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Sample records for early post transplantation

  1. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  2. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn’t differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic. PMID:29338022

  3. Post-transplant soluble CD30 levels are associated with early subclinical rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Silva, Hélio T; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcelo F; Soares, Maria F; Medina-Pestana, José O; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have shown association of high pre- or post-transplant levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) with acute rejection and poor late kidney transplant outcome. Our goal was to investigate whether sCD30 levels at month-3 post-transplant are associated with subclinical rejection, presence of CD30(+) cells within the graft, and expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The study comprised 118 adult first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, receiving tacrolimus in low concentration. All were submitted to a protocol biopsy at month-3. Subclinical rejection was identified in 10 biopsies and sCD30 levels ≥ 61.88 ng/mL (P = 0.004), younger recipient age (P = 0.030) and non-Caucasian ethnicity (P = 0.011) were independently associated with this outcome. Rare CD30(+) cells were present in only two biopsies. There was a correlation between sCD30 levels and CD30 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (r = 0.385, P = 0.043). These results show that high sCD30 levels are independent predictors of graft dysfunction and may contribute to patient selection protocols by indicating those who could benefit from a more thorough evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of acute renal allograft rejection in early post-transplantation period by soluble CD30.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wang; Shunliang, Yang; Weizhen, Wu; Qinghua, Wang; Zhangxin, Zeng; Jianming, Tan; He, Wang

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of serum sCD30 for prediction of acute graft rejection, we analyzed clinical data of 231 patients, whose serum levels of sCD30 were detected by ELISA before and after transplantation. They were divided into three groups: acute rejection group (AR, n = 49), uncomplicated course group (UC, n = 171) and delayed graft function group (DGF, n = 11). Preoperative sCD30 levels of three groups were 183 +/- 74, 177 +/- 82 and 168 +/- 53 U/ml, respectively (P = 0.82). Significant decrease of sCD30 was detected in three groups on day 5 and 10 post-transplantation respectively (52 +/- 30 and 9 +/- 5 U/ml respectively, P < 0.001). Compared with Group UC and DGF, patients of Group AR had higher sCD30 values on day 5 post-transplantation (92 +/- 27 U/ml vs. 41 +/- 20 U/ml and 48 +/- 18 U/ml, P < 0.001). However, sCD30 levels on day 10 post-transplantation were virtually similar in patients of three groups (P = 0.43). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that sCD30 level on day 5 post-transplantation could differentiate patients who subsequently suffered acute allograft rejection from others (area under ROC curve 0.95). According to ROC curve, 65 U/ml may be the optimal operational cut-off level to predict impending graft rejection (specificity 91.8%, sensitivity 87.1%). Measurement of soluble CD30 on day 5 post-transplantation might offer a noninvasive means to recognize patients at risk of impending acute graft rejection during early post-transplantation period.

  5. Benefits of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of labeled islets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets.

  6. Adverse effects of meglumine diatrizoate on renal function in the early post-transplant period.

    PubMed

    Light, J A; Perloff, L J; Etheredge, E E; Hill, G; Spees, E K

    1975-11-01

    Thirty-four renal transplant recipients received drip infusion urograms from 2-24 days post-transplantation. Twenty-two patients exhibited changes in renal function within 1-4 days of the urogram that were indistinguishable from allograft rejection: a tender, swollen kidney, elevation of serum creatinine, oliguria, decreased urine sodium concentration, weight gain, and hypertension. Two patients developed acute tubular necrosis and required hemodialysis, but renal function in the remaining 20 patients improved after therapy for "graft rejection" with i.v. methyprednisolone sodium succinnate. Kidneys from older-age donors that were functioning suboptimally and kidneys which exhibited subsequent clinical allograft rejection were more at risk for contrast media toxicity. This suggests that occult vascular lesions may have been present in the allograft which were exacerbated when exposed to the irritant vascular effects of contrast media, producing a mild, reversible toxic nephritis. However, several kidneys with normal function and several kidneys which never exhibited rejection activity were also adversely affected by exposure to contrast media. It appears these agents should be used cautiously, if at all, in the early post-transplant period.

  7. Incidence, etiology, and significance of acute kidney injury in the early post-kidney transplant period.

    PubMed

    Panek, Romuald; Tennankore, Karthik K; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence, causes, and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the early transplant period. This study used a definition as >26 μmol/L increase in creatinine within 48 h or >50% increase over a period >48 h. In 326 adult consecutive recipients of a solitary kidney transplant from 2006 to 2014 followed at this center, 21% developed AKI within the first six months. Most etiologies were CNI toxicity (33%) or unknown (26%), whereas acute rejection accounted for 17% and urinary tract obstruction for 10%. Those with AKI had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at one-yr post-transplant (adjusted beta coefficient -5.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95% CI: -10.4, -0.7, p = 0.025) in a multivariable linear regression model. However, the AKI definition missed 6 of 19 episodes of acute rejection and 4 of 10 episodes of urinary tract obstruction. When acute rejection (including those that did not satisfy AKI criteria) was included in the model, other causes of AKI were not significantly associated with GFR at year 1. Although AKI, using current criteria, is likely to be a significant predictor of later outcomes, important causes are missed and the criteria are not sensitive for clinical decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Low pretransplant IgA level is associated with early post-lung transplant seromucous infection.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sudish C; Avery, Robin K; Budev, Marie; Gupta, Sandeep; Pettersson, Gösta B; Nowicki, Edward R; Mehta, Atul; Chapman, Jeffrey T; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2018-04-13

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Immunoglobulins are part of both seromucous (IgA) and serum (IgG) infection defense mechanisms. We therefore hypothesized that lower pretransplant IgA levels would be associated with more early post-lung transplant seromucous infections and greater mortality independent of IgG. From January 2000 to July 2010, 538 patients undergoing primary lung transplantation had pretransplant IgA (n = 429) and IgG (n = 488) measured as a clinical routine. Median IgA was 200 mg·dL -1 (2% < 70 mg·dL -1 , lower limit of normal); median IgG was 970 mg·dL -1 (5% < 600 mg·dL -1 ). Intensive microbiology review was used to categorize infections and their causative organisms within the first posttransplant year. In total, 397 seromucous infections were observed in 247 patients, most bacterial. Although IgA and IgG were moderately correlated (r = 0.5, P < .0001), low pretransplant IgA was a strong risk factor (P = .01) for seromucous infections, but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .6). As pretransplant IgA levels fell below 200 mg·dL -1 , the risk of these posttransplant infections rose nearly linearly. Lower pretransplant levels of IgA were associated with greater posttransplant mortality to end of follow-up (P = .004), but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .3). Low levels of preoperative IgA, an important immunoglobulin involved in mucosal immunologic defense, but not IgG, are associated with seromucous infections in the year after lung transplantation and increased follow-up mortality. It would appear prudent to identify patients with relative IgA deficiency at listing and to increase vigilance of monitoring for, and prophylaxis against, seromucous infection in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Impact of pretransplant rifaximin therapy on early post-liver transplant infections.

    PubMed

    Esfeh, Jamak Modaresi; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A; Koval, Christine E; Kovacs, Christopher; Dalal, Deepan S; Ansari-Gilani, Kianoush; Confer, Bradley D; Eghtesad, Bijan; Zein, Nizar N; Menon, K V Narayanan

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). The role of intestinal decontamination in the prevention of post-LT infections is controversial. Rifaximin is widely used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. The effect of rifaximin on post-LT infections is unknown. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of rifaximin therapy in the pretransplant period on early bacterial infections (EBIs) and fungal infections within the first 30 days after LT. All adult patients who underwent LT at our institution (January 2009 to July 2011) were included in this retrospective cohort study. Patients receiving antibiotics other than pretransplant protocol antibiotics were excluded. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of rifaximin therapy for at least 2 days before LT. Infections were defined by the isolation of any bacterial or fungal organisms within 30 days of LT. Multivariate regression analysis, Student t tests, and Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare the 2 groups. Two hundred sixty-eight patients were included, and 71 of these patients (26.5%) were on rifaximin at the time of LT. The 2 groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, race, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. There were no significant differences in the rates of EBIs (30% for the non-rifaximin group and 25% for the rifaximin group, P = 0.48) or fungal infections between the 2 groups. There was no increase in antimicrobial resistance among the infecting organisms. There was no difference in survival between the rifaximin and non-rifaximin groups (98% versus 97%, P = 0.36). In conclusion, the use of rifaximin in the pre-LT period was not associated with an increased risk of bacterial or fungal infections in the early post-LT period. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. A Metabolomic Approach (1H HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy) Supported by Histology to Study Early Post-transplantation Responses in Islet-transplanted Livers.

    PubMed

    Vivot, Kevin; Benahmed, Malika A; Seyfritz, Elodie; Bietiger, William; Elbayed, Karim; Ruhland, Elisa; Langlois, Allan; Maillard, Elisa; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Sigrist, Séverine; Reix, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic transplantation of islets requires a lot of islets because more than 50% of the graft is lost during the 24 hours following transplantation. We analyzed, in a rat model, early post-transplantation inflammation using systemic inflammatory markers, or directly in islet-transplanted livers by immunohistochemistry. 1 H HRMAS NMR was employed to investigate metabolic responses associated with the transplantation. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, α2-macroglobulin) are not suitable to follow islet reactions as they are not islet specific. To study islet specific inflammatory events, immunohistochemistry was performed on sections of islet transplanted livers for thrombin (indicator of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR)) and granulocytes and macrophages. We observed a specific correlation between IBMIR and granulocyte and macrophage infiltration after 12 h. In parallel, we identified a metabolic response associated with transplantation: after 12 h, glucose, alanine, aspartate, glutamate and glutathione were significantly increased. An increase of glucose is a marker of tissue degradation, and could be explained by immune cell infiltration. Alanine, aspartate and glutamate are inter-connected in a common metabolic pathway known to be activated during hypoxia. An increase of glutathione revealed the presence of antioxidant protection. In this study, IBMIR visualization combined with 1 H HRMAS NMR facilitated the characterization of cellular and molecular pathways recruited following islet transplantation.

  11. A Metabolomic Approach (1H HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy) Supported by Histology to Study Early Post-transplantation Responses in Islet-transplanted Livers

    PubMed Central

    Vivot, Kevin; Benahmed, Malika A.; Seyfritz, Elodie; Bietiger, William; Elbayed, Karim; Ruhland, Elisa; Langlois, Allan; Maillard, Elisa; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Sigrist, Séverine; Reix, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic transplantation of islets requires a lot of islets because more than 50% of the graft is lost during the 24 hours following transplantation. We analyzed, in a rat model, early post-transplantation inflammation using systemic inflammatory markers, or directly in islet-transplanted livers by immunohistochemistry. 1H HRMAS NMR was employed to investigate metabolic responses associated with the transplantation. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, α2-macroglobulin) are not suitable to follow islet reactions as they are not islet specific. To study islet specific inflammatory events, immunohistochemistry was performed on sections of islet transplanted livers for thrombin (indicator of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR)) and granulocytes and macrophages. We observed a specific correlation between IBMIR and granulocyte and macrophage infiltration after 12 h. In parallel, we identified a metabolic response associated with transplantation: after 12 h, glucose, alanine, aspartate, glutamate and glutathione were significantly increased. An increase of glucose is a marker of tissue degradation, and could be explained by immune cell infiltration. Alanine, aspartate and glutamate are inter-connected in a common metabolic pathway known to be activated during hypoxia. An increase of glutathione revealed the presence of antioxidant protection. In this study, IBMIR visualization combined with 1H HRMAS NMR facilitated the characterization of cellular and molecular pathways recruited following islet transplantation. PMID:27766032

  12. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period.

    PubMed

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations-time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n = 97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK-PD modelling. The PK-PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK-PD model using post hoc Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l h(-1) 70 kg(-1) ; Vc /F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp /F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l h(-1) ; Ka , 2.5 (1.45, 4.93) h(-1) . Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK-PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0 , 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol h(-1)  mg(-1) protein and EC50 , 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg l(-1) . Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0 ) compared with Caucasian

  13. EARLY DIAGNOSIS IN POST RENAL TRANSPLANT OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS: A FRESH LOOK.

    PubMed

    Chopra, G S; Narula, A S; Reddy, P S; Bhardwaj, J R

    1999-04-01

    A total of 86 renal transplant patients who were transplanted with live related donor (LRD) and live unrelated donor (LURD) kidneys were studied for opportunistic infections. Immune diagnosis of Toxoplasma, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes-simplex virus type II (HSV-2), Aspergillosis and Tuberculosis was carried out in these patients along with sputum examination, CSF studies and biopsy of lymphnode and other tissues in few cases. A high degree of Toxoplasma, CMV & HSV-2 positivity was seen in transplanted patients. However sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculos was found to be low with standard criteria, which increased significantly when modified criteria were used. It is concluded that regular immunological monitoring should be carried out in transplanted patients so as to reach an early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections.

  14. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels as a cause of early post-renal transplantation hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Han, S Y; Hwang, E A; Park, S B; Kim, H C; Kim, H T

    2012-04-01

    Hypophosphatemia is a common complication after renal transplantation. Hyperparathyroidism has long been thought to be the cause, but hypophosphatemia can persist after high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels normalize. Furthermore, calcitriol levels remain inappropriately low after transplantation, suggesting that mechanisms other than PTH contribute. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) induces phosphaturia, inhibits calcitriol synthesis, and accumulates in chronic kidney disease. We performed prospective study to investigate if FGF-23 early after renal transplantation contributes to hypophosphatemia. We measured FGF-23 levels before and at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after transplantation in 20 renal transplant recipients. Serum creatinine, calcium (Ca), phosphate (Pi), intact PTH (PTH), and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)VitD) were measured at the same time. FGF-23 levels decreased by 97% at 4 weeks after renal transplantation (PRT) (7,471 ± 11,746 vs 225 ± 295 pg/mL; P < .05) but were still above normal. PTH and Pi levels also decreased significantly after renal transplantation, and Ca and 1,25(OH)(2)VitD slightly increased. PRT hypophosphatemia of <2.5 mg/dL developed in 15 (75%) and 12 (60%) patients at 4 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Compared with nonhypophosphatemic patients, the levels of FGF-23 of hypophosphatemic patients were higher (303 ± 311 vs 10 ± 6.9 pg/mL; P = .02) at 4 weeks PRT. FGF-23 levels were inversely correlated with Pi (r(2) = 0.406; P = .011); PTH was not independently associated with Pi (r(2) = 0.132; P = .151). FGF-23 levels decrease dramatically after renal transplantation. During the early PRT period, Pi rapidly decreased, suggesting that FGF-23 is cleared by the kidney, but residual FGF-23 may contribute to the PRT hypophosphatemia. FGF-23, but not PTH levels, was independently associated with PRT hypophosphatemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in childhood].

    PubMed

    Stréhn, Anita; Szőnyi, László; Kriván, Gergely; Kovács, Lajos; Reusz, György; Szabó, Attila; Rényi, Imre; Kovács, Gábor; Dezsőfi, Antal

    2014-02-23

    Among possible complications of transplantation the post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease due to immunosuppressive therapy is of paramount importance. In most cases the direct modulating effect of Epstein-Barr virus on immune cells can be documented. The aim of the authors was to evaluate the incidence os post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases in pediatric transplant patients in Hungary. The study group included kidney, liver and lung transplant children followed up at the 1st Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest and stem cell transplant children at Szent László Hospital, Budapest. Data were collected from 78 kidney, 109 liver and 17 lung transplant children as well as from 243 children who underwent allogenic stem cell transplantation. Between 1998 and 2012, 13 children developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (8 solid organ transplanted and 5 stem cell transplanted children). The diagnosis was based on histological findings in all cases. Mortality was 3 out of the 8 solid organ transplant children and 4 out of the 5 stem cell transplant children. The highest incidence was observed among lung transplant children (17.6%). These data indicate that post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is a rare but devastating complication of transplantation in children. The most important therapeutic approaches are reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, chemotherapy and rituximab. Early diagnosis may improve clinical outcome and, therefore, routine polymerase chain reaction screening for Epstein-Barr virus of high risk patients is recommended.

  16. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Singavi, Arun K; Harrington, Alexandra M; Fenske, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a serious complication after solid organ or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and include a range of diseases from benign proliferations to malignant lymphomas. Risk factors for developing PTLD include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, recipient age, transplanted organ, type of immunosuppression, and genetics. Uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected B cells is implicated in EBV-positive PTLD, whereas the pathogenesis of EBV-negative PTLD may be similar to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the general population. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies PTLD into four categories: early lesions, polymorphic PTLD, monomorphic PTLD, and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). Treatment is aimed at cure of PTLD, while maintaining transplanted organ function. However, there are no established guidelines for the treatment of PTLD. Immune suppression reduction (ISR) is the first line of treatment in most cases, with more recent data suggesting early use of rituximab. In more aggressive forms of PTLD, upfront chemotherapy may offer a better and more durable response. Sequential therapy using rituximab followed by chemotherapy has demonstrated promising results and may establish a standard of care. Novel therapies including anti-viral agents, adoptive immunotherapy, and monoclonal antibodies targeting cytokines require further study in the prevention and treatment of PTLD.

  17. Factors affecting operational tolerance after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: impact of early post-transplant events and HLA match.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Hidenori; Waki, Kayo; Yoshitomi, Mami; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nafady-Hego, Hanaa; Satoda, Naoki; Li, Ying; Zhao, Xiangdong; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Uemoto, Shinji; Bishop, G Alex; Koshiba, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric recipients of living-donor liver transplants (LDLT) can often discontinue immunosuppression (IS). We examined factors affecting development of operational tolerance (OT), defined as off IS for >1 year, in this population. A historic cohort analysis was conducted in 134 pediatric primary semi-allogeneic LDLT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. The frequency of peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs) was determined at >10 years post-Tx by FACS analysis. IS was successfully discontinued in 84 tolerant patients (Gr-tol), but not in 50 intolerant patients (Gr-intol). The Gr-intol consisted of 24 patients with rejection (Gr-rej) and 26 with fibrosis of grafts (Gr-fib). The absence of early rejection [odds ratio (OR) 2.79, 95% CI 1.11-7.02, P = 0.03], was a positive independent predictor, whereas HLA-A mismatch (0.18, 0.03-0.91, P = 0.04) was a negative predictor. HLA-DR mismatches did not affect OT. The Treg frequency was significantly decreased in Gr-intol (4.9%) compared with Gr-tol (7.6%) (P = 0.003). There were increased levels of tacrolimus in the first week in Gr-Tol (P = 0.02). Although HLA-B mismatch (8.73, 1.09-70.0, P = 0.04) was a positive independent predictor of OT, its clinical significance remains doubtful. In this large cohort of pediatric LDLT recipients, absence of early rejection, HLA-A match and the later predominance of Tregs are factors associated with OT. © 2011 The Authors. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  18. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vachiat, Ahmed; McCutcheon, Keir; Mahomed, Adam; Schleicher, Gunter; Brand, Liezl; Botha, Jean; Sussman, Martin; Manga, Pravin

    2016-10-23

    A patient with end-stage liver disease developed stress-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation, with haemodynamic instability requiring a left ventricular assist device. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this condition.

  19. The efficacy of direct anti-HCV drugs improves early post-liver transplant survival and induces significant changes in waiting list composition.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gonzalo; Trota, Núria; Londoño, Maria-Carlota; Mauro, Ezequiel; Baliellas, Carme; Castells, Lluís; Castellote, Jose; Tort, Jaume; Forns, Xavier; Navasa, Miquel

    2018-07-01

    The efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically changed the prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We aimed to evaluate the impact of DAA therapy on the composition of the liver transplant (LT) waiting list and the early post-transplant survival. We evaluated all patients admitted to the waiting list for a primary LT between 1st January 2008 and 31st of December 2016 in Catalonia, Spain. Time span was divided into two periods according to the availability of different antiviral therapies: 2008-2013 (interferon-based therapies) and 2014-2016 (DAA). Changes in the indications of LT and the aetiology of liver disease, as well as post-LT patient survival, were evaluated according to the year of inclusion and transplantation, respectively. We included 1,483 patients. Admissions in the waiting list for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease decreased significantly, from 47% in 2008-2013 to 35% in 2014-2016 (p <0.001), particularly because of a reduction in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In contrast, NASH-related inclusions increased from 4% to 7% (p = 0.003). Three-year post-LT patient survival increased significantly in the second period in the whole cohort (82% vs. 91%, p = 0.002), because of better survival in anti-HCV positive patients (76% vs. 91%, p = 0.001), but not in anti-HCV negative patients (88% vs. 91% p = 0.359). Anti-HCV positive serology, the time period of 2008-2013 and higher donor age were independently associated with post-LT mortality in the whole cohort; while time period and donor age were independently associated with post-LT mortality in anti-HCV positive recipients. The high efficacy of DAAs is associated with significant changes in the composition of the LT waiting list and, more importantly, results in improved post-transplant survival. The efficacy of the new direct-acting antivirals is associated with a significant improvement in survival of patients undergoing liver transplantation

  20. In vivo intratumoral Epstein-Barr virus replication is associated with XBP1 activation and early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders with prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Rovira, Jordina; Martinez, Daniel; Valera, Alexandra; Garcia-Herrera, Adriana; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sole, Carla; Roue, Gael; Colomer, Dolors; Gonzalvo, Elena; Ribera-Cortada, Imma; Araya, Monica; Lloreta, Josep; Colomo, Luis; Campo, Elias; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Martinez, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are life-threatening complications following hematopoietic or solid organ transplantation. They represent a spectrum of mostly EBV-driven lymphoplasmacytic proliferations. While the oncogenic effect of EBV is related to latent infection, lytic infection also has a role in lymphomagenesis. In vitro, EBV replication is linked to plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation, although this phenomenon has never been addressed in vivo. We analyzed for the first time latent and lytic intratumoral EBV infection in a series of 35 adult patients with a diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (26M/9F, median age 54 years). A complete EBV study was performed including the analysis of the latent EBER, latent membrane protein-11, and EBV nuclear antigens as well as the immediate-early BZLF1/ZEBRA and early BMRF1/EADE31 lytic genes. XBP1 activation was assessed by nuclear protein expression. EBV infection was observed in 28 (80%) cases being latency II and III the most frequently observed 22 (79%). Intratumoral EBV replication was detected in 17 (60%) cases. Among these, XBP1 activation was observed in 11/12 evaluable cases associated with strong cytoplasmic immunoglobulin expression consistent with plasma cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the combination of latency III infection and EBV replication identified a high-risk subgroup of patients with significantly shorter survival (overall survival at 1 year 18% vs 48%) and early-onset (median of 7 vs 26 months) post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Moreover, these patients appear to be more heavily immunosuppressed, so they exhibit lower rates of rejection and graft vs host disease but higher rates of cytomegalovirus reactivation. In conclusion, EBV replication is associated with plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation with prognostic implications. Both latency III and lytic EBV infection are related to aggressive and early-onset post-transplant

  1. Pre-transplant angiotensin II type 1receptor antibodies: a risk factor for decreased kidney graft function in the early post-transplant period?

    PubMed

    Hernández-Méndez, Erick Alejandro; Arreola-Guerra, José Manuel; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E; Ramírez, Julia B; Calleja, Said; Castelán, Natalia; Salcedo, Isaac; Vilatobá, Mario; Contreras, Alan G; Gabilondo, Bernardo; Granados, Julio; Alberú, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1Rab) are associated to a significantly lower graft survival and a higher risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate graft function and BPAR during the 1st year post-transplant (PT) in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR), between 03/2009 and 08/2012. Pre-KT sera were screened for AT1Rab (ELISA) and HLA-DSA (Luminex). Three groups were analyzed: AT1Rab only (n = 13); HLA-DSA only (n = 8); and no AT1Rab or HLA-DSA (n = 90). No differences were observed in clinical characteristics across groups. A higher percentage of BPAR was observed in the AT1Rab positive group, but this difference was not significant. KTR with AT1Rab had a lower mean eGFR (20 mL/min/1.73m2) when compared to KTR with no Abs at 12 months. The significant difference in eGFR was observed since the 1st month PT. Multivariate analysis showed 4 factors independently and significantly associated with eGFR at 12mos PT: BPAR (-18.7 95%, CI -28.2 to -9.26, p<0.001), AT1Rab (-10.51, CI -20.9 to -0.095, p = 0.048), donor age (-0.42, CI -0.75 to -0.103 p = 0.010), and recipient age (-0.36, CI -0.67 to -0.048, p = 0.024). In this study AT1Rab in pre-transplant sera from KTR, was an independent and significant risk factor contributing to a lower eGFR 12 months. PT. This finding deserves to be confirmed in a larger KTR population.

  2. Impact of antiviral prophylaxis in adults Epstein-Barr Virus-seronegative kidney recipients on early and late post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder onset: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ville, Simon; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Garandeau, Claire; Meurette, Aurélie; Cantarovitch, Diego; Giral, Magali; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Blancho, Gilles; Dantal, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) pathogenesis is related to EBV infection. Mismatch with the donor (EBV D+/R-) is the main risk factor for both early PTLD (<1 year post-transplantation) and late (>1 year). In these at-risk patients, the role of antiviral prophylaxis for preventing PTLD remains controversial. We analyzed the impact of antiviral drugs given to prevent CMV disease in a monocentric retrospective cohort of 73 adult kidney or kidney-pancreas EBV-seronegative recipients, transplanted between 01/01/2000 and 01/01/2016. Thirty-seven (50.7%, prophylaxis group) received (val-)aciclovir or (val-)ganciclovir for 3-6 months and 36 (49.3%, no-prophylaxis group) received no-prophylaxis. Mean follow-up was 69 ± 7.2 months in the prophylaxis group and 91 ± 10.3 months in the no-prophylaxis group. Monitoring of EBV PCR revealed that prophylaxis delayed primary infection at 100 days (43% vs. 84%, P = 0.02). Early PTLD incidence was not different between groups (4/37 vs. 4/36, P = 0.99). Concerning late events, EBV-related neoplasia incidence was significantly lower in treated patients among whom no cases were observed, while in the no-prophylaxis group 6 cases were reported (P = 0.02). Despite a weak level of evidence our study suggests that antiviral prophylaxis could prevent late onset PTLD. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Evan, Elana E; Patel, Payal A; Amegatcher, Alison; Halnon, Nancy

    2014-04-26

    Traumatic experiences are not unusual in pediatric heart transplant (HT) recipients before and after transplantation. Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) present at the time of transplant evaluation and developing afterward occur with an unknown frequency. We sought to determine the burden of these symptoms in heart transplant patients. We reviewed 51 consecutive HTs between 2003-2007, including 40 primary transplants and 11 re-transplants. Symptoms were present in 17 of the 51 patients (34%) at the time of orthotopic heart transplantation evaluation. None met the criteria for full post traumatic stress disorder. Transplant complications were examined. Nineteen subjects of the total sample had rejection in the first year following transplant. Rejection rates in the first year was 41% for those with PTSS (7 of 17 patients) and 36% for those without (12 of 33 patients) (P=n.s). Of those patients presenting for a second heart transplant, 55% had PTSS at the time of transplant evaluation and/or the peritransplant period; whereas, (28%) undergoing a primary transplant had PTSS. In addition to symptoms resulting from the disease process leading to HT and other prior experiences, the HT itself seems to present a large psychiatric burden on patients. All patients need to be followed before and after HT for signs and symptoms related to PTSS. Future studies should be undertaken to determine if preventative detection and treatment of patients with these PTSS symptoms early can lead to better outcomes.

  4. Early post-transplant immune monitoring can predict long-term kidney graft survival: soluble CD30 levels, anti-HLA antibodies and IgA-anti-Fab autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Basiri, Abbas; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Rajabi, Gholamreza; Mohammadiazar, Sina; Solgi, Ghasem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of anti-HLA antibodies, sCD30 levels and IgA-anti-Fab autoantibody before and early after transplantation in relation to long-term kidney allograft survival. Pre- and post-transplant sera samples of 59 living-unrelated donor kidney recipients were tested for above risk factors by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. 15 out of 59 cases experienced rejection episodes (failure group). Pre- and post-transplant high sCD30 levels were significantly associated with graft failure (P=0.02 and P=0.004) and decreased 4 year graft survival (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001). Higher frequency of post-transplant HLA class-II antibody in the absence of class-I antibody was observed in failure group (P=0.007). Patients with post-transplant HLA class-I and class-II antibodies either alone or in combination showed significant lower 4 year graft survival. Recipients with high sCD30 levels in the presence of HLA class-I or class-II antibodies within 2 weeks post-transplant had poor graft survival (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively). High levels of post-transplant IgA-anti-Fab antibody was more frequent in functioning-graft patients (P = 0.00001), correlated with decreased serum creatinine levels (P = 0.01) and associated with improved graft survival (P = 0.008). Our findings indicate the deleterious effect of early post-transplant HLA antibodies and increased sCD30 levels dependently and protective effect of IgA-anti-Fab antibodies on long-term renal graft outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High early cardiovascular mortality following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    VanWagner, Lisa B.; Lapin, Brittany; Levitsky, Josh; Wilkins, John T.; Abecassis, Michael M.; Skaro, Anton I.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributes to excess long-term mortality after liver transplantation (LT), however little is known about early post-operative CVD mortality in the current era. In addition, there is no model to predict early post-operative CVD mortality across centers. We analyzed adult recipients of primary LT in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database between February 2002 and December 2012 to assess prevalence and predictors of early (30-day) CVD mortality, defined as death from arrhythmia, heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, thromboembolism, and/or stroke. We performed logistic regression with stepwise selection to develop a predictive model of early CVD mortality. Sex and center volume were forced into the final model, which was validated using bootstrapping techniques. Among 54,697 LT recipients, there were 1576 (2.9%) deaths within 30 days. CVD death was the leading cause of 30-day mortality (42.1%), followed by infection (27.9%) and graft failure (12.2%). In multivariate analysis, 9 (6 recipient, 2 donor, 1 operative) significant covariates were identified: age, pre-operative hospitalization, ICU and ventilator status, calculated MELD score, portal vein thrombosis, national organ sharing, donor BMI and cold ischemia time. The model showed moderate discrimination (c-statistic 0.66, 95% CI: 0.63–0.68). We provide the first multicenter prognostic model for the prediction of early post-LT CVD death, the most common cause of early post-LT mortality in the current transplant era. However, evaluation of additional CVD-related variables not collected by the OPTN are needed in order to improve model accuracy and potential clinical utility. PMID:25044256

  6. Early pneumopericardium after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Duero Posada, Juan G; Moayedi, Yasbanoo; Alhussein, Mosaad; Bunce, Paul E; Yau, Terrence M; Ross, Heather J

    2018-02-01

    A 60-year-old woman with a history of dilated cardiomyopathy underwent heart transplantation. One month post discharge, she presented to clinic with low-grade fever and productive cough. Her chest radiograph showed air-fluid levels in the pericardial silhouette. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed a large complex pericardial collection with no evidence of cardiac tamponade. The patient was urgently taken to the operating room for exploration. A large "egg-shaped" mass in the pericardium measuring 10 × 12 cm with gaseous material was aspirated. As the posterior wall of the mass was firmly adhered to the right atrium, the capsule was incompletely excised. We present the case of a potentially life-threatening complication post transplantation that required surgical debridement and life-long antibiotic suppressive therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of purulent pericardial collection caused by Enterobacter cancerogenous. Further research is required to better understand the biology of this microorganism and the role it may play as a pathogen in immunocompromised patients following solid organ transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus in kidney recipients].

    PubMed

    Dubois-Laforgue, Danièle

    2017-04-01

    Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is defined as diabetes that is diagnosed in grafted patients. It affects 20 to 30 % of kidney transplant recipients, with a high incidence in the first year. The increasing age at transplantation and the rising incidence of obesity may increase its prevalence in the next years. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is associated with poor outcomes, such as mortality, cardiovascular events or graft dysfunction. Its occurrence is mainly related to immunosuppressive agents, affecting both insulin secretion and sensibility. Immunosuppressants may be iatrogenic, and as such, induce an early and transient diabetes. They may also precociously determine a permanent diabetes, acting here as a promoting factor in patients proned to the development of type 2 diabetes. Lastly, they may behave, far from transplantation, as an additional risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The screening, management and prognosis of these different subtypes of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus will be different. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Country-Level Macroeconomic Indicators Predict Early Post-Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Survival in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A CIBMTR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, William A; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim A; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Badawy, Sherif; Beitinjaneh, Amer; George, Biju; Buchbinder, David; Cerny, Jan; Dedeken, Laurence; Diaz, Miguel Angel; Freytes, Cesar O; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Gergis, Usama; Almaguer, David Gomez; Gupta, Ashish; Hale, Gregory; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T; Adekola, Kehinde; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila; Knight, Jennifer; Kumar, Lalit; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Law, Jason; Lazarus, Hillard M; LeMaistre, Charles; Olsson, Richard F; Pulsipher, Michael A; Savani, Bipin N; Schultz, Kirk R; Saad, Ayman A; Seftel, Matthew; Seo, Sachiko; Shea, Thomas C; Steinberg, Amir; Sullivan, Keith; Szwajcer, David; Wirk, Baldeep; Yared, Jean; Yong, Agnes; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Khera, Nandita; Bonfim, Carmem; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2018-03-19

    For patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) offers a potential cure. Life-threatening complications can arise from alloHCT that require the application of sophisticated health care delivery. The impact of country-level economic conditions on post-transplantation outcomes is not known. Our objective was to assess whether these variables were associated with outcomes for patients transplanted for ALL. Using data from the Center for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, we included 11,261 patients who received a first alloHCT for ALL from 303 centers across 38 countries between the years of 2005 and 2013. Cox regression models were constructed using the following macroeconomic indicators as main effects: Gross national income per capita, health expenditure per capita, and Human Development Index (HDI). The outcome was overall survival at 100 days following transplantation. In each model, transplants performed within lower resourced environments were associated with inferior overall survival. In the model with the HDI as the main effect, transplants performed in the lowest HDI quartile (n = 697) were associated with increased hazard for mortality (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.64 to 3.57; P < .001) in comparison with transplants performed in the countries with the highest HDI quartile. This translated into an 11% survival difference at 100 days (77% for lowest HDI quartile versus 88% for all other quartiles). Country-level macroeconomic indices were associated with lower survival at 100 days after alloHCT for ALL. The reasons for this disparity require further investigation. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Autonomous Hyperparathyroidism in Post Renal Transplant Recipients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-07

    Chronic Allograft Nephropathy; Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Renal Failure; Disordered Mineral Metabolism; End Stage Renal Disease; Hyperparathyroidism; Hypophosphatemia; Kidney Disease; Kidney Transplantation; Post Renal Transplantation

  10. Pre- and post- transplantation lung cancer in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pricopi, Ciprian; Rivera, Caroline; Varnous, Shaida; Arame, Alex; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Heart transplantation after lung cancer surgery can be questionable because of the high risk of cancer recurrence. We report the results of two patients. The first underwent right lobectomy in 2008 for pT1N0 adenocarcinoma, heart-transplantation in 2010, and surgery for synchronous adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma in 2012. The second underwent left segmentectomy for pT1aN0 adenosquamous carcinoma and transplantation in 1995 and then surgery for pT1aN1 adenocarcinoma in 2013. Posttransplantation lung cancer histologic analysis results were different in both cases, demonstrating the absence of metastatic recurrence. Thus, early stage lung cancer might not be a contraindication to heart transplantation, nor are long delays be necessary before registering on a waiting list. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence and early outcomes associated with pre-transplant antivimentin antibodies in the cardiac transplantation population.

    PubMed

    Young, Raymond K; Dale, Bethany; Russell, Stuart D; Zachary, Andrea A; Tedford, Ryan J

    2015-08-01

    In cardiac transplant recipients, the development of antibodies to the endothelial intermediate filament protein vimentin (antivimentin antibodies, AVA) has been associated with rejection and poor outcomes. However, the incidence of these antibodies prior to transplantation and their association with early rejection has not been investigated. Pre-transplant serum was analyzed from 50 patients who underwent de novo cardiac transplant at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2004 to 2012. Demographic, one-yr rejection, and survival data were obtained from the transplant database. The incidence of pre-transplant AVA was 34%. AVA-positive patients were younger (p = 0.03), and there was an a trend toward incidence in females (p = 0.08). Demographic data were similar among both groups. AVA positivity did not predict rejection in the first year post-transplant. There was no difference in rejection-free graft survival (53 vs. 52%, p = 0.85) at one yr. Similarly, there was no difference in graft survival at one yr (82 vs. 88%, p = 0.56) or graft survival at a median follow-up of 23 and 26 months, respectively (76 vs. 85%, p = 0.41). AVA is common in the cardiac pre-transplant population with a higher incidence in the young. The presence of detectable AVA did not correlate with early post-transplant rejection or graft survival. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Urinary Tract Infections Among Hospitalized Adults in the Early Post-Liver Transplant Period: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Causative Agents, and Microbial Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Jafarpour, Zahra; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rasekh, Razieh; Khosravifard, Leila; Janghorban, Parisa

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are among the most common infections after liver transplant, especially soon after surgery. This study analyzed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria, their causative agents, and related risk factors in the early period after liver transplant in hospitalized adult transplant recipients in the main liver transplant referral center in Iran. In this prospective study, 389 consecutive adult patients who underwent liver transplant at the Nemazee Teaching Hospital were enrolled between October 2014 and October 2015. Risk factors were compared for patients who developed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria ("infection group "; n = 63 [16.2% ]) and patients without evidence of infection ("control group "; n = 211 [54.2% ]). Patients with sites of infection other than the urinary tract were excluded. Antimicrobial sus ceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared variables between the 2 groups. Seventy-nine episodes of urinary tract infections or bacteriuria occurred in the infection group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, hospitalization 2 to 7 days before transplant, and frequency of abdominal exploration were 11.0, 5.9, and 3.0 times more common in the infection group than in the control group. The chance of infection rises 1.1 times with each one unit increase of body mass index. The most common infection causes were gram-negative bacteria (n = 50; 63.3%), predominantly Escherichia coli (n = 24; 30.4%); followed by gram-positive bacteria (n = 20; 25.3%), predominantly Enterococcus species (n = 14; 17.8%) that had a high incidence of vancomycin resistance (n = 10; 71.4%); and non-Candida albicans species isolates (n = 9; 11.4%). Urinary tract infections are a common infection in hospitalized adult patients soon after liver transplant. Female sex, hospitalization shortly before transplant, more frequent abdominal exploration, and higher

  13. Post-transplantation Development of Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik N; Firszt, Rafael

    2018-01-29

    The development of food allergies is increasingly being recognized as a post-solid organ transplant complication. In this article, we review the spectrum of post-transplant food allergy development and the proposed mechanisms for de novo food allergies and the clinical significance they pose. The development of new food allergies is disproportionately associated with pediatric liver transplants, where it occurs in up to 38% of select populations. The mechanism of food allergy development is not completely understood; however, it is likely promoted by unbalanced immune suppression. De novo food allergy development is a common complication of solid organ transplants with the highest risk occurring in pediatric liver transplant recipients. There are likely multiple mechanisms for food allergy development including passive transfer of membrane-bound IgE and lymphocytes from donor to recipient, as well as loss of food tolerance and active development of new food allergies. The optimal management of food allergies following organ transplants has not been well researched but may include changing the immune suppression regimen if the food allergy does not resolve without intervention.

  14. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the deceased donor: impact on early post-transplant liver allograft function.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Fridell, Jonathan A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Davis, Jason P; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are frequently elevated with liver injury and such elevations are common in deceased organ donors. The impact of this injury on early liver allograft function has not been well described. This study analyses the immediate function and 1-year graft and patient survival for liver allografts stratified by peak serum ALT levels in the deceased donor. The on-site organ procurement records for 1348 consecutive deceased liver donors were reviewed (2001–2011). Serum ALT was categorized into three study groups: normal/mild elevation, 0–499 μ/L; moderate elevation, 500–999 μ/L (>10× upper limit of normal) and severe elevation, ≥1000 μ/L (>20× upper limit of normal). Outcomes included early graft function and graft loss, and 1-year graft and patient survival. Distribution of subjects included: normal/mild, 1259 (93%); moderate, 34 (3%) and severe, 55 (4%). Risk of 30-day graft loss for the three study groups was: 72 (6%), 3 (9%) and 3 (6%) (P = 0.74). Graft and patient survival at 1 year for the three groups was: normal/mild, 1031 (87%), 1048 (88%); moderate, 31 (91%), 31 (91%) and severe, 43 (88%), 44 (90%) (P = 0.71, 0.79). Cox proportional hazards modelling of survival while controlling for donor age and recipient model for end-stage liver disease score (MELD) demonstrates no statistically significant difference among the three study groups. This study demonstrates clinical equivalence in early graft function and 1-year graft and patient survival for donor livers with varying peak levels of serum ALT. These donor allografts may, therefore, be utilized successfully.

  15. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    Over 26 years, we found 46 infectious episodes in 350 kidney transplant recipients. Fifteen were urinary tract infections, recurrent in 4 patients. There were 8 cytomegalovirus infections, three of them fatal when intravenous (IV) ganciclovir was not available. Seven patients had a reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) in the pleura, cervical spine, lumbar spine, knee, ankle, skin and peritoneum, respectively, and were all resolved satisfactorily with conventional anti-TB therapy. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of acyclovir developed an extensive herpes zoster infection in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was resolved with the use of oral acyclovir, and 1 had a disseminated herpes simplex infection resolved with the use of IV acyclovir. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with trimethoprim sulfa developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was fatal in one of them. In 2 patients, we found a Nocardia infection, confined to the lung, which was cured in one of the cases and systemic and fatal in the other. Two patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of nystatin developed esophageal candidiasis in the 1st 6 months after transplantation. One patient developed infective endocarditis in a stenotic bicuspid aortic valve and died 10 years later after another incident of infective endocarditis at the prosthetic aortic valve. Two patients developed an extensive condyloma at the penis, perianal region, and perineum owing to human papillomavirus, requiring extensive surgical resection and podophyllin applications. Another patient developed fatal post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease due to Epstein-Barr virus infection 15 years after transplantation. One patient developed a severe and fatal mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with no response to conventional antimonial therapy. It is interesting to note that despite Chagas disease being endemic

  16. Factors affecting graft survival within 1-year post-transplantation in heart and lung transplant: an analysis of the OPTN/UNOS registry.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Today, a main focus of the transplant community is the long-term outcomes of lung and heart allograft recipients. However, even early post-transplant survival (within the first post-transplant year) needs improvement, as early graft failure still accounts for many allograft losses. In this chapter, we review the experience of heart and lung transplantation as reported to the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing registry and investigate the factors responsible for causing failure in the first post-transplant year. Trends indicate that sicker patients are increasingly being transplanted, thereby limiting improvements in early post-transplant survival. More lung and heart transplant patients are coming to transplant on dialysis. In heart transplant, there is an increase in the number of heart retransplant patients and an increase in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. For lung transplant, more patients are on a ventilator prior to transplant than in the past 25 years. Given that sicker/riskier patients are now receiving more heart and lung transplants, future studies need to take place to better understand these patients so that they can have the same survival as patients entering transplant with less severe illnesses.

  17. Psychosocial needs assessment post kidney transplant: Feasibility of a post-transplant specific support group.

    PubMed

    Brijmohan, Angela; Famure, Olusegun; Sihota, Kiren; Shea, Mary; Marzario, Barbara; Mitchell, Margot

    2015-01-01

    This project assessed unmet psychosocial needs of kidney transplant recipients and the feasibility of a support group located at an urban Canadian hospital to meet those needs. A survey assessed transplant recipient concerns about psychosocial issues related to transplantation, interest in a support group, desired group composition, facilitation, leadership, barriers and alternative forms of support. Most respondents were more than two years since transplant and were more concerned about medical complications, returning to normalcy, and had a greater desire to talk to other transplant recipients. Forty per cent of respondents indicated they would be interested in a support group. However, 60% indicated that a support group hosted in the hospital setting would be a deterrent to attending, citing time and transportation as the greatest barriers. More research is needed to assess the feasibility of post-kidney transplant support groups closer to recipients' homes and the feasibility of alternative forms of support.

  18. Development of models to predict early post-transplant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma that also integrate the quality and characteristics of the liver graft: A national registry study in China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qi; Liu, Jimin; Zhuo, Jianyong; Zhuang, Runzhou; Huang, Haitao; He, Xiangxiang; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-27

    Donor characteristics and graft quality were recently reported to play an important role in the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation. Our aim was to establish a prognostic model by using both donor and recipient variables. Data of 1,010 adult patients (training/validation: 2/1) undergoing primary liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma were extracted from the China Liver Transplant Registry database and analyzed retrospectively. A multivariate competing risk regression model was developed and used to generate a nomogram predicting the likelihood of post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. Of 673 patients in the training cohort, 70 (10.4%) had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence with a median recurrence time of 6 months (interquartile range: 4-25 months). Cold ischemia time was the only independent donor prognostic factor for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.234, P = .007). The optimal cutoff value was 12 hours when patients were grouped according to cold ischemia time at 2-hour intervals. Integrating cold ischemia time into the Milan criteria (liver transplantation candidate selection criteria) improved the accuracy for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in both training and validation sets (P < .05). A nomogram composed of cold ischemia time, tumor burden, differentiation, and α-fetoprotein level proved to be accurate and reliable in predicting the likelihood of 1-year hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation. Additionally, donor anti-hepatitis B core antibody positivity, prolonged cold ischemia time, and anhepatic time were linked to the intrahepatic recurrence, whereas older donor age, prolonged donor warm ischemia time, cold ischemia time, and ABO incompatibility were relevant to the extrahepatic recurrence. The graft quality integrated models exhibited considerable predictive accuracy in early hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence risk

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Monomorphic Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byeong-Bae; Suh, Cheolwon; Won, Jong-Ho; Lee, Won-Sik; Shin, Ho-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders associated with immunosuppression and Epstein-Barr virus infection. PTLD is classified into three major categories: early lesions, polymorphic PTLD, and monomorphic PTLD. The majority of monomorphic PTLD cases are non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell origin. This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence, clinical manifestation, treatment, and outcomes of monomorphic PTLD among 5,817 recipients of solid organ or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from five institutions. Fourteen patients with monomorphic PTLD were identified (male:female 11:3; median age 42.6 yr, range 24-60). The overall incidence rate was 0.24%. The most common disease type was diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n=7). The median time between the transplant and diagnosis of PTLD was 85.8 months. However, all cases of PTLD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation occurred within 1 yr after transplantation. Ten of the 14 patients had EBV-positive tumor. Fourteen patients received combination systemic chemotherapy and four patients were treated with radiation therapy. Ten patients achieved a complete response (CR) and two patients a partial response (PR). The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 36.6 months. Nine patients remain alive (eight CR, one PR). Nine of 11 solid organ transplantations preserved graft function. The present study indicates a lower incidence rate and a longer median time before the development of PTLD than those of previous reports. Careful monitoring was needed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for PTLD. PMID:20357991

  20. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Pamidronate Therapy on Bone Mass Density in Early Post-Renal Transplant Period: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zijie; Han, Zhijian; Tao, Jun; Lu, Pei; Liu, Xuzhong; Wang, Jun; Wu, Bian; Huang, Zhengkai; Yin, Changjun; Tan, Ruoyun; Gu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The overall effect of pamidronate on bone mass density (BMD) in the early renal transplant period varies considerably among studies. The effects of pamidronate on graft function have not been determined. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase independently by two authors. Randomized controlled trials of pamidronate evaluating bone loss in the first year of renal transplantation were included. Methods reported in the “Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.2” were used to evaluate changes of lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, and serum creatinine, calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Fixed or random effect models were used as appropriate. Results Six randomized trials evaluating 281 patients were identified. One hundred forty-four were treated with pamidronate and 137 were control patients. Administration of pamidronate was associated with significant reduction of bone loss in the lumbar spine, compared to the control group (standardized mean difference (SMD)  = 24.62 [16.25, 32.99]). There was no difference between the pamidronate treated and control femoral neck BMD (SMD  = 3.53 [−1.84, 8.90]). A significant increase in the serum creatinine level of the intervention group was seen, compared to the control group. The serum calcium and iPTH of the pamidronate and control groups were not different after 1 year (serum creatinine: SMD  = −3.101 [−5.33, −0.89]; serum calcium: SMD  = 2.18 [−0.8, 5.16]; serum iPTH: SMD  = 0.06 [−0.19, 0.31]). Heterogeneity was low for serum calcium and iPTH and high for serum creatinine. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial clinical efficacy of pamidronate on BMD with no association with any alteration in graft function during the first year of renal transplantation. Significant heterogeneity precludes the conclusion of the

  1. Pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluation predicts post-transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Benson, Ariel A; Rowe, Mina; Eid, Ahmad; Bluth, Keren; Merhav, Hadar; Khalaileh, Abed; Safadi, Rifaat

    2018-08-01

    Psychosocial factors greatly impact the course of patients throughout the liver transplantation process. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who underwent liver transplantation at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012. A composite psychosocial score was computed based on the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. Patients were divided into two groups based on compliance, support and insight: Optimal psychosocial score and Non-optimal psychosocial score. Post-liver transplantation survival and complication rates were evaluated. Out of 100 patients who underwent liver transplantation at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012, 93% had a complete pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluation in the medical record performed by professional psychologists and social workers. Post-liver transplantation survival was significantly higher in the Optimal group (85%) as compared to the Non-optimal group (56%, p = .002). Post-liver transplantation rate of renal failure was significantly lower in the Optimal group. No significant differences were observed between the groups in other post-transplant complications. A patient's psychosocial status may impact outcomes following transplantation as inferior psychosocial grades were associated with lower overall survival and increased rates of complications. Pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluations are an important tool to help predict survival following transplantation.

  2. INCIDENCE AND EARLY OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PRE-TRANSPLANT ANTI-VIMENTIN ANTIBODIES IN THE CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Young, Raymond K.; Dale, Bethany; Russell, Stuart D.; Zachary, Andrea A.; Tedford, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In cardiac transplant recipients, the development of antibodies to the endothelial intermediate filament protein vimentin (anti-vimentin antibodies, AVA) has been associated with rejection and poor outcomes. However, the incidence of these antibodies prior to transplantation and their association with early rejection has not been investigated. Methods Pre-transplant serum was analyzed from 50 patients who underwent de novo cardiac transplant at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2004-2012. Demographic, one year rejection, and survival data were obtained from the transplant database. Results The incidence of pre-transplant AVA was 34%. AVA positive patients were younger (p=0.03) and there was an increased incidence in females (p=0.08). Demographic data were similar among both groups. AVA positivity did not predict rejection in the 1st year post-transplant. There was no difference in rejection-free graft survival (53 vs. 52%, p=0.85) at 1 year. Similarly there was no difference in graft survival at 1 year (82 vs. 88%, p=0.56) or graft survival at a median follow up of 23 and 26 months, respectively (76 vs. 85%, p=0.41). Conclusions AVA is common in the cardiac pre-transplant population with a higher incidence in the young. The presence of detectable AVA did not correlate with early post-transplant rejection or graft survival. PMID:25982351

  3. Ventricular assist devices as bridge to heart transplantation: impact on post-transplant infections.

    PubMed

    Héquet, Delphine; Kralidis, Georg; Carrel, Thierry; Cusini, Alexia; Garzoni, Christian; Hullin, Roger; Meylan, Pascal R; Mohacsi, Paul; Mueller, Nicolas J; Ruschitzka, Frank; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; van Delden, Christian; Weisser, Maja; Wilhelm, Markus J; Pascual, Manuel; Manuel, Oriol

    2016-07-08

    Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are valuable options for patients with heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation. We assessed the impact of pre-transplant VAD implantation on the incidence of post-transplant infections in a nationwide cohort of heart transplant recipients. Heart transplant recipients included in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study between May 2008 and December 2012 were analyzed. Cumulative incidence curves were used to calculate the incidence of bacterial or Candida infections (primary endpoint) and of other infections (secondary endpoint) after transplant. Cox regression models treating death as a competing risk were used to identify risk factors for the development of infection after transplant. Overall, 119 patients were included in the study, 35 with a VAD and 84 without VAD. Cumulative incidences of post-transplant bacterial or Candida infections were 37.7 % in VAD patients and 40.4 % in non-VAD patients. In multivariate analysis, the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was the only variable associated with bacterial/Candida infections after transplant (HR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.15-0.57], p < 0.001), but presence of a VAD was not (HR 0.94, [95 % CI 0.38-2.32], p = 0.89, for continuous-flow devices, and HR 0.45 [0.15 - 1.34], p = 0.15, for other devices). Risk for post-transplant viral and all fungal infections was not increased in patients with VAD. One-year survival was 82.9 % (29/35) in the VAD group and 82.1 % (69/84) in the non-VAD group. All 6 patients in the VAD group that died after transplant had a history of pre-transplant VAD infection. In this nationwide cohort of heart transplant recipients, the presence of VAD at the time of transplant had no influence on the development of post-transplant infections.

  4. Increased Risk of Post-Transplant Malignancy and Mortality in Transplant Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality. PMID:25546686

  5. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  6. Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation as Platform for Post-transplant Cellular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kongtim, Piyanuch; Lee, Dean A.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan O.

    2016-01-01

    Haploidentical transplantation can extend the opportunity for transplantation to almost all patients who lack an HLA-matched donor. Advances in the field of haploidentical transplantation have led to a marked decrease in treatment-related mortality, allowing investigators to focus on developing rationale pre- and peri-remission therapies aimed at preventing disease relapse post-transplant. Due to widespread availability, low treatment-related mortality and cost, haploidentical donors may become the preferred “alternative” donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. One of the major advantages of using a related donor is the possibility to collect or generate additional cellular products from the same immediate available donor, which will not be rejected. Infusion of these cells in the peri-transplant period, derived from the same immune system, is opening the possibility to markedly enhance the anti-tumor effects of the graft and hasten immunologic reconstitution post-transplant. PMID:26172479

  7. Risk Factors for Post-Transplant Death in Donation after Circulatory Death Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Miao, Ji; Shi, Xiaolei; Wu, Yafu; Jiang, Chunping; Zhu, Xinhua; Wu, Xingyu; Ding, Yitao; Xu, Qingxiang

    2017-08-22

    In spite of the increasing success of liver transplantation, there remains inevitable risk of postoperative complications, re-operations, and even death. Risk factors that correlate with post-transplant death have not been fully identified. We performed a retrospective analysis of 65 adults that received donation after circulatory death liver transplantation. Binary logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazards regression were employed to identify risk factors that associate with postoperative death and the length of survival period. Twenty-two recipients (33.8%) deceased during 392.3 ± 45.6 days. The higher preoperative Child-Pugh score (p = .007), prolonged postoperative ICU stay (p = .02), and more postoperative complications (p = .0005) were observed in deceased patients. Advanced pathological staging (p = .02) with more common nerve invasion (p = .03), lymph node invasion (p = .02), and para-tumor satellite lesion (p = .01) were found in deceased group. The higher pre-transplant Child-Pugh score was a risk factor for post-transplant death (OR = 4.38, p = .011), and was correlated with reduced post-transplant survival period (OR = 0.35, p = .009). Nerve invasion was also a risk factor for post-transplant death (OR = 13.85, p = .014), although it failed to affect survival period. Our study emphasizes the impact of recipient's pre-transplant liver function as well as pre-transplant nerve invasion by recipient's liver cancer cells on postoperative outcome and survival period in patients receiving liver transplantation.

  8. Early postoperative pulmonary complications after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Camkiran Firat, A; Komurcu, O; Zeyneloglu, P; Turker, M; Sezgin, A; Pirat, A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the types, incidence, and risk factors for early postoperative pulmonary complications in heart transplant recipients. We retrospectively collected data from the records of consecutive heart transplantations from January 2003 to December 2013. A total of 83 patients underwent heart transplantation. The data collected for each case were demographic features, duration of mechanical ventilation, respiratory problems that developed during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and early postoperative mortality (<30 d). Of the 72 patients considered, 52 (72.2%) were male. The overall mean age at the time of transplantation was 32.1 ± 16.6 years. Twenty-five patients (34.7%) developed early postoperative respiratory complications. The most frequent problem was pleural effusion (n = 19; 26.4%), followed by atelectasis (n = 6; 8.3%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 5; 6.9%), pulmonary edema (n = 4; 5.6%), and pneumonia (n = 3; 4.2%). Postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (44.2 ± 59.2 h vs 123.8 ± 190.8 h; P = .005) and the length of postoperative ICU stay (10.1 ± 5.8 h vs 19.8 ± 28.9 h; P = .03) were longer among patients who had respiratory problems. Postoperative length of stay in the hospital (22.3 ± 12.5 d vs 30.3 ± 38.3 d; P = .75) was similar in the 2 groups. The overall mortality rate was 12.5% (n = 9). The patients who had respiratory problems did not show higher mortality than those who did not have respiratory problems (16.0% vs 10.6%; P = .71). Respiratory complications were relatively common in our cohort of heart transplant recipients. However, these complications were mostly self-limiting and did not result in worse mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-transplant increased levels of serum sCD30 is a marker for prediction of kidney allograft loss in a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Julio C; Pavlov, Igor Y; Shihab, Fuad S

    2009-12-01

    Levels of sCD30 represent a biomarker for early outcome in kidney transplantation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of sCD30 levels for prediction of graft loss in the late post-transplant period. Sera were collected immediately pre-transplant and yearly thereafter for up to 5-year post-transplant in 37 primary renal transplant recipients. Levels of serum sCD30 were tested using a fluorescent microsphere assay. Levels of sCD30 significantly decreased after transplantation and remained normal in 34 patients without graft loss up to 5-year post-transplant. Elevated levels of serum sCD30 preceded the increase of serum creatinine in patients with subsequent graft loss. Elevated levels of serum sCD30 post-transplant might be a marker for predicting subsequent graft loss in the post-transplant period.

  10. The lived experience of autologous stem cell-transplanted patients: Post-transplantation and before discharge.

    PubMed

    Alnasser, Qasem; Abu Kharmah, Salahel Deen; Attia, Manal; Aljafari, Akram; Agyekum, Felicia; Ahmed, Falak Aftab

    2018-04-01

    To explore the lived experience of the patients post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and specifically after engraftment and before discharge. Patients post-stem cell transplantation experience significant changes in all life aspects. Previous studies carried out by other researchers focused mainly on the postdischarge experience, where patients reported their perceptions that have always been affected by the life post-transplantation and influenced by their surroundings. The lived experience of patients, specifically after engraftment and prior to discharge (the "transition" phase), has not been adequately explored in the literature. Doing so might provide greater insight into the cause of change post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study is a phenomenological description of the participants' perception about their lived experience post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study used Giorgi's method of analysis. Through purposive sampling, 15 post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients were recruited. Data were collected by individual interviews. Data were then analysed based on Giorgi's method of analysis to reveal the meaning of a phenomenon as experienced through the identification of essential themes. The analysis process revealed 12 core themes covered by four categories that detailed patients lived experience post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The four categories were general transplant experience, effects of transplantation, factors of stress alleviation and finally life post-transplantation. This study showed how the haematopoietic stem cell transplantation affected the patients' physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Transplantation also impacted on the patients' way of thinking and perception of life. Attending to patients' needs during transplantation might help to alleviate the severity of the effects and therefore improve experience. Comprehensive information about transplantation needs

  11. Validating Early Post–Transplant Outcomes Reported for Recipients of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Potluri, Vishnu S.; Hall, Isaac E.; Ficek, Joseph; Doshi, Mona D.; Butrymowicz, Isabel; Weng, Francis L.; Schröppel, Bernd; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Reese, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Data reported to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) are used in kidney transplant research, policy development, and assessment of center quality, but the accuracy of early post–transplant outcome measures is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Deceased Donor Study (DDS) is a prospective cohort study at five transplant centers. Research coordinators manually abstracted data from electronic records for 557 adults who underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation between April of 2010 and November of 2013. We compared the post-transplant outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF; defined as dialysis in the first post–transplant week), acute rejection, and post–transplant serum creatinine reported to the OPTN with data collected for the DDS. Results Median kidney donor risk index was 1.22 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97–1.53). Median recipient age was 55 (IQR, 46–63) years old, 63% were men, and 47% were black; 93% had received dialysis before transplant. Using DDS data as the gold standard, we found that pretransplant dialysis was not reported to the OPTN in only 11 (2%) instances. DGF in OPTN data had a sensitivity of 89% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 84% to 93%) and specificity of 98% (95% CI, 96% to 99%). Surprisingly, the OPTN data accurately identified acute allograft rejection in only 20 of 47 instances (n=488; sensitivity of 43%; 95% CI, 17% to 73%). Across participating centers, sensitivity of acute rejection varied widely from 23% to 100%, whereas specificity was uniformly high (92%–100%). Six-month serum creatinine values in DDS and OPTN data had high concordance (n=490; Lin concordance correlation =0.90; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.92). Conclusions OPTN outcomes for recipients of deceased donor kidney transplants have high validity for DGF and 6-month allograft function but lack sensitivity in detecting rejection. Future studies using OPTN data may consider focusing on allograft

  12. Tuberculosis post-liver transplantation: a rare but complicated disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Wai, C T; Da Costa, M; Tambyah, P A; Prabhakaran, K; Lee, K H

    2005-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a rare but serious complication after transplantation. We report a case and discuss its presentation and management. A 60-year-old Indonesian male presented initially with fever, acute confusion and rapidly progressive right upper lobe pneumonia 3.5 months post-liver transplant, and was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis by positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli and tuberculosis culture. Standard anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered but was complicated by interaction with cyclosporine and drug-induced cholestasis. A high level of suspicion, prompt antituberculosis treatment and close follow-up are essential in management of post-transplant tuberculosis.

  13. Clinical evolution of post-transplant diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Esteban L; Díaz, Jose M; Moreso, Francisco; Delgado Mallén, Patricia I; Silva Torres, Irene; Ibernon, Meritxell; Bayés-Genís, Beatriz; Benitez-Ruiz, Rocío; Lampreabe, Ildefonso; Lauzurrica, Ricardo; Osorio, Jose M; Osuna, Antonio; Domínguez-Rollán, Rosa; Ruiz, Juan C; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro; González-Rinne, Ana; Marrero-Miranda, Domingo; Macía, Manuel; García, Javier; Torres, Armando

    2016-03-01

    The long-term clinical evolution of prediabetes and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is unknown. We analysed, in this cohort study, the reversibility, stability and progression of PTDM and prediabetes in 672 patients using repeated oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) for ≤5 years. Most patients were on tacrolimus, steroids and mycophenolate. About half developed either PTDM or prediabetes. The incidence of PTDM was 32% and bimodal: early PTDM (≤3 months) and late PTDM. Early PTDM reverted in 31%; late PTDM developed in patients with post-transplant prediabetes. The use of OGTTs was necessary to detect around half of PTDM. Pretransplant obesity was a major risk factor for early PTDM, for its persistence and for late PTDM {odds ratio [OR] 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.28]}. At 3 months, higher HbA1c promoted [OR 2.37 (95% CI 1.38-4.06)], while insulin sensitivity protected against [OR 0.64 (95% CI 0.48-0.86)] late PTDM. At 3 months, 28% had prediabetes; of these, 36% remained stable, 43% normalized and 21% developed late PTDM. Pretransplant obesity [OR 1.20 (95% CI 1.04-1.39)] and higher HbA1c [OR 3.80 (95% CI 1.45-9.94)] at 3 months promoted while insulin sensitivity protected against [OR 0.57 (95% CI 0.34-0.95)] evolution from prediabetes to late PTDM. Immunosuppressive levels or acute rejection did not influence PTDM. Most (84%) of the patients with normal tests at 3 months remained stable without evolving into PTDM; 14% developed prediabetes. PTDM and prediabetes are very common in renal transplantation. Classic metabolic factors like obesity, prediabetes and insulin resistance promote the evolution of PTDM and prediabetes. Patients with normal glucose metabolism rarely develop PTDM. OGTT is necessary to detect PTDM and prediabetes and thus should be included in clinical practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Early onset primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Tarai, B; Kher, V; Kotru, P; Sabhikhi, A; Barman, P; Rattan, A

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a post-renal transplant patient. A 65-year-old male renal transplant patient was admitted to the hospital with a low grade fever of 1 month, radiologically mimicking tuberculosis (TB). Broncho-alveolar fluid (BAL) shows capsulated yeast, and Cryptococcus neoformans was grown on culture supported by cytology and histopathological examination. Cryptococcal antigen was positive (32-fold) in serum and was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient was given amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine and clinical improvement was seen on a weekly follow up. The serum cryptococcal antigen test might contribute to the early detection and treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis. The results of antifungal susceptibility were aid in selecting the drug of choice for treatment.

