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Sample records for early postmenopausal bone

  1. Transdermal Nitroglycerin Therapy May Not Prevent Early Postmenopausal Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J.; Grimes, Julia P.; Wilson, Alan C.; Hoover, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Osteoporosis is common among postmenopausal women; animal studies and human pilot studies support the concept of nitric oxide (NO) donors reducing bone mineral density loss. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether NO donor, nitroglycerin, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. Design: This was a 3-yr randomized, double blinded, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: The single-center study was conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (New Brunswick, NJ). Participants: Participants included 186 postmenopausal women aged 40–65 yr, with lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores of 0 to −2.5. Intervention: Women, stratified by lumbar T-score (<−1.50 and ≥−1.50) and years since menopause (≤5 and >5 yr), were randomized to receive nitroglycerin ointment (22.5 mg as Nitro-Bid) or placebo ointment received daily for 3 yr. Both groups took 630 mg daily calcium plus 400 IU vitamin D supplements. Measurements: BMD was measured at 6 months and annually by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Percent change in lumbar vertebrae BMD was the primary outcome. Hip BMD, total body bone mineral content, and height were secondary outcomes. Results: After 36 months of therapy, changes of −2.1% in the active group (n = 88) and −2.5% in the placebo group (n = 82) in lumbar spine BMD were seen (P = 0.59; 95% confidence interval −1.001, 1.975). Secondary outcomes also did not differ by intervention arm. The active group reported more headaches compared with the placebo group (57 vs. 14%, P < 0.001). Other adverse and serious adverse events were not different. Conclusions: BMD changes did not substantially differ between postmenopausal women who received the dose of nitroglycerin tested, in comparison with a placebo. Once-daily dosing with 22.5 mg of transdermal-administered nitroglycerin was not effective (compliance adjusted dose was only ∼16 mg/d); a sub-therapeutic dose. PMID

  2. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  3. Effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density and metabolism in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Jamal; Keidar, Zohar; Basher, Walid; Israel, Ora

    2004-01-01

    At the present time, tamoxifen is the most widely used anti-estrogen for adjuvant therapy and metastatic disease in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, a population at high risk for osteoporosis. This prospective study was designed to evaluate the effect of adjuvant tamoxifen on bone mineral density and all biochemical markers concomitantly in women with early-stage breast cancer in one study. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, prior to and 12 mo after tamoxifen treatment, bone mineral density in lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured in 44 women with T1-T2N0M0 estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen 20 mg/d. Biomarkers that can affect bone mineral metabolism were measured before and after 3 and 12 mo of tamoxifen treatment. Bone mineral density was minimally increased in lumbar spine and femoral neck after 12 mo treatment with tamoxifen (p = 0.79 and 0.55, respectively). No differences were found in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, creatinine, ALAT, albumin, LDH, calcitonin, or estradiol. A significant decrease in osteocalcin levels was found after 3 and 12 mo (p < or = 0.01). TSH and PTH levels were increased (p < or = 0.05) after 3 mo, returning to baseline after 12 mo. In conclusion, tamoxifen has an estrogen-like effect on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and is associated with preservation of bone mineral density in lumbar spine and femoral neck. Changes in serum concentration of biochemical markers may reflect decreased bone turnover or bone remodeling and add to the understanding of tamoxifen's effect on bone mineral density.

  4. Atherogenic lipid profile and elevated lipoprotein (a) are associated with lower bone mineral density in early postmenopausal overweight women.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that women with osteoporosis present an increased risk of cardiovascular events and that lipid lowering therapy (statins) could be associated with a decreased risk of fracture. We investigated whether women with atherogenic lipid profile have lower lumbar and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and higher prevalence of osteopenia than those with normal lipid levels. The study included 52 overweight early postmenopausal women, with no history of hormone replacement therapy, or any current or past pathology or treatment that could alter bone or lipid metabolism. Atherogenic lipid profile or hyperlipidemia was defined as hypercholesterolemia (> or = 240 mg/dl) or high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (high-LDLc > or = 160 mg/dl) or high lipoprotein (a) [high-Lp (a) > or =25 mg/dl], and low-BMD as t-score <-1 SD at lumbar o femoral site. The results show that women with hyperlipidemia had lower mean-adjusted BMD (mean+/-SEM) at lumbar (0.865+/-0.020 vs. 0.958+/-0.028 g/cm2, p = 0.007) and femoral neck (0.712+/-0.015 vs. 0.796+/-0.021, p = 0.004 g/cm2) than those with normal lipid levels. Hypercholesterolemia group had higher prevalence of low-BMD at lumbar spine (82.6% vs. 55.2%, p = 0.04, OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.04-14.2) and femoral neck (65.2% vs. 37.9%, p = 0.05, OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 0.98-9.6). The high-LDLc group had also higher prevalence low-BMD at femoral neck (75% vs. 39%, p = 0.01, OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 1.26-17.5), and the high-Lp (a) group at lumbar spine (87% vs. 51.7% p = 0.007, OR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.5-25.6). Women with hyperlipidemia had higher prevalence of low BMD at lumbar spine (81.8% vs. 42.1%, p = 0.003, OR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.7-22) and femoral neck (60.6% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.04, OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.01-11.0). In conclusion, early postmenopausal women with atherogenic lipid profile, defined as cholesterol > or =240 mg/dl or LDLc > or = 160 mg/dl or Lp(a) > or = 25 mg/dl have lower lumbar and femoral BMD and have an increased risk of

  5. Effects of exemestane, anastrozole and tamoxifen on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal early breast cancer patients: results of N-SAS BC 04, the TEAM Japan substudy.

    PubMed

    Aihara, T; Suemasu, K; Takei, H; Hozumi, Y; Takehara, M; Saito, T; Ohsumi, S; Masuda, N; Ohashi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Use of aromatase inhibitors in women with postmenopausal breast cancer accompanies risks of bone loss. We evaluated changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in patients treated with exemestane, anastrozole or tamoxifen for hormone-sensitive postmenopausal early breast cancer. Sixty-eight patients enrolled in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational Japan bone substudy were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen, exemestane or anastrozole. During a 2-year study period, lumbar spine BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and urinary type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were also measured. BMD at 2 years of treatment was higher in tamoxifen patients compared with exemestane and anastrozole patients; however, the intergroup difference was not significant (p = 0.2521 and p = 0.0753, respectively). BMD was higher in exemestane patients compared with anastrozole patients; however, the intergroup difference was not significant (p = 0.7059 and p = 0.8134, respectively). NTX and BAP were significantly lower in tamoxifen patients compared with exemestane and anastrozole patients at 1 and 2 years of treatment (p < 0.05). Tamoxifen may provide better bone protection compared with exemestane or anastrozole. The effect of exemestane and anastrozole on bone loss may be comparable in Japanese postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial.

    PubMed

    Rabaglio, M; Sun, Z; Price, K N; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Hawle, H; Thürlimann, B; Mouridsen, H; Campone, M; Forbes, J F; Paridaens, R J; Colleoni, M; Pienkowski, T; Nogaret, J-M; Láng, I; Smith, I; Gelber, R D; Goldhirsch, A; Coates, A S

    2009-09-01

    To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone fracture, and previous hormone replacement therapy. Consistent with other trials comparing aromatase inhibitors to tamoxifen, letrozole was associated with an increase in bone fractures. Benefits of superior disease control associated with letrozole and lower incidence of fracture with tamoxifen should be considered with the risk profile for individual patients.

  7. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    PubMed Central

    Rabaglio, M.; Sun, Z.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Hawle, H.; Thürlimann, B.; Mouridsen, H.; Campone, M.; Forbes, J. F.; Paridaens, R. J.; Colleoni, M.; Pienkowski, T.; Nogaret, J.-M.; Láng, I.; Smith, I.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. Methods: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. Results: The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone fracture, and previous hormone replacement therapy. Conclusions: Consistent with other trials comparing aromatase inhibitors to tamoxifen, letrozole was associated with an increase in bone fractures. Benefits of superior disease control associated with letrozole and lower incidence of fracture with tamoxifen should be considered with the risk profile for individual patients. PMID:19474112

  8. Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Content in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta E.; McManis, Beth G.

    1990-01-01

    Study tested the effect of exercise programs on bone mineral content (BMC) and BMC/bone width in 31 postmenopausal women. Subjects were placed in groups with aerobic exercise, aerobics plus upper-body weight training, or no exercise. Results indicate that regular exercise programs positively affect bone mineral maintenance in postmenopausal women.…

  9. Bone health status of postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sue S T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis in treatment-naïve postmenopausal women, their treatment adherence, and the risk factors for osteoporosis. Cross-sectional study of bone density reports, a self-administered health checklist, and computerised consultation records. Primary care sexual and reproductive health service in Hong Kong. Postmenopausal Chinese women who had never received osteoporosis treatment or hormone replacement therapy. Each woman completed a checklist of risk factors for osteoporosis, menopause age, history of hormone replacement therapy, and osteoporosis treatment prior to undergoing bone mineral density measurement at the postero-anterior lumbar spine and left femur. The consultation records of those with osteoporosis were reviewed to determine their treatment adherence. T-score at the spine and hip, presence or absence of risk factors for osteoporosis, and treatment adherence. Between January 2008 and December 2011, 1507 densitometries were performed for eligible women; 51.6% of whom were diagnosed with osteopenia and 25.7% with osteoporosis. The mean age of women with normal bone mineral density, osteopenia, and osteoporosis was 57.0, 58.0, and 59.7 years, respectively. Approximately half of them had an inadequate dietary calcium intake, performed insufficient weight-bearing exercise, or had too little sun exposure. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, body mass index of <18.5 kg/m(2), parental history of osteoporosis or hip fracture, and duration of menopause were significant risk factors for osteoporosis. Among those with osteoporosis, 42.9% refused treatment, 30.7% complied with treatment, and 26.3% discontinued treatment or defaulted from follow-up. Those who refused treatment were significantly older. Osteoporosis is prevalent in postmenopausal women. Only 50% adopted primary prevention strategies. Almost 70% refused treatment or stopped prematurely.

  10. The efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss for postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Anagha, Pooleriveetil Padikkal; Sen, Suchandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL) in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329-21.959, P value = 0.018) and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249-7.143, P value = 0.0002). Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR's than patients with delayed ZOL.

  11. [Calcitonin physiologically regulates the postmenopausal bone loss and possibly inhibits the bone loss in fast losers].

    PubMed

    Chen, J T; Shiraki, M; Katase, K; Kato, T; Hirai, Y; Hasumi, K

    1994-10-01

    To study the correlation between the basal serum calcitonin level and L2-4 bone mineral density (BMD), a cross sectional study of 384 healthy subjects (106 premenopausal, 88 perimenopausal and 109 postmenopausal subjects) and a longitudinal study of 42 oophorectomized subjects were conducted. A positive correlation was found in perimenopause (r = 0.219, p = 0.040) but not in premenopause (r = 0.069, p = 0.4898) and postmenopause (r = 0.141, p = 0.0554) in a cross sectional study. The percent reduction in L2-4BMD compared to the baseline also correlated with preoperative calcitonin levels at 6 months after oophorectomy (r = 0.333, p = 0.0442), but not significantly at 12 months (r = 0.224, p = 0.27). These data suggest that the basal calcitonin level correlates to L2-4BMD only at perimenopause or in the early postoophorectomized period when bone turnover is accelerated and bone resorption seems to be faster than bone formation. In addition the premenopausal basal calcitonin level may be an indicator of the fast loser after menopause.

  12. Relationship of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) Serum Levels With Low Bone Mass in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Shiping; Song, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) level and bone mass in postmenopausal women. A total of 60 premenopausal, 60 early postmenopausal, and 60 late postmenopausal women were investigated by the measurement of bone mineral densities (BMDs) at lumbar spine and proximal femur by DXA, together with serum concentrations of Ca, P, 25 (OH) D 3 , OC, iPTH, CTX-I, PINP, and FGF-23. The levels of FGF-23 and PINP in early postmenopausal group were significantly higher than that in the premenopausal or the late postmenopausal groups, their changing patterns were different form 25(OH)D 3, iPTH, IGF, CTX-I, and OC. According to the AUCs in the ROC analysis, we found that serum FGF-23 level was associated with the highest validity as compared to the other bone metabolism factors. Further study indicated the significant negative relationships between serum FGF-23 level and lumbar spine/proximal femur BMDs in postmenopausal women. After detection of the sensitivity and specificity of serum FGF- 23 for the low bone mass at different T-score (SD) lumbar spine/proximal femur BMDs, we found that serum FGF-23 level may be a reliable marker for low bone mass in postmenopausal women. The performance of FGF-23 in the differential diagnosis low bone mass from healthy participants indicated that FGF-23 has the capacity to differentiate the women with low bone mass from the normal ones. Our study indicated that serum FGF-23 level could be served as the utility in the early detection of women with low bone mass. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4454-4459, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Zoledronic acid has differential antitumor activity in the pre- and postmenopausal bone microenvironment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ottewell, Penelope D; Wang, Ning; Brown, Hannah K; Reeves, Kimberly J; Fowles, C Anne; Croucher, Peter I; Eaton, Colby L; Holen, Ingunn

    2014-06-01

    Clinical trials in early breast cancer have suggested that benefits of adjuvant bone-targeted treatments are restricted to women with established menopause. We developed models that mimic pre- and postmenopausal status to investigate effects of altered bone turnover on growth of disseminated breast tumor cells. Here, we report a differential antitumor effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) in these two settings. Twleve-week-old female Balb/c-nude mice with disseminated MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells in bone underwent sham operation or ovariectomy (OVX), mimicking the pre- and postmenopausal bone microenvironment, respectively. To determine the effects of bone-targeted therapy, sham/OVX animals received saline or 100 μg/kg ZOL weekly. Tumor growth was assessed by in vivo imaging and effects on bone by real-time PCR, micro-CT, histomorphometry, and measurements of bone markers. Disseminated tumor cells were detected by two-photon microscopy. OVX increased bone resorption and induced growth of disseminated tumor cells in bone. Tumors were detected in 83% of animals following OVX (postmenopausal model) compared with 17% following sham operation (premenopausal model). OVX had no effect on tumors outside of bone. OVX-induced tumor growth was completely prevented by ZOL, despite the presence of disseminated tumor cells. ZOL did not affect tumor growth in bone in the sham-operated animals. ZOL increased bone volume in both groups. This is the first demonstration that tumor growth is driven by osteoclast-mediated mechanisms in models that mimic post- but not premenopausal bone, providing a biologic rationale for the differential antitumor effects of ZOL reported in these settings. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2922-32. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Bone mass regulation of leptin and postmenopausal osteoporosis with obesity.

    PubMed

    Legiran, Siswo; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    Leptin has been known to play a role in weight regulation through food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin also has an important role in bone metabolism. The role of leptin is determined by leptin receptors, either central or peripheral to the bones. We discuss the role of leptin on bone and molecular genetics of osteoporosis in postmenopausal obese women. The role of leptin in bone preserves bone mineral density (BMD) through increased OPG levels leading to bind RANKL, resulting in reducing osteoclast activity. The estrogen role on bone is also mediated by RANKL and OPG. In postmenopausal women who have estrogen deficiency, it increases the rate of RANKL, which increases osteoclastogenesis. Obese individuals who have a high level of leptin will be effected by bone protection. There are similarities in the mechanism between estrogen and leptin in influencing the process of bone remodeling. It may be considered that the role of estrogen can be replaced by leptin. Molecular genetic aspects that play a role in bone remodeling, such as leptin, leptin receptors, cytokines (e.g. RANK, RANKL, and OPG), require further study to be useful, especially regarding osteoporosis therapy based on genetic analysis.

  15. Screening and validation of serum protein biomarkers for early postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Hu, Ya-Qian; Zhao, Zhuo-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Gao, Bo; Lu, Wei-Guang; Xu, Xiao-Long; Lin, Xi-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Peng; Jie, Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Yang, Liu

    2017-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most prominent worldwide public health problems and the morbidity is increasing with the aging population. It has been demonstrated that early diagnosis and intervention delay the disease progression and improve the outcome. Therefore, searching for biomarkers that are able to identify postmenopausal women at high risk for developing osteoporosis is an effective way to improve the quality of life of patients, and alleviate social and economic burdens. In the present study, a protein array was used to identify potential biomarkers. The bone mineral densities of 10 rats were dynamically measured in an ovariectomized model by micro‑computed tomography assessment, and the early stage of osteoporosis was defined. Through the protein array‑based screening, the expression levels of six serum protein biomarkers in ovariectomized rats were observed to alter at the initiation stage of the postmenopausal osteoporosis. Fractalkine, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‑1 and monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 were finally demonstrated to be increased in the serum of eight enrolled postmenopausal osteoporosis patients using ELISA assay and were correlated with the severity of progressive bone loss. These biomarkers may be explored as potential early biomarkers to readily evaluate and diagnose postmenopausal osteoporosis in the clinic.

  16. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover osteoporosis

  17. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. In conclusion: (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high

  18. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  19. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  20. Melting bones: The social construction of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erol, Maral

    2011-11-01

    The increased medicalization of different life stages, including menopause, is a subject studied mostly in the Western context. Examining medicalization in the non-Western world advances discussions of body, identity and health. In this paper, I analyze the discourses around postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey, focusing on the different constructions of risk in the medical and popular literature. The empirical basis of the paper draws on ethnographic research done in Istanbul, Turkey between June 2006 and March 2007. The research includes participant observation in gynecology clinics, interviews with clinicians and menopausal women and archival research on the representations of menopause in the Turkish media between 1999 and 2006. Referred to as kemik erimesi (melting of the bones) in colloquial Turkish, osteoporosis has been an essential component in the medicalization of menopause in Turkey. I argue that postmenopausal osteoporosis is defined as a combination of embodied risk, which is related to the definition of menopause as a risky period, and lifestyle risk, demonstrated in discussions around "traditional" vs. "modern" clothing and healthcare habits. The Turkish example emphasizes the importance of local conditions in defining medical risk and complicates the embodied vs. lifestyle risk categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between bone mineral density, weight, and estrogen levels in pre and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Corina, Morcov; Vulpoi, Carmen; Brănişteanu, D

    2012-01-01

    Bone loss in postmenopausal women is mainly due to estrogen deficiency affecting the balance between osteoclast resorption and bone formation controlled by osteoblasts. To determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) in pre and postmenopausal Caucasian women, and estrogen levels. Cross-sectional study including six groups of 8 to 15 pre- and postmenopausal healthy volunteers with different weights, body mass index (BMI) (normal or underweight < 25 kg/m2, overweight 25-30 kg/m2, and obese > 30 kg/m2), not exposed to antiosteoporotic therapy. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition (BC) were evaluated by dual X ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic), while serum estradiol and estrone were measured by ELISA. BMD in postmenopausal women is lower than in premenopausal women irrespective of body weight (p<0.05). Estradiol and estrone are positively correlate with bone mass in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women (R2 0.3209, R2 0.2579, respectively). It is very important to identify the risk factors for osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women, as we will show that aromatization of androgens into estrogens in adipose tissue appears not to have a significant role in postmenopausal women bone protection. Key-

  2. Bone mineral density in periodontally healthy and edentulous postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bando, K; Nitta, H; Matsubara, M; Ishikawa, I

    1998-07-01

    (Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic disease among postmenopausal women. Reduced masticatory function caused by tooth loss may be a contributing risk factor of osteoporosis. The present study examined the effect of dentate state on skeletal bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Fourteen periodontally healthy dentate subjects (group H; mean age: 64.0 + 5.5 years) and 12 edentulous subjects (group E; mean age: 67.1 + 2.9 years) were randomly selected from the clinics of the departments of Periodontology and Gerodontology, respectively. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. BMD of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. In addition, occlusal force was measured in 11 group H subjects and 8 group E subjects by using an occlusal diagnostic system. Risk factors associated with osteoporosis including age, calcium intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking and causes of tooth loss were assessed by interview and questionnaire sent to all participants. The BMD of group H was 1.07 t 0.21 g/cm2 and that of group E was 0.89 + 0.17 g/cm2, which was significantly different(P< 0.05). The occlusal force of group H and E patients was 312.4 + 148 Nand 56.3 + 36 N, respectively, which was significantly different (P< 0.05). Risk factors such as calcium intake, physical activity, and smoking did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Thus, the periodontally healthy dentate women, who showed about 6 times higher occlusal force than edentulous women, maintained significantly higher BMD of the lumbar spine than edentulous women. Our results suggest that sufficient masticatory function with periodontally healthy dentition may inhibit or delay the progress of osteoporotic change in skeletal bone or that edentulous women may be more susceptible to osteoporosis.

  3. Sex steroids, bone mass, and bone loss. A prospective study of pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Slemenda, C; Longcope, C; Peacock, M; Hui, S; Johnston, C C

    1996-01-01

    Although bone loss around the time of menopause is driven by estrogen deficiency, the roles of estrogens and androgens in the preservation of skeletal mass at other stages of life are less well understood. To address this issue we studied 231 women between the ages of 32 and 77 with multiple measurements of sex steroids and bone mass over a period of 2-8 yr. In all women bone mass was negatively associated with concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, and positively associated with weight. Bone loss occurred from all skeletal sites in peri- and postmenopausal women, but premenopausal women lost bone only from the hip (-0.3%/yr) and had positive rates of change in the radius and spine. Bone loss was significantly associated with lower androgen concentrations in premenopausal women, and with lower estrogens and androgens in peri- and postmenopausal women. Sex steroids are important for the maintenance of skeletal integrity before menopause, and for as long as 20-25 yr afterwards.

  4. Dietary coral calcium and zeolite protects bone in a mouse model for postmenopausal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Banu, Jameela; Varela, Erika; Guerra, Juan M; Halade, Ganesh; Williams, Paul J; Bahadur, Ali N; Hanaoka, Kokichi; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    In patients diagnosed with osteoporosis, calcium is lost from bones making them weaker and easily susceptible to fractures. Supplementation of calcium is highly recommended for such conditions. However, the source of calcium plays an important role in the amount of calcium that is assimilated into bone. We hypothesize that naturally occurring coral calcium and zeolite may prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss. We have measured bone loss in ovariectomized mice supplemented with coral calcium and Zeolite. Female C57BL/6 mice were either sham-operated or ovariectomized and fed diets containing coral calcium or zeolite for 6 months. Serum was analyzed for bone biochemical markers and cytokines. Bones were analyzed using dual x-ray absorbtiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and micro-computed tomography densitometry. In the distal femoral metaphysis, total bone and cortical bone mass was restored and the endocortical surface was significantly decreased in coral calcium and zeolite fed ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Trabecular number and the ratio of bone volume to total volume was higher in OVX mice after coral calcium and zeolite feeding, while trabecular separation decreased in the different treatment OVX groups. Coral calcium protected bone to a lesser extent in the proximal tibia and lumbar vertebrae. Overall, coral calcium and zeolite may protect postmenopausal bone loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet, weight, cytokines and bone health in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunn, C A; Weber, J L; Kruger, M C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate diet and nutrition-related factors associated with bone loss in a group of postmenopausal (PM) women. Nutritional intake, inflammatory markers and body composition (weight, body mass index, fat/lean mass) were analysed for associations with bone mineral density (BMD). A cross sectional study examining correlations between BMD (Duel-energy X ray absorptiometry; (DXA) and dietary intake (3-day diaries), body composition and plasma bone and inflammatory markers: C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and procollagen type I N propeptide (P1NP), C- reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 and 10 (IL-6, IL-10), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Community dwelling women from the Auckland, Hawke's Bay and Manawatu regions in New Zealand. 142 healthy, PM women aged 50-70 years. OPG (per kilogram fat mass) was increased in women with osteoporosis (p<0.001) compared to groups classified with normal BMD and osteopenia. Protein, vitamin B12, zinc, potassium and dairy intake were all positively correlated with higher BMD while dairy and potassium intakes also inversely correlated with CTX. Body composition (weight, BMI and fat/lean mass) had strong positive associations with BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed body weight, potassium and dairy intake were predictors of increased BMD in PM women and explained 39% (r2=0.39, p< 0.003) of variance. BMD was negatively correlated with OPG and positively with weight, dairy and potassium intake. This study highlights the importance of maintaining adequate body weight and emphasising dairy and potassium predominantly sourced from fruit/vegetables to reduce bone loss at midlife.

  6. Factors affecting bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad; Hosseini, Reza; Javadian, Yahya; Bijani, Ali; Sateri, Mohammad Hassan; Nouroddini, Haj Ghorban

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and demographic, biochemical, and clinical features according to BMD measurement sites. The results indicated that BMD correlates negatively with menopause duration, parity, and history of fractures but positively correlates with obesity, physical activity, education, and serum ferritin. Osteoporosis (OP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly people. The impacts of various factors on bone mineral density (BMD) differ across diverse population. We hypothesized that the influences of factors which affect BMD vary according to BMD measurement sites. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between BMD in the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) with some common clinical, demographic, and biochemical parameters in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional case-control study, all postmenopausal women of the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP) who performed bone densitometry were included. BMD at FN and LS was measured by DXA method. Data regarding clinical, demographic, and biochemical characteristics were provided. OP was diagnosed by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry criteria. Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analyses with simultaneous adjustment were performed to determine relationship. Five hundred thirty-seven women with mean age of 67.9 ± 6.7 years and mean menopause duration (MD) of 15.8 ± 5.1 years were studied. MD correlated negatively with FN-BMD and LS-BMD g/cm(2) (r = -0.405, p = 0.001 and r = -0.217, p = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) correlated positively with FN and LS-BMD g/cm(2) (r = 0.397, p = 0.001 and r = 0.311, p = 0.001). The association of MD with risk of FN-OP was stronger than LS-OP. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) and higher serum ferritin reduced the risk of OP at both LS and FN similarly, whereas the impacts of parity, prior fracture, high level of education, and physical

  7. Influence of obesity on bone density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Silva, Henyse G Valente da; Mendonça, Laura M C; Conceição, Flávia L; Zahar, Silvia E V; Farias, Maria Lucia F

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of obesity, age, and years since menopause on bone density. A retrospective analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) obtained from 588 women, 41 to 60 years, previously menopaused (1-10 years before). Positive influence of obesity was confirmed by the significant differences in BMD at lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), and trochanter (TR) between the groups (p < 0.01). Age and years since menopause (YSM) were negatively correlated with BMD at all sites (p = 0.000). Comparing patients within 1 to < 6 YSM versus 6 to 10 YSM, BMD was higher in the former at LS and FN (p < 0.005), despite the higher BMI in the older group (p = 0.01). Obese patients had a lower prevalence of osteoporosis at LS and FN (p = 0.009). Regression analysis identified BMI as the strongest determinant of FN and TR BMD, while YSM was the strongest determinant of LS BMD. The protective effect of obesity is overtaken by age and estradiol deficiency. We recommend that even obese postmenopausal women should be screened for osteoporosis.

