changes in host gene expression that were common to both episome-containing and integrant-containing cells. In particular, we observed up-regulation of autophagy genes, associated with enrichment of senescence and innate immune-response pathways, including the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In keeping with these observations, HPV16 early gene depletion induced autophagy in both episome-containing and integrant-containing W12 cells, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagosomes, punctate expression of the autophagy marker LC3, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and reduced levels of the autophagy substrate p62. Consistent with the reported association between autophagy and senescence pathways, HPV16 early gene depletion induced expression of the senescence marker beta-galactosidase and increased secretion of the SASP-related protein IGFBP3. Together, these data indicate that depleting HR-HPV early genes would be of potential therapeutic benefit in all cervical carcinogenesis pathways, regardless of viral

  16. Is early rehabilitation a myth? Physical inactivity in the first week after myocardial infarction and stroke.

    PubMed

    Lay, Sarah; Bernhardt, Julie; West, Tanya; Churilov, Leonid; Dart, Anthony; Hayes, Kate; Cumming, Toby B

    2015-12-18

    To compare physical activity levels of patients in the first week after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted an observational study using behavioural mapping. MI patients were consecutively recruited from Alfred Hospital, Melbourne. Data for stroke patients (Royal Perth Hospital or Austin Hospital, Melbourne) were retrieved from an existing database. Patients were observed for 1 min every 10 min from 8 am to 5 pm. At each observation, the patient's highest level of physical activity, location and people present were recorded. Details of physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were recorded by the therapists. Proportion of the day spent physically inactive was lower in MI (n = 32, median 48%) than stroke (n = 125, median 59%) patients, but this difference was not significant in univariate or multivariate (adjusting for age, walking ability and days post-event) regression. Time spent physically active was higher in MI (median 23%) than stroke (median 10%) patients (p = 0.009), but this difference did not survive multivariate adjustment (p = 0.67). More stroke patients (78%) than MI patients (19%) participated in therapy. This study provides the first objective data on physical activity levels of acute MI patients. While they were more active than acute stroke patients, the difference was largely attributable to walking ability. Implications for rehabilitation In the first week after myocardial infarction, patients spent about half the day physically inactive (even though 81% were able to walk independently). Similar levels of inactivity were seen in a comparable cohort of acute stroke patients, suggesting that environmental factors play an important role. There appears to be wide scope for increasing levels of physical rehabilitation after acute cardiovascular events, though optimal timing and dose remain unclear.

  17. [Clinical observation on effect of Chinese herbal medicine plus human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone in treating anticardiolipin antibody-positive early recurrent spontaneous abortion].

    PubMed

    Shu, Jing; Miao, Pin; Wang, Ruo-jie

    2002-06-01

    To find a method without corticosteroids, aspirin or heparin for treatment of anticardiolipin antibody-positive early recurrent spontaneous abortion (AARSA). Twenty-three patients of AARSA in the treated group were treated with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone, and 18 patiens in the control group were treated with multi-vitamin only. The change of anticardiolipin antibody was determined by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). After treatment, anticardiolipin antibody negative converted in 20 cases (86.9%) of the treated group. The cure rate of abortion in the treated group was 82.6% (19/23), which was raised to 95% (19/20) in those patients with antibody negative conversion, while in the control group, it was 16.7% (3/18) merely, comparison between the two groups in cure rate showed significant difference (P < 0.01). CHM plus human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone could cure AARSA effectively.

  18. Early postnatal nutrition determines adult physical activity and energy expenditure in female mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...

  19. "Intensive Mothering" in the Early Years: The Cultivation and Consolidation of (Physical) Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…

  20. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  1. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…

  2. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  3. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  4. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  6. Physical and Sexual Abuse and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder in Youths Receiving Outpatient Services: Frequent, but Not Specific

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N=829, M= 10.9 years old ±3.4 SD, 60 % male, 69 % African American, and 18 % with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21 %, sexual abuse in 20 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11 % of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16 %, sexual abuse in 15 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5 % of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment. PMID:25118660

  7. Attitude, knowledge and behaviour towards evidence-based medicine of physical therapists, students, teachers and supervisors in the Netherlands: a survey.

    PubMed

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Beekman-Evers, Monique S; van Boxel, Annemiek C J W; van Hemert, Sjanna; Paulis, Winifred D; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2013-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has gained widespread acceptance in physical therapy. However, because little is known about the attitudes, knowledge and behaviour of physical therapists towards EBM, and their participation in research to generate EBM, we explored these aspects among physical therapy students, teachers, supervisors and practising physical therapists. This is a cross-sectional survey in which participants completed a web-based questionnaire to determine their attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding EBM, and their participation in research. Questionnaires were sent to 814 participants of which 165 were returned. The overall mean score for attitude was 4.3 [standard deviation (SD) 1.0; range 1-7], which indicates a weak positive attitude. Teachers scored the highest (4.9, SD 1.2) and students the lowest (4.1, SD 0.8). Although most participants had some understanding of the technical terms used in EBM, only teachers felt able to explain these terms to others. Of the students, 45% rated their perceived EBM knowledge as bad and 45% as average, whereas 78% of the teachers considered that they had good knowledge. To answer clinical questions, most students generally use textbooks (96%) and the opinion of their supervisors (87.7%). There is a weak positive attitude of physical therapists, teachers, supervisors and students towards participating in research in general practice, but there is a lack of knowledge and active behaviour regarding EBM, especially among physical therapy students. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Family Socioeconomic Status, Cortisol, and Physical Health in Early Childhood: The Role of Advantageous Neighborhood Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Hagan, Melissa J; Boyce, W Thomas; Adler, Nancy E; Bush, Nicole R

    2018-06-01

    Children from families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) evidence greater physiological dysregulation and poorer health. Despite recognition of environmental contributors, little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics. The present study examined the moderating role of community-level risks and resources on the relation of family SES to children's daily cortisol output and physical health during the kindergarten year. In fall and spring of kindergarten, children's (N = 338) daily total cortisol was measured and parents and teachers rated children's global physical health. Parents reported family SES. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using the Child Opportunity Index, a population-level tool that evaluates the quality of multiple domains of neighborhood attributes. In fall, children reared in lower SES family environments had higher cortisol when residing in lower quality (lower opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.097, p < .001), but there was no relation between family SES and children's cortisol in more advantaged (higher opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.023, p = .36). Lower family SES was prospectively associated with poorer physical health in spring (controlling for fall health) only among children living in lower opportunity neighborhoods (b = -.250, p = .018) and was unrelated to physical health among children residing in higher opportunity neighborhoods (b = .042, p = .70). Higher opportunity neighborhoods may protect against the negative consequences of low family SES on children's stress physiology and physical health. Public health interventions that bolster neighborhood opportunities may benefit young children reared in socioeconomically disadvantaged family environments.