  15. Post-Transplant Hypophosphatemia and the Risk of Death-Censored Graft Failure and Mortality after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    van Londen, Marco; Aarts, Brigitte M; Deetman, Petronella E; van der Weijden, Jessica; Eisenga, Michele F; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2017-08-07

    Hypophosphatemia is common in the first year after kidney transplantation, but its clinical implications are unclear. We investigated the relationship between the severity of post-transplant hypophosphatemia and mortality or death-censored graft failure in a large cohort of renal transplant recipients with long-term follow-up. We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 957 renal transplant recipients who were transplanted between 1993 and 2008 at a single center. We used a large real-life dataset containing 28,178 phosphate measurements (median of 27; first to third quartiles, 23-34) serial measurements per patient) and selected the lowest intraindividual phosphate level during the first year after transplantation. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and death-censored graft failure. The median (interquartile range) intraindividual lowest phosphate level was 1.58 (1.30-1.95) mg/dl, and it was reached at 33 (21-51) days post-transplant. eGFR was the main correlate of the lowest serum phosphate level (model R 2 =0.32). During 9 (5-12) years of follow-up, 181 (19%) patients developed graft failure, and 295 (35%) patients died, of which 94 (32%) deaths were due to cardiovascular disease. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, more severe hypophosphatemia was associated with a lower risk of death-censored graft failure (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.88 per 1 mg/dl lower serum phosphate) and cardiovascular mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.62) but not noncardiovascular mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.96) or all-cause mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.61). Post-transplant hypophosphatemia develops early after transplantation. These data connect post-transplant hypophosphatemia with favorable long-term graft and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the

  16. Diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles

    2010-06-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the risk factors predisposing to development, initial features and diagnosis. It is important that the risk of developing PTLD is considered when using post transplant immunosuppression and that the appropriate investigations are carried out when there are suspicions of the diagnosis. These must include tissue for histology and computed tomography scan to assess the extent of disease. These recommendations have been made primarily for adult patients, there have been some comments made with regard to paediatric practice.

  17. Quantifying the medication burden of kidney transplant recipients in the first year post-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Low, Jac Kee; Crawford, Kimberley; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison

    2018-06-28

    Background Kidney transplantation is an effective treatment, but it is not a cure. Since the risk of graft rejection and the presence of comorbid conditions remain for a lifetime, medications are necessary. Objective To examine the prescription medication burden of adult kidney transplant recipients from 3- to 12-months post-transplantation. Setting All five adult kidney transplant units in Victoria, Australia. Method As part of a larger intervention study, we conducet a retrospective review of prescription refill records and medical records containing the history of medication changes of 64 participants who completed the study was undertaken. The complexity of the medication management was studied, and we looked at the burden of maintaining the medications supply. Outcome measures Pill burden, administration frequency, dose changes frequency, immunosuppressive medication changes, the estimated out-of-pocket costs of medications and frequency of pharmacy visits. Results At 3 months, the average daily pill burden was 22 (SD = 9) whilst at 12 months, it was 23 (SD = 10). Some participants required long-term prophylaxis of fungal infections up to 4 times a day whilst those with diabetes had to manage up to 4 insulin doses a day. The average out-of-pocket cost per person and the frequency of pharmacy visits at 6, 9 and 12 months post-transplantation remained relatively unchanged. Conclusion The medication regimen prescribed for kidney transplant recipients is complex and for most patients, it did not simplify over time post transplantation. Strategies are needed to support patients in managing the complexity of their medication regimen following kidney transplantation.

  18. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head post heart-transplantation and steroid dosage.

    PubMed

    Foley-Nolan, D; Daly, C; Barry, C; Woods, A; Neligan, M; Coughlan, R J

    1992-12-01

    Avascular necrosis (avn) post heart-transplantation has been considered to be due to the high doses of steroids used to immunosuppress these patients in attempting to prevent transplant rejection. This study shows that avascular necrosis occurs even when low dose steroids regimes are used and demonstrates no significant correlation between steroid dosage and the development of avn. Patients with symptomatic avn benefit from early diagnosis and management of their condition in that the need for total joint arthroplasty can be prevented in many cases.

  19. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p < .001), mean pulmonary arterial pressure fell (p = .012), but central venous pressure (p = .58) and left atrial pressure (p = .20) were unchanged. After adjustment for age, primary diagnosis, pre-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical support, and marginal donor factors, longer total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p < .001) in the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, longer post-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical ventilation (p = .03), longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in the intensive care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contributing to lower mean arterial blood

  20. Doppler ultrasonography in living donor liver transplantation recipients: Intra- and post-operative vascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Attia, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation has provided a solution to the severe lack of cadaver grafts for the replacement of liver afflicted with end-stage cirrhosis, fulminant disease, or inborn errors of metabolism. Vascular complications remain the most serious complications and a common cause for graft failure after hepatic transplantation. Doppler ultrasound remains the primary radiological imaging modality for the diagnosis of such complications. This article presents a brief review of intra- and post-operative living donor liver transplantation anatomy and a synopsis of the role of ultrasonography and color Doppler in evaluating the graft vascular haemodynamics both during surgery and post-operatively in accurately defining the early vascular complications. Intra-operative ultrasonography of the liver graft provides the surgeon with useful real-time diagnostic and staging information that may result in an alteration in the planned surgical approach and corrections of surgical complications during the procedure of vascular anastomoses. The relevant intra-operative anatomy and the spectrum of normal and abnormal findings are described. Ultrasonography and color Doppler also provides the clinicians and surgeons early post-operative potential developmental complications that may occur during hospital stay. Early detection and thus early problem solving can make the difference between graft survival and failure. PMID:27468207

  1. Soluble CD30 levels in recipients undergoing heart transplantation do not predict post-transplant outcome.

    PubMed

    Ypsilantis, Efthymios; Key, Timothy; Bradley, J Andrew; Morgan, C Helen; Tsui, Stephen; Parameshwar, Jayan; Taylor, Craig J

    2009-11-01

    The pre-transplant serum level of soluble CD30 (sCD30), a proteolytic derivative of the lymphocyte surface receptor CD30, has been suggested as a biomarker for immunologic risk after organ transplantation. Pre-transplant serum sCD30 levels were determined in 200 consecutive adult heart transplant recipients undertaken at a single center. Transplant outcome (acute rejection in the first 12 months and patient survival up to 5 years post-transplant) was determined. Patients treated with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) prior to transplantation (n = 28) had higher levels of sCD30 (median 64 U/ml, range 12 to 112 U/ml) than those (n = 172) with no LVAD (median 36 U/ml, range 1 to 158 U/ml, p < 0.0001). Recipients were categorized according to whether sCD30 levels were "low" (lower quartile, <24 U/ml, n = 50), "intermediate" (24 to 58 U/ml, n = 100) or "high" (upper quartile, >58 U/ml, n = 50). Neither acute rejection nor recipient survival differed according to sCD30 level, with values (mean +/- SEM) of 0.30 +/- 0.04, 0.23 +/- 0.03 and 0.30 +/- 0.05 acute rejection episodes per 100 days in the low, intermediate and high groups, respectively, with recipient survival rates at 1 year of 77.7%, 84.9% and 86% and at 5 years of 73.6%, 67.9% and 75.8%, respectively. Pre-transplant serum sCD30 level does not predict acute allograft rejection or recipient survival after heart transplantation, although sCD30 levels are increased by LVAD, possibly as a result of biomaterial-host immune interaction.

  2. A critical analysis of early death after adult liver transplants.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abbas; Kaplan, Bruce; Jie, Tun; Porubsky, Marian; Habib, Shahid; Rilo, Horacio; Gruessner, Angelika C; Gruessner, Rainer W G

    2013-01-01

    The 15% mortality rate of liver transplant recipients at one yr may be viewed as a feat in comparison with the waiting list mortality, yet it nonetheless leaves room for much improvement. Our aim was to critically examine the mortality rates to identify high-risk periods and to incorporate cause of death into the analysis of post-transplant survival. We performed a retrospective analysis on United Network for Organ Sharing data for all adult recipients of liver transplants from January 1, 2002 to October 31, 2011. Our analysis included multivariate logistic regression where the primary outcome measure was patient death of 49,288 recipients. The highest mortality rate by day post-transplant was on day 0 (0.9%). The most significant risk factors were as follows: for one-d mortality from technical failure, intensive care unit admission odds ratio (OR 3.2); for one-d mortality from graft failure, warm ischemia >75 min (OR 5.6); for one-month mortality from infection, a previous transplant (OR 3.3); and for one-month mortality from graft failure, a previous transplant (OR 3.7). We found that the highest mortality rate after liver transplantation is within the first day and the first month post-transplant. Those two high-risk periods have common, as well as different, risk factors for mortality. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Voriconazole-induced periostitis in two post-transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Bucknor, Matthew D.; Gross, Andrew J.; Link, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    While drug-related periostitis has been known of for many years, the specific association of diffuse periostitis with voriconazole (most frequently in transplant patients) has only been recently explicitly addressed in the literature. Recognition of the radiologic and clinical manifestations of voriconazole-related periostitis is important for helping to narrow an otherwise broad differential diagnosis. We present two cases that illustrate different radiologic presentations of this painful cause of diffuse periostitis. Case 1 features a 60 year-old woman with a history of orthotopic heart transplant who was hospitalized for “full body pain” with progressively worsening bone tenderness involving the humeri, knees, femurs, hips, and hands. Case 2 describes a 48 year-old man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia status post stem cell transplant who presented with diffuse arthralgias involving bilateral ankles, knees, wrists, and elbows. PMID:24421948

  4. Risk factors for Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uhlin, Michael; Wikell, Helena; Sundin, Mikael; Blennow, Ola; Maeurer, Markus; Ringden, Olle; Winiarski, Jacek; Ljungman, Per; Remberger, Mats; Mattsson, Jonas

    2014-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a successful treatment for hematologic malignancies and a variety of genetic and metabolic disorders. In the period following stem cell transplantation, the immune-compromised milieu allows opportunistic pathogens to thrive. Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease can be a life-threatening complication for transplanted patients because of suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. We analyzed possible risk factors associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in a cohort of over 1,000 patients. The incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 4%. Significant risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were: human leukocyte antigen-mismatch (P<0.001), serological Epstein-Barr virus mismatch recipient-/donor+ (P<0.001), use of reduced intensity conditioning (P=0.002), acute graft-versus-host disease grade II to IV (P=0.006), pre-transplant splenectomy (P=0.008) and infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (P=0.015). The risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease has increased in more recent years, from less than 2% before 1998 to more than 6% after 2011. Additionally, we show that long-term survival of patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is poor despite initial successful treatment. The 3-year survival rate among the 40 patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 20% as opposed to 62% among patients without post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (P<0.001). The study identifies patients at risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after transplantation in need of pre-emptive measures.

  5. Using OCT to predict post-transplant renal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Peter M.; Chen, Yu; Wierwille, Jeremiah; Joh, Daniel; Alexandrov, Peter; Rogalsky, Derek; Moody, Patrick; Chen, Allen; Cooper, Matthew; Verbesey, Jennifer E.; Gong, Wei; Wang, Hsing-Wen

    2013-03-01

    The treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease is kidney transplantation. However, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) induced by an ischemic insult (e.g., from prolonged ex vivo storage times, or non-heart beating cadavers) is a major factor limiting the availability of donor kidneys. In addition, ischemic induced ATN is a significant risk factor for eventual graft survival and can be difficult to discern from rejection. Currently, there are no rapid and reliable tests to determine ATN suffered by donor kidneys and whether or not donor kidneys might exhibit delayed graft function. OCT (optical coherence tomography) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality that can function as a type of "optical biopsy", providing cross-sectional images of tissue morphology in situ and in real-time. In a series of recent clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of OCT to image those features of the renal microstructure that are predictive of ATN. Specifically, we found that OCT could effectively image through the intact human renal capsule and determine the extent of acute tubular necrosis. We also found that Doppler based OCT (i.e., DOCT) revealed renal blood flow dynamics that is also reported to be a determiner of post-transplant renal function. This kind of information will allow transplant surgeons to make the most efficient use of available donor kidneys, eliminate the possible use of bad donor kidneys, provide a measure of expected post-transplant renal function, and allow better distinction between post-transplant immunological rejection and ischemic-induced acute renal failure.

  6. Keep in Mind Quality of Life: Outcome of a Ten-Year Series of Post-Transplantation Early Relapses in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-A Report from the Grand Ouest Oncology Study Group for Children in France.

    PubMed

    Haro, Sophie; Tavenard, Aude; Rialland, Fanny; Taque, Sophie; Guillerm, Gaelle; Blouin, Pascale; Esvan, Maxime; Pellier, Isabelle; Gandemer, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Relapses of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in children are uncommon but associated with a very poor prognosis. Whereas there are no current recommendations for the management of these relapses, the children's quality of life is an important issue. We studied the outcomes, including 1-year overall survival, complete remission, and quality of life, of 19 children with ALL who relapsed within the first year after their transplantation treated in the 5 participating centers between 2000 and 2011 Patients were distributed as follows: supportive care only (group A), outpatient treatment (mainly steroid and vincristine, group B), or intensive inpatient treatment (group C). There were no significant differences in 1-year overall survival (31.5% for the entire cohort) or remission rate for time between transplantation and relapse (< 6 months or 6 to 12 months), transplantation or disease characteristics, or treatment group. However, time spent in hospital (for treatment and complications) significantly differed between treatment groups B and C (20.8% ± 13.0 versus 59.1% ± 32.9, respectively; P < .05). No differences in organ toxicities, school attendance, or Lansky scores were found between treatment groups. Our sample size-limited data indicate, in a prepersonalized medicine era, that children treated with steroid and vincristine have the same prognosis as those treated with intensive therapy, but they may benefit from improved quality of life. Nevertheless, new therapeutic strategies are required and future prospective trials would help to establish recommendations. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Change of sleep quality from pre- to 3 years post-solid organ transplantation: The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Denhaerynck, Kris; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Binet, Isabelle; Hadaya, Karine; De Geest, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality (SQ) is common after solid organ transplantation; however, very little is known about its natural history. We assessed the changes in SQ from pre- to 3 years post-transplant in adult heart, kidney, liver and lung recipients included in the prospective nation-wide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. We explored associations with selected variables in patients suffering persistent poor SQ compared to those with good or variable SQ. Methods Adult single organ transplant recipients enrolled in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study with pre-transplant and at least 3 post-transplant SQ assessment data were included. SQ was self-reported pre-transplant (at listing), then at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant. A single SQ item was used to identify poor (0–5) and good sleepers (6–10). Between organ groups, SQ was compared via logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Within the group reporting persistently poor SQ, we used logistic regression or Kaplan-Meier analysis as appropriate to check for differences in global quality of life and survival. Results In a sample of 1173 transplant patients (age: 52.1±13.2 years; 65% males; 66% kidney, 17% liver, 10% lung, 7% heart) transplanted between 2008 and 2012, pre- transplant poor SQ was highest in liver (50%) and heart (49%) recipients. Overall, poor SQ decreased significantly from pre-transplant (38%) to 24 months post-transplant (26%) and remained stable at 3 years (29%). Patients reporting persistently poor SQ had significantly more depressive symptomatology and lower global quality of life. Conclusion Because self-reported poor SQ is related to poorer global quality of life, these results emphasize the need for further studies to find suitable treatment options for poor SQ in transplant recipients. PMID:29020112

  8. Pre- and post-transplant monitoring of soluble CD30 levels as predictor of acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wu, Guo-Jun; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Yang, Shun-Liang; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, He; Lin, Wen-Hong; Wang, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Zhang-Xin; Tan, Jian-Ming

    2007-06-01

    Identification of renal graft candidates at high risk of impending acute rejection (AR) and graft loss may be helpful for patient-tailored immunosuppressive regimens and renal graft survival. To investigate the feasibility with soluble CD30 (sCD30) as predictor of AR, sCD30 levels of 70 patients were detected on day 0 pre-transplant and day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 post-transplant. AR episodes in 6 months were recorded and then patients were divided into Group AR (n=11) and Group UC (n=59). Results showed that the patients had higher pre-transplant sCD30 levels than healthy people. A significant decrease of sCD30 was observed on the first day post-transplant and continued until day 14 post-transplant. Soluble CD30 presented a stable level from day 14 to 30 post-transplant. Pre-transplant sCD30 levels of Group AR were much higher than those of Group UC (P<0.001). Patients of Group AR also had higher sCD30 levels than those of Group UC on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 (P<0.001). The sCD30 level presented a significantly delayed decrease in the patients of Group AR. Statistical results showed that the highest value of area under ROC curve (0.95) was obtained on day 5 post-transplant, suggesting that sCD30 levels on day 5 are of high predictive value. Therefore, sCD30 level may be a good marker of increased alloreactivity and of significant predictive value. It's necessary to monitor the variation of sCD30 in the early period post-transplant.

  9. Amiodarone use in patients listed for heart transplant is associated with increased 1-year post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lauren B; Mentz, Robert J; Edwards, Leah B; Wilk, Amber R; Rogers, Joseph G; Patel, Chetan B; Milano, Carmelo A; Hernandez, Adrian F; Stehlik, Josef; Lund, Lars H

    2017-02-01

    Pre-transplant amiodarone use has been postulated as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). We assessed pre-OHT amiodarone use and tested the hypothesis that it is associated with impaired post-OHT outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of adult OHT recipients from the registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). All patients had been transplanted between 2005 and 2013 and were stratified by pre-OHT amiodarone use. We derived propensity scores using logistic regression with amiodarone use as the dependent variable, and assessed the associations between amiodarone use and outcomes with Kaplan-Meier analysis after matching patients 1:1 based on propensity score, and with Cox regression with adjustment for propensity score. Of the 14,944 OHT patients in the study cohort, 32% (N = 4,752) received pre-OHT amiodarone. Amiodarone use was higher in recent years (29% in 2005 to 2007, 32% in 2008 to 2010, 35% in 2011 to 2013). Amiodarone-treated patients were older and more frequently had a history of sudden cardiac death (27% vs 13%) and pre-OHT mechanical circulatory support. Key donor characteristics and allograft ischemia times were similar between groups. In propensity-matched analyses, amiodarone-treated patients had higher rates of cardiac reoperation (15% vs 13%) and permanent pacemaker (5% vs 3%) after OHT and before discharge. Amiodarone-treated patients also had higher 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.30), but the risks of early graft failure, retransplantation and rehospitalization were similar between groups. Amiodarone use before OHT was independently associated with increased 1-year mortality. The need for amiodarone therapy should be carefully and continuously assessed in patients awaiting OHT. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-Kidney Transplant Lower Extremity Impairment and Post-Kidney Transplant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Nastasi, A J; McAdams-DeMarco, M A; Schrack, J; Ying, H; Olorundare, I; Warsame, F; Mountford, A; Haugen, C E; González Fernández, M; Norman, S P; Segev, D L

    2018-01-01

    Prediction models for post-kidney transplantation mortality have had limited success (C-statistics ≤0.70). Adding objective measures of potentially modifiable factors may improve prediction and, consequently, kidney transplant (KT) survival through intervention. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is an easily administered objective test of lower extremity function consisting of three parts (balance, walking speed, chair stands), each with scores of 0-4, for a composite score of 0-12, with higher scores indicating better function. SPPB performance and frailty (Fried frailty phenotype) were assessed at admission for KT in a prospective cohort of 719 KT recipients at Johns Hopkins Hospital (8/2009 to 6/2016) and University of Michigan (2/2013 to 12/2016). The independent associations between SPPB impairment (SPPB composite score ≤10) and composite score with post-KT mortality were tested using adjusted competing risks models treating graft failure as a competing risk. The 5-year posttransplantation mortality for impaired recipients was 20.6% compared to 4.5% for unimpaired recipients (p < 0.001). Impaired recipients had a 2.30-fold (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-4.74, p = 0.02) increased risk of postkidney transplantation mortality compared to unimpaired recipients. Each one-point decrease in SPPB score was independently associated with a 1.19-fold (95% CI 1.09-1.30, p < 0.001) higher risk of post-KT mortality. SPPB-derived lower extremity function is a potentially highly useful and modifiable objective measure for pre-KT risk prediction. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles

    2010-06-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the therapeutic options recommended including reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), transplant organ resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Effective therapy should be instituted before progressive disease results in declining performance status and multi-organ dysfunction. The goal of treatment should be a durable complete remission with retention of transplanted organ function with minimal toxicity.

  12. Outcomes of Early Adolescent Donor Hearts in Adult Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Madan, Shivank; Patel, Snehal R; Vlismas, Peter; Saeed, Omar; Murthy, Sandhya; Forest, Stephen; Jakobleff, William; Sims, Daniel; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T; Shin, Julia; Goldstein, Daniel; Jorde, Ulrich P

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine outcomes of adult recipients of early adolescent (EA) (10 to 14 years) donor hearts. Despite a shortage of donor organs, EA donor hearts (not used for pediatric patients) are seldom used for adults because of theoretical concerns for lack of hormonal activation and changes in left ventricular mass. Nonetheless, the outcomes of adult transplantation using EA donor hearts are not clearly established. All adult (≥18 years of age) heart transplant recipients in the United Network for Organ Sharing database between April 1994 and September 2015 were eligible for this analysis. Recipients of EA donor hearts were compared with recipients of donor hearts from the usual adult age group (ages 18 to 55 years). Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and cardiac allograft vasculopathy up to 5 years, and primary graft failure up to 90 days post-transplant. Propensity score analysis was used to identify a cohort of recipients with similar baseline characteristics. Of the 35,054 eligible adult recipients, 1,123 received hearts from EA donors and 33,931 from usual-age adult donors. With the use of propensity score matching, 944 recipients of EA donor hearts were matched to 944 recipients of usual-age adult donor hearts. There was no difference in 30-day, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year recipient survival or primary graft failure rates in the 2 groups using both Cox hazards ratio and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of note, adult patients who received EA donor hearts had a trend toward less cardiac allograft vasculopathy (Cox hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 1.01; p = 0.07). In this largest analysis to date, we found strong evidence that EA donor hearts, not used for pediatric patients, can be safely transplanted in appropriate adult patients and have good outcomes. This finding should help increase the use of EA donor hearts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-transplantation diabetes in kidney transplant recipients: an update on management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Conte, Caterina; Secchi, Antonio

    2018-04-04

    Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) may severely impact both short- and long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients in terms of graft and patient survival. However, PTDM often goes undiagnosed is underestimated or poorly managed. A diagnosis of PTDM should be delayed until the patient is on stable maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs, with stable kidney graft function and in the absence of acute infections. Risk factors for PTDM should be assessed during the pre-transplant evaluation period, in order to reduce the likelihood of developing diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test is considered as the gold standard for diagnosing PTDM, whereas HbA1c is not reliable during the first months after transplantation. Glycaemic targets should be individualised, and comorbidities such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension should be treated with drugs that have the least possible impact on glucose metabolism, at doses that do not interact with immunosuppressants. While insulin is the preferred agent for treating inpatient hyperglycaemia in the immediate post-transplantation period, little evidence is available to guide therapeutic choices in the management of PTDM. Metformin and incretins may offer some advantage over other glucose-lowering agents, particularly with respect to risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Tailoring immunosuppressive regimens may be of help, although maintenance of good kidney function should be prioritised over prevention/treatment of PTDM. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the available evidence on management and prevention of PTDM, with a focus on the available therapeutic options.

  14. A new data-driven model for post-transplant antibody dynamics in high risk kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Briggs, David; Lowe, David; Mitchell, Daniel; Daga, Sunil; Krishnan, Nithya; Higgins, Robert; Khovanova, Natasha

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of donor specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies during early stage after kidney transplantation are of great clinical interest as these antibodies are considered to be associated with short and long term clinical outcomes. The limited number of antibody time series and their diverse patterns have made the task of modelling difficult. Focusing on one typical post-transplant dynamic pattern with rapid falls and stable settling levels, a novel data-driven model has been developed for the first time. A variational Bayesian inference method has been applied to select the best model and learn its parameters for 39 time series from two groups of graft recipients, i.e. patients with and without acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) episodes. Linear and nonlinear dynamic models of different order were attempted to fit the time series, and the third order linear model provided the best description of the common features in both groups. Both deterministic and stochastic parameters are found to be significantly different in the AMR and no-AMR groups showing that the time series in the AMR group have significantly higher frequency of oscillations and faster dissipation rates. This research may potentially lead to better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of transplant center volume on post-transplant survival in patients listed for simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Rohan M; Tumin, Dmitry; Kruger, Andrew J; Beal, Eliza W; Hayes, Don; Hanje, James; Michaels, Anthony J; Washburn, Kenneth; Conteh, Lanla F; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid

    2018-01-01

    AIM To examine the effect of center size on survival differences between simultaneous liver kidney transplantation (SLKT) and liver transplantation alone (LTA) in SLKT-listed patients. METHODS The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried for patients ≥ 18 years of age listed for SLKT between February 2002 and December 2015. Post-transplant survival was evaluated using stratified Cox regression with interaction between transplant type (LTA vs SLKT) and center volume. RESULTS During the study period, 393 of 4580 patients (9%) listed for SLKT underwent a LTA. Overall mortality was higher among LTA recipients (180/393, 46%) than SLKT recipients (1107/4187, 26%). The Cox model predicted a significant survival disadvantage for patients receiving LTA vs SLKT [hazard ratio, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.85; 95%CI: 2.21, 3.66; P < 0.001] in centers performing 30 SLKT over the study period. This disadvantage was modestly attenuated as center SLKT volume increased, with a 3% reduction (HR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.95, 0.99; P = 0.010) for every 10 SLKs performed. CONCLUSION In conclusion, LTA is associated with increased mortality among patients listed for SLKT. This difference is modestly attenuated at more experienced centers and may explain inconsistencies between smaller-center and larger registry-wide studies comparing SLKT and LTA outcomes. PMID:29399287

  16. Relative reductions in soluble CD30 levels post-transplant predict acute graft function in islet allograft recipients receiving three different immunosuppression protocols.

    PubMed

    Hire, Kelly; Hering, Bernhard; Bansal-Pakala, Pratima

    2010-08-01

    Despite advances in islet transplantation, challenges remain in monitoring for anti-islet immune responses. Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been investigated as a predictor of acute rejection in kidney, lung, and heart transplantation as well as in a single study in human islet cell recipients. In this study, sCD30 levels were retrospectively assessed in 19 allograft recipients treated with three different immunosuppression induction therapies. Soluble CD30 levels were assessed at pre-transplant; early post-transplant (day 4-day 7); one-month post-transplant; and late post-transplant (day 90-day 120) and then correlated with eventual graft outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Results showed no correlation between mean serum sCD30 levels at any point in time pre- or post-transplant and graft function at 1-year follow-up. However, analysis demonstrated that mean sCD30 levels at day 28 or day 90-day 120 decreased from pre-transplant levels in recipients with long-term islet allograft function compared to recipients with partial or non-graft function (a decrease of 43.6+/-25.6% compared to 16.7+/-35.2%, p<0.05). In another finding, immunosuppression with the ATG protocol led to a greater reduction in sCD30 levels post-transplant overall. A larger reduction post-transplant correlated with full graft function. The results demonstrate that a relative reduction in sCD30 levels post-transplant may be applicable as a biomarker to monitor graft function in islet allograft recipients. Additionally, knowledge of the impact of various immunosuppression protocols on the timing and extent of changes in post-transplant sCD30 levels could aid in patient-specific tailoring of immunosuppression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-Transplant Blood Transfusions and Pediatric Renal Allograft Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Priya; Gillingham, Kristen; Matas, Arthur; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Chavers, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    The association of blood transfusions with graft survival after pediatric kidney transplant (KTx) is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed blood transfusions post-KTx and subsequent outcomes. Between 1984 and 2013, 482 children (<18 years of age) underwent KTx at our center. Recipient demographics, outcomes and transfusion data were collected. Cox regression with post-KTx blood transfusion as a time-dependent covariate was performed to model the impact of blood transfusion on outcomes. Of the 208 (44%) that were transfused, 39% had transfusion <1 month post-KTx; 48% > 12 months. Transfused and non-transfused recipients were not significantly different. In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no difference between transfused and non-transfused recipient patient survival; antibody-mediated and acute cellular rejection, and donor-specific antibody (DSA) free survival. Transfusions <1 month post-KTx did not impact death-censored graft survival (DCGS) (p=NS). Patients transfused >12 months post-KTx had significantly lower 12 month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (compared to non-transfused) and worse subsequent DCGS. Post-KTx blood transfusions have increased in pediatric KTx over time but have no negative association with rejection or DSA production. DCGS is unaffected by transfusion within first month. Transfusions after the first year occur in patients with more advanced chronic kidney disease and are associated with significantly worse DCGS. PMID:27712016

  18. A simple method to treat post-kydney transplantation lymphocele.

    PubMed

    Damiano, G; Lombardo, C; Palumbo, V D; Buffa, D; Maione, C; Gioviale, M C; Cacciabaudo, F; Spinelli, G; Calvagna, C; Lo Monte, A I

    2011-01-01

    To describe our experience with ultrasonic-guided instillation of povidone-iodine to treat post-kidney transplantation lymphocele. Patients and methods. We studied the safety and efficacy of this procedure for treatment of lymphocele in 6 male kidney transplanted recipients in which we assisted a progressive increase of creatinine and urinary proteins levels and color-Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated an increase (25,4%) of index of resistence (IR) Using eco-colorDoppler, the related-graft lymphocele location and the distance to the anterior abdominal wall were determined; then, a radiopaque double-lumen catheter was used to instillate 5% povidone-iodine 10 ml. Results. Percutaneous drainage achieved a resolution rate of 100%. Studying the rate of peripheral and internal vascularization of the kidney before and after treatment, eco-colorDoppler showed a significant decrease of the IR (24,6%). Conclusions. The US-guided povidone-iodine instillation for treatment of lymphocele following renal transplantation may be considered as first choice therapy in such disease.

  19. Impact of post-kidney transplant parathyroidectomy on allograft function

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Samir; Nagaraja, Haikady; Agarwal, Anil; Samavedi, Srinivas; Von Visger, Jon; Nori, Uday; Andreoni, Kenneth; Pesavento, Todd; Singh, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of parathyroidectomy on allograft function in kidney transplant patients is unclear. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of all kidney transplant recipients from 1988 to 2008 who underwent parathyroidectomy for uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism (n = 32). Post-parathyroidectomy, changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and graft loss were recorded. Cross-sectional associations at baseline between eGFR and serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and associations between their changes within subjects during the first two months post-parathyroidectomy were assessed. Results Post-parathyroidectomy, the mean eGFR declined from 51.19 mL/min/1.73 m2 at parathyroidectomy to 44.78 mL/min/1.73 m2 at two months (p < 0.0001). Subsequently, graft function improved, and by 12 months, mean eGFR recovered to 49.76 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.035). Decrease in serum PTH was accompanied by a decrease in eGFR (p = 0.0127) in the first two months post-parathyroidectomy. Patients whose eGFR declined by ≥ 20% (group 1) in the first two months post-parathyroidectomy were distinguished from the patients whose eGFR declined by <20% (group 2). The two groups were similar except that group 1 had a higher baseline mean serum PTH compared with group 2, although not significant (1046.7 ± 1034.2 vs. 476.6 ± 444.9, p = 0.14). In group 1, eGFR declined at an average rate of 32% (p < 0.0001) during the first month post-parathyroidectomy compared with 7% (p = 0.1399) in group 2, and the difference between these two groups was significant (p = 0.0003). The graft function recovered in both groups by one yr. During median follow-up of 66.00 ± 49.45 months, 6 (18%) patients lost their graft with a mean time to graft loss from parathyroidectomy of 37.2 ± 21.6 months. The causes of graft loss were rejection (n = 2), pyelonephritis (n = 1) and chronic allograft nephropathy (n = 3). No graft loss occurred during the first-year post

  20. Increased proximal acid reflux is associated with early readmission following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2016-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been associated with poor outcomes following lung transplantation. However, the association between pretransplant reflux and post-transplant readmission, an indicator of early clinical outcome, has not been previously assessed. This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients undergoing pretransplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) study off acid suppression at a tertiary care center since 2007. Subjects with pretransplant fundoplication were excluded. Time to readmission was defined as duration from post-transplant discharge to next hospital admission for any reason. Subgroup analysis was performed to exclude elective readmissions. Time-to-event analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model, with appropriate censoring. Forty-three subjects (60% men, mean age: 57, median follow-up: 1.7 years) met inclusion criteria for the study. Patient demographics and pretransplant cardiopulmonary function were similar between readmission cohorts. Time to all-cause readmission was associated with increased distal acid episodes (HR: 3.15, p = 0.04) and proximal acid episodes (HR: 3.61, p = 0.008) on impedance, increased acid exposure on pH (HR: 2.22, p = 0.04), and elevated Demeester score (HR: 2.26, p = 0.03). When elective readmissions were excluded, early readmission remained significantly associated with increased proximal acid reflux episodes (HR: 2.49, p = 0.04). All findings were confirmed on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Elevated proximal acid reflux on pretransplant MII-pH testing was associated with early readmission following lung transplantation, even after excluding elective readmissions. Exposure to severe acid reflux has measurable effects on early postoperative outcomes such as readmission, and aggressive early antireflux therapy should be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and management of residual mass post chemotherapy: Case report.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Troy D; Zepeda, Nubia; Moore, Ronald B

    2017-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare complication. It represents a spectrum of lymphoid proliferations which occur in the setting of immunosuppression and organ transplantation. There are no reported cases or recommendations for the treatment of residual masses post rituximab of PTLD. A patient with a long standing history of immunosuppression due to multiple kidney transplants starting in 1979, presented with a very large palpable hard abdominal mass (2004) after a fourth renal transplant. There was a past history of heavy immune suppression. CT scans revealed a conglomerate mass involving the right native kidney and two prior right sided renal allografts that crossed the midline. Biopsy of the large right retroperitoneal mass revealed large B cell lymphoma (CD 20 positive); consistent with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Management of bulky PTLD, in a highly sensitized, heavily immune suppressed patient is not well described in the literature. The mainstay of therapy is IR and Ritixumab (R) monotherapy and combination R-CHOP. CHOP chemotherapy has an associated mortality rate of up to 38%. Radiotherapy is often considered over surgery and surgery has been most frequently used when associated with bowel complications. In this case report we describe upfront Ritiximab followed by consolidation resection and cytotoxic chemotherapy as a management strategy to reduce toxicity. The approach taken by our surgical team illustrates the benefits of disease debulking in certain cases of PTLD, by guiding further therapy and spacing and reducing chemotherapy in immune suppressed patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Maintenance steroid use at 30 days post-transplant and outcomes of pediatric heart transplantation: A propensity matched analysis of the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Scott R; Kukreja, Manisha; Gilbert, Deborah; Bastardi, Heather; Feingold, Brian; Knecht, Kenneth; Kaufman, Beth D; Brown, Robert N; Miyamoto, Shelley D

    2015-08-01

    Maintenance steroid (MS) use in pediatric heart transplantation is variable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of MS use on graft outcomes. All patients <18 years old in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database at the time of first heart transplant between 1993 and 2011 who survived ≥30 days post-transplant and were from centers with a protocolized approach to MS use were included (N = 2,178). Patients were grouped by MS use at 30 days post-transplant as MS+ or MS- (no MS use). Propensity score analysis was used to generate matched groups of MS+ and MS- patients based on pre-transplant and peri-transplant factors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare freedom from graft loss, graft loss secondary to rejection, rejection, rejection with severe hemodynamic compromise (RSHC), malignancy, and infection between groups. Of patients, 1,393 (64%) were MS+ and 785 (36%) were MS-. There were 315 MS- patients who had propensity matched MS+ controls. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed no difference in graft loss (p = 0.9) or graft loss secondary to rejection (p = 0.09). At 1 year post-transplant, there was no difference in freedom from rejection (p = 0.15) or malignancy (p = 0.07), but there was lower freedom from RSHC and infection in the MS- group (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02, respectively). MS use at 30 days post-transplant was not associated with enhanced graft survival after pediatric heart transplant. MS- patients had a higher incidence of RSHC and infection. These risks should be taken into consideration when determining MS use for pediatric recipients of heart transplants. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Negative outcomes after liver transplantation in patients with alcoholic liver disease beyond the fifth post-transplant year.

    PubMed

    Grąt, Michał; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Grąt, Karolina; Wronka, Karolina Maria; Krasnodębski, Maciej; Barski, Krzysztof; Zborowska, Hanna; Patkowski, Waldemar; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof; Krawczyk, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Although up to 50% of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) resume alcohol consumption after liver transplantation (LT), numerous studies indicate that long-term results are not compromised. This study focused on evaluating the impact of ALD on outcomes up to and beyond the fifth year after LT. Among the 432 primary LT recipients included in this study, 97 underwent transplantation for ALD. Alcohol relapse rate at 10 yr was 33.5%, with younger recipient age being the only independent predictor (p = 0.019). Survival of patients with ALD (77.0%) was similar to those without (79.0%) up to the fifth post-transplant year (p = 0.655) but worse during the five subsequent years among the five-yr survivors (70.6% vs. 92.9%; p = 0.002). ALD was an independent risk factor for poorer survival beyond the fifth post-transplant year (p = 0.049), but not earlier (p = 0.717). Conversely, alcohol relapse increased the risk of death only during the first five post-transplant years (p = 0.039). There were no significant differences regarding graft failure incidence between ALD and non-ALD recipients up to the fifth post-transplant year (7.3% vs. 11.6%; p = 0.255) and beyond (12.9% vs. 5.0%; p = 0.126). In conclusion, pre-transplant diagnosis of ALD yields negative effects on post-transplant outcomes beyond the fifth post-transplant year, not attributable to recidivism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in paediatric renal transplant recipients and the impact of immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Höcker, Britta; Aguilar, Martin; Schnitzler, Paul; Pape, Lars; Bald, Martin; König, Jens; Marks, Stephen D; Genc, Gurkan; Büscher, Anja; Kemper, Markus J; Billing, Heiko; Pohl, Martin; Dello Strologo, Luca; Webb, Nicholas J A; Rieger, Susanne; Mankertz, Annette; Krupka, Kai; Bruckner, Thomas; Fichtner, Alexander; Tönshoff, Burkhard

    2018-05-01

    Avoidance of vaccine-preventable infections in paediatric renal allograft recipients is of utmost importance. However, the development and maintenance of protective vaccination titres may be impaired in this patient population owing to their need for immunosuppressive medication. In the framework of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative (CERTAIN), we therefore performed a multi-centre, multi-national study and analysed vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in 155 patients with serial titre measurements in comparison with published data in healthy children. The percentage of patients with positive vaccination titres before renal transplantation (RTx) was low, especially for diphtheria (38.5%, control 75%) and pertussis (21.3%, control 96.3%). As few as 58.1% of patients had a hepatitis B antibody (HBsAb) titre >100 IU/L before RTx. 38.1% of patients showed a vaccination titre loss post-transplant. Patients with an HBsAb titre between 10 and 100 IU/L before RTx experienced a significantly (p < 0.05) more frequent hepatitis B vaccination titre loss post-transplant than patients with an HBsAb titre >100 IU/L. The revaccination rate post-transplant was low and revaccination failed to induce positive titres in a considerable number of patients (27.3 to 83.3%). Treatment with rituximab was associated with a significantly increased risk of a vaccination titre loss post-transplant (odds ratio 4.26, p = 0.033). These data show a low percentage of patients with positive vaccination titres pre-transplant, a low revaccination rate post-transplant with limited antibody response, and a high rate of vaccination titre losses.

  5. First two decades of paediatric heart transplantation in Sweden - outcome of listing and post-transplant results.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, Thomas; Higgins, Thomas; Bennhagen, Rolf; Wåhlander, Håkan

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate outcome in the first generation of children with end-stage heart disease to whom heart transplantation was available. Retrospective review of all 135 Swedish children <18 years old listed for heart transplantation 1989-2009, followed to December 31, 2009, including 74 (55%) with cardiomyopathy and 61 (45%) with congenital heart disease; 34 (25%) were infants (<1 year). Cumulative risk of requiring heart transplantation was 1:17,300 (11 patients who improved were omitted from outcome analysis). Waiting-list mortality was 31% (44% in infants). Median waiting time in 82 transplanted patients was 57 days (0-585 days). Post-transplant follow-up time was median 5.9 years (0.03-20.1 years), and actuarial survival was 92% at 1 year, 82% at 5 years, 76% at 10 years and 58% at 15 years. Survival after listing was 64% at 1 year, 58% at 5 years, 52% at 10 years and 40% at 15 years. Post-transplant complications included rejections (34%), malignancies (12%), renal failure (8%), coronary artery vasculopathy (6%) and re-transplantation (5%). Among 64 survivors, 84% were free of complications affecting prognosis. High waiting-list mortality and post-transplant attrition precluded 60% of this pioneer population from reaching adulthood. Functional status in survivors is generally good. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Fever after peripheral blood stem cell infusion in haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Arango, Marcos; Combariza, Juan F

    2017-06-01

    Noninfection-related fever can occur after peripheral blood stem cell infusion in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of fever and characterize some clinical features of affected patients. A retrospective case-series study with 40 patients who received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was carried out. Thirty-three patients (82.5%) developed fever; no baseline characteristic was associated with its development. Median time to fever onset was 25.5h (range, 9.5-100h) and median peak temperature was 39.0°C (range, 38.1-40.5°C). Not a single patient developed hemodynamic or respiratory compromise that required admission to the intensive care unit. Fever was not explained by infection in any case. Ninety-one percent of the febrile episodes resolved within 96h of cyclophosphamide administration. No significant difference in overall survival, event-free survival, or graft versus host disease-free/relapse-free survival was found in the group of febrile individuals after peripheral blood stem cell infusion. Fever after peripheral blood stem cell infusion in this clinical setting was common; it usually subsides with cyclophosphamide administration. The development of fever was not associated with an adverse prognosis. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Existence of circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies after heart transplantation is associated with post-transplant acute allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Lehle, Karla; Kroher, Johannes; Kolat, Philipp; von Süßkind-Schwendi, Marietta; Schmid, Christof; Haneya, Assad; Rupprecht, Leopold; Hirt, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) may be involved in the development of heart allograft rejection. Its detection might be a cheap and noninvasive method to identify high-risk patients. An indirect immunofluorescence method on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was used to investigate the presence of AECAs in 260 pre- and post-transplant serum samples sequentially collected from 34 patients within the first year after heart transplantation (HTX). The presence of AECAs before (23.5 %) and early after HTX (14.7 %) was associated with a significantly increased risk of early acute rejection (75 and 60 %, respectively) compared to 33 % in AECA-negative patients (p = 0.049). Moreover, rejections from AECA-positive patients were more severe (p = 0.057) with a significantly increased incidence of multiple (p = 0.025). The mean number of the sum of rejection episodes was significantly higher in AECA-positive patients (p ≤ 0.05). Patients free of AECAs mainly received mycophenolate mofetil as primary immunosuppression (p = 0.067). Nevertheless, the presence of AECAs did not affect long-term outcome and mortality of HTX patients. Despite a low number of patient samples, the detection of AECAs before and early after HTX could be used as a biomarker for an increased risk of early acute rejection in high-risk patients. This easy method might be a valuable tool to support screening procedures to improve individualized immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. An evaluation of the impact of donor BMI on survival and post-transplant obesity in pediatric liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Rhee, Sue; Glidden, Dave; Roberts, John Paul; Rosenthal, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In adult liver transplant recipients, donor BMI is associated with post-transplant obesity but not graft or patient survival. Given the U.S. obesity epidemic and already-limited supply of liver donors, clarifying whether donor BMI affects pediatric outcomes is important. Methods UNOS data on pediatric U.S. liver transplants 1990-2010 was evaluated. Data on transplants 2004-2010 (n=3788) was used for survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models and for post-transplant obesity analysis with generalized estimating equations. Results For children receiving adult donor livers, donor BMI 25-35 kg/m2 was not associated with graft or patient survival in univariate or multivariate analyses. Donor BMI>35 kg/m2 increased the risk of graft loss (HR 2.54, 95%CI 1.29-5.01, p=0.007) and death (HR 3.56, 95%CI 1.64-7.72, p=0.001). For pediatric donors, donor BMI was not associated with graft loss or mortality in univariate or multivariate analysis. Donor overweight/obesity was not a risk factor for post-transplant obesity. Conclusions Overweight/obesity is common among liver transplant donors. This analysis suggests that for adult donors, BMI 25-35 should not by itself be a contraindication to liver donation. Severe obesity (BMI>35) in adult donors increased the risk of graft loss and mortality, even after adjustment for recipient, donor, and transplant risk factors. Post-transplant obesity was not associated with donor BMI in this analysis. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of donor obesity on pediatric liver transplant recipients. PMID:22467594

  9. Management of Non-Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder.

    PubMed

    Major, Ajay; Kamdar, Manali

    2018-05-24

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is one of the most common neoplasms seen after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is related to post-transplant immunosuppression and EBV infection. Prevention of PTLD depends upon judicious use of immunosuppression and serial EBV monitoring. Preemptive therapy consists of reduction of immunosuppression, antiviral medications, and single-agent rituximab. There are no randomized phase III trials on PTLD treatment, so current management guidelines are largely based on recent phase II trials, single-institution retrospective studies, and expert opinion. Management of PTLD is dependent upon its subtypes. Early-type and polymorphic PTLD generally respond to reduction of immunosuppression and rituximab monotherapy, whereas monomorphic PTLD often requires additional concurrent or sequential use of chemotherapy. For rare subtypes of PTLD, standard-of-care guidelines for de novo lymphomas are recommended. Surgical resection or radiotherapy may be used as adjunctive therapy depending on the extent of disease. Non-chemotherapy options such as adoptive T cell therapy have shown promising efficacy and must be explored further. Despite progress in the last decade, overall survival rates continue to be low in published series. This review highlights the need for prospective randomized trials incorporating novel agents to improve outcomes in PTLD.

  10. Proton Pump Inhibitors Independently Protect Against Early Allograft Injury or Chronic Rejection After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wai-Kit; Goldberg, Hilary J; Boukedes, Steve; Burakoff, Robert; Chan, Walter W

    2018-02-01

    Acid reflux has been associated with poor outcomes following lung transplantation. Unlike surgical fundoplication, the role of noninvasive, pharmacologic acid suppression remains uncertain. To assess the relationship between post-transplant acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) and onset of early allograft injury or chronic rejection following lung transplantation. This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients at a tertiary center in 2007-2014. Patients with pre-transplant antireflux surgery were excluded. Time-to-event analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model was applied to assess acid suppression therapy and onset of acute or chronic rejection, defined histologically and clinically. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess PPI versus H2RA use. A total of 188 subjects (60% men, mean age 54, follow-up 554 person-years) met inclusion criteria. During follow-up, 115 subjects (61.5%) developed rejection, with all-cause mortality of 27.6%. On univariate analyses, acid suppression and BMI, but not other patient demographics, were associated with rejection. The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated decreased rejection with use of acid suppression therapy (log-rank p = 0.03). On multivariate analyses, acid suppression (HR 0.39, p = 0.04) and lower BMI (HR 0.67, p = 0.04) were independently predicted against rejection. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that persistent PPI use was more protective than H2RA or no antireflux medications. Post-lung transplant exposure to persistent PPI therapy results in the greatest protection against rejection in lung transplant recipients, independent of other clinical predictors including BMI, suggesting that PPI may have antireflux or anti-inflammatory effects in enhancing allograft protection.

  11. Pre-transplant and post-transplant soluble CD30 for prediction and diagnosis of acute kidney allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Nafar, Mohsen; Farrokhi, Farhat; Vaezi, Mohammad; Entezari, Amir-Ebrahim; Pour-Reza-Gholi, Fatemeh; Firoozan, Ahmad; Eniollahi, Behzad

    2009-01-01

    Serum levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) have been considered as a predictor of acute kidney allograft rejection. We have evaluated the pre-transplant and post-transplant levels of sCD30 with the aim of determining its value in predicting and diagnosing kidney rejection. We measured sCD30 serum levels before kidney transplantation, 5 days post-operatively, and at creatinine elevation episodes. The predictive value of sCD30 for diagnosing acute rejection (AR) within the first 6 post-operative months was assessed in 203 kidney recipients from living donors. Pre-transplant and post-operative levels of serum sCD30 were 58.10 +/- 52.55 and 51.55 +/- 49.65 U/ml, respectively (P = 0.12). Twenty-three patients experienced biopsy-proven acute rejection, and 28 had acute allograft dysfunction due to non-immunologic diseases. The pre-transplant sCD30 level was not different between patients with and without AR. However, post-transplant sCD30 was higher in the AR group. The median serum level of post-transplant sCD30 was 52 U/ml in the AR group and 26.3 U/ml in a control group (P < 0.001). The relative changes of sCD30 on day 5 were higher in patients with AR (P = 0.003). Based on post-transplant sCD30 levels, we were able to differentiate between kidney recipients who experienced an AR within 6 months post-surgery and those without an AR (cutoff value 41 U/ml; sensitivity 70%; specificity 71.7%). The level of sCD30 during periods of elevated serum creatinine was not independently associated with the diagnosis of AR. Post-transplant sCD30 levels and their relative changes are higher in patients experiencing AR. We propose further studies on the post-transplant trend of this marker for the prediction of AR.

  12. Early polymerase chain reaction detection of Chagas disease reactivation in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Priscilla Almeida; Segatto, Marcela; Durso, Danielle Fernandes; de Carvalho Moreira, Wagson José; Junqueira, Lucas Lodi; de Castilho, Fábio Morato; de Andrade, Silvio Amadeu; Gelape, Cláudio Léo; Chiari, Egler; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Junho Pena, Sergio Danilo; Machado, Carlos Renato; Franco, Gloria Regina; Filho, Geraldo Brasileiro; Vieira Moreira, Maria da Consolação; Mara Macedo, Andréa

    2017-07-01

    Heart transplantation is a valuable therapeutic option for Chagas disease patients with severe cardiomyopathy. During patient follow-up, the differential diagnosis between cardiac transplant rejection and Chagas disease infection reactivation remains a challenging task, which hinders rapid implementation of the appropriate treatment. Herein we investigate whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies could facilitate early detection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T cruzi) in transplanted endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs). In this study we analyzed 500 EMB specimens obtained from 58 chagasic cardiac transplant patients, using PCR approaches targeted to nuclear (rDNA 24Sα) and kinetoplastid (kDNA) markers, and compared the efficiency of these approaches with that of other tests routinely used. T cruzi DNA was detected in 112 EMB specimens derived from 39 patients (67.2%). The first positive result occurred at a median 1.0 month post-transplant. Conventional histopathologic, blood smear and hemoculture analyses showed lower sensitivity and higher median time to the first positive result. Patient follow-up revealed that 31 of 39 PCR-positive cases presented clinical reactivation of Chagas disease at different time-points after transplantation. PCR techniques showed considerable sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.60), with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.708 (p = 0.001). Moreover, PCR techniques anticipated the clinical signs of Chagas disease reactivation by up to 36 months, with a median time of 6 months and an average of 9.1 months. We found a good association between the PCR diagnosis and the clinical signs of the disease, indicating that the PCR approaches used herein are suitable for early diagnosis of Chagas disease reactivation, with high potential to assist physicians in treatment decisions. For this purpose, an algorithm is proposed for surveillance based on the molecular tests. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the

  13. Increased risk of post-transplant malignancy and mortality in transplant tourists: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-12-01

    Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality.

  14. [Early human transplants: 60th anniversary of the first successful kidney transplants].

    PubMed

    Gentili, Marc E

    2015-11-01

    First kidney transplant attempts begin with the 20th century: improving vascular sutures, understanding the phenomena of rejection or tolerance, then progress in HLA groups enable early success in the second half of the century. Definition of brain death, use of corticosteroids, radiotherapy and prime immunosuppressors promote the development of transplants. Discover of cyclosporine in the 1980s, and legislative developments augur a new era. Many advances are arising: use of stem cells from the donor, enhancement of Maastricht 3 donor or living donation. Finally organ transplantation remains an immense human adventure, but also scientific and ethic. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a Simple Score to Determine Risk of Early Rejection After Pediatric Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ryan J; Savage, Andrew J; Atz, Andrew M; Heal, Elisabeth M; Burnette, Ali L; Kavarana, Minoo M; Bradley, Scott M; Chowdhury, Shahryar M

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a reliable and feasible score to assess the risk of rejection in pediatric heart transplantation recipients during the first post-transplant year. The first post-transplant year is the most likely time for rejection to occur in pediatric heart transplantation. Rejection during this period is associated with worse outcomes. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for pediatric patients (age <18 years) who underwent isolated orthotopic heart transplantation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012. Transplantations were divided into a derivation cohort (n = 2,686) and a validation (n = 509) cohort. The validation cohort was randomly selected from 20% of transplantations from 2005 to 2012. Covariates found to be associated with rejection (p < 0.2) were included in the initial multivariable logistic regression model. The final model was derived by including only variables independently associated with rejection. A risk score was then developed using relative magnitudes of the covariates' odds ratio. The score was then tested in the validation cohort. A 9-point risk score using 3 variables (age, cardiac diagnosis, and panel reactive antibody) was developed. Mean score in the derivation and validation cohorts were 4.5 ± 2.6 and 4.8 ± 2.7, respectively. A higher score was associated with an increased rate of rejection (score = 0, 10.6% in the validation cohort vs. score = 9, 40%; p < 0.01). In weighted regression analysis, the model-predicted risk of rejection correlated closely with the actual rates of rejection in the validation cohort (R(2) = 0.86; p < 0.01). The rejection score is accurate in determining the risk of early rejection in pediatric heart transplantation recipients. The score has the potential to be used in clinical practice to aid in determining the immunosuppressant regimen and the frequency of rejection surveillance in the first post-transplant year. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology

  16. Risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after Thymoglobulin-conditioned hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Amit; Roessner, Cameron; Jupp, Jennifer; Williamson, Tyler; Tellier, Raymond; Chaudhry, Ahsan; Khan, Faisal; Taparia, Minakshi; Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Stewart, Douglas A; Daly, Andrew; Storek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurs frequently when rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is used in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) conditioning. We retrospectively studied 554 patients undergoing ATG-conditioned myeloablative HCT. Strategies used to minimize mortality due to PTLD were either therapy of biopsy-diagnosed PTLD in the absence of EBV DNAemia monitoring (n = 266) or prompt therapy of presumed PTLD (based on clinical/radiologic signs and high EBV DNAemia, in the setting of weekly EBV DNAemia monitoring) (n = 199). Both strategies resulted in similar mortality due to PTLD (0.7% vs 1% at 2 years, P = .43) and similar overall survival (63% vs 67% at 2 years, P = .23) even though there was a trend toward higher PTLD incidence with the prompt therapy. Donor positive with recipient negative EBV (D+R-) serostatus was a risk factor for developing PTLD. Older patient age, HLA-mismatched donor, and graft-versus-host disease were not associated with increased risk of PTLD. In summary, in ATG-conditioned HCT, D+R- serostatus, but not older age, mismatched donor or GVHD is a risk factor for developing PTLD. EBV DNAemia monitoring may be a weak risk factor for developing/diagnosing PTLD; the monitoring coupled with prompt therapy does not improve survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Colonization potential to reconstitute a microbe community in patients detected early after fecal microbe transplant for recurrent C. difficile.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjit; Maynard, Craig L; Eipers, Peter; Goldsmith, Kelly T; Ptacek, Travis; Grubbs, J Aaron; Dixon, Paula; Howard, Donna; Crossman, David K; Crowley, Michael R; Benjamin, William H; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Weaver, Casey T; Rodriguez, J Martin; Morrow, Casey D

    2016-01-13

    Fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) are an effective treatment for patients with gut microbe dysbiosis suffering from recurrent C. difficile infections. To further understand how FMT reconstitutes the patient's gut commensal microbiota, we have analyzed the colonization potential of the donor, recipient and recipient post transplant fecal samples using transplantation in gnotobiotic mice. A total of nine samples from three human donors, recipient's pre and post FMT were transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. Microbiome analysis of three donor fecal samples revealed the presence of a high relative abundance of commensal microbes from the family Bacteriodaceae and Lachnospiraceae that were almost absent in the three recipient pre FMT fecal samples (<0.01%). The microbe composition in gnotobiotic mice transplanted with the donor fecal samples was similar to the human samples. The recipient samples contained Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Enterococcaceae in relative abundance of 43, 11, 8%, respectively. However, gnotobiotic mice transplanted with the recipient fecal samples had an average relative abundance of unclassified Clostridiales of 55%, approximately 7000 times the abundance in the recipient fecal samples prior to transplant. Microbiome analysis of fecal samples from the three patients early (2-4 weeks) after FMT revealed a microbe composition with the relative abundance of both Bacteriodaceae and Lachnospiraceae that was approximately 7% of that of the donor. In contrast, gnotobioitc mice transplanted with the fecal samples obtained from the three at early times post FMT revealed increases in the relative abundance of Bacteriodaceae and Lachnospiraceae microbe compositions to levels similar to the donor fecal samples. Furthermore, the unclassified Clostridiales in the recipient samples post FMT was reduced to an average of 10%. We have used transplantation into gnotobiotic mice to evaluate the colonization potential of microbiota in FMT patients early

  18. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after liver transplantation: post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder or coincidental de novo leukaemia?

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanan; Pinkney, Kerice A; Lee, John C; Gindin, Tatyana; Weiner, Michael A; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind

    2013-03-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T-cell origin are quite uncommon, and the vast majority represent neoplasms of mature, post-thymic T- or natural killer cells. Here, we report a rare case of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), which occurred in an 18-year-old man who had undergone three liver transplants, initially for biliary atresia and subsequently for graft failure due to chronic rejection. He had received immunosuppression with cyclosporine and tacrolimus, as well as short-term treatment with OKT3. The T-ALL occurred 16 years after the first liver transplant. This case highlights the challenge for classifying rare neoplasms occurring in recipients of solid organ transplants that are currently not recognized to lie within the spectrum of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Given the long interval between the liver transplants and the development of T-ALL, a coincidental occurrence of the leukaemia cannot be ruled out. However, the potential roles of immunosuppressive therapy and other co-morbid conditions of the individual as possible risk factors for the pathogenesis of T-ALL are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Deconvoluting Post-Transplant Immunity: Cell Subset-Specific Mapping Reveals Pathways for Activation and Expansion of Memory T, Monocytes and B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryev, Yevgeniy A.; Kurian, Sunil M.; Avnur, Zafi; Borie, Dominic; Deng, Jun; Campbell, Daniel; Sung, Joanna; Nikolcheva, Tania; Quinn, Anthony; Schulman, Howard; Peng, Stanford L.; Schaffer, Randolph; Fisher, Jonathan; Mondala, Tony; Head, Steven; Flechner, Stuart M.; Kantor, Aaron B.; Marsh, Christopher; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge for the field of transplantation is the lack of understanding of genomic and molecular drivers of early post-transplant immunity. The early immune response creates a complex milieu that determines the course of ensuing immune events and the ultimate outcome of the transplant. The objective of the current study was to mechanistically deconvolute the early immune response by purifying and profiling the constituent cell subsets of the peripheral blood. We employed genome-wide profiling of whole blood and purified CD4, CD8, B cells and monocytes in tandem with high-throughput laser-scanning cytometry in 10 kidney transplants sampled serially pre-transplant, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Cytometry confirmed early cell subset depletion by antibody induction and immunosuppression. Multiple markers revealed the activation and proliferative expansion of CD45RO+CD62L− effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells as well as progressive activation of monocytes and B cells. Next, we mechanistically deconvoluted early post-transplant immunity by serial monitoring of whole blood using DNA microarrays. Parallel analysis of cell subset-specific gene expression revealed a unique spectrum of time-dependent changes and functional pathways. Gene expression profiling results were validated with 157 different probesets matching all 65 antigens detected by cytometry. Thus, serial blood cell monitoring reflects the profound changes in blood cell composition and immune activation early post-transplant. Each cell subset reveals distinct pathways and functional programs. These changes illuminate a complex, early phase of immunity and inflammation that includes activation and proliferative expansion of the memory effector and regulatory cells that may determine the phenotype and outcome of the kidney transplant. PMID:20976225

  20. Deconvoluting post-transplant immunity: cell subset-specific mapping reveals pathways for activation and expansion of memory T, monocytes and B cells.

    PubMed

    Grigoryev, Yevgeniy A; Kurian, Sunil M; Avnur, Zafi; Borie, Dominic; Deng, Jun; Campbell, Daniel; Sung, Joanna; Nikolcheva, Tania; Quinn, Anthony; Schulman, Howard; Peng, Stanford L; Schaffer, Randolph; Fisher, Jonathan; Mondala, Tony; Head, Steven; Flechner, Stuart M; Kantor, Aaron B; Marsh, Christopher; Salomon, Daniel R

    2010-10-14

    A major challenge for the field of transplantation is the lack of understanding of genomic and molecular drivers of early post-transplant immunity. The early immune response creates a complex milieu that determines the course of ensuing immune events and the ultimate outcome of the transplant. The objective of the current study was to mechanistically deconvolute the early immune response by purifying and profiling the constituent cell subsets of the peripheral blood. We employed genome-wide profiling of whole blood and purified CD4, CD8, B cells and monocytes in tandem with high-throughput laser-scanning cytometry in 10 kidney transplants sampled serially pre-transplant, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Cytometry confirmed early cell subset depletion by antibody induction and immunosuppression. Multiple markers revealed the activation and proliferative expansion of CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells as well as progressive activation of monocytes and B cells. Next, we mechanistically deconvoluted early post-transplant immunity by serial monitoring of whole blood using DNA microarrays. Parallel analysis of cell subset-specific gene expression revealed a unique spectrum of time-dependent changes and functional pathways. Gene expression profiling results were validated with 157 different probesets matching all 65 antigens detected by cytometry. Thus, serial blood cell monitoring reflects the profound changes in blood cell composition and immune activation early post-transplant. Each cell subset reveals distinct pathways and functional programs. These changes illuminate a complex, early phase of immunity and inflammation that includes activation and proliferative expansion of the memory effector and regulatory cells that may determine the phenotype and outcome of the kidney transplant.

  1. Transplantation of Ex Vivo Expanded Umbilical Cord Blood (NiCord) Decreases Early Infection and Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sarah; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Adcock, Janet; Corbet, Kelly; Gasparetto, Cristina; Lopez, Richard; Long, Gwynn D; Morris, Ashley K; Rizzieri, David A; Sullivan, Keith M; Sung, Anthony D; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2017-07-01

    Delayed hematopoietic recovery contributes to increased infection risk following umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. In a Phase 1 study, adult recipients of UCB stem cells cultured ex vivo for 3 weeks with nicotinamide (NiCord) had earlier median neutrophil recovery compared with historical controls. To evaluate the impact of faster neutrophil recovery on clinically relevant early outcomes, we reviewed infection episodes and hospitalization during the first 100 days in an enlarged cohort of 18 NiCord recipients compared with 86 standard UCB recipients at our institution. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in NiCord recipients compared with standard UCB recipients (12.5 days versus 26 days; P < .001). Compared with standard UCB recipients, NiCord recipients had a significantly reduced risk for total infection (RR, 0.69; P = .01), grade 2-3 (moderate to severe) infection (RR, 0.36; P < .001), bacterial infection (RR, 0.39; P = .003), and grade 2-3 bacterial infection (RR, 0.21; P = .003) by Poisson regression analysis; this effect persisted after adjustment for age, disease stage, and grade II-IV acute GVHD. NiCord recipients also had significantly more time out of the hospital in the first 100 days post-transplantation after adjustment for age and Karnofsky Performance Status (69.9 days versus 49.7 days; P = .005). Overall, transplantation of NiCord was associated with faster neutrophil engraftment, fewer total and bacterial infections, and shorter hospitalization in the first 100 days compared with standard UCB transplantation. In conclusion, rapid hematopoietic recovery from an ex vivo expanded UCB transplantation approach is associated with early clinical benefit. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre- and post-transplant minimal residual disease predicts relapse occurrence in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lovisa, Federica; Zecca, Marco; Rossi, Bartolomeo; Campeggio, Mimma; Magrin, Elisa; Giarin, Emanuela; Buldini, Barbara; Songia, Simona; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Mina, Tommaso; Acquafredda, Gloria; Quarello, Paola; Locatelli, Franco; Fagioli, Franca; Basso, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    Relapse remains the leading cause of treatment failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We retrospectively investigated the prognostic role of minimal residual disease (MRD) before and after HSCT in 119 children transplanted in complete remission (CR). MRD was measured by polymerase chain reaction in bone marrow samples collected pre-HSCT and during the first and third trimesters after HSCT (post-HSCT1 and post-HSCT3). The overall event-free survival (EFS) was 50%. The cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality was 41% and 9%. Any degree of detectable pre-HSCT MRD was associated with poor outcome: EFS was 39% and 18% in patients with MRD positivity <1 × 10 -3 and ≥1 × 10 -3 , respectively, versus 73% in MRD-negative patients (P < 0·001). This effect was maintained in different disease remissions, but low-level MRD had a very strong negative impact only in patients transplanted in second or further CR. Also, MRD after HSCT enabled patients to be stratified, with increasing MRD between post-HSCT1 and post-HSCT3 clearly defining cohorts with a different outcome. MRD is an important prognostic factor both before and after transplantation. Given that MRD persistence after HSCT is associated with dismal outcome, these patients could benefit from early discontinuation of immunosuppression, or pre-emptive immuno-therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Liver alone or simultaneous liver-kidney transplant? Pretransplant chronic kidney disease and post-transplant outcome - a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Shunji; Safwan, Mohamed; Collins, Kelly; Schilke, Randolph E; Rizzari, Michael; Moonka, Dilip; Brown, Kimberly; Patel, Anita; Yoshida, Atsushi; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2018-05-02

    The new Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Organ Sharing Network (OPTN/UNOS) simultaneous liver-kidney transplant (SLK) policy has been implemented. The aim of this study was to review liver transplant outcomes utilizing the new SLK policy. Liver transplant alone (LTA) and SLK patients between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. Graft survival and post-transplant kidney function were investigated among LTA patients meeting the chronic kidney disease (CKD) criteria of the new policy (LTA-CKD group). To validate our findings, we reviewed and applied our analysis to the OPTN/UNOS registry. A total of 535 patients were eligible from our series. The LTA-CKD group (n = 27) showed worse 1-year graft survival, compared with the SLK group (n = 44), but not significant (81% vs. 93%, P = 0.15). The LTA-CKD group significantly increased a risk of post-transplant dialysis (odds ratio = 5.59 [95% CI = 1.27-24.7], P = 0.02 [Ref. normal kidney function]). Post-transplant dialysis was an independent risk factor for graft loss (hazard ratio = 7.25, 95% CI = 3.3-15.91, P < 0.001 [Ref. SLK]). In the validation analysis based on the OPTN/UNOS registry, the hazard of 1-year-graft loss in the LTA-CKD group (n = 751) was 34.8% higher than the SLK group (n = 2856) (hazard ratio = 1.348, 95% CI = 1.157-1.572, P < 0.001). Indicating SLK for patients who meet the CKD criteria may significantly improve transplant outcomes. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. Predictors of post-traumatic psychological growth in the late years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kristen R; Posluszny, Donna M; DiMartini, Andrea F; DeVito Dabbs, Annette J; Rosenberger, Emily M; Zomak, Rachelle A; Bermudez, Christian; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Although lung transplantation improves quality of life, most psychosocial research focuses on adverse psychological and social functioning outcomes. Positive effects, particularly in the late-term years as physical morbidities increase, have received little attention. We provide the first data on a psychological benefit - post-traumatic growth (PTG) - and we focused on long-term (>5 yr) survivors. Among 178 patients from a prospective study of mental health during the first two yr post-transplant, we recontacted survivors 6-11 yr post-transplant. We assessed PTG (i.e., positive psychological change resulting from the transplant) and examined its relationship to other patient characteristics with multivariable regression analyses. Sixty-four patients (86% of survivors) were assessed (M = 8.1 yr post-transplant, SD = 1.2). Mean PTG exceeded the scale's midpoint (M = 38.6, SD = 10.0; scale midpoint = 25). Recipients experiencing greater PTG were female (p = 0.022), less educated (p = 0.014), and had a history of post-transplant panic disorder (p = 0.005), greater friend support (p = 0.048), and better perceived health (p = 0.032). Neither other pre- or post-transplant mood and anxiety disorders nor transplant-related morbidities (acute rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) predicted PTG. PTG exceeded levels observed in other chronic disease populations, suggesting that lung transplantation may uniquely foster positive psychological change in long-term survivors. PTG occurs despite physical and psychiatric morbidities. Whether PTG promotes other positive post-transplant psychosocial outcomes deserves attention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Can zero-hour cortical biopsy predict early graft outcomes after living donor renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ranjeet Singh; Mehta, Nisarg; Mehta, Sony Bhaskar; Babu, Manas; Bansal, Devesh; Pillai, Biju S; Sam, Mohan P; Krishnamoorthy, Hariharan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify relevance of subclinical pathological findings in the kidneys of living donors and correlate these with early graft renal function. This was a prospective study on 84 living donor kidney transplant recipients over a period of two years. In all the donors, cortical wedge biopsy was taken and sent for assessment of glomerular, mesangial, and tubule status. The graft function of patients with normal histology was compared with those of abnormal histological findings at one, three, and six months, and one year post-surgery. Most abnormal histological findings were of mild degree. Glomerulosclerosis (GS, 25%), interstitial fibrosis (IF, 13%), acute tubular necrosis (ATN 5%), and focal tubal atrophy (FTA, 5%) were the commonly observed pathological findings in zero-hour biopsies. Only those donors who had histological changes of IF and ATN showed progressive deterioration of renal function at one month, three months, six months, and one year post-transplantation. In donors with other histological changes, no significant effect on graft function was observed. Zero-hour cortical biopsy gave us an idea of the general status of the donor kidney and presence or absence of subclinical pathological lesions. A mild degree of subclinical and pathological findings on zero-hour biopsy did not affect early graft renal function in living donor kidney transplantation. Zero-hour cortical biopsy could also help in discriminating donor-derived lesions from de novo alterations in the kidney that could happen subsequently.