  8. Adrenal steroids in post-menopausal women: relation to obesity and to bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Brody, S; Carlström, K; Lagrelius, A; Lunell, N O; Möllerström, G

    1987-04-01

    Basal levels and ACTH-induced increments of serum 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (170HP), cortisol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione (A-4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) were related to the degree of obesity and to trabecular bone mineral density in 29 postmenopausal women. The ACTH-induced increment of 170HP (delta 170HP) was negatively correlated to basal DHA and delta DHA. Positive correlations were found between obesity, expressed as Broca's index, and delta DHA and the delta DHA/delta 170HP ratio. Bone mineral density was positively correlated to basal DHAS, delta DHA, delta DHAS and the delta DHA/delta 170HP ratio, and negatively correlated to delta 170HP. DHA and 170HP represent a crossroad in adrenocortical steroid biosynthesis, leading to delta 5-androgens and glucocorticoids as main products. Besides age, obesity may also influence the intra-adrenal distribution between these two main steroidogenic pathways. The results suggest that differences at a very early stage of the adrenal steroidogenesis may influence calcium homeostasis in the post-menopausal woman.

  9. Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Henderson, Victor W; Shoupe, Donna; Budoff, Matthew J; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Kono, Naoko; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Selzer, Robert H; Azen, Stanley P

    2016-03-31

    Data suggest that estrogen-containing hormone therapy is associated with beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease when the therapy is initiated temporally close to menopause but not when it is initiated later. However, the hypothesis that the cardiovascular effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy vary with the timing of therapy initiation (the hormone-timing hypothesis) has not been tested. A total of 643 healthy postmenopausal women were stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early postmenopause] or ≥10 years [late postmenopause]) and were randomly assigned to receive either oral 17β-estradiol (1 mg per day, plus progesterone [45 mg] vaginal gel administered sequentially [i.e., once daily for 10 days of each 30-day cycle] for women with a uterus) or placebo (plus sequential placebo vaginal gel for women with a uterus). The primary outcome was the rate of change in carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which was measured every 6 months. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT), which was performed when participants completed the randomly assigned regimen. After a median of 5 years, the effect of estradiol, with or without progesterone, on CIMT progression differed between the early and late postmenopause strata (P=0.007 for the interaction). Among women who were less than 6 years past menopause at the time of randomization, the mean CIMT increased by 0.0078 mm per year in the placebo group versus 0.0044 mm per year in the estradiol group (P=0.008). Among women who were 10 or more years past menopause at the time of randomization, the rates of CIMT progression in the placebo and estradiol groups were similar (0.0088 and 0.0100 mm per year, respectively; P=0.29). CT measures of coronary-artery calcium, total stenosis, and plaque did not differ significantly between the placebo group and the estradiol group in either postmenopause stratum. Oral estradiol

  10. Gingival crevicular fluid bone turnover biomarkers: How postmenopausal women respond to orthodontic activation.

    PubMed

    Smuthkochorn, Sorapan; Palomo, J Martin; Hans, Mark G; Jones, Corey S; Palomo, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Bone turnover associated with orthodontic tooth movement is evidenced by increased bone turnover markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Postmenopausal women have an increased concentration of serum bone turnover markers. The filtrate of this serum makes up GCF, but little is known of the bone turnover around teeth in this cohort. The objective of this investigation was to compare the GCF bone turnover markers in premenopausal vs postmenopausal women receiving orthodontic treatment at baseline and at orthodontic activation. Twenty-eight women were enrolled in the study and separated into 2 groups: premenopausal (16) and postmenopausal (12). Bone turnover was evaluated by GCF at baseline and 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation. GCF concentrations of RANKL and OPN were measured using ELISA. Baseline and change in concentrations were compared between groups. Baseline RANKL and OPN were significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups (P <0.05). Both markers increased significantly from baseline to 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation in both groups (P <0.05). However, the response to orthodontic activation was not significantly different between groups. Although postmenopausal women have a different bone turnover profile at baseline than do their premenopausal counterparts, there is no difference in their response to orthodontic activation. This confers a level of security associated with orthodontic activation. Future studies are warranted to construct biomarker curves throughout orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endochondral ossification pathway genes and postmenopausal osteoporosis: Association and specific allele related serum bone sialoprotein levels in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bo; Li, Lu; Chen, Gang; Fu, Dongke; Wang, KunZheng

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and disrupted bone architecture, predisposing the patient to increased fracture risk. Evidence from early genetic epidemiological studies has indicated a major role for genetics in the development of osteoporosis and the variation in BMD. In this study, we focused on two key genes in the endochondral ossification pathway, IBSP and PTHLH. Over 9,000 postmenopausal Han Chinese women were recruited, and 54 SNPs were genotyped. Two significant SNPs within IBSP, rs1054627 and rs17013181, were associated with BMD and postmenopausal osteoporosis by the two-stage strategy, and rs17013181 was also significantly associated with serum IBSP levels. Moreover, one haplotype (rs12425376-rs10843047-rs42294) covering the 5’ end of PTHLH was associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our results provide evidence for the association of these two key endochondral ossification pathway genes with BMD and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women. Combined with previous findings, we provide evidence that a particular SNP in IBSP has an allele-specific effect on mRNA levels, which would, in turn, reflect serum IBSP levels. PMID:26568273

  12. Endochondral ossification pathway genes and postmenopausal osteoporosis: Association and specific allele related serum bone sialoprotein levels in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bo; Li, Lu; Chen, Gang; Fu, Dongke; Wang, KunZheng

    2015-11-16

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and disrupted bone architecture, predisposing the patient to increased fracture risk. Evidence from early genetic epidemiological studies has indicated a major role for genetics in the development of osteoporosis and the variation in BMD. In this study, we focused on two key genes in the endochondral ossification pathway, IBSP and PTHLH. Over 9,000 postmenopausal Han Chinese women were recruited, and 54 SNPs were genotyped. Two significant SNPs within IBSP, rs1054627 and rs17013181, were associated with BMD and postmenopausal osteoporosis by the two-stage strategy, and rs17013181 was also significantly associated with serum IBSP levels. Moreover, one haplotype (rs12425376-rs10843047-rs42294) covering the 5' end of PTHLH was associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our results provide evidence for the association of these two key endochondral ossification pathway genes with BMD and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women. Combined with previous findings, we provide evidence that a particular SNP in IBSP has an allele-specific effect on mRNA levels, which would, in turn, reflect serum IBSP levels.

  13. Serum sclerostin levels associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Lu, Fu-rong; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Li, Cheng-gang; Wu, Man-xiang

    2013-07-01

    Sclerostin, expressed exclusively by osteocytes, is a negative regulator of bone formation. To gain insights into the action of sclerostin in postmenopausal osteoporosis, we evaluated serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women and investigated its possible associations with bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We detected serum sclerostin, and measured lumbar spine bone mineral density in 650 Chinese postmenopausal women. We also assessed serum levels of β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol. Serum sclerostin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared with non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ((38.79 ± 7.43) vs. (52.86 ± 6.69) pmol/L, P < 0.001). Serum sclerostin was positively correlated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (r = 0.391, P < 0.001) and weakly negatively correlated with β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin (r = -0.225, P < 0.001; r = -0.091, P = 0.046; r = -0.108, P = 0.018; respectively) in postmenopausal osteoporosis. There was no significant association of serum sclerostin with age, body mass index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol (r = -0.004, P = 0.926; r = 0.067, P = 0.143; r = 0.063, P = 0.165; r = -0.045, P = 0.324; respectively). Sclerostin may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and may play a role in bone turnover.

  14. Use of bone alkaline phosphatase to monitor alendronate therapy in individual postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Kress, B C; Mizrahi, I A; Armour, K W; Marcus, R; Emkey, R D; Santora, A C

    1999-07-01

    Biochemical bone markers are sensitive to the changes in bone turnover that result from treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic women with antiresorptive therapies. Although information is available on the use of bone markers in monitoring therapy in groups of subjects, less is known regarding how these markers perform in individual patients. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP) concentrations, measured with the Tandem(R) Ostase(R) assay, were used to monitor the biochemical response of bone in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis receiving either 10 mg/day alendronate therapy (n = 74) or calcium supplementation (n = 148) for 24 months. Bone ALP decreased significantly from baseline at 3 months (P bone ALP decrease in the treated osteoporotic population was consistent with normalization to premenopausal concentrations. Of the 74 alendronate-treated subjects, 63 (85.1%) demonstrated a decrease from baseline in bone ALP by 6 months that exceeded the least significant change of 25%. The bone ALP decrease from baseline exceeded 25% in 72 (97%) by the end of the study. The bone ALP assay is a sensitive and reliable tool that may be used to monitor the reduction in bone turnover after alendronate therapy in individual postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  15. Aromatase inhibitors associated musculoskeletal disorders and bone fractures in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: a result from Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Wang, Jue; Xue, Dan-Dan; He, Wei

    2014-09-01

    As the prognosis of early breast cancer patients improves, the long-term safety of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is increasingly important. In the present study, we retrospectively investigated the incidences of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and bone fractures in a cohort of Chinese postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Data of postmenopausal patients with breast cancer were collected. Among which, 70 patients received AIs therapy (median follow-up of 32.5 months), 52 patients received tamoxifen (TAM), and 89 patients received no endocrine therapy (NE). Baseline characteristics, incidence of MSDs and bone fractures were analyzed and compared. When compared with NE group (40.4 %, 36/89), more patients in AIs group developed MSDs (72.9 %, 51/70, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.30, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.59-6.88, P = 0.001). But no difference was found between TAM group (36.5 %, 19/52, AOR = 0.70, 95 % CI = 0.32-1.52, P = 0.372) and NE group. About 39.7 months after initial AIs therapy, nine patients in AI group developed bone fractures in different sites, and the bone fracture rate was significantly increased (12.9 %, 9/70, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 20.08, 95 % CI = 1.72-234.08, P = 0.017) in comparison with NE group (1.1 %, 1/89). Moreover, the bone fracture rate of TAM group was not different from NE group (1.9 %, 1/52, AHR = 2.64, 95 % CI = 0.14-48.73, P = 0.513). AIs therapy may induce increased rates of MSDs and bone fractures in Chinese population of postmenopausal breast cancer patients, whereas TAM therapy did not help reduce the incidences of MSDs and bone fractures.

  16. Serum serotonin concentration associated with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiu-Shi; Chen, Zhen-Qiu; Tan, Xin; Kang, Lu-Chen; Jiang, Xiao-Bing; Liang, Jiang; He, Wei; Deng, Wei-Min

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that circulating serotonin plays a potential role in bone metabolism. However, conflicting results have been reported for the relationship between serum serotonin concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether the serum serotonin concentrations related to BMD in Chinese postmenopausal women. Serum serotonin and bone turnover concentrations of 117 premenopausal women and 262 asymptomatic postmenopausal women were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between serotonin and BMD was investigated. The postmenopausal women had lower mean serum serotonin concentrations compared to the premenopausal women. Serotonin concentrations were negatively associated with age, weight, BMI, fat mass, and β-CTX concentrations in postmenopausal women. No significant correlations were found between serotonin and these parameters in premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, age- and BMI-adjusted serotonin concentrations were positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Multiple regression analyses showed serum serotonin and β-CTX were the predictors for lumbar spine BMD. Only serum serotonin was the determinant for femoral neck BMD. In conclusion, lower serum serotonin concentrations are linked to low lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women.

  17. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women with type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alselami, Nada M; Noureldeen, Amani F H; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Khan, Jalaluddin A; Moselhy, Said S

    2015-03-01

    There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese postmenopausal Saudi women, (36 uncontrolled, 29 controlled). The following serum biochemical parameters were evaluated [fasting blood glucose (FBG), total calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pi), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-(OH)2 Vitamin D3, osteocalcin (OC), procollagen (PICP) and cathepsin k (Cath K)]. Serum OC levels were significantly decreased in diabetic obese postmenopausal group compared to their respective healthy group (P < 0.004). PICP and Cath K were significantly elevated in diabetic postmenopausal group compared to the healthy group (P < 0.024 & 0.001). A significant elevation in 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3, Ca and Pi levels in diabetic obese postmenopausal patients group compared to the healthy group. However, a non-significant changes was observed in serum PTH level between different groups. In this study, the changes in the biochemical parameters and bone turnover markers in obese women are strong risk factors for diabetes development that may contribute to osteopenia and osteoporosis. The study showed the strong effect of T2DM on biochemical markers of bone turnover in obese postmenopausal Saudi women.

  18. Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Arjmandi, Bahram H.; Johnson, Sarah A.; Pourafshar, Shirin; Navaei, Negin; George, Kelli S.; Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C.; Akhavan, Neda S.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production, which causes accelerated bone loss. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of postmenopausal women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition and exercise, are known to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and therefore play an important role in bone health. In terms of nutrition, accumulating evidence suggests that dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) is potentially an efficacious intervention for preventing and reversing bone mass and structural loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, as well as in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Here, we provide evidence supporting the efficacy of dried plum in preventing and reversing bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in rodent models and in humans. We end with the results of a recent follow-up study demonstrating that postmenopausal women who previously consumed 100 g dried plum per day during our one-year clinical trial conducted five years earlier retained bone mineral density to a greater extent than those receiving a comparative control. Additionally, we highlight the possible mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds in dried plum exert bone-protective effects. Overall, the findings of our studies and others strongly suggest that dried plum in its whole form is a promising and efficacious functional food therapy for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, with the potential for long-lasting bone-protective effects. PMID:28505102

  19. [Association between bone turnover markers, bone mineral density and vitamin D in Moroccan postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Elmachtani Idrissi, S; Dami, A; Bouhsain, S; Chabraoui, L; Ouzzif, Z

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation between bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in a cohort of Moroccan postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study, conducted over a period of 12 months from October 2008 to November 2009. Five hundred Moroccan postmenopausal women volunteers participated in this study and we included only 185. In this cohort of 185 women, average age 60 years, the percentage of osteoporotic women was 35.7%, they were older 62.09 (9.13) years and they had an average of the body mass index (BMI), the lowest 29.58 (4.45). The values of the bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the lumbar spine correlated positively and significantly with BMI (P<0.001), serum calcium (P=0.026), negatively with age (P<0.001) and osteocalcin (OC) (P=0.0033). As for the results of BMD measured at the femoral neck, they show a negative and highly significant correlation with age (P<0.001) and osteocalcin. Looking for an association between the biochemical markers of bone remodeling, a weak positive correlation was found between the calcium (Ca) and alkaline phosphatase (PAL) on the one hand and Ca and intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi) in the other hand. And a significant positive correlation was found between PTHi and PAL, and between PTHi and OC. Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the cross-laps (β-CTX) and Ca and between PAL and OC. Our results are in agree to some international studies and disagree to others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between parity and bone mass in postmenopausal women according to number of parities and age.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad; Heidari, Parnaz; Nourooddini, Haj Ghorban; Hajian-Tilaki, Karim Ollah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of multiple pregnancies on postmenopausal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Diagnosis of osteoporosis (OP) was confirmed by World Health Organization criteria. Women were stratified according to number of parity as < 3, 4-7, and > 7 parity groups as well as in age groups of < 65 and 65 in age groups of < 65 and > or = 65 years. BMD values and frequency of OP were compared across the groups according to age. Multiple logistic regression analysis with calculation of adjusted odds ratio (OR) was used for association. A total of 264 women with mean age of 63 +/- 8.7 and mean menopausal duration of 15.8 +/- 10.2 years were studied. LS-OP and FN-OP were observed in 28% and 58.3% of women, respectively. There were significant differences in BMD values across different parity groups at both sites of LS and FN (p = 0.011 and p = 0.036, respectively). Parity 4-7 (vs. < or = 3) increased BMD nonsignificantly, but > 7 significantly decreased LS-BMD and FN-BMD as compared with 0-7 parity (p = 0.006 and p = 0.009, respectively). Parity > 7 increased the risk of LS-OP by OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03-3.1, p = 0.037) and FN-OP by OR = 1.67 (95% CI 0.97-2.8, p = 0.063). In addition, women with high parity had lower BMD decline at LS and FN by age (> or = 65 vs. < 65 years) by 1.3% (p = 0.77) and -10.1% (p = 0.009) as compared with 0-7 parity group by -9.5% (p = 0.001) and -15% (p = 0.0001), respectively. Parity > 7 is associated with spinal trabecular bone loss in younger postmenopausal women as well as an osteoprotective effect against age-related bone loss, which counteracts the early negative effect. Therefore, parity should not be considered as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bryan D.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2015-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed. PMID:26060817

  2. Bone strength and muscle properties in postmenopausal women with and without a recent distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Crockett, K; Arnold, C M; Farthing, J P; Chilibeck, P D; Johnston, J D; Bath, B; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Kontulainen, S A

    2015-10-01

    Distal radius (wrist) fracture (DRF) in women over age 50 years is an early sign of bone fragility. Women with a recent DRF compared to women without DRF demonstrated lower bone strength, muscle density, and strength, but no difference in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures, suggesting DXA alone may not be a sufficient predictor for DRF risk. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in bone and muscle properties between women with and without a recent DRF. One hundred sixty-six postmenopausal women (50-78 years) were recruited. Participants were excluded if they had taken bone-altering medications in the past 6 months or had medical conditions that severely affected daily living or the upper extremity. Seventy-seven age-matched women with a fracture in the past 6-24 months (Fx, n = 32) and without fracture (NFx, n = 45) were measured for bone and muscle properties using the nondominant (NFx) or non-fractured limb (Fx). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to estimate bone strength in compression (BSIc) at the distal radius and tibia, bone strength in torsion (SSIp) at the shaft sites, muscle density, and area at the forearm and lower leg. Areal bone mineral density at the ultradistal forearm, spine, and femoral neck was measured by DXA. Grip strength and the 30-s chair stand test were used as estimates of upper and lower extremity muscle strength. Limb-specific between-group differences were compared using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). There was a significant group difference (p < 0.05) for the forearm and lower leg, with the Fx group demonstrating 16 and 19% lower BSIc, 3 and 6% lower muscle density, and 20 and 21% lower muscle strength at the upper and lower extremities, respectively. There were no differences between groups for DXA measures. Women with recent DRF had lower pQCT-derived estimated bone strength at the distal radius and tibia and lower muscle density and strength at both extremities.

  3. One year soy protein supplementation has positive effects on bone formation markers but not bone density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi, Bahram H; Lucas, Edralin A; Khalil, Dania A; Devareddy, Latha; Smith, Brenda J; McDonald, Jennifer; Arquitt, Andrea B; Payton, Mark E; Mason, Claudia

    2005-02-23

    Although soy protein and its isoflavones have been reported to reduce the risk of osteoporosis in peri- and post-menopausal women, most of these studies are of short duration (i.e. six months). The objective of this study was to examine if one year consumption of soy-containing foods (providing 25 g protein and 60 mg isoflavones) exerts beneficial effects on bone in postmenopausal women. Eighty-seven eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to consume soy or control foods daily for one year. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body, lumbar (L1-L4), and total hip were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after one year. Blood and urine markers of bone metabolism were also assessed. Sixty-two subjects completed the one-year long study. Whole body and lumbar BMD and BMC were significantly decreased in both the soy and control groups. However, there were no significant changes in total hip BMD and BMC irrespective of treatment. Both treatments positively affected markers of bone formation as indicated by increased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) activity, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and osteocalcin (BSAP: 27.8 and 25.8%, IGF-I: 12.8 and 26.3%, osteocalcin: 95.2 and 103.4% for control and soy groups, respectively). Neither of the protein supplements had any effect on urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion, a marker of bone resorption. Our findings suggest that although one year supplementation of 25 g protein per se positively modulated markers of bone formation, this amount of protein was unable to prevent lumbar and whole body bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  4. Legumain Regulates Differentiation Fate of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Is Altered in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Abbas; Qanie, Diyako; Andersen, Thomas L; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Li; Postert, Benno; Parsons, Stuart; Ditzel, Nicholas; Khosla, Sundeep; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Abdallah, Basem M; Hesselson, Daniel; Solberg, Rigmor; Kassem, Moustapha

    2017-02-14

    Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells and that its expression level and cellular localization are altered in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. As shown by genetic and pharmacological manipulation, legumain inhibited osteoblast (OB) differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein fibronectin. In addition, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of legumain activity led to precocious OB differentiation and increased vertebral mineralization in zebrafish. Finally, we show that localized increased expression of legumain in bone marrow adipocytes was inversely correlated with adjacent trabecular bone mass in a cohort of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our data suggest that altered proteolytic activity of legumain in the bone microenvironment contributes to decreased bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lack of effect of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 4 gene polymorphisms on bone density in postmenopausal Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Z S; Deveci, D; Onalan Etem, E; Yüce, H

    2010-11-30

    We investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 4 (BMP-2 and -4) gene polymorphisms on bone density in postmenopausal Turkish women with osteoporosis. The frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BMP-2 and -4 genes was analyzed in 101 osteoporotic-postmenopausal women and 52 postmenopausal women with positive bone mineral density scores. We evaluated the frequency of the thymine→cytosine nucleotide variation at position 538 for BMP-4 and the transposition of adenine→thymine at codon 190 for BMP-2, with PCR. The proportions of genotypes observed for the BMP-2 SNP in the osteoporotic group were AA (47.5%), AT (39.6%), TT (12.9%), and in the non-osteoporotic group they were AA (48.1%), AT (40.4%), TT (11.5%). The corresponding frequencies for the BMP-4 SNP in the osteoporotic group were TT (30.7%), TC (45.5%), CC (23.8%), and in the non-osteoporotic group they were TT (26.9%), TC (40.4%), CC (32.7%). There were no significant differences in the frequencies of these genotypes between the patient and control groups. We conclude that genetic variations in BMP-2 and -4 do not substantially contribute to lumbar spine bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women.

  6. Relationship between nutritional profile, measures of adiposity, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Alnahdi, Wafa A; Alama, Nabeel; Ferns, Gordon A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis remains a major health problem in all developed countries and is a condition in which several dietary factors have been implicated. To assess the nutritional status and levels of adiposity of postmenopausal women in relation to bone mineral density. A cross-sectional study in which dietary intake was estimated by a food frequency questionnaire in 300 Saudi postmenopausal women aged 46-88 years. Bone profile biochemistry (serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone [PTH], vitamin D) and bone mineral density (BMD) in 3 skeletal sites were determined for all participants. Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent among the study population. No significant correlation was found between dietary calcium and vitamin D and bone mass at any site. Dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D was significantly less than the recommended levels for a large proportion of the cohort. Energy-adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, fat, protein, and unsaturated fatty acids were associated with BMD in the postmenopausal women. Age, body weight, and residency type were predictors of BMD at all sites. Serum-intact PTH was a predictor of BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Waist : hip ratio (WHR) was a predictor for BMD at femoral neck. These results suggest that BMD is influenced by dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D. However, nondietary factors such as age, WHR, PTH, and body weight may be important determinants of BMD in postmenopausal women.

  7. Effect of weight loss on bone health in overweight/obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Toriola, Adetunji T; Liu, Jingxia; Ganz, Patricia A; Colditz, Graham A; Yang, Lin; Izadi, Sonya; Naughton, Michael J; Schwartz, Anna L; Wolin, Kathleen Y

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight loss in obese cancer survivors. Weight loss, however, has adverse effects on bone health in obese individuals without cancer but this has not been evaluated in breast cancer survivors. We investigated the associations of intentional weight loss with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turn-over markers in overweight/obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Participants were overweight/obese breast cancer survivors (N = 81) with stage I, II or IIIA disease enrolled in the St. Louis site of a multi-site Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good health for You (ENERGY) study; a randomized-controlled clinical trial designed to achieve a sustained ≥7 % loss in body weight at 2 years. Weight loss was achieved through dietary modification with the addition of physical activity. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess differences in mean values between follow-up and baseline. Mean weight decreased by 3 and 2.3 % between baseline and 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up, respectively. There were decreases in osteocalcin (10.6 %, p value < 0.001), PINP (14.5 %, p value < 0.001), NTx (19.2 % p value < 0.001), and RANK (48.5 %, p value < 0.001), but not BALP and CTX-1 levels between baseline and 12-month follow-up. No significant changes occurred in mean T-scores, pelvis and lumbar spine BMD between baseline and 12-month follow-up. A 2.3 % weight loss over 12 months among overweight/obese women with early-stage breast cancer does not appear to have deleterious effect on bone health, and might even have beneficial effect. These findings warrant confirmation, particularly among breast cancer survivors with a larger magnitude of weight loss.

  8. Comparative effects of dried plum and dried apple on bone in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Saadat, Raz L; Payton, Mark E; Brummel-Smith, Kenneth; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2011-09-01

    Aside from existing drug therapies, certain lifestyle and nutritional factors are known to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Among the nutritional factors, dried plum or prunes (Prunus domestica L.) is the most effective fruit in both preventing and reversing bone loss. The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which dried plum reverses bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. We recruited 236 women, 1-10 years postmenopausal, not on hormone replacement therapy or any other prescribed medication known to influence bone metabolism. Qualified participants (n 160) were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: dried plum (100 g/d) or dried apple (comparative control). Participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body was assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Physical activity recall and 1-week FFQ were obtained at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to examine physical activity and dietary confounders as potential covariates. Dried plum significantly increased BMD of ulna and spine in comparison with dried apple. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, only dried plum significantly decreased serum levels of bone turnover markers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b. The findings of the present study confirmed the ability of dried plum in improving BMD in postmenopausal women in part due to suppressing the rate of bone turnover.

  9. The use of the posture-p questionnaire and the quantitative ultrasound to assess the bone density of postmenopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winardi, A. M.; Wulansari, L. K.; Kusdhany, L. S.

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis must be detected early in order to prevent failures in denture treatment. To this end, tools such as the Posture-P questionnaire and the Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) are widely used for osteoporosis screening. Posture-P. This study is a diagnostic test that analyzes the sensitivity and specificity of the Posture-P questionnaire towards QUS in assessing the bone density of postmenopausal women. Data was collected through interviews using the Posture-P questionnaire, and bone density was measured using the QUS. The results of this study show that both the sensitivity and specificity of the Posture-P questionnaire towards QUS are quite good, with respective values of 77.23% and 75%. Thus, the Posture-P questionnaire can replace the QUS in osteoporosis screening.

  10. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Bone Structure in Nondiabetic Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Finkelstein, Joel S; Bouxsein, Mary L; Yu, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength. This cross-sectional study included 146 postmenopausal, nondiabetic Caucasian women (mean age 60.3 ± 2.7 y) who were participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. There were no interventions. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to assess bone density and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia. Fasting insulin and glucose were measured and insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), with higher values indicating greater insulin resistance. There was a negative association between HOMA-IR and bone size and a positive association between HOMA-IR and total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia. These relationships remained, even after adjusting for body weight and other potential covariates (eg, time since menopause, cigarette smoking, physical activity, prior use of osteoporosis medications or glucocorticoids). In nondiabetic, postmenopausal women, insulin resistance was associated with smaller bone size, greater volumetric bone mineral density, and generally favorable bone microarchitecture at weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing skeletal sites. These associations were independent of body weight and other potential covariates, suggesting that hyperinsulinemia directly affects bone structure independent of obesity and may explain, in part, the higher trabecular bone density and favorable trabecular microarchitecture seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Bone Structure in Nondiabetic Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 146 postmenopausal, nondiabetic Caucasian women (mean age 60.3 ± 2.7 y) who were participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to assess bone density and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia. Fasting insulin and glucose were measured and insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), with higher values indicating greater insulin resistance. Results: There was a negative association between HOMA-IR and bone size and a positive association between HOMA-IR and total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia. These relationships remained, even after adjusting for body weight and other potential covariates (eg, time since menopause, cigarette smoking, physical activity, prior use of osteoporosis medications or glucocorticoids). Conclusions: In nondiabetic, postmenopausal women, insulin resistance was associated with smaller bone size, greater volumetric bone mineral density, and generally favorable bone microarchitecture at weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing skeletal sites. These associations were independent of body weight and other potential covariates, suggesting that hyperinsulinemia directly affects bone structure independent of obesity and may explain, in part, the higher trabecular bone density and favorable trabecular microarchitecture seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27243136

  12. Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guibin; Liu, Guibin; Liu, Liu Hongmei; Zhao, Huanli; Zhang, Fengfang; Li, Shufa; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhenchun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  13. Body mass index and bone loss among postmenopausal women: the 10-year follow-up of the OSTPRE cohort.