  9. Early Physical Therapy vs Usual Care in Patients With Recent-Onset Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Julie M; Magel, John S; McFadden, Molly; Asche, Carl; Thackeray, Anne; Meier, Whitney; Brennan, Gerard

    2015-10-13

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in primary care. Guidelines recommend delaying referrals for physical therapy. To evaluate whether early physical therapy (manipulation and exercise) is more effective than usual care in improving disability for patients with LBP fitting a decision rule. Randomized clinical trial with 220 participants recruited between March 2011 and November 2013. Participants with no LBP treatment in the past 6 months, aged 18 through 60 years (mean age, 37.4 years [SD, 10.3]), an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score of 20 or higher, symptom duration less than 16 days, and no symptoms distal to the knee in the past 72 hours were enrolled following a primary care visit. All participants received education. Early physical therapy (n = 108) consisted of 4 physical therapy sessions. Usual care (n = 112) involved no additional interventions during the first 4 weeks. Primary outcome was change in the ODI score (range: 0-100; higher scores indicate greater disability; minimum clinically important difference, 6 points) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in the ODI score at 4-week and 1-year follow-up, and change in pain intensity, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) score, fear-avoidance beliefs, quality of life, patient-reported success, and health care utilization at 4-week, 3-month, and 1-year follow-up. One-year follow-up was completed by 207 participants (94.1%). Using analysis of covariance, early physical therapy showed improvement relative to usual care in disability after 3 months (mean ODI score: early physical therapy group, 41.3 [95% CI, 38.7 to 44.0] at baseline to 6.6 [95% CI, 4.7 to 8.5] at 3 months; usual care group, 40.9 [95% CI, 38.6 to 43.1] at baseline to 9.8 [95% CI, 7.9 to 11.7] at 3 months; between-group difference, -3.2 [95% CI, -5.9 to -0.47], P = .02). A significant difference was found between groups for the ODI score after 4 weeks (between-group difference, -3.5 [95% CI, -6.8 to -0.08], P = .045

  10. Preferences for Explanation Generality Develop Early in Biology But Not Physics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Angie M; Sheskin, Mark; Johnson, Samuel G B; Keil, Frank C

    2017-04-11

    One of the core functions of explanation is to support prediction and generalization. However, some explanations license a broader range of predictions than others. For instance, an explanation about biology could be presented as applying to a specific case (e.g., "this bear") or more generally across "all animals." The current study investigated how 5- to 7-year-olds (N = 36), 11- to 13-year-olds (N = 34), and adults (N = 79) evaluate explanations at varying levels of generality in biology and physics. Findings revealed that even the youngest children preferred general explanations in biology. However, only older children and adults preferred explanation generality in physics. Findings are discussed in light of differences in our intuitions about biological and physical principles. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Early-life predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in midadulthood: findings from a prospective British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Much adult physical inactivity research ignores early-life factors from which later influences may originate. In the 1958 British birth cohort (followed from 1958 to 2008), leisure-time inactivity, defined as activity frequency of less than once a week, was assessed at ages 33, 42, and 50 years (n = 12,776). Early-life factors (at ages 0-16 years) were categorized into 3 domains (i.e., physical, social, and behavioral). We assessed associations of adult inactivity 1) with factors within domains, 2) with the 3 domains combined, and 3) allowing for adult factors. At each age, approximately 32% of subjects were inactive. When domains were combined, factors associated with inactivity (e.g., at age 50 years) were prepubertal stature (5% lower odds per 1-standard deviation higher height), hand control/coordination problems (14% higher odds per 1-point increase on a 4-point scale), cognition (10% lower odds per 1-standard deviation greater ability), parental divorce (21% higher odds), institutional care (29% higher odds), parental social class at child's birth (9% higher odds per 1-point reduction on a 4-point scale), minimal parental education (13% higher odds), household amenities (2% higher odds per increase (representing poorer amenities) on a 19-point scale), inactivity (8% higher odds per 1-point reduction in activity on a 4-point scale), low sports aptitude (13% higher odds), and externalizing behaviors (i.e., conduct problems) (5% higher odds per 1-standard deviation higher score). Adjustment for adult covariates weakened associations slightly. Factors from early life were associated with adult leisure-time inactivity, allowing for early identification of groups vulnerable to inactivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Associations Between Cannabis Use and Physical Health Problems in Early Midlife: A Longitudinal Comparison of Persistent Cannabis vs Tobacco Users.

    PubMed

    Meier, Madeline H; Caspi, Avshalom; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hancox, Robert J; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Thomson, W Murray; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-07-01

    After major policy changes in the United States, policymakers, health care professionals, and the general public seek information about whether recreational cannabis use is associated with physical health problems later in life. To test associations between cannabis use over 20 years and a variety of physical health indexes at early midlife. Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973 and followed to age 38 years, with 95% retention (the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study). We tested whether cannabis use from ages 18 to 38 years was associated with physical health at age 38, even after controlling for tobacco use, childhood health, and childhood socioeconomic status. We also tested whether cannabis use from ages 26 to 38 years was associated with within-individual health decline using the same measures of health at both ages. We assessed frequency of cannabis use and cannabis dependence at ages 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years. We obtained laboratory measures of physical health (periodontal health, lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health), as well as self-reported physical health, at ages 26 and 38 years. The 1037 study participants were 51.6% male (n = 535). Of these, 484 had ever used tobacco daily and 675 had ever used cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years and within-individual decline in periodontal health from ages 26 to 38 years. For example, cannabis joint-years from ages 18 to 38 years was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years, even after controlling for tobacco pack-years (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18; P <.001). Additionally, cannabis joint-years from ages 26 to 38 years was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years, even after accounting for periodontal health at age 26 years and tobacco pack-years (β = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05-0.16; P <.001) However, cannabis use was

  13. The early study on the inspection of tongue of the traditional Chinese medicine using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hui-Qing; Zeng, Chang-Chun; Guo, Zhou-Yi; He, Yong-Hong; Wang, Rui-Kang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    Inspection of tongue is an age-old technique used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners to determine a patient's health status. Because tongue examination is a subjective and inaccurate diagnostic method, a scientific tool which can provide objective and accurate information is needed to assist the TCM practitioners in their practice. The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of developing a glossoscopy from an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. In the present study, an OCT system was used to examine the tongue of the rat. After examination, the tongue was surgically removed, sectioned by a microtome and put on a glass slide for histological examination. The slides were examined under a bright-field microscope. Results of the OCT imaging studies showed that the OCT system was capable of showing the images of three distinct regions of the tongue: the tongue coating layers, the interface between the tongue coating and the tongue body, and the tongue body. It was also possible to assign an index number to each of the coating layers. When the tongue tissue was examined under a microscope, three separate regions of the tongue also were visible. Results of this pilot study shows that the OCT potentially can be developed into a glossoscopy for clinical application in TCM practice.