  6. Alcohol abuse in deceased liver donors: impact on post-transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Pena, Jose M; Frost, Evan M; Joseph Tector, A

    2015-01-01

    Many deceased liver donors with a history of alcohol abuse are excluded based upon medical history alone. This paper summarizes the transplant outcomes for a large number of deceased liver donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse. The records for 1478 consecutive deceased liver donors were reviewed (2001-2012). As per the United Network for Organ Sharing criteria, heavy alcohol use by an organ donor is defined as chronic intake of two or more drinks per day. Donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse were divided into three groups according to duration of abuse (<10 years, 10-24 years and 25 + years). Reperfusion biopsies are reported. Outcomes include biopsy appearance, early graft function and early and late graft survival. There were 161 donors with alcohol abuse: <10 years (29%); 10-24 years (42%); and ≥25 years (29%). Risk of 90-day graft loss for these three groups was: 0%, 3% and 2%, compared to 3% for all other donors (P = 0.62). Graft survival at 1 year for donor grafts with and without alcohol abuse was 89% and 87% (P = 0.52). There was no difference in early graft function. Cox proportional hazards modelling for graft survival demonstrates no statistically significant difference in survival up to 10 years post-transplant. This study demonstrates successful transplantation of a large number of deceased donor liver grafts from donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse (n = 161; 11% of all grafts). These extended criteria donor allografts may, therefore, be utilized successfully with similar outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fernández del Río, R.; O'Hara, M.E.; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P.; Shah, T.; Whitehouse, T.; Mayhew, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after liver transplant (stage 2). Five patients were followed longitudinally as in-patients in the post-transplant period. Results Seven volatiles were elevated in the breath of patients versus controls. Of these, five showed statistically significant decrease post-transplant: limonene, methanol, 2-pentanone, 2-butanone and carbon disulfide. On an individual basis limonene has the best diagnostic capability (the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) is 0.91), but this is improved by combining methanol, 2-pentanone and limonene (AUROC curve 0.95). Following transplant, limonene shows wash-out characteristics. Conclusions Limonene, methanol and 2-pentanone are breath markers for a cirrhotic liver. This study raises the potential to investigate these volatiles as markers for early-stage liver disease. By monitoring the wash-out of limonene following transplant, graft liver function can be non-invasively assessed. PMID:26501124

  8. What can happen after lung transplantation and the importance of the time since transplantation: radiological review of post-transplantation complications.

    PubMed

    Daimiel Naranjo, I; Alonso Charterina, S

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation is the best treatment option in the final stages of diseases such as cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Better surgical techniques and advances in immunosuppressor treatments have increased survival in lung transplant recipients, making longer follow-up necessary because complications can occur at any time after transplantation. For practical purposes, complications can be classified as early (those that normally occur within two months after transplantation), late (those that normally occur more than two months after transplantation), or time-independent (those that can occur at any time after transplantation). Many complications have nonspecific clinical and radiological manifestations, so the time factor is key to narrow the differential diagnosis. Imaging can guide interventional procedures and can detect complications early. This article aims to describe and illustrate the complications that can occur after lung transplantation from the clinical and radiological viewpoints so that they can be detected as early as possible. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Bacterial Pneumonia After Hepatic Transplantation: Epidemiologic Profile.

    PubMed

    Prieto Amorin, J; Lopez, M; Rando, K; Castelli, J; Medina Presentado, J

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving liver transplantation (LT), particularly bacterial pneumonia occurring within the first 100 days after transplantation. Our aim in this study was to determine the incidence, microorganisms involved, associated factors, and morbidity of bacterial pneumonia presenting in the first 100 days posttransplant. We performed a cohort study in which patients receiving liver transplantation were included prospectively in our national database (Database of Infections in Transplantation of Solid Organs). The study period was from July 14, 2009 to July 24, 2015. One hundred six patients were transplanted during the 6-year period. We documented 9 bacterial pneumonia cases with an incidence of 8.5 per 100 patients; 2 patients had hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and 7 had ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In 4 of the 9 bacterial pneumonia cases, patients presented with bacteremia. Eleven microorganisms were isolated these 9 patients. Microbiologic diagnosis methods included 5 cases of alveolar bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 1 case of BAL and pleural fluid puncture, 1 case of pleural fluid puncture, and 1 case through sputum study. Of the 11 isolated organisms, 9 corresponded to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB): Klebsiella spp, n = 3; Acinetobacter baumannii, n = 4; Morganella morganii, n = 1; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, n = 1. Regarding the resistance profile, 7 presented with a multiresistance profile (MDR) and extreme resistance (XDR). Univariate analysis identified the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) pretransplant score as a factor associated with developing pneumonia (P < .001, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.872-10.167), and early extubation, before 8 hours posttransplant, as a protective factor (P = .008; relative risk [RR] 0.124; 95% CI 0 .041-0.377). Hospital stay was longer in patients with pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia (P < .0001, 95% CI

  10. Presentation of an acquired urea cycle disorder post liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ghabril, Marwan; Nguyen, Justin; Kramer, David; Genco, Trina; Mai, Martin; Rosser, Barry G

    2007-12-01

    The liver's role as the largest organ of metabolism and the unique and often critical function of liver-specific enzyme pathways imply a greater risk to the recipient of acquiring a donor metabolic disease with liver transplants versus other solid organ transplants. With clinical consequences rarely reported, the frequency of solid organ transplant transfer of metabolic disease is not known. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), although rare, is the most common of the urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Because of phenotypic heterogeneity, OTCD may go undiagnosed into adulthood. With over 5000 liver transplant procedures annually in the United States, the likelihood of unknowingly transmitting OTCD through liver transplantation is very low. We describe the clinical course of a liver transplant recipient presenting with acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy after receiving a liver graft form a donor with unrecognized OTCD. Copyright (c) 2007 AASLD.

  11. Severe right ventricular dysfunction is an independent predictor of pre- and post-transplant mortality among candidates for heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ravis, Eleonore; Theron, Alexis; Mancini, Julien; Jaussaud, Nicolas; Morera, Pierre; Chalvignac, Virginie; Guidon, Catherine; Grisoli, Dominique; Gariboldi, Vlad; Riberi, Alberto; Habib, Gilbert; Mouly-Bandini, Annick; Collart, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    Heart transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for end-stage heart failure. However, the shortage of grafts has led to longer waiting times and increased mortality for candidates without priority. To study waiting-list and post-transplant mortality, and their risk factors among patients registered for heart transplantation without initial high emergency procedure. All patients registered on the heart transplantation waiting list (2004-2015) without initial high emergency procedure were included. Clinical, biological, echocardiographic and haemodynamic data were collected. Waiting list and 1-year post-transplant survival were analysed with a Kaplan-Meier model. Of 221 patients enrolled, 168 (76.0%) were men. Mean age was 50.0±12.0 years. Forty-seven patients died on the waiting list, resulting in mortality rates of 11.2±2.7% at 1 year, 31.9±5.4% at 2 years and 49.4±7.1% at 3 years. Median survival was 36.0±4.6 months. In the multivariable analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction<30% (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-10.24; P=0.010) and severe right ventricular systolic dysfunction (HR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.41-5.92; P=0.004) were associated with increased waiting-list mortality. The post-transplant survival rate was 73.1±4.4% at 1 year. Pretransplant severe right ventricular dysfunction and age>50 years were strong predictors of death after transplantation (HR: 5.38, 95% CI: 1.38-10.24 [P=0.020] and HR: 6.16, 95% CI: 1.62-9.32 [P=0.0130], respectively). Mortality among candidates for heart transplantation remains high. Patients at highest risk of waiting-list mortality have to be promoted, but without compromising post-transplant outcomes. For this reason, candidates with severe right ventricular dysfunction are of concern, because, for them, transplantation is hazardous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Autologous transplantation versus allogeneic transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma experiencing early treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sonali M; Godfrey, James; Ahn, Kwang Woo; DiGilio, Alyssa; Ahmed, Sairah; Agrawal, Vaibhav; Bachanova, Veronika; Bacher, Ulrike; Bashey, Asad; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Cairo, Mitchell; Chen, Andy; Chhabra, Saurabh; Copelan, Edward; Dahi, Parastoo B; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Farooq, Umar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark; Holmberg, Leona; Inwards, David; Kanate, Abraham S; Karmali, Reem; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Klein, Andreas; Lazarus, Hillard M; Mei, Matthew; Mussetti, Alberto; Nishihori, Taiga; Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Praveen; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Shah, Nirav; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Vij, Ravi; Vose, Julie; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-06-15

    Early treatment failure (ETF) in follicular lymphoma (FL), defined as relapse or progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy, is a newly recognized marker of poor survival and identifies a high-risk group of patients with an expected 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of approximately 50%. Transplantation is an established option for relapsed FL, but its efficacy in this specific ETF FL population has not been previously evaluated. This study compared autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) with either matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as the first transplantation approach for patients with ETF FL (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing auto-HCT or allo-HCT between 2002 and 2014. The primary endpoint was OS. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Four hundred forty FL patients had ETF (auto-HCT, 240; MSD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HCT], 105; and MUD HCT, 95). With a median follow-up of 69 to 73 months, the adjusted probability of 5-year OS was significantly higher after auto-HCT (70%) or MSD HCT (73%) versus MUD HCT (49%; P = .0008). The 5-year adjusted probability of NRM was significantly lower for auto-HCT (5%) versus MSD (17%) or MUD HCT (33%; P < .0001). The 5-year adjusted probability of disease relapse was lower with MSD (31%) or MUD HCT (23%) versus auto-HCT (58%; P < .0001). Patients with high-risk FL, as defined by ETF, undergoing auto-HCT for FL have low NRM and a promising 5-year OS rate (70%). MSD HCT has lower relapse rates than auto-HCT but similar OS. Cancer 2018;124:2541-51. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  13. Post-transplant survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients concurrently listed for single and double lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Dhaval; Karanam, Ashwin B; Merlo, Aurelie; Tom Bozzay, P A; Zucker, Mark J; Seethamraju, Harish; Shariati, Nazly; Russo, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Lung transplantation is a widely accepted treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there are conflicting data on whether double lung transplant (DLT) or single lung transplant (SLT) is the superior therapy in these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether actuarial post-transplant graft survival among IPF patients concurrently listed for DLT and SLT is greater for recipients undergoing the former or the latter. The United Network for Organ Sharing provided de-identified patient-level data. Analysis included lung transplant candidates with IPF listed between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009 (n = 3,411). The study population included 1,001 (29.3%) lung transplant recipients concurrently listed for DLT and SLT, all ≥18 years of age. The primary outcome measure was actuarial post-transplant graft survival, expressed in years. Among the study population, 433 (43.26%) recipients underwent SLT and 568 (56.74%) recipients underwent DLT. The analysis included 2,722.5 years at risk, with median graft survival of 5.31 years. On univariate (p = 0.317) and multivariate (p = 0.415) regression analyses, there was no difference in graft survival between DLT and SLT. Among IPF recipients concurrently listed for DLT and SLT, there is no statistical difference in actuarial graft survival between recipients undergoing DLT vs SLT. This analysis suggests that increased use of SLT for IPF patients may increase the availability of organs to other candidates, and thus increase the net benefit of these organs, without measurably compromising outcomes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated pretransplantation soluble CD30 is associated with decreased early allograft function after human lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashish S; Leffell, M Sue; Lucas, Donna; Zachary, Andrea A

    2009-02-01

    Early allograft function after lung transplantation is variable. Clinical criteria have limited predictive value for early graft function. Recipient immunologic state before LTx may affect early lung function. We investigated the association between pretransplantation soluble CD30 (sCD30), a marker of Th2-type T-cell activation, and early clinical parameters of allograft function. Between September 2002 and January 2007, a total of 80 transplantations were performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Of the patients, 43 had a pretransplantation sCD30 level determined. Pre- and postoperative patient variables were collected, and patients were stratified into two groups: sCD30 <20 (low sCD30) and >20 (high sCD30). High sCD30 (n = 26) and low sCD30 (n = 17) groups were similar in age, gender, and ischemia time. In the high sCD30 group, a higher percentage of patients had pulmonary fibrosis and a lower percentage had emphysema. Oxygenation at 48 hours was significantly worse in the high sCD30 group as compared with the low sCD30 (p = 0.003). Moreover, prolonged intubation and 90-day mortality were greater in the high sCD30 group. This represents the first report of the use of sCD30 as a marker for early allograft function in human lung transplanation. Increased pretransplantation recipient sCD30 appears to be associated with decreased early post-transplantation gas exchange, prolonged intubation, and early mortality.

  15. Effects of an early referral system on liver transplantation for hepatoblastoma at Texas Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kueht, Michael; Thompson, Patrick; Rana, Abbas; Cotton, Ronald; O'Mahony, Christine; Goss, John

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to analyze the effects of an ERS on time to transplantation and to describe our center's experience with OLT for HB. Patients who received OLT for HB between 2000 and 2013 were included. Patient and allograft characteristics, chemotherapy regimens, and prior surgical therapies were examined. The interval between diagnosis and OLT prior to and following the institution of an ERS for transplant was compared. Survival and tumor recurrence were analyzed. Nineteen patients received OLT for HB (mean age 33 months). All children received grafts from deceased donors. Two patients underwent prior resections. Tumor recurred in four patients (21.1%). Both patients who received salvage transplants experienced post-OLT recurrence. Three of the four recurrences occurred in spite of adjuvant chemotherapy. There were three deaths: two from metastatic disease. One- and five-yr survivals were 86.1% and 73.8%. After the institution of the ERS, the mean interval between tissue diagnosis and OLT was significantly reduced. Our series of 19 patients demonstrates a 21% recurrence of HB following OLT despite chemotherapy. Five-yr survival reached 73.8%. A system of early referral can effectively reduce times between diagnosis and transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Regular monitoring of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity in intermediate-risk kidney transplant recipients: predictive value of the immediate post-transplant assessment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Giménez, Estela; Vinuesa, Víctor; Ruiz-Merlo, Tamara; Parra, Patricia; Amat, Paula; Montejo, Miguel; Paez-Vega, Aurora; Cantisán, Sara; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Fortún, Jesús; Andrés, Amado; San Juan, Rafael; López-Medrano, Francisco; Navarro, David; María Aguado, José

    2018-05-24

    Previous studies on monitoring of post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are limited by single-center designs and disparate risk categories. We aimed to assess the clinical value of a regular monitoring strategy in a large multicenter cohort of intermediate-risk kidney transplant (KT) recipients. We recruited 124 CMV-seropositive KT recipients with no T-cell-depleting induction preemptively managed at four Spanish institutions. CMV-specific interferon-γ-producing CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells were enumerated through the first post-transplant year by intracellular cytokine staining after stimulation with pp65 and IE-1 peptides (mean of 6 measurements per patient). The primary outcome was the occurrence of any CMV event (asymptomatic infection and/or disease). Optimal cut-off values for CMV-specific T-cells were calculated at baseline and day 15. Twelve-month cumulative incidence of CMV infection and/or disease was 47.6%. Patients with pre-transplant CMV-specific CD8 + T-cell count <1.0 cells/μL had higher risk of CMV events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.84; P-value = 0.054). When the CMI assessment was performed at the immediate post-transplant period (day 15), the presence of <2.0 CD8 + T-cells/μL (aHR: 2.18; P-value = 0.034) or <1.0 CD4 + T-cells/μL (aHR: 2.43; P-value = 0.016) also predicted the subsequent development of CMV event. In addition, lower counts of CMV-specific CD4 + (but not CD8 + ) T-cells at days 60 and 180 were associated with a higher incidence of late-onset events. Monitoring for CMV-specific CMI in intermediate-risk KT recipients must be regular to reflect dynamic changes in overall immunosuppression and individual susceptibility. The early assessment at post-transplant day 15 remains particularly informative. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Spontaneous Graft Intra- and Perihepatic Hematoma after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lupaşcu, Cristian; Apopei, Oana; Vlad, Nutu; Vasiluta, Ciprian; Trofin, Ana-Maria; Zabara, Mihai; Vornicu, Alexandra; Lupaşcu-Ursulescu, Corina; Nitu, Mioara; Crumpei, Felicia; Braşoveanu, Vladislav; Popescu, Irinel

    2017-01-01

    Hematoma of the graft is a life threatening complication of liver transplantation (LT) and there has been no overt conclusion in the literature about optimal management except in scarcely reported cases. It may be either intrahepatic or subcapsular, then again it may develop spontaneously or following parenchimal injuries or transhepatic percutaneous invasive manoeuvers. In this report we describe a rare case of large spontaneous graft intra- and perihepatic hematoma. A 62 year-old man underwent a whole graft orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for decompensated chronic liver disease due to alcoholic cirrhosis. The surgical procedure was uneventful. During the early postoperative course, routine Doppler ultrasound examination and CT-scan revealed an extrahepatic paracaval hematoma, 7 days after transplantation, which was stable and conservatively managed until the 18-th postoperative day, when rapidly expanding intraparenchimal hematoma involving the right hemiliver, several other perihepatic hematomas, significant right pleural effusion and hemorrhagic ascites were described. The patient was successfully treated conservatively (nonsurgically) with slow recovery of the liver allograft and discharged one month later in good general status. Celsius.

  18. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparable post-relapse outcomes between haploidentical and matched related donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y-R; Xu, L-P; Zhang, X-H; Yan, C-H; Wang, Y; Wang, F-R; Wang, J-Z; Chen, Y; Han, W; Chen, Y-H; Chen, H; Liu, K-Y; Huang, X-J

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the impact of donor type on post-relapse survival (PRS) in 85 patients with hematological relapse after their first allogeneic hematological stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for hematological malignancy. The median follow-up was 64 months among survivors. Both 3-year overall survival and 3-year PRS were similar in haploidentical donor (HID) and matched sibling donor (MRD) transplantation (13.0%±4.7% vs 19.4%±7.1%, P=0.913 and 7.7±3.9% vs 9.7±5.3%, P= 0.667). Higher rates of post-relapse grade II-IV and III-IV acute GvHD (aGvHD) were observed in HID transplantation patients. A higher cumulative incidence of post-relapse extensive chronic GvHD was also observed for HID transplantation patients. Multivariate analyses confirmed that treatment including donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), late relapse >1 year, and in first CR at transplantation were associated with superior PRS (P=0.012, hazard ratio (HR)=0.527 (0.320-0.866)); P=0.033, HR=0.534 (0.300-0.952) and P=0.046, HR=0.630 (0.400-0.992). The data suggest that post-relapse outcomes are comparable in HID and MRD transplantation, and that DLI is safe for relapsed patients after haploidentical transplantation.

  20. Patients Prioritize Waitlist over Post-Transplant Outcomes When Evaluating Kidney Transplant Centers.

    PubMed

    Husain, S Ali; Brennan, Corey; Michelson, Ariane; Tsapepas, Demetra; Patzer, Rachel E; Schold, Jesse D; Mohan, Sumit

    2018-06-26

    Factors that patients value when choosing a transplant center have not been well studied. In order to guide the improvement of patient-facing materials, we conducted an anonymous electronic survey of National Kidney Foundation Patient Panel members that assessed relative importance of patient experience, practical considerations, transplant center reputation, center experience, and waitlist when selecting a transplant center. 409 respondents completed the survey, of whom 68% were kidney transplant recipients and 32% had chronic kidney disease or were on dialysis (CKD). Participants had mean age 56±12 years and were predominantly female (61%), white (79%), and had an associate's degree or higher (68%). Participants most often prioritized waitlist when evaluating transplant centers (transplanted 26%, CKD 40%), and waitlist was almost twice as likely as outcomes to be ranked most important (30% vs 17%). Education level and transplant status were significantly associated with center prioritization. Waitlisted respondents most commonly (48%) relied on physicians for information when selecting a center, while a minority cited transplant-specific organizations. In order to improve shared decision-making, materials outlining center-specific waitlist features should be prioritized. Novel patient-oriented metrics for measuring transplant center quality that align with patient priorities must be explored. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Initial Steroid Sensitivity in Children with Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome Predicts Post-Transplant Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wen Y.; Koziell, Ania; McCarthy, Hugh J.; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Bhagavatula, Murali K.; Dudley, Jan A.; Inward, Carol D.; Coward, Richard J.; Tizard, Jane; Reid, Christopher; Antignac, Corinne; Boyer, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, 10%–20% fail to respond to steroids or develop secondary steroid resistance (termed initial steroid sensitivity) and the majority progress to transplantation. Although 30%–50% of these patients suffer disease recurrence after transplantation, with poor long-term outcome, no reliable indicator of recurrence has yet been identified. Notably, the incidence of recurrence after transplantation appears reduced in patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) due to monogenic disorders. We reviewed 150 transplanted patients with SRNS to identify biomarkers that consistently predict outcome of SRNS after transplantation. In all, 25 children had genetic or familial SRNS and did not experience post-transplant recurrence. We reviewed phenotypic factors, including initial steroid sensitivity, donor type, age, ethnicity, time to ESRD, and time on dialysis, in the remaining 125 children. Of these patients, 57 (45.6%) developed post-transplant recurrence; 26 of 28 (92.9%) patients with initial steroid sensitivity recurred after transplantation, whereas only 26 of 86 (30.2%) patients resistant from the outset recurred (odds ratio, 30; 95% confidence interval, 6.62 to 135.86; P<0.001). We were unable to determine recurrence in two patients (one with initial steroid sensitivity), and nine patients did not receive initial steroids. Our data show that initial steroid sensitivity is highly predictive of post-transplant disease recurrence in this pediatric patient population. Because a pathogenic circulating permeability factor in nephrotic syndrome remains to be confirmed, we propose initial steroid sensitivity as a surrogate marker for post-transplant recurrence. PMID:24511128

  2. Patent foramen ovale does not have a negative impact on early outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alba, Ana Carolina; Verocai Flaman, F; Granton, J; Delgado, D H

    2011-01-01

    To identify the impact of the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Twenty-seven pre-liver transplant patients who had a PFO (PFO group) were identified and compared with 61 patients without PFO (NoPFO group). Patients were matched according to age, gender and cause of liver disease. The diagnosis of PFO was made by transthoracic echocardiography prior to liver transplantation. Patient baseline characteristics and complications during the early post-transplant period were analyzed. The mean age in the PFO group was 47 ± 14 (range 18-68) yr and 50 ± 11 (range 12-65) yr in the NoPFO group. The PFO group had a mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 15 ± 10 whereas in the NoPFO group the MELD score was 19 ± 10 (p = 0.08). There were non-significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between groups. Duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of neurological complications were similar. Thirty-day mortality rate was similar in both groups; only one patient in the NoPFO group died within the first 30 days post-transplantation. The presence of PFO in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation does not appear to affect patient outcomes during the peri-operative period. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Early lung retrieval from traumatic brain-dead donors does not compromise outcomes following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Paula; Alvarez, Antonio; Illana, Jennifer; Espinosa, Dionisio; Baamonde, Carlos; Cerezo, Francisco; Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra, Angel

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether lung retrieval from traumatic donors performed within 24 h of brain death has a negative impact on early graft function and survival after lung transplantation (LT), when compared with those retrieved after 24 h. Review of lung transplants performed from traumatic donors over a 17-year period. Recipients were distributed into two groups: transplants from traumatic donor lungs retrieved within 24 h of brain death (Group A), and transplants from traumatic donor lungs retrieved after 24 h of brain death (Group B). Demographic data of donors and recipients, early graft function, perioperative complications and mortality were compared between both groups. Among 356 lung transplants performed at our institution, 132 were from traumatic donors (70% male, 30% female). Group A: 73 (55%); Group B: 59 (45%). There were 53 single, 77 double, and 2 combined LT. Indications were emphysema in 41 (31%), pulmonary fibrosis in 31 (23%), cystic fibrosis in 38 (29%), bronchiectasis in 9 (7%) and other indications in 13 patients (10%). Donor and recipient demographic data, need or cardiopulmonary bypass, postoperative complications and Intensive Care Unit and hospital stay did not differ between groups. Primary graft dysfunction (A vs B): 9 (16%) vs 13 (26%) P = 0.17. PaO2/FiO2 24 h post-transplant (A vs B): 303 mmHg vs 288 mmHg (P = 0.57). Number of acute rejection episodes (A vs B): 0.93 vs 1.49 (P = 0.01). Postoperative intubation time (A vs B): 99 vs 100 h (P = 0.99). 30-day mortality (A vs B): 7 (10%) vs 2 (3.5%) (P = 0.13). Freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (A vs B): 82, 72, 37, 22 vs 78, 68, 42, 15%, at 3, 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively (P = 0.889). Survival (A vs B): 65, 54, 46, 42 and 27 vs 60, 50, 45, 43 and 29% at 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years, respectively (P = 0.937). In our experience, early lung retrieval after brain death from traumatic donors does not adversely affect early and long-term outcomes after LT.

  4. T cell costimulation blockade promotes transplantation tolerance in combination with sirolimus and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for haploidentical transplantation in children with severe aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita Rani; Bhakuni, Prakash; Zaman, Shamsuz; Bansal, Satish; Bharadwaj, Priyanka; Bhargava, Sneh; Chakrabarti, Suparno

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a pilot study employing extended T cell costimulation blockade (COSBL) with Abatacept along with sirolimus and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in 10 patients (median age 12) with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Nine patients engrafted in the COSBL group, compared to all 10 patients (median 14 vs 13days) treated on PTCy protocols without abatacept (CONTROL group). The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 10.5% in the COSBL group compared to 50% in the CONTROL group (p=0.04). Chronic GVHD (12.5% vs 56%, p=0.02) and CMV reactivation (30% vs 80%, p=0.03) were also reduced in the COSBL group. T and NK cell subset analysis revealed higher CD56 bright CD16 - NK cells in the CONTROL group (p=0.004), but similar CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells in both groups at day+30. Tregs (CD4 + CD25 + CD127 dim/- FoxP3+) were markedly higher in the COSBL group at day+30 (8.4% vs 1.1%) and the trend was maintained through day+90 (p<0.01). The GVHD and Disease-free survival at one year in the COSBL group was 80% vs. 30% in the CONTROL group (p=0.05). Our preliminary findings suggest that COSBL in combination with PTCy and sirolimus might augment transplantation tolerance in children with SAA, probably due to synergistic effect on early recovery of Tregs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early graft function and carboxyhemoglobin level in liver transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Yasser; Negmi, H; Elmasry, N; Sadek, M; Riaz, A; Al Ouffi, H; Khalaf, H

    2007-10-01

    Heme-Oxygenase-1 catalyzes hemoglobin into bilirubin, iron, and carbon monoxide, a well known vasodilator. Heme-Oxygenase-1 expression and carbon monoxide production as measured by blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, increase in end stage liver disease patients. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin level and early graft function in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. In a descriptive retrospective study, 39 patients who underwent liver transplantation between the year 2005 and 2006 at KFSH&RC, are included in the study. All patients received general anesthesia with isoflurane in 50% oxygen and air. Levels of oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentration in percentage were recorded at preoperative time, anhepatic phase, end of surgery, ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The level of lactic acid, prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombin time (PTT), serum total bilirubin and ammonia were also recorded at ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The numbers of blood units transfused were recorded. 39 patients were included in the study with 13/39 for living donor liver transplant (LDLT) compared to 26/39 patients scheduled for deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT). The mean age was 35.9 +/- 16.9 years while the mean body weight was 60.3 +/- 20.9 Kg. Female to male ratio was 21/18. The median packed red blood cell (PRBC) units was 4 (Rang 0-40). There was a significant increase in carboxyhemoglobin level during the anhepatic phase, end of surgery and on ICU admission compared with preoperative value (p<0.005). However, there was insignificant changes in methemoglobin level and significant decrease in oxyhemoglobin levels throughout the study period compared to the preoperative value (p<0.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin level on ICU admission and 24 hrs postoperatively were positively correlated with the changes in serum total bilirubin and prothrombin time (R = 0.35, 0.382, 0.325 and 0

  6. Early Improvement in Marrow Fibrosis Following Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shuichiro; Tsumanuma, Riko; Aizawa, Keiko; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Maeda, Kunihiko; Omoto, Ejiro

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis for myelodysplastic syndrome with bone marrow fibrosis (MDS-F) is worse than the prognosis of MDS without fibrosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy; however, the indications and the procedures involved in HSCT remain unclear. We herein describe a 69-year-old Japanese man with MDS-F who received haploidentical HSCT and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. Although the first HSCT resulted in secondary graft failure, the second HSCT using PTCy led to successful engraftment after early improvement in fibrosis. Since the incidence of graft failure is high in myelofibrosis patients, a secondary HSCT using PTCy may be successful if employed. PMID:27853082

  7. Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Treatment, and Impact on Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shivaswamy, Vijay; Boerner, Brian; Larsen, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent consequence of solid organ transplantation. PTDM has been associated with greater mortality and increased infections in different transplant groups using different diagnostic criteria. An international consensus panel recommended a consistent set of guidelines in 2003 based on American Diabetes Association glucose criteria but did not exclude the immediate post-transplant hospitalization when many patients receive large doses of corticosteroids. Greater glucose monitoring during all hospitalizations has revealed significant glucose intolerance in the majority of recipients immediately after transplant. As a result, the international consensus panel reviewed its earlier guidelines and recommended delaying screening and diagnosis of PTDM until the recipient is on stable doses of immunosuppression after discharge from initial transplant hospitalization. The group cautioned that whereas hemoglobin A1C has been adopted as a diagnostic criterion by many, it is not reliable as the sole diabetes screening method during the first year after transplant. Risk factors for PTDM include many of the immunosuppressant medications themselves as well as those for type 2 diabetes. The provider managing diabetes and associated dyslipidemia and hypertension after transplant must be careful of the greater risk for drug-drug interactions and infections with immunosuppressant medications. Treatment goals and therapies must consider the greater risk for fluctuating and reduced kidney function, which can cause hypoglycemia. Research is actively focused on strategies to prevent PTDM, but until strategies are found, it is imperative that immunosuppression regimens are chosen based on their evidence to prolong graft survival, not to avoid PTDM.

  8. An unusual manifestation of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the lip after pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Akanay-Diesel, S; Schuster, F R; Klee, D; Schmidt, K G; Donner, B C

    2012-11-01

    PTLD is a serious and frequently observed complication after solid organ transplantation. We present a six-yr-old girl with a rapidly growing, solid tumor of the lip four yr after orthotopic heart transplantation, which was classified as monomorphic PTLD with the characteristics of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Treatment with reduction in immunosuppression, ganciclovir, and anti B-cell monoclonal antibody (rituximab) resulted in full remission since 12 months. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first description of PTLD in the lip in a pediatric patient after heart transplantation in the English literature. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Post-Transplantation Natural Killer Cell Count: A Predictor of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Survival Outcomes After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hyewon; Han, Mi-Soon; Shim, Hyoeun; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Boram; Kong, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Reconstitution of the immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) plays an important role in post-transplant outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of the lymphocyte subset (LST) counts to transplant-related complications and survival outcomes after allo-HSCT has not been fully elucidated. A total of 70 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2013, with LST results both 7 days before conditioning and 30 or 90 days after allo-HSCT were included. The LST counts in the peripheral blood were determined using 6-color flow cytometry. Clinical information, including transplant-related events during the first 100 days after allo-HSCT, was reviewed, and any association between these events and LST was analyzed. At 30 days after allo-HSCT, the CD4 + T-cell (P = .009) and B-cell (P = .035) counts were lower and the natural killer (NK) cell count was greater (P < .001) than before conditioning. The CD8 + T-cell (P = .001) and NK cell (P < .001) counts were high 90 days after transplantation. The hazard ratios for a low NK cell count on days 30 and 90 for acute graft-versus-host disease were 6.22 and 14.67, respectively. Patients with low NK cell counts at 30 and 90 days after allo-HSCT had poorer overall survival (P = .043 and P = .028, respectively) and greater nonrelapse mortality (P = .036 and P = .033, respectively). A low NK cell count on day 30 was still prognostic for overall survival (P = .039) on multivariable analysis. NK cell counts after allo-HSCT, especially on day 30, were predictive of acute graft-versus-host disease, nonrelapse mortality, and survival. Serial lymphocyte subset analysis can be used to identify and treat patients at risk during the early period after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early relapse after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation remains a poor prognostic factor in multiple myeloma but outcomes have improved over time.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Fraser, R; Mingwei, F; Akpek, G; Cornell, R; Kharfan-Dabaja, M; Freytes, C; Hashmi, S; Hildebrandt, G; Holmberg, L; Kyle, R; Lazarus, H; Lee, C; Mikhael, J; Nishihori, T; Tay, J; Usmani, S; Vesole, D; Vij, R; Wirk, B; Krishnan, A; Gasparetto, C; Mark, T; Nieto, Y; Hari, P; D'Souza, A

    2018-04-01

    Duration of initial disease response remains a strong prognostic factor in multiple myeloma (MM) particularly for upfront autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) recipients. We hypothesized that new drug classes and combinations employed prior to AHCT as well as after post-AHCT relapse may have changed the natural history of MM in this population. We analyzed the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to track overall survival (OS) of MM patients receiving single AHCT within 12 months after diagnosis (N=3256) and relapsing early post-AHCT (<24 months), and to identify factors predicting for early vs late relapses (24-48 months post-AHCT). Over three periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, 2009-2013), patient characteristics were balanced except for lower proportion of Stage III, higher likelihood of one induction therapy with novel triplets and higher rates of planned post-AHCT maintenance over time. The proportion of patients relapsing early was stable over time at 35-38%. Factors reducing risk of early relapse included lower stage, chemosensitivity, transplant after 2008 and post-AHCT maintenance. Shorter post-relapse OS was associated with early relapse, IgA MM, Karnofsky <90, stage III, >1 line of induction and lack of maintenance. Post-AHCT early relapse remains a poor prognostic factor, even though outcomes have improved over time.

  11. Early fundoplication is associated with slower decline in lung function after lung transplantation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Biswas Roy, Sreeja; Elnahas, Shaimaa; Serrone, Rosemarie; Haworth, Cassandra; Olson, Michael T; Kang, Paul; Smith, Michael A; Bremner, Ross M; Huang, Jasmine L

    2018-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent after lung transplantation. Fundoplication slows lung function decline in patients with GERD, but the optimal timing of fundoplication is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent fundoplication after lung transplantion at our center from April 2007 to July 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: early fundoplication (<6 months after lung transplantation) and late fundoplication (≥6 months after lung transplantation). Annual decline in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) was analyzed. Of the 251 patients who underwent lung transplantation during the study period with available pH data, 86 (34.3%) underwent post-transplantation fundoplication for GERD. Thirty of 86 (34.9%) had early fundoplication and 56 of 86 (65.1%) had late fundoplication. Median time from lung transplantation to fundoplication was 4.6 months (interquartile range, 2.0-5.2) and 13.8 months (interquartile range, 9.0-16.1) for the early and late groups, respectively. The median DeMeester score was comparable between groups. One-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates in the early group were 90%, 70%, and 70%, respectively; in the late group, these rates were 91%, 66%, and 66% (log rank P = .60). Three- and 5-year percent predicted FEV 1 was lower in the late group by 8.9% (95% confidence interval, -30.2 to 12.38; P = .46) and 40.7% (95% confidence interval, -73.66 to -7.69; P = .019). A linear mixed model showed a 5.7% lower percent predicted FEV 1 over time in the late fundoplication group (P < .001). In this study, patients with early fundoplication had a higher FEV 1 5 years after lung transplantation. Early fundoplication might protect against GERD-induced lung damage in lung transplant recipients with GERD. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Planar xanthomas secondary to post-transplantation cholangiopathy in a 16-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirali; Norberg, Adam; Hogeling, Marcia

    2018-05-01

    Planar xanthomas in children represent rare dermatologic findings associated with abnormalities in lipid metabolism. While planar xanthomas in Alagille's syndrome have been well described in the literature, there have been no cases reported of eruptive xanthomas in pediatric liver transplant patients. Herein we report a case of a 16-month-old boy status post-liver transplantation who presents with planar xanthomas secondary to cholangiopathy. A brief review of xanthomas and the related literature is also provided. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Benefit of early inflow exclusion during living donor liver transplantation for unresectable hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hajime; Fukuda, Akinari; Sasaki, Kengo; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Shigeta, Takanobu; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Miyazaki, Osamu; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Mali, Vidyadhar Padmakar; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Kasahara, Mureo

    2016-11-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is a highly malignant primary liver tumor in children. Although liver transplantation (LT) is an effective treatment for unresectable HB with good long-term outcomes, post-transplant survival is mainly affected by recurrence, despite adjuvant chemotherapy. Novel strategies are needed to improve the outcomes in patients undergoing LT for unresectable HB. Twelve children received LT for unresectable HB. In 9 patients, we applied early exclusion of hepatic inflow (hepatic artery and portal vein) and creation of a temporary portocaval shunt during LT. There were differences in the duration of and the blood loss during operation as compared with previously reports. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was well preserved at 3, 6, and 12months and the latest follow-up after LT, and the recurrence-free survival was 88.9%. Early inflow control during LT for unresectable HB may benefit recurrence-free survival by minimizing blood loss and tumor dissemination, preserving renal function and allowing early adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early viral-specific T-cell testing predicts late Cytomegalovirus reactivation following Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sood, S; Haifer, C; Yu, L; Pavlovic, J; Gow, P J; Jones, R M; Visvanathan, K; Angus, P W; Testro, A G

    2018-05-29

    Although antiviral prophylaxis is effective in preventing early cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation following liver transplantation (OLT), it predisposes patients to late CMV after prophylaxis has ceased. QuantiFERON-CMV (QFN-CMV, Qiagen, The Netherlands) measures an individual's viral-specific immune response. Fifty-nine OLT recipients were prospectively monitored post-OLT in an observational cohort study. QFN-CMV was performed at regular time-points. An absolute QFN-CMV <0.1IU/mL was considered non-reactive. 50/59 (84.7%) had a reactive QFN-CMV by M6. 38/59 (64.4%) had antiviral prophylaxis or treatment before M6, with 31/38 (81.6%) developing a reactive QFN-CMV by 6 months. Over 90% already had a reactive result as early as 3 months post-transplant. 3 patients (5.08%) developed late CMV between 6-12 months (median 251 days) - all had a non-reactive M6 QFN-CMV. 2/3 experienced CMV disease. Non-reactive M6 QFN-CMV was significantly associated with late CMV (OR=54.4, PPV=0.33, NPV=1.00, p=0.003). Although only 5% of recipients developed late CMV, 2/3 suffered CMV disease. M6 QFN-CMV has an excellent NPV for late CMV, suggesting patients who exhibit a robust ex-vivo immune response at M6 can safely cease CMV monitoring. Furthermore, >90% already express viral-specific immunity as early as 3 months. Conceivably, antiviral prophylaxis could be discontinued early in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Corrects Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Chinese Patients With IL10RA-Associated Immune Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kaiyue; Qian, Xiaowen; Huang, Zhiheng; Lu, Junping; Wang, Yuhuan; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Bingbing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lingli; Zhai, Xiaowen; Huang, Ying

    2018-05-18

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered the only curative therapy for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with specific immune defects, such as interleukin-10 receptor deficiency. We performed reduced-intensity conditioning before umbilical cord blood transplantation in patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency. We enrolled 9 very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease patients with typical manifestations. We diagnosed the patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency by whole-exome sequencing. Umbilical cord blood transplantation was performed in all 9 patients. Eight patients received the reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, and 1 patient received the myeloablative conditioning regimen. All 9 patients received transplantation between the ages of 6 months to 43 months (average, 16.8 months) with body weights ranging from 3 to 10.4 kg (average, 6.6 kg). The patients displayed complete chimerism at 2-8 weeks after transplantation; 6 patients achieved complete remission without evidence of graft-vs-host disease or infections; 1 patient died of chronic lung graft-vs-host disease at 6 months post-transplantation; and the other 2 patients died of sepsis post-transplantation because of unsuccessful engraftments. Severe malnutrition and growth retardation associated with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency were significantly improved post-transplantation. We recommend umbilical cord blood transplantation as a potential treatment for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with a defined monogenic immunodeficiency, and we suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning chemotherapy is more suitable than myeloablative conditioning for patients with severe malnutrition and bowel disease. We have demonstrated success with reduced-intensity conditioning for interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency in pediatric patients with severe clinical conditions. 10.1093/ibd/izy028_video1izy028.video15786489183001.

  16. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Masquerading Cns Lymphoma on FDG PET-CT in Post Renal Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    20 year old post renal transplant patient developed recurrent episodes of seizure. MRI revealed focal lesion in right parieto-occipital lobe with perilesional edema. FDG PET-CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in bilateral cerebral hemisphere. Subsequent biopsy from the lesion demonstrated bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii with inflammatory cells and thereby, a confirmatory diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. This case demonstrates the fact that increased FDG uptake in cerebral lesions in post transplant patient should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with histopathological correlation. PMID:28533649

  17. Memory B lymphocytes determine repertoire oligoclonality early after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    OMAZIC, B; LUNDKVIST, I; MATTSSON, J; PERMERT, J; NÄSMAN-BJÖRK, I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if oligoclonality of the Ig repertoire post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is restricted to memory B lymphocytes or if it is a general property among B lymphocytes. As a measure of B lymphocyte repertoire diversity, we have analysed size distribution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified Ig H complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) in naive and memory B lymphocytes isolated from patients before HSCT and at 3, 6 and 12 months after HSCT as well as from healthy controls. We demonstrate a limited variation of the IgH CDR3 repertoire in the memory B lymphocyte population compared to the naive B cell population. This difference was significant at 3 and 6 months post-HSCT. Compared to healthy controls there is a significant restriction of the memory B lymphocyte repertoire at 3 months after HSCT, but not of the naive B lymphocyte repertoire. Twelve months after HSCT, the IgH CDR3 repertoire in both memory and naive B lymphocytes are as diverse as in healthy controls. Thus, our findings suggest a role for memory B cells in the restriction of the oligoclonal B cell repertoire observed early after HSCT, which may be of importance when considering reimmunization of transplanted patients. PMID:12974769

  18. Recent advances in the risk factors, diagnosis and management of Epstein-Barr virus post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Aguayo-Hiraldo, Paibel; Arasaratnam, Reuben; Rouce, Rayne H

    Fifty years after the first reports of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated endemic Burkitt's lymphoma, EBV has emerged as the third most prevalent oncogenic virus worldwide. EBV infection is associated with various malignancies including Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, NK/T-cell lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Despite the highly specific immunologic control in the immunocompetent host, EBV can cause severe complications in the immunocompromised host (namely, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease). This is particularly a problem in patients with delayed immune reconstitution post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant or solid organ transplant. Despite advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment algorithms allowing earlier identification and treatment of patients at highest risk, mortality rates remain as high as 90% if not treated early. The cornerstones of treatment include reduction in immunosuppression and in vivo B cell depletion with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. However, these treatment modalities are not always feasible due to graft rejection, emergence of graft vs. host disease, and toxicity. Newer treatment modalities include the use of adoptive T cell therapy, which has shown promising results in various EBV-related malignancies. In this article we will review recent advances in risk factors, diagnosis and management of EBV-associated malignancies, particularly post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. We will also discuss new and innovative treatment options including adoptive T cell therapy as well as management of special situations such as chronic active EBV and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. [Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-bao; Wang, Ying; Song, Qiu-jing; Shen, Dan-hua

    2012-09-01

    To study the clinical and histopathologic features, diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). The clinical and pathologic features of 15 cases of PTLD were retrospectively analyzed by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization, according to the updated 2008 WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Amongst the 15 cases studied, 14 cases had received allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) and 1 case had received renal transplantation. There were altogether 12 males and 3 females. The male-to-female ratio was 4:1. The mean age was 30.4 years and the median age was 31 years (range from 9 to 60 years). PTLD developed 1.5 to 132 months after transplantation (median 13.0 months). The mean age of the 14 patients with AHSCT was 28.3 years (range from 9 to 45 years) and PTLD developed 1.5 to 19 months after transplantation (mean 4.5 months). Major clinical presentation included fever and lymphadenopathy. Twelve cases involved mainly lymph nodes and the remaining 3 cases involved tonsils, stomach and small intestine, respectively. The histologic types in 4 cases represented early lesions, including plasmacytic hyperplasia (n = 1) and infectious mononucleosis-like PTLD (n = 3). Seven cases were polymorphic PTLD, with 4 cases containing a predominance of large cells. Graft-versus-host disease was also seen in the case of small intestinal involvement. Four cases were monomorphic PTLD, 3 of which were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 1 was plasmablastic lymphoma and 1 was a mixture of monomorphic and polymorphic PTLD. Foci of necrosis were seen in 5 cases. The proliferating index of Ki-67 was high. The positive rate of EBV-encoded RNA in AHSCT was 92.9%. The duration of PTLD onset was shorter in EBV-positive cases (range from 1.5 to 7 months) than EBV-negative cases (range from 19 and 132 months). Some cases were treated by reduction of immunosuppression, antiviral

  20. Mobilized Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Versus Unstimulated Bone Marrow As a Graft Source for T-Cell-Replete Haploidentical Donor Transplantation Using Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Bashey, Asad; Zhang, Mei-Jie; McCurdy, Shannon R; St Martin, Andrew; Argall, Trevor; Anasetti, Claudio; Ciurea, Stefan O; Fasan, Omotayo; Gaballa, Sameh; Hamadani, Mehdi; Munshi, Pashna; Al Malki, Monzr M; Nakamura, Ryotaro; O'Donnell, Paul V; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Raj, Kavita; Romee, Rizwan; Rowley, Scott; Rocha, Vanderson; Salit, Rachel B; Solh, Melhem; Soiffer, Robert J; Fuchs, Ephraim Joseph; Eapen, Mary

    2017-09-10

    Purpose T-cell-replete HLA-haploidentical donor hematopoietic transplantation using post-transplant cyclophosphamide was originally described using bone marrow (BM). With increasing use of mobilized peripheral blood (PB), we compared transplant outcomes after PB and BM transplants. Patients and Methods A total of 681 patients with hematologic malignancy who underwent transplantation in the United States between 2009 and 2014 received BM (n = 481) or PB (n = 190) grafts. Cox regression models were built to examine differences in transplant outcomes by graft type, adjusting for patient, disease, and transplant characteristics. Results Hematopoietic recovery was similar after transplantation of BM and PB (28-day neutrophil recovery, 88% v 93%, P = .07; 100-day platelet recovery, 88% v 85%, P = .33). Risks of grade 2 to 4 acute (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; P < .001) and chronic (HR, 0.35; P < .001) graft-versus-host disease were lower with transplantation of BM compared with PB. There were no significant differences in overall survival by graft type (HR, 0.99; P = .98), with rates of 54% and 57% at 2 years after transplantation of BM and PB, respectively. There were no differences in nonrelapse mortality risks (HR, 0.92; P = .74) but relapse risks were higher after transplantation of BM (HR, 1.49; P = .009). Additional exploration confirmed that the higher relapse risks after transplantation of BM were limited to patients with leukemia (HR, 1.73; P = .002) and not lymphoma (HR, 0.87; P = .64). Conclusion PB and BM grafts are suitable for haploidentical transplantation with the post-transplant cyclophosphamide approach but with differing patterns of treatment failure. Although, to our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive comparison, these findings must be validated in a randomized prospective comparison with adequate follow-up.

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis infection post-kidney transplant following remote intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Jennifer; Ho, Julie; Gibson, Ian W; Nayak, Jasmir G; Stein, Markus; Walkty, Andrew; Orr, Pamela

    2018-05-29

    Intravesical Bacillus Camlette-Guérin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and has been used successfully for over 40 years. A rare and potentially fatal complication of intravesical BCG therapy is BCG-induced sepsis. We report a rare case in which a patient with end-stage renal disease secondary to chronic granulomatous interstitial nephritis underwent remote, pre-transplant intravesical BCG treatment for high-grade non-invasive papillary bladder carcinoma. The patient subsequently received a deceased donor kidney transplant 5 years after BCG therapy, with thymoglobulin induction therapy and standard triple maintenance immunosuppression. Two years post-transplant, he developed BCG-induced sepsis confirmed by cultures from urine, blood and left native kidney biopsy. He died from disseminated BCG-induced sepsis and failure of his renal allograft. This case highlights the potential adverse reactions associated with intravesical BCG therapy that may occur years after bladder cancer therapy is completed, and should heighten physician awareness for BCG-related infections during pre-transplant assessment and post-transplant care of solid organ transplants recipients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling the effects of functional performance and post-transplant comorbidities on health-related quality of life after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Javed; McCoin, Nicole S; Feurer, Irene D; Speroff, Theodore; Davis, Stacy F; Chomsky, Don B; Wilson, John R; Merrill, Walter H; Drinkwater, Davis C; Pierson, Richard N; Pinson, C Wright

    2003-10-01

    Health-related quality of life and functional performance are important outcome measures following heart transplantation. This study investigates the impact of pre-transplant functional performance and post-transplant rejection episodes, obesity and osteopenia on post-transplant health-related quality of life and functional performance. Functional performance and health-related quality of life were measured in 70 adult heart transplant recipients. A composite health-related quality of life outcome measure was computed via principal component analysis. Iterative, multiple regression-based path analysis was used to develop an integrated model of variables that affect post-transplant functional performance and health-related quality of life. Functional performance, as measured by the Karnofsky scale, improved markedly during the first 6 months post-transplant and was then sustained for up to 3 years. Rejection Grade > or =2 was negatively associated with health-related quality of life, measured by Short Form-36 and reversed Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale scores. Patients with osteopenia had lower Short Form-36 physical scores and obese patients had lower functional performance. Path analysis demonstrated a negative direct effect of obesity (beta = - 0.28, p < 0.05) on post-transplant functional performance. Post-transplant functional performance had a positive direct effect on the health-related quality of life composite score (beta = 0.48, p < 0.001), and prior rejection episodes grade > or =2 had a negative direct effect on this measure (beta = -0.29, p < 0.05). Either directly or through effects mediated by functional performance, moderate-to-severe rejection, obesity and osteopenia negatively impact health-related quality of life. These findings indicate that efforts should be made to devise immunosuppressive regimens that reduce the incidence of acute rejection, weight gain and osteopenia after heart transplantation.

  3. Fatal disseminated Rasamsonia infection in cystic fibrosis post-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gina; White, Marissa; Lechtzin, Noah; West, Natalie E; Avery, Robin; Miller, Heather; Lee, Richard; Lovari, Robert J; Massire, Christian; Blyn, Lawrence B; Liang, Xinglun; Sutton, Deanna A; Fu, Jianmin; Wickes, Brian L; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-03-01

    Disseminated fungal infections are a known serious complication in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) following orthotopic lung transplantation. Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium species are among the more common causes of invasive fungal infection in this population. However, it is also important for clinicians to be aware of other emerging fungal species which may require markedly different antifungal therapies. We describe the first laboratory-documented case of a fatal disseminated fungal infection caused by Rasamsonia aegroticola in a 21-year-old female CF patient status post-bilateral lung transplantation, which was only identified post-mortem. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of the identical Rasamsonia strains in the patient's respiratory cultures preceding transplantation. We propose that the patient's disseminated fungal disease and death occurred as a result of recrudescence of Rasamsonia infection from her native respiratory system in the setting of profound immunosuppression post-operatively. Since Rasamsonia species have been increasingly recovered from the respiratory tract of CF patients, we further review the literature on these fungi and discuss their association with invasive fungal infections in the CF lung transplant host. Our report suggests Rasamsonia species may be important fungal pathogens that may have fatal consequences in immunosuppressed CF patients after solid organ transplantation. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Treatment, and Impact on Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shivaswamy, Vijay; Boerner, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent consequence of solid organ transplantation. PTDM has been associated with greater mortality and increased infections in different transplant groups using different diagnostic criteria. An international consensus panel recommended a consistent set of guidelines in 2003 based on American Diabetes Association glucose criteria but did not exclude the immediate post-transplant hospitalization when many patients receive large doses of corticosteroids. Greater glucose monitoring during all hospitalizations has revealed significant glucose intolerance in the majority of recipients immediately after transplant. As a result, the international consensus panel reviewed its earlier guidelines and recommended delaying screening and diagnosis of PTDM until the recipient is on stable doses of immunosuppression after discharge from initial transplant hospitalization. The group cautioned that whereas hemoglobin A1C has been adopted as a diagnostic criterion by many, it is not reliable as the sole diabetes screening method during the first year after transplant. Risk factors for PTDM include many of the immunosuppressant medications themselves as well as those for type 2 diabetes. The provider managing diabetes and associated dyslipidemia and hypertension after transplant must be careful of the greater risk for drug-drug interactions and infections with immunosuppressant medications. Treatment goals and therapies must consider the greater risk for fluctuating and reduced kidney function, which can cause hypoglycemia. Research is actively focused on strategies to prevent PTDM, but until strategies are found, it is imperative that immunosuppression regimens are chosen based on their evidence to prolong graft survival, not to avoid PTDM. PMID:26650437

  5. Defective expression of apoptosis-related molecules in multiple sclerosis patients is normalized early after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, G L V; Ferreira, A F; Gasparotto, E P L; Kashima, S; Covas, D T; Guerreiro, C T; Brum, D G; Barreira, A A; Voltarelli, J C; Simões, B P; Oliveira, M C; de Castro, F A; Malmegrim, K C R

    2017-03-01

    Defective apoptosis might be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated apoptosis-related molecules in MS patients before and after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) using BCNU, Etoposide, AraC and Melphalan (BEAM) or cyclophosphamide (CY)-based conditioning regimens. Patients were followed for clinical and immunological parameters for 2 years after AHSCT. At baseline, MS patients had decreased proapoptotic BAD, BAX and FASL and increased A1 gene expression when compared with healthy counterparts. In the BEAM group, BAK, BIK, BIM EL , FAS, FASL, A1, BCL2, BCLX L , CFLIP L and CIAP2 genes were up-regulated after AHSCT. With the exception of BIK, BIM EL and A1, all genes reached levels similar to controls at day + 720 post-transplantation. Furthermore, in these patients, we observed increased CD8 + Fas + T cell frequencies after AHSCT when compared to baseline. In the CY group, we observed increased BAX, BCLW, CFLIP L and CIAP1 and decreased BIK and BID gene expressions after transplantation. At day + 720 post-AHSCT, the expression of BAX, FAS, FASL, BCL2, BCLX L and CIAP1 was similar to that of controls. Protein analyses showed increased Bcl-2 expression before transplantation. At 1 year post-AHSCT, expression of Bak, Bim, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and cFlip-L was decreased when compared to baseline values. In summary, our findings suggest that normalization of apoptosis-related molecules is associated with the early therapeutic effects of AHSCT in MS patients. These mechanisms may be involved in the re-establishment of immune tolerance during the first 2 years post-transplantation. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Pre-lung transplant measures of reflux on impedance are superior to pH testing alone in predicting early allograft injury

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wai-Kit; Burakoff, Robert; Goldberg, Hilary J; Feldman, Natan; Chan, Walter W

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate pre-lung transplant acid reflux on pH-testing vs corresponding bolus reflux on multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) to predict early allograft injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients who underwent pre-transplant combined MII-pH-testing at a tertiary care center from January 2007 to November 2012. Patients with pre-transplant fundoplication were excluded. Time-to-event analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to assess associations between measures of reflux on MII-pH testing and early allograft injury. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (c-statistic) of the Cox model was calculated to assess the predictive value of each reflux parameter for early allograft injury. Six pH-testing parameters and their corresponding MII measures were specified a priori. The pH parameters were upright, recumbent, and overall acid reflux exposure; elevated acid reflux exposure; total acid reflux episodes; and acid clearance time. The corresponding MII measures were upright, recumbent, and overall bolus reflux exposure; elevated bolus reflux exposure; total bolus reflux episodes; and bolus clearance time. RESULTS: Thirty-two subjects (47% men, mean age: 55 years old) met the inclusion criteria of the study. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (46.9%) represented the most common pulmonary diagnosis leading to transplantation. Baseline demographics, pre-transplant cardiopulmonary function, number of lungs transplanted (unilateral vs bilateral), and post-transplant proton pump inhibitor use were similar between reflux severity groups. The area under the ROC curve, or c-statistic, of each acid reflux parameter on pre-transplant pH-testing was lower than its bolus reflux counterpart on MII in the prediction of early allograft injury. In addition, the development of early allograft injury was significantly associated with three pre-transplant MII measures of bolus reflux: overall reflux

  7. Rituximab is not a "magic drug" in post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grenda, Ryszard; Jarmużek, Wioletta; Rubik, Jacek; Piątosa, Barbara; Prokurat, Sylwester

    2016-09-01

    Pediatric patients with end-stage renal failure due to severe drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome are at risk of rapid recurrence after renal transplantation. Treatment options include plasmapheresis, high-dose of cyclosporine A/methylprednisolone and more recently-rituximab (anti-B CD20 monoclonal depleting antibody). We report five patients with immediate (1-2 days) post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome, treated with this kind of combined therapy including 2-4 weekly doses of 375 mg/m(2) of rituximab. Only two (of five) patients have showed full long-term remission, while the partial remission was seen in two cases, and no clinical effect at all was achieved in one patient. The correlation between B CD19 cells depletion and clinical effect was present in two cases only. Severe adverse events were present in two patients, including one fatal rituximab-related acute lung injury. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody may be not effective in all pediatric cases of rapid post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome, and benefit/risk ratio must be carefully balanced on individual basis before taking the decision to use this protocol. • nephrotic syndrome may recur immediately after renal transplantation • plasmapheresis combined with pharmacotherapy is used as rescue management • rituximab was reported as effective drug both in primary and post-transplant nephrotic syndrome What is New: • rituximab may not be effective is several cases of post-transplant nephrotic syndrome due to variety of underlying mechanisms of the disease, which may be or not be responsive to this drug • there may be no correlation between drug-induced depletion of specific B cells and clinical effect; this might suggest B-cell independent manner of rituximab action.

  8. Risk factors and clinical indicators for the development of biliary strictures post liver transplant: Significance of bilirubin

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Elizabeth Ann; Reiling, Janske; Lipka, Geraldine; Fawcett, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify risk factors associated with the formation of biliary strictures post liver transplantation over a period of 10-year in Queensland. METHODS Data on liver donors and recipients in Queensland between 2005 and 2014 was obtained from an electronic patient data system. In addition, intra-operative and post-operative characteristics were collected and a logistical regression analysis was performed to evaluate their association with the development of biliary strictures. RESULTS Of 296 liver transplants performed, 285 (96.3%) were from brain dead donors. Biliary strictures developed in 45 (15.2%) recipients. Anastomotic stricture formation (n = 25, 48.1%) was the commonest complication, with 14 (58.3%) of these occurred within 6-mo of transplant. A percutaneous approach or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was used to treat 17 (37.8%) patients with biliary strictures. Biliary reconstruction was initially or ultimately required in 22 (48.9%) patients. In recipients developing biliary strictures, bilirubin was significantly increased within the first post-operative week (Day 7 total bilirubin 74 μmol/L vs 49 μmol/L, P = 0.012). In both univariate and multivariate regression analysis, Day 7 total bilirubin > 55 μmol/L was associated with the development of biliary stricture formation. In addition, hepatic artery thrombosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis were identified as independent risk factors. CONCLUSION In addition to known risk factors, bilirubin levels in the early post-operative period could be used as a clinical indicator for biliary stricture formation. PMID:29312864

  9. Post-transplant blood transfusions and pediatric renal allograft outcomes.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Priya; Gillingham, Kristen; Matas, Arthur; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Chavers, Blanche

    2016-11-01

    The association of blood transfusions with GS after pediatric KTx is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed blood transfusions post-KTx and subsequent outcomes. Between 1984 and 2013, 482 children (<18 years of age) underwent KTx at our center. Recipient demographics, outcomes and transfusion data were collected. Cox regression with post-KTx blood transfusion as a time-dependent covariate was performed to model the impact of blood transfusion on outcomes. Of the 208 (44%) that were transfused, 39% had transfusion <1 month post-KTx; 48% >12 months. Transfused and non-transfused recipients were not significantly different. In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no difference between transfused and non-transfused recipient patient survival, antibody-mediated and ACR, and DSA free survival. Transfusions <1 month post-KTx did not impact DCGS (P=NS). Patients transfused >12 months post-KTx had significantly lower 12 month eGFR (compared to non-transfused) and worse subsequent DCGS. Post-KTx blood transfusions have increased in pediatric KTx over time but have no negative association with rejection or DSA production. DCGS is unaffected by transfusion within first month. Transfusions after the first year occur in patients with more advanced chronic kidney disease and are associated with significantly worse DCGS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cryptococcus laurentii diarrhea post hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Vivek; Vira, Hemant; Khattry, Navin; Toshniwal, Manoj

    2017-04-01

    We report the recent isolation of Cryptococcus laurentii from the feces of a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The organism was identified using microscopic morphology, cultural characteristics, and biochemical tests including sugar assimilation. Minimum inhibitory concentration of various antifungals was determined by microbroth dilution method. The recovery of pure culture of C. laurentii from stool culture, and the patient's response to treatment with voriconazole support its potential etiological role. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of diarrhea caused by C. laurentii in an HSCT recipient. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. High Emergency Lung Transplantation: dramatic decrease of waiting list death rate without relevant higher post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Beaumont-Azuar, Laurence; Hamid, Abdul Monem; De Miranda, Sandra; Grenet, Dominique; Briend, Guillaume; Bonnette, Pierre; Puyo, Philippe; Parquin, François; Devaquet, Jerome; Trebbia, Gregoire; Cuquemelle, Elise; Douvry, Benoit; Picard, Clément; Le Guen, Morgan; Chapelier, Alain; Stern, Marc; Sage, Edouard

    2015-09-01

    Many candidates for lung transplantation (LT) die on the waiting list, raising the question of graft availability and strategy for organ allocation. We report the experience of the new organ allocation program, "High Emergency Lung Transplantation" (HELT), since its implementation in our center in 2007. Retrospective analysis of 201 lung transplant patients, of whom 37 received HELT from 1st July 2007 to 31th May 2012. HELT candidates had a higher impairment grade on respiratory status and higher Lung Allocation Score (LAS). HELT patients had increased incidence of perioperative complications (e.g., perioperative bleeding) and extracorporeal circulatory assistance (75% vs. 36.6%, P = 0.0005). No significant difference was observed between HELT and non-HELT patients in mechanical ventilation duration (15.5 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.27), intensive care unit length of stay (15 days vs. 10 days, P = 0.22) or survival rate at 12 (81% vs. 80%), and 24 months post-LT (72.9% vs. 75.0%). Lastly, mortality on the waiting list was spectacularly reduced from 19% to 2% when compared to the non-HELT 2004-2007 group. Despite a more severe clinical status of patients on the waiting list, HELT provided similar results to conventional LT. These results were associated with a dramatic reduction in the mortality rate of patients on the waiting list. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Post-Liver Transplantation Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Relevance and Approach to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Jaramillo, Maria J; Cárdenas-Mojica, Allison A; Gaete, Paula V; Mendivil, Carlos O

    2018-04-01

    Post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PLTDM) develops in up to 30% of liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased risk of mortality and multiple morbid outcomes. PLTDM is a multicausal disorder, but the main risk factor is the use of immunosuppressive agents of the calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) family (tacrolimus and cyclosporine). Additional factors, such as pre-transplant overweight, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis C virus infection, may further increase risk of developing PLTDM. A diagnosis of PLTDM should be established only after doses of CNI and steroids are stable and the post-operative stress has been overcome. The predominant defect induced by CNI is insulin secretory dysfunction. Plasma glucose control must start immediately after the transplant procedure in order to improve long-term results for both patient and transplant. Among the better known antidiabetics, metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors have a particularly benign profile in the PLTDM context and are the preferred oral agents for long-term management. Insulin therapy is also an effective approach that addresses the prevailing pathophysiological defect of the disorder. There is still insufficient evidence about the impact of newer families of antidiabetics (GLP-1 agonists, SGLT-2 inhibitors) on PLTDM. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, course of disease and medical management of PLTDM.