    PubMed

    Saarelainen, Jarmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kröger, Heikki; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Niskanen, Leo; Jurvelin, Jukka; Honkanen, Risto

    2012-03-01

    Obesity protects against osteoporosis, but the magnitude of this association has been difficult to assess from cross-sectional or short term studies. We examined the time course of bone loss as a function of body mass index (BMI) in early and late postmenopausal women. Our study population (n = 300) was a random sample of the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study, Finland. We excluded women without complete BMD results, premenopausal women during the second bone densitometry and women who had used hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates or calcitonin. BMI along with femoral neck and spinal bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed three times by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean follow-up of 10.5 years (SD 0.5). The mean baseline age was 53.6 years (SD 2.8), time since menopause 2.9 years (SD 4.3) and BMI 27.3 kg/m(2) (SD 4.4). The data was analyzed by linear mixed models. Thus, we were able to approximate the bone loss up to 20 postmenopausal years. To illustrate, a woman with a baseline BMI of 20 kg/m(2) became osteopenic 2 (spine) and 4 (femoral neck) years after menopause, while obesity (BMI of 30 kg/m(2)) delayed the incidence of osteopenia by 5 (spine) and 9 (femoral neck) years, respectively. The delay was due to high baseline BMD of the obese, while bone loss rate was similar for both lean and obese subjects. This lean versus obese difference may also be partly due to altered X-ray attenuation due to fat mass.

  14. Feasibility of simultaneous measurement of bone formation and bone resorption markers to assess bone turnover rate in postmenopausal women: an EPOLOS study.

    PubMed

    Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Karczmarewicz, Elzbieta; Płudowski, Paweł; Jaworski, Maciej; Czerwiński, Edward; Lewiński, Andrzej; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Milewicz, Andrzej; Spaczyński, Marek; Lorenc, Roman S

    2008-12-01

    One of the most important risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women is elevated bone turnover (EBT), occurring in 25-30% of this population. This study's aim was to find a correlation between bone resorption and bone formation markers to assess bone turnover rate and qualify an individual postmenopausal woman as a possible EBT subject. Three hundred twenty postmenopausal women (> or = one year after the last menstruation, < or = 70 years old) were enrolled at seven clinical sites in this cross-sectional observational study conducted within the EPOLOS. The group was a random sample of the population. The study was performed in a referral center involved in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. The exclusion criteria included pregnancy, cancer, fracture in the last year, and overweight (> 100 kg). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine, total hip, trochanter, and femoral neck regions were performed. Bone resorption and formation rates were evaluated by serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin (OC), respectively. Using logistic regression to correlate the concentrations of CTX and OC it was possible not only to distinguish the EBT subgroup, but also to construct a simple nomogram for easy classification of individual patients as possible EBT subjects. EBT patients showed generally decreased BMD values and increased bone formation and resorption rates. Evaluation of both CTX and OC levels enables a more proper indication for EBT. The proposed nomogram may assist in evaluating outcome from the two markers of bone turnover.

  15. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with low bone mass in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su; Lee, Young-Sil; Kim, Sung Woo

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease associated with insulin resistant states such as central obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is also increased in such conditions. However, little is known about whether osteoporosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are etiologically related to each other or not. We examined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women. Four hundred eighty-one female subjects (216 premenopausal and 265 postmenopausal) were enrolled. Lumbar BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Liver ultrasonography was done to check the severity of fatty liver. We excluded subjects with a secondary cause of liver disease. Blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, and body mass index were measured in every subject. Mean lumbar BMD was lower in subjects with NAFLD than those without NAFLD in postmenopausal women (0.98 ± 0.01 vs. 1.01 ± 0.02 g/cm², P = 0.046). Multiple correlation analysis revealed a significant association between mean lumbar BMD and NAFLD in postmenopausal subjects after adjusting for age, body mass index, ALT, smoking status, and alcohol consumption (β coefficient -0.066, 95% CI -0.105 to -0.027, P = 0.001). Even after adjusting the presence of metabolic syndrome, the significance was maintained (β coefficient -0.043, 95% CI -0.082 to -0.004, P = 0.031). Lumbar BMD is related with NAFLD in postmenopausal females. We suggest that postmenopausal women with NAFLD may have a higher risk of osteoporosis than those without.

  16. Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong Da; Li, Guan Wu; Liu, Yong; Qiu, Yu You; Yao, Jian Hua; Tang, Guang Yu

    2015-09-01

    The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P < 0.05). AFM and AOI were significantly related to most anthropometric parameters. AFM was positively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AFM was negatively associated with age and YSM. AOI was negatively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AOI positively associated with age and YSM. LM, ALM, and FM had a positive relationship with anthropometric parameters (P < 0.05 for all). PLM had a negative relationship with those parameters. The correlation between LM, ALM, FM, PLM, ALM, age, and YSM was not significant. In multivariate

  17. ANABOLIC BONE WINDOW WITH WEEKLY TERIPARATIDE THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Gopalaswamy, Vinaya; Dhibar, Deba Prasad; Gupta, Vipin; Arya, Ashutosh Kumar; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Bhansali, Anil; Garg, Sudhir Kumar; Agarwal, Neelam; Rao, Sudhaker D; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem that reduces bone strength and increases fracture risk. Teriparatide is an established and the only currently available anabolic therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) with a recommended daily dose of 20 μg given subcutaneously. However, there are limited data regarding the long-term effect of once-weekly teriparatide therapy on bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs), and anabolic bone window. In this prospective observational study, 26 patients with PMO were treated with weekly teriparatide therapy (60 μg) for 2 years. BMD was measured at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. The bone formation marker type 1 collagen C-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and the bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx) were measured at baseline; 6 weeks; and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. BMDs at the lumbar spine increased by 3.1% and 10.8% after 1 and 2 years of weekly teriparatide therapy, respectively. The T-score increased significantly at the lumbar spine compared to baseline after 2 years of therapy (P = .015). Serum P1NP levels increased significantly at 6 months (P = .024), peaked at 1 year, and remained above the baseline even after 2 years. Serum CTx levels decreased significantly at 6 months (P = .025) and remained below baseline after 2 years of teriparatide therapy. Weekly teriparatide therapy (60 μg) appears to be as effective as daily teriparatide for the treatment of PMO by extending the anabolic bone window. AE = adverse event; BMD = bone mineral density; BTM = bone turnover marker; CTx = C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; iPTH = intact parathyroid hormone; P1NP = type 1 collagen C-terminal propeptide; PMO = postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  18. Effects of Eggshell Calcium Supplementation on Bone Mass in Postmenopausal Vietnamese Women.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Seigo; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Tuyen, Le Danh; Duc, Ha Anh; Masuda, Yasunobu; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Bone mass decreases along with aging, especially for women after menopause because of lower estrogen secretion together with low calcium intake. This study was conducted to study the effect of eggshell calcium supplementation on bone mass in 54 postmenopausal Vietnamese women living in a farming area about 60 km from Hanoi, Vietnam. Sets of 3 subjects matched by age, bone mass, BMI and calcium intake were divided randomly into 3 groups with 18 subjects in each group. The eggshell calcium group was administered 300 mg/d calcium from eggshell, the calcium carbonate group 300 mg/d calcium from calcium carbonate and the placebo group received no calcium supplementation. Bone mass (Speed of Sound (SOS)) was measured at the beginning (the baseline), the middle (6th month) and the end of the study (12th month) by the single blind method. SOS of the eggshell group increased significantly at 12 mo (p<0.05) and was significantly higher than that of the placebo and calcium carbonate groups at 12 mo (p<0.05). The SOS of the calcium carbonate group tended to be higher than that of the placebo group but without a significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, eggshell calcium was more effective in increasing bone mass than calcium carbonate in postmenopausal Vietnamese women.

  19. Relation of parity and homocysteine to bone mineral density of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Necat; Kepkep, Necip; Ciçek, Hülya Kanbur; Celik, Ahmet; Meram, Iclal

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major problem in contemporary society. However, there is not enough data on multiparity and osteoporosis from developing and/or undeveloped countries on a large scale. Selection of participants in this study was aimed at the detection of bone status in healthy (normal bone mineral density) postmenopausal (n = 46, 55.3 +/- 6.7 years) and osteoporotic postmenopausal women (n: 33) of similar age. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. At the DEXA evaluation, 33 women had osteoporotic (T score below -2.5) and 46 had normal BMD values. The number of pregnancies was found to range from 3 to 12 (with an overall mean of 6.7 +/- 2.5), while 2.6 +/- 1.9 (range, 1-7) were miscarriages in all of the 33 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Serum homocysteine (t-Hcy) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic postmenopausal women (11.96 +/- 3.84 micromol/L, 15.4 +/- 7.0 nM/mM cr) than in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women (10.93 +/- 3.6 micromol/L, 10.6 +/- 9.1 nM/mM cr), p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. Surprisingly, in postmenopausal osteoporotic women the homocysteine (t-Hcy) levels were positively associated with the number of deliveries (multiparity; 6.7 +/- 2.5), and positively associated with the number of curettages (2.6 +/- 1.9), r = 0.401, p < 0.038 and r = 0.520, p < 0.029, respectively. The mechanism linking serum t-Hcy to the number of pregnancies is unclear, and the relationship may only be by chance. In conclusion, the present study firstly suggests that the number of pregnancies has an effect on the t-Hcy levels. In addition, our study indicates that there is a significant negative correlation between the number of pregnancies and the lumbar spine BMD.

  20. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia)

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Hamaya, Etsuro; Sato, Masayo; Graham-Clarke, Peita; Flynn, Jennifer A; Burge, Russel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia). Materials and methods Medline via PubMed and Embase was systematically searched using prespecified terms. Retrieved publications were screened and included if they described randomized controlled trials or observational studies of postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia treated with raloxifene and reported one or more outcome measures (change in bone mineral density [BMD]; fracture incidence; change in bone-turnover markers, hip structural geometry, or blood–lipid profile; occurrence of adverse events; and change in quality of life or pain). Excluded publications were case studies, editorials, letters to the editor, narrative reviews, or publications from non-peer-reviewed journals; multidrug, multicountry, or multidisease studies with no drug-, country-, or disease-level analysis; or studies of participants on dialysis. Results Of the 292 publications retrieved, 15 publications (seven randomized controlled trials, eight observational studies) were included for review. Overall findings were statistically significant increases in BMD of the lumbar spine (nine publications), but not the hip region (eight publications), a low incidence of vertebral fracture (three publications), decreases in markers of bone turnover (eleven publications), improved hip structural geometry (two publications), improved blood–lipid profiles (five publications), a low incidence of hot flushes, leg cramps, venous thromboembolism, and stroke (12 publications), and improved quality of life and pain relief (one publication). Conclusion Findings support raloxifene for reducing vertebral fracture risk by improving BMD and reducing bone turnover in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Careful consideration of fracture risk and the risk–benefit profile

  1. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Hamaya, Etsuro; Sato, Masayo; Graham-Clarke, Peita; Flynn, Jennifer A; Burge, Russel

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia). Medline via PubMed and Embase was systematically searched using prespecified terms. Retrieved publications were screened and included if they described randomized controlled trials or observational studies of postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia treated with raloxifene and reported one or more outcome measures (change in bone mineral density [BMD]; fracture incidence; change in bone-turnover markers, hip structural geometry, or blood-lipid profile; occurrence of adverse events; and change in quality of life or pain). Excluded publications were case studies, editorials, letters to the editor, narrative reviews, or publications from non-peer-reviewed journals; multidrug, multicountry, or multidisease studies with no drug-, country-, or disease-level analysis; or studies of participants on dialysis. Of the 292 publications retrieved, 15 publications (seven randomized controlled trials, eight observational studies) were included for review. Overall findings were statistically significant increases in BMD of the lumbar spine (nine publications), but not the hip region (eight publications), a low incidence of vertebral fracture (three publications), decreases in markers of bone turnover (eleven publications), improved hip structural geometry (two publications), improved blood-lipid profiles (five publications), a low incidence of hot flushes, leg cramps, venous thromboembolism, and stroke (12 publications), and improved quality of life and pain relief (one publication). Findings support raloxifene for reducing vertebral fracture risk by improving BMD and reducing bone turnover in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Careful consideration of fracture risk and the risk-benefit profile of antiosteoporosis medications is required when

  2. Association between Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Postmenopausal Women: The Yokogoshi Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Harumi; Kitamura, Kaori; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yumi; Oshiki, Rieko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Diet and food intake play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. However, apart from calcium and vitamin D, how nutrients affect bone status is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese postmenopausal women. This 5-year cohort study included 600 community-dwelling women aged 55-74 years at baseline in 2005. Information on demographics, nutrition, and lifestyle was obtained through interviews, and nutritional and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2010, 498 women underwent follow-up BMD examinations. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine associations of predictor variables with BMD, adjusting for confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, coffee or black tea consumption was positively associated with lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and total hip (P = 0.003) BMD, and alcohol intake was positively associated with femoral neck (P = 0.005) and total hip (P = 0.001) BMD. In longitudinal analyses, vitamin K (P = 0.028) and natto (fermented soybeans) (P = 0.023) were positively associated with lumbar spine BMD, and meat or meat product consumption was inversely associated with total hip (P = 0.047) BMD. In conclusion, dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D intake are predictors of bone mass and bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women. In particular, natto intake is recommended for preventing postmenopausal bone loss on the basis of current evidence.

  3. High bone turnover elevates the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Koji; Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ohara, Kenji; Eguro, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX). Of the 85 denosumab-treated patients with osteoporosis studied, 22 (25.9%) developed hypocalcemia. Baseline serum total P1NP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly higher in patients with hypocalcemia than in those with normocalcemia following denosumab administration (all P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with total P1NP >76.5 μg/L, TRACP-5b >474 mU/dL, or urinary NTX >49.5 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine had a higher risk of hypocalcemia (P<0.01). Our study suggests that denosumab may have a greater impact on serum calcium levels in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with higher baseline bone turnover than in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with normal baseline bone turnover, because maintenance of normal serum calcium in this subgroup is more dependent on bone resorption. Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is strongly recommended for denosumab-treated patients with high bone turnover, despite supplementation with activated vitamin D and oral calcium. PMID:27980413

  4. Effects of long-term alendronate treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis bone material properties.

    PubMed

    Hassler, N; Gamsjaeger, S; Hofstetter, B; Brozek, W; Klaushofer, K; Paschalis, E P

    2015-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopic analysis of iliac crest from patients that were treated with alendronate (ALN) for 10 years revealed minimal, transient alterations in bone material properties confined to actively forming bone surfaces compared to patients that were on ALN for 5 years. These changes were not encountered in the bulk tissue. Alendronate (ALN) and other bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most widely prescribed therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Despite their overall excellent safety record and efficacy in reducing fractures, questions have been raised regarding potential detrimental effects that may be related to prolonged bone turnover reduction, although no definite cause-effect relationship has been established to date. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate bone material properties in patients that were receiving ALN for 5 or 10 years. Raman microspectroscopic analysis was used to analyze iliac crest biopsies from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who had been treated with ALN for 5 years and were then re-randomized to placebo (PBO, N = 14), 5 mg/day ALN (N = 10), or 10 mg/day ALN (N = 6) for another 5 years. The parameters monitored and expressed as a function of tissue age were (i) the mineral/matrix ratio (MM), (ii) the relative proteoglycan content (PG), (iii) the relative lipid content (LPD), (iv) the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC), and (v) the relative pyridinoline content (PYD). The obtained data indicate that 10-year ALN use results in minimal, transient bone tissue composition changes compared to use for 5 years, confined to actively forming trabecular surfaces, implying potential differences in bone matrix maturation that nevertheless did not result in differences of these values in bulk tissue. The data suggest that prolonged reduction in bone turnover during 10 years of therapy with ALN by itself is unlikely to be associated with adverse effects on bone material properties.

  5. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Mira; Ilavská, Silvia; Štefíková, Kornélia; Szabová, Michaela; Krivošíková, Zora; Jahnová, Eva; Tulinská, Jana; Spustová, Viera; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-07-11

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells ( p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  6. Risk factors for osteoporosis and bone status in postmenopausal women with psoriasis treated with UVB therapy.

    PubMed

    Osmancevic, Amra; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Larkö, Olle; Mellström, Dan; Wennberg, Ann-Marie; Hulthén, Lena; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether postmenopausal women with psoriasis who were exposed to regular ultraviolet light B (UVB) therapy had greater bone mineral density than women of similar age from the same region, and to estimate the influence of risk factors on bone status. A total of 35 randomly selected women, age (mean +/- SD) 69.3 +/- 6.29 years (age range 60-82 years), with active psoriasis, mean onset at 37.0 years (+/- 23.5 SD) were studied. The patients had been previously exposed to broadband or narrowband UVB. Age-matched, women (n = 2448) from Göteborg, examined at the Geriatric out-patient clinic during the years 2001 and 2002, were used as controls. Bone mineral density was examined by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A) at the hip and the lumbar spine. Medical history and lifestyle factors were assessed with a questionnaire. Postmenopausal women with psoriasis were found to have higher bone mineral density than age-matched controls. Higher body weight, physical activity and UVB exposure could explain this finding.

  7. Osteoporosis risk prediction for bone mineral density assessment of postmenopausal women using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Sung Kean; Kim, Deok Won; Choi, Joon Yul; Lee, Wan Hyung; Oh, Ein; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-11-01

    A number of clinical decision tools for osteoporosis risk assessment have been developed to select postmenopausal women for the measurement of bone mineral density. We developed and validated machine learning models with the aim of more accurately identifying the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women compared to the ability of conventional clinical decision tools. We collected medical records from Korean postmenopausal women based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The training data set was used to construct models based on popular machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVM), random forests, artificial neural networks (ANN), and logistic regression (LR) based on simple surveys. The machine learning models were compared to four conventional clinical decision tools: osteoporosis self-assessment tool (OST), osteoporosis risk assessment instrument (ORAI), simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimation (SCORE), and osteoporosis index of risk (OSIRIS). SVM had significantly better area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic than ANN, LR, OST, ORAI, SCORE, and OSIRIS for the training set. SVM predicted osteoporosis risk with an AUC of 0.827, accuracy of 76.7%, sensitivity of 77.8%, and specificity of 76.0% at total hip, femoral neck, or lumbar spine for the testing set. The significant factors selected by SVM were age, height, weight, body mass index, duration of menopause, duration of breast feeding, estrogen therapy, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and diabetes mellitus. Considering various predictors associated with low bone density, the machine learning methods may be effective tools for identifying postmenopausal women at high risk for osteoporosis.

  8. Relationship between serum leptin concentrations and bone mineral density as well as biochemical markers of bone turnover in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Shaarawy, Mohamed; Abassi, Asmaa Farid; Hassan, Hany; Salem, Mahmoud E

    2003-04-01

    To determine whether leptin is involved in bone remodeling in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. Ninety postmenopausal osteoporotic women (37 obese and 53 nonobese) and 30 healthy premenopausal women from the same clinic served as controls. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) of osteoporotic patients was more than 2.5 SD below the normal mean of healthy premenopausal women. Serum levels of leptin, osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPyr), and N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX) as well as LS-BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The serum leptin level in obese postmenopausal osteoporotic patients was significantly increased compared with nonobese osteoporotic patients. There were no significant differences of bone formation markers (B-ALP, OC), bone resorption markers (DPyr, NTX), or LS-BMD between the obese and nonobese groups. There were no significant correlations between serum leptin and any biomarkers of bone turnover and BMD. In postmenopausal osteoporotic patients with increased bone turnover, serum leptin concentration is not correlated with BMD or with the biomarkers of bone formation or bone resorption.

  9. Influence of weight and body fat distribution on bone density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Carranza-Lira, S; Martínez-Trejo, N; Santos-González, J

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether obesity or body fat distribution induces a greater modification on bone remodeling biochemistry (BRB) and bone density in postmenopausal women. One hundred and thirteen postmenopausal patients were studied. They were initially divided according to body mass index (BMI), and afterwards by waist-hip ratio (WHR) as well as combinations of the two factors. Hormone measurements and assessments of BRB were also done. Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry from the lumbar column and hip was performed with Lunar DPXL equipment, and the standard deviation in relation to young adult (T) and age-matched subjects (Z) was calculated. Statistical analysis was done by the Mann-Whitney U test. The relation of BMI and WHR with the variables was calculated by simple regression analysis. When divided according to BMI, there was greater bone density in the femoral neck in those with normal weight. After dividing according to WHR, the Z scores had a trend to a lesser decrease in those with upper level body fat distribution. Divided according to BMI and WHR, obese patients with upper-level body fat distribution had greater bone density in the lumbar column than those with normal weight and lower-level body fat distribution. With the same WHR, those with normal weight had greater bone density than those who were obese. A beneficial effect of upper-level body fat distribution on bone density was found. It is greater than that from obesity alone, and obesity and upper-level body fat distribution have an additive effect on bone density.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN BONE MARROW FLUID FROM POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: MODIFICATION AFTER HIP FRACTURE

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J.; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J. Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65 to 80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. PMID:27416518

  11. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p < 0.05) compared to controls. No significant differences were detected between the mean values of bone turnover markers (CTX and PINP), 25(OH)D, and PTH of the two groups. Women with vitamin D deficiency (severe and insufficiency) represented 85.9% of the study subjects. Multiple and logistic regression showed that age and BMI significantly affected BMD and vitamin D had a significant association with BMD only at the lumbar spine. BMI was positively correlated with BMD and PTH but negatively correlated with vitamin D. Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio (OR) for having osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were

  12. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  13. Expression profiling of microRNAs in human bone tissue from postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    De-Ugarte, Laura; Serra-Vinardell, Jenny; Nonell, Lara; Balcells, Susana; Arnal, Magdalena; Nogues, Xavier; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Grinberg, Daniel; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Bone tissue is composed of several cell types, which express their own microRNAs (miRNAs) that will play a role in cell function. The set of total miRNAs expressed in all cell types configures the specific signature of the bone tissue in one physiological condition. The aim of this study was to explore the miRNA expression profile of bone tissue from postmenopausal women. Tissue was obtained from trabecular bone and was analyzed in fresh conditions (n = 6). Primary osteoblasts were also obtained from trabecular bone (n = 4) and human osteoclasts were obtained from monocyte precursors after in vitro differentiation (n = 5). MicroRNA expression profiling was obtained for each sample by microarray and a global miRNA analysis was performed combining the data acquired in all the microarray experiments. From the 641 miRNAs detected in bone tissue samples, 346 (54%) were present in osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts. The other 46% were not identified in any of the bone cells analyzed. Intersection of osteoblast and osteoclast arrays identified 101 miRNAs shared by both cell types, which accounts for 30-40% of miRNAs detected in these cells. In osteoblasts, 266 miRNAs were detected, of which 243 (91%) were also present in the total bone array, representing 38% of all bone miRNAs. In osteoclasts, 340 miRNAs were detected, of which 196 (58%) were also present in the bone tissue array, representing 31% of all miRNAs detected in total bone. These analyses provide an overview of miRNAs expressed in bone tissue, broadening our knowledge in the microRNA field.

  14. Use of Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum) in Early Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Kapczynski, W.; Mscisz, A.; Lutomski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index. Design: Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. Results: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (P<0.05) decreased with a simultaneous significant (P<0.05) increase in the LH level, resulting in significant (P<0.05) increase in both E2 and PG, after eight months of Maca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (P<0.05) placebo effect resulting in an elevated PG level after one month administration of placebo capsules. Changes in hormone levels was accompanied by substantially-reduced feeling of discomfort associated with menopause, although, there was a distinctive, positive placebo effect as judged by responses to Greene’s questionnaire. Conclusions: It is reasonable to suggest that Maca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women

  15. Soluble corn fiber increases bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women in a dose-dependent manner: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, Steven A; Henry, Courtney N; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda D; Jackson, George S; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-09-01

    Dietary soluble corn fiber (SCF) significantly improves calcium absorption in adolescents and the bone strength and architecture in rodent models. In this study, we aimed to determine the skeletal benefits of SCF in postmenopausal women. We used our novel technology of determining bone calcium retention by following the urinary appearance of (41)Ca, a rare long-lived radioisotope, from prelabeled bone to rapidly and sensitively evaluate the effectiveness of SCF in reducing bone loss. A randomized-order, crossover, double-blinded trial was performed in 14 healthy postmenopausal women to compare doses of 0, 10, and 20 g fiber from SCF/d for 50 d. A dose-response effect was shown with 10 and 20 g fiber from SCF/d, whereby bone calcium retention was improved by 4.8% (P < 0.05) and 7% (P < 0.04), respectively. The bone turnover biomarkers N-terminal telopeptide and osteocalcin were not changed by the interventions; however, a significant increase in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, which is a bone-formation marker, was detected between 0 and 20 g fiber from SCF/d (8%; P = 0.035). Daily SCF consumption significantly increased bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women, which improved the bone calcium balance by an estimated 50 mg/d. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416947. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Association between basal metabolic function and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Makiko; Ide, Risa; Takizawa, Miho; Tanaka, Mizuho; Tetsuo, Tamaki; Sato, Asako; Iwasaki, Naoko; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for osteoporosis, and glycemic control is critical during osteoporosis treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, diabetic therapies have potentially adverse effects on bone metabolism. Additionally, biomarkers for bone metabolism are directly affected by drug therapies for osteoporosis. This study examined resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) as indices of bone metabolism in postmenopausal Japanese women with T2D. Forty-six postmenopausal Japanese women with T2D were examined. Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP, a fasting serum bone formation marker) and carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links-1 (CTX-1, a resorption marker) were evaluated, along with intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), urine microalbumin, motor nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve conduction velocity, R-R interval, body composition, REE, RQ, and bone mineral density at the nondominant distal radius. The mean T-score was low with high variance (-1.7 ± 1.6), and 18 patients (39%) met the criteria for osteoporosis. REE was positively correlated with body mass index (β = 0.517; r(2) = 0.250), serum calcium (β = 0.624; r(2) = 0.200), glycated hemoglobin A1C for the previous 6 mo (β = 0.395; r(2) = 0.137), and the serum P1NP/CTX-1 ratio (β = 0.380; r(2) = 0.144). RQ was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D (β = 0.387; r(2) = 0.131). The basal metabolic rate and diabetic pathophysiology are interrelated with bone turnover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between serum albumin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women and in patients with hypoalbuminemia.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Ragno, A; Raejntroph, N; Letizia, C; Acca, M

    1999-06-01

    Some discrepancies exist about the relationship between serum albumin level and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis; moreover, most of the studies available have especially concerned patients with osteoporosis, often associated with fractures. Our study, therefore, aims to investigate the presence of a relationship between serum albumin level and bone mineral density in a group of healthy women (n=650; mean age 59.0 +/- 7.4 years) who voluntarily underwent screening for osteoporosis only because they were menopausal (11.2 +/- 7.4 years since menopause) and, for comparison, in a group of outpatients (n = 44; mean age 57.6 +/- 7.0 years; 9.1 +/- 6.7 years since menopause) with hypoalbuminemia associated with diseases. The results show a lack of any relationship in healthy women between serum albumin value and bone mineral density; the lack of correlation was also shown when the postmenopausal women were down into normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic (WHO criteria) or in hypo, normal and hyperalbuminemic. The only significant parameters associated with lower bone mineral density, in fact, were age and years since menopause (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001 respectively at lumbar spine and p<0.02 and p<0.001 at femoral neck level). In the group of patients with hypoalbuminemia associated with diseases, on the other hand, a relationship between reduced bone mineral density and hypoalbuminemia was found (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively at lumbar spine and femoral neck). In conclusion, in healthy postmenopausal women the serum albumin level does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of bone density reduction, which is mainly due to the number of years since menopause and advancing age. The hypoalbuminemia may be related to the reduction of bone mass only in the subjects affected by diseases associated with a significant albumin reduction.