  14. Subsequent health-care utilization associated with early physical therapy for new episodes of low back pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Karvelas, Deven A; Rundell, Sean D; Friedly, Janna L; Gellhorn, Alfred C; Gold, Laura S; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Bresnahan, Brian W; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-03-01

    The association between early physical therapy (PT) and subsequent health-care utilization following a new visit for low back pain is not clear, particularly in the setting of acute low back pain. This study aimed to estimate the association between initiating early PT following a new visit for an episode of low back pain and subsequent back pain-specific health-care utilization in older adults. This is a prospective cohort study. Data were collected at three integrated health-care systems in the United States through the Back Pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) registry. We recruited 4,723 adults, aged 65 and older, presenting to a primary care setting with a new episode of low back pain. Primary outcome was total back pain-specific relative value units (RVUs), from days 29 to 365. Secondary outcomes included overall RVUs for all health care and use of specific health-care services including imaging (x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or computed tomography [CT]), emergency department visits, physician visits, PT, spinal injections, spinal surgeries, and opioid use. We compared patients who had early PT (initiated within 28 days of the index visit) with those not initiating early PT using appropriate, generalized linear models to adjust for potential confounding variables. Adjusted analysis found no statistically significant difference in total spine RVUs between the two groups (ratio of means 1.19, 95% CI of 0.72-1.96, p=.49). For secondary outcomes, only the difference between total spine imaging RVUs and total PT RVUs was statistically significant. The early PT group had greater PT RVUs; the ratio of means was 2.56 (95% CI of 2.17-3.03, p<.001). The early PT group had greater imaging RVUs; the ratio of means was 1.37 (95% CI of 1.09-1.71, p=.01.) CONCLUSIONS: We found that in a group of older adults presenting for a new episode of low back pain, the use of early PT is not associated with any statistically significant difference in subsequent

  15. Early Childhood Teachers' and Staff Members' Perceptions of Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derscheid, Linda E.; Umoren, Josephine; Kim, So-Yeun; Henry, Beverly W.; Zittel, Lauriece L.

    2010-01-01

    Child care teachers and staff are important influences on preschoolers' nutrition and physical activity habits, and their views may be influenced by education level, years of field experience, and program involvement. For the 360 participants surveyed, responses on 5 of 18 survey items significantly differed by education level (e.g., less…

  16. Psychosocial Influences on Physical, Verbal, and Indirect Bullying Among Japanese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Mikayo; Asakura, Takashi; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Although bullying among Japanese youth is a current major concern, psychosocial influences on bullying are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with physical, verbal, and indirect bullying among Japanese adolescents. Junior high school students between seventh and ninth grade (N =…

  17. Collaborative Learning in Physical Education Teachers' Early-Career Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keay, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Background/context: Professional development is an important element of professional practice and teachers are expected to engage in activities that not only improve practice but also have a positive impact on pupil learning. Physical educators worldwide have acknowledged the need to improve the continuing education of teachers and have called…

  18. Early-life effects on adult physical activity: Concepts, relevance, and experimental approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of...

  19. The Role of Physical Contact and Association in Early Contamination Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Belk, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Children were asked whether someone would get sick from drinking juice placed near a bug. Some preschoolers and most seven- and eight-year olds recognized the need for physical contact with the bug to make the juice noxious, whereas some believed the mere presence of a contaminant made it noxious. Thus, associational contamination sometimes plays…

  20. Physical Activity Promotes Academic Achievement and a Healthy Lifestyle when Incorporated into Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadie, Ben R.; Brown, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of physical inactivity within children have enormous personal health consequences. These health conditions have the potential to impact the economic vitality of society as a whole. Studies have indicated that inactive children are far more likely to suffer from obesity, type II diabetes, and hypertension than their…

  1. Maternal low intensity physical exercise prevents obesity in offspring rats exposed to early overnutrition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Pavanello, Audrei; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Prates, Kelly Valério; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Alves, Vander Silva; de Almeida, Douglas Lopes; Moreira, Veridiana Mota; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Vieira, Elaine; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; da Silva Rodrigues, Marcos Ricardo; Rinaldi, Wilson; Malta, Ananda; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2017-08-09

    Low intensity exercise during pregnancy and lactation may create a protective effect against the development of obesity in offspring exposed to overnutrition in early life. To test these hypotheses, pregnant rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Sedentary and Exercised, low intensity, on a rodent treadmill at 30% VO 2Max /30-minute/session/3x/week throughout pregnancy and the lactation. Male offspring were raised in small litters (SL, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, 9 pups/dam) as models of early overnutrition and normal feed, respectively. Exercised mothers showed low mesenteric fat pad stores and fasting glucose and improved glucose-insulin tolerance, VO 2max during lactation and sympathetic activity. Moreover, the breast milk contained elevated levels of insulin. In addition, SL of sedentary mothers presented metabolic dysfunction and glucose and insulin intolerance and were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic in adulthood. SL of exercised mothers showed lower fat tissue accretion and improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia and glycemia. The results suggest that maternal exercise during the perinatal period can have a possible reprogramming effect to prevent metabolic dysfunction in adult rat offspring exposed to early overnutrition, which may be associated with the improvement in maternal health caused by exercise.

  2. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for physical performance, energy, immune function, and general health among older women and men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tait, Elizabeth M; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Nies, Mary A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2012-01-01

    We examined use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and well-being by older women and men. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, representing 89.5 million Americans ages 50+. Multivariate logistic regression accounted for the survey design. For general health, 52 million people used CAM. The numbers for immune function, physical performance, and energy were 21.6, 15.9, and 10.1 million respectively. In adjusted results, women were much more likely than men to use CAM for all four reasons, especially energy. Older adults, particularly women, could benefit from research on CAM benefits and risks.

  3. Does physical activity in leisure time early in pregnancy reduce the incidence of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension?