  13. The effect of inhalational anaesthesia during deceased donor organ procurement on post-transplantation graft survival.

    PubMed

    Perez-Protto, S; Nazemian, R; Matta, M; Patel, P; Wagner, K J; Latifi, S Q; Lebovitz, D J; Reynolds, J D

    2018-03-01

    Many deceased by neurologic criteria donors are administered inhalational agents during organ recovery surgery-a process that is characterised by warm and cold ischaemia followed by warm reperfusion. In certain settings, volatile anaesthetics (VA) are known to precondition organs to protect them from subsequent ischaemia-reperfusion injury. As such, we hypothesised that exposure to VA during organ procurement would improve post-graft survival. Lifebanc (organ procurement organisation [OPO] for NE Ohio) provided the investigators with a list of death by neurologic criteria organ donors cared for at three large tertiary hospitals in Cleveland between 2006 and 2016-details about the surgical recovery phase were extracted from the organ donors' medical records. De-identified data on graft survival were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). The collated data underwent comparative analysis based on whether or not VA were administered during procurement surgery. Records from 213 donors were obtained for analysis with 138 exposed and 75 not exposed. Demographics, medical histories, and organ procurement rates were similar between the two cohorts. For the primary endpoint, there were no significant differences observed in either early (30-day) or late (five-year) graft survival rates for kidney, liver, lung, or heart transplants. Our findings from this retrospective review of a relatively small cohort do not support the hypothesis that the use of VA during the surgical procurement phase improves graft survival. Reviews of larger datasets and/or a prospective study may be required to provide a definitive answer.

  14. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and post-heart transplant outcomes among United States adults.

    PubMed

    Zalawadiya, Sandip; Fudim, Marat; Bhat, Geetha; Cotts, William; Lindenfeld, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are given priority listing status for heart transplant (HT). Data on post-HT outcomes for adults with ECMO support at the time of HT are limited. We analyzed data from the United Network for Organ Registry (UNOS) registry for 157 ECMO-supported adults (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing HT after January 1, 2000. Data at the time of HT were examined for their association with post-transplant mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses. Patients (69.4% males; mean age, 46.0 ± 15.6 years; 15.9% African Americans) were monitored for median of 0.55 years (interquartile range, 0.04-4.5). Seventy patients (44.6%) died during follow-up (survival at 1 year was 57.8%), of which 43 (61.4%) died within 30 days post-HT. For patients surviving the first 30 days after transplant, long-term survival was acceptable (82.3% at 1 year and 76.2% at 5 years). Prevalence of immediate post-HT complications, such as stroke and need for dialysis, were 10.1% and 28.1%, respectively. Post-HT survival did not differ between those who received an allograft before and after January 1, 2009 (univariate hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.38; p = 0.48). Among the predictors identified for 30-day and long-term mortality were recipient history of renal insufficiency (RI; defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or dialysis) and mechanical ventilation (MV; interaction p < 0.05); those with both MV and RI had significantly poorer post-transplant survival (29.4% and 12.5% for 30-day and 1-year survival, respectively) compared with those without (78.7% and 71.4% for 30-day and 1-year survival, respectively). Post-HT mortality did not change for ECMO-supported adults in the contemporary era, and those with RI and MV had significantly poorer post-transplant survival. A critical review of priority listing status for ECMO-supported patients is warranted for optimal allocation and

  15. Predicting Post-transplant Recurrence of IgA Nephropathy: The Importance of Crescents

    PubMed Central

    Avasare, Rupali S.; Rosenstiel, Paul E.; Zaky, Ziad S.; Tsapepas, Demetra; Appel, Gerald B.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Bomback, Andrew S.; Canetta, Pietro A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Most studies assessing the predictors of recurrent IgA nephropathy in the renal allograft have focused on post-transplant features. Identifying high risk pre-transplant features of IgA nephropathy is useful for counseling patients and may help tailor immunosuppression post-transplant. Methods We investigated the pre-transplant clinical and biopsy features of 62 patients with IgAN who received transplants at Columbia University Medical Center from 2001 to 2012 and compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with IgAN recurrence to those without recurrence. The primary outcome was time to recurrent IgAN. Secondary outcomes were a composite of doubling of creatinine or allograft failure, and recurrent IgAN as a cause of allograft dysfunction. Results Of the 62 patients, 14 had recurrent IgAN in the allograft. Mean time to recurrence was 2.75 years. Those with recurrent disease were younger at time of native kidney biopsy (29 years vs. 41 years, P < 0.0009). Black race and Hispanic ethnicity composed a higher proportion of the recurrent disease group. On multivariable analysis, significant predictors of recurrent IgAN included age at diagnosis (HR 0.911, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.98), burden of crescents on native biopsy (HR 1.21 per 10% increase in crescents, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.47), and allograft rejection (HR 3.59, 95% CI 1.10 to 11.7) Conclusions Features of native IgAN can help predict the risk of recurrent disease in the renal allograft. In particular, immunologically active disease represented by earlier age of onset and greater burden of crescents on native biopsy is more likely to recur post-transplant. PMID:28056461

  16. Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Removal Post-Transplant - A Rare Case of Delayed Bowel Perforation.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Andrew P; Davies, Brian; Colliver, Daniel; Williams, Alun; Lunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a well-established form of renal replacement therapy and the practice of leaving catheters in situ post-transplantation widely accepted. We present a rare complication: a child presenting with anal protrusion of the PD catheter.The patient is an 11-year-old boy with a background of renal dysplasia and congenital cutis laxa. Twenty-three weeks after dialysis was commenced, the patient underwent a renal transplant. Thirteen weeks post-transplant, the patient felt an unusual sensation after defecation. The curled end of the catheter was seen protruding from the anus. He was admitted, and investigations showed stable graft function, with abdominal X ray showing no free air.Intraoperative findings showed a small perforation of the sigmoid colon sealed off by adherence of several small intestinal loops. This was repaired laparoscopically after removal of the distal part of the catheter per rectum. No peritoneal contamination was seen. He was treated with 5 days of intravenous antibiotics and gradual introduction of enteral feeds. His graft function remained stable throughout.Timing of catheter removal varies, from the time of transplantation to over 3 months post-transplantation. Bowel perforation due to PD catheter insertion is rare and tends to occur at the time of insertion. Anal protrusion of a PD catheter in childhood is extremely rare and unrecorded in a pediatric patient with a connective tissue disorder. Our case highlights that serious complications can occur in the period between transplantation and elective PD catheter removal and that, in the immunocompromised patient, signs can be subtle. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  17. Hypertension in kidney transplantation is associated with an early renal nerve sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Rovella, Valentina; Borri, Filippo; Anemona, Lucia; Giannini, Elena; Giacobbi, Erica; Saggini, Andrea; Palmieri, Giampiero; Anselmo, Alessandro; Bove, Pierluigi; Melino, Gerry; Valentina, Guardini; Tesauro, Manfredi; Gabriele, D’Urso; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Normalization of arterial pressure occurs in just a few patients with hypertensive chronic kidney disease undergoing kidney transplantation. Hypertension in kidney transplant recipients may be related to multiple factors. We aimed to assess whether hypertension in kidney-transplanted patients may be linked to reinnervation of renal arteries of the transplanted kidney. Methods. We investigated renal arteries innervation from native and transplanted kidneys in three patients 5 months, 2 years and 11 years after transplantation, respectively. Four transplanted kidneys from non-hypertensive patients on immunosuppressive treatment without evidence of hypertensive arteriolar damage were used as controls. Results. Evidence of nerve sprouting was observed as early as 5 months following transplantation, probably originated from ganglions of recipient patient located near the arterial anastomosis and was associated with mild hypertensive arteriolar damage. Regeneration of periadventitial nerves was already complete 2 years after transplantation. Nerve density tended to reach values observed in native kidney arteries and was associated with hypertension-related arteriolar lesions in transplanted kidneys. Control kidneys, albeit on an immunosuppressive regimen, presented only a modest regeneration of sympathetic nerves. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the considerable increase in sympathetic nerves, as found in patients with severe arterial damage, may be correlated to hypertension rather than to immunosuppressive therapy, thus providing a morphological basis for hypertension recurrence despite renal denervation. PMID:28498963

  18. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  19. Perceptions of post-transplant recidivism in liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-11-27

    Although alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is regarded as a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), debatable issues exist on the requirement for preceding alcoholic abstinence, appropriate indication criteria, predictive factors for alcoholic recidivism, and outcomes following living-donor LT. In most institutions, an abstinence period of six months before LT has been adopted as a mandatory selection criterion. Data indicating that pre-transplant abstinence is an associated predictive factor for alcoholic recidivism supports the reasoning behind this. However, conclusive evidence about the benefit of adopting an abstinence period is yet to be established. On the other hand, a limited number of reports available on living-donor LT experiences for ALD patients suggest that organ donations from relatives have no suppressive effect on alcoholic recidivism. Prevention of alcoholic recidivism has proved to be the most important treatment after LT based on the resultant inferior long-term outcome of patients. Further evaluations are still needed to establish strategies before and after LT for ALD.

  20. Non-HLA antibodies post-transplantation: clinical relevance and treatment in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dragun, Duska; Hegner, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies and B cells are increasingly recognized as major modulators of allograft function and survival. Improved immunohistochemical and serologic diagnostic procedures have been developed to monitor antibody responses against HLA antigens during the last decade. Acute and chronic allograft rejection can occur in HLA-identical sibling transplants implicating the importance of immune response against non-HLA targets. Non-HLA anti-bodies may occur as alloantiboides, yet they seem to be predominantly autoantibodies. Antigenic targets of non-HLA antibodies described thus far include various minor histocompatibility antigens, vascular receptors, adhesion molecules, and intermediate filaments. Non-HLA antibodies may function as complement- and non-complement-fixing antibodies and they may induce a wide variety of allograft injuries, reflecting the complexity of their acute and chronic actions. Refined approaches considering the subtle mechanistic differences in the individual antibody responses directed against non-HLA antigens may help to define patients at particular risk for irreversible acute or chronic allograft injuries and improve over-all outcomes. We attempted to summarize the current state of research, development in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, and to address some emerging problems in the area of humoral response against non-HLA antigens beyond ABO blood group and MHC class I chain-related gene A and B (MICA and MICB) antigens in solid organ transplantation. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The potential association of CMV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte reconstitution with the risk of CMV reactivation and persistency in post allogeneic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Shams El-Din, Ahmed Ali; El-Desoukey, Nermeen Ahmed; Amin Tawadrous, Dalia Gamil; Fouad, Neveen Mohammed Baha El-Din; Abdel-Mooti, Mohammed; Hotar, Said Fathy

    2018-01-09

    development of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T cell response is crucial in preventing symptomatic CMV infection specially, in stem cell transplant (SCT) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate CMV-specific CD8+ T cell reconstitution in allogeneic SCT recipients and to study the possible association between CMV-specific CD8+ T cell recovery with protection from CMV reactivation and persistency. Human leuKocyte antigen (HLA)-tetramers were used for CMV-specific CD8+ cell quantitation by Flow cytometry in twenty post-allogeneic SCT patients. Nine patients (45%) developed rapid recovery of CMV-specific CD8+ cells, among them; 7 patients (78%) had no CMV reactivation in the first 95 days post-transplant. Five patients had developed persistent CMV viremia; all of them had not developed CMV-specific CD8+ recovery till day 95 post-transplant. Patients with persistent CMV viremia had a statistically significant lower means of CMV-specific CD8+ percent and absolute count compared to those without persistent viremia (p = .001, .015), respectively. The incidence of CMV reactivation and persistency was higher among patients with delayed CMV-specific CD8+ reconstitution in the first 95 days post-transplant. CMV-specific CD8+ cells can help in categorizing patients into risk groups: (early recovery/low risk) and (delayed recovery/increased risk), this tool may guide clinicians in the selection of patients who may profit from prophylactic antiviral therapy and frequent viral monitoring.

  2. Functional evaluation of patients treated with osteochondral allograft transplantation for post-traumatic ankle arthritis: one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Berti, L; Vannini, F; Lullini, G; Caravaggi, P; Leardini, A; Giannini, S

    2013-09-01

    Severe post-traumatic ankle arthritis poses a reconstructive challenge in active patients. Whereas traditional surgical treatments, i.e. arthrodesis and arthroplasty, provide good pain relief, arthrodesis is associated to functional and psychological limitations, and arthroplasty is prone to failure in the active patient. More recently the use of bipolar fresh osteochondral allografts transplantation has been proposed as a promising alternative to the traditional treatments. Preliminary short- and long-term clinical outcomes for this procedure have been reported, but no functional evaluations have been performed to date. The clinical and functional outcomes of a series of 10 patients who underwent allograft transplantation at a mean follow-up of 14 months are reported. Clinical evaluation was performed with the AOFAS score, functional assessment by state-of-the-art gait analysis. The clinical score significantly improved from a median of 54 (range 12-65) pre-op to 76.5 (range 61-86) post-op (p=0.002). No significant changes were observed for the spatial-temporal parameters, but motion at the hip and knee joints during early stance, and the range of motion of the ankle joint in the frontal plane (control: 13.8°±2.9°; pre-op: 10.4°±3.1°, post-op: 12.9°±4.2°; p=0.02) showed significant improvements. EMG signals revealed a good recovery in activation of the biceps femoris. This study showed that osteochondral allograft transplantation improves gait patterns. Although re-evaluation at longer follow-ups is required, this technique may represent the right choice for patients who want to delay the need for more invasive joint reconstruction procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Limited Sampling Strategy for Estimating Mycophenolic Acid Exposure on Day 7 Post-Transplant for Two Mycophenolate Mofetil Formulations Derived From 20 Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; Cai, Q; Xiong, N; Qin, Y; Lai, L; Sun, X; Hu, Y

    2018-06-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetic properties of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dispersible tablets and capsules by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) in Chinese kidney transplant recipients in the early post-transplantation phase and to develop the equations to predict mycophenolic acid (MPA) area under the 12-hour concentration-time curve (AUC 0-12h ) using a limited sampling strategy (LSS). Forty patients who underwent renal transplantation from brain-dead donors were randomly divided into dispersible tablets (Sai KE Ping; Hangzhou Zhongmei Huadong Pharma) and capsules (Cellcept; Roche Pharma, Why, NSW, Australia) groups, and treated with MMF combined with combination tacrolimus and prednisone as a basic immunosuppressive regimen. Blood samples were collected before treatment (0) and at 0.5,1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours post-treatment and 7 days after renal transplantation. Plasma MPA concentrations were measured using EMIT. LSS equations were identified using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. The peak concentration (C max ) in the MMF dispersible tablets (MMFdt) group (7.0 ± 2.8) mg/L was reduced compared with that in the MMF capsules (MMFc) group (10.8 ± 6.2 mg/L; P = .012); time to peak concentration in the MMFdt group was 3.2 ± 2.3 hours, which was nonsignificantly elevated compared with that of the MMFc group (2.2 ± 1.7 hours). Three-point estimation formulas were generated by multiple linear regression for both groups: MPA-AUC MMFdt  = 3.542 + 3.332C 0.5h  + 1.117C 1.5h  + 3.946C 4h (adjusted r 2  = 0.90, P < .001); MPA-AUC MMFc  = 8.149 + 1.442C 2h  + 1.056C 4h  + 7.133C 6h (adjusted r 2  = 0.88, P < .001). Both predicted and measured AUCs showed good consistency. After treatment with MMF dispersible tables or MMF capsules, the C max of MPA for the MMFdt group was significantly lower than that of the MMFc group; there was no significant difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters. Three-time point equations

  4. Malnutrition and sarcopenia predict post-liver transplantation outcomes independently of the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score.

    PubMed

    Kalafateli, Maria; Mantzoukis, Konstantinos; Choi Yau, Yan; Mohammad, Ali O; Arora, Simran; Rodrigues, Susana; de Vos, Marie; Papadimitriou, Kassiani; Thorburn, Douglas; O'Beirne, James; Patch, David; Pinzani, Massimo; Morgan, Marsha Y; Agarwal, Banwari; Yu, Dominic; Burroughs, Andrew K; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2017-02-01

    Although malnutrition and sarcopenia are prevalent in cirrhosis, their impact on outcomes following liver transplantation is not well documented. The associations of nutritional status and sarcopenia with post-transplant infections, requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care (ICU) and hospital stay, and 1 year mortality were assessed in 232 consecutive transplant recipients. Nutritional status and sarcopenia were assessed using the Royal Free Hospital-Global Assessment (RFH-GA) tool and the L3-psoas muscle index (L3-PMI) on CT, respectively. A wide range of RFH-SGA and L3-PMI were observed within similar Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) sub-categories. Malnutrition and sarcopenia were independent predictors of all outcomes. Post-transplant infections were associated with MELD (OR = 1.055, 95%CI = 1.002-1.11) and severe malnutrition (OR = 6.55, 95%CI = 1.99-21.5); ventilation > 24 h with MELD (OR = 1.1, 95%CI = 1.036-1.168), severe malnutrition (OR = 8.5, 95%CI = 1.48-48.87) and suboptimal donor liver (OR = 2.326, 95%CI = 1.056-5.12); ICU stay > 5 days, with age (OR = 1.054, 95%CI = 1.004-1.106), MELD (OR = 1.137, 95%CI = 1.057-1.223) and severe malnutrition (OR = 7.46, 95%CI = 1.57-35.43); hospital stay > 20 days with male sex (OR = 2.107, 95%CI = 1.004-4.419) and L3-PMI (OR = 0.996, 95%CI = 0.994-0.999); 1 year mortality with L3-PMI (OR = 0.996, 95%CI = 0.992-0.999). Patients at the lowest L3-PMI receiving suboptimal grafts had longer ICU/hospital stay and higher incidence of infections. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with early post-liver transplant morbidity/mortality. Allocation indices do not include nutritional status and may jeopardize outcomes in nutritionally compromised individuals.

  5. Prospective Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder prevention program in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant: virological monitoring and first-line treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiereghin, A; Prete, A; Belotti, T; Gibertoni, D; Piccirilli, G; Gabrielli, L; Pession, A; Lazzarotto, T

    2016-02-01

    In 28 pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients, we aimed to evaluate: (i) the impact of routine Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA monitoring on the development of EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD); (ii) the incidence of EBV infection and the potential risk factors; and (iii) the suitability of whole blood (WB) as clinical specimen to monitor the risk of patients to develop EBV-PTLD. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on WB samples for all patients. EBV DNA quantification also in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) samples was adopted for the patients at higher risk of developing EBV-PTLD (≥ 10,000 copies/mL WB). High EBV DNAemia levels were observed in 37.5% of the actively infected recipients (57.1%). Severe aplastic anemia, matched-unrelated donor transplant, the reduced-intensity conditioning regimen and, to a lesser extent, the in vivo T-cell depletion with anti-thymocyte immunoglobulin were associated with high viral load. A significant correlation between EBV DNA levels in WB and PBMC samples was obtained (r = 0.755, P < 0.001). A similar kinetics of EBV DNA in the 2 blood compartments was observed. Clinically, both specimen types appeared to be equally informative to assess the risk of patients to develop PTLD. On the basis of EBV DNAemia levels, in 3 patients (10.7%) immunosuppressive therapy was reduced and 1 patient (3.5%) received early treatment for probable EBV disease. No patients developed EBV-PTLD. WB proved to be a suitable clinical specimen to monitor EBV DNA load after allo-HSCT for the management of EBV infection and PTLD prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Predicting Post-Transplant Recurrence of IgA Nephropathy: The Importance of Crescents.

    PubMed

    Avasare, Rupali S; Rosenstiel, Paul E; Zaky, Ziad S; Tsapepas, Demetra S; Appel, Gerald B; Markowitz, Glen S; Bomback, Andrew S; Canetta, Pietro A

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that have assessed the predictors of recurrent IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in the renal allograft have focused on post-transplant features. Identifying high-risk pre-transplant features of IgAN is useful for counseling patients and may help in tailoring post-transplant immunosuppression. We investigated the pre-transplant clinical and biopsy features of 62 patients with IgAN who received transplants at Columbia University Medical Center from 2001 to 2012 and compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with IgAN recurrence to those without recurrence. The primary outcome was time to recurrent IgAN. Secondary outcomes were a composite of doubling of creatinine or allograft failure, and recurrent IgAN as a cause of allograft dysfunction. Of the 62 patients, 14 had recurrent IgAN in the allograft. Mean time to recurrence was 2.75 years. Those with recurrent disease were younger at the time of native kidney biopsy (29 vs. 41 years, p < 0.0009). Black race and Hispanic ethnicity composed a higher proportion of the recurrent disease group. On multivariable analysis, significant predictors of recurrent IgAN included age at diagnosis (hazards ratio (HR) 0.911, 95% CI 0.85-0.98), burden of crescents on native biopsy (HR 1.21 per 10% increase in crescents, 95% CI 1.00-1.47) and allograft rejection (HR 3.59, 95% CI 1.10-11.7). Features of native IgAN can help predict the risk of recurrent disease in the renal allograft. In particular, immunologically active disease represented by earlier age of onset and greater burden of crescents on native biopsy is more likely to recur after transplant. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Carbachol improves secretion in the early phase after rabbit submandibular gland transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Ding, C; Ding, Q W; Fu, F Y; Wu, L L; Yu, G Y

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the changes in the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway with submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation and whether carbachol improves secretion in transplanted SMGs. SMG autotransplantation was performed in a rabbit model. Carbachol (1 microM) was infused into the transplanted glands from postoperative day 1-7. The expression of the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors, aquaporin-5 (AQP5), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was measured by RT-PCR, immunoblotting or immunofluorescence. The content of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salivary flow of the transplanted SMGs was decreased after transplantation. As well, the expressions of M1 and M3 receptors and their downstream signaling molecules, IP(3), p-ERK1/2 and AQP5, were all reduced. Atrophy of acinar cells was shown in transplanted glands. However, all these alterations were reversed after carbachol treatment for 7 days. Furthermore, carbachol directly increased the mRNA expression of AQP5 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cultured neonatal rabbit SMG cells. A lack of acetylcholine and downregulation of the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway is involved in the early hypofunction of transplanted SMGs. Carbachol treatment could be a new therapeutic strategy to improve secretion and prevent the obstruction of Wharton's duct in the early phase after SMG transplantation.

  8. Serum Uric Acid and Renal Transplantation Outcomes: At Least 3-Year Post-transplant Retrospective Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Gao, Baoshan; Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Weigang; Zhu, Yaxiang; Yao, Liyu; Gu, Yiming; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Honglan; Fu, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Since the association of serum uric acid and kidney transplant graft outcome remains disputable, we sought to evaluate the predictive value of uric acid level for graft survival/function and the factors could affect uric acid as time varies. A consecutive cohort of five hundred and seventy three recipients transplanted during January 2008 to December 2011 were recruited. Data and laboratory values of our interest were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant for analysis. Cox proportional hazard model, and multiple regression equation were built to adjust for the possible confounding variables and meet our goals as appropriate. The current cohort study lasts for 41.86 ± 15.49 months. Uric acid level is proven to be negatively associated with eGFR at different time point after adjustment for age, body mass index and male gender (standardized β ranges from -0.15 to -0.30 with all P<0.001).Males with low eGFR but high level of TG were on CSA, diuretics and RAS inhibitors and experienced at least one episode of acute rejection and diabetic issue were associated with a higher mean uric acid level. Hyperuricemia was significantly an independent predictor of pure graft failure (hazard ratio=4.01, 95% CI: 1.25-12.91, P=0.02) after adjustment. But it was no longer an independent risk factor for graft loss after adjustment. Interestingly, higher triglyceride level can make incidence of graft loss (hazard ratio=1.442, for each unit increase millimoles per liter 95% CI: 1.008-2.061, P=0.045) and death (hazard ratio=1.717, 95% CI: 1.105-2.665, P=0.016) more likely. The results of our study suggest that post-transplant elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival and graft function. Together with the high TG level impact on poor outcomes, further investigations for therapeutic effect are needed. PMID:26208103

  9. How Thinking About the Donor Influences Post-traumatic Growth in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, A; Pérez-San-Gregorio, M Á; Avargues-Navarro, M L; Borda-Mas, M; Pérez-Bernal, J; Gómez-Bravo, M Á

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find out whether thinking frequently about the donor influences post-traumatic growth of liver transplant recipients. The sample of 240 patients selected was made up of 185 men and 55 women with an overall mean age of 60.21 (SD 9.3) years. All of them had received liver transplants from cadaver donors. Transplant recipients were asked whether they thought frequently about the donor (yes or no) and filled out the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory. The t test for unpaired samples was applied to analyze how thinking frequently about the donor or not influenced post-traumatic growth. We also calculated the effect sizes by means of Cohen d or Cohen w depending on the nature of the variables analyzed (quantitative or qualitative). The liver transplant recipients who thought frequently about the donor, compared with those who did not, had higher total scores on post-traumatic growth (P = .000; d = 0.57; medium effect size). Furthermore, considering the effect sizes, the differences between the subgroups were more relevant on the following subscales: new possibilities (P = .000; d = 0.53; medium effect size), appreciation of life (P = .000; d = 0.60; medium effect size), and spiritual change (P = .000; d = 0.54; medium effect size). Patients who think frequently about the donor have more post-traumatic growth than those who do not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conservation importance of early post-disturbance temperate forests

    Charles Kwit; David I. King; Beverly Collins; Mark E. Swanson

    2014-01-01

    The early post-disturbance stage of temperate forest succession (also referred to as 'early-seral' or 'early-successional' forest) has been the subject of interest and debate. Often thought of as an ephemeral (and often disorganized) state of eventual closed-canopy systems, its direct and immediate role in conservation traditionally has been ignored...

  11. Effect of Immunosuppressive Agents on Hepatocyte Apoptosis Post-Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eu Jin; Chin, Ruth; Nachbur, Ueli; Silke, John; Jia, Zhiyuan; Angus, Peter W.; Torresi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunosuppressants are used ubiquitously post-liver transplantation to prevent allograft rejection. However their effects on hepatocytes are unknown. Experimental data from non-liver cells indicate that immunosuppressants may promote cell death thereby driving an inflammatory response that promotes fibrosis and raises concerns that a similar effect may occur within the liver. We evaluated apoptosis within the liver tissue of post-liver transplant patients and correlated these findings with in vitro experiments investigating the effects of immunosuppressants on apoptosis in primary hepatocytes. Methods Hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed using immunohistochemistry for M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP in human liver tissue. Primary mouse hepatocytes were treated with various combinations of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, or MMF. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using crystal violet assays and Western immunoblots probed for cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Results Post-liver transplant patients had a 4.9-fold and 1.7-fold increase in M30 CytoDEATH and cleaved PARP compared to normal subjects. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus at therapeutic concentrations did not affect hepatocyte apoptosis, however when they were combined with MMF, cell death was significantly enhanced. Cell viability was reduced by 46% and 41%, cleaved PARP was increased 2.6-fold and 2.2-fold, and cleaved caspase 3 increased 2.2-fold and 1.8-fold following treatment with Cyclosporine/MMF and Tacrolimus/MMF respectively. By contrast, the sirolimus/MMF combination did not significantly reduce hepatocyte viability or promote apoptosis. Conclusion Commonly used immunosuppressive drug regimens employed after liver transplantation enhance hepatocyte cell death and may thus contribute to the increased liver fibrosis that occurs in a proportion of liver transplant recipients. PMID:26390404

  12. Clinical predictors and outcome implications of early readmission in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Osho, Asishana A; Castleberry, Anthony W; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Mulvihill, Michael S; Rucker, Justin; Snyder, Laurie D; Davis, Robert D; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors and outcome implications for 30-day hospital readmission in lung transplant recipients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant cases from a single, high-volume lung transplant program between January 2000 and March 2012. Demographic and health data were reviewed for all patients. Risk factors for 30-day readmission (defined as readmission within 30 days of discharge from index lung transplant hospitalization) were modeled using logistic regression, with selection of parameters by backward elimination. The sample comprised 795 patients after excluding scheduled readmissions and in-hospital deaths. Overall 30-day readmission rate was 45.4% (n = 361). Readmission rates were similar across different diagnosis categories and procedure types. By univariate analysis, post-operative complications that predisposed to 30-day readmission included pneumonia, any infection, and atrial fibrillation (all p < 0.05). In the final multivariate model, occurrence of any post-transplant complication was the most significant risk factor for 30-day readmission (odds ratio = 1.764; 95% confidence interval, 1.259-2.470). Even for patients with no documented perioperative complication, readmission rates were still >35%. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multi-variate regression modeling to assess readmission as a predictor of long-term outcomes showed that 30-day readmission was not a significant predictor of worse survival in lung recipients. Occurrence of at least 1 post-transplant complication increases risk for 30-day readmission in lung transplant recipients. In this patient population, 30-day readmission does not predispose to adverse long-term survival. Quality indicators other than 30-day readmission may be needed to assess hospitals that perform lung transplantation. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of high post-transplant soluble CD30 serum levels with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcello F; Soares, Maria Fernanda; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Gerbase-Delima, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of post-transplant soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels, isolated or in combination with of anti-HLA class II antibodies and of serum creatinine levels, with kidney graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and type of lesions in graft biopsies for cause. The study comprised 511 first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 2.8 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient. sCD30 levels were determined by ELISA, and HLA antibodies by Luminex assay. The minimum follow-up after testing was 9.3 years. High sCD30 levels, set at sCD30 ≥ 34.15 ng/mL, the presence of HLA class II antibodies, and serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL were independently associated with CAN-graft loss (P values <0.0001, 0.05, <0.0001, respectively), and the combined hazard ratio for CAN-graft loss was 20.2. Analyses of 166 biopsies for cause showed that high sCD30 levels and creatinine were independently associated with interstitial lesions. Post-transplant sCD30 serum levels, especially in conjunction with information regarding HLA class II antibodies and serum creatinine levels, provide valuable information regarding graft outcome and could be useful for the management of kidney transplant recipients. © 2013.

  14. Post-autologous transplant maintenance therapies in lymphoid malignancies: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Epperla, N; Fenske, T S; Lazarus, H M; Hamadani, M

    2015-11-01

    Disease relapse after autologous hematopoietic transplant (auto-HCT) remains the number one cause of post-transplant therapy failure and mortality. The last decade has seen a proliferation of clinical studies looking at the prevention of post-auto-HCT therapy failure with various maintenance strategies. The benefit of such therapies is in turn dependent on disease histology and timing of transplantation. Although high dose therapy (HDT) provides durable responses in chemosensitive relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), a sizable subset experiences disease relapse. Unfortunately, the addition of rituximab as a post-auto-HCT maintenance strategy did not improve survival outcomes. The preliminary results with programmed death -1 (PD-1) Ab as post-auto maintenance in DLBCL is promising but requires randomized validation. In follicular lymphoma, the 5- and 10-year PFS rates are ~60% and 31%, respectively. Although the addition of rituximab improved PFS, there is no survival benefit, to date. Disease relapse after auto-HCT in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is not uncommon. Rituximab maintenance in this setting provides a PFS benefit. Given the poor prognosis of post-auto-HCT failures in MCL, maintenance can be considered on a case-by-case basis. In chemosensitive relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma, addition of brentuximab vedotin after auto-HCT improved 2-year PFS (65 vs 45%) and can be considered as an option for maintenance therapy post auto-HCT, in select higher risk patients. Ongoing trials evaluating the efficacy of post-auto-HCT maintenance with novel agents (for example, immunomodulators, proteasome inhibitors, PD-1 inhibitors, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors and so on) will likely change the practice landscape for lymphoma patients following HDT and auto-HCT.

  15. No survival benefit to gaining private health insurance coverage for post-lung transplant care in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Dmitry; Foraker, Randi E; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don

    2016-03-01

    The use of public insurance is associated with diminished survival in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) following lung transplantation. No data exist on benefits of gaining private health insurance for post-transplant care among such patients previously using public insurance. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify first-time lung transplant recipients participating in Medicare or Medicaid, diagnosed with CF, and transplanted between 2005 and 2015. Survival outcomes were compared between recipients gaining private insurance after transplantation and those maintaining public coverage throughout follow-up. Since implementation of the lung allocation score, 575 adults with CF received lung transplantation funded by Medicare or Medicaid and contributed data on insurance status post-transplant. There were 128 (22%) patients who gained private insurance. Multivariable analysis of time-varying insurance status found no survival benefit of gaining private insurance (HR = 0.822; 95% CI = 0.525, 1.286; p = 0.390). Further analysis demonstrated that resuming public insurance coverage was detrimental, relative to gaining and keeping private insurance (HR = 2.315; 95% CI = 1.020, 5.258; p = 0.045). Survival disadvantages of lung transplant recipients with CF who have public health insurance were not ameliorated by a switch to private coverage for post-transplant care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide-Based Haploidentical Transplantation as Alternative to Matched Sibling or Unrelated Donor Transplantation for Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Registry Study of the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Gayoso, Jorge; Canals, Carmen; Finel, Hervé; Peggs, Karl; Dominietto, Alida; Castagna, Luca; Afanasyev, Boris; Robinson, Stephen; Blaise, Didier; Corradini, Paolo; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Bermúdez, Arancha; Forcade, Edouard; Russo, Domenico; Potter, Michael; McQuaker, Grant; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Scheid, Christof; Bloor, Adrian; Montoto, Silvia; Dreger, Peter; Sureda, Anna

    2017-10-20

    Purpose To compare the outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based haploidentical (HAPLO) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with the outcome of patients who received conventional HLA-matched sibling donor (SIB) and HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD). Patients and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 709 adult patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who were registered in the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database who received HAPLO (n = 98), SIB (n = 338), or MUD (n = 273) transplantation. Results Median follow-up of survivors was 29 months. No differences were observed between groups in the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). HAPLO was associated with a lower risk of chronic GVHD (26%) compared with MUD (41%; P = .04). Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 17%, 13%, and 21% in HAPLO, SIB, and MUD, respectively, and corresponding 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse or progression was 39%, 49%, and 32%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, relative to SIB, nonrelapse mortality was similar in HAPLO ( P = .26) and higher in MUD ( P = .003), and risk of relapse was lower in both HAPLO ( P = .047) and MUD ( P < .001). Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 67% and 43% for HAPLO, 71% and 38% for SIB, and 62% and 45% for MUD, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall survival or progression-free survival between HAPLO and SIB or MUD. The rate of the composite end point of extensive chronic GVHD and relapse-free survival was significantly better for HAPLO (40%) compared with SIB (28%; P = .049) and similar to MUD (38%; P = .59). Conclusion Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based HAPLO transplantation results in similar survival outcomes compared with SIB and MUD, which confirms its suitability when no conventional donor is available. Our results also suggest that HAPLO results in a lower risk of chronic

  17. Early molecular diagnosis of acute Chagas disease after transplantation with organs from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected donors.

    PubMed

    Cura, C I; Lattes, R; Nagel, C; Gimenez, M J; Blanes, M; Calabuig, E; Iranzo, A; Barcan, L A; Anders, M; Schijman, A G

    2013-12-01

    Organ transplantation (TX) is a novel transmission modality of Chagas disease. The results of molecular diagnosis and characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection in naïve TX recipients transplanted with organs from infected deceased donors are reported. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the TX recipients of organs from infected donors were prospectively and sequentially studied for detection of T. cruzi by means of kinetoplastid DNA polymerase chain reaction (kDNA-PCR). In positive blood samples, a PCR algorithm for identification of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantify parasitic loads were performed. Minicircle signatures of T. cruzi infecting populations were also analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR. Eight seronegative TX recipients from four infected donors were studied. In five, the infection was detected at 68.4 days post-TX (36-98 days). In one case, it was transmitted to two of three TX recipients. The comparison of the minicircle signatures revealed nearly identical RFLP-PCR profiles, confirming a common source of infection. The five cases were infected by DTU TcV. This report reveals the relevance of systematic monitoring of TX recipients using PCR strategies in order to provide an early diagnosis allowing timely anti-trypanosomal treatment. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Recent advances in post autologous transplantation maintenance therapies in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Epperla, Narendranath; Fenske, Timothy S; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Lymphomas constitute the second most common indication for high dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). The intent of administering HDT in these heterogeneous disorders varies from cure (e.g., in relapsed aggressive lymphomas) to disease control (e.g., most indolent lymphomas). Regardless of the underlying histology or remission status at transplantation, disease relapse remains the number one cause of post auto-HCT therapy failure and mortality. The last decade has seen a proliferation of clinical studies looking at prevention of post auto-HCT therapy failure with various maintenance strategies. The benefit of such therapies is in turn dependent on disease histology and timing of transplantation. In relapsed, chemosensitive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although post auto-HCT maintenance rituximab seems to be safe and feasible, it does not provide improved survival outcomes and is not recommended. The preliminary results with anti- programmed death -1 (PD-1) antibody therapy as post auto-HCT maintenance in DLBCL is promising but requires randomized validation. Similarly in follicular lymphoma, maintenance therapies including rituximab following auto-HCT should be considered investigational and offered only on a clinical trial. Rituximab maintenance results in improved progression-free survival but has not yet shown to improve overall survival in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but given the poor prognosis with post auto-HCT failure in MCL, maintenance rituximab can be considered on a case-by-case basis. Ongoing trials evaluating the efficacy of post auto-HCT maintenance with novel compounds (e.g., immunomodulators, PD-1 inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors and bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitors) will likely change the practice landscape in the near future for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas patients following HDT and auto-HCT. PMID:26421260

  19. Early donor management increases the retrieval rate of hearts for transplantation in marginal donors.

    PubMed

    Abuanzeh, Razi; Hashmi, Faisal; Dimarakis, Ioannis; Khasati, Noman; Machaal, Ali; Yonan, Nizar; Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer V

    2015-01-01

    present in 28.6% (n=4) and 33.5% (n=4) in Groups A and B, respectively (P=0.793). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed on 3 (21.4%) patients in Group A and 2 (16.7%) in Group B (P=0.759). A history of hypertension was present in 7.1% (n=1) of the Group A and 33.3% (n=4) of the Group B donors. In our study, we were able to retrieve more than half of the potential heart donors as a result of early active donor management without impacting on the post-transplant recipient outcome. Early active donor management may assist in increasing the number of heart transplantations, thus warranting further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. High circulating CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ T-cell sub-population early after lung transplantation is associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Durand, Maxim; Lacoste, Philippe; Danger, Richard; Jacquemont, Lola; Brosseau, Carole; Durand, Eugénie; Tilly, Gaelle; Loy, Jennifer; Foureau, Aurore; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Tissot, Adrien; Roux, Antoine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Kessler, Romain; Mussot, Sacha; Dromer, Claire; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean François; Guillemain, Romain; Claustre, Johanna; Degauque, Nicolas; Magnan, Antoine; Brouard, Sophie

    2018-06-01

    Chronic bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains a major limitation for long-term survival after lung transplantation. The immune mechanisms involved and predictive biomarkers have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether peripheral blood T-lymphocyte profile could predict BOS in lung transplant recipients. An in-depth profiling of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was prospectively performed on blood cells from stable (STA) and BOS patients with a longitudinal follow-up. Samples were analyzed at 1 and 6 months after transplantation, at the time of BOS diagnosis, and at an intermediate time-point at 6 to 12 months before BOS diagnosis. Although no significant difference was found for T-cell compartments at BOS diagnosis or several months beforehand, we identified an increase in the CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T-cell sub-population in BOS patients at 1 and 6 months after transplantation (3.39 ± 0.40% vs 1.67 ± 0.22% in STA, p < 0.001). A CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T-cell threshold of 2.4% discriminated BOS and stable patients at 1 month post-transplantation. This was validated on a second set of patients at 6 months post-transplantation. Patients with a proportion of CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T cells up to 2.4% in the 6 months after transplantation had a 2-fold higher risk of developing BOS. This study is the first to report an increased proportion of circulating CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T cells early post-transplantation in lung recipients who proceed to develop BOS within 3 years, which supports its use as a BOS predictive biomarker. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Ethical concerns in early 21st century organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Waness, Abdelkarim

    2011-01-01

    Medical ethics is an indispensible and challenging aspect of clinical practice. This is particularly prominent in the field of organ transplantation. In this paper, initially, a clinical case with brain death that ended up as an organ donor will be presented. Following the presentation, important moral challenges which initially formed medical ethics and some highlights of it in organ transplantation will be discussed in detail. The impact of complex modern influential factors that might interfere with the practice of medical ethics in this field such as patients’ vulnerability, financial temptations, and legal regulations will be also dealt with. Finally, we shall propose practical guidelines aiming at improving the practice of medical ethics in the emerging issue of organ transplantation. PMID:23908752

  2. Augmenting the post-transplantation growth and survivorship of juvenile scleractinian corals via nutritional enhancement.

    PubMed

    Toh, Tai Chong; Ng, Chin Soon Lionel; Peh, Jia Wei Kassler; Toh, Kok Ben; Chou, Loke Ming

    2014-01-01

    Size-dependent mortality influences the recolonization success of juvenile corals transplanted for reef restoration and assisting juvenile corals attain a refuge size would thus improve post-transplantation survivorship. To explore colony size augmentation strategies, recruits of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis were fed with live Artemia salina nauplii twice a week for 24 weeks in an ex situ coral nursery. Fed recruits grew significantly faster than unfed ones, with corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 (control) nauplii/L groups exhibiting volumetric growth rates of 10.65 ± 1.46, 4.69 ± 0.9, 3.64 ± 0.55 and 1.18 ± 0.37 mm3/week, respectively. Corals supplied with the highest density of nauplii increased their ecological volume by more than 74 times their initial size, achieving a mean final volume of 248.38 ± 33.44 mm3. The benefits of feeding were apparent even after transplantation to the reef. The corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L groups grew to final sizes of 4875 ± 260 mm3, 2036 ± 627 mm3, 1066 ± 70 mm3 and 512 ± 116 mm3, respectively. The fed corals had significantly higher survival rates than the unfed ones after transplantation (63%, 59%, 56% and 38% for the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L treatments respectively). Additionally, cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that the costs per unit volumetric growth were drastically reduced with increasing feed densities. Corals fed with the highest density of nauplii were the most cost-effective (US$0.02/mm3), and were more than 12 times cheaper than the controls. This study demonstrated that nutrition enhancement can augment coral growth and post-transplantation survival, and is a biologically and economically viable option that can be used to supplement existing coral mariculture procedures and enhance reef restoration outcomes.

  3. Practical recommendations for the early use of m-TOR inhibitors (sirolimus) in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Campistol, Josep M; Cockwell, Paul; Diekmann, Fritz; Donati, Donato; Guirado, Luis; Herlenius, Gustaf; Mousa, Dujanah; Pratschke, Johann; San Millán, Juan Carlos Ruiz

    2009-07-01

    m-TOR inhibitors (e.g. sirolimus) are well-tolerated immunosuppressants used in renal transplantation for prophylaxis of organ rejection, and are associated with long-term graft survival. Early use of sirolimus is often advocated by clinicians, but this may be associated with a number of side-effects including impaired wound-healing, lymphoceles and delayed graft function. As transplant clinicians with experience in the use of sirolimus, we believe such side-effects can be limited by tailored clinical management. We present recommendations based on published literature and our clinical experience. Furthermore, guidance is provided on sirolimus use during surgery, both at transplantation and for subsequent operations.

  4. Prediction of early postoperative infections in pediatric liver transplantation by logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova, Yordanka; Prodanova, Krasimira; Spassov, Lubomir

    2016-12-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of infections after OLT are usually associated with improved outcomes. This study's objective is to identify reliable factors that can predict postoperative infectious morbidity. 27 children were included in the analysis. They underwent liver transplantation in our department. The correlation between two parameters (the level of blood glucose at 5th postoperative day and the duration of the anhepatic phase) and postoperative infections was analyzed, using univariate analysis. In this analysis, an independent predictive factor was derived which adequately identifies patients at risk of infectious complications after a liver transplantation.

  5. An individualised risk-adapted protocol of pre- and post transplant zoledronic acid reduces bone loss after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: results of a phase II prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Grigg, A; Butcher, B; Khodr, B; Bajel, A; Hertzberg, M; Patil, S; D'Souza, A B; Ganly, P; Ebeling, P; Wong, E

    2017-09-01

    Bone loss occurs frequently following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). The Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group conducted a prospective phase II study of pretransplant zoledronic acid (ZA) and individualised post-transplant ZA to prevent bone loss in alloSCT recipients. Patients received ZA 4 mg before conditioning. Administration of post-transplant ZA from days 100 to 365 post alloSCT was determined by a risk-adapted algorithm based on serial bone density assessments and glucocorticoid exposure. Of 82 patients enrolled, 70 were alive and without relapse at day 100. A single pretransplant dose of ZA prevented femoral neck bone loss at day 100 compared with baseline (mean change -2.6±4.6%). Using the risk-adapted protocol, 42 patients received ZA between days 100 and 365 post alloSCT, and this minimised bone loss at day 365 compared with pretransplant levels (mean change -2.9±5.3%). Femoral neck bone loss was significantly reduced in ZA-treated patients compared with historical untreated controls at days 100 and 365. This study demonstrates that a single dose of ZA pre-alloSCT prevents femoral neck bone loss at day 100 post alloSCT, and that a risk-adapted algorithm is able to guide ZA administration from days 100 to 365 post transplant and minimise further bone loss.

  6. The impact of patient education and psychosocial supports on return to normalcy 36 months post-kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Freda; Bozik, Karen; Bennett, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Improvements in immunosuppression, and expansion of immunosuppression coverage by Medicare now necessitate beginning to define success in transplantation from a holistic or whole person approach rather than the historical emphasis on patient and graft survival alone. In a new transplant environment, efforts will have to be made to redefine practice so that kidney transplant recipients are prepared for 10 or more years of life with a transplanted graft. Currently, 83% of transplanted patients will never return to work. The purpose of this study is to determine how targeted education and specific psychosocial supports affect the transplant patient's return to normalcy 36 months after kidney transplant. Normalcy is defined as age and socially appropriate activities for that patient. This is a synopsis of a 1-year cross-sectional study of 51 patients who received kidney transplants in 1999 at or near their 36-month anniversary date. Thirty-six months was chosen because this is the date when most patients will lose their Medicare coverage for immunosuppression. In 1999, a multidisciplinary plan was initiated to restructure the transplant recipient evaluation process, such that education about kidney transplantation and expectations for return to normalcy were addressed at the initial 'introduction to transplant session'. These measures were then consistently reinforced with each subsequent contact. At the second contact, written verbal plans for medication purchase and return to normalcy were identified. The team made a conscious effort to develop relationships with the recipients and their significant others, with the intention to better empower them to return to normalcy post-transplant. These measures (education and psychosocial support) were this study's independent variables. At 36 months, all patients were contacted by telephone and a 12-item questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire sought information about the study's dependent variables - employment and

  7. Assessment of Heart Transplant Waitlist Time and Pre- and Post-transplant Failure: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Benjamin A; Thomas, Laine; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Nguyen, John; Menza, Rebecca; Khush, Kiran K

    2016-07-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been increasingly long waiting times for heart transplantation. We studied the relationship between heart transplant waiting time and transplant failure (removal from the waitlist, pretransplant death, or death or graft failure within 1 year) to determine the risk that conservative donor heart acceptance practices confer in terms of increasing the risk of failure among patients awaiting transplantation. We studied a cohort of 28,283 adults registered on the United Network for Organ Sharing heart transplant waiting list between 2000 and 2010. We used Kaplan-Meier methods with inverse probability censoring weights to examine the risk of transplant failure accumulated over time spent on the waiting list (pretransplant). In addition, we used transplant candidate blood type as an instrumental variable to assess the risk of transplant failure associated with increased wait time. Our results show that those who wait longer for a transplant have greater odds of transplant failure. While on the waitlist, the greatest risk of failure is during the first 60 days. Doubling the amount of time on the waiting list was associated with a 10% (1.01, 1.20) increase in the odds of failure within 1 year after transplantation. Our findings suggest a relationship between time spent on the waiting list and transplant failure, thereby supporting research aimed at defining adequate donor heart quality and acceptance standards for heart transplantation.

  8. Esophageal motor disorders are frequent during pre and post lung transplantation. Can they influence lung rejection?

    PubMed

    Ciriza de Los Ríos, Constanza; Canga Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; de Pablo Gafas, Alicia; Castel de Lucas, Isabel; Lora Pablos, David; Castellano Tortajada, Gregorio

    2018-06-01

    lung transplantation (LTx) is a viable option for most patients with end-stage lung diseases. Esophageal motor disorders (EMD) are frequent in candidates for LTx, but there is very little data about changes in esophageal motility post-LTx. the aim of our study was to assess esophageal motor disorders by high resolution manometry (HRM) both pre-LTx and six months post-LTx in patients with and without organ rejection. HRM (Manoscan®) was performed in 57 patients both pre-LTx and six months post-LTx. HRM plots were analyzed according to the Chicago classification 3.0. EMD were found in 33.3% and in 49.1% of patients pre-LTx and post-LTx, respectively, and abnormal peristalsis was more frequently found post-LTx (p = 0.018). Hypercontractile esophagus was frequently found post-LTx (1.8% and 19.3% pre-LTx and post-LTx, respectively). Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology changed significantly pre-LTx and post-LTx; type I (normal) was more frequent post-LTx (63-2% and 82.5% respectively, p = 0.007). EMD were more frequent post-LTx in both the non-rejection and rejection group, although particularly in the rejection group (43.2% and 69.2% respectively, p = 0.09). EMD such as distal spasm, hypercontractile esophagus and EGJ outflow obstruction were also observed more frequently post-LTx in the rejection group. significant changes in esophageal motility were observed pre-LTx and particularly post-LTx; hypercontractile esophagus was a frequent EMD found post-LTx. EMD were more frequent in the group of patients that experienced organ rejection compared to the non-rejection group. EMD leading to an impaired esophageal clearance should be considered as an additional factor that contributes to LTx failure.

  9. Follow-up of post-transplant minimal residual disease and chimerism in childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia: 90 d to react.

    PubMed

    Pochon, Cécile; Oger, Emmanuel; Michel, Gérard; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Salmon, Alexandra; Nelken, Brigitte; Bertrand, Yves; Cavé, Hélène; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Grardel, Nathalie; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Margueritte, Geneviève; Méchinaud, Françoise; Rohrlich, Pierre; Paillard, Catherine; Demeocq, François; Schneider, Pascale; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Eliaou, Jean-François; Semana, Gilbert; Drunat, Séverine; Jonveaux, Philippe; Bordigoni, Pierre; Gandemer, Virginie

    2015-04-01

    Relapse after transplantation is a major cause of treatment failure in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Here, we report the findings of a prospective national study designed to investigate the feasibility of immune intervention in children in first or subsequent remission following myeloablative conditioning. This study included 133 children who received a transplant for ALL between 2005 and 2008. Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) based on T cell receptor/immunoglobulin gene rearrangements was measured on days -30, 30, 90 and 150 post-transplantation. Ciclosporin treatment was rapidly discontinued and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were programmed for patients with a pre- or post-transplant MRD status ≥10(-3) . Only nine patients received DLI. Pre- and post-transplant MRD status, and the duration of ciclosporin were independently associated with 5-year overall survival (OS), which was 62·07% for the whole cohort. OS was substantially higher in patients cleared of MRD than in those with persistent MRD (52·3% vs. 14·3%, respectively). Only pre-transplant MRD status (Hazard Ratio 2·57, P = 0·04) and duration of ciclosporin treatment (P < 0·001) were independently associated with relapse. The kinetics of chimerism were not useful for predicting relapse, whereas MRD monitoring up to 90 d post-transplantation was a valuable prognostic tool to guide therapeutic intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    SciT

    Kim, Manbok, E-mail: manbok66@dankook.ac.kr; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Cogle, Christopher R.

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignanciesmore » in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.« less

  11. Epstein-barr virus DNAemia monitoring for the management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Amit; Roessner, Cameron; Jupp, Jennifer; Williamson, Tyler; Tellier, Raymond; Chaudhry, Ahsan; Khan, Faisal; Taparia, Minakshi; Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Stewart, Douglas A; Daly, Andrew; Storek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potentially fatal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation (detectable DNAemia) predisposes to the development of PTLD. We retrospectively studied 306 patients monitored for EBV DNAemia after Thymoglobulin-conditioned HCT to determine the utility of the monitoring in the management of PTLD. DNAemia was monitored weekly for ≥12 weeks post-transplantation. Reactivation was detected in 82% of patients. PTLD occurred in 14% of the total patients (17% of patients with reactivation). PTLD was treated with rituximab only when and if the diagnosis was established. This allowed us to evaluate potential DNAemia thresholds for pre-emptive therapy. We suggest 100,000-500,000 IU per mL whole blood as this would result in unnecessary rituximab administration to only 4-20% of patients and near zero mortality due to PTLD. After starting rituximab (for diagnosed PTLD), sustained regression of PTLD occurred in 25/25 (100%) patients in whom DNAemia became undetectable. PTLD progressed or relapsed in 12/17 (71%) patients in whom DNAemia was persistently detectable. In conclusion, for pre-emptive therapy of PTLD, we suggest threshold DNAemia of 100,000-500,000 IU/mL. Persistently detectable DNAemia after PTLD treatment with rituximab appears to have 71% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value for PTLD progression/relapse. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Goal disturbance changes pre/post-renal transplantation are related to changes in distress.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Alicia M; Schulz, Torben; Westerhuis, Ralf; Navis, Gerjan J; Niesing, Jan; Ranchor, Adelita V; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-09-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) given its association with lower mortality, and improved overall quality of life and psychological functioning compared to dialysis. However, much less is known about which factors underlie these psychological improvements across RTx. Goal theory suggests that experienced disturbances in important goals are related to lower psychological functioning. This study aimed to (1) identify the most disturbed and most important goals for patients before RTx, (2) to examine changes in goal disturbance and goal importance pre/post-RTx, and (3) to examine whether changes in goal disturbance are associated with changes in psychological distress over time, and whether this relationship is mediated by changes in perceived control. In this longitudinal study, 220 patients completed questionnaires before and after RTx, including questionnaires to assess goals (GOALS questionnaire), psychological distress (GHQ-12), and perceived control (Mastery scale). End-stage renal disease affected both general and disease-specific goals. Approximately 30% of the patients indicated to experience high or very high disturbance before transplantation. Goal disturbance generally decreased significantly pre- to post-RTx, whereas goal importance did not change significantly pre- to post-RTx. No mediation effect of perceived control was found. Instead, both changes in goal disturbance and perceived control showed independent effects on changes in distress. Intervention strategies targeting attainable and realistic goal setting, and perceived control in RTx recipients who do not benefit optimally from RTx, might enhance psychological functioning in this population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Kidney transplantation improves patients' psychological functioning. Experienced disturbances in important life goals are related to lower psychological functioning in chronic

  13. Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood From Kidney Transplant Recipients for the Early Detection of Digestive System Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, M; Okamoto, M; Takenaka, M; Sasaki, H; Fukami, N; Kataoka, K; Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Hoshinaga, K; Shiroki, R

    2017-06-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer in comparison with the general population. To effectively manage post-transplantation malignancies, it is essential to proactively monitor patients. A long-term intensive screening program was associated with a reduced incidence of cancer after transplantation. This study evaluated the usefulness of the gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples obtained from kidney transplant patients and adopted a screening test for detecting cancer of the digestive system (gastric, colon, pancreas, and biliary tract). Nineteen patients were included in this study and a total of 53 gene expression screening tests were performed. The gene expression profiles of blood-delivered total RNA and whole genome human gene expression profiles were obtained. We investigated the expression levels of 2665 genes associated with digestive cancers and counted the number of genes in which expression was altered. A hierarchical clustering analysis was also performed. The final prediction of the cancer possibility was determined according to an algorithm. The number of genes in which expression was altered was significantly increased in the kidney transplant recipients in comparison with the general population (1091 ± 63 vs 823 ± 94; P = .0024). The number of genes with altered expression decreased after the induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (1484 ± 227 vs 883 ± 154; P = .0439). No cases of possible digestive cancer were detected in this study period. The gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows for the early detection of cancer of the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Variables associated with the risk of early death after liver transplantation at a liver transplant unit in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, L D; Stucchi, R S; de Ataíde, E C; Boin, I F S F

    2015-05-01

    Graft dysfunction after liver transplantation is a serious complication that can lead to graft loss and patient death. This was a study to identify risk factors for early death (up to 30 days after transplantation). It was an observational and retrospective analysis at the Liver Transplantation Unit, Hospital de Clinicas, State University of Campinas, Brazil. From July 1994 to December 2012, 302 patients were included (>18 years old, piggyback technique). Of these cases, 26% died within 30 days. For analysis, Student t tests and chi-square were used to analyze receptor-related (age, body mass index, serum sodium, graft dysfunction, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, renal function, and early graft dysfunction [EGD type 1, 2, or 3]), surgery (hot and cold ischemia, surgical time, and units of packed erythrocytes [pRBC]), and donor (age, hypotension, and brain death cause) factors. Risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression model adjusted by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test with significance set at P < .05. We found that hyponatremic recipients had a 6.26-fold higher risk for early death. There was a 9% reduced chance of death when the recipient serum sodium increased 1 unit. The chance of EGD3 to have early death was 18-fold higher than for EGD1 and there was a 13% increased risk for death for each unit of pRBC transfused. Donor total bilirubin, hyponatremia, massive transfusion, and EGD3 in the allocation graft should be observed for better results in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Comparison of clinical and histological diagnosis in kidney post-transplantation period].

    PubMed

    de Castro, M C; Chocair, P R; Saldanha, L B; Nahas, W; Arap, S; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the agreement between clinical and histopathological diagnosis in a renal transplantation center, 40 episodes of acute renal failure were studied. Kidney biopsies were performed at the moment that a clinical diagnosis was made by the staff. Nineteen episodes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), eighteen episodes of acute cellular rejection (ACR), 2 humoral rejections and 1 acute cyclosporin nephrotoxicity episodes were diagnosed. ATN episodes were confirmed by renal biopsy in 84.21%, ACR episodes in 83.33%, humoral rejections in 100%. Renal biopsy showed ATN in the occurrence of clinical cyclosporin nephrotoxicity. Total agreement was 82.5%. There is a good relationship between clinical and histopathological diagnosis in the post-transplantation period. Diagnostic mistakes occurred mainly when oliguria was present.

  16. Potential role of immunoablation and hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of early diabetes type 1.

    PubMed

    Snarski, Emilian; Milczarczyk, Alicja; Franek, Edward; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    Immunoablation with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation has shown some effectiveness in the treatment of autoimmune diseases as diverse as aplastic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. It has been recently shown that this treatment might prevent or delay development of diabetes type 1. The majority of more than 30 patients with early diabetes type 1 who underwent immunoablation and hematopoietic cell transplantation in various centers in the world achieved durable remission of diabetes and independence of exogenous insulin. This review summarizes advantages and risks of this treatment of early diabetes type 1.

  17. [Pre- and post-orthotopic heart transplantation electrocardiogram characteristics of 998 patients].

    PubMed

    Guan, H Q; Chen, Z J; Zhou, Y; Liu, J; Sun, W X; Yuan, J; Liao, Y H; Dong, N G; Liu, J P; Feng, K G; Zhang, Q; Zhao, X; Qian, C; Hu, F

    2017-04-24

    Objective: To analyze pre- and post-operation electrocardiograms (ECGs) features of patients underwent orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), and provide evidences for identifying and analyzing post OHT ECGs. Methods: Nine hundreds and ninty-eight pre- and post- OHT standard 12-leads ECGs from 110 consecutive patients, who underwent OHT in our hospital from May 2008 to May 2014, were analyzed. Results: The mean heart rate(HR)was (86.9±16.4) beats per minute before OHT, and (100.0±0.4) beats per minute after OHT. P wave's amplitude, duration, amplitude multiplied by duration of donor heart in lead Ⅱ were (0.124±0.069)mV, (111.1±17.2)ms, (14.34±9.51)mV·ms before OHT; (0.054±0.037)mV, (86.9±27.0)ms, (5.02±4.03)mV·ms at 1 month after OHT; (0.073±0.049)mV, (93.9±17.5) ms, (7.00±4.81)mV·ms at 6 years after OHT. ECGs rotation occurred in 83.64%(92/110) patients after OHT, and prevalence of clockwise rotation was 76.36%(84/110). Sinus tachycardia was evidenced in 99.09%(109/110) patients after OHT, and incomplete right bundle branch block was present in 60.91%(67/110) patients after OHT. Pseudo complete atrioventricular block mostly occurred at 2 days after OHT. Prevalence of double sinus rhythm was 27.95%(263/941) post OHT, 40% of them occurred between the 1st and the 2nd month post OHT; the atrial rate of recipient hearts was (104.0±10.2) beats per minucte between the 3rd and the 6th month post OHT, and was (95.3±4.2) beats per minucte between the 4th year and the 5th year. P wave's amplitude, duration, amplitude multiplied by duration of recipient heart in lead Ⅱ were (0.066±0.055) mV, (52.8±34.7) ms, (4.67±4.95) mV·ms at 1 month after OHT, (0.043±0.040)mV, (44.4±40.5) ms , (3.11±3.61) mV·ms between the 1st year and 2nd year after OHT. The absolute value of P-wave(originating from the donor heart) terminal force in chest leads increased in 48.99%(461/941) patients post OHT, the P-wave terminal force of V(1) , V(2) and V(3) were -0

  18. Early Allograft Dysfunction After Liver Transplantation Is Associated With Short- and Long-Term Kidney Function Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wadei, H M; Lee, D D; Croome, K P; Mai, M L; Golan, E; Brotman, R; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2016-03-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation (LT) is related to ischemia-reperfusion injury and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response and extrahepatic organ dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of EAD on new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy within the first month and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within the first year post-LT in 1325 primary LT recipients. EAD developed in 358 (27%) of recipients. Seventy-one (5.6%) recipients developed AKI and 38 (2.9%) developed ESRD. Compared with those without EAD, recipients with EAD had a higher risk of AKI and ESRD (4% vs. 9% and 2% vs. 6%, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent relationship between EAD and AKI as well as ESRD (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.9-6.4, and odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 11.9-91.2, respectively). Patients who experienced both EAD and AKI had inferior 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year patient and graft survival compared with those with either EAD or AKI alone, while those who had neither AKI nor EAD had the best outcomes (p < 0.001). Post-LT EAD is a risk factor for both AKI and ESRD and should be considered a target for future intervention to reduce post-LT short- and long-term renal dysfunction. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Unperturbed vs. post-transplantation hematopoiesis: both in vivo but different

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Katrin; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has yielded tremendous information on experimental properties of HSCs. Yet, it remains unclear whether transplantation reflects the physiology of hematopoiesis. A limitation is the difficulty in accessing HSC functions without isolation, in-vitro manipulation and readout for potential. New genetic fate mapping and clonal marking techniques now shed light on hematopoiesis under physiological conditions. Recent findings Transposon-based genetic marks were introduced across the entire hematopoietic system to follow the clonal dynamics of these tags over time. A polyclonal source downstream from stem cells was found responsible for the production of at least granulocytes. In independent experiments, HSCs were genetically marked in adult mice, and the kinetics of label emergence throughout the system was followed over time. These experiments uncovered that during physiological steady-state hematopoiesis large numbers of HSCs yield differentiated progeny. Individual HSCs were active only rarely, indicating their very slow periodicity of differentiation rather than quiescence. Summary Noninvasive genetic experiments in mice have identified a major role of stem and progenitor cells downstream from HSCs as drivers of adult hematopoiesis, and revealed that post-transplantation hematopoiesis differs quantitatively from normal steady-state hematopoiesis. PMID:27213498

  20. Unperturbed vs. post-transplantation hematopoiesis: both in vivo but different.

    PubMed

    Busch, Katrin; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has yielded tremendous information on experimental properties of HSCs. Yet, it remains unclear whether transplantation reflects the physiology of hematopoiesis. A limitation is the difficulty in accessing HSC functions without isolation, in-vitro manipulation and readout for potential. New genetic fate mapping and clonal marking techniques now shed light on hematopoiesis under physiological conditions. Transposon-based genetic marks were introduced across the entire hematopoietic system to follow the clonal dynamics of these tags over time. A polyclonal source downstream from stem cells was found responsible for the production of at least granulocytes. In independent experiments, HSCs were genetically marked in adult mice, and the kinetics of label emergence throughout the system was followed over time. These experiments uncovered that during physiological steady-state hematopoiesis large numbers of HSCs yield differentiated progeny. Individual HSCs were active only rarely, indicating their very slow periodicity of differentiation rather than quiescence. Noninvasive genetic experiments in mice have identified a major role of stem and progenitor cells downstream from HSCs as drivers of adult hematopoiesis, and revealed that post-transplantation hematopoiesis differs quantitatively from normal steady-state hematopoiesis.