  18. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciT

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjectsmore » with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.« less

  19. Prior ankle fractures in postmenopausal women are associated with low areal bone mineral density and bone microstructure alterations.

    PubMed

    Biver, E; Durosier, C; Chevalley, T; Herrmann, F R; Ferrari, S; Rizzoli, R

    2015-08-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis in postmenopausal women, prior ankle fractures were associated with lower areal bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone alterations compared to no fracture history. Compared to women with forearm fractures, microstructure alterations were of lower magnitude. These data suggest that ankle fractures are another manifestation of bone fragility. Whether ankle fractures represent fragility fractures associated with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and/or bone microstructure alterations remains unclear, in contrast to the well-recognised association between forearm fractures and osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate aBMD, vBMD and bone microstructure in postmenopausal women with prior ankle fracture in adulthood, compared with women without prior fracture or with women with prior forearm fractures, considered as typically of osteoporotic origin. In a cross-sectional analysis in the Geneva Retirees Cohort study, 63 women with ankle fracture and 59 with forearm fracture were compared to 433 women without fracture (mean age, 65 ± 1 years). aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; distal radius and tibia vBMD and bone microstructure were measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Compared with women without fracture, those with ankle fractures had lower aBMD, radius vBMD (-7.9%), trabecular density (-10.7%), number (-7.3%) and thickness (-4.6%) and higher trabecular spacing (+14.5%) (P < 0.05 for all). Tibia trabecular variables were also altered. For 1 standard deviation decrease in total hip aBMD or radius trabecular density, odds ratios for ankle fractures were 2.2 and 1.6, respectively, vs 2.2 and 2.7 for forearm fracture, respectively (P ≤ 0.001 for all). Compared to women with forearm fractures, those with ankle fractures had similar spine and hip aBMD, but microstructure alterations of lower magnitude

  20. Effects of soy protein isolate and moderate exercise on bone turnover and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ellen M.; Racette, Susan B.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Peterson, Linda R.; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the independent and additive effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) and moderate-intensity exercise (EX) on bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD). Design This study used a placebo-controlled, double-blind (soy), randomized 2 (SPI vs milk protein isolate [MPI]) × 2 (EX vs no EX) design. Sixty-one postmenopausal women were randomized, and 43 (62 ± 5 y) completed the 9-month intervention (SPI, n = 10; MPI, n = 12; SPI + EX, n = 11; MPI + EX, n = 10). Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were measured as markers of bone resorption and formation, respectively. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results At 9 months, SPI reduced serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides (−13.3% ± 15.3% vs −1.5% ± 21.0%; P = 0.02) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (−4.7% ± 14.7% vs 6.5% ± 17.7%; P = 0.02) compared to milk protein isolate. EX attenuated the reduction in serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides (−1.9% ± 21.6% vs −12.4% ± 15.3%; P = 0.04); however, no EX effects were apparent in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase at 9 months (2.8% ± 16.1% vs −1.0% ± 18.3%; P = 0.28). Neither SPI nor EX affected BMD at any site; however, change in BMD was related to change in fat mass (r = 0.40, P < 0.05). Conclusions In postmenopausal women (1) SPI reduces bone turnover with no impact on BMD over 9 months; (2) moderate-intensity endurance exercise training did not favorably alter bone turnover and had no impact on BMD; and (3) there were no additive effects of soy and exercise on bone turnover or BMD. PMID:17213752

  1. Effects of focal vibration on bone mineral density and motor performance of postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, O; Botti, F M; Brunetti, A; Biscarini, A; Scarponi, A M; Filippi, G M; Pettorossi, V E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized double blind controlled study is aimed at determining the effect of repeated vibratory stimuli focally applied to the contracted quadriceps muscles (repeated muscle vibration=rMV) on bone mineral density, leg power and balance of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The study has been conducted on 40 voluntary postmenopausal osteoporotic women, randomised at 2 groups for rMV treatment and for control. The treatment group underwent rMV (100Hz, 300-500 μm; three applications per day, each lasting 10-minutes, for 3 consecutive days) applied to voluntary contracted quadriceps (VC=vibrated and contracted group). The control group, received a sham stimulation on contracted quadriceps (NV=non vibrated group). Bone mineral density T-score of proximal femur of the participants, was evaluated in two weeks before and 360 days after intervention; body balance and explosive leg power were measured 1 day before, 30 days and 360 days after treatment. VC group T-score at one year didn't change significantly relative to baseline values (pretreatment: -2.61±0.11, post-treatment -2.62±0.13); conversely in NV subjects T-score decreased significantly from -2.64 ± 0.15 SD down to -2.99 ± 0.28 SD. A significant improvement of balance and explosive leg power was observed only in VC group at 30 and 360 days after the intervention. We conclude that rMV is a safe, short-lasting and non-invasive treatment that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance and can effectively counteract progressive demineralisation in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women.

  2. Risk factors and impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Rojano-Mejía, David; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; López-Medina, Guillermo; Cortes-Espinosa, Leticia; Hernández-Chiu, Maria C; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Vergara-López, Alma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramon M; Canto, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Considering that the Mexican mestizo population seems to be the result of a genetic admixture, we proposed that further research is needed to evaluate the role of ethnicity in conjunction with health-related factors to better understand ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to analyze several risk factors related to the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican mestizo women. We included 567 postmenopausal Mexican mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was measured in total hip and lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Nonconditional logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratio. Using World Health Organization criteria, 28.7% of postmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 46.4% had osteopenia, and 24.9% had normal BMD. Each clinical risk factor had a different significance for osteopenia/osteoporosis; however, duration of total breast-feeding, body mass index, and number of years since menopause remained significantly associated with osteopenia/osteoporosis after bone density was added to the nonconditional model. Interestingly, extended periods of accumulated breast-feeding for 24 and 36 months were, in both cases, significantly associated with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Our results confirm the importance of considering the duration of breast-feeding as an important risk factor for osteopenia/osteoporosis. In addition, we find that body mass index is positively associated with BMD. Because of the heterogeneity of the Mexican mestizo population, the risk factor for osteoporosis may not be the same in different ethnic groups.

  3. Relationship between oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; García-Anaya, Oswaldo Daniel; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2018-04-09

    Endocrine changes due to menopause have been associated to oxidative stress and muscle mass loss. The study objective was to determine the relationship between both variables in early postmenopause. An exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted in 107 pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 40-57 years). Levels of serum lipid peroxides and uric acid and enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as total plasma antioxidant capacity were measured as oxidative stress markers. Muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance and muscle strength using dynamometry were also measured. Muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, fat-free mass, and body mass index were calculated. More than 90% of participants were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Postmenopausal women had lower values of muscle mass and strength markers, with a negative correlation between lipid peroxide level and skeletal muscle index (r= -0.326, p<.05), and a positive correlation between uric acid and skeletal muscle index (r=0.295, p<.05). A multivariate model including oxidative stress markers, age, and waist circumference showed lipid peroxide level to be the main contributor to explain the decrease in skeletal muscle mass in postmenopause, since for every 0.1μmol/l increase in lipid peroxide level, skeletal muscle index decreases by 3.03 units. Our findings suggest an association between increased oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Marini, Herbert; Minutoli, Letteria; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Atteritano, Marco; Gaudio, Agostino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Frisina, Alessia; Frisina, Nicola; Lubrano, Carla; Bonaiuto, Michele; D'Anna, Rosario; Cannata, Maria Letizia; Corrado, Francesco; Adamo, Elena Bianca; Wilson, Steven; Squadrito, Francesco

    2007-06-19

    Observational studies and small trials of short duration suggest that the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein reduces bone loss, but the evidence is not definitive. To assess the effects of genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 3 university medical centers in Italy. 389 postmenopausal women with a bone mineral density (BMD) less than 0.795 g/cm2 at the femoral neck and no significant comorbid conditions. After a 4-week stabilization period during which participants received a low-soy, reduced-fat diet, participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 191) or 54 mg of genistein (n = 198) daily for 24 months. Both the genistein and placebo tablets contained calcium and vitamin D. The primary outcome was BMD at the anteroposterior lumbar spine and femoral neck at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and insulin-like growth factor I, urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline, and endometrial thickness. Data on adverse events were also collected. At 24 months, BMD had increased in genistein recipients and decreased in placebo recipients at the anteroposterior lumbar spine (change, 0.049 g/cm2 [95% CI, 0.035 to 0.059] vs. -0.053 g/cm2 [CI, -0.058 to -0.035]; difference, 0.10 g/cm2 [CI, 0.08 to 0.12]; P < 0.001) and the femoral neck (change, 0.035 g/cm2 [CI, 0.025 to 0.042] vs. -0.037 g/cm2 [CI, -0.044 to -0.027]; difference, 0.062 g/cm2 [CI, 0.049 to 0.073]; P < 0.001). Genistein statistically significantly decreased urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline, increased levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and insulin-like growth factor I, and did not change endometrial thickness compared with placebo. More genistein recipients than placebo recipients experienced gastrointestinal side effects (19% vs. 8%; P = 0.002) and discontinued the study. The study did not measure fractures and had limited power

  5. Bone health status and lipid profile among post-menopausal malay women in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Hasnah, H; Amin, I; Suzana, S

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine bone health status and nutrient intakes among post-menopausal women residing in low cost houses in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 125 subjects aged 60 +/- 4 years who had attained menopause at age 50 +/- 5 years participated in this study. Subjects' weight and height were measured and calculated for body mass index (BMI). They were also assessed for bone health status using the Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). Nutrient intake was assessed using a dietary history Questionnaire. Fasting serum lipid and blood pressure measurements were also taken. The majority of the subjects were overweight and obese (80%) based on BMI status. Calcaneal measurements using the QUS indicated that while 57% or the subjects had normal bone mineral density, 37% were osteopenic and 6% osteoporotic. Calcium intake of the subjects was 505 +/- 263 mg /day, which is only 50% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake for calcium (1000 mg/d). About 74% of the subjects were hypercholesterolemic and 58% were hypertriglyceridemic. Two-thirds reported that they were taking medication for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart disease. The results showed low health and nutritional status among post-menopausal women living in low-cost flats in Kuala Lumpur. They have low bone mass which may be due to their predominantly non-milk based diets which places them at high risk of hip fractures. Apart from milk, other food sources of calcium, including soya bean products such as 'tempeh' and healthy ways of cooking should be recommended to older people.

  6. Protective effect of myo-inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) on bone mass loss in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    López-González, Angel A; Grases, Félix; Monroy, Nieves; Marí, Bartolome; Vicente-Herrero, Ma Teófila; Tur, Fernando; Perelló, Joan

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between urinary concentrations of InsP6, bone mass loss and risk fracture in postmenopausal women. A total of 157 postmenopausal women were included in the study: 70 had low (≤0.76 μM), 42 intermediate (0.76-1.42 μM) and 45 high (≥1.42 μM) urinary phytate concentrations. Densitometry values for neck were measured at enrollment and after 12 months (lumbar spine and femoral neck), and 10-year risk fracture was calculated using the tool FRAX(®). Individuals with low InsP6 levels had significantly greater bone mass loss in the lumbar spine (3.08 ± 0.65 % vs. 0.43 ± 0.55 %) than did those with high phytate levels. Moreover, a significantly greater percentage of women with low than with high InsP6 levels showed more than 2 % of bone mass loss in the lumbar spine (55.6 vs. 20.7 %). The 10-year fracture probability was also significantly higher in the low-phytate group compared to the high-phytate group, both in hip (0.37 ± 0.06 % vs 0.18 ± 0.04 %) and major osteoporotic fracture (2.45 ± 0.24 % vs 1.83 ± 0.11 %). It can be concluded that high urinary phytate concentrations are correlated with reduced bone mass loss in lumbar spine over 12 months and with reduced 10-year probability of hip and major osteoporotic fracture, indicating that increased phytate consumption can prevent development of osteoporosis.

  7. Bone marrow fat composition as a novel imaging biomarker in postmenopausal women with prevalent fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Patsch, Janina M; Li, Xiaojuan; Baum, Thomas; Yap, Samuel P; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Schwartz, Ann V; Link, Thomas M

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study was to quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition in diabetic and nondiabetic postmenopausal women with fragility fractures and to compare them with nonfracture controls with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty-nine postmenopausal women (mean age 63 ± 5 years) were recruited. Thirty-six patients (47.8%) had spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures. Seventeen fracture patients were diabetic. Thirty-three women (52.2%) were nonfracture controls. Sixteen women were diabetic nonfracture controls. To quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition, patients underwent MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the lumbar spine at 3 Tesla. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and lumbar spine (LS) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the LS. To evaluate associations of vertebral marrow fat content and composition with spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures and diabetes, we used linear regression models adjusted for age, race, and spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by QCT. At the LS, nondiabetic and diabetic fracture patients had lower vBMD than controls and diabetics without fractures (p = 0.018; p = 0.005). However, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA did not differ between fracture and nonfracture patients. After adjustment for age, race, and spinal vBMD, the prevalence of fragility fractures was associated with -1.7% lower unsaturation levels (confidence interval [CI] -2.8% to -0.5%, p = 0.005) and +2.9% higher saturation levels (CI 0.5% to 5.3%, p = 0.017). Diabetes was associated with -1.3% (CI -2.3% to -0.2%, p = 0.018) lower unsaturation and +3.3% (CI 1.1% to 5.4%, p = 0.004) higher saturation levels. Diabetics with fractures had the lowest marrow unsaturation and highest saturation. There were no associations of marrow fat content with diabetes or fracture. Our results

  8. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on cognition in early postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; DiBartolo, Michelle M; Kumbhare, Suchit; Strange, Charlie; Joseph, Jane E

    2016-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has a higher prevalence in postmenopausal women who are not on hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as compared to premenopausal women. Cognitive impairment (CI) is associated with OSAS and the early postmenopausal state. We hypothesized that compared to postmenopausal women at low risk for OSAS, postmenopausal women at high risk for OSAS would report worse cognitive function. Early postmenopausal women not on HRT between the ages of 45 and 60 years, within 5 years of natural menopause, were enrolled. Participants completed a REDCap survey which collected information on demographics and risk factors, Berlin questionnaire to screen subjects for OSAS risk, and the Mail-In Cognitive Function Screening Instrument (MCFSI) score which was used to assess CI. Of 381 respondents, 127 were omitted due to missing/duplicate data or not meeting inclusion criteria. One hundred fifty-four women were classified as high risk for OSAS (OSAS+), and 100 were classified as low risk for OSAS (OSAS-). OSAS- women reported lifetime smoking, lifetime drinking, and recreational drug use more often than OSAS+ women, while OSAS+ women reported a depression diagnosis more often. The mean MCFSI score in the OSAS+ group was significantly higher (worse cognition) than in the OSAS- group after controlling for covariates (5.59, 95 % CI 5.08-6.11 vs. 4.29, 95 % CI 3.64-4.93, p < 0.05). Early postmenopausal women at high risk for OSAS report more CI than those at low risk for OSAS. Future studies should identify biomarkers of this CI and define the degree of reversibility of CI with OSAS treatment.

  10. The effect of weight training on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with bone loss: a 24-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waltman, N L; Twiss, J J; Ott, C D; Gross, G J; Lindsey, A M; Moore, T E; Berg, K; Kupzyk, K

    2010-08-01

    This study examined whether 24 months of weight training exercises enhanced the effectiveness of risedronate, calcium, and vitamin D in maintaining or improving bone mineral density (BMD) in 223 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Subjects who were > or =50% adherent to exercise had no improvement in BMD but were less likely to lose BMD. This study examined whether (1) postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (BCS) with bone loss taking 24 months of risedronate, calcium, and vitamin D had increased bone mineral density (BMD) at the total hip, femoral neck, L1-L4 spine, total radius and 33% radius, and decreased bone turnover; (2) subjects who also participated in strength/weight training (ST) exercises had greater increases in BMD and greater decreases in bone turnover; and (3) subjects who also exercised were more likely to preserve (at least maintain) BMD. Postmenopausal BCS (223) were randomly assigned to exercise plus medication or medication only groups. Both groups received 24 months of 1,200 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D daily and 35 mg of risedronate weekly, and the exercise group additionally had ST exercises twice weekly. After 24 months, women who took medications without exercising had significant improvements in BMD at the total hip (+1.81%) and spine (+2.85%) and significant decreases in Alkphase B (-8.7%) and serum NTx (-16.7%). Women who also exercised had additional increases in BMD at the femoral neck (+0.29%), total hip (+0.34%), spine (+0.23%), total radius (+0.30%), and additional decreases in Alkphase B (-2.4%) and Serum NTx (-6.5%). Additional changes in BMD and bone turnover with exercise were not significant. Subjects who were > or =50% adherent to exercise were less likely to lose BMD at the total hip (chi-square [1] = 4.66, p = 0.03) and femoral neck (chi-square [1] = 4.63, p = 0.03). Strength/weight training exercises may prevent loss of BMD in postmenopausal BCS at risk for bone loss.

  11. Response of bone turnover markers to three oral bisphosphonate therapies in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the TRIO study.

    PubMed

    Naylor, K E; Jacques, R M; Paggiosi, M; Gossiel, F; Peel, N F A; McCloskey, E V; Walsh, J S; Eastell, R

    2016-01-01

    We used bone turnover markers to identify women who responded to bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis. Response was more likely with alendronate and ibandronate than risedronate. There was a greater decrease in bone markers if baseline bone turnover markers were higher and if the patient took more than 80 % of her medication. Biochemical response to bisphosphonate therapy can be assessed using either a decrease in bone turnover marker beyond the least significant change (LSC) or a reduction to within a reference interval (RI). We compared the performance of these target responses and determined whether response was related to the type of bisphosphonate, compliance and baseline bone turnover markers. Biochemical responses to three oral bisphosphonates were assessed in an open, controlled trial comprising 172 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (age 53-84 years), randomised to alendronate, ibandronate or risedronate, plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation for 2 years. The LSC for each marker was derived within the study population, whereas RIs were obtained from a control group of healthy premenopausal women (age 35-40 years). Over 70 % of women achieved a target response for serum CTX and PINP, irrespective of the approach used. The percentage decrease at 12 weeks was greater for women with baseline PINP above the RI -63 % (difference 13 %, 95 % CI 0 to 27.1, P = 0.049) and good compliance -67 % (difference 15.9 %, 95 % CI 6.3 to 25.5, P = 0.001). Responders had a greater increase in spine bone density compared to nonresponders; for example 6.2 vs. 2.3 % (difference 3.9 %, 95 % CI 1.6 to 6.3, P = 0.0011) for PINP LSC. The magnitude of change in bone markers was greater with ibandronate and alendronate than risedronate. Both approaches to response identified similar proportions of women as responders. Nonresponders had smaller increases in BMD, and we suggest that biochemical assessment of response is a useful tool for the management of women with

  12. Adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and total volumetric bone density in postmenopausal South Asian women with small bone size.

    PubMed

    Darling, Andrea L; Hakim, Ohood A; Horton, Khim; Gibbs, Michelle A; Cui, Liang; Berry, Jacqueline L; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2013-07-01

    There is some evidence that South Asian women may have an increased risk of osteoporosis compared with Caucasian women, although whether South Asians are at increased risk of fracture is not clear. It is unknown whether older South Asian women differ from Caucasian women in bone geometry. This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, to use peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) to measure radial and tibial bone geometry in postmenopausal South Asian women. In comparison to Caucasian women, Asian women had smaller bone size at the 4% (-18% p<0.001) and 66% radius (-15% p=0.04) as well as increased total density at the 4% (+13% p=0.01) radius. For the tibia, they had a smaller bone size at the 4% (-16% p=0.005) and 14% (-38% p=0.002) sites. Also, Asians had increased cortical thickness (-17% p=0.04) at the 38% tibia, (in proportion to bone size (-30% p=0.003)). Furthermore, at the 4% and 14% tibia there were increased total densities (+12% to +29% p<0.01) and at the 14% tibia there was increased cortical density (+5% p=0.005) in Asians. These differences at the 14% and 38% (but not 4%) remained statistically significant after adjustment for Body Mass Index (BMI). These adaptations are similar to those seen previously in Chinese women. Asian women had reduced strength at the radius and tibia, evidenced by the 20-40% reduction in both polar Strength Strain Index (SSIp) and fracture load (under bending). Overall, the smaller bone size in South Asians is likely to be detrimental to bone strength, despite some adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and tibial and radial density which may partially compensate for this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components with bone densitometry in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahnaz; Farzam, Seyed Amir; Mamaghani, Zahra; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis and bone fracture and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and bone density are controversial issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and its components with bone mineral density in post menopausal women referred for bone mineral density (BMD) test. A total of 143 postmenopausal women with at least one year of menopause experience participated in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics for all participants were collected. Also, biochemical parameters including fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol (HDL and LDL), triglyceride were measured. Association between the components of metabolic syndrome and bone densitometry were analyzed by statistical methods. In this study, 72% of participants did not have metabolic syndrome. Among them, 43.4% and 28.7% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Of remaining participants with metabolic syndrome, 12.6% and 15.4% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Among the metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and waist to hip ratio were significantly associated with bone mass (P<0.05). Osteoporotic women had lower waist circumference and waist to hip ratio and higher HDL than women without osteoporosis. On the other hand, women with metabolic syndrome did not have significant differences than women without metabolic syndrome in terms of lumbar and femoral neck density (P>0.05). Results from this study showed that metabolic syndrome and its components did not induce bone mass loss. The discrepancies of the studies in this area call for more large scale studies in population so as to prevent women problems in this area. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-dosage micronized 17 beta-estradiol prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettinger, B.; Genant, H. K.; Steiger, P.; Madvig, P.

    1992-01-01

    With the use of a double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging design, we tested during an 18-month period the degree of protection against postmenopausal bone loss afforded by micronized 17 beta-estradiol in dosages of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg. All subjects received supplementation to ensure a minimum of 1500 mg calcium daily. Fifty-one subjects completed at least 1 year of follow-up bone density measurements by quantitative computed tomography and by single- and dual-photon absorptiometry. In the placebo group spinal trabecular bone density decreased 4.9% annually (p less than 0.001), whereas in those taking micronized 17 beta-estradiol bone density tended to increase (annual increases of 0.3% in the 0.5 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group, 1.8% in the 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group, and 2.5% in the 2.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group). After completing the double-blind phase, 41 subjects completed an additional 18 months of follow-up while taking 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol. During this time one third of the subjects were randomly assigned to discontinue calcium supplements. Among those who previously received placebo, trabecular bone density increased 4.3% annually, whereas among those who had used micronized 17 beta-estradiol, trabecular bone density response was inversely related to the dosage previously used. Additionally and independently, the level of calcium intake showed a statistically significant correlation with the change in spinal trabecular bone density (r = 0.37, p = 0.02). We conclude that micronized 17 beta-estradiol has a continuous skeletal dose-response effect in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 mg and that calcium intake positively modifies the skeletal response to 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol.

  15. Association of physical performance measures with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Carleen; Brownbill, Rhonda A; Bohannon, Richard A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the association between physical performance measures and bone mineral density (BMD) in older women. Cross-sectional analysis. University research laboratory. Healthy postmenopausal women (N=116; mean age +/- standard deviation, 68.3+/-6.8y) in self-reported good health who were not taking medications known to affect bone, including hormone replacement therapy. Not applicable. Anthropometrics and BMD of the hip, spine, whole body, and forearm. Physical performance measures included normal and brisk 8-m gait speed, normal step length (NSL), brisk step length (BSL), timed 1-leg stance (OLS), timed sit-to-stand (STS), and grip strength. NSL, BSL, normal gait speed, brisk gait speed, OLS, and grip strength correlated significantly with several skeletal sites ( r range, .19-.38; P <.05). In multiple regression models containing body mass index, hours of total activity, total calcium intake, and age of menarche, NSL, BSL, normal and brisk gait speeds, OLS, and grip strength were all significantly associated with BMD of various skeletal sites (adjusted R 2 range, .11-.24; P <.05). Analysis of covariance showed that subjects with longer step lengths and faster normal and brisk gait speeds had higher BMD at the whole body, hip, and spine (brisk speed only). Those with a longer OLS had greater femoral neck BMD, and those with a stronger grip strength had greater BMD in the whole body and forearm ( P <.05). STS was not related to any skeletal site. Normal and brisk gait speed, NSL, BSL, OLS, and grip strength are all associated with BMD at the whole body, hip, spine, and forearm. Physical performance evaluation may help with osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal women when bone density scores have not been obtained or are unavailable.

  16. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Burcu; Ayrim, Aylin; Ozol, Duygu; Koktener, Asli; Gokmen, Derya

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Bone mineral density (BMD) scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 +/- 0.29 and 0.88 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2), respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1%) and control (43.3%) groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6%) and in six patients from the control group (10%). We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  17. Life satisfaction and bone mineral density among postmenopausal women: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Rauma, Päivi H; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Williams, Lana J; Tuppurainen, Marjo T; Kröger, Heikki P; Honkanen, Risto J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how global life satisfaction is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss. A total of 2167 women from a cohort of Finnish women born in 1932 to 1941 were included in the cross-sectional and 1147 women in the 10-year longitudinal part of the present study. Participants responded to a postal enquiry and underwent femoral BMD densitometry in 1999 (baseline) and 2009 (follow-up). During the follow-up, their life satisfaction was repeatedly measured using a four-item scale. Self-reported data on health, life-style, and medication were used to adjust the multivariate linear regression models. Mean (standard deviation) femoral BMD decreased over the 10-year follow-up from 880 (125) to 846 (122) mg/cm. In the multivariate model, life satisfaction (p = .028) and its improvement (p = .001) predicted reduced bone loss, whereas hospitalization due to depression predicted increased bone loss (B = -0.523 annual % change, standard error = 0.212, p = .014). These effects were independent of each other. Easily assessed global life satisfaction should be taken into account when effects of aging and prevention of osteoporosis as well as health promotion in postmenopausal women are considered.

  18. Lead and osteoporosis: Mobilization of lead from bone in postmenopausal women

    SciT

    Silbergeld, E.K.; Schwartz, J.; Mahaffey, K.