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Karlijn C; Wolf, Hans; Boer, Kees; van der Wal, Marcel F; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the association of physical activity in leisure time with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in nulliparous women. Population based prospective cohort study. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All pregnant women in Amsterdam between January 2003 and March 2004 who were nulliparous with a singleton pregnancy and who delivered after 24 weeks. At their first prenatal care visit, women were invited to fill out a questionnaire with sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. Physical activity in leisure time in the past week was measured using questions about walking, cycling, playing sports and other activities in leisure time. The amount of minutes and intensity of each activity was studied using four categories: no, low, moderate or high activity. By using multivariate logistic regression, we adjusted for sociodemographic and medical confounders. Incidence of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Results. A total of 12,377 women were invited with a response rate of 67%; 3,679 nulliparous women were included. The incidence of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension was 3.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The amount of time or intensity of physical activity in leisure time was not associated with a difference in risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Physical activity in leisure time early in pregnancy does not reduce the incidence of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension in an unselected population of nulliparous women.

  4. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development and prevention of violence among middle school students. Those students who reported having a boyfriend/girlfriend reported significantly more drug use and delinquent activity and were more likely to be male. Twenty-nine percent of youth with a boyfriend/girlfriend reported perpetrating physical aggression against their boyfriend/girlfriend. Parenting and peer variables were significant predictors of physical dating violence. However, gender moderated the association between parenting practices and physical dating violence, with parental monitoring inversely linked to dating violence for boys and parent support for nonaggression inversely linked to dating violence for girls. Parent support for aggression also moderated the association between peer deviancy and reported perpetration. Finally, gender moderated the interaction between peer deviancy and parent support for nonaggressive solutions. PMID:20183640

  5. Physical and cognitive fitness in young adulthood and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an early age.

    PubMed

    Longinetti, E; Mariosa, D; Larsson, H; Almqvist, C; Lichtenstein, P; Ye, W; Fang, F

    2017-01-01

    There is a clinical impression that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a higher level of physical fitness and lower body mass index (BMI) than average. However, there is a lack of literature examining the relationship between cognitive fitness and ALS risk. In this study we explored the associations of both physical and cognitive fitness with future risk of ALS. Data on physical fitness, BMI, intelligence quotient (IQ) and stress resilience were collected from 1 838 376 Swedish men aged 17-20 years at conscription during 1968-2010. Their subsequent ALS diagnoses were identified through the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs from flexible parametric models were used to assess age-specific associations of physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience with ALS. We identified 439 incident ALS cases during follow-up (mean age at diagnosis: 48 years). Individuals with physical fitness above the highest tertile tended to have a higher risk of ALS before the age of 45 years (range of HRs: 1.42-1.75; statistically significant associations at age 41-43 years) compared with others. Individuals with BMI ≥ 25 tended to have a lower risk of ALS at all ages (range of HRs: 0.42-0.80; statistically significant associations at age 42-48 years) compared with those with BMI < 25. Individuals with IQ above the highest tertile had a statistically significantly increased risk of ALS at an age of 56 years and above (range of HRs: 1.33-1.81), whereas individuals with stress resilience above the highest tertile had a lower risk of ALS at an age of 55 years and below (range of HRs: 0.47-0.73). Physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience in young adulthood might be associated with the development of ALS at an early age. © 2016 EAN.

  6. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline) adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015). The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001) and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08) predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18). Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13). A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04) and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001) were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06). Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06) and lower perceived land

  7. Victimization from Mental and Physical Bullying and Substance Use in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Haviland, Amelia; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between victimization from mental and physical bullying and use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and inhalants among middle school students. Self-report data were analyzed from 926 ethnically diverse sixth through eighth grade students (43% white, 26% Latino, 7% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 3% African American, 14% mixed ethnic origin, and 5% “other”) ages 11 – 14 years from southern California. Substance use was collected at two time points (fall 2004 and spring 2005) during an academic year. Models were run for each substance separately. Results supported an association between victimization from bullying and substance use. Youths who experienced each type of bullying (mental or physical) separately or in combination were more likely to report use of each substance in spring 2005. This finding held after controlling for gender, grade level, ethnicity and substance use in fall 2004. PMID:19398162

  8. Physics of the very early Universe: what can we learn from cosmological observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondolo, Paolo

    Cosmological observations are starting to probe the evolution of the Universe before nucleosyn- thesis. The observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background and in the distribution of matter can be traced back to their origin during inflation, and the inflaton potential has begun to be unraveled. A future probe of the first microseconds would be the detection of weakly-interacting massive particles as dark matter. Discovery of supersymmetric particles at odds with the standard cosmological lore may open an experimental window on the physics at the highest energies, per- haps as far as superstring theory. This presentation will overview two topics on the physics of the Universe before nucleosynthesis: (1) slow-roll, natural and chain inflation in the landscape, and

  9. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. Of the 438 articles accessed, 20 qualified for inclusion, of which 16 and 4 were quantitative and qualitative articles, respectively, and mainly quality-of-life assessments. Time of measurement ranged from time of diagnosis to 9 years after the surgical procedure. The total number of patients included in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, with both early and late interrelated effects, and by the side effects of adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Can early physical therapy positively affect the onset of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome? A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Bruno; Sommella, Nadia; Ciardi, Gianluca; Raiano, Enza; Scala, Iris; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Servodio Iammarrone, Clemente

    2018-02-19

    The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill. A retrospective study was carried out on a cohort of 86 children with Down Syndrome. The knowledge of the exact age of walking onset and information about comorobities and rehabilitation practised since birth were the eligibility criteria. The average age at which walking began in the sample was 26 months (Standard Deviation = 9.66). Some patient characteristics proved to be related negatively to the walking onset: gender male, trisomy 21, improved joint ligamentous laxity. When practised, early physical therapy was able to contrast the delay in walking. NDT-Bobath is a well-known and valid instrument for a child with Down syndrome to attain his highest possible psychomotor functioning level. This study pointed out for the first time ever its capability to contrast the delay on walking onset, which can influences positively the development of the following motor and cognitive skills.

  11. [Personnel requirements of medical radiation physics in radiotherapy in comparison to the current guidelines "radiation protection in medicine" : Special consideration of intensity-modulated radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Leetz, H-K; Eipper, H H; Gfirtner, H; Schneider, P; Welker, K

    2014-08-01

    In 1994 and 1998 reports on staffing levels in medical radiation physics for radiation therapy were published by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik" (DGMP, German Society for Medical Physics). Because of the technical and methodological progress, changes in recommended qualifications of staff and new governmental regulations, it was necessary to establish new staffing levels. The data were derived from a new survey in clinics. Some of the previously established results from the old reports were adapted to the new conditions by conversion.The staffing requirements were normalized to main components as in the earlier reports resulting in a simple method for calculation of staffing levels. The results were compared with the requirements in the "Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Medizin" (guidelines on radiation protection in medicine) and showed satisfactory agreement.