  1. One-Year Review of the SCREEN (Skin Cancer Post-Transplant) Clinic.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Sarah; Au, Sheila

    The Skin Cancer Post-Transplant (SCREEN) Clinic is a skin-cancer screening clinic that is fully integrated into the renal transplantation clinic at St Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia. The purpose of this review was to determine characteristics of patients most at risk for skin cancer, to specify types and locations of skin cancers diagnosed, and to identify areas for patient and physician education. Transplant patients (91% renal; 5% heart) screened by a dermatologist during a 12-month period were stratified into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups based on detailed history and skin examination. In total, 118 skin cancers were diagnosed. White males were found to be most at risk. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for the majority of tumours, over 25% of which demonstrated invasion. Forty-two percent of patients used only 1 to 2 bottles of sunscreen per year, and sun-protective practices were limited. With this information, we have identified potential target areas for patient and physician education.

  2. Is early removal of prophylactic ureteric stents beneficial in live donor renal transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Indu, K. N.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Anil, M.; Rajesh, R.; George, K.; Ginil, K.; Georgy, M.; Nair, B.; Sudhindran, S.; Appu, T.; Unni, V. N.; Sanjeevan, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Prophylactic ureteric stenting has been shown to reduce ureteric leaks and collecting system obstruction following renal transplantation and is in widespread use. However, the optimal time for removal of ureteric stents after renal transplantation remains unclear. Aim of this study was to compare the result of early versus late removal of ureteric stents after kidney transplantation of the laparoscopically retrieved live related donor grafts. Eligible patients were live donor kidney transplant recipients with normal urinary tracts. All recipients underwent extravesical Lich–Gregoire ureteroneocystostomy over 4F/160 cm polyurethane double J stents by a uniform technique. They were randomized on seventh postoperative day for early removal of stents on postoperative day 7 (Group I), or for late removal on postoperative day 28 (Group II). The incidence of urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and urological complications were compared. Between 2007 and 2009, 130 kidney transplants were performed at one centre of which 100 were enrolled for the study, and 50 each were randomized into the two groups. Donor and recipient age, sex, native renal disease, immunosupression, number of rejection episodes, and antirejection therapy were similar in the two groups. The occurrence of symptomatic urinary tract infection during the follow-up period of 6 months was significantly less in the early stent removal group [5 out of 50 (10%) in Group I, vs 50 out of 15 (30%) in Group II, P=0.02]. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was documented in 2 out of 50 (4%) in Group I and 4 out of 50 (8%) in Group II (P=0.3). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of ureteric leak, ureteric obstruction, or hematuria in the two groups (P=1.0). We conclude that, in kidney transplant recipients of laparoscopically retrieved live donor grafts, early stent removal at the end of first week reduces the incidence of urinary tract infection without increasing the rate of urine

  3. Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation with post transplant cyclophosphamide for patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: a suitable choice in an urgent situation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Bonfim, Carmem; Kerbauy, Fábio Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Morgani; Esteves, Iracema; Silva, Nathalia Halley; Azambuja, Alessandra Prandini; Mantovani, Luiz Fernando; Kutner, José Mauro; Loth, Gisele; Kuwahara, Cilmara Cristina; Bueno, Clarissa; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; Ribeiro, Andreza Alice Feitosa; Kok, Fernando; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2018-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment that enhances survival and stabilizes neurologic symptoms in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) with cerebral involvement, a severe demyelinating disease of childhood. Patients with X-ALD who lack a well-matched HLA donor need a rapid alternative. Haploidentical HSCT using post transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) has been performed in patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases showing similar outcomes compared to other alternative sources. We describe the outcomes of transplants performed for nine X-ALD patients using haploidentical donors and PT/Cy. Patients received conditioning regimen with fludarabine 150 mg/m 2 , cyclophosphamide 29 mg/kg and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) with or without antithymocyte globulin. Graft-vs.-host disease prophylaxis consisted of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4, tacrolimus or cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. One patient had a primary graft failure and was not eligible for a second transplant. Three patients had secondary graft failure and were successfully rescued with second haploidentical transplants. Trying to improve engraftment, conditioning regimen was changed, substituting 2 Gy TBI for 4 Gy total lymphoid irradiation. Eight patients are alive and engrafted (17-37 months after transplant). Haploidentical HSCT with PT/Cy is a feasible alternative for X-ALD patients lacking a suitable matched donor. Graft failure has to be addressed in further studies.

  4. Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD) Manifesting in the Oral Cavity of a 13-Year-Old Liver Transplant Recipient (LTx).

    PubMed

    Krasuska-Sławińska, Ewa; Minko-Chojnowska, Izabela; Pawłowska, Joanna; Dembowska-Bagińska, Bożenna; Pronicki, Maciej; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2015-08-18

    BACKGROUND Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potential complication of solid organ or bone marrow transplants. The main PTLD risk factors are: the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), transplant type, and use of immunosuppressants. It mainly consists of an uncontrolled growth of lymphocytes in transplant recipients under chronic immunosuppressive therapy. About 85% of PTLDs are EBV-containing B-cell proliferations; 14% are T-cell proliferations, of which only 40% contain EBV; and the remaining 1% is NK-cell or plasmocyte proliferations. PTLD may present various clinical manifestations, from non-specific mononucleosis-like syndrome to graft or other organ damage resulting from pathologic lymphocyte infiltration. PTLD may manifest in the oral cavity. CASE REPORT The objective of this study was to present the case of a 13-year-old female living-donor liver transplant recipient, resulting from biliary cirrhosis caused by congenital biliary atresia, with exophytic fibrous lesions on buccal mucosa and tongue. Exophytic and hyperplastic lesion of oral mucosa were removed and histopathological examination revealed polymorphic PTLD. The patient underwent 6 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and all the oral lesions regressed completely. CONCLUSIONS All oral pathological lesions in organ transplant recipients need to be surgically removed and histopathologically examined because they present an increased risk of neoplastic transformations such as PTLD.

  5. Donor age and early graft failure after lung transplantation: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, M R; Peterson, E R; Easthausen, I; Quintanilla, I; Colago, E; Sonett, J R; D'Ovidio, F; Costa, J; Diamond, J M; Christie, J D; Arcasoy, S M; Lederer, D J

    2013-10-01

    Lungs from older adult organ donors are often unused because of concerns for increased mortality. We examined associations between donor age and transplant outcomes among 8860 adult lung transplant recipients using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Lung Transplant Outcomes Group data. We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between donor age and both 1-year graft failure and primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The rate of 1-year graft failure was similar among recipients of lungs from donors age 18-64 years, but severely ill recipients (Lung Allocation Score [LAS] >47.7 or use of mechanical ventilation) of lungs from donors age 56-64 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (p-values for interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Recipients of lungs from donors <18 and ≥65 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.50 and adjusted HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.47-3.15, respectively). Donor age was not associated with the risk of PGD. In summary, the use of lungs from donors age 56 to 64 years may be safe for adult candidates without a high LAS and the use of lungs from pediatric donors is associated with a small increase in early graft failure. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Preoperative Recipient Parameters Allow Early Estimation of Postoperative Outcome and Intraoperative Transfusion Requirements in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Carsten; Eismann, Hendrik; Sieg, Lion; Friedrich, Lars; Scheinichen, Dirk; Vondran, Florian W R; Johanning, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a complex intervention, and early anticipation of personnel and logistic requirements is of great importance. Early identification of high-risk patients could prove useful. We therefore evaluated prognostic values of recipient parameters commonly available in the early preoperative stage regarding postoperative 30- and 90-day outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements in liver transplantation. All adult patients undergoing first liver transplantation at Hannover Medical School between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data as well as clinical courses were recorded. Prognostic values regarding 30- and 90-day outcomes were evaluated by uni- and multivariate statistical tests. Identified risk parameters were used to calculate risk scores. There were 426 patients (40.4% female) included with a mean age of 48.6 (11.9) years. Absolute 30-day mortality rate was 9.9%, and absolute 90-day mortality rate was 13.4%. Preoperative leukocyte count >5200/μL, platelet count <91 000/μL, and creatinine values ≥77 μmol/L were relevant risk factors for both observation periods ( P < .05, respectively). A score based on these factors significantly differentiated between groups of varying postoperative outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements ( P < .05, respectively). A score based on preoperative creatinine, leukocyte, and platelet values allowed early estimation of postoperative 30- and 90-day outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements in liver transplantation. Results might help to improve timely logistic and personal strategies.

  7. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. RESULTS One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance (r2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation. PMID:27895402

  8. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance ( r 2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver ( P = 0.027). Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation.

  9. Ex vivo administration of trimetazidine improves post-transplant lung function in pig model.

    PubMed

    Cosgun, Tugba; Iskender, Ilker; Yamada, Yoshito; Arni, Stephan; Lipiski, Miriam; van Tilburg, Koen; Weder, Walter; Inci, Ilhan

    2017-07-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is not only used to assess marginal donor lungs but is also used as a platform to deliver therapeutic agents outside the body. We previously showed the beneficial effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury in a rat model. This study evaluated the effects of TMZ in a pig EVLP transplant model. Pig lungs were retrieved and stored for 24 h at 4°C, followed by 4 h of EVLP. Allografts were randomly allocated to 2 groups ( n  = 5 each). TMZ (5 mg/kg) was added to the prime solution prior to EVLP. After EVLP, left lungs were transplanted and recipients were observed for 4 h. Allograft gas exchange function and lung mechanics were recorded hourly throughout reperfusion. Microscopic lung injury and inflammatory and biochemical parameters were assessed. There was a trend towards better oxygenation during EVLP in the TMZ group ( P  = 0.06). After transplantation, pulmonary gas exchange was significantly better during the 4-h reperfusion period and after isolation of the allografts for 10 min ( P  < 0.05). Tissue thiobarbituric acid levels, myeloperoxidase activity and protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples were significantly lower in the TMZ group at the end of EVLP ( P  < 0.05). Ex vivo treatment of donor lungs with TMZ significantly improved immediate post-transplant lung function. Further studies are warranted to understand the effect of this strategy on long-term lung function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Prognostic Value of Monitoring Serum Free Light Chain in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Özkurt, Zübeyde Nur; Sucak, Gülsan Türköz; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Yağcı, Münci; Haznedar, Rauf

    2017-03-16

    We hypothesized the levels of free light chains obtained before and after autologous stem cell transplantation can be useful in predicting transplantation outcome. We analyzed 70 multiple myeloma patients. Abnormal free light chain ratios before stem cell transplantation were found to be associated early progression, although without any impact on overall survival. At day +30, the normalization of levels of involved free light chain related with early progression. According to these results almost one-third reduction of free light chain levels can predict favorable prognosis after autologous stem cell transplantation.

  11. Post-traumatic growth enhances social identification in liver transplant patients: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Scrignaro, Marta; Sani, Fabio; Wakefield, Juliet Ruth Helen; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Magrin, Maria Elena; Gangeri, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prediction that greater subjective identification with relevant groups and social categories (i.e. 'family' and 'transplantees') can be an outcome of post-traumatic growth (PTG). To date there are no studies that have explored these relationships. A longitudinal study was conducted with a group of 100 liver transplant patients from the outpatient populations of the participating centre. Data were collected by means of a self-report questionnaire, which was completed at two different time points (T1 and T2) that were 24months apart. PTG was assessed using the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, while both transplantee and family identification were assessed using group identification scales. A path model was tested, using a structural equation model (SEM) approach, to examine the reciprocal effects among family identification, transplantee identification, and PTG over time. As predicted, we found that greater PTG T1 predicted both greater family identification T2 and marginally greater transplantee identification T2. However, the two identification variables did not predict PTG over time. The results show that family identification and transplantee identification may be outcomes of the PTG process, confirming the importance of adopting a thriving multidimensional model of adjustment to medical illness, whereby people facing adverse life events, such as transplantation, may flourish rather than deteriorate psychologically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathophysiology of Post Transplant Hypertension in Kidney Transplant: Focus on Calcineurin Inhibitors Induced Oxidative Stress and Renal Sodium Retention and Implications with RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Calò, Lorenzo A; Ravarotto, Verdiana; Simioni, Francesca; Naso, Elena; Marchini, Francesco; Bonfante, Luciana; Furian, Lucrezia; Rigotti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Post-transplant hypertension is a common occurrence during treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant population. The pathogenesis of vasoconstriction induced by CNIs involves vascular tone alterations and kidney sodium transport regulation. Among the factors involved a key role is played by the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with enhanced release of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and increase of oxidative stress. A common pathway between oxidative stress and hypertension induced by CNIs may be identified in the involvement of the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, key for the induction of hypertension and cardiovascular-renal remodeling, of the oxidative stress mediated increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and increased renal sodium retention via increased activity of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule. We examined literature data including those coming from our group regarding the role of oxidative stress and sodium retention in CNIs induced hypertension and their involvement in cardiovascular-renal remodeling. Based on the available data, we have provided support to the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway as an important effector in the pathophysiology of CNIs induced post-transplant hypertension via activation of oxidative stress and sodium retention. Clarification of how the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that regulate the processes involved in CNIs induced post transplant hypertension work and interact, would provide further insights not only into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of CNIs induced post transplant hypertension but could also have a positive impact on the clinical ground through the identification of significant targets. Their specific pharmacologic targeting might have multiple beneficial effects on the whole cardiovascular-renal function. The demonstration that in kidney transplanted patients with CNIs induced post-transplanted hypertension, the

  13. Post-transplant monitoring of soluble CD30 level as predictor of graft outcome: a single center experience from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Shunliang; Wang, Qinghua; Tan, Jianming

    2012-12-01

    There are no reliable parameters for post-transplantation immunological monitoring, which might enable recipient-tailored immunosuppressive therapy. 250 renal graft recipients were enrolled and detected for sCD30 level pre-transplantation, and on days 5 and 14, and on months 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 post-transplantation. Analysis was performed on correlation between sCD30 level and acute rejection, lung infection, or graft loss respectively. sCD30 levels descended to a nadir with a mean of 10.2 ± 3.8 U/mL on day 30 post-transplantation, then rose gradually, and approached 21.8 ± 10.1 U/mL on month 3, 34.2 ± 16.5 U/mL on month 6, and 42.9 ± 29.5 U/mL on month 12, then presented a stable level. Recipients with AR had significantly higher sCD30 levels than those without AR on days 5 and 14 post-transplantation. Recipients with pneumonia had significantly lower sCD30 levels within 3 months post-transplantation than those without pneumonia. Significantly higher sCD30 levels were recorded in recipients who suffered graft loss than those with normal graft function on days 5 and 14, and on months 6, 12, and 24. High sCD30 level (≥ 48.3 U/mL) at month 12 post-transplantation has an obvious detrimental effect on renal graft survival (p=0.000, HR=9.075). Serum sCD30 level might reflect immune state of renal graft recipients. Post-transplantation sequential monitoring of sCD30 level is necessary, which might not only identify recipients at the risk of acute rejection and graft loss, but also chosen as an independent predictor of pneumonia in renal transplant recipients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Donor Indocyanine Green Clearance Test Predicts Graft Quality and Early Graft Prognosis After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunhua; Han, Ming; Chen, Maogen; Wang, Xiaoping; Ji, Fei; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiheng; Ju, Weiqiang; Wang, Dongping; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2017-11-01

    Transplantation centers have given much attention to donor availability. However, no reliable quantitative methods have been employed to accurately assess graft quality before transplantation. Here, we report that the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test is a valuable index for liver grafts. We performed the ICG clearance test on 90 brain-dead donors within 6 h before organ procurement between March 2015 and November 2016. We also analyzed the relationship between graft liver function and early graft survival after liver transplantation (LT). Our results suggest that the ICG retention rate at 15 min (ICGR15) of donors before procurement was independently associated with 3-month graft survival after LT. The best donor ICGR15 cutoff value was 11.0%/min, and we observed a significant increase in 3-month graft failure among patients with a donor ICGR15 above this value. On the other hand, a donor ICGR15 value of ≤ 11.0%/min could be used as an early assessment index of graft quality because it provides additional information to the transplant surgeon or organ procurement organization members who must maintain or improve organ function to adapt the LT. An ICG clearance test before liver procurement might be an effective quantitative method to predict graft availability and improve early graft prognosis after LT.

  15. Increased duration of dual pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for genotype 1 hepatitis C post-liver transplantation increases sustained virologic response: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Wells, Malcolm M; Roth, Lee S; Marotta, Paul; Levstik, Mark; Mason, Andrew L; Bain, Vincent G; Chandok, Natasha; Aljudaibi, Bandar M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with advanced post-transplant hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence, antiviral treatment (AVT) with interferon and ribavirin is indicated to prevent graft failure. The aim of this study was to determine and report Canadian data with respect to the safety, efficacy, and spontaneous virologic response (SVR) predictors of AVT among transplanted patients with HCV recurrence. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients transplanted in London, Ontario and Edmonton, Alberta from 2002 to 2012 who were treated for HCV. Demographic, medical, and treatment information was collected and analyzed. A total of 85 patients with HCV received pegylated interferon with ribavirin post-liver transplantation and 28 of the 65 patients (43%) with genotype 1 achieved SVR. Of the patients having genotype 1 HCV who achieved SVR, there was a significantly lower stage of fibrosis (1.37 ± 0.88 vs. 1.89 ± 0.96; P = 0.03), increased ribavirin dose (total daily dose 1057 ± 230 vs. 856 ± 399 mg; P = 0.02), increased rapid virologic response (RVR) (6/27 vs. 0/31; P = 0.05), increased early virologic response (EVR) (28/28 vs. 18/35; P = 0.006), and longer duration of therapy (54.7 ± 13.4 weeks vs. 40.2 ± 18.7; P = 0.001). A logistic regression model using gender, age, RVR, EVR, anemia, duration of therapy, viral load, years' post-transplant, and type of organ (donation after cardiac death vs. donation after brain death) significantly predicted SVR (P < 0.001), with duration of therapy having a significant odds ratio of 1.078 (P = 0.007). This study identified factors that predict SVR in HCV-positive patients who received dual therapy post-transplantation. Extending therapy from 48 weeks to 72 weeks of dual therapy is associated with increased SVR rates. Future studies examining the role of extended therapy are needed to confirm these findings, since the current study is a retrospective one.

  16. Pre-Liver Transplant Transthoracic Echocardiogram Findings and 6-Month Post-Transplant Outcomes: A Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Konerman, Monica A; Price, Jennifer C; Campbell, Catherine Y; Eluri, Swathi; Gurakar, Ahmet; Hamilton, James; Li, Zhiping

    2016-07-05

    BACKGROUND Cardiopulmonary (CP) outcomes remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality following liver transplantation (LT). The optimal CP risk stratification of LT candidates remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-LT transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) findings and 6-month post-LT outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective review analyzed adults who underwent LT, comparing those who died within 6 months of LT (cases; n=38) with age- and sex-matched patients who survived >6 months (controls; n=38). Cases were categorized by cause of death (COD) defined as either a primary CP process (n=20) or a non-CP process (n=18). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS There was a higher odds of death within 6 months of LT with ≥ mild mitral regurgitation (OR 3.44, p=0.03) or an incomplete assessment of right ventricular systolic function (RVSF) (OR 24, p=0.004). On subgroup analysis, these findings only persisted in patients with a CP COD. Patients with CP COD were older (61 vs. 54.5, p=0.04), had longer intervals between TTE and LT (122 vs. 29 days, p=0.05), less complete assessments of RVSF (p=0.009), and lower RV fractional area change (p=0.04) compared to patients with non-CP COD. CONCLUSIONS Multiple TTE parameters were associated with patients who died within 6 months of LT, and in particular patients with a CP COD. Our findings suggest that pre-LT TTEs can convey useful CP risk stratification information and emphasizes the importance of adequately assessing these parameters prior to LT.

  17. Diet quality of children post-liver transplantation does not differ from healthy children.

    PubMed

    Alzaben, Abeer S; MacDonald, Krista; Robert, Cheri; Haqq, Andrea; Gilmour, Susan M; Yap, Jason; Mager, Diana R

    2017-09-01

    Little has been studied regarding the diets of children following LTX. The study aim was to assess and compare dietary intake and DQ of healthy children and children post-LTX. Children and adolescents (2-18 years) post-LTX (n=27) and healthy children (n=28) were studied. Anthropometric and demographic data and two 24-hour recalls (one weekend; one weekday) were collected. Intake of added sugar, HFCS, fructose, GI, and GL was calculated. DQ was measured using three validated DQ indices: the HEI-C, the DGI-CA, and the DQI-I. Although no differences in weight-for-age z-scores were observed between groups, children post-LTX had lower height-for-age z-scores than healthy children (P<.01). With the exception of vitamin B12, no significant differences in energy and macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, and fat), added sugar, HFCS, fructose, GI, GL, and micronutrient intakes and DQ indices (HEI-C, DGI-CA, and DQI-I) between groups were observed (P>.05). The majority of children in both groups (>40%) had low DQ scores. No significant interrelationships between dietary intake, anthropometric, and demographic were found (P>.05). Both healthy and children post-LTX consume diets with poor DQ. This has implications for risk of obesity and metabolic dysregulation, particularly in transplant populations on immunosuppressive therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract helps prevent bacterial infections in the early postoperative period after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Emre, S; Sebastian, A; Chodoff, L; Boccagni, P; Meyers, B; Sheiner, P A; Mor, E; Guy, S R; Atillasoy, E; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    1999-01-01

    In liver transplant (LTx) recipients, gut-associated bacterial and fungal organisms produce significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the role of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) in preventing postoperative infections in a large single-center cohort of liver recipients transplanted under two non-simultaneous protocols. In 212 consecutive patients transplanted between 1/1/91 and 7/31/92, SDD (gentamicin 80 mg, polymyxin B 100 mg, nystatin suspension 10 mL) was employed, starting after induction of anesthesia and continued until POD 21 (SDD Group). In 157 consecutive patients transplanted between 1/1/93 and 12/31/93, SDD was not used (non-SDD Group). Both groups received IV vancomycin and cefotaxime prophylaxis. All culture-positive infections within the first 30 days post-LTx were recorded and classified as bacterial or fungal. Infection-related mortality (patients who died of infectious complications without any technical complication) was recorded. Groups did not differ in patient demographics, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status, use of veno-venous bypass, total/warm ischemia, or length of ICU stay. Infections developed in fewer SDD patients (56/212; 26%) than non-SDD patients (69/157; 44%) (p<0.001). The incidence of gram-negative infection was less in the SDD group (11% vs. 26%, p<0. 001) as was gram-positive infection (16% vs. 26%, p<0.001). Among patients who developed infection, there was no difference between groups in infections per patient. Primary graft non-function (PNF) developed in 20 SDD patients (7/20 had infections) and 8 non-SDD patients (6/8 had infections) (p=0.06). There were no differences in incidence of fungal infections or of infection-related mortality between groups. In the SDD group, there were fewer abdominal (p<0. 001), lung (p<0.001), wound (p<0.01), and urinary tract infections (p<0.05). Use of SDD in liver recipients early after transplant was associated with significantly fewer

  19. Nutritional status, lipid profile and HOMA-IR in post-liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Alves, Vanessa; Hack Mendes, Roberta; Pinto Kruel, Cleber Dario

    2014-05-01

    A high prevalence of overweight, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia has been reported following liver transplantation (LT). Although these conditions are known to induce an increased risk for cardiovascular events, which are among the major causes of death in post-LT patients, much debate remains in the literature regarding the applicability of different nutritional assessments methods to this population. To assess the nutritional status, lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and dietary intake adequacy in the post-LT period. Cross-sectional study of patients after a maximum of 2 years post-LT, involving the assessment of body mass index (BMI), percent weight loss, arm (AC) and arm muscle circumference (AMC), triceps skinfold (TSF), neck (NC) and waist (WC) circumference, lipid profile, HOMA-IR and percent adequacy of dietary intake. In the group of 36 patients, 61.1% were male, mean age 53.2 years (± 10.6). Severe weight loss was noted in 66.7% of patients. Most individuals were eutrophic according to BMI, AC and AMC, while TSF showed malnutrition, NC demonstrated overweight and WC showed metabolic risk. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 87.5% of patients, and insulin resistance in 57% of the patients. Most patients had adequate dietary intake, although the time since transplant was positively correlated with AC (r = 0.353; p = 0.035) and negatively correlated with vitamin A intake (r = - 0.382; p = 0.022), with the caloric adequacy (r = -0.338; p = 0.044) and vitamin A adequacy (r = -0.382; p = 0.021). Although anthropometry provided somewhat variable nutritional diagnoses, when combined with biochemical tests, findings showed the prevalence of cardiovascular risk. As such, patients should be provided with transdisciplinary assistance, and strategies should be developed so as to reduce the risk factors recorded in this population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide and Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate Mofetil Combination Prevents Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from HLA-Matched Donors.

    PubMed

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Caravelli, Daniela; Gallo, Susanna; Coha, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Vassallo, Elena; Fizzotti, Marco; Nesi, Francesca; Gioeni, Luisa; Berger, Massimo; Polo, Alessandra; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Becco, Paolo; Giraudo, Lidia; Mangioni, Monica; Sangiolo, Dario; Grignani, Giovanni; Rota-Scalabrini, Delia; Sottile, Antonino; Fagioli, Franca; Aglietta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) remains the only curative therapy for many hematologic malignancies but it is limited by high nonrelapse mortality (NRM), primarily from unpredictable control of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently, post-transplant cyclophosphamide demonstrated improved GVHD control in allogeneic bone marrow HCT. Here we explore cyclophosphamide in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT). Patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies received alloPBSCT from HLA-matched unrelated/related donors. GVHD prophylaxis included combination post-HCT cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg (days +3 and +4) and tacrolimus/mofetil mycophenolate (T/MMF) (day +5 forward). The primary objective was the cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. Between March 2011 and May 2015, 35 consecutive patients received the proposed regimen. MMF was stopped in all patients at day +28; the median discontinuation of tacrolimus was day +113. Acute and chronic GVHD cumulative incidences were 17% and 7%, respectively, with no grade IV GVHD events, only 2 patients requiring chronic GVHD immunosuppression control, and no deaths from GVHD. Two-year NRM, overall survival, event-free survival, and chronic GVHD event-free survival rates were 3%, 77%, 54%, and 49%, respectively. The graft-versus-tumor effect was maintained as 5 of 15 patients (33%) who received HCT with evidence of disease experienced further disease response. A post-transplant cyclophosphamide + T/MMF combination strategy effectively prevented acute and chronic GVHD after alloPBSCT from HLA-matched donors and achieved an unprecedented low NRM without losing efficacy in disease control or impaired development of the graft-versus-tumor effect. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02300571. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression profiles characterize early graft response in living donor small bowel transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S P; Pahari, M; Uknis, M E; Rastellini, C; Cicalese, L

    2006-01-01

    The cellular and histological events that occur during the regeneration process in invertebrates have been studied in the field of visceral regeneration. We would like to explore the molecular aspects of the regeneration process in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to characterize the gene expression profiles of the intestinal graft to identify which genes may have a role in regeneration of graft tissue posttransplant. In a patient undergoing living related small bowel transplantation (LRSBTx) in our institution, mucosal biopsies were obtained from the recipient intestine and donor graft at the time of transplant and at weeks 1, 2, 3, and 6 posttransplant. Total RNA was isolated from sample biopsies followed by gene expression profiles determined from the replicate samples (n = 3) for each biopsy using the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Human GeneChip set. Two profiles were obtained from the data. One profile showed rapid increase of 45 genes immediately after transplant by week 1 with significant changes (P < .05) greater than threefold including the chemokine CXC9 and glutathione-related stress factors, GPX2 and GSTA4. The second profile identified 133 genes that were significantly decreased by threefold or greater immediately after transplant week 1, including UCC1, the human homolog of the Ependymin gene. We have identified two gene expression profiles representing early graft responses to small bowel transplantation. These profiles will serve to identify and study those genes whose products may play a role in accelerating tissue regeneration following segmental LRSBTx.

  2. Family Caregivers of Liver Transplant Recipients: Coping Strategies Associated With Different Levels of Post-traumatic Growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, M Á; Martín-Rodríguez, A; Borda-Mas, M; Avargues-Navarro, M L; Pérez-Bernal, J; Gómez-Bravo, M Á

    2018-03-01

    Analyze the influence of 2 variables (post-traumatic growth and time since liver transplantation) on coping strategies used by the transplant recipient's family members. In all, 218 family members who were their main caregivers of liver transplant recipients were selected. They were evaluated using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and the Brief COPE. A 3 × 3 factorial analysis of variance was used to analyze the influence that post-traumatic growth level (low, medium, and high) and time since transplantation (≤3.5 years, >3.5 to ≤9 years, and >9 years) exerted on caregiver coping strategies. No interactive effects between the two factors in the study were found. The only significant main effect was the influence of the post-traumatic growth factor on the following variables: instrumental support (P = .007), emotional support (P = .005), self-distraction (P = .006), positive reframing (P = .000), acceptance (P = .013), and religion (P = <.001). According to the most relevant effect sizes, low post-traumatic growth compared with medium growth was associated with less use of self-distraction (P = .006, d = -0.52, medium effect size), positive reframing (P = .001, d = -0.62, medium effect size), and religion (P = .000, d = -0.66, medium effect size), and in comparison with high growth, it was associated with less use of positive reframing (P = .002, d = -0.56, medium effect size) and religion (P = .000, d = 0.87, large effect size). Regardless of the time elapsed since the stressful life event (liver transplantation), family members with low post-traumatic growth usually use fewer coping strategies involving a positive, transcendent vision to deal with transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Alteration of Microparticle Levels in Early Complications During Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Li; Han, Yue; Zhu, Qian; Zhao, Shi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Ming-Qing; Dai, Lan; Shen, Wen-Hong; Wu, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the alteration of microparticles (MP) in the recipients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and its significance, and to search the early diagnostic indicators of thrombotic complications after transplantation. According to the occurrence of transplantation-associated complications, 94 allo-HSCT patients were divided into 4 groups: thrombotic group (VOD n = 7, TMA n = 2), acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) group (n = 27), infection group (n = 41) and non-complication group (n = 17). Alterations of serum concentration of tissue factor positive microparticles (TF(+) MP) and endothelial microparticles (EMP) were analyzed by flow cytometry during the process of conditioning treatment and the early stage after transplantation. The relation of these 2 kinds of MP with complications was analysed. (1) The levels of TF(+) MP and EMP of patients undogoing allo-HSCT before conditioning treatment were obviously higher than those in normal controls, and showed some elevation during different times, but there was no significant statistical difference. Although the levels of TF(+) MP and EMP at the end of conditioning treatment were some higher than those before conditioning treatment, but there was no statistical difference between them. (2)The levels of TF(+) MP and EMP in thrombotic group were obviously higher than those in aGVHD group and infection group (P < 0.05). (3)The levels of TF(+) MP and EMP in thrombotic group at different times were significant differences from those in other groups (P < 0.05), and the levels of TF(+) MP and EMP were no significant difference from those in non-complication group. The increase of the TF(+) MP and EMP levels may be associated with occurrence of thrombosis after transplantation, indicating occurrence of the thrombotic complications, like hepatic vein occulusive disease (HVOD). The dynamically monitoring levels of TF(+) MP and EMP contributes to early discovery of thrombotic complications.

  4. A multivariate analysis of pre-, peri-, and post-transplant factors affecting outcome after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Sue V; Anand, Ravinder; Martz, Karen; Millis, Michael J; Mazariegos, George

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify significant, independent factors that predicted 6 month patient and graft survival after pediatric liver transplantation. The Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation (SPLIT) is a multicenter database established in 1995, of currently more than 4000 US and Canadian children undergoing liver transplantation. Previous published analyses from this data have examined specific factors influencing outcome. This study analyzes a comprehensive range of factors that may influence outcome from the time of listing through the peri- and postoperative period. A total of 42 pre-, peri- and posttransplant variables evaluated in 2982 pediatric recipients of a first liver transplant registered in SPLIT significant at the univariate level were included in multivariate models. In the final model combining all baseline and posttransplant events, posttransplant complications had the highest relative risk of death or graft loss. Reoperation for any cause increased the risk for both patient and graft loss by 11 fold and reoperation exclusive of specific complications by 4 fold. Vascular thromboses, bowel perforation, septicemia, and retransplantation, each independently increased the risk of patient and graft loss by 3 to 4 fold. The only baseline factor with a similarly high relative risk for patient and graft loss was recipient in the intensive care unit (ICU) intubated at transplant. A significant center effect was also found but did not change the impact of the highly significant factors already identified. We conclude that the most significant factors predicting patient and graft loss at 6 months in children listed for transplant are posttransplant surgical complications.

  5. Chemoimmunotherapy and withdrawal of immunosupression for monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Podoltsev, Nikolai; Zhang, Bingnan; Yao, Xiaopan; Bustillo, Ivan; Deng, Yanhong; Cooper, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are the most aggressive type of PTLD occurring after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Current guidelines for treatment suggest a stepwise approach that includes a reduction of immunosuppression (RIS) with or without rituximab, followed by chemotherapy if there is no response. Nevertheless, recommendations regarding the extent and duration of RIS are non-standardized and RIS as an initial strategy may be associated with an unacceptably high frequency of graft loss and disease progression. Patients and Methods We reviewed the outcome of a combination program of aggressive chemo-immunotherapy and complete withdrawal of immunosuppression in treating 22 patients with monomorphic PTLD between January 1995 and August 2012. Results 12 of 22 patients (55%) received CHOP-R every 2 weeks (dose dense CHOP-R) and 10 patients received other doxorubicin-based regimens. There was no treatment related mortality (TRM). Complete response (CR) was seen in 91% of patients. Median overall survival was 9.61 years with 95% CI (5.21-10.74). Median progression free survival (PFS) was 5.39 years with 95% CI (2.10-10.74). The graft-rejection rate was 18% with 95% CI (0.03-0.34). Conclusion We conclude that the use of aggressive chemo-immunotherapy in combination with withdrawal of immunosuppression approach yields excellent results and should be prospectively studied in a multi-institutional setting. PMID:24035715

  6. Analysis of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable genes in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Capello, Daniela; Cerri, Michaela; Muti, Giuliana; Lucioni, Marco; Oreste, Pierluigi; Gloghini, Annunziata; Berra, Eva; Deambrogi, Clara; Franceschetti, Silvia; Rossi, Davide; Alabiso, Oscar; Morra, Enrica; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Carbone, Antonino; Paulli, Marco; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2006-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) derive from antigen-experienced B-cells and represent a major complication of solid organ transplantation. We characterized usage, mutation frequency and mutation pattern of immunoglobulin variable (IGV) gene rearrangements in 50 PTLD (polymorphic PTLD, n=10; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, n=35; and Burkitt/Burkitt-like lymphoma, n=5). Among PTLD yielding clonal IGV amplimers, a functional IGV heavy chain (IGHV) rearrangement was found in 40/50 (80.0%) cases, whereas a potentially functional IGV light chain rearrangement was identified in 36/46 (78.3%) PTLD. By combining IGHV and IGV light chain rearrangements, 10/50 (20.0%) PTLD carried crippling mutations, precluding expression of a functional B-cell receptor (BCR). Immunohistochemistry showed detectable expression of IG light chains in only 18/43 (41.9%) PTLD. Failure to detect a functional IGV rearrangement associated with lack of IGV expression. Our data suggest that a large fraction of PTLD arise from germinal centre (GC)-experienced B-cells that display impaired BCR. Since a functional BCR is required for normal B-cell survival during GC transit, PTLD development may implicate rescue from apoptosis and expansion of B-cells that have failed the GC reaction. The high frequency of IGV loci inactivation appears to be a peculiar feature of PTLD among immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferations.

  7. Defibrotide for children and adults with hepatic veno-occlusive disease post hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, Selim; Richardson, Paul G

    2017-10-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a complication that is typically associated with conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In patients with concomitant multi-organ dysfunction, mortality may be >80%. Recently, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation established separate criteria for diagnosis and severity of VOD/SOS for adults and children, to better reflect current understanding of the disease. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of post-HSCT hepatic VOD/SOS and defibrotide, including its pharmacological, clinical, and regulatory profile. In children and adults following HSCT, defibrotide is approved for the treatment of hepatic VOD/SOS with concomitant renal or pulmonary dysfunction in the United States and for the treatment of severe hepatic VOD/SOS in the European Union. Day +100 survival rates with defibrotide are superior to those of historical controls receiving best supportive care only, and safety profiles are similar. Expert commentary: Defibrotide appears to act through multiple mechanisms to restore thrombo-fibrinolytic balance and protect endothelial cells, and there are promising data on the use of defibrotide for VOD/SOS prophylaxis in high-risk children undergoing HSCT. An ongoing randomized controlled trial in children and adults will better assess the clinical value of defibrotide as a preventive medication.

  8. T-cell replete haploidentical donor transplantation using post-transplant CY: an emerging standard-of-care option for patients who lack an HLA-identical sibling donor.

    PubMed

    Bashey, A; Solomon, S R

    2014-08-01

    Availability of an HLA-identical sibling (MRD) or suitably matched unrelated donor (MUD) has historically been a limiting factor in the application of allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Although almost all patients have an HLA-haploidentical family donor, prior attempts at transplantation from such donors using T-cell replete grafts and conventional immunosuppression were associated with unacceptable rates of GVHD, and when stringent ex vivo T-cell depletion was used to control GVHD, rates of graft rejection and post-transplant infections were prohibitive. The recent approach to HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation developed in Baltimore that uses T-cell replete grafts and post-transplant CY (Haplo-post-HCT-CY) to control post-transplant allo-reactivity appears to have overcome many of the obstacles historically associated with haploidentical donor transplantation. In particular, TRM rates of <10% are usual and rapid reconstitution of immunity leads to a low rate of post-transplant infections and no post-tranplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), consistent with the hypothesis that post-transplant CY selectively depletes proliferating alloreactive T cells responsible for GVHD and graft rejection while preserving resting memory T cells essential for post-transplant immunologic recovery. In parallel trials using similar non-myeloablative conditioning regimens, Haplo-post-HCT-CY produced similar overall survival to double umbilical cord blood transplantation(DUCBT) in adult patients (62% vs 54%), with low rates of TRM (7% vs 24%), severe acute GVHD (0% vs 21%) and chronic GVHD (13% vs 25%). Furthermore, recent non-randomized comparisons adjusted for risk factors show that Haplo-post-HCT-CY achieve at least equivalent outcomes to conventional MRD and MUD transplants. Although most experience has been obtained using BM, emerging data suggest that a G-CSF mobilized PBSC graft can also safely be used for Haplo-post-HCT-CY. Haplo-post-HCT-CY also avoids the

  9. Physical rehabilitation for lung transplant candidates and recipients: An evidence-informed clinical approach

    PubMed Central

    Wickerson, Lisa; Rozenberg, Dmitry; Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Deliva, Robin; Lo, Vincent; Beauchamp, Gary; Helm, Denise; Gottesman, Chaya; Mendes, Polyana; Vieira, Luciana; Herridge, Margaret; Singer, Lianne G; Mathur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation of lung transplant candidates and recipients plays an important in optimizing physical function prior to transplant and facilitating recovery of function post-transplant. As medical and surgical interventions in lung transplantation have evolved over time, there has been a demographic shift of individuals undergoing lung transplantation including older individuals, those with multiple co-morbidites, and candidates with respiratory failure requiring bridging to transplantation. These changes have an impact on the rehabilitation needs of lung transplant candidates and recipients. This review provides a practical approach to rehabilitation based on research and clinical practice at our transplant centre. It focuses on functional assessment and exercise prescription during an uncomplicated and complicated clinical course in the pre-transplant, early and late post-transplant periods. The target audience includes clinicians involved in pre- and post-transplant patient care and rehabilitation researchers. PMID:27683630

  10. Ex vivo adenoviral gene transfer of constitutively activated STAT3 reduces post-transplant liver injury and promotes regeneration in a 20% rat partial liver transplant model.

    PubMed

    Huda, Kamrul A S M; Guo, Lei; Haga, Sanae; Murata, Hiroshi; Ogino, Tetsuya; Fukai, Moto; Yagi, Takahito; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Ozaki, Michitaka

    2006-05-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is one of the most important transcription factors for liver regeneration. This study was designed to examine the effects of constitutively activated STAT3 (STAT3-C) on post-transplant liver injury and regeneration in a rat 20% partial liver transplant (PLTx) model by ex vivo adenoviral gene transfer. Adenovirus encoding the STAT3-C gene was introduced intraportally into liver grafts and clamped for 30 min during cold preservation. After orthotopic PLTx, liver graft/body weights and serum biochemistry were monitored, and both a histological study and DNA binding assay were performed. STAT3-C protein expression and its binding to DNA in the liver graft were confirmed by Western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively. This treatment modality promoted post-Tx liver regeneration effectively and rapidly. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ALT) and bilirubin decreased in rats with STAT3-C. However, albumin (a marker of liver function) did not. Ex vivo gene transfer of STAT3-C to liver grafts reduced post-Tx injury and promoted liver regeneration. Thus, the activation of STAT3 in the liver graft may be a potentially effective clinical strategy for improving the outcome of small-for-size liver transplantation.

  11. Recurrent Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Peritransplant Factors and Ursodeoxycholic Acid Treatment Post-Liver Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Jennifer E.; Qian, Peiqing; Lowell, Jeffrey A.; Peters, Marion G.

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) recurs after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in up to one-third of patients. These patients are typically asymptomatic, can be identified by abnormal liver biochemistries, and have evidence of histologic recurrence on liver biopsy. The effect of treatment on recurrence has not been determined. This pilot study evaluates the factors associated with recurrent PBC and describes our experience using ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in this patient population. Forty-eight patients with PBC were followed for at least 1 yr post-OLT, and 27 patients (56%) developed abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase. Seventeen patients (35%) had evidence of recurrent PBC by liver biopsy. Patients with recurrent PBC had a trend toward longer warm ischemia times and more episodes of acute cellular rejection in the first year posttransplant, but this was not significant in multivariate analysis. Donor or recipient age, donor and recipient cytomegalovirus status, and dose of immunosuppression did not correlate with recurrence of PBC. Those patients diagnosed with recurrent PBC were placed on ursodeoxycholic acid, 15 mg/kg daily, with improvement in serum alkaline phosphatase in the majority. In conclusion, recurrent PBC is not infrequent post-OLT, and ursodeoxycholic acid can be used with some benefit post-OLT. Treatment effects on long-term survival are not known. PMID:16184542

  12. Does recipient work status pre-transplant affect post-heart transplant survival? A United Network for Organ Sharing database review.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Yazhini; Lella, Srihari K; Copeland, Laurel A; Zolfaghari, Kiumars; Grady, Kathleen; Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B

    2018-05-01

    Recipient-related factors, such as education level and type of health insurance, are known to affect heart transplantation outcomes. Pre-operative employment status has shown an association with survival in abdominal organ transplant patients. We sought to evaluate the effect of work status of heart transplant (HTx) recipients at the time of listing and at the time of transplantation on short- and long-term survival. We evaluated the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry for all adult HTx recipients from 2001 to 2014. Recipients were grouped based on their work status at listing and at heart transplantation. Kaplan-Meier estimates illustrated 30-day, 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year survival comparing working with non-working groups. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to adjust for covariates that could potentially confound the post-transplantation survival analysis. Working at listing for HTx was not significantly associated with 30-day and 1-year survival. However, 5- and 10-year mortality were 14.5% working vs 19.8% not working (p < 0.0001) and 16% working vs 26% not working (p < 0.0001), respectively. Working at HTx appeared to be associated with a survival benefit at every time interval, with a trend toward improved survival at 30 days and 1 year and a significant association at 5 and 10 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 5% and 10% decrease in 5- and 10-year mortality, respectively, for the working group compared with the group not working at transplantation. The Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that working at listing and working at transplantation were each associated with decreased mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71 to 0.91; and HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.89, respectively). This study is the first analysis of UNOS STAR data on recipient work status pre-HTx demonstrating: (1) an improvement in post-transplant survival for working HTx candidates; and (2

  13. Post-transplant lymphoceles: a critical look into the risk factors, pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Khauli, R B; Stoff, J S; Lovewell, T; Ghavamian, R; Baker, S

    1993-07-01

    To define better the prevalence and pathophysiology of lymphoceles following renal transplantation, we prospectively evaluated 118 consecutive renal transplants performed in 115 patients (96 cadaveric, 22 living-related, 7 secondary and 111 primary). Ultrasonography was performed post-operatively and during rehospitalizations or whenever complications occurred. Perirenal fluid collections were identified in 43 patients (36%). Lymphoceles with a diameter of 5 cm. or greater were identified in 26 of 118 cases (22%). Eight patients (6.8%) had symptomatic lymphoceles requiring therapy. The interval for development of symptomatic lymphoceles was 1 week to 3.7 years (median 10 months). Risk factors for the development of lymphoceles were examined by univariate and multivariate analysis, and included patient age, sex, source of transplants (cadaver versus living-related donor), retransplantation, tissue match (HLA-B/DR), type of preservation, arterial anastomosis, occurrence of acute tubular necrosis-delayed graft function, occurrence of rejection, and use of high dose corticosteroids. Univariate analysis showed a significant risk for the development of lymphoceles in transplants with acute tubular necrosis-delayed graft function (odds ratio 4.5, p = 0.004), rejection (odds ratio 25.1 p < 0.001) and high dose steroids (odds ratio 16.4, p < 0.001). When applying multivariate analyses using stepwise logistic regression, only rejection was associated with a significant risk for lymphoceles (symptomatic lymphoceles--odds ratio 25.08, p = 0.0003, all lymphoceles--odds ratio 75.24, p < 0.0001). When adjusting for rejection, no other risk factor came close to being significant (least p = 0.4). Therapy included laparoscopic peritoneal marsupialization and drainage in 1 patient, incisional peritoneal drainage in 4 and percutaneous external drainage in 3 (infected). All symptomatic lymphoceles were successfully treated without sequelae to grafts or patients. We conclude that

  14. What is the impact of immunosuppressive treatment on the post-transplant renal osteopathy?

    PubMed

    Blaslov, Kristina; Katalinic, Lea; Kes, Petar; Spasovski, Goce; Smalcelj, Ruzica; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina

    2014-05-01

    Although glucocorticoid therapy is considered to be the main pathogenic factor, a consistent body of evidence suggests that other immunosuppressants might also play an important role in the development of the post-transplant renal osteopathy (PRO) through their pleiotropic pharmacological effects. Glucocorticoids seem to induce osteoclasts' activity suppressing the osteoblasts while data regarding other immunosuppressive drugs are still controversial. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine appear to be neutral regarding the bone metabolism. However, the study analyzing any independent effect of antimetabolites on bone turnover has not been conducted yet. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) induce trabecular bone loss in rodent, with contradictory results in renal transplant recipients. Suppression of vitamin D receptor is probably the underlying mechanism of renal calcium wasting in renal transplant recipients receiving CNI. In spite of an increased 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D level, the kidney is not able to reserve calcium, suggesting a role of vitamin D resistance that may be related to bone loss. More efforts should be invested to determine the role of CNI in PRO. In particular, data regarding the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi), such as sirolimus and everolimus, in the PRO development are still controversial. Rapamycin markedly decreases bone longitudinal growth as well as callus formation in experimental models, but also lowers the rate of bone resorption markers and glomerular filtration in clinical studies. Everolimus potently inhibits primary mouse and human osteoclast activity as well as the osteoclast differentiation. It also prevents the ovariectomy-induced loss of cancellous bone by 60 %, an effect predominantly associated with a decreased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, resulting in a partial preservation of the cancellous bone. At present, there is no clinical study analyzing the effect of everolimus on bone turnover in renal

  15. Outcome of heart transplants 15 to 20 years ago: graft survival, post-transplant morbidity, and risk factors for mortality.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Jean C; Baron, Olivier; Périgaud, Christian; Bizouarn, Philippe; Pattier, Sabine; Habash, Oussama; Mugniot, Antoine; Petit, Thierry; Michaud, Jean L; Heymann, Marie Françoise; Treilhaud, Michèle; Trochu, Jean N; Gueffet, Jean P; Lamirault, Guillaume; Duveau, Daniel; Despins, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the long-term outcome of patients who underwent heart transplantation 15 to 20 years ago, in the cyclosporine era, and identify risk factors for death. A retrospective analysis was done of 148 patients who had undergone heart transplantation between 1985 and 1991 at a single center. Operative technique and immunosuppressive treatment were comparable in all patients. Actuarial survival rates were 75% (n = 111), 58% (n = 86), and 42% (n = 62) at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 12.1 +/- 5.6 years for patients who survived more than 3 months after transplantation (n = 131). The major causes of death were malignancy (35.8%) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (24.7%). No death related to acute rejection was reported after the first month of transplantation. Graft coronary artery disease was detected on angiography in 66 (50.3%), and 7 (5.3%) had retransplantation. Malignancies developed in 131 patients (48.1%), including skin cancers in 31 (23.6%), solid tumors in 26 (19.8%), and hematologic malignancies in 14 (10.6%). Severe renal function requiring dialysis or renal transplantation developed in 27 patients (20.6%). By multivariable analysis, the only pre-transplant risk factor found to affect long-term survival was a history of cigarette use (p < 0.0004). Long-term survival at 15 years after cardiac transplantation remains excellent in the cyclosporine era. Controlling acute allograft rejection can be achieved but seems to carry a high rate of cancers and renal dysfunction. History of cigarette use affects significantly long-term survival in our study.

  16. [Plasma scavenger receptor BI and CD36 expression change and susceptibility of atherosclerosis in patients post liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Xue, Jinhong; Zhang, Shuyi; Sun, Liying; Lu, Chengzhi

    2014-02-01

    To explore the association between expression changes of plasma macrophages scavenger receptor (SR)-BI and CD36 and risk of arteriosclerosis in end-stage liver disease (ESLD) patients post liver transplantation. A total of 20 liver transplantation patients were included. Clinical data including blood pressure, blood lipid, blood glucose, incidence of new-onset cardiovascular events were obtained. Plasma macrophages scavenger receptor SR-BIand CD36 expressions were detected by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western-blot before and at 1 year after liver transplantation. The serum levels of TC [(5.34 ± 0.87) mmol/L vs. (4.27 ± 0.91) mmol/L], TG [(2.47 ± 0.81) mmol/L vs. (1.02 ± 0.49) mmol/L] and LDL-C [(3.36 ± 0.67) mmol/L vs. (2.14 ± 0.74) mmol/L] were significantly increased (P < 0.05) while the serum level of HDL-C [(0.98 ± 0.84) mmol/L vs. (1.58 ± 0.34) mmol/L] was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) at 1 year post transplantation compared to before-transplantation levels. One patient developed non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, another patient developed atrial fibrillation at one year after transplantation. The plasma mRNA expression of SR-BI was reduced (20.44 ± 0.60 vs. 23.12 ± 0.69, P < 0.05) while the expression of CD36 mRNA was upregulated (20.91 ± 0.35 vs. 18.55 ± 0.62, P < 0.05) at 1 year after liver transplantation compare with that of before the transplantation. Similarly, the plasma protein expression of SR-BIwas reduced (0.21 ± 0.13 vs. 0.64 ± 0.28, P < 0.05) while the protein expression of CD36 was upregulated (0.94 ± 0.13 vs. 0.42 ± 0.19, P < 0.05) at 1 year after liver transplantation compare with that of before the transplantation. Plasma expression changes of SR-BI and CD36 might contribute to the dyslipidemia and contribute to the atherosclerosis susceptibility after liver transplantation.

  17. A novel immune function biomarker identifies patients at risk of clinical events early following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sood, Siddharth; Haifer, Craig; Yu, Lijia; Pavlovic, Julie; Churilov, Leonid; Gow, Paul J; Jones, Robert M; Angus, Peter W; Visvanathan, Kumar; Testro, Adam G

    2017-04-01

    Balancing immunosuppression after liver transplant is difficult, with clinical events common. We investigate whether a novel immune biomarker based on a laboratory platform with widespread availability that measures interferon γ (IFNγ) after stimulation with a lyophilized ball containing an adaptive and innate immune stimulant can predict events following transplantation. A total of 75 adult transplant recipients were prospectively monitored in a blinded, observational study; 55/75 (73.3%) patients experienced a total of 89 clinical events. Most events occurred within the first month. Low week 1 results were significantly associated with risk of early infection (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.74; P = 0.008). IFNγ ≤ 1.30 IU/mL (likelihood ratio positive, 1.93; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 63.0%) was associated with the highest risk for infection with minimal rejection risk. Nearly half the cohort (27/60, 45.0%) expressed IFNγ ≤ 1.30 IU/mL. Moreover, an elevated week 1 result was significantly associated with the risk of rejection within the first month after transplant (AUROC, 0.77; P = 0.002), but no episodes of infection. On multivariate logistic regression, IFNγ ≥ 4.49 IU/mL (odds ratio, 4.75) may be an independent predictor of rejection (P = 0.05). In conclusion, low IFNγ suggesting oversuppression is associated with infections, whereas high IFNγ indicating undersuppression is associated with rejection. This assay offers the potential to allow individualization and optimization of immunosuppression that could fundamentally alter the way patients are managed following transplantation. Liver Transplantation 23 487-497 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries – An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982–2013

    PubMed Central

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004–2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101

  19. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries - An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982-2013.

    PubMed

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H

    2015-06-01

    The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004-2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR).

  20. Pretransplant Tacrolimus Dose Requirements Predict Early Posttransplant Dose Requirements in Blood Group AB0-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Nauras; de Man, Femke M; de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H; van Gelder, Teun; Hesselink, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretransplant tacrolimus (Tac) dose requirements of patients scheduled to undergo living donor kidney transplantation correlate with posttransplantation dose requirements. The predictive value of Tac dose requirements (defined as the ratio of the Tac predose concentration, C0, divided by the total daily Tac dose, D) pretransplantation on this same parameter posttransplantation was assessed retrospectively in a cohort of 57 AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. These patients started immunosuppressive therapy 14 days before transplant surgery. All patients were using a stable dose of glucocorticoids and were at steady-state Tac exposure before transplantation. Tac dose requirements immediately before transplantation (C0/Dbefore) explained 63% of the Tac dose requirements on day 3 after transplantation: r = 0.633 [F (1, 44) = 75.97, P < 0.01]. No other clinical and demographic variables predicted Tac dose requirements early after transplantation. Steady-state Tac dose requirement before transplantation largely predicted posttransplantation Tac dose requirements in AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. The importance of this finding is that the posttransplantation Tac dose can be individualized based on a patient's pretransplantation Tac concentration/dose ratio. Pretransplant Tac phenotyping therefore has the potential to improve transplantation outcomes.

  1. Sirolimus Pharmacokinetics in Early Postmyeloablative Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Rakesh K.; Han, Kelong; Wall, Donna A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Bunin, Nancy; Grupp, Stephan A.; Mada, Sripal R.; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in pediatric allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients in the presence and absence of concomitant fluconazole. Forty pediatric BMT recipients received a daily oral dose of sirolimus and a continuous i.v. infusion of tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Fluconazole was administered i.v. to 19 patients and orally to 6 patients. Full pharmacokinetic profiles of sirolimus within a single dosing interval were collected. Whole-blood sirolimus concentrations were measured by HPLC/mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin. Nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic models were developed using NONMEM following standard procedures. The mean ± SD sirolimus trough level before the dose (C0) was 8.0 ± 4.6 ng/mL (range, 1.8–21.6 ng/mL). The peak concentration was 19.9 ± 11.8 ng/mL (range, 3.9–46.1 ng/mL), and the trough level 24 hours later (C24) was 9.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL (range, 1.0–19.1 ng/mL). The terminal disposition half-life (T1/2) was 24.5 ± 11.2 hours (range, 5.8–53.2 hours), and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0–24) was 401.1 ± 316.3 ng·h/mL (range, 20.7–1332.3 ng·h/mL). In patients at steady state, C0 and C24 were closely correlated (R2 = 0.77) with a slope of 0.99, indicating the achievement of steady state. C24 was 1.7-fold greater (P = .036) and AUC0–24 was 2-fold greater (P = .012) in Caucasian patients (n = 22) compared with Hispanic patients (n = 9). The average apparent oral clearance was 3-fold greater (P = .001) and the apparent oral volume of distribution was 2-fold greater (P = .018) in patients age ≤12 years compared with those age >12 years. C24 was significantly lower in patients (n = 10) who developed grade III–IV aGVHD (n = 10) than in those with grade 0-II aGVHD (n = 22) (6.1 ± 2.9 ng/mL versus 9.4 ± 5.5 ng/mL; P = .044). Dose-normalized sirolimus trough concentrations were significantly

  2. Early outcomes of liver transplants in patients receiving organs from hypernatremic donors.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Mohammad Bagher; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Sahmeddini, Mohammad Ali; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossien

    2013-12-01

    Uncorrected hypernatremia in organ donors has been associated with poor graft or patient survival during liver transplants. However, recent studies have found no association between the donor serum sodium and transplant outcome. This study sought to show the negative effect donor hypernatremia has on initial liver allograft function. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio and renal factors of patients with normal and those with hypernatremic donor livers. This study was conducted at the Shiraz Transplant Research Center in Shiraz, Iran, between May 2009, and July 2011. Four hundred seven consecutive adult orthotopic liver transplants were performed at the University of Shiraz Medical Center. There were 93 donors in the group with hypernatremia with terminal serum sodium of 155 mEq/L or greater (group 1), and 314 with terminal serum sodium less than 155 mEq/L (group 2). Posttransplant data after 5 days showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, international normalized ratio, and kidney function did not differ between the groups. Hypernatremia is the most important complication after brain death. Previous studies have suggested donor hypernatremia results in a greater incidence of early postoperative graft dysfunction in liver transplant and is considered one of the extended criteria donor. However, in recent years, this hypothesis has been questioned. Our study shows no difference between patients' initial results of liver and kidney functioning with normal and hypernatremic donor livers. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio as a fundamental factor in defining early allograft dysfunction and renal factors between patients with normal and hypernatremic donor's livers.

  3. Dual pathology as a cause of proteinuria in the post-transplant period; report of a case.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rohit; Mendonca, Satish; Nijhawan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is common after renal transplantation and affects between 35%-45% of patients during the same year as their transplant. We report a case of dual pathology in the renal allograft as a cause of severe proteinuria. A 38-year-old male presented with end-stage renal disease. He underwent live related renal allograft transplant. His immediate post-transplant period was unremarkable. He developed rise in serum creatinine (2.1 mg/dl) 6 months after transplant and was biopsied. He was diagnosed as a case of acute cellular rejection type Ib with suspicion for antibody mediated rejection. He was treated with methylprednisolone to which he showed a good response with return of serum creatinine to 1.6 mg/dl. Subsequently, he developed a nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after this episode of rejection. Repeat biopsy was performed. He was diagnosed as a case of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) (morphologically consistent with pattern of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) with chronic humoral rejection in the form of transplant glomerulopathy (TG). IHC for C4d and immunofluorescence studies were instrumental making the diagnosis. He was treated with steroids and rituximab to which he showed a good response with remission of proteinuria. This case highlights the importance of picking up dual pathology in an allograft biopsy to ensure appropriate therapy. The role of C4d and its correct interpretation is further highlighted, especially with regard to pattern (granular versus linear) and location (glomerular capillaries versus peritubular capillaries).

  4. Dual pathology as a cause of proteinuria in the post-transplant period; report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Rohit; Mendonca, Satish; Nijhawan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is common after renal transplantation and affects between 35%-45% of patients during the same year as their transplant. We report a case of dual pathology in the renal allograft as a cause of severe proteinuria. A 38-year-old male presented with end-stage renal disease. He underwent live related renal allograft transplant. His immediate post-transplant period was unremarkable. He developed rise in serum creatinine (2.1 mg/dl) 6 months after transplant and was biopsied. He was diagnosed as a case of acute cellular rejection type Ib with suspicion for antibody mediated rejection. He was treated with methylprednisolone to which he showed a good response with return of serum creatinine to 1.6 mg/dl. Subsequently, he developed a nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after this episode of rejection. Repeat biopsy was performed. He was diagnosed as a case of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) (morphologically consistent with pattern of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) with chronic humoral rejection in the form of transplant glomerulopathy (TG). IHC for C4d and immunofluorescence studies were instrumental making the diagnosis. He was treated with steroids and rituximab to which he showed a good response with remission of proteinuria. This case highlights the importance of picking up dual pathology in an allograft biopsy to ensure appropriate therapy. The role of C4d and its correct interpretation is further highlighted, especially with regard to pattern (granular versus linear) and location (glomerular capillaries versus peritubular capillaries). PMID:28197503

  5. Use of marginal grafts in deceased donor liver transplant: assessment of early outcomes.

    PubMed

    Godara, Rajesh; Naidu, C Sudeep; Rao, Pankaj P; Sharma, Sanjay; Banerjee, Jayant K; Saha, Anupam; Vijay, Kapileshwer

    2014-03-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation has become a routinely applied therapy for an expanding group of patients with end-stage liver disease. Shortage of organs has led centers to expand their criteria for the acceptance of marginal donors. There is current debate about the regulation and results of liver transplantation using marginal grafts. The study included data of all patients who received deceased donor liver grafts between March 2007 to December 2011. Patients with acute liver failure, living donor transplantation, split liver transplantation, and retransplantation were excluded. Early allograft dysfunction, primary nonfunction, patient survival, and incidence of surgical complications were measured. A total of 33 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 20 marginal and 13 nonmarginal grafts. The two groups were well matched regarding age, sex and indication of liver transplantation, model for end-stage liver disease score, technique of transplant, requirement of vascular reconstruction, warm ischemia time, blood loss, mean operative time, etc. In our study, posttransplant peak level of liver enzymes, international normalization ratio, and bilirubin were not statistically significant in the marginal and nonmarginal group. Wound infection occurred in 10 % of marginal compared with 7.7 % of nonmarginal graft recipients (p > 0.05). In the marginal group, the incidences of vascular complications, hepatic artery thrombosis (four), and portal vein thrombosis (one) were not statistically significant compared to the nonmarginal group. Acute rejection was observed in a total of seven patients (21.2 %)-five (25 %) in the marginal group and two (15.4 %) in the nonmarginal graft recipients. Primary nonfunction occurred in three (9.1 %) patients-two (10 %) in the marginal and one (7.7 %) in the nonmarginal group. Average patient survival for the whole group was 91 % at 1 week, 87.8 % at 3 months, and 84.8 % at 6 months. Because organ scarcity persists, additional

  6. Post-transplantation nephroptosis causing recurrent episodes of acute renal failure and hypertension secondary to intermittent vascular torsion of intraperitoneal renal allograft

    PubMed Central

    Dosch, Austin R.; Pahl, Madeleine; Reddy, Uttam; Foster, Clarence E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nephroptosis is a rare complication in renal transplantation, but one with significant associated risk. Due to non-specific clinical features, there may be a substantial delay in diagnosis and loss of the transplanted kidney due to renal pedicle thrombosis. We present a case of post-transplantation nephroptosis after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, which resulted in accelerated hypertension and reversible acute kidney injury >1 year after transplantation. Prompt detection of this rare entity leading to expeditious surgical intervention is necessary to preserve viability of the renal allograft. PMID:28560019

  7. Post-operative imaging in liver transplantation: State-of-the-art and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Girometti, Rossano; Como, Giuseppe; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Zuiani, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) represents a major treatment for end-stage chronic liver disease, as well as selected cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and acute liver failure. The ever-increasing development of imaging modalities significantly contributed, over the last decades, to the management of recipients both in the pre-operative and post-operative period, thus impacting on graft and patients survival. When properly used, imaging modalities such as ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and procedures of direct cholangiography are capable to provide rapid and reliable recognition and treatment of vascular and biliary complications occurring after OLT. Less defined is the role for imaging in assessing primary graft dysfunction (including rejection) or chronic allograft disease after OLT, e.g., hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence. This paper: (1) describes specific characteristic of the above imaging modalities and the rationale for their use in clinical practice; (2) illustrates main imaging findings related to post-OLT complications in adult patients; and (3) reviews future perspectives emerging in the surveillance of recipients with HCV recurrence, with special emphasis on MRI. PMID:24876739

  8. Isolated post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the breast and axilla as peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Young; Cha, Eun Suk; Lee, Jee Eun; Sung, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that represent serious complications following immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ or hematopoietic-cell recipients. In contrast to B-cell PTLD, T-cell PTLD is less frequent and is not usually associated with Epstein Barr Virus infection. Moreover, to our knowledge, isolated T-cell PTLD involving the breast is extremely rare and this condition has never been reported previously in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of isolated T-cell PTLD of the breast that occurred after a patient had been treated for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation due to acute myeloblastic leukemia.