    1988-10-01

    Although it has been known that humans accumulate lead in bone, mineralized tissue has been considered primarily as a sequestering compartment and not as a site of toxic action for lead. However, experimental data indicate that bone lead can be released during conditions of demineralization, such as pregnancy and lactation. We have examined lead status in women, before and after menopause, using the NHANES II dataset compiled between 1976 and 1980. In 2981 black and white women there was a highly significant increase in both whole blood and calculated plasma lead concentrations after menopause. The results indicate that bone leadmore » is not an inert storage site for absorbed lead. Moreover, lead may interact with other factors in the course of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to aggravate the course of the disease, since lead is known to inhibit activation of vitamin D, uptake of dietary calcium, and several regulatory aspects of bone cell function. The consequences of this mobilization may also be of importance in assessing the risks of maternal lead exposure to fetal and infant health.« less

  19. Unipedal standing exercise and hip bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Akinori; Oshige, Toshihisa; Zenke, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Nagaishi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of unipedal standing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip in postmenopausal women. Japanese postmenopausal women (n = 94) were assigned at random to an exercise or control group (no exercise). The 6-month exercise program consisted of standing on a single foot for 1 min per leg 3 times per day. BMD of the hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no significant difference in age and baseline hip BMD between the exercise group (n = 49) and control group (n = 45). Exercise did not improve hip BMD compared with the control group. Stepwise regression analysis identified old age as a significant determinant (p = 0.034) of increased hip total BMD at 6 months after exercise. In 31 participants aged >/=70 years, the exercise group (n = 20) showed significant increase in the values of hip BMD at the areas of total (p = 0.008), intertrochanteric (p = 0.023), and Ward's triangle (p = 0.032). The same parameters were decreased in the control group (n = 11). The percent changes in hip BMD of the exercise group were not significantly different from those of the control group either in the participants with low baseline hip total BMD (<80% of the young adult mean) or high baseline hip total BMD (> or =80% of the young adult mean). In conclusion, unipedal standing exercise for 6 months did not improve hip BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women. Effect of exercise on hip total BMD was age dependent. In participants aged > or =70 years, the exercise significantly increased hip total BMD.

  20. Evaluation of decision rules for identifying low bone density in postmenopausal African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E.; Holiday, David; Turner, Lori W.; Keenum, Amy J.; Pearman, Cynthia M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While African-American women tend to have greater bone mineral density (BMD) than caucasian women, they are still at risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Clinical decision rules (i.e., algorithms) have been developed to assist clinicians identify women at greatest risk of low BMD. However, such tools have only been validated in caucasian and Asian populations. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of five clinical decision rules in identifying postmenopausal African-American women at greatest risk for low femoral BMD. METHODOLOGY: One hundred-seventy-four (n=174) postmenopausal African-American women completed a valid and reliable oral questionnaire to assess lifestyle characteristics, and completed height and weight measures. BMD at the femoral neck was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for identifying African-American women with low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) using five clinical decision rules: Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), and body weight less than 70 kg. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of African-American women had low BMD, half of whom had osteoporosis (BMD T-Score < or = -2.5 SD). Sensitivity for identifying women with a low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) ranged from 65.57-83.61%, while specificity ranged from 53.85-78.85%. Positive predictive values ranged from 80.95-87.91%, while negative predictive values ranged from 48.44-58.33%. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the clinical decision rules analyzed in this study have some usefulness for identifying postmenopausal African-American women with low BMD. However, there is a need to establish cut-points for these clinical decision rules in a larger, more diverse sample of African-American women

  1. [Effect of milk product with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women: randomized trial].

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Antonia; Quesada Charneco, Miguel; Alvárez Guisado, Alejandro; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan; Fonollá Joya, Juristo; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-02-04

    To analyze the effects of nutritional intervention with a milk product enriched with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women. We performed a double-blind controlled randomized trial in ninety-nine postmenopausal women. Group S women (n=48) were randomized to consume milk product enriched with soy isoflavone (50 mg/day) while group C (n=51) consumed product control for 12 months. Parameters of quality of life (Cervantes scale), markers of bone metabolism and bone mass estimated by ultrasound of the calcaneus (QUS) were evaluated. Overall, there was an improvement in the domains menopause (P=.015) and vasomotor symptoms (P<.001). S group emphasized the assessment of vasomotor symptoms (P=.001) and differed positively from group C in health (P=.019), sex (P=.021) and partner (P=.002). Serum levels TRAP (P<.001) and OPG (P=.007) decreased and concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D increased (P<.001) without differences between groups. In the assessment of QUS, there was an increase in estimated bone mineral density in group S (P=.040), whereas in group C there were no significant differences. Daily consumption of these milk products increases levels of 25-OH-vitamin D and decreases bone metabolism markers. Additional supplementation with soy isoflavones seems to improve quality of life and bone mass in Spanish postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of parameters of bone profile and homocysteine in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Sundus; Lone, Khalid Parvez; Tariq, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Optimal physical activity is important in attaining a peak bone mass. Physically active women have better bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk as compared to females living a sedentary life. The objective of this study was to compare parameters of bone profile and serum homocysteine levels in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females. In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and divided into two groups: Physically inactive (n=133) performing light physical activity and Physically active (n=34) performing moderate physical activity. Physical activity (in metabolic equivalents), bone mineral density and serum homocysteine levels were assessed. Spearman's rho correlation was applied to observe correlations. Two independent sample t test and Mann Whitney U test were applied to compare groups. P-value ≤ 0.05 was taken statistically significant. Parameters of bone profile were significantly higher and serum homocysteine levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal females performing moderate physical activity as compared to females performing light physical activity. Homocysteine was not significantly related to T-score and Z-score in both groups. Improving physical activity could be beneficial for improving the quality of bone, decreasing fracture risk and decreasing serum homocysteine levels.

  3. Kefir improves bone mass and microarchitecture in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Chuang, C-H; Tu, M-Y; Tsai, T-C; Chang, S-Y; Chen, C-M

    2015-02-01

    Kefir treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats could significantly decrease the levels of bone turnover markers and prevent OVX-induced bone loss, deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, and biomechanical dysfunction that may be due to increase intracellular calcium uptake through the TRPV6 calcium channel. Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to an increased fracture risk. The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and occurs most frequently in postmenopausal women due to estrogen deficiency, as the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts towards increased levels of bone resorption. Among various methods of prevention and treatment for osteoporosis, an increase in calcium intake is the most commonly recommended preventive measure. Kefir is a fermented milk product made with kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including immunomodulating-, antithrombotic-, antimicrobial-, and calcium-absorption-enhancing bioactivities. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kefir on osteoporosis prophylaxis in an ovariectomized rat model. A total of 56 16-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 7 experimental groups: sham (normal), OVX/Mock, OVX/1X kefir (164 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/2X kefir (328 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/4X kefir (656 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/ALN (2.5 mg/kg BW/day), and OVX/REBONE (800 mg/kg BW/day). After 12-week treatment with kefir, the bone physiology in the OVX rat model was investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible transport mechanism involved in calcium absorption using the Caco-2 human cell line. A 12-week treatment with kefir on the OVX-induced osteoporosis model reduced the levels of C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx), bone turnover markers, and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.). Additionally, treatment with kefir increased

  4. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Mira; Ilavská, Silvia; Štefíková, Kornélia; Szabová, Michaela; Krivošíková, Zora; Jahnová, Eva; Tulinská, Jana; Spustová, Viera; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells (p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause. PMID:28696349

  5. Bone mineral density at different sites and vertebral fractures in Serbian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ilic Stojanovic, O; Vuceljic, M; Lazovic, M; Gajic, M; Radosavljevic, N; Nikolic, D; Andjic, M; Spiroski, D; Vujovic, S

    2017-02-01

    This randomized study aimed to evaluate the correlation between bone mineral densities (BMD) measured at different sites and the frequency of vertebral fractures in a group of Serbian postmenopausal women. BMD was measured in 130 naïve postmenopausal women by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the ultra-distal part of the forearms, at the hip and at the lumbar spine. At each of the measurement sites, the patients were categorized as osteoporotic, or osteopenic, or in the reference range. Vertebral fractures were examined using thoracic and lumbar spine radiography. A T-score at different skeletal sites showed discordance in the site-specific region. Vertebral fractures were found in 58.82% of patients with hip osteopenia, in 45% with forearm osteopenia and in 54.54% with lumbar spine osteoporosis. The study confirmed that the reduction of BMD depends on age and choice of measurement site. The best correlation was obtained in the women with osteopenia at all measurement sites. The discovery of vertebral fractures by lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiography improves prompt treatment. Reference values of BMD do not exclude vertebral fractures. Of vertebral fractures, 72.5% were asymptomatic and thus spine radiographies are obligatory. Currently discussed is the position of DXA for measuring BMD as a method of detection for patients at risk of fracture.

  6. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. VDR polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density in post-menopausal Mayan-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Cetina Manzanilla, José Antonio; González Herrera, Lizbeth; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is determined by an interaction of genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. To analyse the association between two polymorphisms of VDR as well as their haplotypes with BMD in post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. This study comprised 600 post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of VDR (rs731236 and rs2228570) were studied using real-time PCR allelic discrimination for genotyping. Differences between the means of the BMDs according to the genotype were analysed with covariance. Haplotype analysis was conducted. TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR had higher BMD at total hip and femoral neck (FN), and one haplotype formed by the two polymorphisms was associated with only TH-BMD variations. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. The genotype of rs2228570 of VDR analysis showed no significant differences with BMD variations. The results showed that the TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR and one haplotype formed by rs731236 and rs2228570 polymorphisms were associated with higher BMD at TH and FN.

  8. High Serum Retinol as a Relevant Contributor to Low Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Valverde, Cristina; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Mata-Granados, José M; Casado-Díaz, Antonio; Sosa-Henríquez, Manuel; Malouf-Sierra, Jorge; Nogués-Solán, Xavier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Cortés-Gil, Xavier; Delgadillo-Duarte, Joaquín; Quesada-Gómez, José Manuel

    2018-06-01

    There is controversial information about the impact of vitamin A on bone. Some epidemiological studies show that excessive intake of vitamin A, or an excess of serum vitamin A, has related with adverse impact on bone mass; however, other studies did not find these links, and some authors have proposed that this vitamin might promote a better bone health. The present work aims to contribute to clarify the real role of vitamin A in bone tissue. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study of 154 osteoporotic non-treated postmenopausal women (> 65 years old) was carried out. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We assessed concentrations of serum retinol, osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and phosphorus. We also studied demographic and anthropometric parameters. Spearman's correlations between retinol levels and other variables found negative correlations with BMD in both lumbar spine (R = - 0.162, P < 0.01) and femoral neck (R = - 0.182, P < 0.01), as well as alkaline phosphatase (R = - 0.110; P < 0.05) and phosphorus (R = - 0.110; P < 0.05). A positive correlation between retinol and fertile window was observed (R = 0.158; P < 0.01). After multivariable adjustment, we still found a negative correlation between serum retinol and BMD, both at the lumbar spine (R = - 0.210; P < 0.01) and at the femoral neck (R = - 0.324, P < 0.001). It is concluded that elevated serum-retinol levels are associated with an increased risk of low bone mass and thus with osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, osteoporosis-risk assessment should include quantification of serum metabolite of vitamin A.

  9. Effect of vitamin D therapy on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Tanzy, Margaret E; Camacho, Pauline M

    2011-01-01

    To (1) assess the rate of reduction in bone turnover with vitamin D and bisphosphonate therapies and (2) evaluate the clinical utility of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) in monitoring treatment response. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with newly diagnosed osteopenia and osteoporosis from 2002 to 2009 at Loyola University Medical Center. A cohort of postmenopausal women with hip or spine T-scores of less than -1, normal serum creatinine, and no prior vitamin D or bisphosphonate therapy was divided into vitamin D-deficient (n = 29) and vitamin D-sufficient (n = 13) groups. Vitamin D-deficient patients received high-dose vitamin D, whereas vitamin D-sufficient patients received orally administered bisphosphonates. BSAP levels at baseline and 1 year were compared. Vitamin D therapy in the group with vitamin D deficiency led to a 26.7% decrease in BSAP (P<.01). Bisphosphonate therapy in the vitamin D-sufficient group led to a 32.7% decrease in BSAP (P = .01). The magnitude of BSAP change in the 2 study groups (6.74 ± 6.48 μg/L and 8.72 ± 9.94 μg/L) did not differ significantly (P = .45). The results of this study suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis can lead to a decrease in bone turnover as measured by BSAP and that the magnitude of this reduction is similar to that achieved with orally administered bisphosphonates.

  10. Bisphosphonates for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Pernille

    2002-02-01

    Our studies showed that 5 mg alendronate per day was the lowest, most effective dose that persistently prevented bone loss in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. The effect on bone mass and biochemical markers was found comparable to that of commonly recommended regimens of postmenopausal HRT, and 5 mg alendronate per day is suggested as a new option for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. HRT must, however, still be considered the first choice for this indication because of additional beneficial effects on other organ systems. The effect of alendronate was unaffected by bone or fat mass status, but increased with increasing postmenopausal age. The implications were that alendronate stabilized bone mass to a comparable extent in women at particular risk of osteoporosis because of thin body habitus or low bone mass and in healthy postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. Calcium supplementation was insufficient to prevent bone loss and did not add an effect on bone metabolism when combined with alendronate treatment in recently postmenopausal women. The gastrointestinal risk and adverse event profile of 5 mg alendronate per day was comparable to that of placebo, and this dose of alendronate appeared safe for long-term use. Bone loss resumed at a normal postmenopausal rate promptly after withdrawal of alendronate in early postmenopausal women consistent with a substantial underlying natural bone loss during early menopause. Oral ibandronate increased bone mass at all skeletal regions in elderly postmenopausal women with low bone mass, and 2.5 mg ibandronate per day was the lowest dose with this effect. The results are indicative of ibandronate as an option for secondary prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, but longer-term phase III trials should be performed before ibandronate can be recommended for this indication. The study showed that 2.5 mg ibandronate per day was efficient for prevention of bone loss and increment in bone mass in

  11. Relation between obesity and bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong-Chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-11-01

    The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study design, we evaluated the associations between obesity or metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) or vertebral fracture. A total of 907 postmenopausal healthy female subjects, aged 60-79 years, were recruited from woman hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. BMD, vetebral fracture, bone markers, and body composition including body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and waist circumference were measured. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total calcium intake, and total energy intake, waist circumference was negatively related to BMD of all sites (lumbar BMD p = 0.037, all sites of femur BMD p < 0.001) whereas body weight was still positively related to BMD of all sites (p < 0.001). Percentage body fat and waist circumference were much higher in the fracture group than the non-fracture group (p = 0.0383, 0.082 respectively). Serum glucose levels were positively correlated to lumbar BMD (p = 0.016), femoral neck BMD (p = 0.0335), and femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0082). Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was positively related to femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0366) and was lower in the control group than the fracture group (p = 0.011). In contrast to the effect favorable body weight on bone mineral density, high percentage body fat and waist circumference are related to low BMD and a vertebral fracture. Some components of metabolic syndrome were related to BMD and a vertebral fracture.

  12. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial to compare bone-loading exercises with risedronate for preventing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Laura D; Waltman, Nancy L; Lappe, Joan M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Mack, Lynn R; Cullen, Diane M; Berg, Kris; Langel, Meghan; Meisinger, Melissa; Portelli-Trinidad, Ashlee; Lang, Molly

    2016-08-30

    In the United States, over 34 million American post-menopausal women have low bone mass (osteopenia) which increases their risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Calcium, vitamin D and exercise are recommended for prevention of osteoporosis, and bisphosphonates (BPs) are prescribed in women with osteoporosis. BPs may also be prescribed for women with low bone mass, but are more controversial due to the potential for adverse effects with long-term use. A bone loading exercise program (high-impact weight bearing and resistance training) promotes bone strength by preserving bone mineral density (BMD), improving bone structure, and by promoting bone formation at sites of mechanical stress. The sample for this study will be 309 women with low bone mass who are within 5 years post-menopause. Subjects are stratified by exercise history (≥2 high intensity exercise sessions per week; < 2 sessions per week) and randomized to a control or one of two treatment groups: 1) calcium + vitamin D (CaD) alone (Control); 2) a BP plus CaD (Risedronate); or 3) a bone loading exercise program plus CaD (Exercise). After 12 months of treatment, changes in bone structure, BMD, and bone turnover will be compared in the 3 groups. Primary outcomes for the study are bone structure measures (Bone Strength Index [BSI] at the tibia and Hip Structural Analysis [HSA] scores). Secondary outcomes are BMD at the hip and spine and serum biomarkers of bone formation (alkaline phosphase, AlkphaseB) and resorption (Serum N-terminal telopeptide, NTx). Our central hypothesis is that improvements in bone strength will be greater in subjects randomized to the Exercise group compared to subjects in either Control or Risedronate groups. Our research aims to decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures by improving bone strength in women with low bone mass (pre-osteoporotic) during their first 5 years' post-menopause, a time of rapid and significant bone loss. Results of this study could be used in

  13. POTASSIUM CITRATE DECREASES BONE RESORPTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPENIA: A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Naina Sinha; Kumar, Rekha; Stein, Emily M; Alexander, Ellen; Christos, Paul; Bockman, Richard S; Rodman, John S

    2015-12-01

    Diets rich in animal protein, such as the typical American diet, are thought to create a high acid load. An association between acid load and bone loss has led to the idea that providing positive alkaline salt therapy could have beneficial effects on bone metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of potassium citrate (K-citrate), 40 mEq daily, over 1 year on bone resorption and formation. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 83 women with postmenopausal osteopenia. Levels of bone turnover markers, specifically urinary N-telopeptide of collagen type 1 (u-NTX), amino-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and osteocalcin (OC) were compared. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) were also examined. K-citrate decreased both u-NTX (P = .005) and serum P1NP (P<.001) starting at month 1 and continuing through month 12. No significant change was seen in BSAP or OC. No significant change was seen in lumbar or hip BMD between the 2 groups. In women with postmenopausal osteopenia, treatment with K-citrate for 1 year resulted in a significant decrease in markers of turnover. The effect on markers of bone formation was not consistent. K-citrate may serve as a potential treatment for bone loss that is well tolerated and without any significant known long-term consequences.

  14. The negative correlation between thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies and bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Amashukeli, Medea; Korinteli, Maka; Zerekidze, Tamar; Jikurauli, Nino; Shanava, Shorena; Tsagareli, Marina; Giorgadze, Elen

    2013-06-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder with various clinical manifestations. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs), the circulating autoantibodies specific to Graves' disease, are the cause for hyperthyroidism, the most prevalent abnormality. Hyperthyroidism leads to increased bone turnover and a negative bone balance. The aims of the present study were to determine the relationship between TRAbs and bone mineral density (BMD), to assess the extent of BMD change in patients with Graves' disease, and to determine the impact of conservative and surgical therapy on BMD. Fifty female postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease were chosen for this study. Twenty women had a recent diagnosis of Graves' disease, 30 women presented with a compensated disease state after either conservative or surgical treatment, and 30 healthy postmenopausal women served as controls. Thyroid parameters were measured, and BMD values were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and T-scores were significantly lower in newly diagnosed patients compared with the control group, but a difference was not observed between the treated and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed a strong and significant negative correlation between femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and TRAb values.Both surgical and conservative therapies are effective for restoring BMD in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease, and the increased level of TRAb can be a useful marker of bone density impairment.

  15. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, D; Zhang, X; Li, Z; Bai, H; Chen, L

    2017-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Thus, we systematically reviewed the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids by conducting a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus were searched in December 2016. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. Eight trials were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled findings did not identify significant decreases in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.12, p = 0.429) and collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide (WMD 0 ng/ml, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.04, p = 0.899). There was a significant decrease in osteocalcin (WMD -0.86 ng/ml, 95% CI -1.68 to -0.04, p = 0.040) as compared with control. Omega-3 fatty acids reduced postmenopausal women's serum osteocalcin. Further well-designed studies are needed to verify the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on bone mass density and other bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. CRD42016053219 ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ).

  16. Modeling the effect of levothyroxine therapy on bone mass density in postmenopausal women: a different approach leads to new inference

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Babak; Haghpanah, Vahid; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Larijani, Bagher

    2007-01-01

    Background The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis is a national health emergency. Osteoporosis quietly progresses without symptoms until late stage complications occur. Older patients are more commonly at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. The fracture risk increases when suppressive doses of levothyroxine are administered especially in postmenopausal women. The question is; "When should bone mass density be tested in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy?". Standard guidelines for the prevention of osteoporosis suggest that follow-up be done in 1 to 2 years. We were interested in predicting the level of bone mass density in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy with a novel approach. Methods The study used data from the literature on the influence of exogenous thyroid hormones on bone mass density. Four cubic polynomial equations were obtained by curve fitting for Ward's triangle, trochanter, spine and femoral neck. The behaviors of the models were investigated by statistical and mathematical analyses. Results There are four points of inflexion on the graphs of the first derivatives of the equations with respect to time at about 6, 5, 7 and 5 months. In other words, there is a maximum speed of bone loss around the 6th month after the start of suppressive L-thyroxine therapy in post-menopausal women. Conclusion It seems reasonable to check bone mass density at the 6th month of therapy. More research is needed to explain the cause and to confirm the clinical application of this phenomenon for osteoporosis, but such an approach can be used as a guide to future experimentation. The investigation of change over time may lead to more sophisticated decision making in a wide variety of clinical problems. PMID:17559682

  17. Strong effect of SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene on bone phenotype of Caucasian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Tóbiás, Bálint; Szili, Balázs; Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Győri, Gabriella; Kató, Karina; Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the Wnt pathway and bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal women. We chose this pathway due to its importance in bone metabolism that was underlined in several studies. DNA samples of 932 Hungarian postmenopausal women were studied. First, their BMD values at different sites (spine, total hip) were measured, using a Lunar Prodigy DXA scanner. Thereafter, T-score values and the patients' body mass indices (BMIs) were calculated, while information about the fracture history of the sample population was also collected. We genotyped nine SNPs of the following three genes: LRP5, GPR177, and SP7, using a Sequenom MassARRAY Analyzer 4 instrument. The genomic DNA samples used for genotyping were extracted from the buccal mucosa of the subjects. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS 21 and R package. The results of this analysis showed a significant association between SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and total hip BMD values. We could not reveal any associations between the markers of GPR177, SP7, and bone phenotypes. We found no effect of these genotypes on fracture risk. We could demonstrate a significant gene-gene interaction between two SNPs of LRP5 (rs4988300 and rs634008, p = 0.009) which was lost after Bonferroni correction. We could firmly demonstrate a significant association between rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and bone density of the hip on the largest homogeneous postmenopausal study group analyzed to date. Our finding corroborates the relationship between LRP5 genotype and bone phenotype in postmenopausal women, however, the complete mechanism of this relationship requires further investigations.

  18. CORRELATION BETWEEN CALCANEAL BONE ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS AND DENSITOMETRY AMONG POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH FRACTURES CAUSED BY BONE FRAGILITY

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Frederico Barra; Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães de; Novais, Pierre de Souza; Melo, Murilo Rodrigues; Guimarães, Mara Lúcia Rassi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the correlation between ultrasound (US) measurement on the calcaneus and bone densitometry (DEXA), among postmenopausal women who already presented fragility fractures. Methods: 35 postmenopausal women over 40 years of age, with the ability to walk and presenting osteoporotic fractures of the wrist or spine, without previous treatment for osteoporosis, were analyzed in a retrospective cohort. Of these, 16 were under 60 and 19 were over 60. The broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were compared using DEXA (L1-L4, total femur, femoral neck and wrist). Two different values of BUA were used as cutoff points for osteoporosis: BUA < 60 dB/MHz and BUA < 64 dB/MHz (P < 0.05); and SOS < 1600 m/s. The confidence interval was 95%. The DEXA and US data were plotted on dispersion graphs and, through linear regression, it was possible to establish correlations. Following this, the sample was stratified according to age (up to 60 years and 60 years and over). Thus, the values were again compared and correlated. Results: The best correlation obtained between DEXA and US was between the T-score of the wrist and BUA < 64 dB/MHz, with 92% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Better sensitivity at all DEXA sites was obtained when US was performed on patients over 60 years of age. The SOS compatible with osteoporosis was < 1592.5 m/s (89% sensitivity and 85% specificity). Conclusion: US on the calcaneus can be used for screening the risk of osteoporosis fractures, using a cutoff of BUA < 64 dB/MHz, especially among patients over 60 years of age. PMID:27027001

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN CALCANEAL BONE ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS AND DENSITOMETRY AMONG POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH FRACTURES CAUSED BY BONE FRAGILITY.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Frederico Barra; Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães de; Novais, Pierre de Souza; Melo, Murilo Rodrigues; Guimarães, Mara Lúcia Rassi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the correlation between ultrasound (US) measurement on the calcaneus and bone densitometry (DEXA), among postmenopausal women who already presented fragility fractures. 35 postmenopausal women over 40 years of age, with the ability to walk and presenting osteoporotic fractures of the wrist or spine, without previous treatment for osteoporosis, were analyzed in a retrospective cohort. Of these, 16 were under 60 and 19 were over 60. The broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were compared using DEXA (L1-L4, total femur, femoral neck and wrist). Two different values of BUA were used as cutoff points for osteoporosis: BUA < 60 dB/MHz and BUA < 64 dB/MHz (P < 0.05); and SOS < 1600 m/s. The confidence interval was 95%. The DEXA and US data were plotted on dispersion graphs and, through linear regression, it was possible to establish correlations. Following this, the sample was stratified according to age (up to 60 years and 60 years and over). Thus, the values were again compared and correlated. The best correlation obtained between DEXA and US was between the T-score of the wrist and BUA < 64 dB/MHz, with 92% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Better sensitivity at all DEXA sites was obtained when US was performed on patients over 60 years of age. The SOS compatible with osteoporosis was < 1592.5 m/s (89% sensitivity and 85% specificity). US on the calcaneus can be used for screening the risk of osteoporosis fractures, using a cutoff of BUA < 64 dB/MHz, especially among patients over 60 years of age.

  20. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Margaret; Farrell, Vanessa; Houtkooper, Linda; Going, Scott; Lohman, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997) of postmenopausal women (n = 266; 56.6 ± 4.7 years) participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST) study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4), and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT), total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P < 0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward's triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399. PMID:25785226

  1. The relationship between breast density and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Buist, Diana S M; Anderson, Melissa L; Taplin, Stephen H; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2004-11-01

    It is not well understood whether breast density is a marker of cumulative exposure to estrogen or a marker of recent exposure to estrogen. The authors examined the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD; a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure) and breast density. The authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 1800 postmenopausal women > or = 54 years. BMD data were taken from two population-based studies conducted in 1992-1993 (n = 1055) and in 1998-1999 (n = 753). The authors linked BMD data with breast density information collected as part of a mammography screening program. They used linear regression to evaluate the density relationship, adjusted for age, hormone therapy use, body mass index (BMI), and reproductive covariates. There was a small but significant negative association between BMD and breast density. The negative correlation between density measures was not explained by hormone therapy or age, and BMI was the only covariate that notably influenced the relationship. Stratification by BMI only revealed the negative correlation between bone and breast densities in women with normal BMI. There was no relationship in overweight or obese women. The same relationship was seen for all women who had never used hormone therapy, but it was not significant once stratified by BMI. BMD and breast density were not positively associated although both are independently associated with estrogen exposure. It is likely that unique organ responses obscure the relationship between the two as indicators of cumulative estrogen exposure.