  12. Childhood Disadvantage and Health Problems in Middle and Later Life: Early Imprints on Physical Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks. PMID:27445413

  13. Childhood Disadvantage and Health Problems in Middle and Later Life: Early Imprints on Physical Health?

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Kenneth F; Schafer, Markus H; Wilkinson, Lindsay R

    2016-02-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks.

  14. The Mental and Physical Health Consequences of Changes in Private Insurance Before and After Early Retirement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the impact of private insurance coverage on the symptoms of depression, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in the years leading up to Medicare eligibility focusing on the transition from full-time work to early full retirement. Method. The Health and Retirement Study was used to (a) estimate 2-stage selection equations of (i) the transition to retirement and (ii) current insurance status, and (b) the impact of insurance coverage on health, net of endogeneity associated retirement and insurance coverage. Results. Employment-based insurance coverage was generally associated with better health. Moreover, being without employment-based insurance was particularly problematic during the transition to retirement. Non-group insurance only moderated the association between losing employment-based insurance and IADLs. Discussion. Results indicated that private insurance coverage is an important contextual factor for the health of early retirees. Those who maintain steady coverage tend to fare the best in retirement. This highlights the dynamic nature of changes in health in later life. PMID:25819976

  15. Educator engagement and interaction and children's physical activity in early childhood education and care settings: an observational study protocol.

    PubMed

    Tonge, Karen L; Jones, Rachel A; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Nguyen, Tuc V; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-02-07

    The benefits of regular physical activity for children are significant. Previous research has addressed the quantity and quality of children's physical activity while in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, yet little research has investigated the social and physical environmental influences on physical activity in these settings. The outcomes of this study will be to measure these social and physical environmental influences on children's physical activity using a combination of a real-time location system (RTLS) (a closed system that tracks the location of movement of participants via readers and tags), accelerometry and direct observation. This study is the first of its kind to combine RTLSs and accelerometer data in ECEC settings. It is a cross-sectional study involving ∼100 educators and 500 children from 11 ECEC settings in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. A RTLS and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers will be concurrently used to measure the level and location of the children's and educators' physical activity while in outside environments. Children and educators will wear accelerometers on their hip that record triaxial acceleration data at 100 Hz. Children and educators will also wear a tag watch on their wrist that transmits a signal to anchors of the RTLS and the triangulation of signals will identify their specific location. In addition to these, up to three random periods (10-25 min in length) will be used to collect observational data each day and assessed with the classroom assessment and scoring system to measure the quality of interactions. In conjunction with the real-time location system (RTLS) and accelerometers, these observations will measure the relationship between the quality of interactions and children's physical activity. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University of Wollongong Human Research

  16. Are Birth Weight, Early Growth, and Motor Development Determinants of Physical Activity in Children and Youth? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Øglund, Guro Pauck; Hildebrand, Maria; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to explore whether birth weight, early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in children and youth. We performed a systematic literature search on the possible early life determinants. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between birthweight and objectively measured physical activity. We identified 9 studies examining birth weight, in which none of the studies with objectively measured physical activity observed an association between birth weight and physical activity. The meta-analysis confirmed this result (b=-3.08, 95% CI -10.20, 4.04). The 3 studies examining early growth and physical activity in youth differ in methodology and the results are inconsistent. Two studies suggest an association between earlier motor development and physical activity and sport participation in youth. This was not confirmed in a third study. Our meta-analysis suggests that birth weight is not an important determinant of physical activity in youth. Available data does not allow firm conclusions whether early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in youth.

  17. [Educational objectives in the new interdisciplinary subject "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Techniques" under the 9th Revision of the Licensing Regulations for Doctors--consensus recommendations of the German Society for Rehabilitative Sciences and the German Society for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mau, W; Gülich, M; Gutenbrunner, C; Lampe, B; Morfeld, M; Schwarzkopf, S R; Smolenski, U C

    2004-12-01

    In October 2003 the 9 (th) revision of the Federal Medical Training Regulations (Approbationsordnung) came into effect. The new compulsory interdisciplinary subject "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment" offers the opportunity to teach all students in comprehensive concepts of Rehabilitation such as the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the WHO and the new book 9 of the German Social Code (SGB 9), as well as Physical Medicine and Naturopathic Treatment. Since the content of this new subject has not been defined up to date a joint task force of the German Society of Rehabilitation Science and the German Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation was founded in order to recommend teaching standards. As part of these teaching standards educational objectives are introduced in this article. They should guide the persons in charge of teaching the subject in the medical faculties. In some areas the students should acquire profound abilities and skills in addition to knowledge. The medical faculties may focus on different educational targets according to their individual teaching profile.

  18. The practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation in subSaharan Africa and Antarctica: A white paper or a black mark?

    PubMed

    Haig, Andrew J; Im, Jonathan; Adewole, Ayodeji; Nelson, Virgina S; Krabak, Brian

    2009-05-01

    The medical specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) has had a proven impact on persons with disability and on health care systems. Documents such as The White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe have been important in defining the scope of practice within various regions. However, on some continents, the practice has not been well defined. To explore the practice of PM&R in subSaharan Africa and Antarctica. Medline searches, membership data searches, fax survey of medical schools, Internet searches, and interviews with experts. The continents are dissimilar in terms of climate and government. However both Antarctica and subSaharan Africa have no PM&R training programs, no professional organizations, no specialty board requirements, and no practicing physicians in the field. Because there are no known disabled children on Antarctica and adults are airlifted to world-class health care, the consequences of this deficit are minimal there. However, the 788,000,000 permanent residents of subSaharan Africa, including approximately 78 million persons with disability, are left unserved. Antarctica is doing fine. Africa is in a crisis. Local medical schools, hospitals doctors, and persons with disability; along with foreign volunteers, aid groups, and policymakers can impact the crisis. However government-specifically national ministries of health-is ultimately responsible for the health and wellbeing of citizens.

  19. The practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation in sub-Saharan Africa and Antarctica: a white paper or a black mark?