  9. A measure of early physical functioning (EPF) post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Finch, Lois E; Higgins, Johanne; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Mayo, Nancy E

    2008-07-01

    To develop a comprehensive measure of Early Physical Functioning (EPF) post-stroke quantified through Rasch analysis and conceptualized using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). An observational cohort study. A cohort of 262 subjects (mean age 71.6 (standard deviation 12.5) years) hospitalized post-acute stroke. Functional assessments were made within 3 days of stroke with items from valid and reliable indices commonly utilized to evaluate stroke survivors. Information on important variables was also collected. Principal component and Rasch analysis confirmed the factor structure, and dimensionality of the measure. Rasch analysis combined items across ICF components to develop the measure. Items were deleted iteratively, those retained fit the model and were related to the construct; reliability and validity were assessed. A 38-item unidimensional measure of the EPF met all Rasch model requirements. The item difficulty matched the person ability (mean person measure: -0.31; standard error 0.37 logits), reliability of the person-item-hierarchy was excellent at 0.97. Initial validity was adequate. The 38-item EPF measure was developed. It expands the range of assessment post acute stroke; it covers a broad spectrum of difficulty with good initial psychometric properties that, once revalidated, can assist in planning and evaluating early interventions.

  10. S-Adenosylmethionine attenuates bile duct early warm ischemia reperfusion injury after rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Chu, Hongpeng; Cao, Guojun; Du, Xiaolong; Min, Xiaobo; Wan, Chidan

    2018-03-01

    Warm ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) plays a key role in biliary complication, which is a substantial vulnerability of liver transplantation. The early pathophysiological changes of IRI are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is an important metabolic intermediate that modulates inflammatory reactions; however, its role in bile duct warm IRI is not known. In this study, male rats were treated with or without SAM (170 μmol/kg body weight) after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation. The histopathological observations showed that bile duct injury in the IRI group was more serious than in the SAM group. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) levels in the serum of the IRI group were significantly increased compared to the SAM group (P < .05). Simultaneously, SAM effectively improved the survival of the transplant recipients. Furthermore, the H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the IRI group were much higher compared to the SAM group (P < .05). The GSH/GSSG ratio in the SAM group was significantly increased by SAM treatment compared to the IRI group (P < .05). SAM administration significantly inhibited macrophage infiltration in liver and bile duct tissues, down-regulated TNF-α levels and up-regulated IL-10 expression in bile duct tissues compared to the IRI group (P < .05). The number of apoptotic biliary epithelial cells and caspase-3-positive cells in IRI rat livers were much higher compared to those in SAM-treated rats at 24 h after liver transplantation (P < .05). These data suggested that SAM protected bile ducts against warm IRI by suppressing oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and apoptosis of biliary epithelial cells after liver transplantation.α. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of early post-operative pain following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Szychta, P; Antoszewski, B

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate pain incidence and intensity in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty, and to assess analgesic treatment effectiveness, in the first 7 days after surgery. Prospective outcomes analysis using visual analogue scale assessment of pain intensity in the first 7 post-operative days. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 29 women and 28 men, aged 18 to 51 years. All were treated for post-traumatic deformity of the external nose and/or nasal septum, with either septorhinoplasty or septoplasty. In the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, patients' mean visual analogue scale pain score exceeded the range denoting 'analgesic success', and showed considerable exacerbation in the evening. Patients' pain decreased to a mean score of 15.4 one hour after administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (metamizole). Analgesia is recommended for all patients in the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, especially in the early evening.

  12. Late-onset hepatic veno-occlusive disease post autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation successfully treated with oral defibrotide.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mithun S; Jeevangi, Nandish Kumar S; Joshi, Amit; Khattry, Navin

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) remains one of the commonest and most serious complications after myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Clinical diagnosis of hepatic VOD is based on the finding of the triad of painful hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, and unexplained fluid retention occurring within 21 days of the transplant. However, the uncommon clinical entity of late-onset VOD can occur even beyond 20 days and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any liver disease of more than 3 weeks' duration. While mild cases usually resolve spontaneously, severe VOD is associated with a grim prognosis. Defibrotide, a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotide with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects on microvascular endothelium, has emerged as an effective and safe therapy for patients with severe VOD. We describe a patient who presented 55 days post transplant with clinical features suggestive of VOD. Upon treatment with oral defibrotide, he showed complete resolution of the VOD.

  13. Low, fixed dose defibrotide in management of hepatic veno-occlusive disease post stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bagal, Bhausaheb; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Chougle, Aliya; Khattry, Navin

    2018-03-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is well recognized potentially serious regimen-related toxicity seen after stem cell transplantation. Severe VOD is associated with poor long-term outcomes with very high mortality. Besides supportive care, only defibrotide has been found to be effective in the management of VOD. The recommended dose of defibrotide is 25mg/kg/d but there has been no classical dose finding study done for this drug. A higher dose of defibrotide is associated with increased risk of bleeding and this drug is prohibitively expensive. We report our experience of using fixed low dose of defibrotide in patients with VOD. We retrospectively evaluated 511 patients who underwent stem cell transplant at our center from November 2007 and December 2015. All patients received ursodeoxycholic acid as VOD prophylaxis. Modified Seattle criterion was used for diagnosis and severity grading of VOD. Patients developing VOD were initially treated with furosemide and adequate analgesia. Defibrotide was started within 12 to 24 hours of diagnosis of VOD. All adult patients received defibrotide at a fixed dose of 200mg twice daily while two children were given dose of 100mg and 50mg twice daily. Nine (1.7%) of our patients developed VOD. Daily dose of defibrotide ranged from 5mg/kg/d to 20mg/kg/d till resolution of VOD. All patients had complete resolution of VOD. None of our patients required ventilator support or dialysis. No episodes of bleeding were observed. No dose response relationship was observed between defibrotide dose and time to resolution of VOD. Low fixed dose defibrotide initiated early seems to be effective and safe in treatment of VOD. This is relevant in a resource limited setting and warrants prospective evaluation. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Live Donor Renal Anatomic Asymmetry and Post-Transplant Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S.; Newhouse, Jeffrey H.; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J.; Carroll, Maureen A.; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J.; Ratner, Lloyd E.; Hardy, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and post-transplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. Methods We analyzed 96 live-kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from CT angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with 99mTc-DMSA renography. Implantation biopsies at time-zero were semi-quantitatively scored. A comprehensive model utilizing donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at one-year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 at one-year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the CKD-EPI formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). Results In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at one-year were 2.04 ml/kg and 60.4 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. Volume and split ratios between two donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r=0.79, p-value<0.001). The biopsy scores among SFD categories (<5%, 5–10%, >10%) were not different (p=0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR=8.94, 95% CI 2.47–32.25, p=0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 at one-year (ROC curve=0.78, 95% CI 0.68–0.89). Conclusion In the presence of donor renal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at one-year post-transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function. PMID:25719258

  15. The effect of pre-transplant pain and chronic disease self-efficacy on quality of life domains in the year following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Madeline L; Shelby, Rebecca A; Dorfman, Caroline S; Kelleher, Sarah A; Fisher, Hannah M; Rowe Nichols, Krista A; Keefe, Francis J; Sung, Anthony D; Somers, Tamara J

    2018-04-01

    Pain is common for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients and may be experienced pre-transplant, acutely post-transplant, and for months or years following transplant. HSCT patients with persistent pain may be at risk for poor quality of life following transplant; however, the impact of pre-transplant pain on quality of life post-transplant is not well understood. Self-efficacy for chronic disease management is associated with quality of life among cancer patients and may impact quality of life for HSCT patients. The primary aim was to examine the effect of pre-transplant pain and self-efficacy on quality of life domains in the year following transplant. One hundred sixty-six HSCT patients completed questionnaires providing information on pain, self-efficacy, and quality of life prior to transplant, at discharge, and 3-, 6-, and 12-months post-transplant as part of a longitudinal, observational study. Linear mixed modeling examined the trajectories of these variables and the effect of pre-transplant pain and self-efficacy on post-transplant quality of life. Pain and social and emotional quality of life remained stable in the year following transplant while self-efficacy and physical and functional quality of life improved. Pre-transplant pain was significantly related to lower physical well-being post-transplant. Lower pre-transplant self-efficacy was related to lower quality of life across all domains post-transplant. Above and beyond the effect of pre-transplant pain, self-efficacy for managing chronic disease is important in understanding quality of life following transplant. Identifying patients with pain and/or low self-efficacy pre-transplant may allow for early intervention with self-management strategies.

  16. Lung Abscess: An Early Complication of Lung Transplantation in a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Markelić, I; Jakopović, M; Klepetko, W; Džubur, F; Hećimović, A; Makek, M J; Samaržija, M; Dugac, A V

    2017-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis (CF) developed lung abscess, as a rare complication caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infection, after lung transplantation (LT). After 6 months of long-term antibiotic therapy, the abscess was successfully eliminated. In reviewed published literature, no previous report was found describing this kind of complication caused by MDR A. baumannii in post-LT patient with CF. In our experience, lung abscess in LT recipients with CF can be successfully treated with prolonged antibiotic therapy.

  17. Challenges in transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berlakovich, Gabriela A

    2014-07-07

    Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key

  18. Quality of life of patients with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Proença, Sibéli de Fátima Ferraz Simão; Machado, Celina Mattos; Coelho, Raquel de Castro Figueiredo Pereira; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt; Kalinke, Luciana Puchalski

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the quality of life of adult patients with hematological cancer in the 100 days after transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and verifying whether the variable graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is predictive of worse results. An observational correlational and quantitative study with 36 adult participants diagnosed with hematologic cancer who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from September 2013 to June 2015. The mean age was 37 years, 52.78% were female, and 61.11% were diagnosed with leukemia. Quality of life scores showed a significant impact between pre-transplantation and pre-hospital discharge, and also within the 100 days post-transplantation. The statistical analysis between the scores for the groups with and without GvHD showed a significant difference between the presence of the complication and worse results. Quality of life is altered as a result of hematopoietic stem cells transplantation, especially in patients who have graft-versus-host disease. Avaliar a qualidade de vida de pacientes adultos com câncer hematológico nos 100 dias do transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas e verificar se a variável doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro é preditiva de piores resultados. Estudo observacional, correlacional e quantitativo, com 36 participantes adultos, diagnosticados com câncer hematológico que se submeteram ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas de setembro de 2013 a junho de 2015. A média de idade foi 37 anos, 52,78% eram do sexo feminino, e 61,11% com diagnóstico de leucemia. Os escores de qualidade de vida demonstraram impacto significativo entre o pré-transplante e a pré-alta hospitalar e entre os 100 dias pós-transplante. A análise estatística entre os escores dos grupos com e sem doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro evidenciou significância entre a presença desta complicação e piores resultados. A qualidade de vida é alterada em decorrência do transplante de c

  19. Three cases of donor-derived pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients and review of 12 previously reported cases: opportunities for early diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, E; Hellinger, W; Keller, C; Cowan, L S; Shaw, T; Hwang, S; Pegues, D; Ahmedov, S; Salfinger, M; Bower, W A

    2014-02-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have a higher frequency of tuberculosis (TB) than the general population, with mortality rates of approximately 30%. Although donor-derived TB is reported to account for <5% of TB in solid organ transplants, the source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is infrequently determined. We report 3 new cases of pulmonary TB in lung transplant recipients attributed to donor infection, and review the 12 previously reported cases to assess whether cases could have been prevented and whether any cases that might occur in the future could be detected and investigated more quickly. Specifically, we evaluate whether opportunities existed to determine TB risk on the basis of routine donor history, to expedite diagnosis through routine mycobacterial smears and cultures of respiratory specimens early post transplant, and to utilize molecular tools to investigate infection sources epidemiologically. On review, donor TB risk was present among 7 cases. Routine smears and cultures diagnosed 4 asymptomatic cases. Genotyping was used to support epidemiologic findings in 6 cases. Validated screening protocols, including microbiological testing and newer technologies (e.g., interferon-gamma release assays) to identify unrecognized M. tuberculosis infection in deceased donors, are warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Early Intervention With Transplantation Recipients to Improve Access to and Knowledge of Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Harden, Karen L

    2016-08-01

    The literature continues to support that patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) receive early consultation with palliative care specialists. Nurses can be leaders in this initiative. This quality improvement project was conducted to determine whether patients undergoing HSCT, who were provided an early consultation with palliative care, would report increased knowledge and increased ability to access palliative services. Patients completed a postintervention questionnaire in which the majority of patients reported that they had increased knowledge about palliative care and learned how to access their services. Patient comments were positive about the successful intervention of early palliative care. The palliative care team, however, revealed a different view of the situation, showing that patients were often overwhelmed, anxious, and sometimes did not remember the content of their meetings.

  1. Pulmonary rehabilitation in lung transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Li, Melinda; Mathur, Sunita; Chowdhury, Noori A; Helm, Denise; Singer, Lianne G

    2013-06-01

    While awaiting lung transplantation, candidates may participate in pulmonary rehabilitation to improve their fitness for surgery. However, pulmonary rehabilitation outcomes have not been systematically evaluated in lung transplant candidates. This investigation was a retrospective cohort study of 345 pre-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation participants who received a lung transplant between January 2004 and June 2009 and had available pre-transplant exercise data. Data extracted included: 6-minute walk tests at standard intervals; exercise training details; health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measures; and early post-transplant outcomes. Paired t-tests were used to examine changes in the 6MW distance (6MWD), exercise training volume and HRQL during the pre-transplant period. We evaluated the association between pre-transplant 6MWD and transplant hospitalization outcomes. The final 6MWD prior to transplantation was only 15 m less than the listing 6MWD (n = 200; p = 0.002). Exercise training volumes increased slightly from the start of the pulmonary rehabilitation program until transplant: treadmill, increase 0.69 ml/kg/min (n = 238; p < 0.0001); biceps resistance training, 18 lbs. × reps (n = 286; p < 0.0001); and quadriceps resistance training, 15 lbs. × reps (n = 278; p < 0.0001). HRQL measures declined. A greater final 6MWD prior to transplant correlated with a shorter length of stay in the hospital (n = 207; p = 0.003). Exercise capacity and training volumes are well preserved among lung transplant candidates participating in pulmonary rehabilitation, even in the setting of severe, progressive lung disease. Participants with greater exercise capacity prior to transplantation have more favorable early post-transplant outcomes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2014-06-01

    We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

  3. Pediatric lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric lung transplantation has been undertaken since the 1980s, and it is today considered an accepted therapy option in carefully selected children with end-stage pulmonary diseases, providing carefully selected children a net survival benefit and improved health-related quality of life. Nowadays, >100 pediatric lung transplants are done worldwide every year. Here, specific pediatric aspects of lung transplantation are reviewed such as the surgical challenge, effects of immunosuppression on the developing pediatric immune system, and typical infections of childhood, as it is vital to comprehend that children undergoing lung transplants present a real challenge as children are not ‘just small adults’. Further, an update on the management of the pediatric lung transplant patient is provided in this review, and future challenges outlined. Indications for lung transplantation in children are different compared to adults, the most common being cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the primary diagnoses leading to pediatric lung transplantation vary considerably by age group. Furthermore, there are regional differences regarding the primary indication for lung transplantation in children. Overall, early referral, careful patient selection and appropriate timing of listing are crucial to achieve real survival benefit. Although allograft function is to be preserved, immunosuppressant-related side effects are common in children post-transplantation. Strategies need to be put into practice to reduce drug-related side effects through careful therapeutic drug monitoring and lowering of target levels of immunosuppression, to avoid acute-reversible and chronic-irreversible renal damage. Instead of a “one fits all approach”, tailored immunosuppression and a personalized therapy is to be advocated, particularly in children. Further, infectious complications are a common in children of all ages, accounting for almost 50% of death in the first year post-transplantation

  4. Early markers of reperfusion injury after liver transplantation: association with primary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Helge; Heil, Jan; Schultze, Daniel; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    In patients with end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation is the only available curative treatment. Although the outcome and quality of life in the patients have improved over the past decades, primary dys- or nonfunction (PDF/PNF) can occur. Early detection of PDF and PNF is crucial and could lead to individual therapies. This study was designed to identify early markers of reperfusion injury and PDF in liver biopsies taken during the first hour after reperfusion. Biopsies from donor livers were prospectively taken as a routine during the first hour after reperfusion. Recipient data, transaminases and outcome were routinely monitored. In total, 10 biopsy specimens taken from patients with 90-day mortality and PDF, and patients with long-term survival but without PDF were used for DNA microarrays. Markers that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the microarray were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Age, indications and labMELD score were similar in both groups. Peak-transaminases during the first week after transplantation were significantly different in the two groups. In total, 20 differentially regulated markers that correlated to PDF were identified using microarray analysis and verified with quantitative real-time PCR. The markers identified in this study could predict PDF at a very early time point and might point to interventions that ameliorate reperfusion injury and thus prevent PDF. Identification of patients and organs at risk might lead to individualized therapies and could ultimately improve outcome.

  5. Laparoscopic Repair of Incisional Hernia Following Liver Transplantation-Early Experience of a Single Institution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S-C; Lin, C-C; Elsarawy, A; Lin, Y-H; Wang, S-H; Wu, Y-J; Chen, C-L

    2017-10-01

    Ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is not uncommon following liver transplantation. Open repair was traditionally adopted for its management. Laparoscopic repair of VIH has been performed successfully in nontransplant patients with evidence of reduced recurrence rates and hospital stay. However, the application of VIH in post-transplantation patients has not been well established. Herein, we provide our initial experience with laparoscopic repair of post-transplantation VIH. From March 2015 to March 2016, 18 cases of post-transplantation VIH were subjected to laparoscopic repair (laparoscopy group). A historical control group of 17 patients who underwent conventional open repair (open group) from January 2013 to January 2015 were identified for comparison. The demographics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared. There were no significant differences among basic demographics between the 2 groups. No conversion was recorded in the laparoscopy group. Recurrence of VIH up to the end of the study period was not noted. In the laparoscopy group, the minor complications were lower (16.7% vs 52.9%; P = .035), the length of hospital stay was shorter (3 d vs 7 d, P = .007), but the median operative time was longer (137.5 min vs 106 min; P = .003). Laparoscopic repair of post-transplantation VIH is a safe and feasible procedure with shorter length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of the Early Immune Response Following Transplantation of Mouse ES Cell Derived Insulin-Producing Cell Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Ashleigh S.; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. Conclusions/Significance Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT. PMID:20532031

  7. Characteristics of the early immune response following transplantation of mouse ES cell derived insulin-producing cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ashleigh S; Wood, Kathryn J

    2010-06-04

    The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT.

  8. Influence of early neurological complications on clinical outcome following lung transplant.

    PubMed

    Gamez, Josep; Salvado, Maria; Martinez-de La Ossa, Alejandro; Deu, Maria; Romero, Laura; Roman, Antonio; Sacanell, Judith; Laborda, Cesar; Rochera, Isabel; Nadal, Miriam; Carmona, Francesc; Santamarina, Estevo; Raguer, Nuria; Canela, Merce; Solé, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Neurological complications after lung transplantation are common. The full spectrum of neurological complications and their impact on clinical outcomes has not been extensively studied. We investigated the neurological incidence of complications, categorized according to whether they affected the central, peripheral or autonomic nervous systems, in a series of 109 patients undergoing lung transplantation at our center between January 1 2013 and December 31 2014. Fifty-one patients (46.8%) presented at least one neurological complication. Critical illness polyneuropathy-myopathy (31 cases) and phrenic nerve injury (26 cases) were the two most prevalent complications. These two neuromuscular complications lengthened hospital stays by a median period of 35.5 and 32.5 days respectively. However, neurological complications did not affect patients' survival. The real incidence of neurological complications among lung transplant recipients is probably underestimated. They usually appear in the first two months after surgery. Despite not affecting mortality, they do affect the mean length of hospital stay, and especially the time spent in the Intensive Care Unit. We found no risk factor for neurological complications except for long operating times, ischemic time and need for transfusion. It is necessary to develop programs for the prevention and early recognition of these complications, and the prevention of their precipitant and risk factors.

  9. Influence of early neurological complications on clinical outcome following lung transplant

    PubMed Central

    Salvado, Maria; Martinez-de La Ossa, Alejandro; Deu, Maria; Romero, Laura; Roman, Antonio; Sacanell, Judith; Laborda, Cesar; Rochera, Isabel; Nadal, Miriam; Carmona, Francesc; Santamarina, Estevo; Raguer, Nuria; Canela, Merce; Solé, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background Neurological complications after lung transplantation are common. The full spectrum of neurological complications and their impact on clinical outcomes has not been extensively studied. Methods We investigated the neurological incidence of complications, categorized according to whether they affected the central, peripheral or autonomic nervous systems, in a series of 109 patients undergoing lung transplantation at our center between January 1 2013 and December 31 2014. Results Fifty-one patients (46.8%) presented at least one neurological complication. Critical illness polyneuropathy-myopathy (31 cases) and phrenic nerve injury (26 cases) were the two most prevalent complications. These two neuromuscular complications lengthened hospital stays by a median period of 35.5 and 32.5 days respectively. However, neurological complications did not affect patients’ survival. Conclusions The real incidence of neurological complications among lung transplant recipients is probably underestimated. They usually appear in the first two months after surgery. Despite not affecting mortality, they do affect the mean length of hospital stay, and especially the time spent in the Intensive Care Unit. We found no risk factor for neurological complications except for long operating times, ischemic time and need for transfusion. It is necessary to develop programs for the prevention and early recognition of these complications, and the prevention of their precipitant and risk factors. PMID:28301586

  10. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of disseminated toxoplasmosis after cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Taro; Sumi, Masahiko; Kaiume, Hiroko; Takeda, Wataru; Kirihara, Takehiko; Sato, Keijiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Hiroshima, Yuki; Ueno, Mayumi; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Kaneko, Yumi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Norose, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-06-01

    A 66-year-old woman with refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma underwent cord blood transplantation. Prior to transplantation, a serological test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies was positive. On day 96, she exhibited fever and dry cough. Chest CT showed diffuse centrilobular ground glass opacities in both lungs. The reactivation of T. gondii was identified by the presence of parasite DNA in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, brain MRI revealed a space occupying lesion in the right occipital lobe. Therefore, disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. She received pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine from day 99. The lung and brain lesions both showed improvement but the PCR assay for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood was positive on day 133. On day 146, she developed blurred vision and reduced visual acuity, and a tentative diagnosis of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was made based on ophthalmic examination results. As agranulocytosis developed on day 158, we decided to discontinue pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine and the treatment was thus switched to atovaquone. Moreover, we added spiramycin to atovaquone therapy from day 174, and her ocular condition gradually improved. In general, the prognosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor. However, early diagnosis and treatment may contribute to improvement of the fundamentally dismal prognosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis after HSCT.

  11. Recipient-donor KIR ligand matching prevents CMV reactivation post-haploidentical T cell-replete transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Luo, Xue-Yi; Yu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Han, Ting-Ting; Chang, Ying-Jun; Huo, Ming-Rui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Kai-Yan; Li, Dan; Jiang, Zheng-Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-06-01

    Licensed natural killer (NK) cells have been demonstrated to have anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity. We prospectively analysed the human leucocyte antigen typing of donor-recipient pairs and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) typing of donors for 180 leukaemia patients to assess the predictive roles of licensed NK cells on CMV reactivation post-T-cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation. Multivariate analysis showed that donor-recipient KIR ligand graft-versus-host or host-versus-graft direction mismatch was associated with increased refractory CMV infection (Hazard ratio = 2·556, 95% confidence interval, 1·377-4·744, P = 0·003) post-transplantation. Donor-recipient KIR ligand matching decreased CMV reactivation [51·65% (46·67, 56·62%) vs. 75·28% (70·87, 79·69%), P = 0·012], refractory CMV infection [17·58% (13·77, 21·40%) vs. 35·96% (31·09, 40·82%), P = 0·004] and CMV disease [3·30% (1·51, 5·08%) vs. 11·24% (8·04, 14·43%), P = 0·024] by day 100 post-transplantation. In addition, the percentage of γ-interferon expression on donor-derived NK cells was significantly higher in the recipients among the recipient-donor pairs with a KIR ligand match compared with that in the recipients among the pairs with a KIR ligand graft-versus-host or host-versus-graft direction mismatch on days 30 and 100 post-transplantation (P = 0·036 and 0·047, respectively). These findings have suggested that donor-recipient KIR ligand matching might promote the NK cell licensing process, thereby increasing NK cell-mediated protection against CMV reactivation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Autologous CLL cell vaccination early after transplant induces leukemia-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Ute E; Hainz, Ursula; Stevenson, Kristen; Goldstein, Natalie R; Pasek, Mildred; Naito, Masayasu; Wu, Di; Ho, Vincent T; Alonso, Anselmo; Hammond, Naa Norkor; Wong, Jessica; Sievers, Quinlan L; Brusic, Ana; McDonough, Sean M; Zeng, Wanyong; Perrin, Ann; Brown, Jennifer R; Canning, Christine M; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey; Armand, Philippe; Neuberg, Donna; Lee, Jeng-Shin; Antin, Joseph H; Mulligan, Richard C; Sasada, Tetsuro; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert J; Dranoff, Glenn; Alyea, Edwin P; Wu, Catherine J

    2013-09-01

    Patients with advanced hematologic malignancies remain at risk for relapse following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether vaccination with whole leukemia cells early after transplantation facilitates the expansion of leukemia-reactive T cells and thereby enhances antitumor immunity. We enrolled 22 patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 18 of whom received up to 6 vaccines initiated between days 30 and 45 after transplantation. Each vaccine consisted of irradiated autologous tumor cells admixed with GM-CSF-secreting bystander cells. Serial patient PBMC samples following transplantation were collected, and the impact of vaccination on T cell activity was evaluated. At a median follow-up of 2.9 (range, 1-4) years, the estimated 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates of vaccinated subjects were 82% (95% CI, 54%-94%) and 88% (95% CI, 59%-97%), respectively. Although vaccination only had a modest impact on recovering T cell numbers, CD8+ T cells from vaccinated patients consistently reacted against autologous tumor, but not alloantigen-bearing recipient cells with increased secretion of the effector cytokine IFN-γ, unlike T cells from nonvaccinated CLL patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Further analysis confirmed that 17% (range, 13%-33%) of CD8+ T cell clones isolated from 4 vaccinated patients by limiting dilution of bulk tumor-reactive T cells solely reacted against CLL-associated antigens. Our studies suggest that autologous tumor cell vaccination is an effective strategy to advance long-term leukemia control following allo-HSCT. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00442130. NCI (5R21CA115043-2), NHLBI (5R01HL103532-03), and Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Translational Research Program.

  13. T Cell-Replete Peripheral Blood Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide Results in Outcomes Similar to Transplantation from Traditionally Matched Donors in Active Disease Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    How, Joan; Slade, Michael; Vu, Khoan; DiPersio, John F; Westervelt, Peter; Uy, Geoffrey L; Abboud, Camille N; Vij, Ravi; Schroeder, Mark A; Fehniger, Todd A; Romee, Rizwan

    2017-04-01

    Outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who fail to achieve complete remission remain poor. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been shown to induce long-term survival in AML patients with active disease. HCT is largely performed with HLA-matched unrelated or HLA-matched related donors. Recently, HCT with HLA-haploidentical related donors has been identified as a feasible option when HLA-matched donors are not immediately available. However, there are little data comparing outcomes for AML patients with active disease who receive haploidentical versus traditionally matched HCT. We retrospectively analyzed data from 99 AML patients with active disease undergoing allogeneic HCT at a single institution. Forty-three patients received unrelated donor HCT, 32 patients received matched related donor HCT, and 24 patients received peripheral blood haploidentical HCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. We found no significant differences between treatment groups in terms of overall survival (OS), event-free survival, transplantation-related mortality, cumulative incidence of relapse, and cumulative incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed univariate regression analysis of variables that modified OS in all patients and found only younger age at transplantation and development of chronic GVHD significantly improved outcome. Although limited by our relatively small sample size, these results indicate that haploidentical HCT in active AML patients have comparable outcomes to HCT with traditionally matched donors. Haploidentical HCT can be considered in this population of high-risk patients when matched donors are unavailable or when wait times for transplantation are unacceptably long. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytogenetic status pre-transplant as a predictor of outcome post bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, P; Szydlo, R M; Chase, A; Goldman, J M

    2000-01-01

    We have analysed pre-transplant cytogenetic findings in 418 patients with CML in pre-blastic phase who underwent allogeneic BMT between February 1981 and January 1998. Five different patient groups were identified: A = Philadelphia (Ph)+; B = Ph-, BCR-ABL+; C = variant Ph (VPh); D = Ph chromosome plus at least one of: trisomy 8, +Ph, chromosome 17 abnormalities and E = other abnormalities in addition to the Ph chromosome. There were two principal conclusions. Firstly, Ph- patients showed a better outcome, and VPh patients a worse outcome, than those with a standard Ph, both in terms of leukaemia-free survival (LFS) (76.9%, 22.1% and 31.9%) and the risk of treatment failure relative to those with a standard Ph (relative risks of 0.49 and 1.92, respectively). One contributing factor may be relapse: no Ph- patients relapsed, whereas all other groups showed similar probabilities of relapse at 5 years (range 33.0-44. 0%). Secondly, those with the additional changes of +8, +Ph and i(17q) did not show a worse outcome than those with no additional changes (5 year survival of 44.7% vs 51.8%; 5 year LFS of 40.6% vs 31.9%), whereas those with other additional changes may fare worst of all (40.4% and 16.0%, respectively). Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 143-146.

  15. Telomere length in patients with pulmonary fibrosis associated with chronic lung allograft dysfunction and post-lung transplantation survival.

    PubMed

    Newton, Chad A; Kozlitina, Julia; Lines, Jefferson R; Kaza, Vaidehi; Torres, Fernando; Garcia, Christine Kim

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have shown that patients with pulmonary fibrosis with mutations in the telomerase genes have a high rate of certain complications after lung transplantation. However, few studies have investigated clinical outcomes based on leukocyte telomere length. We conducted an observational cohort study of all patients with pulmonary fibrosis who underwent lung transplantation at a single center between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014. Leukocyte telomere length was measured from a blood sample collected before lung transplantation, and subjects were stratified into 2 groups (telomere length <10th percentile vs ≥10th percentile). Primary outcome was post-lung transplant survival. Secondary outcomes included incidence of allograft dysfunction, non-pulmonary organ dysfunction, and infection. Approximately 32% of subjects had a telomere length <10th percentile. Telomere length <10th percentile was independently associated with worse survival (hazard ratio 10.9, 95% confidence interval 2.7-44.8, p = 0.001). Telomere length <10th percentile was also independently associated with a shorter time to onset of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (hazard ratio 6.3, 95% confidence interval 2.0-20.0, p = 0.002). Grade 3 primary graft dysfunction occurred more frequently in the <10th percentile group compared with the ≥10th percentile group (28% vs 7%; p = 0.034). There was no difference between the 2 groups in incidence of acute cellular rejection, cytopenias, infection, or renal dysfunction. Telomere length <10th percentile was associated with worse survival and shorter time to onset of chronic lung allograft dysfunction and thus represents a biomarker that may aid in risk stratification of patients with pulmonary fibrosis before lung transplantation. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders in the Scottish cardiac transplant population and the provision of specialist dermatological follow-up.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Iain; Kirk, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunosuppression helps prevent acute rejection post-cardiac transplant but has been linked to malignancy development. This may be due to a reduction in T-lymphocyte function, a direct oncogenic effect or the increased impact of environmental carcinogens. There has been shown to be significant increases in non-melanoma skin cancers and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders, particularly in those treated with OKT3. Aim To investigate the survival and incidence of malignancy in the Scottish cardiac transplant population and whether rates of non-melanoma skin cancers justify the provision of specialist dermatological follow-up. Methods and results Retrospective case note analysis of patients transplanted (363) or followed up (2) in Scotland from 1992 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis generated a survival curve. Patients had a 1-year survival of 82% and a median survival of 10.9 years. There were 60 (95% CI 47.5, 75.2) NMSCs and 8 (3.7, 12.4) post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders diagnosed in the cohort (3110 person years follow-up). Fisher's exact test was employed to analyse the association between induction therapy (via OKT3 or rabbit antithymocyte globulin) and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorder development. Patients treated with OKT3 had a 6.7 times greater risk ( P = 0.014) and a shorter experience of patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin has so far shown no significantly altered risk ( P = 1.00) of developing a post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorder. Conclusion Incidences of non-melanoma skin cancers and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders were increased in the Scottish cardiac transplant population and there was a significant association between post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorder development and OKT3 therapy but not rabbit antithymocyte globulin therapy. These findings in Scottish patients reflect what is published in wider literature and support the provision of a

  17. Molecular Profiling of Post-Reperfusion Milieu Determines Acute Kidney Injury after Liver Transplantation: a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pulitano, Carlo; Ho, Phong; Verran, Deborah; Sandroussi, Charbel; Joseph, David; Bowen, David G; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Crawford, Michael; Shackel, Nicholas

    2018-04-23

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after liver transplantation (LT) is a common event, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the potential relationship between post-reperfusion gene expression, serum mediators, and the onset of AKI after LT. Sixty-five consecutive patients undergoing LT were included in the study. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR), was performed on liver biopsies. Gene expression of 23 genes involved in ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was evaluated. The serum concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. AKI after LT developed in 21 (32%) recipients (AKI group). RT-PCR of reperfusion biopsy in AKI group showed higher expression of several genes involved in IRI compared to non-AKI group. Fold changes in the gene expression of ET-1, IL-18, and TNF-α were associated with creatinine peak value. AKI patients had also significantly higher ET-1, IL-18, and TNF-α postoperative serum levels. Multivariate analysis showed that ET-1 (OR 16.7, 95% CI 3.34-83.42, P = 0.001) and IL-18 (OR 5.27, 95% CI 0.99-27.82, P = 0.048) serum levels on POD1 were independently predictor of AKI. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that the combination of biomarkers ET-1+IL-18 was highly predictive of AKI (ROC-AUC 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Early allograft dysfunction and chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 2 occurred more frequently in AKI patients. These results suggest that the graft itself, rather than intraoperative hemodynamic instability plays a main role in AKI after LT. This data may have mechanistic and diagnostic implications for AKI after LT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Transplant tourism.

    PubMed

    Schiano, Thomas D; Rhodes, Rosamond

    2010-04-01

    Because of the ongoing organ donor shortage, transplant tourism is occurring at an increasing rate both in the USA and abroad. To date, there have been little published data to help guide the programmatic philosophy of the USA transplant centers regarding transplant tourism. We summarize position statements from several transplant societies regarding transplant tourism and specifically transplantation occurring in China (because of the use of executed prisoners as organ donors). Transplant tourism is ever increasing and patients may be at risk for greater post-transplant morbidity as well as inadequate follow up care. Transplant centers require some guidance with regard of how to deal with these patients. Transplant tourism is an increasing reality facing the USA transplant centers. Most professional societies do not condone it yet cannot abrogate a physician's right to care for such patients. Ethical principles mandate transplant physicians provide adequate care for returning transplant tourists. Better ways of assessing the scope of the problem are necessary. Transplant tourism may exist because of the disparity between the need for organ donors and their availability and is thus is likely to continue into the future.

  19. Elongator promotes germination and early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Woloszynska, Magdalena; Gagliardi, Olimpia; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2018-01-02

    The Elongator complex interacts with RNA polymerase II and via histone acetylation and DNA demethylation facilitates epigenetically the transcription of genes involved in diverse processes in plants, including growth, development, and immune response. Recently, we have shown that the Elongator complex promotes hypocotyl elongation and photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating the photomorphogenesis and growth-related gene network that converges on genes implicated in cell wall biogenesis and hormone signaling. Here, we report that germination in the elo mutant was delayed by 6 h in the dark when compared to the wild type in a time lapse and germination assay. A number of germination-correlated genes were down-regulated in the elo transcriptome, suggesting a transcriptional regulation by Elongator. We also show that the hypocotyl elongation defect observed in the elo mutants in darkness originates very early in the post-germination development and is independent from the germination delay.

  20. Donor age is a predictor of early low output after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Takeo; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Imamura, Teruhiko; Maki, Hisataka; Amiya, Eisuke; Hatano, Masaru; Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Komuro, Issei; Ono, Minoru

    2016-05-01

    Using hearts from marginal donors could be related to increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and poor long-term survival. However, factors associated with delayed myocardial recovery after heart transplantation (HTx) remain unknown. We sought to clarify risk factors that predict early low output after HTx, and investigated whether early low output affects mid-term graft dysfunction. We retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone HTx at The University of Tokyo Hospital. We defined early low output patients as those whose cardiac index (CI) was <2.2 L/min/m(2) despite the use of intravenous inotrope at 1 week after HTx. We included 45 consecutive HTx recipients, and classified 11 patients into early low output group, and the others into early preserved output group. We performed univariable logistic analysis and found that donor age was the only significant factor that predicted early low output (odds ratio 1.107, 95% confidence interval 1.034-1.210, p=0.002). CI of early low output patients gradually increased and it caught up with that of early preserved output patients at 2 weeks after HTx (2.4±0.6 L/min/m(2) in early low output group vs 2.5±0.5 L/min/m(2) in early preserved output group, p=0.684). Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration of early low output patients was higher (1118.5±1250.2 pg/ml vs 526.4±399.5 pg/ml; p=0.033) at 1 week, 703.6±518.4 pg/ml vs 464.6±509.0 pg/ml (p=0.033) at 2 weeks, and 387.7±231.9 pg/ml vs 249.4±209.5 pg/ml (p=0.010) at 4 weeks after HTx, and it came down to that of early preserved output patients at 12 weeks after HTx. Donor age was a predictor of early low output after HTx. We should be careful after HTx from old donors. However, hemodynamic parameters of early low output patients gradually caught up with those of early preserved output patients. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. POST-REPERFUSION LIVER BIOPSY AND ITS VALUE IN PREDICTING MORTALITY AND GRAFT DYSFUNCTION AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.

    PubMed

    Zanchet, Marcos Vinícius; Silva, Larissa Luvison Gomes da; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto; Coelho, Júlio Cezar Uili

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of the patients after liver transplant is complex and to characterize the risk for complications is not always easy. In this context, the hepatic post-reperfusion biopsy is capable of portraying alterations of prognostic importance. To compare the results of liver transplantation, correlating the different histologic features of the hepatic post-reperfusion biopsy with graft dysfunction, primary non-function and patient survival in the first year after transplantation. From the 377 transplants performed from 1996 to 2008, 164 patients were selected. Medical records were reviewed and the following clinical outcomes were registered: mortality in 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, graft dysfunction in varied degrees and primary graft non-function. The post-reperfusion biopsies had been examined by a blinded pathologist for the outcomes. The following histological variables had been evaluated: ischemic alterations, congestion, steatosis, neutrophilic exudate, monomorphonuclear infiltrate and necrosis. The variables associated with increased mortality were: steatosis (p=0.02209), monomorphonuclear infiltrate (p=0.03935) and necrosis (p<0.00001). The neutrophilic exudate reduced mortality in this study (p=0.00659). The primary non-function showed significant association (p<0.05) with the necrosis, steatosis and the monomorphonuclear infiltrate. Post-reperfusion biopsy is useful tool to foresee complications after liver transplant. A evolução dos pacientes após transplante hepático é complexa e caracterizar o risco para complicações nem sempre é fácil. Nesse contexto, a biópsia hepática pós-reperfusão é capaz de retratar alterações de importância prognóstica. Avaliar os resultados no primeiro ano após transplante hepático, correlacionando as alterações histológicas à biópsia hepática pós-reperfusão com a sobrevida, a disfunção e o não-funcionamento primário do enxerto. Dos 377 transplantes ocorridos de 1996 a 2008, 164 pacientes foram

  2. Relevance of Flow Cytometric Auto-Crossmatch to the Post-transplant Course of Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Demir, E; Yeğit, O; Erol, A; Akgül, S U; Çalışkan, B; Bayraktar, A; Çalışkan, Y; Türkmen, A; Savran, F O; Sever, M S

    2017-04-01

    The crossmatch test is essential prior to kidney transplantation (tx) to confirm compatibility between the donor and the recipient. However, its results can be misleading due to "undetectable antibodies" in the recipient's serum. To establish if undetectable autoantibodies are responsible for a positive result, an auto-crossmatch test can be performed. In this study, we aim to determine the long-term prognostic value of auto-flow cytometric auto-crossmatch (FCXM) test on kidney survival in kidney tx recipients. The primary outcome variable was reduced renal function. Secondary endpoints were incidence of biopsy-confirmed chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) and recurrent glomerulonephritis (GN). There were no differences regarding initial serum creatinine levels between the study and control groups (P = .441). Patients who had positive auto-B FCXM had a significantly reduced renal function compared with the control group (P = .016). Four patients developed biopsy-confirmed CAMR in the study group and 1 patient in the control group (P = .047). Five patients had biopsy-confirmed recurrent GN in the GN study group, and only 1 patient had recurrent GN in the GN control group (P = .026). Kidney transplant recipients with positive auto-FCXM test had significantly reduced renal function and a higher incidence of recurrent GN and CAMR compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggest a potential role of auto-antibody causing positive auto-FCXM test result, meanwhile increasing the risk of CAMR, recurrent GN, and new-onset diabetes after tx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Donor information based prediction of early allograft dysfunction and outcome in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dieter P; Paul, Andreas; Gallinat, Anja; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Reinhardt, Renate; Minor, Thomas; Saner, Fuat H; Canbay, Ali; Treckmann, Jürgen W; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Mathé, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Poor initial graft function was recently newly defined as early allograft dysfunction (EAD) [Olthoff KM, Kulik L, Samstein B, et al. Validation of a current definition of early allograft dysfunction in liver transplant recipients and analysis of risk factors. Liver Transpl 2010; 16: 943]. Aim of this analysis was to evaluate predictive donor information for development of EAD. Six hundred and seventy-eight consecutive adult patients (mean age 51.6 years; 60.3% men) who received a primary liver transplantation (LT) (09/2003-12/2011) were included. Standard donor data were correlated with EAD and outcome by univariable/multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards to identify prognostic donor factors after adjustment for recipient confounders. Estimates of relevant factors were utilized for construction of a new continuous risk index to develop EAD. 38.7% patients developed EAD. 30-day survival of grafts with and without EAD was 59.8% and 89.7% (P < 0.0001). 30-day survival of patients with and without EAD was 68.5% and 93.1% (P < 0.0001) respectively. Donor body mass index (P = 0.0112), gGT (P = 0.0471), macrosteatosis (P = 0.0006) and cold ischaemia time (CIT) (P = 0.0031) were predictors of EAD. Internal cross validation showed a high predictive value (c-index = 0.622). Early allograft dysfunction correlates with early results of LT and can be predicted by donor data only. The newly introduced risk index potentially optimizes individual decisions to accept/decline high risk organs. Outcome of these organs might be improved by shortening CIT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nutritional status and body composition in patients early after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Netto, M C A S; Alves-Filho, G; Mazzali, M

    2012-10-01

    After renal transplantation recovery in nutritional status occurs during the first year. We assessed the changes in nutritional status after transplantation in 145 transplant recipients (94 males, 51 females). Patients were evaluated immediately after renal transplant (baseline data) and at 6 months' follow-up. Analysis included body mass index (BMI), body composition (skin fold and arm circumference), and estimated body composition (calculated percent of fat, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area). Other data obtained from medical records included renal function (MDRD) serum albumin and lipid profile. At baseline evaluation (21 ± 15 days posttransplant), mean BMI was 23.9 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), serum albumin was 3.7 ± 0.7 g/dL, and lipid profile showed (cholesterol 158.5 ± 52.7 mg% and triglycerides 135.9 ± 91.8 mg%. Body composition analysis showed better adaptation of muscle mass in females [AC (91 ± 10.2 × 98 ± 14.6; male × female, P < .05) arm muscle circumference (92.6 ± 1.4 × 102.3% ± 2.9%, male × female, P < .05) and arm muscle area (87.1 ± 22.3 × 105.5% ± 25.9%, male × female, P < .05)]. Body fat was above the recommended levels in 80% of patients, especially females. After 6 months we divided the groups according to BMI, observing better renal function in the normal weight group compared with obese subjects (60 ± 17.2 × 39.5 ± 19.8 mL/min MDRD, P < .05), despite comparable estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline. The nutritional assessment of patients with end-stage renal disease early after renal transplantation, showed inadequate body composition, with increased fat and reduced lean body mass. The lower glomerular filtration rate after 6 months may be attributed to relatively inadequate renal mass or to obesity-induced hyperfiltration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MicroRNA-146b-5p Identified in Porcine Liver Donation Model is Associated with Early Allograft Dysfunction in Human Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheukfai; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Maogen; Ju, Weiqiang; Wu, Linwei; Han, Ming; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dongping; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor transplant outcome was observed in donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD), since the donor organs suffered both cytokine storm of brain death and warm ischemia injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising disease biomarkers, so we sought to establish a miRNA signature of porcine DBCD and verify the findings in human liver transplantation. Material/Methods MiRNA expression was determined with miRNA sequencing in 3 types of the porcine model of organ donation, including donation after brain death (DBD) group, donation after circulatory death (DCD) group, and DBCD group. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to reveal the potential regulatory behavior of target miRNA. Human liver graft biopsy samples after reperfusion detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to verify the expression of target miRNA. Results We compared miRNA expression profiles of the 3 donation types. The porcine liver graft miR-146b was significantly increased and selected in the DBCD group versus in the DBD and DCD groups. The donor liver expression of human miR-146b-5p, which is homologous to porcine miR-146b, was further examined in 42 cases of human liver transplantations. High expression of miR-146b-5p successfully predicted the post-transplant early allograft dysfunction (EAD) with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.759 (P=0.004). Conclusions Our results revealed the miRNA signature of DBCD liver grafts for the first time. The miR-146b-5p may have important clinical implications for monitoring liver graft function and predicating transplant outcomes. PMID:29227984

  6. HLA class I associations with EBV+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kimberley; Wockner, Leesa; Thornton, Alycia; Gottlieb, David; Ritchie, David S; Seymour, John F; Kumarasinghe, Gayathri; Gandhi, Maher K

    2015-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is frequently associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV(+) PTLD). In these cases, impaired Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8(+) T-cell immunity is strongly implicated and antigen presentation within the malignant B-cell is intact. Interestingly, several studies have reported HLA class I alleles with protective or susceptibility associations. However, results are conflicting, likely influenced by methodology including inconsistent use of multiple hypothesis testing. By contrast, HLA class I associations have been repeatedly reported for classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL), in which EBV is also implicated in a proportion of cases. In contrast to EBV(+) PTLD which expresses the immunodominant EBV latency III EBNA3A/B/C proteins, EBV(+) cHL is restricted to the subdominant EBNA1/LMP1/LMP2 proteins. Herein, we report a study of HLA class I associations in EBV(+) PTLD, with 263 patients with lymphoma (cHL or PTLD) evaluated. Two Australian population cohorts, n = 23,736 and n = 891 were used for comparison. Contrary to previous reports, no HLA class I associations with EBV(+) PTLD were found, whereas for cHL known HLA class I associations were confirmed, with HLA-A*02 homozygous individuals having the lowest odds of developing EBV(+) cHL. Our results suggest that HLA class I does not influence susceptibility to the viral latency III expressing lymphoma, EBV(+) PTLD. Further studies are required for definitive confirmation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Pericardial constriction after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ramesh; Perez, Leandro; Razzouk, Anees; Wang, Nan; Bailey, Leonard

    2010-03-01

    In this study we present a series of 5 cases that developed constrictive pericarditis after orthotopic heart transplantation. All 5 patients had pericardial effusion of non-infectious etiology in the early post-transplant period. They subsequently presented with heart failure unresponsive to standard medical management. The diagnosis was made by comprehensive echo-Doppler studies. Findings were confirmed at surgical inspection and complete pericardiectomy led to improvement in hemodynamics in 4 patients. One patient had relief from constriction but died of non-cardiac complications. One patient with constriction has been re-listed for transplantation due to intermittent heart block and associated cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Early diagnosis of pericardial constriction after orthotopic heart transplantation requires a high index of clinical suspicion and optimal use of Doppler echocardiography. Early diagnosis and timely surgical pericardiectomy may correct this condition entirely and result in satisfactory long-term results.

  8. Temporal trends in early clinical outcomes and health care resource utilization for liver transplantation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, John E; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Marroquin, Carlos E; Tuttle-Newhall, Janet E; Kuo, Paul C; Collins, Bradley H; Desai, Dev M; Pappas, Theodore N

    2007-01-01

    Procedures such as liver transplantation, which entail large costs while benefiting only a small percentage of the population, are being increasingly scrutinized by third-party payors. The purpose of our study was to conduct a longitudinal analysis of the early clinical outcomes and health care resource utilization for liver transplantation in the United States. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to conduct a longitudinal analysis of the clinical outcome and resource utilization data for liver transplantation procedures in adult recipients performed in the United States over three time periods (Period I: 1988-1993; Period II: 1994-1998: Period III: 1999-2003). Compared to Period I, adult liver transplant recipients were more likely to be male, older, and non-White in Period III. Recipients were more likely to have at least one major comorbidity preoperatively than in Period I. The in-hospital mortality rate after liver transplantation decreased significantly from Period I to Period III, but the major intraoperative and postoperative complication rates increased over the same time period. Mean length of hospital stay decreased over the 15-year period, but the percentage of patients with a non-routine discharge status increased. Our findings indicate that the rate of postoperative complications and non-routine discharges after liver transplantation is increasing. However, these negative changes in the cost-outcomes relationship for liver transplantation are balanced by improving postoperative survival rates and reductions in the length of hospital stay.

  9. Validation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score in Hospitalized Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Agulnik, Asya; Forbes, Peter W; Stenquist, Nicole; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Kleinman, Monica

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the correlation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score with unplanned transfer to the PICU in hospitalized oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. We performed a retrospective matched case-control study, comparing the highest documented Pediatric Early Warning Score within 24 hours prior to unplanned PICU transfers in hospitalized pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients between September 2011 and December 2013. Controls were patients who remained on the inpatient unit and were matched 2:1 using age, condition (oncology vs hematopoietic stem cell transplant), and length of hospital stay. Pediatric Early Warning Scores were documented by nursing staff at least every 4 hours as part of routine care. Need for transfer was determined by a PICU physician called to evaluate the patient. A large tertiary/quaternary free-standing academic children's hospital. One hundred ten hospitalized pediatric oncology patients (42 oncology, 68 hematopoietic stem cell transplant) requiring unplanned PICU transfer and 220 matched controls. None. Using the highest score in the 24 hours prior to transfer for cases and a matched time period for controls, the Pediatric Early Warning Score was highly correlated with the need for PICU transfer overall (area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.96), and in the oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant groups individually (area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively). The difference in Pediatric Early Warning Score results between the cases and controls was noted as early as 24 hours prior to PICU admission. Seventeen patients died (15.4%). Patients with higher Pediatric Early Warning Scores prior to transfer had increased PICU mortality (p = 0.028) and length of stay (p = 0.004). We demonstrate that our institution's Pediatric Early Warning Score is highly correlated with the need for unplanned PICU transfer in hospitalized oncology and

  10. Predictivity of Early Depressive Symptoms for Post-Stroke Depression.

    PubMed

    Lewin-Richter, A; Volz, M; Jöbges, M; Werheid, K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a frequent complication after stroke. However, little is known about the predictive value of early self-reported depressive symptoms (DS) for later development of post-stroke depression (PSD) 6 months after discharge. Using a prospective longitudinal design, we investigated the prevalence of DS and examined their predictive value for depressive disorders 6 months after stroke while statistically controlling major established PSD risk factors. During inpatient rehabilitation, 96 stroke patients were screened for DS. After 6 months, 71 patients were attainable for a follow-up. DS was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). At follow-up a telephone interview that included the Structured Clinical Interview for Psychiatric Disorders (SCID), which is based on DSM-IV criteria, and the GDS-15 was conducted. Patients with major depression (MD) at the follow-up were considered to have PSD. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of early DS on PSD after 6 months while controlling for age, premorbid depression, and functional and cognitive impairments. The percentage of patients who scored above the GDS-15 cut-off for clinically relevant DS increased significantly, from 37% to 44%, after 6 months. According to the SCID, 27% of stroke patients fulfilled the criteria for MD, and another 16% fulfilled those for minor depression. Logistic regression showed that DS at baseline significantly predicted PSD at follow-up (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.15-1.8). Self-reported DS during inpatient rehabilitation are predictive for PSD 6 months after discharge. Assessment of early DS contributes to identifying stroke patients at risk for PSD, thereby facilitating prevention and treatment.

  11. Lung transplantation for lymphangioleiomyomatosis: the European experience.

    PubMed

    Benden, Christian; Rea, Federico; Behr, Jürgen; Corris, Paul A; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Stern, Marc; Speich, Rudolf; Boehler, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Lung transplantation has been accepted widely as therapy for end-stage pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); however, single-center and national experience is limited due to the rarity of LAM. We report the recent European experience of lung transplantation for LAM. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 30 European lung transplant centers to evaluate patients who underwent primary lung transplantation for LAM (1997 to 2007). Seventy percent of centers responded to the questionnaire. A total of 61 lung transplants were undertaken in women only, with mean age at transplant 41.3 years (SD 5.1). Centers performed a median of 2 (0 to 9) transplant operations. Severe pleural adhesions were the most common intra-operative complication. Early deaths (N = 6) were due to primary graft or multiple-organ failure or sepsis. Twelve recipients were diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome at a median of 20 months (range 10 to 86 months) post-transplant. LAM-related complications included renal angiomyolipoma and pneumothorax in the native lung. Recurrence of LAM occurred in 4 recipients. As of December 2007, actuarial Kaplan-Meier survival was 79% at 1 year and 73% at 3 years post-transplant. Post-transplant outcome for pulmonary LAM in the recent era appears to have improved compared with the previous era. LAM-related complications remain common, but recurrence of LAM in the allograft is rare.

  12. Upregulation of microRNA 142-3p in the peripheral blood and urinary cells of kidney transplant recipients with post-transplant graft dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Domenico, T.D.; Joelsons, G.; Montenegro, R.M.; Manfro, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed microRNA (miR)-142-3p expression in leucocytes of the peripheral blood and urinary sediment cell samples obtained from kidney transplant recipients who developed graft dysfunction. Forty-one kidney transplant recipients with kidney graft dysfunction and 8 stable patients were included in the study. The groups were divided according to histological analysis into acute rejection group (n=23), acute tubular necrosis group (n=18) and stable patients group used as a control for gene expression (n=8). Percutaneous biopsies were performed and peripheral blood samples and urine samples were obtained. miR-142-3p was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The group of patients with acute tubular necrosis presented significantly higher expressions in peripheral blood (P<0.05) and urine (P<0.001) compared to the stable patients group. Also, in the peripheral blood, miR-142-3p expression was significantly higher in the acute tubular necrosis group compared to the acute rejection group (P<0.05). Urine samples of the acute rejection group presented higher expression compared to the stable patients group (P<0.001) but the difference between acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection groups was not significant in the urinary analyzes (P=0.079). miR-142-3p expression has a distinct pattern of expression in the setting of post-operative acute tubular necrosis after kidney transplantation and may potentially be used as a non-invasive biomarker for renal graft dysfunction. PMID:28380212

  13. Upregulation of microRNA 142-3p in the peripheral blood and urinary cells of kidney transplant recipients with post-transplant graft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Domenico, T D; Joelsons, G; Montenegro, R M; Manfro, R C

    2017-04-03

    We analyzed microRNA (miR)-142-3p expression in leucocytes of the peripheral blood and urinary sediment cell samples obtained from kidney transplant recipients who developed graft dysfunction. Forty-one kidney transplant recipients with kidney graft dysfunction and 8 stable patients were included in the study. The groups were divided according to histological analysis into acute rejection group (n=23), acute tubular necrosis group (n=18) and stable patients group used as a control for gene expression (n=8). Percutaneous biopsies were performed and peripheral blood samples and urine samples were obtained. miR-142-3p was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The group of patients with acute tubular necrosis presented significantly higher expressions in peripheral blood (P<0.05) and urine (P<0.001) compared to the stable patients group. Also, in the peripheral blood, miR-142-3p expression was significantly higher in the acute tubular necrosis group compared to the acute rejection group (P<0.05). Urine samples of the acute rejection group presented higher expression compared to the stable patients group (P<0.001) but the difference between acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection groups was not significant in the urinary analyzes (P=0.079). miR-142-3p expression has a distinct pattern of expression in the setting of post-operative acute tubular necrosis after kidney transplantation and may potentially be used as a non-invasive biomarker for renal graft dysfunction.

  14. Growth in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, A; Phadke, K

    2007-04-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in managing pediatric renal transplant recipient is to ensure normal growth and development. The goal of renal transplant is not just to prolong life but to optimize quality of life. Short stature during childhood may be associated with academic underachievement and development of comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, and mood disorders. The most important factors affecting growth are use of corticosteroids, allograft function, and age and height deficit at the time of transplant. Aggressive conservative management of chronic renal failure and early use of growth hormone therapy will help in optimizing height at time of transplant. Early transplant, steroid minimization or withdrawal, and growth hormone therapy will help in achieving normal adult height in a majority of renal post transplant population. Steroid avoidance to achieve good growth still needs to be validated.

  15. Non-canonical WNT6/WNT10A signal factor expression in EBV+ post-transplant smooth muscle tumors.

    PubMed

    Teiken, Kristin; Kuehnel, Mark; Rehkaemper, Jan; Kreipe, Hans; Laenger, Florian; Hussein, Kais; Jonigk, Danny

    2018-01-01

    Post-transplant smooth muscle tumors (PTSMTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms which occur after solid organ or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PTSMT typically consist of Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)+ smooth muscle-like cells and show an intermediate malignancy. Their main occurrences are visceral organs, especially the liver, but intracranial appearances are described and associated with a poor prognosis. EBV drives the growth of PTSMT; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Gene expression analysis of a set of morphologically similar tumors (leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, angioleiomyomas and endothelial haemangiomas) from patients without immunosuppression or EBV-association was performed. Our findings indicate that PTSMT's growth is driven by two factors of the wingless-type protein family: WNT6 and WNT10A. We are first to report that in PTSMTs, a non-canonical activation of WNT, independent of beta-catenin, drives tumor cell proliferation via MTOR/AKT1, MYC and Cyclin D2.

  16. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Post-transplant femoral head avascular necrosis: a selective investigation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Levent; Gurkan, Alp; Kacar, Serdar; Polat, Omer

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the presence of femoral head avascular osteonecrosis (FHAVN) by a selective investigation with MRI at follow-up. A total of 331(200 men, 131 women) renal transplants were included. They were transplanted at the mean age of 31.4 (9-63) years. The mean follow-up time of all patients after transplantation was 60.6 (6-233) months, and the mean current age 36.6 (11-66) years. All transplants filled out a questionnaire on musculoskeletal symptoms and underwent a detailed clinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in cases of hip joint pain in groin, buttock, thigh and knee and in 50 asymptomatic transplants. FHAVN were identified according to Ficat Arlet classification. 43(13%) patients reported pain without previous trauma. In the clinical examination, limited ranges of motion of the hip were noted in 13 of them. FHAVN was detected in 11 of 43 patients. Disease was bilateral in two of the eleven patients. Of the 662 femoral heads, 43 were associated with hip pain whereas the remaining 619 were asymptomatic. Avascular osteonecrosis was not confirmed in the asymptomatic 100 hips with magnetic resonance imaging. A selective investigation of FHAVN may be used to diagnose in renal allograft recipients with painful hips at follow-up. With a retrospective selective analysis, the presence of FHAVN was low among renal transplantation recipients at the end of the study.

  18. Preventing relapse after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukaemia: the role of post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring and MRD-directed intervention.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Dong; Lv, Meng; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute leukaemia (AL). Post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring enables risk stratification and identifies AL patients at higher risk of relapse. MRD assessment primarily involves the determination of leukaemia-associated immunophenotypic patterns using multiparameter flow cytometry, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based evaluation of expression levels of leukaemia-related genes (specific reciprocal gene rearrangements and other mutation types). In addition, next generation sequencing and digital PCR may further enrich current MRD detection. Several MRD-directed interventions have demonstrated the ability to reduce the risk of relapse with acceptable treatment-related toxicities. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is the most important intervention for MRD-positive patients, while several modified strategies, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood cells followed by short term immune suppression and escalating dose regimen, further improve the safety and efficacy of DLI. Interferon therapy, targeted drugs, and hypomethylating agents have also been introduced for MRD-directed interventions. Referring to the issues of whether and who would benefit from pre-emptive intervention according to MRD, in this review, we summarized this rapidly evolving area of MRD monitoring and MRD-directed interventions in AL patients after allo-HSCT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Superior outcome using cyclosporin A alone versus cyclosporin A plus methotrexate for post-transplant immunosuppression in children with acute leukemia undergoing sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Melissa; Steinbach, Daniel; Zintl, Felix; Beck, James; Gruhn, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    The outcome of cyclosporin A (CSA) alone (n = 19) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was compared to that of CSA combined with methotrexate (MTX) (n = 43) in children with acute leukemia who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. All respective donors were HLA-identical siblings. All patients received CSA at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day starting on day -1. A CSA level of 80-130 ng/ml was aimed for. The 43 patients in the historical control were given an additional 10 mg/m(2) dosage of MTX on days 1, 3, 6, and 11. Patients who received CSA alone had a significantly reduced cumulative incidence of relapse (5 vs. 40 %; p = 0.002), a significantly increased 5-year event-free survival (84 vs. 35 %; p = 0.001), and a significantly increased 5-year overall survival (84 vs. 42 %; p = 0.004). The incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV and chronic GVHD in patients in the CSA group was equivalent to the CSA+MTX group (26 vs. 19 %; p = 0.440, and 32 vs. 23 %; p = 0.428). In conclusion, post-transplant immunosuppression consisting of CSA alone is well tolerated and may contribute to a superior outcome.

  20. Early graft dysfunction and mortality rate in marginal donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarkut, Pmar; Gülcü, Bariş; Işçimen, Remzi; Kiyici, Murat; Türker, Gürkan; Topal, Naile Bolca; Ozen, Yilmaz; Kaya, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of marginal donor livers on mortality and graft survival in liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Donors with any 1 of following were considered marginal donors: age ≥65 years, sodium level ≥ 165 mmol/L and cold ischemia time ≥ 12 h. Donors were classified according to the donor risk index (DRI) < 1.7 and ≥ 1.7. The transplant recipients' model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were considered low if < 20 and high if ≥ 20. Early graft dysfunction (EGD) and mortality rate were evaluated. During the study period 47 patients underwent cadaveric LT. The mean age of the donors and recipients was 45 years (range: 5-72 years) and 46 years (range: 4-66 years), respectively. In all, there were 15 marginal donors and 18 donors with a DRI > 1.7. In total, 4 LT patients that received livers from marginal donors and 5 that received livers from donors with a DRI ≥ 1.7 had EGD. Among the recipients of marginal livers, 5 died, versus 4 of the recipients of standard livers. There was no significant difference in EGD or mortality rate between the patients that received livers from marginal donors or those with a DRI ≥ 1.7 and patients that received standard donor livers. Marginal and DRI ≥ 1.7 donors negatively affected LT outcomes, but not significantly.

  1. The Role of Multidetector Computed Tomography in the Early Diagnosis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Çiledağ, Nazan; Arda, Kemal; Arıbaş, Bilgin Kadri; Tekgündüz, Ali Irfan Emre; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate vessel involvement and the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the earlydiagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with febrile neutropenia and antibiotic-resistant feverundergoing autologous bone morrow transplantation. Material and Methods: In all, 74 pulmonary MDCT examinations in 37 consecutive hematopoietic stem celltransplantation patients with febrile neutropenia and clinically suspected IPA were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Diagnosis of IPA was based on Fungal Infections Cooperative Group, and National Institute of Allergy andInfectious Diseases Mycoses Study Consensus Group criteria. In all, 0, 14, and 11 patients were diagnosed as proven,probable, and possible IPA, respectively. Among the 25 patients accepted as probable and possible IPA, all had pulmonaryMDCT findings consistent with IPA. The remaining 12 patients were accepted as having fever of unknown origin (FUO)and had patent vessels based on MDCT findings.In the patients with probable and possible IPA, 72 focal pulmonary lesions were observed; in 41 of the 72 (57%) lesionsvascular occlusion was noted and the CT halo sign was observed in 25 of these 41 (61%) lesions. Resolution of feveroccurred following antifungal therapy in 19 (76%) of the 25 patients with probable and possible IPA. In all, 6 (25%)of the patients diagnosed as IPA died during follow-up. Transplant-related mortality 100 d post transplant in patientswith IPA and FUO was 24% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, MDCT has a potential role in the early diagnosis of IPA via detection of vessel occlusion. PMID:24744620

  2. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques.