  2. Exercise frequency and calcium intake predict 4-year bone changes in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cussler, Ellen C; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B; Stanford, Vanessa A; Blew, Robert M; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Metcalfe, Lauve L; Choi, Ji-Eun; Lohman, Timothy G

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of exercise frequency and calcium intake (CI) with change in regional and total bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of postmenopausal women completing 4 years of progressive strength training. One hundred sixty-seven calcium-supplemented (800 mg/day) sedentary women (56.1+/-4.5 years) randomized to a progressive strength training exercise program or to control were followed for 4 years. Fifty-four percent of the women were using hormone therapy (HT) at baseline. At 1 year, controls were permitted to begin the exercise program (crossovers). The final sample included 23 controls, 55 crossovers, and 89 randomized exercisers. Exercisers were instructed to complete two sets of six to eight repetitions of exercises at 70-80% of one repetition maximum, three times weekly. BMD was measured at baseline and thereafter annually using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Four-year percentage exercise frequency (ExFreq) averaged 26.8%+/-20.1% for crossovers (including the first year at 0%), and 50.4%+/-26.7% for exercisers. Four-year total CI averaged 1,635+/-367 mg/day and supplemental calcium intake, 711+/-174 mg/day. In adjusted multiple linear regression models, ExFreq was positively and significantly related to changes in femur trochanter (FT) and neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and total body (TB) BMD. Among HT users, FT BMD increased 1.5%, and FN and LS BMD, 1.2% (p<0.01) for each standard deviation (SD) of percentage ExFreq (29.5% or 0.9 days/week). HT non-users gained 1.9% and 2.3% BMD at FT and FN, respectively, (p<0.05) for every SD of CI. The significant, positive, association between BMD change and ExFreq supports the long-term usefulness of strength training exercise for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, especially HT users. The positive relationship of CI to change in BMD among postmenopausal women not using HT has clinical implications in light of recent evidence of an increased health risk

  3. Risk of low bone mineral density associated with psychotropic medications and mental disorders in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Targownik, Laura E; Leung, Stella; Sareen, Jitender; Leslie, William D

    2011-02-01

    Independent reports suggest that various psychotropic medications and psychiatric disorders are associated with changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to clarify the independent effects of a range of mental illnesses and psychotropic medications on BMD among postmenopausal women. Women 50 years or older with baseline BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were identified in a database containing all clinical dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry test results for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Records were linked with population-based administrative health databases to provide detailed information on sociodemographic factors, mental and physical health diagnoses, and prescription medication usage. Osteoporotic cases (n = 6820) were matched on age, sex, and ethnicity to 3 control subjects with normal BMD (n = 20,247). Multivariable conditional logistic regression compared cases and control subjects on diagnosed mental illnesses and use of psychotropic medications. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (adjusted odds ratios, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.69), atypical antipsychotics (AOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06-2.28), and benzodiazepines (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29) were associated with higher risk of osteoporosis. Tricyclic antidepressants were associated with lower odds of osteoporosis (AOR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.49-0.65). These drug effects were independent of mental illness diagnoses including depression (AOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98) and schizophrenia (AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.04-3.77). Some psychotropic medications are associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic BMD, whereas tricyclic antidepressants may be protective against osteoporosis, and these effects are independent of mental illness diagnoses. Clinicians should consider these effects when prescribing psychotropic medications in postmenopausal women.

  4. Contributions of lean mass and fat mass to bone mineral density: a study in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Lai, Thai Q; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2010-03-26

    The relative contribution of lean and fat to the determination of bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is a contentious issue. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that lean mass is a better determinant of BMD than fat mass. This cross-sectional study involved 210 postmenopausal women of Vietnamese background, aged between 50 and 85 years, who were randomly sampled from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Whole body scans, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMD were measured by DXA (QDR 4500, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA). Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were derived from the whole body scan. Furthermore, lean mass index (LMi) and fat mass index (FMi) were calculated as ratio of LM or FM to body height in metre squared (m2). In multiple linear regression analysis, both LM and FM were independent and significant predictors of BMD at the spine and femoral neck. Age, lean mass and fat mass collectively explained 33% variance of lumbar spine and 38% variance of femoral neck BMD. Replacing LM and FM by LMi and LMi did not alter the result. In both analyses, the influence of LM or LMi was greater than FM and FMi. Simulation analysis suggested that a study with 1000 individuals has a 78% chance of finding the significant effects of both LM and FM, and a 22% chance of finding LM alone significant, and zero chance of finding the effect of fat mass alone. These data suggest that both lean mass and fat mass are important determinants of BMD. For a given body size -- measured either by lean mass or height --women with greater fat mass have greater BMD.

  5. [Prevalence of low bone mineral density in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors].

    PubMed

    Poloni, Priscila Ferreira; Omodei, Michelle Sako; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Uemura, Gilberto; Véspoli, Heloisa De Luca; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional study, 115 breast cancer survivors, seeking healthcare at a University Hospital in Brazil, were evaluated. Eligibility criteria included women with amenorrhea ≥ 12 months and age ≥ 45 years, treated for breast cancer and metastasis-free for at least five years. BMD was measured by DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Low BMD was considered when total-spine and/or femoral-neck T-score values were <-1.0 Delphi Score (DP) (osteopenia and osteoporosis). The risk factors for low BMD were assessed by interview. Data were analyzed statistically by the χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The mean age of breast cancer survivors was 61.6 ± 10.1 years and time since menopause was 14.2 ± 5.6 years, with a mean follow-up of 10.1 ± 3.9 years. Considering spine and femoral neck, 60% of breast cancer survivors had low BMD. By evaluating the risk factors for low BMD, a significant difference was found in the percent distribution for age (higher % of women >50 years with low BMD), personal history of previous fracture (11.6% with low BMD versus 0% with normal BMD) and BMI. A higher frequency of obesity was observed among women with normal BMD (63%) compared to those with low BMD (26.1%) (p<0.05). Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors had a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  6. Influence of lean and fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Dytfeld, Joanna; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Gowin, Ewelina; Michalak, Michał; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite known positive association between body mass and bone mineral density (BMD), relative contribution of fat and lean tissue to BMD remains under debate. We aimed at investigating the effect of selected anthropometric parameters, including fat content and lean body mass (LBM) on BMD in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women with body mass index (BMI) > 20 kg/m(2). The study involved 92 never-treated women (mean age 69.5 ± 7.3). L1-L4 and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Absolute (kg) and relative (%) fat and LBM were assessed by means of electric bioimpedance method. We showed both FN and L1-L4 BMD were positively correlated with body mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and LBM (kg). Fat content correlated with FN BMD (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed the only predictor of L1-L4 BMD was LBM (R(2) = 0.18, p < 0.05), for FN--both LBM and fat (R(2) = 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Of the women, 44.5% were overweight, 18.4% obese. Obese women displayed the highest BMD. Both L1-L4 and FN BMD were higher in women with WC > 80 cm. In postmenopausal osteoporotic women with BMI > 20 kg/m(2) both fat and lean tissue might contribute to BMD. Positive association between body mass and BMD does not make obesity and osteoporosis mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical performance in relation to body composition and bone mineral density in healthy, overweight, and obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyehyung; Liu, Pei-Yang; Panton, Lynn B; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2014-01-01

    Diminished physical performance can be detrimental among the older adults, causing falls and subsequent fractures, loss of independence, and increased morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, it is important to maintain functional ability from the early onset of aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical performance measures and body composition (bone, fat, and lean mass) in healthy, overweight and obese, early postmenopausal white women. A total of 97 participants aged 56.0 (4.4) years (mean (SD)) with body mass index of 31.0 (4.6) kg/m(2) were included. Weight and height were recorded and 3 days of dietary records and physical activity were collected. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements for body composition and bone mineral density were performed. Fasting blood samples were used for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) analysis. Measures of physical performance included handgrip strength, 8-meter walking speed, one-leg-stance time, 8-foot Timed Get-Up-and-Go Test, and chair sit-to-stand test. Results showed that higher lean mass was related to better physical performance on items assessing body strength, including handgrip (r ranged from 0.22 to 0.25, P < .05) while higher body fat was related to the poorer physical performance in each of the assessed measures. Bone mineral density of the forearm was positively related to the handgrip strength (r = 0.207, P < .05). In regression analyses (controlled for age, weight, height, serum 25OHD status, calcium intake, physical activity, and smoking), fat mass of the lower extremities was inversely related to walking speed, one-leg-stance time, and Get-Up-and-Go measures, all crucial for mobility (r(2) = 0.13-0.23, P < .05). Overall, higher fat and lower lean mass was related to poorer physical performance, while forearm bone mineral density was related to the handgrip strength only. Further investigation may be beneficial for a better understanding of how body

  8. Periodontal Health in Women With Early-Stage Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Newly on Aromatase Inhibitors: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Taichman, L Susan; Inglehart, Marita R; Giannobile, William V; Braun, Thomas; Kolenic, Giselle; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) use results in low estrogen levels, which in turn affect bone mineral density (BMD). Periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, and tooth loss are associated with low BMD. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence of periodontitis and perceived oral health and evaluate salivary biomarkers in postmenopausal women who are survivors of early-stage (I to IIIA) breast cancer (BCa) and receive adjuvant AI therapy. Participants included 58 postmenopausal women: 29 with BCa on AIs and 29 controls without BCa diagnoses. Baseline periodontal status was assessed with: 1) periodontal probing depth (PD); 2) bleeding on probing (BOP); and 3) attachment loss (AL). Demographic and dental utilization information was gathered by questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to analyze the outcomes. No differences were found in mean PD or number of teeth. The AI group had significantly more sites with BOP (27.8 versus 16.7; P = 0.02), higher worst-site AL (5.2 versus 4.0 mm; P <0.01), and more sites with dental calculus (18.2 versus 6.4; P <0.001) than controls. Linear regression adjusted for income, tobacco use, dental insurance, and previous radiation and chemotherapy exposure demonstrated that AI use increased AL by >2 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 3.92). Median salivary osteocalcin and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in the AI group than the control group. This first investigation of the periodontal status of women initiating adjuvant AI therapy identifies this population as having an increased risk for periodontitis.

  9. Postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Diab, Dima L; Watts, Nelson B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a thorough updated review of the diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. There have been several important findings in the field of postmenopausal osteoporosis over the past 1-2 years. Fewer morphometric vertebral fractures were found in women treated for 6 years with zoledronic acid compared with those who stopped treatment after 3 years. Longer duration of bisphosphonate therapy is associated with a higher risk of atypical femur fractures. Combination therapy with teriparatide and denosumab appears to increase bone mineral density to a greater extent than either therapy alone in postmenopausal women at high risk for fracture. There are several novel therapies under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis, which are in various stages of development. Nonadherence to osteoporosis therapies continues to be a major problem in clinical practice. There are numerous effective pharmacologic treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bisphosphonate drug holidays continue to be an area of significant debate.

  10. Effect of high dietary sodium on bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Joung, J Y; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Chung, J H; Lee, M K; Min, Y-K

    2015-03-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor of osteoporosis for its modulating effect on calcium metabolism. To understand the effect of dietary sodium on bone turnover, we evaluated the association between urinary sodium excretion and bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass. A retrospective review of medical records at a single institution identified 537 postmenopausal women who were first diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis between 2008 and 2013. Subjects were stratified by low (<2 g/day, n=77), moderate (2-4.4 g/day, n=354) and high (⩾4.4 g/day, n=106) sodium excretion. A 24-h urine was collected to estimate sodium, calcium and creatinine. Bone turnover markers and calciotropic hormones were measured in serum. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sodium intake was positively associated with urinary sodium excretion (P=0.006, r=0.29). Bone turnover markers were significantly higher in the moderate-to-high urinary sodium excretion group (⩾2 g/day) than in the low urinary sodium excretion group (<2 g/day); CTX-I (C-telopeptides of type I collagen) was 21.3% higher (P=0.001) and osteocalcin (OC) was 15.7% higher (P=0.004). Calciotropic hormones and BMD were not significantly different across the sodium excretion groups. High urinary sodium excretion (⩾2 g/day) increased bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women, suggesting that excessive sodium intake might accelerate bone turnover.

  11. Effect of adiponectin and sex steroid hormones on bone mineral density and bone formation markers in postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ki Hoon; Lee, Seung Hyeun; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between adiponectin and sex hormones with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation markers was investigated in postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH). Seventy-five postmenopausal women were selected among the patients who participated in a health screening program in 2007. Thirty-seven control women with normal thyroid function were matched to 38 women with SCH by age, body mass index (BMI), and years since menopause (YSM). The associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with lumbar spine BMD and bone turnover markers were investigated. Adiponectin, testosterone (T; total and free forms), and thyroid-stimulating hormone were significantly different between the women with SCH and euthyroid. After adjusting for age, BMI, and YSM, free T (r = 0.351; P = 0.029) and estradiol (E2; r = -0.368; P = 0.024) had significant associations with bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP). Total T (r = 0.388; P = 0.021) and E2 (r = -0.376; P = 0.026) had significant associations with osteocalcin. However, there were no significant associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with the BMD levels in the SCH subjects. There were correlations between sex hormones with B-ALP and osteocalcin, but no associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with the lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal SCH patients.

  12. Prediction of incident hip fracture by femoral neck bone mineral density and neck-shaft angle: a 5-year longitudinal study in post-menopausal females.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, S; Sitta, E; Pignotti, E

    2012-08-01

    To compare hip fracture incidence in post-menopausal females who were differently stratified for the fracture risk according to bone mineral density and proximal femur geometry. In a 5 year follow-up study, the hip fracture incidence in 729 post-menopausal females (45 of whom suffered from incident hip fracture) was assessed and compared. Forward logistic regression was used to select independent predictors of hip fracture risk, including age, age at menopause, height, weight, femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD), neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip axis length, femoral neck diameter and femoral shaft diameter as covariates. Fracture incidence was then calculated for the categories of young/old age, high/low FNBMD and wide/narrow NSA, which were obtained by dichotomising each hip fracture independent predictor at the value best separating females with and without a hip fracture. The hip fracture incidence of the whole cohort was significantly higher in females with a wide NSA (8.52%) than in those with a narrow NSA (3.51%). The combination of wide NSA and low FNBMD had the highest hip fracture incidence in the whole cohort (17.61%) and each age category. The combinations of narrow/wide NSA with low/high FNBMD, respectively, gave a significantly higher fracture incidence in older than in younger women, whereas women with a combined wide NSA and low FNBMD had no significantly different fracture incidence in young (14.60%) or old age (21.62%). Our study showed that NSA is effective at predicting the hip fracture risk and that the detection in early post-menopause of a wide NSA together with a low FNBMD should identify females at high probability of incident hip fracture.

  13. Prediction of incident hip fracture by femoral neck bone mineral density and neck–shaft angle: a 5-year longitudinal study in post-menopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Gnudi, S; Sitta, E; Pignotti, E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare hip fracture incidence in post-menopausal females who were differently stratified for the fracture risk according to bone mineral density and proximal femur geometry. Methods In a 5 year follow-up study, the hip fracture incidence in 729 post-menopausal females (45 of whom suffered from incident hip fracture) was assessed and compared. Forward logistic regression was used to select independent predictors of hip fracture risk, including age, age at menopause, height, weight, femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD), neck–shaft angle (NSA), hip axis length, femoral neck diameter and femoral shaft diameter as covariates. Fracture incidence was then calculated for the categories of young/old age, high/low FNBMD and wide/narrow NSA, which were obtained by dichotomising each hip fracture independent predictor at the value best separating females with and without a hip fracture. Results The hip fracture incidence of the whole cohort was significantly higher in females with a wide NSA (8.52%) than in those with a narrow NSA (3.51%). The combination of wide NSA and low FNBMD had the highest hip fracture incidence in the whole cohort (17.61%) and each age category. The combinations of narrow/wide NSA with low/high FNBMD, respectively, gave a significantly higher fracture incidence in older than in younger women, whereas women with a combined wide NSA and low FNBMD had no significantly different fracture incidence in young (14.60%) or old age (21.62%). Conclusion Our study showed that NSA is effective at predicting the hip fracture risk and that the detection in early post-menopause of a wide NSA together with a low FNBMD should identify females at high probability of incident hip fracture. PMID:22096224

  14. Changes of Bone-Related Minerals during Denosumab Administration in Post-Menopausal Osteoporotic Patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takako; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-13

    This retrospective study included 21 patients with primary osteoporosis who were treated with the anti-resorption drug, denosumab. To date, there has been no detailed report on the changes of bone-related minerals after anti-resorption drug therapy. Twenty-one post-menopausal females were retrospectively enrolled. Serum zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), grip strength, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were examined at one week and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Lumbar spine (L1-4) bone mineral density (L-BMD) and bilateral total hip BMD (H-BMD) were examined before and at 4, 8, and 12 months after treatment commencement. Serum Zn tended to decrease at one week and one month, and tended to increase during 10 to 12 months. Serum Cu maintained during zero to eight months, then decreased at 10 and 12 months. Serum Fe gradually increased after four months. Serum Mg sharply increased at one week, then decreased further. Grip strength increased for two months, then slightly decreased and maintained 4 to 12 months. eGFR almost maintained for zero to eight months, then slightly decreased thereafter. L-BMD values significantly increased at eight (5.8%) ( p < 0.01) and 12 months (9.8%) ( p < 0.01). H-BMD increased during the period (at 12 months: 3.7%). These results suggest that at later phases of denosumab therapy, Zn and Fe tended to increase while Mg tended to decrease, all of which are important for bone metabolism. Thus, denosumab might improve Zn and Fe metabolism, and thereby likely increase BMD. Since denosumab may not improve Mg, it is better to obtain Mg supplementation during the therapy.

  15. Serum myostatin in central south Chinese postmenopausal women: Relationship with body composition, lipids and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yulin; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Hongbin; Ou, Yangna; Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Shuang; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

    2016-08-01

    Previous data suggest that myostatin has direct effects on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. The relationships between serum myostatin, body composition lipids and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women remain unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationships between serum myostatin, body composition, lipids and bone mineral density in central south Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 healthy postmenopausal women, aged 51-75 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum myostatin, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(25OH-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast to the osteoporotic women, the women without osteoporosis had higher BMI, fat mass and lean mass (P<0.01). The osteoporotic women were older than women without osteoporosis (P<0.01). There were no differences between two groups with regard to serum BAP, CTX, (25OH-D), PTH, lipids and myostatin after adjusted by age. BMD at each site was positively correlated with age at menopause, fat mass and lean mass, and also negatively correlated with age and serum BAP. Serum myostatin was positively correlated with tryglicerides, not correlated with either body composition or BMD at each site. Our data indicated that serum myostatin concentration did not correlate with muscle and bone mass. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the role of myostatin in regulating the bone metabolism.

  16. Association between bone turnover, micronutrient intake, and blood lead levels in pre- and postmenopausal women, NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Leila W; Cromer, Barbara A; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%-45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%-43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%-19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%-22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre- and postmenopausal women.

  17. Association between Bone Turnover, Micronutrient Intake, and Blood Lead Levels in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women, NHANES 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Leila W.; Cromer, Barbara A.; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. Objectives We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20–85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Methods Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log-transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. Results In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%–45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%–43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%–19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%–22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Conclusions Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre-and postmenopausal women. PMID:20688594

  18. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation through fortified dairy products counterbalances seasonal variations of bone metabolism indices: the Postmenopausal Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tenta, Roxane; Moschonis, George; Koutsilieris, Michael; Manios, Yannis

    2011-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women. Forty postmenopausal women (55-65 years old) were equally randomized into a dietary group (DG), receiving daily and for 30 months, 1,200 mg of calcium and 7.5 μg of vitamin D(3) for the first 12 months that increased to 22.5 μg for the remaining 18 months of intervention through fortified dairy products; and a control group (CG). Differences in the changes of bone metabolism and bone mass indices were examined with repeated measures ANOVA. A significant increase was observed for PTH levels only in the CG during the first six winter months of intervention (p = 0.049). After 30 months of intervention, during winter, serum 25(OH)D significantly decreased in the CG while remained in the same high levels as in the summer period in the DG. Serum RANKL levels decreased significantly in the DG compared with the increase in the CG during the 30-month intervention period (p = 0.005). Serum CTx decreased significantly in the DG after six (-0.08; -0.12 to -0.03) and 12 (-0.03; -0.08 to -0.02) months of intervention. Finally, the DG had more favorable changes in total body BMD than the CG (p < 0.001). Increasing dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D in osteopenic postmenopausal women appears to be effective in producing favorable changes in several bone metabolism and bone mass indices and in counterbalancing seasonal variations in hormonal and biochemical molecules.

  19. Reduced bone mineral density in postmenopausal women self-reporting premenopausal wrist fractures.

    PubMed

    Fiorano-Charlier, C; Ostertag, A; Aquino, J P; de Vernejoul, M-C; Baudoin, C

    2002-07-01

    Postmenopausal fractures are associated with low bone mass; however, the role of low peak bone mass in young adults in determining subsequent osteoporosis suggests that premenopausal fractures may also be relevant. We therefore sought to determine whether a self-reported previous history of premenopausal wrist and nonwrist fractures could also be associated with bone density and therefore be used to predict osteoporosis. We recruited 453 volunteer women with a median age of 64 years (range 50-83 years), with no metabolic bone disease, previous femoral neck fracture, or prevalent vertebral fracture. Bone density at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) was measured using a Lunar DPX-L. As expected, the 319 women who did not report any fracture had a higher T score at LS (-0.93 +/- 1.44) than the 134 women who reported a previous fracture at any site and at any age (T score -1.60 +/- 1.21, p < 0.001). The findings for the FN were similar. Compared with fracture-free women, the women who reported a first wrist fracture before menopause now had a lower LS T score (-1.77 +/- 1.20, n = 15, p < 0.05), whereas those who reported a nonwrist fracture showed no significant decrease in their LS T score (-1.26 +/- 1.00, n = 36). When both wrist and nonwrist fractures had occurred after menopause, the T score was significantly lower. Twenty percent of the fracture-free women were osteoporosis patients. After adjusting for body weight, age, hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and hip fracture in the family, the relative risk (RR) of osteoporosis for premenopausal wrist fractures was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.4-4.3) vs. 1.2 (0.7-2.4) for women with premenopausal nonwrist fractures. We conclude that self-reported premenopausal wrist fractures, but no other fractures occurring before menopause, are likely to be associated with osteoporosis at 65 years of age, and therefore constitute strong grounds for screening.

  20. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  1. The effect of two doses of dried plum on bone density and bone biomarkers in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, S; Kern, M; Metti, D; Shamloufard, P; Chai, S C; Johnson, S A; Payton, M E; Arjmandi, B H

    2016-07-01

    Daily consumption of 50 g of dried plum (equivalent to 5-6 dried plums) for 6 months may be as effective as 100 g of dried plum in preventing bone loss in older, osteopenic postmenopausal women. To some extent, these results may be attributed to the inhibition of bone resorption with the concurrent maintenance of bone formation. The objective of our current study was to examine the possible dose-dependent effects of dried plum in preventing bone loss in older osteopenic postmenopausal women. Forty-eight osteopenic women (65-79 years old) were randomly assigned into one of three treatment groups for 6 months: (1) 50 g of dried plum; (2) 100 g of dried plum; and (3) control. Total body, hip, and lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood biomarkers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and sclerostin were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D were measured at baseline and 6 months. Both doses of dried plum were able to prevent the loss of total body BMD compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05). TRAP-5b, a marker of bone resorption, decreased at 3 months and this was sustained at 6 months in both 50 and 100 g dried plum groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.04, respectively). Although there were no significant changes in BAP for either of the dried plum groups, the BAP/TRAP-5b ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at 6 months in both dried plum groups whereas there were no changes in the control group. These results confirm the ability of dried plum to prevent the loss of total body BMD in older osteopenic postmenopausal women and suggest that a lower dose of dried plum (i.e., 50 g) may be

  2. Premenopausal women with early breast cancer treated with estradiol suppression have severely deteriorated bone microstructure.

    PubMed

    Ramchand, Sabashini K; Seeman, Ego; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Francis, Prudence A; Ponnusamy, Evangeline J; Bardin, Michele S; Bui, Minh; Zebaze, Roger; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2017-10-01

    In premenopausal women with early estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, combined ovarian suppression and aromatase inhibition reduce estradiol production precipitously. The resulting unbalanced and rapid bone remodelling replaces older bone with less bone that is less fully mineralized. We hypothesized that these changes result in severe microstructural deterioration and reduced matrix mineralization density. Images of the distal radius and distal tibia were acquired using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in a cross-sectional study of 27 premenopausal women, mean age 43.3years (range 30.4 to 53.7) with early breast cancer made estradiol deficient for 17months (range 6-120) using ovarian suppression and aromatase inhibition, 42 healthy age-matched premenopausal and 35 postmenopausal controls, mean age 62.6years (range 60.2 to 65.5). Cortical and trabecular microstructure were quantified using Strax software. Compared with premenopausal controls, the women with breast cancer had 0.75 SD (95% CI 0.21 to 1.29) lower distal radial trabecular bone volume due to 1.29 SD (0.71 to 1.87) fewer trabeculae. Cortical porosity was 1.25 SD (0.59 to 1.91) higher but cortical thickness was not reduced. Compared with postmenopausal controls 20years older, cases had comparable or lower trabecular bone volume and comparable cortical porosity and thickness. Matrix mineral density was 1.56 SD (0.90 to 2.22) lower than in premenopausal controls and 2.17 SD (1.50 to 2.84) lower than in postmenopausal controls. Results at the tibia were similar. The severe cortical porosity and trabecular deterioration associated with estradiol depletion and the longevity of premenopausal women with early breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy provide a compelling rationale to investigate the efficacy of antiresorptive therapy initiated at the time of breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective study of change in bone mass with age in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hui, S L; Wiske, P S; Norton, J A; Johnston, C C

    1982-01-01

    For the first time a model for age-related bone loss has been developed from prospective data utilizing a new weighted least squares method. Two hundred and sixty-eight Caucasian women ranging in age from 50 to 95 were studied. A quadratic function best fit the data, and correcting for body weight and bone width reduced variance. The derived equation is: bone mass = (0.6032) (bone width) (cm) + (0.003059) (body weight) (kg) - (0.0163) (age - 50) + (0.0002249) (age - 50)2. Analysis of cross-sectional data on 583 Caucasian women of similar age showed a quadratic function with very similar coefficients. This quadratic function predicts an increase in bone mass after age 86, therefore 42 women over age 70 who had been followed for at least 2.5 yr were identified to test for this effect. of these, 13 had significantly positive regression coefficients of bone mass on age, and rate of change in bone width was positive in 40 of 42 individuals, of which 5 were significant. Since photon absorptiometry measures net changes on all bone envelopes, the most likely explanation for the observed changes is an early exponential loss of endosteal bone which ultimately slows or perhaps stops. There is a positive balance on the periosteal envelope which only becomes apparent in later years when the endosteal loss stops. These new statistical methods allow the development of models utilizing data collected at irregular intervals. The methods used are applicable to other biological data collected prospectively.

  4. Influence of bone mineral density measurement on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in postmenopausal Indian women.