    PubMed

    Haig, Andrew J; Im, Jonathan; Adewole, Adodeji; Nelson, Virginia S; Krabek, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The medical specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) has had a proven impact on persons with disability and on healthcare systems. Documents such as The White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe have been important in defining the scope of practice within various regions. However in some continents the practice has not been well defined. To explore the practice of PM&R in sub-Saharan Africa and Antarctica. Medline searches, membership data searches, fax survey of medical schools, Internet searches and interviews with experts. The continents are dissimilar in terms of climate and government. However both Antarctica and sub-Saharan Africa have no PM&R training programs, no professional organisations, no specialty board requirements and no practicing physicians in the field. Since there are no known disabled children in Antarctica and adults are airlifted to world-class health care, the consequences of this deficit are minimal there. However, the 788,000,000 permanent residents of sub-Saharan Africa including approximately 78 million persons with disability are left unserved. Antarctica is doing fine. Africa is in a crisis. Local medical schools, hospitals doctors, and persons with disability; along with foreign volunteers, aid groups and policymakers can impact the crisis. However government--specifically national ministries of health--is ultimately responsible for the health and well-being of citizens.

  20. The practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation in subSaharan Africa and Antarctica: a white paper or a black mark?

    PubMed

    Haig, A J; Im, J; Adewole, A; Nelson, V S; Krabak, B

    2009-06-01

    The medical specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) has had a proven impact on persons with disability and on healthcare systems. Documents such as The White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe have been important in defining the scope of practice within various regions. However on some continents the practice has not been well defined. The aim of this paper was to explore the practice of PM&R in subSaharan Africa and Antarctica. Medline searches, membership data searches, fax survey of medical schools, Internet searches, and interviews with experts. The continents are dissimilar in terms of climate and government; However, both Antarctica and subSaharan Africa have no PM&R training programs, no professional organizations, no specialty board requirements, and no practicing physicians in the field. Since there are no known disabled children on Antarctica and adults are airlifted to world-class health care, the consequences of this deficit are minimal there. However the 788,000,000 permanent residents of subSaharan Africa including approximately 78 million persons with disability are left unserved. Antarctica is doing fine. Africa is in a crisis. Local medical schools, hospitals doctors, and persons with disability; along with foreign volunteers, aid groups, and policymakers can impact the crisis. However government specifically national ministries of health is ultimately responsible for the health and wellbeing of citizens.

  1. Developing post-disaster physical rehabilitation: role of the World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gosney, James; Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan

    2011-11-01

    This special report presents the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief (CRDR) of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) in developing an enhanced physical rehabilitation relief response to large-scale natural disasters. The CRDR has stated that disaster rehabilitation is an emerging subspecialty within physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). In reviewing the existing literature it was found that large natural disasters result in many survivors with disabling impairments, that these survivors may have better clinical outcomes when they are treated by PRM physicians and teams of rehabilitation professionals, that the delivery of these rehabilitation services to disaster sites is complicated, and that their absence can result in significant negative consequences for individuals, communities and society. To advance its agenda, the CRDR sponsored an inaugural Symposium on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief as a concurrent scientific session at the 2011 ISPRM 6th World Congress in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The symposium included oral and poster presentations on a range of relevant topics and concluded with an international non-governmental organization panel discussion that addressed the critical question "How can rehabilitation actors coordinate better in disaster?" Building upon the symposium, the CRDR is developing a disaster rehabilitation evidence-base, which will inform and educate the global professional rehabilitation community about needs and best practices in disaster rehabilitation. The Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (JRM) has commissioned this special report to announce a series of papers on disaster rehabilitation from the symposium's scientific programme. Authors are invited to submit papers on the topic for inclusion in this special series. JRM also encourages expert commentary in the form of Letters to the Editor.

  2. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, N.E.; Girard, T.D.; Ely, E.W.; Pandharipande, P.P.; Morandi, A.; Hughes, C.G.; Graves, A.J.; Shintani, A.K.; Murphy, E.; Work, B.; Pun, B.T.; Boehm, L.; Gill, T.M.; Dittus, R.S.; Jackson, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. METHODS We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3-months, we also assessed cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%). RESULTS Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% [92–100%] of study days beginning 1.0 [1.0–1.0] day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% [10–26%], 67% [46–87%] and 75% [59–88%] of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed. PMID:24257969

  3. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial.

    PubMed

    Brummel, N E; Girard, T D; Ely, E W; Pandharipande, P P; Morandi, A; Hughes, C G; Graves, A J; Shintani, A; Murphy, E; Work, B; Pun, B T; Boehm, L; Gill, T M; Dittus, R S; Jackson, J C

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem-solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3 months, we also assessed cognitive, functional, and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or frequency (%). Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% (92-100%) of study days beginning 1.0 (1.0-1.0) day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients, and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% (10-26%), 67% (46-87%), and 75% (59-88%) of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional, and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment, and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed.

  4. Individual and social network predictors of physical bullying: a longitudinal study of Taiwanese early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Lee, Wonjae

    2014-01-01

    This study followed 125 7th-grade students in Taiwan for the entire school year and analyzed the individual and social network factors predicting their involvement in physical bullying over 5 waves of data. Using self-reports of bullying experiences, 20 classroom-level networks of bullying and friendship were constructed for 4 classrooms and 5 temporal points, from which 4 individual-level network measures were calculated. They included bully and victim centrality, popularity, and embeddedness in friendship networks. A series of mixed models for repeated measures were constructed to predict students' bully and victim centrality in bullying network at time t + 1. Compared to girls, boys were more likely to be both the bullies and victims. Lower self-esteem and higher family economic status contributed to victim centrality. Having parents married and living together predicted lower bully centrality. Higher educational level of parents predicted lower victim and bully centrality. Regarding the social network factors, students' bully centrality at t positively predicted their bully centrality at t + 1, whereas victim centrality predicted their subsequent victim centrality. Interaction effects between friendship network and bullying network were observed. Embeddedness in friendship network reduced victim centrality at t + 1 except for those students with low victim centrality at t. For those with high victim centrality at t, popularity increased their risk of physical victimization over time. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ≥ 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having <12 years education was associated with more MVPA time among South Asians in contrast to Western women. South Asian women are prone to low levels of PA during pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Balance quality assessment as an early indicator of physical frailty in older people.