  3. Selective intestinal decontamination with fluoroquinolones for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose M; Lumbreras, Carlos; Fortun, Jesus; Len, Oscar; Munoz, Patricia; Montejo, Miguel; Moreno, Asunción; Cordero, Elisa; Blanes, Marino; Ramos, Antonio; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; López-Medrano, Francisco; Carratala, Jordi; Moreno, Enrique

    2011-08-01

    The role of selective intestinal decontamination with fluoroquinolones (FQ-SID) in the prevention of early bacterial infections (EBIs) in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is unknown. We used the online database of the Spanish Network of Infection in Transplantation/Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases, which prospectively analyzed 1010 LTRs from 12 Spanish hospitals from September 2003 to February 2005. We compared the incidence and etiology of EBIs (30 days after transplantation) in 415 LTRs from 4 centers that used FQ-SID (>7 days) and in 595 LTRs from 8 hospitals that did not use FQ-SID. A multivariate logistic regression analysis (including an adjustment for the transplant center factor) was performed to evaluate the potential protective factor of FQ-SID in the development of EBIs. We reported 266 EBI episodes in 252 LTRs (incidence = 24.9%). There were no differences in the incidence of EBIs between patients in the FQ-SID group and patients not in the FQ-SID group [109/415 (26.3%) versus 143/595 (24%), P = 0.9]. Although LTRs who received FQ-SID had a lower incidence of infections due to enteric bacteria (2.7% versus 6.5%, P = 0.007) and a higher incidence of infections due to nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (6.6% versus 2.6%, P = 0.004), these findings could not be confirmed after an adjustment by the center factor in the multivariate models. We found no significant differences in the incidence of enterococcal infections (3.4% with FQ-SID versus 3.9% without FQ-SID, P = 0.5). Multivariate analysis did not confirm any protective effect of FQ-SID against the development of EBIs by enteric bacteria. In conclusion, FQ-SID does not reduce the incidence of EBIs in LTRs and could be withheld from this group of patients. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Clinical relevance of pre and post-transplant immune markers in kidney allograft recipients: anti-HLA and MICA antibodies and serum levels of sCD30 and sMICA.

    PubMed

    Solgi, Ghasem; Furst, Daniel; Mytilineos, Joannis; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar

    2012-03-01

    This retrospective study aims to determine the prognostic values of HLA and MICA antibodies, serum levels of sCD30 and soluble form of MHC class I related chain A (sMICA) in kidney allograft recipients. Sera samples of 40 living unrelated donor kidney recipients were tested by ELISA and Flow beads techniques for the presence of anti HLA and MICA antibodies and the contents of sCD30 and sMICA. HLA and MICA antibody specification was performed by LABScreen single antigen beads to determine whether the antibodies were directed against donor mismatches. Within first year post operatively 9 of 40 patients (22.5%) showed acute rejection episodes (ARE) that four of them lost their grafts compared to 31 functioning transplants (P=0.001). The presence of HLA antibodies before and after transplantation was significantly associated with ARE (P=0.01 and P=0.02 respectively). Sensitization to HLA class II antigens pre-transplant was strongly associated with higher incidence of ARE (P=0.004). A significant correlation was found between ARE and appearance of non-donor specific antibodies (P=0.02). HLA antibody positive patients either before or after transplantation showed lower graft survival rates than those without antibodies during three years follow-up (P=0.04 and P=0.02). Anti-MICA antibodies were observed in 8/40(20%) and 5/40(12.5%) of patients pre and post-transplant respectively. Coexistence of HLA and MICA antibodies was shown in 2 of 4 cases with graft loss. A significant increased level of sCD30 at day 14 (P=0.001) and insignificant decreased levels of sMICA pre and post operatively were detected in rejecting transplants compared to functioning graft group. Our findings support the view that monitoring of HLA and MICA antibodies as well as sCD30 levels early after transplant has predictive value for early and late allograft dysfunctions and the presence of these factors are detrimental to graft function and survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Acceptance and Use of Mobile Technology for Health Self-Monitoring in Lung Transplant Recipients during the First Year Post-Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Sereika, Susan M; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Handler, Steven M; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    To describe lung transplant recipients (LTRs') acceptance and use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring during the first year post-transplantation, and explore correlates of the use of technology in the 0 to 2, >2 to ≤6, >6 to ≤12, and 0 to 12 months. Secondary analysis of data from 96 LTR assigned to use Pocket PATH(®), a smartphone application, for daily health self-monitoring in a randomized controlled trial. Use of Pocket PATH was categorized as low, moderate, and high use. Proportional odds models for ordinal logistic regression were employed to explore correlates of use of technology. LTR reported high acceptance of Pocket PATH at baseline. However, acceptance was not associated with actual use over the 12 months (p=0.45~0.96). Actual use decreased across time intervals (p<0.001). Increased self-care agency was associated with the increased odds of higher use in women (p=0.03) and those less satisfied with technology training (p=0.02) in the first 2 months. Higher use from >2 to ≤6 months was associated with greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.37, p=0.01) and shorter length of hospital stay (OR=0.98, p=0.02). Higher use from >6 to ≤12 months was associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.02), lower psychological distress (OR=0.43, p=0.02), and better physical functioning (OR=1.09, p=0.01). Higher use over 12 months was also associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.007), better physical functioning (OR=1.13, p=0.001), and greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.05, p=0.02). Correlates were different for short- and long-term use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring in the first year post-transplantation. It is important to follow up with LTR with longer hospital stay, poor physical functioning, and psychological distress, providing ongoing education to improve their long-term use of technology for health self-monitoring.

  6. Acceptance and Use of Mobile Technology for Health Self-Monitoring in Lung Transplant Recipients during the First Year Post-Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sereika, Susan M.; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Handler, Steven M.; Schlenk, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To describe lung transplant recipients (LTRs’) acceptance and use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring during the first year post-transplantation, and explore correlates of the use of technology in the 0 to 2, >2 to ≤6, >6 to ≤12, and 0 to 12 months. Methods Secondary analysis of data from 96 LTR assigned to use Pocket PATH®, a smartphone application, for daily health self-monitoring in a randomized controlled trial. Use of Pocket PATH was categorized as low, moderate, and high use. Proportional odds models for ordinal logistic regression were employed to explore correlates of use of technology. Results LTR reported high acceptance of Pocket PATH at baseline. However, acceptance was not associated with actual use over the 12 months (p=0.45~0.96). Actual use decreased across time intervals (p<0.001). Increased self-care agency was associated with the increased odds of higher use in women (p=0.03) and those less satisfied with technology training (p=0.02) in the first 2 months. Higher use from >2 to ≤6 months was associated with greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.37, p=0.01) and shorter length of hospital stay (OR=0.98, p=0.02). Higher use from >6 to ≤12 months was associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.02), lower psychological distress (OR=0.43, p=0.02), and better physical functioning (OR=1.09, p=0.01). Higher use over 12 months was also associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.007), better physical functioning (OR=1.13, p=0.001), and greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.05, p=0.02). Conclusions Correlates were different for short- and long-term use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring in the first year post-transplantation. It is important to follow up with LTR with longer hospital stay, poor physical functioning, and psychological distress, providing ongoing education to improve their long-term use of technology for health self-monitoring. PMID:27437052

  7. Meaning and life purpose: the perspectives of post-transplant women.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn; Dracup, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    A descriptive, exploratory study was conducted to examine perceptions and meanings assigned to the experience of end-stage heart failure and transplant surgery in female recipients. Data was collected from 33 female heart transplant recipients from a heart transplant clinic using quantitative and qualitative methods. Women completed the Life Attitudes Profile and Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist and participated in a semi-structured interview. Women on average had a meaning score of 30.64 +/- 8.32 (range, 10-43) and a life purpose score of 40.12 +/- 13.78 (range, 17-63). The participants reported high levels of anxiety, depression, and hostility. Women expressed feelings of fear and lack of control related to their heart disease and transplant; however, they also described optimism, faith, acceptance, altruism, self-transcendence, self-fulfillment, and changing life goals as strong motivators for recovery. Women experience emotional distress as much as and beyond 5 years after heart transplantation. Their sense of meaning and life purpose is relatively high and is positively informed by several motivating factors that serve as coping resources throughout the recovery process.

  8. Post-transplant Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia--a re-emerged public health problem?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Marriott, Deborrah J; Chen, Sharon C-A; MacDonald, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a unicellular organism that in individuals with impaired immunity may cause pneumonia that can progress from minor illness to severe inflammatory pneumonia (PCP) with respiratory failure and death. Despite antimicrobial prophylaxis, which has reduced the incidence of PCP, clusters of late infections have been reported among kidney transplant recipients worldwide. A nosocomial PCP cluster was first recognized in 2010 at a Sydney hospital, but PCP clusters have since occurred in almost half of the renal transplant units on the eastern Australian seaboard, refocussing attention on optimal prophylaxis regimens and the likelihood of patient-to-patient transmission. A consensus meeting was conducted to derive the lessons from this experience for responding to PCP outbreaks. These included: (1) acting quickly--clusters of PCP in kidney transplant recipients with patient-to-patient transmission required transplant programs to act quickly to institute prophylactic and treatment measures; (2) instituting universal prophylaxis for all patients seen in the affected unit; (3) reducing patient-to-patient transmission via airborne droplets in the outpatient waiting areas; (4) examining the P. jirovecii genotypes. The meeting also considered recommendations for the duration of prophylaxis following de novo transplant and, for the individuals in whom long term prophylaxis is required, separating units with and without clusters of PCP.

  9. Early increase of peripheral B cell levels in kidney transplant recipients with CMV infection or reactivation.

    PubMed

    Besançon-Watelet, C; De March, A K; Renoult, E; Kessler, M; Béné, M C; Faure, G C; Sarda, M N

    2000-02-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or reactivation is a frequent complication of renal transplantation. Diagnosis of these conditions relies on the detection of circulating antigen, or of specific IgM and/or IgG, which develop over several weeks. Evocative clinical features may be detected earlier, but lack specificity. Rapid and early changes in the partition of lymphocyte subsets could be an additional indication of pending CMV infection. A systematic follow-up of peripheral B lymphocytes identified immunophenotypically by the determination of surface immunoglobulins (sIg), performed in 97 kidney transplant recipients, allowed to identify transient increases apparently predictive of CMV primo-infection or reactivation over the next 3 months. To better define the nature of these B cells, an extended investigation was performed for 14 prospective patients. In addition to surface Ig, membrane CD19, HLA-DR, and CD80 expression were explored. The cytoplasmic presence of mu, kappa, and lambda chains was also examined. B cell function was investigated using the ELISPOT technique, which allows an enumeration of the populations of IgG, IgA, and IgM secreting B cells. Retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome of the cohort of 97 patients evidenced that early transient increases in B cell levels were significantly (P<0.0001) associated with CMV infection. The same trend was noted in the smaller series of patients who benefited from a more extensive investigation of B cells, 10 of whom presented clinical or biological signs of CMV infection. Mature B cells, expressing surface Ig, CD19, DR, and CD80 are those presenting transient increases. No significant variation of preB (cmu+/kappalambda-) or activated (spot-forming) cells was evidenced in these patients. Individual examination of each patient's immune reconstitution profile allows to detect transient peaks of mature B cell during the initial immunosuppressive therapy, that appear to be predictive of oncoming CMV

  10. The effect of different immunoprophylaxis regimens on post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Low, Chian Yong; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed Mohammadmehdi; Rotstein, Coleman; Renner, Eberhard L; Husain, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    The effects of different immunoprophylaxis regimens on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) have not been compared. In a cohort, we studied 343 CMV-seropositive recipient (R+) and 83 seronegative donor/recipient (D-/R-) consecutive LTRs from 2004 to 2007. Immunoprophylaxis regimens included steroid-only, steroids plus rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG), and steroids plus basiliximab. Logistic regression analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression model, and log-rank test were performed for multivariate analysis as appropriate. In total, 164 (39%), 69 (16%), and 193 (45%) patients received steroid-only, basiliximab, and rATG immunoprophylaxis, respectively. CMV infection rates were 15.7% (54/343) in CMV R+ LTRs and 2.4% (2/83) in CMV R- LTRs. Among CMV R+ LTRs who received rATG, the use of at least 6 weeks of CMV prophylaxis reduced the rate of CMV infection from 24.4% (19/78) to 11.7% (9/77). In multivariate analysis, CMV R+ vs D-/R- (odds ratio [OR]=13.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-97.2), rATG >3 mg/kg vs steroid-only induction (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), and CMV prophylaxis <6 weeks vs ≥6 weeks (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-6.4) were independently associated with CMV infection. Subgroup analysis in CMV D-/R+ group who received rATG showed that ≥6 weeks of CMV prophylaxis significantly decreased the risk of CMV infection (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P=.03). The use of rATG immunoprophylaxis increases the risk of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive LTRs, specifically in the CMV D-/R+ group. Prophylaxis with valganciclovir in this group for at least 6 weeks decreases the risk of CMV infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Microbiota Disruption Induced by Early Use of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Is an Independent Risk Factor of Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniela; Jenq, Robert R; Peled, Jonathan U; Taur, Ying; Hiergeist, Andreas; Koestler, Josef; Dettmer, Katja; Weber, Markus; Wolff, Daniel; Hahn, Joachim; Pamer, Eric G; Herr, Wolfgang; Gessner, André; Oefner, Peter J; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Holler, Ernst

    2017-05-01

    In allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently used for treatment of infectious complications, but their effect on microbiota composition is still poorly understood. This retrospective analysis of 621 patients who underwent ASCT at the University Medical Center of Regensburg and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York assessed the impact of timing of peritransplant antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbiota composition as well as transplant-related mortality (TRM) and overall survival. Early exposure to antibiotics was associated with lower urinary 3-indoxyl sulfate levels (P < .001) and a decrease in fecal abundance of commensal Clostridiales (P = .03) compared with late antibiotic treatment, which was particularly significant (P = .005) for Clostridium cluster XIVa in the Regensburg group. Earlier antibiotic treatment before ASCT was further associated with a higher TRM (34%, 79/236) compared with post-ASCT (21%, 62/297, P = .001) or no antibiotics (7%, 6/88, P < .001). Timing of antibiotic treatment was the dominant independent risk factor for TRM (HR, 2.0; P ≤ .001) in multivariate analysis besides increase age (HR, 2.15; P = .004), reduced Karnofsky performance status (HR, 1.47; P = .03), and female donor-male recipient sex combination (HR, 1.56; P = .02) A competing risk analysis revealed the independent effect of early initiation of antibiotics on graft-versus-host disease-related TRM (P = .004) in contrast to infection-related TRM and relapse (not significant). The poor outcome associated with early administration of antibiotic therapy that is active against commensal organisms, and specifically the possibly protective Clostridiales, calls for the use of Clostridiales-sparing antibiotics and rapid restoration of microbiota diversity after cessation of antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

  12. Microbiota disruption induced by early use of broad spectrum antibiotics is an independent risk factor of outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniela; Jenq, Robert R.; Peled, Jonathan U.; Taur, Ying; Hiergeist, Andreas; Koestler, Josef; Dettmer, Katja; Weber, Markus; Wolff, Daniel; Hahn, Joachim; Pamer, Eric G.; Herr, Wolfgang; Gessner, André; Oefner, Peter J.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Holler, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    In allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently used for treatment of infectious complications, but their effect on microbiota composition is still poorly understood. Here, in a retrospective analysis of 621 patients, who underwent ASCT at the University Medical Center of Regensburg and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, we assessed the impact of timing of peri-transplant antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbiota composition as well as transplant-related mortality (TRM) and overall survival. Early exposure to antibiotics was associated with lower urinary 3-indoxyl sulfate levels (p<0.001) and a decrease in fecal abundance of commensal Clostridiales (p=0.03) compared to late antibiotic treatment, which was particularly significant (p=0.005) for Clostridium cluster XIVa in the Regensburg group. Earlier antibiotic treatment prior to ASCT was further associated with a higher TRM (34%, n=79/236) compared to post-ASCT (21% n=62/297, p=0.001) or no antibiotics (7% n=6/88, p<0.001). Timing of antibiotic treatment was the dominant independent risk factor for TRM (HR 2.0, p≤0.001) in multivariate analysis beside increase age (HR 2.15, p=0.004), reduced Karnofsky performance status (HR 1.47, p=0.03) and female donor/ male recipient sex combination (HR 1.56, p=0.02) A competing-risk analysis revealed the independent effect of early initiation of antibiotics on GvHD-related TRM (p=0.004) in contrast to infection-related TRM and relapse (p=ns). The poor outcome associated with early administration of antibiotic therapy that is active against commensal organisms, and specifically the possibly protective Clostridiales calls for the use of Clostridiales-sparing antibiotics and rapid restoration of microbiota diversity after cessation of antibiotic treatment. PMID:28232086

  13. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, William M; Hynan, Linda S; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Fontana, Robert J; Stravitz, R Todd; Larson, Anne M; Davern, Timothy J; Murray, Natalie G; McCashland, Timothy; Reisch, Joan S; Robuck, Patricia R

    2009-09-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, might benefit patients with non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. In a prospective, double-blind trial, acute liver failure patients without clinical or historical evidence of acetaminophen overdose were stratified by site and coma grade and assigned randomly to groups that were given NAC or placebo (dextrose) infusion for 72 hours. The primary outcome was overall survival at 3 weeks. Secondary outcomes included transplant-free survival and rate of transplantation. A total of 173 patients received NAC (n = 81) or placebo (n = 92). Overall survival at 3 weeks was 70% for patients given NAC and 66% for patients given placebo (1-sided P = .283). Transplant-free survival was significantly better for NAC patients (40%) than for those given placebo (27%; 1-sided P = .043). The benefits of transplant-free survival were confined to the 114 patients with coma grades I-II who received NAC (52% compared with 30% for placebo; 1-sided P = .010); transplant-free survival for the 59 patients with coma grades III-IV was 9% in those given NAC and 22% in those given placebo (1-sided P = .912). The transplantation rate was lower in the NAC group but was not significantly different between groups (32% vs 45%; P = .093). Intravenous NAC generally was well tolerated; only nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more frequently in the NAC group (14% vs 4%; P = .031). Intravenous NAC improves transplant-free survival in patients with early stage non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. Patients with advanced coma grades do not benefit from NAC and typically require emergency liver transplantation.

  14. Evaluation of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization Rates with Early Plerixafor Administration for Adult Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stover, Jessica T; Shaw, J Ryan; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Horwitz, Mitchell E; Engemann, Ashley M

    2017-08-01

    The addition of plerixafor to high-dose colony-stimulating growth factor has been shown to improve stem cell mobilization rates in autologous transplant patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This study evaluates the change in administration time of plerixafor to determine if cell mobilization rates are similar between the US Food and Drug Administration-approved administration time of 11 hours before apheresis and an earlier administration time of 16 hours before apheresis. Medical records of patients age ≥ 18 years undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation requiring the use of plerixafor after at least 4 days of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy to complete stem cell mobilization from January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was CD34 + cell mobilization success rates when plerixafor was administered 11 ± 2 hours (standard administration group) compared with 16 ± 2 hours before cell apheresis (early administration group), as defined as collection of  ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg. Secondary outcomes included the number of plerixafor therapy days required to collect a total of ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg, the number of apheresis cycles required to achieve ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg, the median CD34 + cells/kg collected in each apheresis session, and the rates of reported adverse events that occurred in the standard administration time group compared with the early administration time group. Of the 197 patients included, 114 patients received plerixafor 11 ± 2 hours before apheresis and 83 patients received plerixafor 16 hours ± 2 hours before apheresis. Ninety-four percent of patients in the early administration group achieved successful stem cell mobilization compared with 81.6% in the standard administration group (P = .0111). The median number of plerixafor days to reach the collection goal of  ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg was 1 day for

  15. Tuberculosis after liver transplantation in a large center in New York City: QuantiFERON® -TB Gold-based pre-transplant screening performance and active tuberculosis post-transplant.

    PubMed

    Hand, Jonathan; Sigel, Keith; Huprikar, Shirish; Hamula, Camille; Rana, Meena

    2018-04-01

    Pre-transplant screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a complex consideration that varies by institution. Inconsistent performance of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) further complicates screening. Data regarding LTBI screening outcomes and test characteristics in a large, foreign-born pre-transplant population within the United States are limited. In this retrospective study, patients who received QuantiFERON ® -TB Gold (QFT) prior to liver transplantation (LT) were included. Characteristics of patients were compared by QFT result, and predictors of indeterminate results were evaluated. Similar comparisons were performed between patients who developed active TB and those who did not. Of 148 patients screened, the rate of positive, indeterminate, and negative testing was 13.5% (20/148), 27% (40/148), and 59% (88/148), respectively. An indeterminate QFT result was more than 16 times more likely in patients with a Model for End-stage Liver Disease score >25 (odds ratio [OR] 16.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-132.0; P = .008) and more than 4 times when performed in our institution's lab compared with commercial lab (OR 4.1; 95% CI, 1.34-12.44; P = .013). The overall TB incidence was 1102/100 000 transplant cases. No patient who developed active TB had a positive QFT. All were born outside of the United States (P = .06) and had pre-transplantation chest imaging demonstrating granulomatous disease (P = .006). Our experience further highlights the challenges of LTBI screening prior to LT and suggests that QFT may be a poor predictor of active TB in higher risk pre-transplant populations. Candidates should be screened as early as possible to optimize QFT performance, and local epidemiological data should be used to create institution-specific screening protocols in areas with large populations from TB-endemic regions. Management should consider TB risk factors, QFT, and imaging instead of reliance on QFT testing alone. © 2018 John Wiley

  16. Impact of type of calcineurin inhibitor on post-transplant tuberculosis: Single-center study from India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjay K; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bagchi, Soumita

    2017-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. Immunosuppressive drugs are one of the most important risk factor for post-transplant tuberculosis (PTTB). A paucity of data exists about the impact of the type of calcineurin inhibitor on PTTB. In this retrospective study, all adult patients on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression were included. Patients receiving TB chemoprophylaxis were excluded. Diabetes, duration of dialysis, hepatitis B and C, past treated TB, induction therapy, type of antimetabolite, acute rejection, new onset of diabetes after renal transplantation (RT) (NODAT) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were analyzed in tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine (CsA) groups. Primary outcome was incidence of TB and secondary outcomes were timeline of development of TB after RT and pattern of TB in the two groups. Of the 1664 patients included, 582 patients received CsA-based immunosuppression while 1082 received Tac-based immunosuppression. Duration of dialysis, positive tuberculin skin test, use of induction, mycophenolate mofetil use, CMV infection, and NODAT were significantly more, and hepatitis B infection, past treated TB, and acute rejection episodes were significantly less in the Tac group. At the end of follow-up, incidence of TB in the Tac group was significantly less than in the CsA group (6.1% vs 19.9%, P<.001). Mean time for development of TB after RT was similar in both the groups and nodal and disseminated TB were more common in the Tac group. In conclusion, our study shows that use of Tac as compared to CsA significantly decreases incidence of PTTB. Time of infection since transplant was similar in both the groups. However, nodal and disseminated TB were more common in the Tac group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciT

    Ucar, Adem, E-mail: ucaradem@yahoo.com; Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: aghakishi@yahoo.com; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: drhuseyin@yahoo.com

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  18. Jejunal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in patients with post-liver transplant portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bass, Lee M; Kim, Stanley; Superina, Riccardo; Mohammad, Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Portal hypertension secondary to portal vein obstruction following liver transplant occurs in 5%-10% of children. Jejunal varices are uncommon in this group. We present a case series of children with significant GI blood loss, negative upper endoscopy, and jejunal varices detected by CE. Case series of patients who had CE for chronic GI blood loss following liver transplantation. Three patients who had their initial transplants at a median age of 7 months were identified at our institution presenting at a median age of 8 years (range 7-16 years) with a median Hgb of 2.8 g/dL (range 1.8-6.8 g/dL). Upper endoscopy was negative for significant esophageal varices, gastric varices, and bleeding portal gastropathy in all three children. All three patients had significant jejunal varices noted on CE in mid-jejunum. Jejunal varices were described as large prominent bluish vessels underneath visualized mucosa, one with evidence of recent bleeding. The results led to venoplasty of the portal vein in two patients and a decompressive shunt in one patient with resolution of GI bleed and anemia. CE is useful to diagnose intestinal varices in children with portal hypertension and GI bleeding following liver transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Endoscopic Management of Post-Liver Transplantation Biliary Strictures With the Use of Fully Covered Metallic Stents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pérez, M; Melgar Simón, J M; Durán Campos, A; González Grande, R; Rodrigo López, J M; Manteca González, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) in the treatment of post-liver transplantation biliary strictures. From October 2009 to October 2014, 44 patients with post-liver transplantation biliary stenosis were treated with the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and placement of FCSEMS after informed consent. The FCSEMS was scheduled to remain in situ for 3-6 months. Patients were followed at regular intervals to evaluate for symptoms and liver function tests. Technical success, complications, and patient outcome were analyzed. All of the strictures were anastomotic, 52% having occurred within the 1st year following the transplantation. Placement of the FCSEMS was possible on the 1st attempt in 54% of patients. Stricture resolution at the time of stent removal was seen in 100% of the cases. During an average follow-up of 27.83 ± 18.3 months after stent removal, stenosis recurred in 9 out of 41 patients (21.9%). The average time of recurrence was 11.78 ± 13.3 months. In all of these cases, the recurrence was resolved by means of placement of another FCSEMS. In 4 cases, the recurrence was associated with a migration of the prosthesis, partial in 2 cases and total in 2 cases. Stent migration occurred in a total of 17 of the 41 patients (41.4%), in 13 of the 32 (40.6%) who had no recurrence of stenosis and in 4 of the 9 (44.4%) of those who experienced recurrence. The average numbers of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography studies required per patient were 2.8 in those with no recurrence and 3.3 in those with recurrence. No death was associated with the process. FCSEMS is a safe effective alternative to plastic stents in the treatment of post-transplantation biliary strictures, resulting in a lower risk of complications and better patient acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parasympathetic reinnervation accompanied by improved post-exercise heart rate recovery and quality of life in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Okada, Ikuko; Kato, Naoko; Fujino, Takeo; Inaba, Toshiro; Maki, Hisataka; Hatano, Masaru; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Although sympathetic reinnervation is accompanied by the improvement of exercise tolerability during the first years after heart transplantation (HTx), little is known about parasympathetic reinnervation and its clinical impact. We enrolled 21 recipients (40 ± 16 years, 71% male) who had received successive cardiopulmonary exercise testing at 6 months, and 1 and 2 years after HTx. Exercise parameters such as peak oxygen consumption or achieved maximum load remained unchanged, whereas recovery parameters including heart rate (HR) recovery during 2 minutes and the delay of peak HR, which are influenced by parasympathetic activity, improved significantly during post-HTx 2 years (P < 0.05 for both). HR variability was analysed at post-HTx 6 months in 18 recipients, and high frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, was significantly associated with the 2 recovery parameters (P < 0.05 for all). We also assessed quality of life using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (HF) Questionnaire at post-HTx 6 months and 2 years in the same 18 recipients, and those with improved recovery parameters enjoyed a better HF-specific quality of life (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, parasympathetic reinnervation emerges along with improved post-exercise recovery ability of HR and quality of life during post-HTx 2 years.

  1. Liver cirrhosis in Fontan patients does not affect 1-year post-heart transplant mortality or markers of liver function.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen E; Esmaeeli, Amir; Khanna, Geetika; White, Francis; Turnmelle, Yumirle; Eghtesady, Pirooz; Boston, Umar; Canter, Charles E

    2014-02-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized with long-term follow-up of patients after the Fontan procedure. The effect of liver cirrhosis on the use of heart transplant (HT) and on post-HT outcomes is unknown. We reviewed Fontan patients evaluated for HT from 2004 to 2012 with hepatic computed tomography (CT) imaging, classified as normal, non-cirrhotic changes, or cirrhosis. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was differences in serial post-HT liver evaluation. CT imaging in 32 Fontan patients evaluated for HT revealed 20 (63%) with evidence of liver disease, including 13 (41%) with cirrhosis. Twenty underwent HT, including 5 non-cirrhotic and 7 cirrhosis patients. Characteristics at listing between normal or non-cirrhotic (n = 13) and cirrhosis (n = 7) groups were similar, except cirrhosis patients were older (median 17.6 vs 9.6 years, p = 0.002) and further from Fontan (median 180 vs 50 months, p < 0.05). Serial liver evaluation was similar, including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, and tacrolimus dose at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Overall patient survival was 80% at 1 year, with no difference between cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis patients (86% vs 77%, p = 0.681). Liver biopsies were performed in 7 patients before HT, and all specimens showed architectural changes with bridging fibrosis. Most patients evaluated for HT had abnormal liver findings by CT, with cirrhosis in 41%. One-year mortality and serial liver evaluation were similar between groups after HT. Liver cirrhosis identified by CT imaging may not be an absolute contraindication to HT alone in this population. © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Published by International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation All rights reserved.

  2. Fibrin matrices enhance the transplant and efficacy of cytotoxic stem cell therapy for post-surgical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bagó, Juli R.; Pegna, Guillaume J.; Okolie, Onyi; Hingtgen, Shawn D.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-homing cytotoxic stem cell (SC) therapy is a promising new approach for treating the incurable brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). However, problems of retaining cytotoxic SCs within the post-surgical GBM resection cavity are likely to significantly limit the clinical utility of this strategy. Here, we describe a new fibrin-based transplant approach capable of increasing cytotoxic SC retention and persistence within the resection cavity, yet remaining permissive to tumoritropic migration. This fibrin-based transplant can effectively treat both solid and post-surgical human GBM in mice. Using our murine model of image-guided model of GBM resection, we discovered that suspending human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCS) in a fibrin matrix increased initial retention in the surgical resection cavity 2-fold and prolonged persistence in the cavity 3-fold compared to conventional delivery strategies. Time-lapse motion analysis revealed that cytotoxic hMSCs in the fibrin matrix remain tumoritropic, rapidly migrating from the fibrin matrix to co-localize with cultured human GBM cells. We encapsulated hMSCs releasing the cytotoxic agent TRAIL (hMSC-sTR) in fibrin, and found hMSC-sTR/fibrin therapy reduced the viability of multiple 3-D human GBM spheroids and regressed established human GBM xenografts 3-fold in 11 days. Mimicking clinical therapy of surgically resected GBM, intra-cavity seeding of therapeutic hMSC-sTR encapsulated in fibrin reduced post-surgical GBM volumes 6-fold, increased time to recurrence 4-fold, and prolonged median survival from 15 to 36 days compared to control-treated animals. Fibrin-based SC therapy could represent a clinically compatible, viable treatment to suppress recurrence of post-surgical GBM and other lethal cancer types. PMID:26803410

  3. IL-2 promotes early Treg reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Betts, Brian C; Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Mishra, Asmita; Nishihori, Taiga; Perez, Lia; Ochoa-Bayona, Jose Leonel; Khimani, Farhad; Walton, Kelly; Bookout, Ryan; Nieder, Michael; Khaira, Divis K; Davila, Marco; Alsina, Melissa; Field, Teresa; Ayala, Ernesto; Locke, Frederick L; Riches, Marcie; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed; Fernandez, Hugo; Anasetti, Claudio

    2017-05-01

    Graft- versus -host disease (GvHD) remains a major cause of transplant-related mortality. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus sirolimus (SIR) synergistically reduces acute GvHD in rodents and promotes regulatory T cells. This phase II trial tested the hypothesis that IL-2 would facilitate STAT5 phosphorylation in donor T cells, expand regulatory T cells, and ameliorate GvHD. Between 16 th April 2014 and 19 th December 2015, 20 patients received IL-2 (200,000 IU/m 2 thrice weekly, days 0 to +90) with SIR (5-14 ng/mL) and tacrolimus (TAC) (3-7 ng/mL) after HLA-matched related or unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The study was designed to capture an increase in regulatory T cells from 16.0% to more than 23.2% at day +30. IL-2/SIR/TAC significantly increased regulatory T cells at day +30 compared to our published data with SIR/TAC (23.8% vs. 16.0%, P =0.0016; 0.052 k/uL vs. 0.037 k/uL, P =0.0163), achieving the primary study end point. However, adding IL-2 to SIR/TAC led to a fall in regulatory T cells by day +90 and did not reduce acute or chronic GvHD. Patients who discontinued IL-2 before day +100 showed a suggested trend toward less grade II-IV acute GvHD (16.7% vs. 50%, P =0.1475). We surmise that the reported accumulation of IL-2 receptors in circulation over time may neutralize IL-2, lead to progressive loss of regulatory T cells, and offset its clinical efficacy. The amount of phospho-STAT3 + CD4 + T cells correlated with donor T-cell activation and acute GvHD incidence despite early T-cell STAT5 phosphorylation by IL-2. Optimizing IL-2 dosing and overcoming cytokine sequestration by soluble IL-2 receptor may sustain lasting regulatory T cells after transplantation. However, an approach to target STAT3 is needed to enhance GvHD prevention. ( clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01927120 ). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  4. Strength Training to Enhance Early Recovery after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Collins, Eileen; Park, Chang; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cancer treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) results in moderate to severe fatigue and physical inactivity, leading to diminished functional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an exercise intervention, strength training to enhance early recovery (STEER), on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life after HCT. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared strength training (n = 33) to usual care plus attention control with health education (UC + AC with HE) (n = 34). Subjects were stratified by type of transplantation and age. STEER consisted of a comprehensive program of progressive resistance introduced during hospitalization and continued for 6 weeks after hospital discharge. Fatigue, physical activity, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life were assessed before HCT hospital admission and after intervention completion. Data were analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance. Significant time × group interactions effects were noted for fatigue (P = .04). The STEER group reported improvement in fatigue from baseline to after intervention whereas the UC + AC with HE group reported worsened fatigue from baseline to after intervention. Time (P < .001) and group effects (P = .05) were observed for physical activity. Physical activity declined from baseline to 6 weeks after hospitalization. The STEER group was more physically active. Functional ability tests (timed stair climb and timed up and go) resulted in a significant interaction effect (P = .03 and P = .05, respectively). Subjects in the UC + AC with HE group were significantly slower on both tests baseline to after intervention, whereas the STEER group's time remained stable. The STEER group completed both tests faster than the UC + AC with HE group after intervention. Study findings support the use of STEER after intensive cancer treatment and HCT

  5. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  6. Autologous Transplantation in Follicular Lymphoma with Early Therapy Failure: A National LymphoCare Study and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Analysis.

    PubMed

    Casulo, Carla; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Ahn, Kwang W; Flowers, Christopher; DiGilio, Alyssa; Smith, Sonali M; Ahmed, Sairah; Inwards, David; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chen, Andy I; Choe, Hannah; Cohen, Jonathon; Copelan, Edward; Farooq, Umar; Fenske, Timothy S; Freytes, Cesar; Gaballa, Sameh; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Jethava, Yogesh; Kamble, Rammurti T; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Lazarus, Hillard; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Olsson, Richard F; Rezvani, Andrew R; Rizzieri, David; Seo, Sachiko; Shah, Gunjan L; Shah, Nina; Solh, Melham; Sureda, Anna; William, Basem; Cumpston, Aaron; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Link, Brian K; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-06-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experiencing early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy have poor overall survival (OS). We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and the National LymphoCare Study (NLCS) to determine whether autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) can improve outcomes in this high-risk FL subgroup. ETF was defined as failure to achieve at least partial response after frontline chemoimmunotherapy or lymphoma progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy. We identified 2 groups: the non-autoHCT cohort (patients from the NLCS with ETF not undergoing autoHCT) and the autoHCT cohort (CIBMTR patients with ETF undergoing autoHCT). All patients received rituximab-based chemotherapy as frontline treatment; 174 non-autoHCT patients and 175 autoHCT patients were identified and analyzed. There was no difference in 5-year OS between the 2 groups (60% versus 67%, respectively; P = .16). A planned subgroup analysis showed that patients with ETF receiving autoHCT soon after treatment failure (≤1 year of ETF; n = 123) had higher 5-year OS than those without autoHCT (73% versus 60%, P = .05). On multivariate analysis, early use of autoHCT was associated with significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio, .63; 95% confidence interval, .42 to .94; P = .02). Patients with FL experiencing ETF after frontline chemoimmunotherapy lack optimal therapy. We demonstrate improved OS when receiving autoHCT within 1 year of treatment failure. Results from this unique collaboration between the NLCS and CIBMTR support consideration of early consolidation with autoHCT in select FL patients experiencing ETF. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Martínez Villegas, Octavio; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy. PMID:25821830

  8. Survival of Mexican children with acute myeloid leukaemia who received early intensification chemotherapy and an autologous transplant.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Villegas, Octavio Martínez; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005-2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999-2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy.

  9. Improved prediction of tacrolimus concentrations early after kidney transplantation using theory-based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Størset, Elisabet; Holford, Nick; Hennig, Stefanie; Bergmann, Troels K; Bergan, Stein; Bremer, Sara; Åsberg, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Staatz, Christine E

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to develop a theory-based population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant recipients and to externally evaluate this model and two previous empirical models. Data were obtained from 242 patients with 3100 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. External evaluation was performed by examining model predictive performance using Bayesian forecasting. Pharmacokinetic disposition parameters were estimated based on tacrolimus plasma concentrations, predicted from whole blood concentrations, haematocrit and literature values for tacrolimus binding to red blood cells. Disposition parameters were allometrically scaled to fat free mass. Tacrolimus whole blood clearance/bioavailability standardized to haematocrit of 45% and fat free mass of 60 kg was estimated to be 16.1 l h−1 [95% CI 12.6, 18.0 l h−1]. Tacrolimus clearance was 30% higher (95% CI 13, 46%) and bioavailability 18% lower (95% CI 2, 29%) in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers. An Emax model described decreasing tacrolimus bioavailability with increasing prednisolone dose. The theory-based model was superior to the empirical models during external evaluation displaying a median prediction error of −1.2% (95% CI −3.0, 0.1%). Based on simulation, Bayesian forecasting led to 65% (95% CI 62, 68%) of patients achieving a tacrolimus average steady-state concentration within a suggested acceptable range. A theory-based population pharmacokinetic model was superior to two empirical models for prediction of tacrolimus concentrations and seemed suitable for Bayesian prediction of tacrolimus doses early after kidney transplantation.

  10. Donor and host photoreceptors engage in material transfer following transplantation of post-mitotic photoreceptor precursors

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, R. A.; Gonzalez-Cordero, A.; West, E. L.; Ribeiro, J. R.; Aghaizu, N.; Goh, D.; Sampson, R. D.; Georgiadis, A.; Waldron, P. V.; Duran, Y.; Naeem, A.; Kloc, M.; Cristante, E.; Kruczek, K.; Warre-Cornish, K.; Sowden, J. C.; Smith, A. J.; Ali, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor replacement by transplantation is proposed as a treatment for blindness. Transplantation of healthy photoreceptor precursor cells into diseased murine eyes leads to the presence of functional photoreceptors within host retinae that express an array of donor-specific proteins. The resulting improvement in visual function was understood to be due to donor cells integrating within host retinae. Here, however, we show that while integration occurs the majority of donor-reporter-labelled cells in the host arises as a result of material transfer between donor and host photoreceptors. Material transfer does not involve permanent donor–host nuclear or cell–cell fusion, or the uptake of free protein or nucleic acid from the extracellular environment. Instead, RNA and/or protein are exchanged between donor and host cells in vivo. These data require a re-evaluation of the mechanisms underlying rescue by photoreceptor transplantation and raise the possibility of material transfer as a strategy for the treatment of retinal disorders. PMID:27701378

  11. [Long-term, tumor-free survival after radiotherapy combining hepatectomy-Whipple en bloc and orthotopic liver transplantation for early-stage hilar cholangiocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wu, You-min; Johlin, Frederick C; Rayhill, Stephen C; Jensen, Chris S; Jin, Xie; Mitros, Frank A

    2009-08-01

    To report the experience in surveillance and early detection of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and in using en bloc total hepatectomy-pancreaticoduodenectomy-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT-Whipple) to achieve complete eradication of early-stage CC complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Asymptomatic PSC patients underwent surveillance using endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with multilevel brushings for cytological evaluation. Patients diagnosed with CC were treated with combined extra-beam radiotherapy, lesion-focused brachytherapy, and OLT-Whipple. Between January 1988 and February 2001, 42 of 119 PSC patients were followed according to the surveillance protocol. CC was detected in 8 patients, 6 of whom underwent OLT-Whipple. Of those 6 patients, 4 had stage I CC, and 2 had stage II CC. All 6 OLT-Whipple patients received combined external-beam and brachytherapy radiotherapy. The median time from diagnosis to OLT-Whipple was 144 days. One patient died 55 months post-transplant of an unrelated cause, without tumor recurrence. The other 5 were well without recurrence at 79, 82, 108, 128, 129 and 145 months. For patients with PSC, ERCP surveillance cytology and intralumenal endoscopic ultrasound examination allow for early detection of CC. Broad and lesion-focused radiotherapy combined with OLT-Whipple to remove the biliary epithelium en bloc offers promising long-term, tumor-free survival. All patients tolerated this extensive surgery well with good quality of life following surgery and recovery. These findings support consideration of the complete excision of an intact biliary tree via OLT-Whipple in patients with early-stage hilar CC complicating PSC.

  12. Small Bowel Transplant

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of small bowel transplant in the treatment of intestinal failure. Small Bowel Transplantation Intestinal failure is the loss of absorptive capacity of the small intestine that results in an inability to meet the nutrient and fluid requirements of the body via the enteral route. Patients with intestinal failure usually receive nutrients intravenously, a procedure known as parenteral nutrition. However, long-term parenteral nutrition is associated with complications including liver failure and loss of venous access due to recurrent infections. Small bowel transplant is the transplantation of a cadaveric intestinal allograft for the purpose of restoring intestinal function in patients with irreversible intestinal failure. The transplant may involve the small intestine alone (isolated small bowel ISB), the small intestine and the liver (SB-L) when there is irreversible liver failure, or multiple organs including the small bowel (multivisceral MV or cluster). Although living related donor transplant is being investigated at a limited number of centres, cadaveric donors have been used in most small bowel transplants. The actual transplant procedure takes approximately 12-18 hours. After intestinal transplant, the patient is generally placed on prophylactic antibiotic medication and immunosuppressive regimen that, in the majority of cases, would include tacrolimus, corticosteroids and an induction agent. Close monitoring for infection and rejection are essential for early treatment. Medical Advisory Secretariat Review The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of 35 reports from 9 case series and 1 international registry. Sample size of the individual studies ranged from 9 to 155. As of May 2001, 651 patients had received small bowel transplant procedures worldwide. According to information from the Canadian Organ Replacement

  13. Overview of adult congenital heart transplants

    PubMed Central

    Morales, David

    2018-01-01

    Transplantation for adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is a growing clinical endeavor in the transplant community. Understanding the results and defining potential high-risk patient subsets will allow optimization of patient outcomes. This review summarizes the scope of ACHD transplantation, the mechanisms of late ventricular dysfunction, the ACHD population at risk of developing heart failure, the indications and potential contraindications for transplant, surgical considerations, and post-transplant outcomes. The findings reveal that 3.3% of adult heart transplants occur in ACHD patients. The potential mechanisms for the development of late ventricular dysfunction include a morphologic systemic right ventricle, altered coronary perfusion, and ventricular noncompaction. The indications for transplant in ACHD patients include systemic ventricular failure refractory medical therapy, Fontan patients failing from chronic passive pulmonary circulation, and progressive cyanosis leading to functional decline. Transplantation in ACHD patients can be quite complex and may require extensive reconstruction of the branch pulmonary arteries, systemic veins, or the aorta. Vasoplegia, bleeding, and graft right ventricular dysfunction can complicate the immediate post-transplant period. The post-transplant operative mortality ranges between 14% and 39%. The majority of early mortality occurs in ACHD patients with univentricular congenital heart disease. However, there has been improvement in operative survival in more contemporary studies. In conclusion, the experience with cardiac transplantation for ACHD patients with end-stage heart failure is growing, and high-risk patient subsets have been defined. Significant strides have been made in developing evidence-based guidelines of indications for transplant, and the intraoperative management of complex reconstruction has evolved. With proper patient selection, more aggressive use of mechanical circulatory support

  14. Early intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A

    2007-02-01

    The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.

  15. Outcomes at 7 years post-transplant in black vs nonblack kidney transplant recipients administered belatacept or cyclosporine in BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT.

    PubMed

    Florman, Sander; Vincenti, Flavio; Durrbach, Antoine; Abouljoud, Marwan; Bresnahan, Barbara; Garcia, Valter Duro; Mulloy, Laura; Rice, Kim; Rostaing, Lionel; Zayas, Carlos; Calderon, Kellie; Meier-Kriesche, Ulf; Polinsky, Martin; Yang, Lingfeng; Medina Pestana, Jose; Larsen, Christian P

    2018-04-01

    Clinical outcomes are generally worse for black vs nonblack renal allograft recipients. In BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT, recipients were randomized to belatacept more intense-based, belatacept less intense-based, or cyclosporine-based immunosuppression. At year 7, belatacept was associated with superior graft survival vs cyclosporine in BENEFIT (recipients of living or standard criteria deceased donor kidneys); belatacept was associated with similar graft survival vs cyclosporine in BENEFIT-EXT (recipients of extended criteria donor kidneys). In both studies, renal function was superior for belatacept-treated vs cyclosporine-treated patients. Seven-year outcomes were examined by race post hoc in each study. The effect of race and treatment on time to death or graft loss was compared using Cox regression. The interaction between treatment and race was also considered. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from months 1 to 84 using a repeated-measures model. In total, 8.3% (55/666) and 13.1% (71/543) of patients in BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT, respectively, were black. Time to death or graft loss was similar in blacks and nonblacks. For both subgroups, estimated mean GFR increased over 7 years for belatacept, but declined for cyclosporine. Outcomes were similar in belatacept-treated black and nonblack patients. Due to the small number of black patients, these results must be interpreted with caution. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Transplantation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Survival Analyses and Prognosis of Plasma Cell Myeloma and Plasmacytoma-Like Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Aaron S.; Ruthazer, Robin; Paulus, Jessica K.; Kent, David M.; Evens, Andrew M.; Klein, Andreas K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma-like post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD-MM) is a rare complication of solid organ transplant. Case series have shown variable outcomes and survival data in the modern era are lacking. Methods A cohort of 212 PTLD-MM patients was identified in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 1999-2011. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the effects of treatment and patient characteristics on OS evaluated with Cox proportional hazards models. OS in 185 PTLD-MM patients was compared with 4048 matched controls with multiple myeloma (SEER-MM) derived from SEER. Results Men comprised 71% of patients; extramedullary disease was noted in 58%. Novel therapeutic agents were used in 19% of patients (more commonly 2007-2011 versus 1999-2006 (P=0.01)), reduced immunosuppression in 55%, and chemotherapy in 32%. Median OS was 2.4 years, and improved in the later time period (aHR 0.64, P=0.05). Advanced age, creatinine>2, Caucasian race and use of OKT3 were associated with inferior OS in multivariable analysis. OS of PTLD-MM is significantly inferior to SEER-MM patients (aHR 1.6, p<0.001). Improvements in OS over time differed between PTLD-MM and SEER-MM. Median OS of patients diagnosed 2000-2005 was shorter for PTLD-MM than SEER-MM patients (18 vs 47 months P<0.001). There was no difference among those diagnosed 2006-2010 (44 mo vs median not reached P=0.5) (interaction P=0.08). Conclusions Age at diagnosis, elevated creatinine, Caucasian race and OKT3 were associated with inferior survival in patients with PTLD-MM. Survival of PTLD-MM is inferior to SEER-MM, though significant improvements in survival have been documented. PMID:27771291

  17. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Early Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Neuropathy After Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Mitu-Pretorian, Maria; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Fadavi, Hassan; Asghar, Omar; Alam, Uazman; Ponirakis, Georgios; Jeziorska, Maria; Marshall, Andy; Efron, Nathan; Boulton, Andrew J.; Augustine, Titus; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To date, limited data in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes demonstrate nerve fiber repair after intervention. This may reflect a lack of efficacy of the interventions but may also reflect difficulty of the tests currently deployed to adequately assess nerve fiber repair, particularly in short-term studies. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) represents a novel noninvasive means to quantify nerve fiber damage and repair. Fifteen type 1 diabetic patients undergoing simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation (SPK) underwent detailed assessment of neurologic deficits, quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrophysiology, skin biopsy, corneal sensitivity, and CCM at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after successful SPK. At baseline, diabetic patients had a significant neuropathy compared with control subjects. After successful SPK there was no significant change in neurologic impairment, neurophysiology, QST, corneal sensitivity, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). However, CCM demonstrated significant improvements in corneal nerve fiber density, branch density, and length at 12 months. Normalization of glycemia after SPK shows no significant improvement in neuropathy assessed by the neurologic deficits, QST, electrophysiology, and IENFD. However, CCM shows a significant improvement in nerve morphology, providing a novel noninvasive means to establish early nerve repair that is missed by currently advocated assessment techniques. PMID:23002037

  18. Post-transplantation HTLV-1 myelopathy in three recipients from a single donor.

    PubMed

    Zarranz Imirizaldu, J J; Gomez Esteban, J C; Rouco Axpe, I; Perez Concha, T; Velasco Juanes, F; Allue Susaeta, I; Corral Carranceja, J M

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports for the first time three cases of infection by HTLV-I via organ transplantation; all the organs coming from the same asymptomatic infected donor. The need is considered for the implementation of compulsory screenings for HTLV antibodies on organ donors and on blood banks. The determination of antibodies for HTLV-I/II on samples of serum and cerebral spinal fluid from the patients and the donor was performed by enzyme immunoassay and western blot. Analysis of proviral DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To detect changes in the sequence of amino acids, the tax gene was sequentiated, amplified, and compared with ATK prototype stocks. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral spinal fluid, and somatosensory evoked potential studies were carried out in all patients. All three transplanted patients developed a myelopathy within a very short period of time. In all three patients and donor the virus belonged to the Cosmopolitan A subtype. The homology of HTLV-I sequences recovered from the patients and donor was 100% in all four cases. Proviral load was high in all three patients. The factors that certainly contributed to the infection in the first place, and the development of the disease later, were on the one hand the high proviral load and their immunosuppressed condition, and on the other the virus genotype, which proved to be an aggressive variant. However, the analysis of the histocompatibility antigen showed that two of the patients carried an haplotype that has been associated with a lower risk of developing this disease. It is argued that, although in Spain and other European countries there is not compulsory screening for HTLV antibodies because of the studies that show a low seroprevalence, in view of the cases here reported, and to avoid the serious consequences that such infection has on transplanted patients, compulsory screenings, both on organ donors and on blood banks, should be implemented.

  19. Tacrolimus/Everolimus vs. Tacrolimus/MMF in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients Using the MATE Score

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-05

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation; Immunosuppression; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy; Heart Transplant Failure and Rejection; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Heart Transplant Infection

  20. Donor predicted post-operative forced expiratory volume in one second predicts recipients' best forced expiratory volume in one second following size-reduced lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Inci, Ilhan; Irani, Sarosh; Kestenholz, Peter; Benden, Christian; Boehler, Annette; Weder, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The limited number of available grafts is one of the major obstacles of lung transplantation. Size-reduced lung transplantation allows the use of oversized grafts for small recipients. Optimal lung size matching is vital to achieve best functional outcome and avoid potential problems when using oversized grafts. We hypothesise that donor-predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1s (ppoFEV1) correlates with the recipient best FEV1 after size-reduced lung transplant, being useful for the estimation of function outcome. All patients undergoing size-reduced or standard bilateral lung transplantation were included (1992-2007). Donor ppoFEV1 was calculated and corrected with respect to size reduction and correlated with recipient measured best FEV1 post-transplant. In addition, pre- and postoperative clinical data including surgical complications and outcome of all size-reduced lung transplant recipients were compared with standard lung transplant recipients. A total of 61 size-reduced lung transplant recipients (lobar transplants, n=20; anatomic or non-anatomic resection, n=41) were included and compared to 145 standard transplants. The mean donor-recipient height difference was statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.0001). The mean donor ppoFEV1 was comparable with recipient best FEV1 (2.7±0.6 vs 2.6±0.7 l). There was a statistically significant correlation between donor ppoFEV1 and recipient best FEV1 (p=0.01, r=0.688). The 30-day mortality rate and 3-month, 1- and 5-year survival rates were comparable between the two groups. In size-reduced lung transplantation, postoperative recipient best FEV1 could be predicted from donor-calculated and corrected FEV1 with respect to its size reduction. Compared to standard lung transplantation, equivalent morbidity, mortality and functional results could be obtained after size-reduced lung transplantation. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B

  1. Randomized pilot trial of gene expression profiling versus heart biopsy in the first year after heart transplant: early invasive monitoring attenuation through gene expression trial.

    PubMed

    Kobashigawa, Jon; Patel, Jignesh; Azarbal, Babak; Kittleson, Michelle; Chang, David; Czer, Lawrence; Daun, Tiffany; Luu, Minh; Trento, Alfredo; Cheng, Richard; Esmailian, Fardad

    2015-05-01

    The endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is considered the gold standard in rejection surveillance post cardiac transplant, but is invasive, with risk of complications. A previous trial suggested that the gene expression profiling (GEP) blood test was noninferior to EMB between 6 and 60 months post transplant. As most rejections occur in the first 6 months, we conducted a single-center randomized trial of GEP versus EMB starting at 55 days post transplant (when GEP is valid). Sixty heart transplant patients meeting inclusion criteria were randomized beginning at 55 days post transplant to either GEP or EMB arms. A positive GEP ≥30 between 2 and 6 months, or ≥34 after 6 months, prompted a follow-up biopsy. The primary end point included a composite of death/retransplant, rejection with hemodynamic compromise or graft dysfunction at 18 months post transplant. A coprimary end point included change in first-year maximal intimal thickness by intravascular ultrasound, a recognized surrogate for long-term outcome. Corticosteroid weaning was assessed in both the groups. The composite end point was similar between the GEP and EMB groups (10% versus 17%; log-rank P=0.44). The coprimary end point of first-year intravascular ultrasound change demonstrated no difference in mean maximal intimal thickness (0.35±0.36 versus 0.36±0.26 mm; P=0.944). Steroid weaning was successful in both the groups (91% versus 95%). In this pilot study, GEP starting at 55 days post transplant seems comparable with EMB for rejection surveillance in selected heart transplant patients and does not result in increased adverse outcomes. GEP also seems useful to guide corticosteroid weaning. Larger randomized trials are required to confirm these findings. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT014182482377. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of ALK1(-), CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma post renal transplantation: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Indra; Walker, Joe W; Broman, Jerry

    2010-03-01

    Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) complicates the course of 0.3 to 3% of renal transplant patients receiving immunosuppression. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of B-cell type is more common than those of T-cell origin. CD30 positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) is a Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B or T cell type) that accounts for a small percentage of PTLD's. ALCL of T-cell type are a spectrum of disease ranging from primary cutaneous to systemic nodal ALCL. The systemic nodal ALCL is further subdivided into anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1) positive or negative. ALK-1 protein is a gene fusion product of translocation (2;5) and carries prognostic implications. We present an unusual manifestation of ALK-1 negative CD30 positive ALCL in a post renal transplant patient in FNA cytology with all supportive adjuvant studies and differential diagnoses and review the cytology literature on this topic.

  3. Effect of alendronate on early bone loss of renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Abediazar, S; Nakhjavani, M R

    2011-03-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at risk of developing osteoporosis and osteopenia due to underlying renal osteodystrophy, hypophosphatemia, and immunosuppression. This process occurs more frequently in the first year after renal transplantation (RTX), resulting in eventual bone loss and fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose alendronate to prevent early bone loss after RTX. We prospectively studied 43 successful RTR including 22 men and 21-women with a mean overall age of 39.16±11.73 years, mean body mass index of 23.6±3.73, and mean dialysis duration of 25.73±17.67 months. We matched them based on age and sex: the alendronate-treated group received vitamin D (Vit D) during the study plus 30 mg alendronate weekly from 1 month after RTX. The control group only received Vit D. We measured serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea, creatinine, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) at the pretransplant baseline and monthly thereafter as well as BMD of the lumbar spine, femur, and radius pretransplant baseline versus 3 and 6 months after RTX. At 6 month after RTX, the lumbar BMD in the alendronate group increased significantly from 0.819±0.11 to 0.863±0.14 (P<.01), while it decreased in the control group from 0.897±0.17 to 0.817±0.16 (P<.001). There was also a significant increase in radius BMD (P<.001) and a nonsignificant increase in femoral BMD in the alendronate versus a significant decrease of femoral and radius BMD (P<.001) in the control group at 6 months. Upon multivariate analysis, there was a significant correlation between alendronate and spine BMD (r=.45, P<.001) but no linear regression between age, sex, BMI, dialysis duration of or iPTH with femoral, spine, or radius BMD changes at month 6. Low-dose alendronate was significantly useful to mitigate fast bone loss and increase BMD immediately after RTX. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Post-traumatic growth and its relationship to quality of life up to 9 years after liver transplantation: a cross-sectional study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Borda-Mas, Mercedes; Avargues-Navarro, María Luisa; Pérez-Bernal, José; Conrad, Rupert; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Little is known concerning post-traumatic growth (PTG) after liver transplantation. Against this backdrop the current study analysed the relationship between PTG and time since transplantation on quality of life. Furthermore, it compared PTG between liver transplant recipients and their caregivers. Design Cross-sectional case–control study. Setting University Hospital in Spain. Participants 240 adult liver transplant recipients who had undergone only one transplantation, with no severe mental disease, were the participants of the study. Specific additional analyses were conducted on the subset of 216 participants for whom caregiver data were available. Moreover, results were compared with a previously recruited general population sample. Outcome measures All participants completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and recipients also filled in the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical parameters were also assessed. Results In the sample of 240 recipients, longer time since transplantation (>9 years) was associated with more pain symptoms (p=0.026). Regardless of duration, recipients showed lower scores on most quality of life dimensions than the general population. However, high PTG was associated with a significantly higher score on the vitality quality of life dimension (p=0.021). In recipients with high PTG, specific quality of life dimensions, such as bodily pain (p=0.307), vitality (p=0.890) and mental health (p=0.353), even equalled scores in the general population, whereas scores on general health surpassed them (p=0.006). Furthermore, liver transplant recipients (n=216) compared with their caregivers showed higher total PTG (p<0.001) and higher scores on the subscales relating to others (p<0.001), new possibilities (p<0.001) and appreciation of life (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings highlight the protective role of PTG in the long-term outcome of liver transplant recipients. Future studies should analyse

  5. Attenuation measuring ultrasound shearwave elastography and in vivo application in post-transplant liver patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W.; Zhao, Heng; Sanchez, William; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography techniques are used to assess mechanical properties of soft tissues. Tissue stiffness is related to various pathologies such as fibrosis, loss of compliance, and cancer. One way to perform elastography is measuring shear wave velocity of propagating waves in tissue induced by intrinsic motion or an external source of vibration, and relating the shear wave velocity to tissue elasticity. All tissues are inherently viscoelastic and ignoring viscosity biases the velocity-based estimates of elasticity and ignores a potentially important parameter of tissue health. We present attenuation measuring ultrasound shearwave elastography (AMUSE), a technique that independently measures both shear wave velocity and attenuation in tissue and therefore allows characterization of viscoelasticity without using a rheological model. The theoretical basis for AMUSE is first derived and validated in finite element simulations. AMUSE is validated against the traditional methods for assessing shear wave velocity (phase gradient) and attenuation (amplitude decay) in tissue mimicking phantoms and excised tissue. The results agreed within one standard deviation. AMUSE was used to measure shear wave velocity and attenuation in 15 transplanted livers in patients with potential acute rejection, and the results were compared with the biopsy findings in a preliminary study. The comparison showed excellent agreement and suggests that AMUSE can be used to separate transplanted livers with acute rejection from livers with no rejection.

  6. Skype clinics after intestinal transplantation - follow-up beyond post codes.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Undine A; Vrakas, Georgios; Holdaway, Lydia; O'Connor, Marion; Macedo, Rubens; Reddy, Srikanth; Friend, Peter J; Giele, Henk; Vaidya, Anil

    2016-07-01

    The follow-up after intestinal transplantation (ITX) is complex and limited to specialized centers. ITX recipients often travel all over the country to be seen in the outpatient clinic of specialized centers which is costly and time-consuming. Videoconferences through Skype have been implemented to eliminate travel time, costs, and to improve patient compliance without jeopardizing safety. Eighteen of 19 patients followed up after ITX or modified multivisceral transplantation (MMVTX) in conventional outpatient clinics in Oxford agreed to attend additional Skype clinics. All patients who were followed up through Skype clinics after ITX/MMVTX received a questionnaire to measure their satisfaction with methods and technical aspects of videoconferencing as well as time/mode of traveling, travel expenses/costs, waiting time in outpatient clinic and patients' satisfaction. Mean travel distance to Oxford was 236 ± 168 miles, mean travel time was 277 ± 175 min, and mean travel cost was 200 ± 56 Great Britain Pounds. A total of 56% had to take time off work and/or find child/family care for the time spent in travel. These patients reported a satisfaction score of 4.38 ± 0.77 of 5 points as opposed to 2.88 ± 0.90 for attending the conventional outpatient clinic. Skype clinics have been proven successful and feasible in highly specialized fields like ITX in eligible patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Screening retinal transplants with Fourier-domain OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Bin

    2009-02-01

    Transplant technologies have been studied for the recovery of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In several rodent retinal degeneration models and in patients, retinal progenitor cells transplanted as layers to the subretinal space have been shown to restore or preserve vision. The methods for evaluation of transplants are expensive considering the large amount of animals. Alternatively, time-domain Stratus OCT was previously shown to be able to image the morphological structure of transplants to some extent, but could not clearly identify laminated transplants. The efficacy of screening retinal transplants with Fourier-domain OCT was studied on 37 S334ter line 3 rats with retinal degeneration 6-67 days after transplant surgery. The transplants were morphologically categorized as no transplant, detachment, rosettes, small laminated area and larger laminated area with both Fourier-domain OCT and histology. The efficacy of Fourier-domain OCT in screening retinal transplants was evaluated by comparing the categorization results with OCT and histology. Additionally, 4 rats were randomly selected for multiple OCT examinations (1, 5, 9, 14 and 21days post surgery) in order to determine the earliest image time of OCT examination since the transplanted tissue may need some time to show its tendency of growing. Finally, we demonstrated the efficacy of Fourier-domain OCT in screening retinal transplants in early stages and determined the earliest imaging time for OCT. Fourier-domain OCT makes itself valuable in saving resource spent on animals with unsuccessful transplants.

  8. [The early changes of respiratory system resistance and γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in graft after lung transplantation of mouse].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q R; Wang, L F; Zhang, Y M; Xu, J N; Li, H; Ding, Y Z

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: To generate an orthotopic left lung transplantation model in mice, and to observe the early changes of respiratory system resistance and γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in grafts. Methods: The research time was from March 2014 to May 2015. The male C57BL/6 mice ( n =35) and BALB/c mice (syngenic group, n =10) were randomly divided into five groups. Control group ( n =5): wild C57BL/6 mice; syngenic transplant group ( n =10): C57BL/6→C57BL/6; allogenic transplant group(allogenic group, n =10): BALB/c→C57BL/6; each transplant group was randomly divided into 3-day and 7-day subgroups ( n =5). Respiratory system resistance and histological features of grafts were assessed, and differences in graft infiltrating γδT lymphocytes and mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-17A were quantified on 3 and 7 days after transplantation. Multiple comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference analysis. Results: (1) The respiratory system resistance of syngenic group and allogenic group were (2.61±0.59) cmH 2 O·s/ml and (2.84±0.31) cmH 2 O·s/ml 3 days post-operation, both of them increased compared to control group (1.39±0.17) cmH 2 O·s/ml (1 cmH 2 O=0.098 kPa) ( P =0.001, 0.000). The respiratory system resistance of allogenic group were (4.33±0.67) cmH 2 O·s/ml 7 days post-operation, which was significantly higher than that of syngenic 7-day subgroup (1.87±0.27) cmH 2 O·s/ml and control group (1.39±0.17) cmH 2 O·s/ml ( P =0.000, 0.000). (2) The isografts of syngenic group showed a relatively normal histological appearance with minimal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the allografts of allogenic group infiltrated apparently by inflammatory cells, especially 7-day subgroup showed acute cellular rejection. (3) The percentage of γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in isografts and allografts were 3.90%±0.86% and 4.40%±0.57%, respectively, which were significantly increased compared to that of control lungs 2

  9. Post-transplant reactions of mycorrhizal and mycorrhiza-free seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala to pH changes in an Oxisol and Ultisol of Hawaii

    M. Habte; G. Diarra; P.G. Scowcroft

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which pretransplant colonization of seedlings with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith emend. Koske could enhance the post-transplant growth of two cultivars of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (cv. K-8 and cv. K-636) in Al- and Mn-rich acid soils was evaluated in a...