    PubMed

    Daswani, Bhavna; Desai, Meena; Mitra, Sumegha; Gavali, Shubhangi; Patil, Anushree; Kukreja, Subhash; Khatkhatay, M Ikram

    2016-03-01

    Fracture risk assessment tool® calculations can be performed with or without addition of bone mineral density; however, the impact of this addition on fracture risk assessment tool® scores has not been studied in Indian women. Given the limited availability and high cost of bone mineral density testing in India, it is important to know the influence of bone mineral density on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. Therefore, our aim was to assess the contribution of bone mineral density in fracture risk assessment tool® outcome in Indian women. Apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women (n = 506), aged 40-72 years, without clinical risk factors for bone disease, were retrospectively selected, and their fracture risk assessment tool® scores calculated with and without bone mineral density were compared. Based on WHO criteria, 30% women were osteoporotic, 42.9% were osteopenic and 27.1% had normal bone mineral density. Fracture risk assessment tool® scores for risk of both major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture significantly increased on including bone mineral density (P < 0.0001). When criteria of National Osteoporosis Foundation, US was applied number of participants eligible for medical therapy increased upon inclusion of bone mineral density, (for major osteoporotic fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 0 and with bone mineral density was 1, P > 0.05, whereas, for hip fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 2 and with bone mineral density was 17, P < 0.0001). Until the establishment of country-specific medication intervention thresholds, bone mineral density should be included while calculating fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Association of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxiu; Tao, Xincheng; Wu, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The relationship of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, and vitamin B12 with bone mineral density (BMD) has been investigated in postmenopausal women. However, the relationship is still controversial. To evaluate the association of Hcy, folate, vitamin B12 and BMD in postmenopausal women with a meta-analysis. We searched for all published articles indexed in Medline (1950-2012), Embase (1974-2012), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1994-2012). Any case-control or cohort study relating to Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, and BMD was included, and the data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Criteria for inclusion were the assessment of Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, and BMD in postmenopausal women as outcomes. We performed this meta-analysis with Review Manager 5.1 software. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to evaluate the results. Six eligible studies were selected for meta-analysis. Our analysis suggested that vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) group than that in controls (P = 0.007, <0.05; 95 % CI 3.06-19.38 and P = 0.0003, <0.05; 95 % CI 0.75-2.52, respectively). Folate level was lower in PMOP group than that in controls, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.09, 95 % CI -3.33 to 0.25). Hcy and vitamin B12, but not folate, were related to BMD in PMOP. Extra vitamin B12 may not play a protective role for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to confirm them, especially the relationship between increased vitamin B12 and BMD.

  6. [China expert consensus on the management of dyslipidemia in postmenopausal patients with early-stage breast cancer].

    PubMed

    2017-01-23

    Estrogen has an impact on the type of lipoproteins and the blood lipid levels, thus protecting the cardiovascular system. Postmenopausal breast cancer patients suffer a significant decrease in estrogen levels due to both physiological changes and the use of drugs, and thus have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, strict lipid management is required for postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving endocrine therapy. However, no guidelines have been developed in terms of lipid management and intervention for postmenopausal breast cancer patients. The Chinese expert group of multidisciplinary management of dyslipidemia in breast cancer patients with endocrine therapy, after deep investigation into the management of dyslipidemia in postmenopausal patients with early-stage breast cancer, has developed the China Expert Consensus on Dyslipidemia Management in Postmenopausal Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer. The Consensus clearly defines the goals and measures of interventions for dyslipidemia, hoping to effectively reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal breast cancer patients and further improve the long-term survival of the patients.

  7. Contribution of Serum Inflammatory Markers to Changes in Bone Mineral Content and Density in Postmenopausal Women: A 1-Year Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, ER; Silverman, NE; Wise, KS; Hanson, KB; Alekel, DL; Stewart, JW; Perry, CD; Bhupathiraju, SN; Kohut, ML; Van Loan, MD

    2010-01-01

    Bone formation and resorption are influenced by inflammatory processes. We examined the relationships among inflammatory markers and bone mineral content and density (BMC, BMD) and determined the contribution of inflammatory markers to 1-year changes in BMC and BMD in healthy postmenopausal women. This analysis included 242 women at baseline from our parent Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) project who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: placebo, 80 mg/d soy isoflavones, or 120 mg/d soy isoflavones. BMD and BMC from the lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (hip), and whole body were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the 4% distal tibia (DT) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and white blood cell count (WBC)) were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Due to attrition or missing values, data analysis at 12 months includes only 235 women. Significant associations among Il-6, TNF-α, and WBC were observed with percent change in LS, hip, and whole body BMC and BMD. Multiple regression analysis indicated that in combination inflammatory markers accounted for 1.1% to 6.1% of the variance to the observed 12 month changes in BMC and BMD. Our results suggest that modifying inflammatory markers, even in healthy postmenopausal women, may possibly reduce bone loss. PMID:20605499

  8. Evaluation of ERα and VDR gene polymorphisms in relation to bone mineral density in Turkish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Ozlem; Yilmaz-Aydogan, Hulya; Uyar, Mehmet; Isbir, Turgay; Seyhan, Mehmet Fatih; Can, Ayse

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes as possibly implicated in reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporosis. The present study investigated the relation of ERα PvuII/XbaI polymorphisms and VDR FokI/TaqI polymorphisms with BMD in Turkish postmenopausal women. Eighty-one osteoporotic and 122 osteopenic postmenopausal women were recruited. For detection of the polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism techniques have been used. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Distributions of ERα (PvuII dbSNP: rs2234693, XbaI dbSNP: rs9340799) and VDR genotypes (FokI dbSNP rs10735810, TaqI dbSNP: rs731236) were similar in study population. Although overall prevalence of osteoporosis had no association with these genotypes, the prevalence of decreased femoral neck BMD values were higher in the subjects with ERα PvuII "PP" and ERα XbaI "XX" genotypes than in those with "Pp/pp" genotypes and "xx" genotype, respectively (P < 0.05). Furthermore, subjects with VDR FokI "FF" genotype had lower BMD values of femoral neck and total hip compared to those with "Ff" genotype (P < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, we confirmed the presence of relationships between the VDR FokI "FF" genotypes, BMI ≤ 27.5, age ≥ 55 and the increased risk of femoral neck BMD below 0.8 value in postmenopausal women. The present data suggests that the ERα PvuII/XbaI and VDR FokI polymorphisms may contribute to the determination of bone mineral density in Turkish postmenopausal women.

  9. Postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis show different ultrastructural characteristics of trabecular bone of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yun; Zhang, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Dai, Li-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are public health diseases affecting the quality of life of the elderly, and bring about a heavy burden to the society and family of patients. It has been debated whether or not there is an inverse relationship between these two disorders. Methods To compare the exact difference in bone tissue structure between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, we observed the ultrastructure of trabecular bone from the femoral heads using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A total of 15 femoral head specimens from postmenopausal women were collected during the procedures of total or hemi hip replacement (OP, n = 8; OA, n = 7). The morphologic structure of the trabecular bone, collagen fibers, resorption lacuna and osteoblasts were observed. Results Under SEM, osteoporotic trabeculae appeared to be thinning, tapering, breaking and perforating. A number of resorption lacunae of various shapes were seen on the surface of the trabeculum. The collagen fibers of lacuna were resorbed. On occasion, naked granular bone crystals could be found. In the OA group, the trabecular bone looked thick with integrated structure. Reticular and granular new bone could be found. The trabeculum was covered by well-arranged collagen fibers around the resorption lacuna. In the OP group, under TEM, marginal collagen fibers were observed to be aligned loosely with enlarged spaces. A few inactive osteoblasts and no inflammatory cells were seen. In the OA group, the collagen fibers inside the trabeculum were arranged in a dense manner with many active osteoblasts and inflammatory cells infiltrating the matrix. Conclusion We found significant differences in the trabecular bone, collagen fibers, lacunae and osteoblasts between postmenopausal women with OP and OA. These findings support the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between OP and OA. PMID:19356253

  10. Postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis show different ultrastructural characteristics of trabecular bone of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yun; Zhang, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Dai, Li-Yang

    2009-04-09

    Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are public health diseases affecting the quality of life of the elderly, and bring about a heavy burden to the society and family of patients. It has been debated whether or not there is an inverse relationship between these two disorders. To compare the exact difference in bone tissue structure between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, we observed the ultrastructure of trabecular bone from the femoral heads using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A total of 15 femoral head specimens from postmenopausal women were collected during the procedures of total or hemi hip replacement (OP, n = 8; OA, n = 7). The morphologic structure of the trabecular bone, collagen fibers, resorption lacuna and osteoblasts were observed. Under SEM, osteoporotic trabeculae appeared to be thinning, tapering, breaking and perforating. A number of resorption lacunae of various shapes were seen on the surface of the trabeculum. The collagen fibers of lacuna were resorbed. On occasion, naked granular bone crystals could be found. In the OA group, the trabecular bone looked thick with integrated structure. Reticular and granular new bone could be found. The trabeculum was covered by well-arranged collagen fibers around the resorption lacuna. In the OP group, under TEM, marginal collagen fibers were observed to be aligned loosely with enlarged spaces. A few inactive osteoblasts and no inflammatory cells were seen. In the OA group, the collagen fibers inside the trabeculum were arranged in a dense manner with many active osteoblasts and inflammatory cells infiltrating the matrix. We found significant differences in the trabecular bone, collagen fibers, lacunae and osteoblasts between postmenopausal women with OP and OA. These findings support the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between OP and OA.

  11. Response of bone turnover markers to raloxifene treatment in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Naylor, K E; Jacques, R M; Peel, N F A; Gossiel, F; Eastell, R

    2016-08-01

    We used two methods of identifying women who reached the target for raloxifene treatment with bone turnover markers. Both approaches identified women that responded to treatment but did not fully agree and may be complementary. The change in bone turnover markers (BTMs) in response to osteoporosis therapy can be assessed by a decrease beyond the least significant change (LSC) or below the mean of the reference interval (RI). We compared the performance of these two approaches in women treated with raloxifene. Fifty postmenopausal osteopenic women (age 51-72 years) were randomised to raloxifene or no treatment for 2 years. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of BTM. The LSC for each marker was calculated from the untreated women and the RI obtained from healthy premenopausal women (age 35-40 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the spine and hip. There was a decrease in BTM in response to raloxifene treatment, percentage change at 12 weeks: C terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) -39 % (95 % CI -48 to -28) and N terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) -32 % (95 % CI -40 to -23) P < 0.001. The proportion of women classified as responding to treatment using LSC at 12 weeks was as follows: CTX 38 % and PINP 52 % and at 48 weeks CTX 60 % and PINP 65 %. For the RI approach, the proportion of women classified as responding to treatment at 12 weeks was CTX and PINP 38 % and at 48 weeks CTX 40 % and PINP 45 %. There was a significant difference in the change in spine BMD in the raloxifene-treated group compared to the no-treatment group at week 48: difference 0.031 g/cm(2) (95 % CI 0.016 to 0.046, P < 0.001). The two approaches identified women that reached the target for treatment using BTM. Both LSC and RI criteria appear useful in identifying treatment response, but the two approaches do not fully overlap and may be complementary.

  12. Physical tests for patient selection for bone mineral density measurements in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Matti; Rikkonen, Toni; Kröger, Heikki; Sirola, Joonas; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Salovaara, Kari; Arokoski, Jari; Jurvelin, Jukka; Honkanen, Risto; Alhava, Esko

    2009-04-01

    There is a need for cost-effective clinical methods to select women for bone densitometry. The aim of the present study was to determine whether relatively simple and clinically applicable physical tests could be useful in prediction of bone density in postmenopausal women. A total of 606 women (age range 66-71 years) taking part in the population based OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study were investigated. Spinal and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Physical tests included the standing-on-one-foot (SOOF), grip strength (GS), leg extension strength, ability to squat down, standing 10 s eyes closed, chair rising, regular walk for 10 m and tandem walk for 6 m. All linear regression models were adjusted for age, body mass index, years on hormone therapy, years since menopause, current smoking and use of oral glucocorticoids. The SOOF was associated with lumbar spine BMD (r2=0.16, p=0.004) and the femoral regions (r2 values from 0.17 to 0.23 and p-values all<0.001). The GS was associated with lumbar spine BMD (r2=0.16, p=0.011) and the femoral regions (r2 values from 0.16 to 0.21 and p-values from <0.001 to 0.004). The ability to squat down on the floor was associated with the femoral regions (r2 values from 0.15 to 0.21 and p-values from 0.028 to 0.040). In addition, functional capacity was decreased in women with femoral neck osteoporosis (WHO classification) compared to women with normal or osteopenic BMD: SOOF -39% (p=0.001), GS -18% (p<0.001), leg extension strength -19% (p=0.007) and ability to squat down on the floor -40% (p=0.004). For osteoporosis prediction (ROC analysis) a threshold of a 22 kg in GS would yield a true-positive rate (sensitivity) of about 58% and a true-negative rate (specificity) of 86% (AUC 0.76). We suggest that grip strength could be used in medical decision making to identify those women who would benefit from BMD measurements albeit alone it may not provide accurate enough tool for

  13. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy; Al-Shehri, Eman; Al-Fawaz, Hanan A; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Saleh, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged around 50 years. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:25419393

  14. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among Saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy; Al-Shehri, Eman; Al-Fawaz, Hanan; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Saleh, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged 50 years and above. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:25356143

  15. A losing battle: weight regain does not restore weight loss-induced bone loss in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Villalon, Karen L; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m(2). They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (-1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (-0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (-0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: -3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss.

  16. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    PubMed

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-02-01

    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Early diagenesis and recrystallization of bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Sarah W.; Engel, Annette Summers

    2017-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in paleobiology is determining how bone transforms from a living tissue into a fossil. The geologic record is replete with vertebrate fossils preserved from a range of depositional environments, including wetland systems. However, thermodynamic models suggest that bone (modeled as hydroxylapatite) is generally unstable in a range of varying geochemical conditions and should readily dissolve if it does not alter to a more thermodynamically stable phase, such as a fluorine-enriched apatite. Here, we assess diagenesis of alligator bone from fleshed, articulated skeletons buried in wetland soils and from de-fleshed bones in experimental mesocosms with and without microbial colonization. When microbial colonization of bone was inhibited, bioapatite recrystallization to a more stable apatite phase occurred after one month of burial. Ca-Fe-phosphate phases in bone developed after several months to years due to ion substitutions from the protonation of the hydroxyl ion. These rapid changes demonstrate a continuum of structural and bonding transformations to bone that have not been observed previously. When bones were directly in contact with sediment and microbial cells, rapid bioerosion and compositional alteration occurred after one week, but slowed after one month because biofilms reduced exposed surfaces and subsequent bioapatite lattice substitutions. Microbial contributions are likely essential in forming stable apatite phases during early diagenesis and for enabling bone preservation and fossilization.

  18. [The influence of hormonal replacement therapy on bone density in postmenopausal women depending on polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and estrogen receptor (ER) genes].

    PubMed

    Brodowska, Agnieszka

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is still an important health problem in modern societies. The densitometric criterion for the diagnosis of this condition established by WHO in 1994 is bone mass density (BMD) lower than 2.5 standard deviation (SD) from the mean value for young healthy individuals of the same sex. Between 60 and 90% of bone density (quantity of bone tissue in the human skeleton) at the time when growth is terminated is genetically determined. For this reason, genes predisposing to osteoporosis and mechanisms of their activity remain the object of investigations. Among them are genes coding for vitamin D receptor (VDR), estrogen receptor (ER), type I collagen, TGF-beta and IL-6. Diminishing bone density past the age of thirty is a physiologic process. Bone loss averages 0.3-0.6% per year. Acceleration of this process to 1.2-6% per year in postmenopausal women has been attributed to constantly decreasing estrogen concentration. Hence, the gold standard in osteoporosis prevention and treatment includes estrogen-progestagen therapy enriched with vitamin D analogues, calcium-rich diet and regular physical exercises. Treatment of osteoporosis can be long and expensive. The condition may lead to disability. Osteoporotic fractures and their complications may be fatal. For these reasons, the chief priority in osteoporosis is prevention. Unfortunately, current diagnostic methods (for detection of osteoporosis and monitoring of treatment) remain unsatisfactory. Molecular techniques offer a promising approach to diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Additionally, the risk of osteoporosis in 1st degree relatives can be assessed and early prevention can be started. The present study addressed the following questions: 1. Are there differences in spine BMD in untreated women with postmenopausal osteoporosis depending on polymorphism of VDR and ER genes? 2. Does efficacy of treatment (increase in spine BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis depend on polymorphism of VDR and ER

  19. Biochemical Predictors of Low Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Susceptibility in Maltese Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Melissa M; Xuereb-Anastasi, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and fractures are complex conditions influenced by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to investigate three biochemical parameters including total serum calcium, total serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP) and albumin in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN), and with all-type of low-trauma fractures in Maltese postmenopausal women. Levels were also correlated with age and physical activity. A case-control study of 1045 women was performed. Women who suffered a fracture were classified as cases whereas women without a fracture history were included as controls subdivided into normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic according to their BMD measurements. Blood specimens were collected following good standard practice and testing was performed by spectrophotometry. Calcium and sALP levels were weakly correlated with FN BMD levels (calcium: r = -0.111, p = 0.002; sALP: r = 0.089, p = 0.013). Fracture cases had the lowest serum levels of calcium, sALP and albumin relative to all other control groups, which decreased with increasing age, possibly increasing fracture risk. Biochemical levels were lowest in women who sustained a hip fracture and more than one fracture. Biochemical parameters decreased with reduced physical activity; however, this was most evident for fracture cases. Reduced physical activity was associated with lower BMD levels at the hip, and to a lower extent at the spine. In conclusion, results suggest that levels of serum calcium and albumin could be indicative of fracture risk, whereas calcium levels and to lower extent sALP levels could be indicators of hip BMD.

  20. Influence of parity on bone mineral density and peripheral fracture risk in Moroccan postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Allali, Fadoua; Maaroufi, Houda; Aichaoui, Siham El; Khazani, Hamza; Saoud, Bouchra; Benyahya, Boubker; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2007-08-20

    The aims of the study were to determine: (1) the relationship between parity and bone mineral density (BMD); (2) the relationship between parity and osteoporotic peripheral fractures. The group studied included 730 postmenopausal women. Patients were separated into four groups according to the number of fullterm pregnancies, group 1: nulliparae, group 2: one to three pregnancies, group 3: four to five pregnancies, and group 4: six and more pregnancies. Additionally, patients were separated into three groups according to their ages, as <50 years, 50-59 years and >or=60 years. The median parity was 4 [0-20]. All the patients with parity greater than six had spine and hip BMD values significantly lower than values in the other groups (p<0.001). After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), decreased lumbar and total hip BMD were still associated to increased parity (analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), p=0.04 and 0.023, respectively). The relation between parity and lumbar BMD was highly significant among women aged <50 years (age-adjusted p=0.022), while there was no parity-spine BMD association in the other age groups. The relation between parity and hip BMD was seen only in the group 50-59 years (age-adjusted p=0.042). A positive history for peripheral fractures was present in 170 (23%) patients. There was relationship between parity and peripheral fractures neither in the whole population nor in the sub-groups according to age. The present study suggests that the BMD of the spine and hip decreases with an increasing number of pregnancies, and this situation shows variations in different age groups. However, there was no correlation between parity level and peripheral fractures.

  1. Effects of Exercise on Bone Status in Female Subjects, from Young Girls to Postmenopausal Women: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jincheng; Lombardi, Giovanni; Jiao, Wei; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis and postmenopausal bone loss pose a huge social and economic burden worldwide. Regular exercise and physical activity are effective interventions for maximizing or maintaining peak bone mass and preventing bone loss in the elderly; however, most recommendations are addressed to the general public and lack specific indications for girls and women, the segment of the population most at risk for developing osteoporosis. The aim of this overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was to summarize current evidence for the effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on bone status in girls and women, and to explore whether specific exercise programs exist for improving or maintaining bone mass or bone strength in females. The PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2009, updated to 22 June 2015, using the following groups of search terms: (i) 'physical activity' and 'exercise'; and (ii) 'bone', 'bone health', 'bone strength', 'bone structure', 'bone metabolism', 'bone turnover', and 'bone biomarkers'. Searches and screening were limited to systematic reviews or meta-analyses of studies in females and published in English. Our final analysis included 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Combined-impact exercise protocols (impact exercise with resistance training) are the best choice to preserve/improve bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women. Peak bone mass in young girls can be improved with short bouts of school-based high-impact plyometric exercise programs. Whole-body vibration exercises have no beneficial effects on bone in postmenopausal or elderly women. Lifelong exercise, specific for age, is an effective way to sustain bone health in girls and women.

  2. Habitual tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women: investigation of prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey (IPPOT Study).

    PubMed

    Hamdi Kara, Ismail; Aydin, Serpil; Gemalmaz, Ayfer; Aktürk, Zekeriya; Yaman, Hakan; Bozdemir, Nafiz; Kurdak, Hatice; Sitmapinar, Karanfil; Devran Sencar, Ilknur; Başak, Okay; Akdeniz, Melahat; Işildar, Hakan; Burgut, Erhan; Ozcan, Sevgi; Akça, Unal; Dağdeviren, Nezih; Ungan, Mehmet

    2007-11-01

    In this epidemiological report, we assessed the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis (OP) in postmenopausal Turkish women and the relationship between body mass index (BMI), and some nutritional factors (habitual tea, coffee, tobacco, and milk product consumption) with OP. This multicenter study was done in postmenopausal women residing in five big cities, in four different regions of Turkey between August and November 2005. An inclusion criterion was being in the postmenopausal period for at least 12 months. A semi-structured questionnaire was completed by face-to-face interview, consisting of closed- and open-ended questions about demographic characteristics, nutritional status, and habits with two or more choices as possible responses. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed with a MetriScan Densitometer (Alara Inc., CA, USA). Seven hundred twenty-four women were included in the study. The mean age was 57.6 +/- 9.6 years, and mean age at natural menopause was 46.4 +/- 5.6 years. Of the participants, 51% were illiterate. According to WHO classification; 42.5% were normal in terms of BMD, 27.2% had osteopenia, and 30.2% had OP. Women with high education levels had better T-scores (p = 0.019). Increase in BMI also had a positive effect on T-scores (p < 0.0001). A linear correlation was found between age (r= -0.386, p < 0.0001), BMI (r = -0.175, p < 0.0001), and education (r = -0.317, p < 0.0001), with T-scores. The T-scores of women who consumed tea on a regular basis were found to be higher than non-consumers (-1.51 +/- 1.68 vs. -1.09 +/- 1.66; p = 0.070) [when smokers, those who received hormonal therapy (HT), and those > 65 years were excluded]. OP was determined in 1/3 of the women. Advanced age (> 65) and being illiterate were negative factors, while high education levels, being overweight, and being treated with HT had a positive effects on BMD. Habitual tea drinking also may have a positive effect on BMD. However, tea drinking was not

  3. Comparison of trabecular bone score and hip structural analysis with FRAX® in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Fila, Enrica; Messina, Carmelo; Maietti, Elisa; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Caudarella, Renata; Greco, Pantaleo; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate (a) the performance in predicting the presence of bone fractures of trabecular bone score (TBS) and hip structural analysis (HSA) in type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women compared to a control group and (b) the fracture prediction ability of TBS versus Fracture Risk Calculator (FRAX ® ) as well as whether TBS can improve the fracture prediction ability of FRAX ® in diabetic women. Eighty diabetic postmenopausal women were matched with 88 controls without major diseases for age and body mass index. The individual 10-year fracture risk was assessed by FRAX ® tool for Europe-Italy; bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip was evaluated through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; TBS measurements were taken using the same region of interest as the BMD measurements; HSA was performed at proximal femur with the HSA software. Regarding variables of interest, the only significant difference between diabetic and control groups was observed for the value of TBS (median value: 1.215; IQR 1.138-1.285 in controls vs. 1.173; IQR 1.082-1.217 in diabetic; p = 0.002). The prevalence of fractures in diabetic women was almost tripled than in controls (13.8 vs. 3.4 %; p = 0.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that TBS alone (AUC = 0.71) had no significantly lower discriminative power for fracture prediction in diabetic women than FRAX major adjusted for TBS (AUC = 0.74; p = 0.65). In diabetic postmenopausal women TBS is an excellent tool in identifying fragility fractures.

  4. The effects of green kiwifruit combined with isoflavones on equol production, bone turnover and gut microflora in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Marlena C; Middlemiss, Catherine; Katsumata, Shinichi; Tousen, Yuko; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2018-01-01

    Isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) interventions in postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent skeletal benefits, partly due to population heterogeneity in daidzein metabolism to equol by enteric bacteria. This study assessed changes in microflora and bone turnover in response to isoflavone and ki-wifruit supplementation in New Zealand postmenopausal women. Healthy women 1-10 years post-menopause were randomly allocated to group A (n=16) or B (n=17) for a 16-week crossover trial. Two consecutive 6-week treatment periods had a 2-week lead-in period at intervention commencement and a 2-week washout period between treatments. Treatments prescribed either (1) daily isoflavone supplementation (50 mg/day aglycone daidzein and genistein) alone, or (2) with two green kiwifruit. At treatment baseline and end-point (four time points) the serum bone markers C Telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx), undercarboxylated os-teocalcin (unOC), and serum and urinary daidzein and equol, were measured. Changes in gut microflora were monitored in a subgroup of the women. Equol producers made up 30% of this study population (equol producers n=10; non-equol producers n=23) with serum equol rising significantly in equol producers. Serum ucOC decreased by 15.5% (p<0.05) after the kiwifruit and isoflavone treatment. There were no changes in serum CTx or in the diversity of the gut microflora. 50 mg/day isoflavones did not reduce bone resorption but kiwifruit and isoflavone consumption decreased serum ucOC levels, possibly due to vitamin K1 and/or other bioactive components of green kiwifruit.