    PubMed

    Chkeir, Aly; Safieddine, Doha; Bera, D; Collart, M; Novella, J L; Drame, M; Hewson, David J; Duchene, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is an increasingly common geriatric condition that results in an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as falls. The most widely-used means of detecting frailty is the Fried phenotype, which includes several objective measures such as grip strength and gait velocity. One method of screening for falls is to measure balance, which can be done by a range of techniques including the assessment of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) during a balance assessment. The Balance Quality Tester (BQT) is a device based on a commercial bathroom scale that can evaluate balance quality. The BQT provides instantaneously the position of the CoP (stabilogram) in both anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions and can estimate the vertical ground reaction force. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between balance quality assessment and physical frailty. Balance quality was compared to physical frailty in 186 older subjects. Rising rate (RR) was slower and trajectory velocity (TV) was higher in subjects classified as frail for both grip strength and gait velocity (p<;0.05). Balance assessment could be used in conjunction with functional tests of grip strength and gait velocity as a means of screening for frailty.

  7. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Harold David; Peacock, Ann; Miller, Yvette D.; Koh, Denise; Marshall, Alison L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n = 13) versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n = 15). Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD) were: Age  33 ± 4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI) 30.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range)}, increased by 60 (0–540) mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580) mins/week in the UC group (P = 0.234). Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period. PMID:22548057

  8. From Student of Physics to Historian of Science: T.S. Kuhn's Education and Early Career, 1940-1958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufbauer, Karl

    2012-12-01

    I first show that Kuhn came to have doubts about physics soon after entering college but did not make up his mind to leave the discipline until 1947-1948 when a close association with Harvard's President James B. Conant convinced him of the desirability of an alternative career in the history of science. I go on to maintain that it was realistic for Kuhn to prepare for such a career in essentially autodidactic ways both because he enjoyed Conant's patronage and because he could expect that his credentials in physics would be an asset in this relatively young interdisciplinary specialty. I then suggest that it was through his work as a teacher, researcher, and journeyman gatekeeper in the history of science that Kuhn gradually came to identify with the field. Finally, I argue that his training in physics, his teaching of general-education courses, and his hopes of influencing current philosophy of science helped shape his early practice as a historian of science. By way of epilogue, I briefly consider Kuhn's path from his tenuring at Berkeley in 1958 to the appearance of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962.

  9. [The contradictive tendencies in medical treatment of the Hellenistic age--diversity versus simplification, chronic extension (physical therapy) versus rapidity, humane medicine versus worldly success].

    PubMed

    Che, Jayoung

    2008-06-01

    It is a one-sided view to find the greatness of Hippocrates just in seeking after scientific medicine (medicina scientia) and sublating superstitious treatment. The scientific medicine did not begin with him, and the succeeding generations of him were not one and the same in opinions. For example, there were the confrontations between the school of Kos and that of Knidos in the very age of Hippocrates, as well as the opposition of rationalism and empiricism. The school of Kos was alleged to succeed the tradition of Hippocrates, taking into consideration individual physical conditions and being based on the principle of various clinical methods of physical therapy assuming chronical extension. On the contrary, the school of Knidos tended to define the diseases in simple aspects, paying no much attention to the difference of physical conditions and developmental stages of illness. Futhermore, the latter grasped the diseases rather in the point of individual organs than the disorder of physical state of the body. It can be said that the anatomical knowledge was more useful for the school of Knidos. The difference between the two schools can also be found in what purpose the medicine sought after. While Hippocrates attached much importance to physical therapy and made the people including the poor as object of medical treatment, there were doctors in no small number, we can suppose, in pursuit of money, power, worldly glory. As time passed, however, the two schools gradually got similar to each other, the difference of them reduced as well as the tradition of Hippocrates faded. The opposition between rationalism and empiricism in the Hellenistic Age shared, in some aspect, the difference of Kos and Knidos. According to Celsus, the conflict between rationalism and empiricism did not refer to pharmacy or anatomy, but just to diet. The rationalism materialized various methods of therapy considering environmental elements as well as individual physical conditions, but the

  10. The early stages of massive star formation: tracing the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Hannah

    2015-04-01

    Molecules are essential to the formation of stars, by allowing radiation to escape the cloud and cooling to occur. Over 180 molecules have been detected in interstellar environments, ranging from comets to interstellar clouds. Their spectra are useful probes of the conditions in which these molecules form. Comparison of rest frequencies to observed frequencies can provide information about the velocity of gas and indicate physical structures. The density, temperature, and excitation conditions of gas can be determined directly from the spectra of molecules. Furthermore, by taking a chemical inventory of a particular object, one can gain an understanding of the chemical processes occurring within a cloud. The class of molecules known as complex molecules (>6 atoms), are of particular interest when probing the conditions in massive starforming environments, as they are observed to trace a more compact region than smaller molecules. This thesis details the work of my PhD, to explore how complex molecules can be used to trace the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores (HCs), one of the earliest stages of massive star formation. This work combines both the observations and chemical modelling of several different massive star-forming regions. We identify molecular transitions observed in the spectra of these regions, and calculate column densities and rotation temperatures of these molecules (Chapters 2 and 3). In Chapter 4, we chemically model the HCs, and perform a comparison between observational column densities and chemical modelling column densities. In Chapter 5, we look at the abundance ratio of three isomers, acetic acid, glycolaldehyde, and methyl formate, to ascertain whether this ratio can be used as an indicator of HC evolution. Finally, we explore the chemistry of the HC IRAS 17233-3606, to identify emission features in the spectra, and determine column densities and rotation temperatures of the detected molecules.

  11. MO-F-204-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, R.

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of allmore » aspects of clinical medical physics. All parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those unique aspects of the nuclear exam, and how preparing for a second specialty differs from the first. Medical physicists who recently completed each ABR exam portion will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and

  12. WE-D-213-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, R.

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance ofmore » all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging

  13. Probabilistic measurement of non-physical constructs during early childhood: Epistemological implications for advancing psychosocial science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezruczko, N.; Fatani, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    Social researchers commonly compute ordinal raw scores and ratings to quantify human aptitudes, attitudes, and abilities but without a clear understanding of their limitations for scientific knowledge. In this research, common ordinal measures were compared to higher order linear (equal interval) scale measures to clarify implications for objectivity, precision, ontological coherence, and meaningfulness. Raw score gains, residualized raw gains, and linear gains calculated with a Rasch model were compared between Time 1 and Time 2 for observations from two early childhood learning assessments. Comparisons show major inconsistencies between ratings and linear gains. When gain distribution was dense, relatively compact, and initial status near item mid-range, linear measures and ratings were indistinguishable. When Time 1 status was distributed more broadly and magnitude of change variable, ratings were unrelated to linear gain, which emphasizes problematic implications of ordinal measures. Surprisingly, residualized gain scores did not significantly improve ordinal measurement of change. In general, raw scores and ratings may be meaningful in specific samples to establish order and high/low rank, but raw score differences suffer from non-uniform units. Even meaningfulness of sample comparisons, as well as derived proportions and percentages, are seriously affected by rank order distortions and should be avoided.