  10. Peri-operative kidney injury and long-term chronic kidney disease following orthotopic heart transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Significant advances in cardiac intensive care including extracorporeal life support have enabled children with complex congenital heart disease and end-stage heart failure to be supported while awaiting transplantation. With an increasing number of survivors after heart transplantation in children, the complications from long-term immunosuppression, including renal insufficiency, are becoming more apparent. Severe renal dysfunction after heart transplant is defined by a serum creatinine level >2.5 mg/dL (221 μmol/L), and/or need for dialysis or renal transplant. The degree of renal dysfunction is variable and is progressive over time. About 3-10 % of heart transplant recipients will go on to develop severe renal dysfunction within the first 10 years post-transplantation. Multiple risk factors for chronic kidney disease post-transplant have been identified, which include pre-transplant worsening renal function, recipient demographics and morbidity, peri-transplant haemodynamics and long-term exposure to calcineurin inhibitors. Renal insufficiency increases the risk of post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Hence, screening for renal dysfunction pre-, peri- and post-transplantation is important. Early and timely detection of renal insufficiency may help minimize renal insults, and allow prompt implementation of renoprotective strategies. Close monitoring and pre-emptive management of renal dysfunction is an integral aspect of peri-transplant and subsequent post-transplant long-term care.

  11. Safe and effective treatment of early suprahepatic inferior vena caval outflow compromise following orthotopic liver transplantation using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement.

    PubMed

    Tasse, Jordan; Borge, Marc; Pierce, Kenneth; Brems, John

    2011-01-01

    To describe the safety and efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement in patients presenting with suprahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) outflow compromise in the early postoperative period following orthotopic liver transplantation. Between October 2002 and April 2009, 3 patients presented with IVC outflow compromise in the first 2 months following orthotopic liver transplantation. All 3 underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement without complication and showed significant clinical improvement at short and intermediate term follow-up. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and Gianturco stent placement is a safe and effective treatment for IVC outflow compromise in the early postoperative period following orthotopic liver transplantation.

  12. The significance of early post-exercise ST segment normalization.

    PubMed

    Chow, Rudy; Fordyce, Christopher B; Gao, Min; Chan, Sammy; Gin, Kenneth; Bennett, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of ST segment depression in recovery signifies a strongly positive exercise treadmill test (ETT). However, it is unclear if early recovery of ST segments portends a similar prognosis. We sought to determine if persistence of ST depression into recovery correlates with ischemic burden based on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This was a retrospective analysis of 853 consecutive patients referred for exercise MPI at a tertiary academic center over a 24-month period. Patients were stratified into three groups based on the results of the ETT: normal (negative ETT), persistence (positive ETT with >1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery) and early normalization (positive ETT with <1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery). Summed stress scores (SSSs) were calculated then for each patient, while the coronary anatomy was reported for the subset of patients who received coronary angiograms. A total of 513 patients had a negative ETT, 235 patients met criteria for early normalization, while 105 patients met criteria for persistence. The persistence group had a significantly greater SSS (8.48±7.77) than both the early normalization (4.34±4.98, p<0.001) and normal (4.47±5.31, p<0.001) groups. The SSSs of the early normalization and normal groups were not statistically different and met the prespecified non-inferiority margin (mean difference 0.12, -0.66=lower 95% CI, p<0.001). Among the 87 patients who underwent an angiogram, significant three-vessel or left main disease was seen in 39.3% of the persistence group compared with 5.9% of normal and 7.4% of early normalization groups. Among patients with an electrically positive ETT, recovery of ST segment depression within 1minute was associated with a lower SSS than patients with persistence of ST depression beyond 1minute. Furthermore, early ST segment recovery conferred a similar SSS to patients with a negative ETT. These results suggest that among patients evaluated for chest pain with

  13. Glycemic Control Reduces Infections in Post-Liver Transplant Patients: Results of a Prospective, Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Wallia, Amisha; Schmidt, Kathleen; Oakes, Diana Johnson; Pollack, Teresa; Welsh, Nicholas; Kling-Colson, Susan; Gupta, Suruchi; Fulkerson, Candice; Aleppo, Grazia; Parikh, Neehar; Levitsky, Josh; Norvell, J P; Rademaker, Alfred; Molitch, Mark E

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between glycemic control and posttransplant morbidity. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial in postliver transplant patients to evaluate intensive inpatient glycemic control and effects on outcomes to 1 year. A total of 164 patients [blood glucose (BG) >180 mg/dL] were randomized into 2 target groups: 82 with a BG of 140 mg/dL and 82 with a BG of 180 mg/dL. Continuous insulin infusions were initiated and then converted to subcutaneous basal bolus insulin therapy by our glucose management service. The inpatient mean BG level was significantly different (140 group, 151.4 ± 19.5 mg/dL vs 180 group, 172.6 ± 27.9 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Any infection within 1 year occurred in 35 of the 82 patients (42.7%) in the 140 group and 54 of 82 (65.9%) in the 180 group (P = 0.0046). In a time-to-first infection analysis, being in the 140 group resulted in a hazard ratio of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.83; P = 0.004); the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant at 1 month (P = 0.008). The number with adjudicated transplant rejection was similar between the 2 groups [17 of 82 (20.7%) and 20 of 82 (24.3%) in the 140 and 180 groups, respectively; P = not significant]. Severe hypoglycemia (BG ≤40 mg/dL) occurred in 3 patients (2 in the 140 group and 1 in the 180 group). However, more patients had moderate hypoglycemia (BG, 41 to 70 mg/dL) in the 140 group [27 of 82 (32.9%) vs 10 of 82 (12.2%) in the 180 group; P = 0.003]. Insulin-related hypoglycemia was not associated with the incidence of severe adverse outcomes. Glycemic control of 140 mg/dL safely resulted in a reduced incidence of infection after transplantation compared with 180 mg/dL, but with an increase in moderate hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  14. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0118 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...COVERED 30Sep2012 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic

  15. Early diagnosis of fungal infections in lung transplant recipients, colonization versus invasive disease?

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sabina; Husain, Shahid

    2018-05-21

    The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains challenging in solid organ transplants in general, and in lung transplant recipients, in particular, because of colonization. Lung transplant recipients may be over treated with antifungal drugs because of the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. A review of the new developments of diagnostic tools and whether this help distinguishing colonization from invasive disease is presented. Efforts are being made to develop new tools that will allow us to identify which patients will develop IPA, and those who will be able to control the disease.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Related to Early Stage Renal Impairment Following Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    VanWagner, Lisa B; Montag, Samantha; Zhao, Lihui; Allen, Norrina B; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Das, Arighno; Skaro, Anton I; Hohmann, Samuel; Friedewald, John J; Levitsky, Josh

    2018-03-20

    In the general population, even mild renal disease is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) complications. Whether this is true in liver transplant recipients (LTR) is unknown. This was a retrospective cohort study of 671 LTR (2002-2012) from a large urban tertiary care center and 37,322 LTR using Vizient hospitalization data linked to the United Network for Organ Sharing. The MDRD4 equation estimated GFR (eGFR). Outcomes were 1-year CV complications (death/hospitalization from myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, pulmonary embolism or stroke) and mortality. Latent mixture modeling identified trajectories in eGFR in the first LT year in the 671 patients. Mean(SD) eGFR was 72.1(45.7) ml/min/1.73m. Six distinct eGFR trajectories were identified in the local cohort (n=671): qualitatively Normal-Slow Decrease (4% of cohort), Normal-Rapid Decrease (4%), Mild-Stable (18%), Mild-Slow Decrease (35%), Moderate-Stable (30%), and Severe-Stable (9%). In multivariable analyses adjusted for confounders and baseline eGFR, the greatest odds of 1-year CV complications were in the Normal-Rapid Decrease group (OR, 95% CI: 10.6, 3.0-36.9). Among the national cohort, each 5-unit lower eGFR at LT was associated with a 2% and 5% higher hazard of all-cause and CV-mortality, respectively (p<0.0001) independent of multiple confounders. Even mild renal disease at the time of LT is a risk factor for posttransplant all-cause and CV mortality. More rapid declines in eGFR soon after LT correlate with risk of adverse CV outcomes, highlighting the need to study whether early renal preservation interventions also reduce CV complications.

  17. Intestinal Microbial Variation May Predict Early Acute Rejection after Liver Transplantation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhigang; Jiang, Jianwen; Lu, Haifeng; Chen, Xinhua; He, Yong; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Haiyang; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen; Zhou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute rejection (AR) remains a life-threatening complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and there are few available diagnostic biomarkers clinically for AR. This study aims to identify intestinal microbial profile and explore potential application of microbial profile as a biomarker for AR after OLT. Methods The OLT models in rats were established. Hepatic graft histology, ultrastructure, function, and intestinal barrier function were tested. Ileocecal contents were collected for intestinal microbial analysis. Results Hepatic graft suffered from the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury on day 1, initial AR on day 3, and severe AR on day 7 after OLT. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that genus Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were decreased, whereas Clostridium bolteae was increased during AR. Notably, cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed the 7AR and 3AR groups clustered together with 73.4% similarity, suggesting that intestinal microbiota was more sensitive than hepatic function in responding to AR. Microbial diversity and species richness were decreased during AR. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that most of the decreased key bacteria belonged to phylum Firmicutes, whereas increased key bacteria belonged to phylum Bacteroidetes. Moreover, intestinal microvilli loss and tight junction damage were noted, and intestinal barrier dysfunction during AR presented a decrease of fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and increase of blood bacteremia, endotoxin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Conclusion We dynamically detail intestinal microbial characterization and find a high sensitivity of microbial change during AR after OLT, suggesting that intestinal microbial variation may predict AR in early phase and become an assistant therapeutic target to improve rejection after OLT. PMID:25321166

  18. Intestinal microbial variation may predict early acute rejection after liver transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhigang; Jiang, Jianwen; Lu, Haifeng; Chen, Xinhua; He, Yong; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Haiyang; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen; Zhou, Lin

    2014-10-27

    Acute rejection (AR) remains a life-threatening complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and there are few available diagnostic biomarkers clinically for AR. This study aims to identify intestinal microbial profile and explore potential application of microbial profile as a biomarker for AR after OLT. The OLT models in rats were established. Hepatic graft histology, ultrastructure, function, and intestinal barrier function were tested. Ileocecal contents were collected for intestinal microbial analysis. Hepatic graft suffered from the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury on day 1, initial AR on day 3, and severe AR on day 7 after OLT. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that genus Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were decreased, whereas Clostridium bolteae was increased during AR. Notably, cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed the 7AR and 3AR groups clustered together with 73.4% similarity, suggesting that intestinal microbiota was more sensitive than hepatic function in responding to AR. Microbial diversity and species richness were decreased during AR. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that most of the decreased key bacteria belonged to phylum Firmicutes, whereas increased key bacteria belonged to phylum Bacteroidetes. Moreover, intestinal microvilli loss and tight junction damage were noted, and intestinal barrier dysfunction during AR presented a decrease of fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and increase of blood bacteremia, endotoxin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We dynamically detail intestinal microbial characterization and find a high sensitivity of microbial change during AR after OLT, suggesting that intestinal microbial variation may predict AR in early phase and become an assistant therapeutic target to improve rejection after OLT.

  19. Transient hyperglycemia during liver transplantation does not affect the early graft function.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Annabel; Beltran, Joan; Martin, Nuria; Martinez-Pallí, Graciela; Lozano, Juan J; Balust, Jaume; Torrents, Abigail; Taura, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background and rationale for the study. Hyperglycemia after graft reperfusion is a consistent finding in liver transplantation (LT) that remains poorly studied. We aim to describe its appearance in LT recipients of different types of grafts and its relation to the graft function. 436 LT recipients of donors after brain death (DBD), donors after cardiac death (DCD), and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) donors were reviewed. Serum glucose was measured at baseline, during the anhepatic phase, after graft reperfusion, and at the end of surgery. Early graft dysfunction (EAD) was assessed by Olthoff criteria. Caspase-3, IFN-γ, IL1β, and IL6 gene expression were measured in liver biopsy. The highest increase in glucose levels after reperfusion was observed in FAP LT recipients and the lowest in DCD LT recipients. Glucose level during the anhepatic phase was the only modifiable predictive variable of hyperglycemia after reperfusion. No relation was found between hyperglycemia after reperfusion and EAD. However, recipients with the highest glucose levels after reperfusion tended to achieve the best glucose control at the end of surgery and those who were unable to control the glucose value after reperfusion showed EAD more frequently. The highest levels of caspase-3 were found in recipients with the lowest glucose values after reperfusion. In conclusion, glucose levels increased after graft reperfusion to a different extent according to the donor type. Contrary to general belief, transient hyperglycemia after reperfusion does not appear to impact negatively on the liver graft function and could even be suggested as a marker of graft quality.

  20. Clinical characteristics of Japanese candidates for lung transplant for interstitial lung disease and risk factors for early death while on the waiting list.

    PubMed

    Higo, Hisao; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Ichihara, Eiki; Kubo, Toshio; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Otani, Shinji; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    Lung transplants have produced very favorable outcomes for patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) in Japan. However, because of the severe donor lung shortage, patients must wait approximately 2.5 years before they can undergo transplantation and many candidates die before allocation. We reveal the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with ILD who are candidates for lung transplants and the risk factors for early death while on the waiting list. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients registered in the Japan Organ Transplant Network from Okayama University Hospital who are candidates for cadaveric lung transplants for ILD between 1999 and 2015. Fifty-three patients with ILD were included (24 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 29 others). They had severe pulmonary dysfunction and low exercise tolerability. The median waiting time for transplantation was 462 days, and 22 patients died before allocation. Patients who died before 462 days without undergoing transplantation had more severe dyspnea, shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lower performance status than those who waited ≥462 days. Japanese candidates for cadaveric lung transplants for ILD have severe pulmonary dysfunction. Severe dyspnea, short 6MWD, and low performance status are risk factors for early death while on the waiting list. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of bone mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on the micro-environment of early osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Song, Huanjin; Tao, Li; Wang, Fang; Wang, Weizhuo; Wei, Yongchang; Shen, Wenjun; Zhou, Fuling

    2015-01-01

    Autologous implantation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has achieved promising clinical efficacy for the treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of BMSCs on the early ONFH in vitro and in vivo. In co-cultured system, primary BMSCs enhanced the activity and inhibited the apoptosis of primary OB. The concentrations of VEGF and BMP-2 in the co-cultured medium were significantly higher than those without co-culture. Importantly, BMSCs implantation increased OB, capillaries and VEGF and BMP-2 expressions of the necrotic areas of femoral head in the ONFH rabbits. In conclusion, our results indicated that BMSCs treated the early ONFH possibly through increasing OB and capillaries, as well as VEGF and BMP-2 expression in the femoral head. These results provided possible mechanisms for the treatment of early-stage ONFH with BMSCs transplantation.

  2. Early results in transplantation of initially rejected donor lungs after ex vivo lung perfusion: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wallinder, Andreas; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Silverborn, Martin; Hansson, Christoffer; Riise, Gerdt C; Liden, Hans; Jeppsson, Anders; Dellgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown that ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is safe and that rejected donor lungs can be resuscitated and used for lung transplantation (LTx). Early clinical outcomes in patients transplanted with reconditioned lungs at our centre were reviewed and compared with those of contemporary non-EVLP controls. During 18 months starting January 2011, 11 pairs of donor lungs initially deemed unsuitable for transplantation underwent EVLP. Haemodynamic (pulmonary flow, vascular resistance and artery pressure) and respiratory (peak airway pressure and compliance) parameters were analysed during evaluation. Lungs that improved (n = 11) to meet International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria were transplanted and compared with patients transplanted with non-EVLP lungs (n = 47) during the same time period. Donor lungs were initially rejected due to either inferior PaO2/FiO2 ratio (n = 9), bilateral infiltrate on chest X-ray (n = 1) or ongoing extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 1). The donor lungs improved from a mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 27.9 kPa in the donor to a mean of 59.6 kPa at the end of the EVLP (median improvement 28.4 kPa, range 21.0-50.7 kPa). Two single lungs were deemed unsuitable and not used for LTx. Eleven recipients from the regular waiting list underwent either single (n = 3) LTx or double (n = 8) LTx with EVLP-treated lungs. The median time to extubation (12 (range, 3-912) vs 6 (range, 2-1296) h) and median intensive care unit (ICU) stay (152 (range, 40-625) vs 48 (range, 22-1632) h) were longer in the EVLP group (P = 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). There were no differences in length of hospital stay (median 28 (range 25-93) vs 28 (18-209), P = 0.21). Two patients in the EVLP group and 6 in the control group had primary graft dysfunction >Grade 1 at 72 h postoperatively. Three patients in the control group died before discharge. All recipients of EVLP lungs were discharged alive from hospital. The use of

  3. Evaluating the efficacy, safety and evolution of renal function with early initiation of everolimus-facilitated tacrolimus reduction in de novo liver transplant recipients: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nashan, Bjorn; Schemmer, Peter; Braun, Felix; Dworak, Markus; Wimmer, Peter; Schlitt, Hans

    2015-03-26

    Introduction of calcineurin inhibitors had led to improved survival rates in liver transplant recipients. However, long-term use of calcineurin inhibitors is associated with a higher risk of chronic renal failure, neurotoxicity, de novo malignancies, recurrence of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have shown that everolimus has the potential to provide protection against viral replication, malignancy, and progression of fibrosis, as well as preventing nephrotoxicity by facilitating calcineurin inhibitor reduction without compromising efficacy. The Hephaistos study evaluates the beneficial effects of early initiation of everolimus in de novo liver transplant recipients. Hephaistos is an ongoing 12-month, multi-center, open-label, controlled study aiming to enroll 330 de novo liver transplant recipients from 15 centers across Germany. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio (7-21 days post-transplantation) to receive everolimus (trough levels 3-8 ng/mL) with reduced tacrolimus (trough levels <5 ng/mL), or standard tacrolimus (trough levels 6-10 ng/mL) after entering a run-in period (3-5 days post-transplantation). In the run-in period, patients are treated with induction therapy, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and corticosteroids according to local practice. Randomization is stratified by HCV status and model of end-stage liver disease scores at transplantation. The primary objective of the study is to exhibit superior renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-4 formula) with everolimus plus reduced tacrolimus compared to standard tacrolimus at Month 12. Other objectives are: to assess the incidence of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, or death; the incidences of components of the composite efficacy endpoint; renal function via estimated glomerular filtration rate using various formulae (MDRD-4, Nankivell, Cockcroft

  4. Adenoviral bcl-2 transfer improves survival and early graft function after ischemia and reperfusion in rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Markus; Kienle, Klaus; Mueller, Thomas; Vogel, Mandy; Jauch, Karl Walter; Püllmann, Kerstin; Obed, Aiman; Schlitt, Hans J; Beham, Alexander

    2005-11-27

    Primary graft dysfunction due to ischemia and reperfusion injury represents a major problem in liver transplantation. The related cell stress may induce apoptosis, which can be suppressed by bcl-2. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of adenoviral bcl-2 gene transfer on early graft function and survival in rat liver transplantation. An adenoviral construct that transfers bcl-2 under the control of a tetracycline inducible promoter was generated (advTetOn bcl-2) and used with a second adenovirus that transfers the repressor protein (advCMV Rep). Forty-eight hours before explantation, donor rats were treated with advTetOn bcl-2/ advCMV Rep (n=7) and doxycyclin, with the control adenoviral construct advCMV GFP (n=8) or with doxycyclin alone (n=8). Liver transplantation was performed following 16 hours of cold storage (UW). Bcl-2 expression and intrahepatic apoptosis was assessed. Bile flow was monitored 90 min posttransplantation. The endpoint for survival was 7 days. Bcl-2 was expressed in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells. This was associated with a significant reduction of apoptotic sinusoidal lining cells and hepatocytes after 24 hours and 7 days. Bile production was significantly higher following bcl-2 pretreatment. Furthermore, bcl-2 transfer resulted in significantly improved survival (100% vs. 50% both control groups). Adenoviral bcl-2 transfer results in protein expression in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells resulting in early graft function and survival enhancement after prolonged ischemia and reperfusion injury. The inhibition of apoptosis in the context of liver transplantation might be a reasonable approach in the treatment of graft dysfunction.

  5. Synergy of bone marrow transplantation and curcumin ensue protective effects at early onset of diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, Arivarasan; Krishna, Soni; Yadav, Shivangi; Shah, Harshit Rajesh; Kumar, Pravir; Ambasta, Rashmi Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the early onset effects of diabetes on pro-angiogenic signaling pathway, total number of bone marrow cells, organs (pancreas and kidney) damage and the reversal effect of diabetes by combinatorial treatment of curcumin and bone marrow transplantation in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice. In the present study, Streptozotocin induced diabetic mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells (2 × 10(6) ) followed by the administration of curcumin (80 mg/kg bodyweight). Effect of diabetes on the different organs was studied by H&E, Western blotting and immunofluorescence using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), insulin, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 antibodies. The effect of diabetes results in the reduction of the total cell number and viability of the bone marrow cells, organ degeneration and lower VEGF/PECAM expression. However, transplantation with normal bone marrow cells significantly reduced the blood glucose levels (above normal range) and initiated the organ regeneration via the VEGF/PECAM mediated manner. Curcumin treatment further reduced the blood glucose level (near normal); and accelerated the organ regeneration, enhanced VEGF/PECAM expression and decreased caspase expression level in the organs. Curcumin also had a protective role against the glucotoxicity test performed on the bone marrow cells. This study suggests that bone marrow transplantation and curcumin administration is an effective treatment in reversing the early onset effects of diabetes via the VEGF/PECAM signaling pathway. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Early post-operative cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia: Report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Suo, Shihuan; Zhao, Jinchuan; Li, Guichen

    2018-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a common neurosurgical condition, which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. At our institution, a substantial number of the reported cases of early post-operative CSF hypovolemia were identified to have unintentional or unrecognized post-operative continuous excessive CSF leakage. Cases who presented with post-operative CSF hypovolemia several days after uneventful intracranial surgeries without continuous CSF leakage were rarely reported. A retrospective review of the medical records of these patients was performed to identify those patients who developed early post-operative CSF hypovolemia without the presence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. A total of 7 patients, 5 of which were males, were identified in this retrospective study. They experienced CSF hypovolemia between days 1 and 7 after emergency or scheduled intracranial surgeries. Ventricular collapse, cisternal effacement and midline shift are the most common radiological observations. With early diagnosis and management, 4 of the patients achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, 1 achieved a GOS score of 4 and the remaining 2 had a GOS score of 3. No mortality was noted in this series. Although rare in incidence, early post-operative CSF hypovolemia may occur without the existence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. When the diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia is reached, factors that may exacerbate CSF compensation should be promptly terminated. Trendelenburg position and sufficient intravenous hydration are practical and effective managements, and CSF hypovolemia may thereby be reversed in a substantial number of patients.

  7. Drug-drug interactions between immunosuppressants and antidiabetic drugs in the treatment of post-transplant diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Thomas; Remijsen, Quinten; Kuypers, Dirk; Gillard, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation that generally requires treatment with lifestyle interventions and antidiabetic medication. A number of demonstrated and potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) exist between commonly used immunosuppressants and antidiabetic drugs, which are comprehensively summarized in this review. Cyclosporine (CsA) itself inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme and a variety of drug transporters. As a result, it increases exposure to repaglinide and sitagliptin, will likely increase the exposure to nateglinide, glyburide, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin, and could theoretically increase the exposure to gliquidone and several sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors. Currently available data, although limited, suggest that these increases are modest and, particularly with regard to gliptins and SGLT-2 inhibitors, unlikely to result in hypoglycemia. The interaction with repaglinide is more pronounced but does not preclude concomitant use if repaglinide dose is gradually titrated. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine do not engage in DDIs with any antidiabetic drug. Although calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) are intrinsically prone to DDIs, their disposition is not influenced by metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylureas (except possibly glyburide) or insulin. An effect of gliptins on the disposition of CNIs and mTORi is unlikely, but has not been definitively ruled out. Based on their disposition profiles, glyburide and canagliflozin could affect CNI and mTORi disposition although this requires further study. Finally, delayed gastric emptying as a result of glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists seems to have a limited, but not necessarily negligible effect on CNI disposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MELD score measured day 10 after orthotopic liver transplantation predicts death and re-transplantation within the first year.

    PubMed

    Rostved, Andreas A; Lundgren, Jens D; Hillingsø, Jens; Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Rasmussen, Allan

    2016-11-01

    The impact of early allograft dysfunction on the outcome after liver transplantation is yet to be established. We explored the independent predictive value of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score measured in the post-transplant period on the risk of mortality or re-transplantation. Retrospective cohort study on adults undergoing orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation from 2004 to 2014. The MELD score was determined prior to transplantation and daily until 21 days after. The risk of mortality or re-transplantation within the first year was assessed according to quartiles of MELD using unadjusted and adjusted stepwise Cox regression analysis. We included 374 consecutive liver transplant recipients of whom 60 patients died or were re-transplanted. The pre-transplant MELD score was comparable between patients with good and poor outcome, but from day 1 the MELD score significantly diversified and was higher in the poor outcome group (MELD score quartile 4 versus quartile 1-3 at day 10: HR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.8-9.0). This association remained after adjustment for non-identical blood type, autoimmune liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted HR 5.3, 95% CI: 2.9-9.5 for MELD scores at day 10). The post-transplant MELD score was not associated with pre-transplant MELD score or the Eurotransplant donor risk index. Early determination of the MELD score as an indicator of early allograft dysfunction after liver transplantation was a strong independent predictor of mortality or re-transplantation and was not influenced by the quality of the donor, or preoperative recipient risk factors.

  9. Early Post-Operative Outcomes and Blood Product Utilization in Adult Cardiac Surgery- The Post Aprotinin Era

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia; Toole, J. Matthew; Kratz, John M.; Uber, Walter E.; Wheat, Margaret J.; Stroud, Martha R.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aprotinin was a commonly utilized pharmacological agent for homeostasis in cardiac surgery but was discontinued resulting in the extensive use of lysine analogues. This study tested the hypothesis that early post-operative adverse events and blood product utilization would affected in this post-aprotinin era. Methods/Results Adult patients (n=781) undergoing coronary artery bypass (CABG), valve replacement, or both from November 1, 2005-October 31, 2008 at a single institution were included. Multiple logistic regression modeling and propensity scoring were performed on 29 pre-operative and intra-operative variables in patients receiving aprotinin (n=325) or lysine analogues (n=456). The propensity adjusted relative risk (RR;95% confidence interval;CI) for the intra-operative use of packed red blood cells (RR:0.75;CI:0.57–0.99), fresh frozen plasma (RR:0.37;0.21–0.64), and cryoprecipitate (RR:0.06;CI:0.02–0.22) were lower in the aprotinin versus lysine analogue group (all p<0.05). The risk for mortality (RR:0.53;CI:0.16–1.79) and neurological events (RR:0.87;CI:0.35–2.18) remained similar between groups, whereas a trend for reduced risk for renal dysfunction was observed in the aprotinin group. Conclusions In the post-aprotinin era with the exclusive use of lysine analogues, the relative risk of early post-operative outcomes such as mortality and renal dysfunction have not improved, but the risk for the intra-operative use of blood products has increased. Thus, improvements in early post-operative outcomes have not been realized with the discontinued use of aprotinin, but rather increased blood product utilization has occurred with the attendant costs and risks inherent with this strategy. PMID:21911820

  10. Changes in urinary microbiome populations correlate in kidney transplants with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy documented in early surveillance biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Brian D; Milam, Rachel; Harrison, Frank; Cheeseman, Jennifer A; Abecassis, Michael M; Friedewald, John; Kirk, Allan D.; Salomon, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    An unbalanced microbiome may lead to disease by creating aberrant immune responses. A recent association of cellular rejection with the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) suggests the role of immune-mediated tissue injury. We hypothesized that developing IFTA correlates with altered urinary tract microbiomes (UMBs). UMBs at two serial time points, 1 and 6-8 months post-transplant, were assessed by 16S microbial ribosomal gene sequencing in 25 patients developing biopsy-proven IFTA compared to 23 transplant patients with normal biopsies and excellent function (TX) and 20 healthy non-transplant controls (HC). Streptococcus, the dominant genera in HC males, was lower in IFTA and TX males at 1 month compared to HCs. At 6-8 months, Streptococcus was further decreased in IFTA males, but normalized in TX. IFTA males and females had increases in number of genera per sample at 6-8 months. UMB composition varied substantially between individuals in all groups. Despite the wide variation in UMBs between individuals, IFTA associated with a loss in dominant resident urinary microbes in males, and a parallel increase in non-resident, pathogenic bacteria in males and females. UMB changes may contribute to IFTA development by alteration of the host immune response. PMID:27597148

  11. The early expansion of anergic NKG2Apos/CD56dim/CD16neg natural killer cells represents a therapeutic target in haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Alessandra; Di Vito, Clara; Zaghi, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Capucetti, Arianna; Calvi, Michela; Tentorio, Paolo; Zanon, Veronica; Sarina, Barbara; Mariotti, Jacopo; Bramanti, Stefania; Tenedini, Elena; Tagliafico, Enrico; Bicciato, Silvio; Santoro, Armando; Roederer, Mario; Marcenaro, Emanuela; Castagna, Luca; Lugli, Enrico; Mavilio, Domenico

    2018-04-26

    Natural Killer cells are the first lymphocyte population to reconstitute early after non myelo-ablative and T cell-replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant infusion of cyclophosphamide. The present study characterizes the transient and predominant expansion starting from the 2nd week after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of a donor-derived unconventional subset of NKp46neg-low/CD56dim/CD16neg natural killer cells expressing remarkable high levels of CD94/NKG2A. Both transcription and phenotypic profiles indicated that unconventional NKp46neg-low/CD56dim/CD16neg natural killer cells are a distinct natural killer cell subpopulation with features of late stage differentiation, yet retaining proliferative capability and functional plasticity to generate conventional NKp46pos/CD56bright/CD16pos natural killer cells in response to interleukin-15 plus interleukin-18. While present at low frequency in healthy donors, unconventional NKp46neg-low/CD56dim/CD16neg natural killer cells are greatly expanded in the following 7 weeks after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and express high levels of the activating receptors NKGD and NKp30 as well as of the lytic granules Granzyme-B and Perforin. Nonetheless, NKp46neg-low/CD56dim/CD16neg natural killer cells displayed a markedly defective cytotoxicity that could be reversed by blocking the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A. These data open new important perspectives to better understand the ontogenesis/homeostasis of human natural killer cells and to develop a novel immune-therapeutic approach that targets the inhibitory NKG2A check point, thus unleashing natural killer cell alloreactivity early after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Risk factors associated with post-kidney transplant malignancies: an article from the Cancer-Kidney International Network.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Ben; Nair, Vinay; Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Riella, Leonardo V; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2018-06-01

    In kidney transplant recipients, cancer is one of the leading causes of death with a functioning graft beyond the first year of kidney transplantation, and malignancies account for 8-10% of all deaths in the USA (2.6 deaths/1000 patient-years) and exceed 30% of deaths in Australia (5/1000 patient-years) in kidney transplant recipients. Patient-, transplant- and medication-related factors contribute to the increased cancer risk following kidney transplantation. While it is well established that the overall immunosuppressive dose is associated with an increased risk for cancer following transplantation, the contributive effect of different immunosuppressive agents is not well established. In this review we will discuss the different risk factors for malignancies after kidney transplantation.

  13. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  14. Early post-splenectomy sepsis after missile injury in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Ellias, Y. A.; Elias, M. A.; Gorey, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Early septic complications were studied in 292 patients operated on for penetrating missile injury of the abdomen with involvement of either the spleen or the liver, at Basrah Teaching Hospital between January 1983 and April 1986. Depending on associated injuries, patients with splenectomy were divided into three groups, the first with isolated splenic injury, the second with splenic and associated extra-intestinal organ injury, and the third with splenic and intestinal injuries with or without extra-intestinal organ injury. Patients with hepatic injury were classified similarly. Splenectomy was carried out for any degree of splenic injury. Grade I hepatic injuries were managed by débridement and suturing while major grades II-IV underwent segmentectomy or lobectomy. Patients were considered septic if they had any three of four clinical criteria: temperature higher than 39 degrees C; significant haemodynamic deterioration; respiratory alkalosis, or oliguria. Of the total, 79 were excluded due to: early transfer 51, incomplete records 8, perioperative death 11, and having combined splenic and hepatic injuries 9 (excluded by definition), leaving 104 (74.8%) patients with splenectomy and 109 (71.1%) with hepatic injury available for study. Sepsis developed in 48 (46.1%) of patients after splenectomy and in 28 (25.7%) with hepatic injury. This difference was significant (P greater than 0.005). In patients with isolated splenic injury, eight (25.8%) were septic while three (13.6%) of those with isolated hepatic injury developed sepsis. This was not significant (P = 0.32, Fisher's exact test). When either was associated with an injury to an extra-intestinal organ, 15 (50%) of the splenectomy group developed sepsis compared to five (23.8%) of the hepatic injury group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2042899

  15. National assessment of early biliary complications after liver transplantation: economic implications.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, David A; Dzebisashvilli, Nino; Lentine, Krista L; Xiao, Huiling; Schnitzler, Mark; Tuttle-Newhall, Janet E; Segev, Dorry L

    2014-12-15

    Despite improvement in surgical technique and medical management of liver transplant recipients, biliary complications remain a frequent cause of posttransplant morbidity and graft loss. Biliary complications require potentially expensive interventions including radiologic procedures and surgical revisions. A national data set linking transplant registry and Medicare claims data for 12,803 liver transplant recipients was developed to capture information on complications, treatments, and associated direct medical costs up to 3 years after transplantation. Biliary complications were more common in recipients of donation after cardiac death compared to donation after brain death allografts (23% vs. 19% P<0.001). Among donation after brain death recipients, biliary complications were associated with $54,699 (95% confidence interval [CI], $49,102 to $60,295) of incremental spending in the first year after transplantation and $7,327 in years 2 and 3 (95% CI, $4,419-$10,236). Biliary complications in donation after cardiac death recipients independently increased spending by $94,093 (95% CI, $64,643-$124,542) in the first year and $12,012 (95% CI, $-1,991 to $26,016) in years 2 and 3. This national study of biliary complications demonstrates the significant economic impact of this common perioperative complication and suggests a potential target for quality of care improvements.

  16. Endovascular management of early lung transplant-related anastomotic pulmonary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Loebe, Matthias; Davies, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    To report the safety and short-term efficacy of endovascular interventions for symptomatic lung transplant-related anastomotic pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS). From February 2008 to December 2011, 354 lung transplants were performed. Pulmonary arteriography was performed in 19 patients (63% men; age, 57 y ± 21, mean ± SD; seven double-lung transplants) because of respiratory decompensation (mean 6.7 mo after transplant). Seven arteriograms were normal, and 12 showed significant PAS. One patient (5%) underwent angioplasty alone, and 11 patients (57%) underwent stent placement. All patients underwent general anesthesia, and femoral access was used for the intervention. Technical success was 100% in the 12 patients treated. Symptoms improved in all patients who underwent intervention, with resolution in 11 of 12 (92%). There were no major or minor complications. Three patients (16%) had recurrent symptoms after discharge secondary to chronic rejection or pneumonia. Two patients died as a result of sepsis and multiorgan failure at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, after undergoing only pulmonary arteriography. In-stent stenosis occurred in 1 (9%) patient who required additional stent placement. During a mean follow-up period of 11 months, the remaining stents were patent, and the patients were asymptomatic. Endovascular stent placement provides an alternative to open repair for transplant-related anastomotic PAS. It has low mortality and morbidity rates, and it has shown excellent short-term functional and anatomic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell-engineered human elastic chondrocytes regenerate natural scaffold in vitro and neocartilage with neoperichondrium in the human body post-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yanaga, Hiroko; Imai, Keisuke; Koga, Mika; Yanaga, Katsu

    2012-10-01

    cartilage. Using our multilayered culture system supplemented with FGF2, elastic chondrocytes produce an ECM and also exhibit an intercellular network; therefore, they are able to maintain tissue integrity post-transplantation. These findings realized a clinical application for generative cartilage surgery.

  18. Sexual functioning among early post-treatment breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Johnson, Aimee; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Levine, Beverly J

    2018-02-17

    This study aims (1) to estimate percentages of partnered women who are sexually active over the first 2 years post-breast cancer diagnosis; (2) to identify factors related to sexual inactivity; and (3) to evaluate separately, among both sexually active and inactive survivors, the relation between sexual problems and treatment-related variables, symptoms, and psychosocial factors. Longitudinal observational study of breast cancer survivors recruited within 8 months of cancer diagnosis and followed for 18 months. The main outcome measures were (1) being sexually active/inactive in the past month and (2) sexual problems assessed with the four-item sexual problem domain of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale. At baseline, 52.4% of women reported being sexually active in the past month. This percentage increased to 60.7% 18 months later. In multivariable repeated-measures analyses, age, past chemotherapy, depressive symptoms, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to inactivity. Sexually inactive women reported more problems on the QLACS than sexually active women. In stratified multivariable analyses, depressive symptoms were related to greater sexual problems for both sexually active and inactive women, as was vaginal dryness. Among the sexually active women, younger age at diagnosis, less illness intrusiveness, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to more problems. Research has shown that sexual functioning/sexual health are key aspects of quality of life for many cancer survivors, and are often not addressed by health care providers. Future studies should examine how such topics are handled by clinicians in their interactions with survivors.

  19. Steps to Enhance Early Recovery After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Lessons Learned From a Physical Activity Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    This pilot study tested and refined a free-living physical activity intervention. The investigators evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determined preliminary effects on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life. This pilot study used a 1-group, pretest-posttest design. The free-living physical activity intervention consisted of an education component and 6 weeks of gradually increasing physical activity after discharge from the hospital. The intervention was designed to increase steps by 10% weekly. Subjects were assessed before transplantation and during the seventh week after discharge from the hospital after completing the intervention. Pretest-posttest scores were analyzed with paired t tests. Subject wore the physical activity tracker for an average of 38 of 42 days and met their physical activity goals 57% of the time. Subjects reported significantly less physical fatigue after the free-living physical activity intervention compared with baseline (P = .05). Improvements in quality of life approached significance (P = .06). The findings demonstrate that the free-living physical activity intervention implemented during the very early recovery period after transplantation is feasible and acceptable. The intervention potentially reduces fatigue and improves quality of life. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously given the pilot nature of the study. The evidence supports continued investigation.

  20. Post-conditioning preserves glycolytic ATP during early reperfusion: a survival mechanism for the reperfused heart.

    PubMed

    Correa, Francisco; García, Noemí; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan; Carreno-Fuentes, Liliana; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Glycolytic activity during the transition period from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism has been demonstrated to be critical for heart recovery in isolated reperfused hearts. The purpose of this work was to investigate the relevance of the glycolytic pathway in preserving the cardiac function of post-conditioned hearts. The activation of the glycolytic pathway in post-conditioned hearts was evaluated by measuring GLUT-4 insertion, glucose consumption and lactate production. Iodoacetic acid and 2-deoxy-D-glucose were administrated to the working hearts to evaluate the effect of glycolytic inhibition in the post-conditioning protective effect. Post-conditioning maneuvers applied to isolated rat hearts, after prolonged ischemia and before reperfusion, promoted recovery of cardiac mechanical function with sustained increase of GLUT-4 translocation and activation of the glycolytic pathway during ischemia and early reperfusion. Iodoacetate inhibited the protective effect of post-conditioning, without affecting the mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Glycolysis contribution to maintain mechanical function at early reperfusion was observed in post-conditioned hearts perfused with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and in hearts in which iodoacetate was administered only during reperfusion. It is concluded that in the post-conditioned heart, a functional compartmentation of anaerobic energy metabolism, at early reperfusion, plays a significant role in cardiac protection against reperfusion damage. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Comparison Of Efficacy Of Phenytoin And Levetiracetam For Prevention Of Early Post Traumatic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Bhatti, Sajid Nazir; Khan, Aftab Alam; Khan Afridi, Ehtisham Ahmed; Muhammad, Gul; Gul, Nasim; Zadran, Khalid Khan; Alam, Sudhair; Aurangzeb, Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of early post-traumatic seizures after civilian traumatic brain injury ranges 4-25%. The control of early post-traumatic seizure is mandatory because these acute insults may add secondary damage to the already damaged brain with poor outcome. Prophylactic use of anti-epileptic drugs have been found to be have variable efficacy against early post-traumatic seizures. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of Phenytion and Levetiracetam in prevention of early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from March, 2012 to March 2013. The patients with moderate to severe head injury were randomly allocated in two groups. Patients in group A were given phenytoin and patients in group B were given Levetiracetam. Patients were followed for one week to detect efficacy of drug in terms of early post traumatic seizures. The 154 patients included in the study were equally divided into two groups. Out of 154 patients 115 (74.7%) were male while 29 (25.3%) were females. Age of patients ranges from 7-48 (24.15±9.56) years. Ninety one (59.1%) patients had moderate head injury while 63 (40.9%) patients had severe head injury. Phenytoin was effective in preventing early post traumatic seizures in 73 (94.8%) patients whereas Levetiracetam effectively controlled seizures in 70 (90.95%) cases (p-value of .348). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of Phenytoin and Levetiracetam in prophylaxis of early posttraumatic seizures in cases of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

  2. Post-transplant HLA class II antibodies and high soluble CD30 levels are independently associated with poor kidney graft survival.

    PubMed

    Langan, L L; Park, L P; Hughes, T L; Irish, A; Luxton, G; Witt, C S; Christiansen, F T

    2007-04-01

    HLA-specific antibodies (HSA) and soluble CD30 (sCD30) were measured in 208 renal transplant recipients with functioning grafts at least 1 year after transplantation (median 8.2 years) to investigate the predictive value of HSA and sCD30 on subsequent graft outcome. HSA (class I and class II) were detected by both ELISA LAT-M and Luminex LabScreen assays. Data on graft outcome was collected with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years after antibody and sCD30 measurement. Recipients with post-transplant HLA class II antibodies had particularly poor graft outcome with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.8 (p < 0.0001) when detected by ELISA, and a HR of 6.0 (p < 0.0001) when detected by Luminex. A high post-transplant sCD30 level >or=100 U/mL was associated with increased risk of subsequent graft failure (HR 2.7, p = 0.03). sCD30 and HSA had an independent and additive association with graft outcome. Recipients with HLA class II antibody and high sCD30 had the highest risk of subsequent graft failure (HR 43.4, p < 0.0001 and HR 18.1, p = 0.0008 for ELISA and Luminex, respectively). These data show that detection of HSA and serum sCD30 measured at least 1-year post-transplant provides valuable and predictive information regarding subsequent graft outcome.

  3. Early endoscopic realignment of post-traumatic posterior urethral disruption.

    PubMed

    Moudouni, S M; Patard, J J; Manunta, A; Guiraud, P; Lobel, B; Guillé, F

    2001-04-01

    The management of complete or partial urethral disruption is controversial, and much debate continues regarding immediate versus delayed definitive therapy. We further analyze our experience and long-term results using early endoscopic realignment. Between April 1987 and January 1999, 29 men with posterior urethral disruption (23 complete and 6 partial) underwent primary urethral realignment 0 to 8 days after injury. Pelvic fractures were present in 23 patients. In all patients, the actual operating time for realignment was 75 minutes or less. All patients were evaluated postoperatively for incontinence, impotence, and strictures. After a mean follow-up of 68 months (range 18 to 155), all patients were continent. Four patients (13.7%) required conversion to an open perineal urethroplasty. At the last follow-up visit, 25 (86%) of the 29 patients were potent and 4 achieved adequate erections for intercourse using intracorporeal injections (prostaglandin E(1)). Twelve patients (41%) developed short secondary strictures and were successfully treated with internal urethrotomy. The mean follow-up of these 12 patients was 83 months (range 34 to 120). Urinary flow rate measurement at the last follow-up visit revealed satisfactory voiding parameters in all patients. Primary endoscopic realignment offers an effective method for treating traumatic urethral injuries. Our long-term follow-up provides additional support for the use of this technique by demonstrating that urethral continuity can be established without an increased incidence of impotence, stricture formation, or incontinence. In case of failure, endoscopic realignment does not compromise the result of secondary urethroplasty.

  4. Induction treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin versus basiliximab in renal transplant recipients with planned early steroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Martin, Spencer T; Roberts, Keri L; Malek, Sayeed K; Tullius, Stefan G; Vadivel, Nidyanandh; De Serres, Sacha; Grafals, Monica; Elsanjak, Abdelaziz; Filkins, Beth Anne; Chandraker, Anil; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-06-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) with basiliximab in renal transplant recipients for whom an early steroid withdrawal (ESW) regimen was planned. Single-center, retrospective, cohort study. Tertiary care medical center, including inpatient hospital stays and outpatient nephrology clinics. Ninety-nine consecutive adult recipients of living- or deceased-donor renal transplants between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007, in whom ESW was planned and who received either r-ATG or basiliximab; patients receiving an extended-criteria kidney donation or a donation after cardiac death were excluded. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus as maintenance therapy with planned ESW. Induction therapy was either r-ATG 1.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days (68 patients) or basiliximab 20 mg on postoperative days 0 and 4 (31 patients). The primary composite end point of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, and death occurred in 6 patients (9%) and 9 patients (29%) in the r-ATG and basiliximab groups at 1 year after transplantation, respectively (p=0.01), with rates of 7% (5/68 patients) and 26% (8/31 patients) for BPAR (p=0.02), 0% and 3% (1/31 patients) for graft loss (p=0.31), and 2% (1/68 patients) and 0% for patient death (p>0.99). Average time to first BPAR was significantly longer in the r-ATG group (mean ± SD 151.4 ± 82.9 vs 53.6 ± 68.4 days, p<0.01). Kidney function at 12 months was similar between the two groups. Rabbit-ATG was associated with a lower frequency and delayed onset of BPAR compared with basiliximab in renal transplant recipients who received an ESW regimen.

  5. Loss of CD28 on Peripheral T Cells Decreases the Risk for Early Acute Rejection after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dedeoglu, Burç; Meijers, Ruud W. J.; Klepper, Mariska; Hesselink, Dennis A.; Baan, Carla C.; Litjens, Nicolle H. R.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background End-stage renal disease patients have a dysfunctional, prematurely aged peripheral T-cell system. Here we hypothesized that the degree of premature T-cell ageing before kidney transplantation predicts the risk for early acute allograft rejection (EAR). Methods 222 living donor kidney transplant recipients were prospectively analyzed. EAR was defined as biopsy proven acute allograft rejection within 3 months after kidney transplantation. The differentiation status of circulating T cells, the relative telomere length and the number of CD31+ naive T cells were determined as T-cell ageing parameters. Results Of the 222 patients analyzed, 30 (14%) developed an EAR. The donor age and the historical panel reactive antibody score were significantly higher (p = 0.024 and p = 0.039 respectively) and the number of related donor kidney transplantation was significantly lower (p = 0.018) in the EAR group. EAR-patients showed lower CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers (p<0.01) and the same trend was observed for CD8+CD28null T-cell numbers (p = 0.08). No differences regarding the other ageing parameters were found. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers was associated with a lower risk for EAR (HR: 0.65, p = 0.028). In vitro, a significant lower percentage of alloreactive T cells was observed within CD28null T cells (p<0.001). Conclusion Immunological ageing-related expansion of highly differentiated CD28null T cells is associated with a lower risk for EAR. PMID:26950734

  6.  Early initiation of MARS® dialysis in Amanita phalloides-induced acute liver injury prevents liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pillukat, Mike Hendrik; Schomacher, Tina; Baier, Peter; Gabriëls, Gert; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2016-01-01

     Amanita phalloides is the most relevant mushroom intoxication leading to acute liver failure. The two principal groups of toxins, the amatoxins and the phallotoxins, are small oligopeptides highly resistant to chemical and physical influences. The amatoxins inhibit eukaryotic RNA polymerase II causing transcription arrest affecting mainly metabolically highly active cells like hepatocytes and renal cells. The clinically most characteristic symptom is a 6-40 h lag phase before onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and the rapid progression of acute liver failure leading to multi-organ failure and death within a week if left untreated. Extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD) was reported to improve patient's outcome or facilitate bridging to transplantation. In our tertiary center, out of nine intoxicated individuals from five non-related families six patients presented with acute liver injury; all of them were treated with ECAD using the MARS® system. Four of them were listed on admission for high urgency liver transplantation. In addition to standard medical treatment for Amanita intoxication we initiated ECAD once patients were admitted to our center. Overall 16 dialysis sessions were performed. All patients survived with full native liver recovery without the need for transplantation. ECAD was well tolerated; no severe adverse events were reported during treatment. Coagulopathy resolved within days in all patients, and acute kidney injury in all but one individual. In conclusion, ECAD is highly effective in treating intoxication with Amanita phalloides. Based on these experiences we suggest early initiation and repeated sessions depending on response to ECAD with the chance of avoiding liver transplantation.

  7. Parents' education level and mortality and morbidity of children after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bahador, Z; Dehghani, S M; Bahador, A; Nikeghbalian, S; Hafezi, N; Bahador, M; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    So far numerous post-transplant outcome predictors have been studied to decrease the loss of resources and grafts after organ transplantation. The role of education, as a predictor, in liver transplantation outcome has so far been studied in several articles. However, in most of the studies it was evaluated as a surrogate for socioeconomic status or other variants. The absolute impact of parents' education has rarely been studied. Adult patients are their own caregivers whereas pediatric liver transplantation recipients are mostly cared by their parents. To evaluate the effect of level of patients' education on the mortality and morbidity of pediatric liver transplant recipients. We studied a group of 91 children who had undergone liver transplantation in our center from March 21, 2012 to July 21, 2013. In this retrospective study, patients' medical charts and questionnaire were used to collect the necessary data. Post-transplantation mortality and complications were divided into two categories: Early (<6 months after liver transplantation), and late (≥6 months after the transplantation). Parents' educational level was also categorized into 5 groups. Multivariate analysis of all groups showed that paternal education is an independent predictor of the late post-transplantation complications (p=0.024). Educational level of children's mothers had no significant correlation with the late post-transplantation complications (p=0.45). Neither maternal (p=0.59) nor paternal (p=0.607) education had significant effect on the late post-transplantation mortality. Paternal educational level of liver transplanted children is associated with the late post-transplantation complications.

  8. Feasibility of UltraFast Doppler in Post-operative Evaluation of Hepatic Artery in Recipients following Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Young; Kim, Kyoung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Song, Gi-Won; Kwon, Heon-Ju; Yun, Young Ju; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of using UltraFast Doppler in post-operative evaluation of the hepatic artery (HA) after liver transplantation (LT), we evaluated 283 simultaneous conventional and UltraFast Doppler sessions in 126 recipients over a 2-mo period after LT, using an Aixplorer scanner The Doppler indexes of the HA (peak systolic velocity [PSV], end-diastolic velocity [EDV], resistive index [RI] and systolic acceleration time [SAT]) by retrospective analysis of retrieved waves from UltraFast Doppler clips were compared with those obtained by conventional spectral Doppler. Correlation, performance in diagnosing the pathologic wave, examination time and reproducibility were evaluated. The PSV, EDV, RI and SAT of spectral and UltraFast Doppler measurements exhibited excellent correlation with favorable diagnostic performance. During the bedside examination, the mean time spent for UltraFast clip storing was significantly shorter than that for conventional Doppler US measurements. Both conventional and UltraFast Doppler exhibited good to excellent inter-analysis consistency. In conclusion, compared with conventional spectral Doppler, UltraFast Doppler values correlated excellently and yielded acceptable pathologic wave diagnostic performance with reduced examination time at the bedside and excellent reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    the study for the presence or absence of ectopic bone formation at the indicated time points post injury (Table 1.). 8 Table 1. Incidence of HO at...7, 10, 14, and 21 days post injury 42 Palovarotene Suppresses Early Chondrogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation In this set of studies we...using MicroCT imaging to quantitate total new bone and ectopic bone (non-associated with cortical margins) volume. In a second study arm, serum was

  10. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    the study for the presence or absence of ectopic bone formation at the indicated time points post injury (Table 1.). 8 Table 1. Incidence of HO...1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0119 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  11. Post-listing survival for highly sensitised patients on the UK kidney transplant waiting list: a matched cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Manook, Miriam; Koeser, Leonardo; Ahmed, Zubir; Robb, Matthew; Johnson, Rachel; Shaw, Olivia; Kessaris, Nicos; Dorling, Anthony; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-02-18

    More than 40% of patients awaiting a kidney transplant in the UK are sensitised with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Median time to transplantation for such patients is double that of unsensitised patients at about 74 months. Removing antibody to perform an HLA-incompatible (HLAi) living donor transplantation is perceived to be high risk, although patient survival data are limited. We compared survival of patients opting for an HLAi kidney transplant with that of similarly sensitised patients awaiting a compatible organ. From the UK adult kidney transplant waiting list, we selected crossmatch positive living donor HLAi kidney transplant recipients who received their transplant between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2013, and were followed up to Dec 31, 2014 (end of study). These patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio with similarly sensitised patients cases listed for a deceased-donor transplant during that period. Data were censored both at the time of transplantation (listed only), and at the end of the study period (listed or transplant). We used Kaplan-Meier curves to compare patient survival between HLAi and the matched cohort. Of 25 518 patient listings, 213 (1%) underwent HLAi transplantation during the study period. 852 matched controls were identified, of whom 41% (95% CI 32-50) remained without a transplant at 58 months after matching. We noted no difference in survival between patients who were in the HLAi group compared with the listed only group (log rank p=0·446), or listed or transplant group (log rank p=0·984). Survival of sensitised patients undergoing HLAi in the UK is comparable with those on dialysis awaiting a compatible organ, many of whom are unlikely to be have a transplant. Choosing a direct HLAi transplant has no detrimental effect on survival, but offers no survival benefit, by contrast with similar patients studied in a North American multicentre cohort. UK National Health Service Blood & Transplant and Guy's & St Thomas' National

  12. Diatom diet selectivity by early post-larval abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under hatchery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuyu; Gao, Yahui; Liang, Junrong; Chen, Changping; Zhao, Donghai; Li, Xuesong; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    Benthic diatoms constitute the primary diet of abalone during their early stages of development. To evaluate the dietary preferences of early post-larval abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, we analyzed the gut contents of post-larvae that settled on diatom films. We compared the abundance and species diversity of diatom assemblages in the gut to those of the epiphytic diatom assemblages on the attachment films, and identified 40 benthic diatom species in the gut contents of post-larvae 12 to 24 d after settlement. The most abundant taxa in the gut contents were Navicula spp., Amphora copulate, and Amphora coffeaeformis. Navicula spp. accounted for 64.0% of the cell density. In the attachment films, we identified 110 diatom species belonging to 38 genera. Pennate diatoms were the dominant members including the species Amphiprora alata, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cylindrotheca closterium, Navicula sp. 2, and A. coffeaeformis. Nano-diatoms (<20 μm in length) accounted for a considerable proportion of the total species number and cell density of the diatom assemblages in the gut contents and on the films. This suggests that nano-diatoms are important to the efficient production of abalone seed. The difference of the composition and abundance of diatoms between in the guts and on the biofilms suggests that early post-larval grazing was selective. An early post-larval abalone preferred nano-diatoms and the genera Navicula and Amphora during the month after settlement.

  13. Donor hypernatremia before procurement and early outcomes following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaseje, Neema; McLin, Valerie; Toso, Christian; Poncet, Antoine; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2015-08-01

    The demand for transplantable organs far outweighs the supply. Recently, efforts have been made to increase the donor pool by adopting extended criteria for livers, including those from hypernatremic donors. Currently, there is no clear evidence that the use of organs from hypernatremic donors has detrimental effects on pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Our aim was to use the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database to evaluate the effects of donor hypernatremia on 30-day outcomes in pediatric LT recipients. We performed an analysis of 2325 children who underwent whole or partial LT between 2005 and 2010. First, we sought to determine a donor sodium threshold for increased mortality following pediatric LT. Second, we examined rates of mortality and graft failure at 30 days after LT in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors. Hypernatremia was defined as a donor sodium level of ≥160 µmol/L. The primary outcome measure was mortality at 30 days after transplant. The secondary outcome measure was graft failure at 30 days after transplant. There was no threshold sodium level for increased 30-day mortality following pediatric LT. Mean recipient ages/weights, Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease/Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and mean cold and warm ischemia times were similar between the 2 study groups. There were no significant differences in mortality rates (3.9% versus 4.5%; P = 0.87) and graft failure rates (2.2% versus 1.9%; P = 1.00) in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors at 30 days after LT. In conclusion, donor hypernatremia just before procurement does not appear to have negative effects on mortality and graft failure rates at 30 days following pediatric LT. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Bacterial infections after pediatric heart transplantation: Epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Christina A; Wehrheim, Karla; Kirklin, James K; Naftel, David; Pruitt, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Timothy M; L'Ecuyer, Thomas; Berkowitz, Katie; Mahle, William T; Scheel, Janet N

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant recipients. However, data describing the epidemiology and outcomes of these infections in children are limited. We analyzed the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database of patients transplanted between 1993 and 2014 to determine the etiologies, risk factors and outcomes of children with bacterial infections post-heart transplantation. Of 4,458 primary transplants in the database, there were 4,815 infections that required hospitalization or intravenous therapy, 2,047 (42.51%) of which were bacterial. The risk of bacterial infection was highest in the first month post-transplant, and the bloodstream was the most common site (24.82%). In the early post-transplant period (<30 days post-transplant), coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common pathogens (16.97%), followed by Enterobacter sp (11.99%) and Pseudomonas sp (11.62%). In the late post-transplant period, community-acquired pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.27%) and Haemophilus influenzae (2.82%) were also commonly identified. Patients' characteristics independently associated with acquisition of bacterial infection included younger age (p < 0.0001) and ventilator (p < 0.0001) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p = 0.03) use at time of transplant. Overall mortality post-bacterial infection was 33.78%, and previous cardiac surgery (p < 0.001) and multiple sites of infection (p = 0.004) were independent predictors of death. Bacteria were the most common causes of severe infections in pediatric heart transplant recipients and were associated with high mortality rates. The risk of acquiring a bacterial infection was highest in the first month post-transplant, and a large proportion of the infections were caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of recombinant globular adiponectin on early warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat bile duct after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2014-09-19

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte protein with anti-diabetic properties, which has been recently revealed to have anti-inflammatory activity in organ ischemia- reperfusion injury (IRI). However, little is known about its function in bile duct IRI after liver transplantation. Therefore, we investigated whether APN affects early warm IRI in rat bile duct using a liver autologous transplantation model. In our study, rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a sham group, a IRI group, and a APN group. The serum enzyme levels and BDISS scores of bile duct histology associated with bile duct injury, decreased after administration of APN. Subsequently, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α),.interleukin-6(IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased. Furthermore, pretreatment with APN suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) (p65), a transcription factor involved in inflammatory reactions, compared to other two groups. Administration of APN also downregulated the expression of Fas protein and attenuated caspase-3 activity to decrease bile duct apoptosis. Our results illustrate that APN protects the rat bile duct against early warm IRI by suppressing the inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis, and NF-κB (p65) plays an important role in this process.

  16. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (<10 days) and late (>30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (p<.001, Fisher’s exact test). The average percent decrease in cavity volume from pre-operative MRI (tumor volume) to early post-operative imaging was 45% with decreases in all but 3 patients. There was no correlation between the size of the early cavity and the visual outcome. Conclusions Early high resolution volumetric MRI is valuable in determining the presence or absence of residual tumor. Cavity volume almost always decreases after surgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  17. Imaging in lung transplants: Checklist for the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Madan, Rachna; Chansakul, Thanissara; Goldberg, Hilary J

    2014-10-01

    Post lung transplant complications can have overlapping clinical and imaging features, and hence, the time point at which they occur is a key distinguisher. Complications of lung transplantation may occur along a continuum in the immediate or longer postoperative period, including surgical and mechanical problems due to size mismatch and vascular as well as airway anastomotic complication, injuries from ischemia and reperfusion, acute and chronic rejection, pulmonary infections, and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Life expectancy after lung transplantation has been limited primarily by chronic rejection and infection. Multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) is critical for evaluation and early diagnosis of complications to enable selection of effective therapy and decrease morbidity and mortality among lung transplant recipients.

  18. Pre-transplant soluble CD30 in combination with total DSA but not pre-transplant C1q-DSA predicts antibody-mediated graft loss in presensitized high-risk kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, S M; Süsal, C; Opelz, G; Döhler, B; Becker, L E; Klein, K; Sickmüller, S; Waldherr, R; Macher-Goeppinger, S; Schemmer, P; Beimler, J; Zeier, M; Morath, C

    2016-02-01

    Presensitized kidney transplant recipients are at high-risk for early antibody-mediated rejection. We studied the impact of pre- and post-transplant donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) and T-cell-activation on the occurrence of antibody-mediated rejection episodes (AMR) and graft loss (AMR-GL) in a unique cohort of 80 desensitized high-risk kidney transplant recipients. Patients with pre-transplant DSA demonstrated more AMR episodes than patients without DSA, but did not show a significantly increased rate of AMR-GL. The rates of AMR and AMR-GL were not significantly increased in patients with complement split product (C1q)-binding pre-transplant DSA. Pre-transplant C1q-DSA became undetectable post-transplant in 11 of 13 (85%) patients; 2 (18%) of these 11 patients showed AMR but no AMR-GL. In contrast, the post-transplant presence of C1q-DSA was associated with significantly higher rates of AMR (86 vs 33 vs 0%; P < 0.001) and AMR-GL (86 vs 0 vs 0%; log-rank P < 0.001) compared with post-transplant DSA without C1q-binding or the absence of DSA. Patients with both pre-transplant DSA and evidence of pre-transplant T-cell-activation as indicated by soluble CD30-positivity showed a significantly increased risk for AMR-GL [HR = 11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.68-73.4; log-rank P = 0.013]. In these high-risk patients, AMR-GL was associated with total DSA in combination with T-cell-activation pre-transplant, and de novo or persistent C1q-binding DSA post-transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CD56-enriched donor cell infusion after post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for haploidentical transplantation of advanced myeloid malignancies is associated with prompt reconstitution of mature natural killer cells and regulatory T cells with reduced incidence of acute graft versus host disease: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita Rani; Zaman, Shamsur; Nedunchezhian, Murugaiyan; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Bhakuni, Prakash; Ahmed, Margoob; Sharma, Kanika; Rawat, Sheh; O'donnell, Paul; Chakrabarti, Suparno

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a pilot study on the feasibility of CD56-enriched donor cell infusion after post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for 10 patients with advanced myeloid malignancies undergoing haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with cyclosporine alone as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and compared the outcome and immune reconstitution with a control group of 20 patients undergoing the same without CD56-enriched donor cell infusion. An early and rapid surge of mature NK cells as well as CD4 + T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) was noted compared with the control group. KIR of donor phenotype reconstituted as early as day 30 with expression of CD56 dim CD16 + NKG2A - KIR + phenotype. None experienced viral or fungal infections, and non-relapse mortality was 10% only. The incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was 50% in the control group with none in the CD56 group (P = 0.01). Only two had de novo chronic GVHD in each group. Relapse occurred in five patients in CD56 group with a median follow-up of 12 months, similar to the control group. Our preliminary data show that CD56 + donor cell infusion after PTCy and short-course cyclosporine is feasible with prompt engraftment, rapid reconstitution of CD4 + T cells, Tregs and NK cells and reduced incidence of acute GVHD. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pretransplant Aspergillus colonization of cystic fibrosis patients and the incidence of post-lung transplant invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Luong, Me-Linh; Chaparro, Cecilia; Stephenson, Anne; Rotstein, Coleman; Singer, Lianne G; Waters, Valerie; Azad, Sassan; Keshavjee, Shaf; Tullis, Elizabeth; Husain, Shahid

    2014-02-15

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing lung transplant. Cystic fibrosis-lung transplant recipients (CF-LTRs) may be at greater risk of IA following lung transplantation because of the presence of Aspergillus in their airways before transplantation. This study evaluated the impact of pretransplant Aspergillus colonization on the risk for IA among CF-LTRs. A single-center retrospective cohort study of CF-LTRs was conducted between 2006 and 2010. Respiratory tract cultures before transplantation were reviewed to identify patients with pretransplant Aspergillus colonization. Patients with positive Aspergillus sputum culture or positive bronchoalvelolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan after transplantation were classified as having colonization or disease according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria. A total of 93 CF patients underwent lung transplantation. Seventy percent (65/93) of CF-LTRs had pretransplant Aspergillus colonization. Thirty-six patients had positive intraoperative Aspergillus culture from the native lung BAL. Overall, 22.5% (20/93) of CF-LTRs developed IA. Median time to IA was 42 days following transplantation. Positive intraoperative Aspergillus culture (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.35-14.05, P=0.01) and treatment for acute cellular rejection within 90 days after transplantation (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.03-12.15, P=0.05) were independent risk factors for IA. Antifungal prophylaxis was administered to 61% (57/93) of CF-LTRs. One-year mortality rate was 16% (15/93). IA was not associated with increased risk of death (OR 2.10, 95% CI 0.62-7.06, P=0.23). Pretransplant Aspergillus colonization is frequent among CF-LTRs and a positive intraoperative Aspergillus culture produced a fourfold higher risk of developing IA.

  1. Do mature forest birds prefer early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period?

    Carlin C. Chandler; David I. King; Richard B. Chandler

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the post-fledging period to bird populations, suggesting that the importance of this portion of the life cycle is equal to or greater than the nesting period. Nevertheless, few studies have compared abundance of forest nesting species between mature forest and early-successional habitats wh