  14. Radiometry in medicine and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Kie-Bong; Choi, Eui Y.

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostics in medicine plays a critical role in helping medical professionals deliver proper diagnostic decisions. Most samples in this trade are of the human origin and a great portion of methodologies practiced in biology labs is shared in clinical diagnostic laboratories as well. Most clinical tests are quantitative in nature and recent increase in interests in preventive medicine requires the determination of minimal concentration of target analyte: they exist in small quantities at the early stage of various diseases. Radiometry or the use of optical radiation is the most trusted and reliable means of converting biologic concentrations into quantitative physical quantities. Since optical energy is readily available in varying energies (or wavelengths), the appropriate combination of light and the sample absorption properties provides reliable information about the sample concentration through Beer-Lambert law to a decent precision. In this article, the commonly practiced techniques in clinical and biology labs are reviewed from the standpoint of radiometry.

  15. Rationale for New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Cathy; Silver, Lynn D; Kettel Khan, Laura; Leviton, Laura

    2014-10-16

    Childhood obesity is associated with health risks in childhood, and it increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with many chronic diseases. Therefore, implementing policies that may prevent obesity at young ages is important. In 2007, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented new regulations for early childhood centers to increase physical activity, limit screen time, and provide healthful beverage offerings (ie, restrict sugar-sweetened beverages for all children, restrict whole milk for those older than 2 years, restrict juice to beverages that are 100% juice and limit serving of juice to only 6 ounces per day, and make water available and accessible at all times). This article explains why these amendments to the Health Code were created, how information about these changes was disseminated, and what training programs were used to help ensure implementation, particularly in high-need neighborhoods.

  16. Circumnuclear Molecular Disks in Early-type Galaxies: Physical Properties and Precision Black Hole Mass Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boizelle, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    ALMA is now capable of providing the most precise determinations of the masses of supermassive black holes in early-type galaxies (ETGs). In ALMA Cycle 2 we began a program to map the molecular gas kinematics in nearby ETGs that host central dust disks as seen in Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These initial observations targeted CO(2-1) emission at ~0.3" resolution, corresponding roughly to the projected radii of influence of the central black holes. In all cases we detect significant (~108 M⊙) molecular gas reservoirs that are in dynamically cold rotation, providing the most sensitive probes of the inner gravitational potentials of luminous ETGs. Using these gas kinematics, we verify that these molecular disks are formally stable against gravitational fragmentation and collapse. In several galaxies we detect central high-velocity gas rotation that provides direct kinematic evidence for a black hole. For two of these targets, NGC 1332 and NGC 3258, we have obtained higher-resolution observations (0.044" and 0.09") in Cycles 3 and 4 that more fully map out the gas rotation within the gravitational sphere of influence. We present dynamical modeling results for these targets, demonstrating that ALMA observations can enable black hole mass measurements at a precision of 10% or better, with minimal susceptibility to the systematic uncertainties that affect other methods of black hole mass measurement in ETGs. We discuss the impact of future high-resolution ALMA observations on black hole demographics and their potential to refine the high-mass end of the black hole-host galaxy scaling relationships.

  17. Early Detection of Physical Activity for People With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Isuru S; Bevier, Wendy C; Castorino, Kristin; Pinsker, Jordan E; Seborg, Dale E; Doyle, Francis J; Dassau, Eyal

    2015-06-30

    Early detection of exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may allow changes in therapy to prevent hypoglycemia. Currently there is limited experience with automated methods that detect the onset and end of exercise in this population. We sought to develop a novel method to quickly and reliably detect the onset and end of exercise in these individuals before significant changes in blood glucose (BG) occur. Sixteen adults with T1DM were studied as outpatients using a diary, accelerometer, heart rate monitor, and continuous glucose monitor for 2 days. These data were used to develop a principal component analysis based exercise detection method. Subjects also performed 60 and 30 minute exercise sessions at 30% and 50% predicted heart rate reserve (HRR), respectively. The detection method was applied to the exercise sessions to determine how quickly the detection of start and end of exercise occurred relative to change in BG. Mild 30% HRR and moderate 50% HRR exercise onset was identified in 6 ± 3 and 5 ± 2 (mean ± SD) minutes, while completion was detected in 3 ± 8 and 6 ± 5 minutes, respectively. BG change from start of exercise to detection time was 1 ± 6 and -1 ± 3 mg/dL, and, from the end of exercise to detection time was 6 ± 4 and -17 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively, for the 2 exercise sessions. False positive and negative ratios were 4 ± 2% and 21 ± 22%. The novel method for exercise detection identified the onset and end of exercise in approximately 5 minutes, with an average BG change of only -6 mg/dL. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Physical Processes Dictate Early Biogeochemical Dynamics of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter in a Subtropical Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jason M.; Anderson, Russell; Lazzarino, Patrick; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Harvey, Omar R.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying links between pyOM dynamics, environmental factors and processes is central to predicting ecosystem function and response to future perturbations. In this study, changes in carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN) , pH and relative recalcitrance (R50) for pine- and cordgrass-derived pyOM were measured at 3-6 weeks intervals throughout the first year of burial in the soil. Objectives were to 1) identify key environmental factors and processes driving early-stage pyOM dynamics, and 2) develop quantitative relationships between environmental factors and changes in pyOM properties. The study was conducted in sandy soils of a forested ecosystem in the Longleaf pine range, US with a focus on links between changes in pyOM properties, fire history (FH), cumulative precipitation (Pcum), average temperature (Tavg) and soil residence time (SRT). Pcum, SRT and Tavg were the main factors controlling TC and TN accounting for 77-91% and 64-96% of their respective variability. Fire history, along with Pcum, SRT and Tavg, exhibited significant controlling effects on pyOM, pH and R50 - accounting for 48-91% and 88-93% of respective variability. Volatilization of volatiles and leaching of water-soluble components (in summer) and the sorption of exogenous organic matter (fall through spring) were most plausibly controlling pyOM dynamics in this study. Overall, our results point to climatic and land management factors and physicochemical process as the main drivers of pyOM dynamics in the pine ecosystems of the Southeastern US.

  19. Early involvement in physics through the study of the basics of digital electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, A. D.; Zuykov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation has a major impact on the results of a child's learning at school and a student's learning at the University. Moreover, school education creates a f