  5. Clinical efficacy and safety of denosumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density and osteoporosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    von Keyserlingk, Camilla; Hopkins, Robert; Anastasilakis, Athanasios; Toulis, Konstantinos; Goeree, Ron; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Xie, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Clinical trials indicate that denosumab could be a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of offering denosumab to postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to February 3, 2010 and bibliographies of reviews. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of denosumab to placebo for treatment of low bone mass (low bone mineral density or osteoporosis) in postmenopausal women were selected. Two reviewers independently abstracted data on study general characteristics and outcomes. Review Manager 5.0 software was used for data syntheses and meta-analysis. The database search revealed 4 studies (comprising 8864 patients randomized) that met the inclusion criteria and contributed to some or all of the meta-analysis outcomes. Relative risk (95% CI) of fractures for the denosumab compared with placebo group was 0.58 (0.52 to 0.66); relative risk (95% CI) of serious adverse events was 1.33 (0.83 to 2.14); relative risk (95% CI) of serious adverse events related to infection was 2.10 (0.64 to 6.90); relative risk (95% CI) of neoplasm was 1.11 (0.91 to 1.36); relative risk (95% CI) of study discontinuation due to adverse events was 1.10 (0.83 to 1.47); and relative risk (95% CI) of death was 0.78 (0.57 to 1.06). Findings remained robust to sensitivity analyses. Our analysis found a significant reduction in relative fracture risk in the denosumab compared with the placebo group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The yerba mate intake has a neutral effect on bone: A case-control study in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    da Veiga, Denise T A; Bringhenti, Raísa; Bolignon, Aline A; Tatsh, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Comim, Fabio V; Premaor, Melissa O

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional factors have been associated with osteoporosis and fractures. The intake of coffee may increase the risk of fracture whereas the intake of black and green tea is associated with its reduction. Recently, consumption of yerba mate was associated with increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, its influence on fracture is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yerba mate tea intake on fractures, bone markers, calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. A case-control study was carried out in South Brazil, 46 women with fractures and 49 controls completed the study. There was no significant difference between the frequency of fractures in women who drank mate tea and women who did not (48.3% vs. 48.5%, p = .99). Moreover, there was no significant difference concerning the serum levels of total calcium, phosphorus, PTH, vitamin D, P1NP, and CTX in the subjects with the history of yerba mate use when compared to controls. Higher serum levels of NOx were found in women who drank the yerba mate infusion. In conclusion, the yerba mate intake is not associated with fracture, and it appears to have a neutral effect on the bone metabolism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of exercise on bone mineral density in calcium-replete postmenopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Going, Scott; Lohman, Timothy; Houtkooper, Linda; Metcalfe, Lauve; Flint-Wagner, Hilary; Blew, Robert; Stanford, Vanessa; Cussler, Ellen; Martin, Jane; Teixeira, Pedro; Harris, Margaret; Milliken, Laura; Figueroa-Galvez, Arturo; Weber, Judith

    2003-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern. The combination of exercise, hormone replacement therapy, and calcium supplementation may have added benefits for improving bone mineral density compared to a single intervention. To test this notion, 320 healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women, who did or did not use hormone replacement therapy (HRT), were randomized within groups to exercise or no exercise and followed for 12 months. All women received 800 mg calcium citrate supplements daily. Women who exercised performed supervised aerobic, weight-bearing and weight-lifting exercise, three times per week in community-based exercise facilities. Regional bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women who used HRT, calcium, and exercised increased femoral neck, trochanteric and lumbar spine bone mineral density by approximately 1-2%. Trochanteric BMD was also significantly increased by approximately 1.0% in women who exercised and used calcium without HRT compared to a negligible change in women who used HRT and did not exercise. The results demonstrate that regional BMD can be improved with aerobic, weight-bearing activity combined with weight lifting at clinically relevant sites in postmenopausal women. The response was significant at more sites in women who used HRT, suggesting a greater benefit with hormone replacement and exercise compared to HRT alone.

  8. Impact of bone marker feedback on adherence to once monthly ibandronate for osteoporosis among Asian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kung, Annie Wai-Chee; Rachman, Ichramsjah A; Adam, John M F; Roeshadi, Djoko; Torralba, Tito; Navarra, Sandra; Gamilla, Zayda; Cañete, Arthur; de la Rosa, Miles; Tsai, KehSung; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Soong, Yung Kuei; Lan, Joung-Liang; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Tu, Shih-Te; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Yuktanandana, Pongsak; Songpatanasilp, Thawee; Ngarmukos, Srihatach; Soontrapa, Sugree; Soontrapa, Suppasin; Rojanasthien, Sattaya; Luevitoonvechkij, Sirichai; Leerapan, Taninnit; Albert, Adelin; Vanbelle, Sophie

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the impact of serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) bone marker feedback (BMF) on adherence to ibandronate treatment in Asian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This was a 12-month (6-monthly phased), randomized, prospective, open-label, multi-center study conducted in 596 (of 628 enrolled) postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (< or = 85 years old) who were naïve, lapsed, or current bisphosphonate users. Patients were randomized into two arms: serum CTX BMF at 3 months versus no-BMF. Once-monthly 150 mg ibandronate tablet was administered for 12 months and adherence to therapy was assessed at 6 and 12 months. In addition, patient satisfaction and safety of ibandronate treatment were also assessed. Serum CTX BMF at 3 months showed no impact on adherence. The proportions of adherent patients were comparable in the BMF versus no-BMF arms (92.6%vs. 96.0%, P = 0.16); overall, serum CTX levels were similar for adherent and non-adherent patients. However, BMF patients felt more informed about their osteoporosis (P < 0.001) and more satisfied (P < 0.01) than no-BMF patients. The Asian postmenopausal osteoporosis patients in this study had a high adherence rate to once-monthly ibandronate therapy. Use of serum CTX BMF had no further impact on increasing adherence, but increased treatment satisfaction.

  9. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    SciT

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se; Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed inmore » serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.« less

  10. The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, p<0.001). When normalised for BMI, total-, HMW-adiponectin concentrations and HMW/total-adiponectin ratio were significantly lower in obese compared to lean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, p<0.001). Our data suggests that there is no significant difference in the circulating concentration of fasting early morning total- or HMW-adiponectin in post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis. The correlation between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and OPG may indicate that adiponectin could influence bone metabolism by altering osteoblast production of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.

  11. Early effect of fractional CO2 laser treatment in Post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Eder, Scott Evan

    2018-03-31

    Fractional CO 2 lasers have been shown to provide improvement of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). The aim of the current study was to assess the early effect of a fractional CO 2 laser system in treating postmenopausal women with clinical symptoms of VVA. 28 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age 60.1 ± 5.55 years) with VVA-related symptoms were treated with fractional CO 2 laser 3 times, in 4-week intervals. At each study visit, VHIS score and VVA symptom severity were recorded. Sexual function was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). One month following the first laser treatment, the mean VHIS score was significantly improved (13.89 ± 4.25 vs. baseline 11.93 ± 3.82; p < 0.05), and improved further at 3 and 6 months following all three laser treatments (16.43 ± 4.20 and 17.46 ± 4.07, respectively). Almost all VVA symptoms were significantly improved at one month following the first treatment. A further significant improvement in VVA symptoms was noted at 3 and 6 months following the third laser treatment. Following treatments, the FSFI score increased significantly (22.36 ± 10.40 vs. baseline 13.78 ± 7.70; p < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than baseline at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CO 2 laser therapy for post-menopausal women can be considered an effective therapeutic option providing relief of symptoms already noted after one laser treatment.

  12. Positive association between mammographic breast density and bone mineral density in the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Study

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Carolyn; Palla, Shana; Reboussin, Beth A; Ursin, Giske; Greendale, Gail A

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic breast density is a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer. We hypothesized that demonstration of an association between mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD) would suggest a unifying underlying mechanism influencing both breast density and BMD. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Study (PEPI), participants were aged 45 to 64 years and were at least 1 year postmenopausal. Mammographic breast density (percentage of the breast composed of dense tissue), the outcome, was assessed with a computer-assisted percentage-density method. BMD, the primary predictor, was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women quitting menopausal hormone therapy to join PEPI were designated recent hormone users. Results The mean age of the 594 women was 56 years. The average time since menopause was 5.6 years. After adjustment for age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, in women who were not recent hormone users before trial enrollment (n = 415), mammographic density was positively associated with total hip (P = 0.04) and lumbar (P = 0.08) BMD. Mammographic density of recent hormone users (n = 171) was not significantly related to either total hip (P = 0.51) or lumbar (P = 0.44) BMD. In participants who were not recent hormone users, mammographic density was 4% greater in the highest quartile of total hip BMD than in the lowest. In participants who were not recent hormone users, mammographic density was 5% greater in the highest quartile of lumbar spine BMD than in the lowest. Conclusion Mammographic density and BMD are positively associated in women who have not recently used postmenopausal hormones. A unifying biological mechanism may link mammographic density and BMD. Recent exogenous postmenopausal hormone use may obscure the association between mammographic density and BMD by having a persistent effect on breast tissue. PMID:16280044

  13. Effect of reproductive history, lactation, first pregnancy age and dietary habits on bone mineral density in natural postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Atak, Zeliha; Findik, Rahime Bedir; Ture, Sevgi; Kokanali, Demet

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible risk factors related with osteoporosis in women with spontaneous menopause. Five hundred and one postmenopausal women were divided into three groups as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic according to their bone mineral density (BMD). By face-to-face interview, parity, age at menarche, age at menopause, duration of fertility, duration of menopause, first pregnancy age, total lactation period, exercise, smoking were assessed. Women with menopause age before 40 years, surgical menopause, who had any anti-osteoporosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy at the time of BMD measurement and corticosteroid use longer than 6 months were excluded from the study. Among 501 postmenopausal women, 107 women were classified as normal, 170 as osteopenic and 224 as osteoporotic. Among demographic features of patients, there was statistically significant difference between the groups in age, BMI and parity (p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). There were statistically significant differences between the groups in case of age at menopause, duration of fertility and duration of menopause (p = 0.013, p = 0.013 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI over 32 and fertility duration over 33 years had a statistically significant protective effect against osteoporosis (OR 0.42, CI 95 % 0.27-0.66; OR 0.36, CI 95 % 0.24-0.56, respectively), but age was positively correlated with osteoporosis (OR 1.13, CI 95 % 1.01-1.17) CONCLUSIONS: Duration of fertility (years of menstruation) longer than 33 years and body mass index higher than 32 seem to protect against postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age is also an independent risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Effects of short-term step aerobics exercise on bone metabolism and functional fitness in postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

    PubMed

    Wen, H J; Huang, T H; Li, T L; Chong, P N; Ang, B S

    2017-02-01

    Measurement of bone turnover markers is an alternative way to determine the effects of exercise on bone health. A 10-week group-based step aerobics exercise significantly improved functional fitness in postmenopausal women with low bone mass, and showed a positive trend in reducing resorption activity via bone turnover markers. The major goal of this study was to determine the effects of short-term group-based step aerobics (GBSA) exercise on the bone metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD), and functional fitness of postmenopausal women (PMW) with low bone mass. Forty-eight PMW (aged 58.2 ± 3.5 years) with low bone mass (lumbar spine BMD T-score of -2.00 ± 0.67) were recruited and randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG) or to a control group (CG). Participants from the EG attended a progressive 10-week GBSA exercise at an intensity of 75-85 % of heart rate reserve, 90 min per session, and three sessions per week. Serum bone metabolic markers (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen [CTX] and osteocalcin), BMD, and functional fitness components were measured before and after the training program. Mixed-models repeated measures method was used to compare differences between the groups (α = 0.05). After the 10-week intervention period, there was no significant exercise program by time interaction for CTX; however, the percent change for CTX was significantly different between the groups (EG = -13.1 ± 24.4 % vs. CG = 11.0 ± 51.5 %, P < 0.05). While there was no significant change of osteocalcin in both groups. As expected, there was no significant change of BMD in both groups. In addition, the functional fitness components in the EG were significantly improved, as demonstrated by substantial enhancement in both lower- and upper-limb muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance (P < 0.05). The current short-term GBSA exercise benefited to bone metabolism and general health by significantly reduced bone resorption activity and improved

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome Components in Postmenopausal Women With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    PubMed

    Bilić-Ćurčić, Ines; Makarović, Sandra; Mihaljević, Ivan; Franceschi, Maja; Jukić, Tomislav

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) due to obesity, although rapid bone loss observed over time could be explained by elevated chronic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between central adiposity and hyperinsulinemia, as well as inflammation markers with vertebral and femoral BMD and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Femoral and vertebral BMD, osteocalcin, pyrilinks D, beta-CrossLaps (B-CTx), insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured in 114 postmenopausal female patients with diabetes type 2. The patients of similar age, HbA1c levels and diabetes duration were divided into 2 groups based on their body mass index (BMI) values: lower or equal to 27 kg/m(2) (31 patients) and higher than 27 kg/m(2) (83 patients). Lower levels of osteocalcin (p=0.001), B-CTx (p=0.000007) and pyrilinks D (p=0.0365), and higher femoral BMD (p=0.00006), insulin level (p=0.0002), PAI-1 (p=0.00000) and CRP (p=0.002) were found in the overweight group. There were no signifi cant differences in vertebral BMD and fibrinogen. Osteocalcin and B-CTx showed inverse correlation, and femoral BMD positive correlation with waist circumference, insulin level and PAI-1. This suggests that abdominal obesity and hyperinsulinemia as components of the metabolic syndrome could increase femoral BMD by lowering bone rate. In addition, the only inflammation marker linked with femoral BMD was PAI-1, which is associated with increased mineralization of cortical bone in mouse.

  16. Effect of low-dose calcium supplements on bone loss in perimenopausal and postmenopausal Asian women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Oshiki, Rieko; Kitamura, Kaori; Oyama, Mari; Narisawa, Sachiko; Nashimoto, Mitsue; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Takachi, Ribeka

    2012-11-01

    Current standard-dose calcium supplements (eg, 1000 mg/d) may increase the risk for cardiovascular events. Effectiveness of lower-dose supplements in preventing bone loss should thus be considered. This study aimed to assess whether calcium supplements of 500 or 250 mg/d effectively prevent bone loss in perimenopausal and postmenopausal Japanese women. We recruited 450 Japanese women between 50 and 75 years of age. They were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg of calcium (as calcium carbonate), 250 mg of calcium, or placebo daily. Medical examinations conducted three times over a 2-year follow-up period assessed bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. One-factor repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical tests. Subgroup analyses were also conducted. Average total daily calcium intake at baseline for the 418 subjects who underwent follow-up examinations was 493 mg/d. Intention-to-treat analysis showed less dramatic decreases in spinal BMD for the 500-mg/d calcium supplement group compared to the placebo group (1.2% difference over 2 years, p = 0.027). Per-protocol analysis (≥80% compliance) revealed that spinal BMD for the 500-mg/d and 250-mg/d calcium supplement groups decreased less than the placebo group (1.6%, p = 0.010 and 1.0%, p = 0.078, respectively), and that femoral neck BMD for the 500-mg/d calcium supplement group decreased less relative to the placebo group (1.0%, p = 0.077). A low-dose calcium supplement of 500 mg/d can effectively slow lumbar spine bone loss in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with habitually low calcium intake, but its effect on the femoral neck is less certain. Calcium supplementation dosage should thus be reassessed. (Clinical Trials Registry number: UMIN000001176). Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Effect of parity on bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi Arabian women.

    PubMed

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Habdan, Ibrahim; Al-Mulhim, Abdul-Aziz; El-Hassan, Abdallah Y

    2005-10-01

    Osteoporosis and osteopenia among postmenopausal Saudi Arabian women are common to the extent of over 60%. Pregnancy, multiparity and prolonged lactation are suggested as factors modifying negatively in the development of osteoporosis. Earlier reports from the institution indicated a beneficial role of multiparity in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). We conducted this study to measure the effect of parity on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur. We conducted this prospective study at King Fahd Hospital of the University, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, between January 2002 and June 2003. This study analyzed 256 patients who attended orthopedic clinics. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, number of children borne, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. We excluded women with secondary osteoporosis from the study. We entered the patients orthopedic complaints in the database. We carried out the BMD measurements using Hologic total body DEXA machine. We analyzed the data using SPSS package with significance at p<0.05 and confidence interval of 95%. For final analysis, we took into consideration an average of results of the lumbar spine and hip region. We analyzed the available data of 256 patients. We divided the patients into 2 groups; group A with >6 children and group B with women of <5 children. In group A, there were 116 women and 140 in group B. The mean age of patients in group A was 56.81 (50-65) years SD +/- 5.19 and in group B the mean age was 58.86 years (48-76) SD +/- 7.68. The average BMI in group A was 31.95 kg/m2 and in group B it was 29.14 kg/m2. The BMD of the lumbar spine of group A was 0.850 g/cm2 (SD+/-0.112) compared to group B of 0.699 g/cm2 (SD+/-0.141), p<0.005. The BMD of the hip region of group A was 0.836 g/cm2 and that of group B patients was 0.716g/cm2 (p<0.01). In women with <5 children, 25.5 had normal BMD as compared to 47 in women

  18. Early Postmenopausal Transdermal 17β-Estradiol Therapy and Amyloid-β Deposition.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Kejal; Lowe, Val J; Lesnick, Timothy G; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Bailey, Kent R; Fields, Julie A; Shuster, Lynne T; Zuk, Samantha M; Senjem, Matthew L; Mielke, Michelle M; Gleason, Carey; Jack, Clifford R; Rocca, Walter A; Miller, Virginia M

    2016-05-07

    It remains controversial whether hormone therapy in recently postmenopausal women modifies the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on amyloid-β deposition in recently postmenopausal women. Participants within 5-36 months past menopause in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, a randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial, were randomized to: 1) 0.45 mg/day oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE); 2) 50μg/day transdermal 17β-estradiol; or 3) placebo pills and patch for four years. Oral progesterone (200 mg/day) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging was performed in 68 of the 118 participants at Mayo Clinic approximately seven years post randomization and three years after stopping randomized treatment. PiB Standard unit value ratio (SUVR) was calculated. Women (age = 52-65) randomized to transdermal 17β-estradiol (n = 21) had lower PiB SUVR compared to placebo (n = 30) after adjusting for age [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.31(0.11-0.83)]. In the APOEɛ4 carriers, transdermal 17β-estradiol treated women (n = 10) had lower PiB SUVR compared to either placebo (n = 5) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.04(0.004-0.44)], or the oral CEE treated group (n = 3) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.01(0.0006-0.23)] after adjusting for age. Hormone therapy was not associated with PiB SUVR in the APOEɛ4 non-carriers. In this pilot study, transdermal 17β-estradiol therapy in recently postmenopausal women was associated with a reduced amyloid-β deposition, particularly in APOEɛ4 carriers. This finding may have important implications for the prevention of AD in postmenopausal women, and needs to be confirmed in a larger sample.

  19. The Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three year effects on pQCT bone mineral density and strength measures in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    SHEDD-WISE, KRISTINE M.; ALEKEL, D. LEE; HOFMANN, HEIKE; HANSON, KATHY B.; SCHIFERL, DAN J.; HANSON, LAURA N.; VAN LOAN, MARTA D.

    2011-01-01

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density-preserving effects, but the bone strength-preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined two soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength (via peripheral quantitative computed tomography) in healthy postmenopausal women (46–63 y). We measured 3 y change in cortical (Ct) BMD, cortical thickness (CtThk), periosteal circumference (PC), endosteal circumference (EC), and strength-strain index (SSI) at 1/3 midshaft femur (N=171) and trabecular (Tb) BMD, PC, and SSI at 4% distal tibia (N=162). We found no treatment effect on femur CtThk, PC, or EC, or tibia TbBMD or PC. Strongest predictors (negative) of tibia TbBMD and SSI and femur CtBMD were timepoint and bone resorption; whole body fat mass was protective of SSI. As time since last menstrual period (TLMP) increased (p=0.012), 120 mg/d was protective of CtBMD. Strongest predictors of femur SSI were timepoint, bone resorption, and TLMP (protective). Isoflavone tablets were negative predictors of SSI, but 80 mg/d became protective as bone turnover increased (p=0.011). Soy isoflavone treatment for 3 y was modestly beneficial for midshaft femur vBMD as TLMP increased, and for midshaft femur SSI as bone turnover increased. PMID:21295742

  20. Influence of exercise on bone remodeling-related hormones and cytokines in ovariectomized rats: a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihui; Chen, Xi; Lv, Shuang; Dong, Miaomiao; Zhang, Li; Tu, Jiaheng; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Lingli; Song, Yinan; Xu, Leiting; Zou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control group, (2) sham-operated group, (3) OVX (Ovariectomy) group, (4) DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX) group, and (5) Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX) group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%), total resorption surface (TRS%), trabecular formation surface (TFS%), mineralization rate (MAR), bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR), and osteoid seam width (OSW) were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.

  1. Whole Body Vibration Treatments in Postmenopausal Women Can Improve Bone Mineral Density: Results of a Stimulus Focussed Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Antonio; Bonci, Tecla; Bull, Anthony M J

    2016-01-01

    Whole body vibration treatment is a non-pharmacological intervention intended to stimulate muscular response and increase bone mineral density, particularly for postmenopausal women. The literature related to this topic is controversial, heterogeneous, and unclear despite the prospect of a major clinical effect.The aim of this study was to identify and systematically review the literature to assess the effect of whole body vibration treatments on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with a specific focus on the experimental factors that influence the stimulus. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 527 postmenopausal women and different vibration delivery designs. Cumulative dose, amplitudes and frequency of treatments as well as subject posture during treatment vary widely among studies. Some of the studies included an associated exercise training regime. Both randomized and controlled clinical trials were included. Whole body vibration was shown to produce significant BMD improvements on the hip and spine when compared to no intervention. Conversely, treatment associated with exercise training resulted in negligible outcomes when compared to exercise training or to placebo. Moreover, side-alternating platforms were more effective in improving BMD values than synchronous platforms and mechanical oscillations of magnitude higher than 3 g and/or frequency lower than 25 Hz were also found to be effective. Treatments with a cumulative dose over 1000 minutes in the follow-up period were correlated to positive outcomes.Our conclusion is that whole body vibration treatments in elderly women can reduce BMD decline.However, many factors (e.g., amplitude, frequency and subject posture) affect the capacity of the vibrations to propagate to the target site; the adequate level of stimulation required to produce these effects has not yet been defined. Further biomechanical analyses to predict the propagation of the vibration waves along the body

  2. Whole Body Vibration Treatments in Postmenopausal Women Can Improve Bone Mineral Density: Results of a Stimulus Focussed Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonci, Tecla; Bull, Anthony M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Whole body vibration treatment is a non-pharmacological intervention intended to stimulate muscular response and increase bone mineral density, particularly for postmenopausal women. The literature related to this topic is controversial, heterogeneous, and unclear despite the prospect of a major clinical effect.The aim of this study was to identify and systematically review the literature to assess the effect of whole body vibration treatments on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with a specific focus on the experimental factors that influence the stimulus. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 527 postmenopausal women and different vibration delivery designs. Cumulative dose, amplitudes and frequency of treatments as well as subject posture during treatment vary widely among studies. Some of the studies included an associated exercise training regime. Both randomized and controlled clinical trials were included. Whole body vibration was shown to produce significant BMD improvements on the hip and spine when compared to no intervention. Conversely, treatment associated with exercise training resulted in negligible outcomes when compared to exercise training or to placebo. Moreover, side-alternating platforms were more effective in improving BMD values than synchronous platforms and mechanical oscillations of magnitude higher than 3 g and/or frequency lower than 25 Hz were also found to be effective. Treatments with a cumulative dose over 1000 minutes in the follow-up period were correlated to positive outcomes.Our conclusion is that whole body vibration treatments in elderly women can reduce BMD decline.However, many factors (e.g., amplitude, frequency and subject posture) affect the capacity of the vibrations to propagate to the target site; the adequate level of stimulation required to produce these effects has not yet been defined. Further biomechanical analyses to predict the propagation of the vibration waves along the body

  3. Importance of bioavailable calcium drinking water for the maintenance of bone mass in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Costi, D; Calcaterra, P G; Iori, N; Vourna, S; Nappi, G; Passeri, M

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the importance of calcium intake through mineral water on vertebral bone density in women. To this purpose, we examined 255 women divided into two groups: those regularly drinking a high calcium content mineral water (group A; no.=175) and those using different type of water with a lower calcium content (group B; no.=80). Their dietary daily calcium intake was determined by means of a validated questionnaire (N.I.H. Consensus statement) and vertebral bone density was measured by Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry (Unigamma-plus ACN densitometer). Women in group A ingested a significantly higher quantity of calcium in water than women in group B (mean difference 258 mg; 95% confidence limits: 147-370 mg). The average bone density values were slightly but significantly higher in group A as compared to group B (mean+/-SD: 1.044+0,15 vs 1.002+0,14; p=0.03). In addition to age, BMI and menopausal status, calcium intake was a significant predictor of spinal BMD. These 4 variables explained about 35% of the spinal BMD variance. When the analysis was repeated separately for pre- and post-menopausal subjects, calcium remained a significant predictor in post-menopausal women (t=2.28; p=0.02), but not in premenopausal women. These results underline the importance of a lifelong daily calcium intake, resulting by the regular drinking of high bioavailable calcium water, in order to maintain bone mass after the menopause, in comparison to the use of a lower content calcium water.

  4. Unsaturation level decreased in bone marrow fat of postmenopausal women with low bone density using high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojuan; Shet, Keerthi; Xu, Kaipin; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Pino, Ana María; Kurhanewicz, John; Schwartz, Ann; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-12-01

    There are increasing evidences suggesting bone marrow adiposity tissue (MAT) plays a critical role in affecting both bone quantity and quality. However, very limited studies that have investigated the association between the composition of MAT and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of this study was to quantify MAT unsaturation profile of marrow samples from post-menopausal women using ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy, and to investigate the relationship between MAT composition and BMD. Bone marrow samples were obtained by iliac crest aspiration during surgical procedures from 24 postmenopausal women (65-89years) who had hip surgery due to bone fracture or arthroplasty. Marrow fat composition parameters, in particular, unsaturation level (UL), mono-unsaturation level (MUL) and saturation level (SL), were quantified using HRMAS 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The patients were classified into three groups based on the DXA BMD T-scores: controls, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Marrow fat composition was compared between these three groups as well as between subjects with and without factures using ANOCOVA, adjusted for age. Subjects with lower BMD (n=17) had significantly lower MUL (P=0.003) and UL (P=0.039), and significantly higher SL (P=0.039) compared to controls (n=7). When separating lower BMD into osteopenia (n=9) and osteoporosis (n=8) groups, subjects with osteopenia had significantly lower MUL (P=0.002) and UL (P=0.010), and significantly higher SL (P=0.010) compared to healthy controls. No significant difference was observed between subjects with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Using HRMAS 1 H NMR, significantly lower unsaturation and significantly higher saturation levels were observed in the marrow fat of subjects with lower BMD. HRMAS 1 H NMR was shown to be a powerful tool for identifying novel MR markers of marrow fat composition that are associated with bone quality and potentially

  5. Differential effect of predictors of bone mineral density and hip geometry in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rekha; Gupta, Sushil; Awasthi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an important health problem in postmenopausal women. Lactation duration (LD), parity, menopause duration (MD), and body mass index (BMI) are important predictors of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures in them. In addition, they have site-specific effects on BMD. Osteoporosis is especially prevalent in postmenopausal women. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of age, parity, LD, MD, and BMI on BMD at different sites and hip geometry in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 87 women (45 years and above and at least 5 years postmenopausal) were enrolled. Subjects were divided into three parity groups (group 1: ≤ 2 children, group: 3-4 children, and group 3: > 4 children) and three LD groups (group 1: < 4 years, group 2: 4-8 years, and group 3: > 8 years). BMD was measured at neck of femur (BMD-NF), trochanter (BMD-TR), inter-trochanter (BMD-IT), spine (BMD-LS), and forearm (BMD-FA). Hip geometry was analyzed based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. One way ANOVA was used for comparisons of groups, and Bonferroni correction was used as post-hoc test. p value < 0.05 was considered significant. A significant difference in mean BMD was found between parity groups 1 and 3 at BMD-NF, BMD-TR, and BMD-LS, and between LD groups 1 and 3 at BMD-NF, BMD-TR, BMD-IT, and BMD-LS. Mean buckling ratio (BR) at IT was significantly different between parity groups 1 and 3, and LD groups 1 and 3. In multivariate regression analysis, BMI, age, and parity were significant predictors for BMD-NF; parity, BMI, and MD for BMD-TR; BMI, MD, and LD for BMD-IT; BMI and LD for BMD-LS; and age, LD, and BMI for BMD-FA. BMI and LD were significant predictors of IT-BR, while MD and BMI of narrow neck BR. MD, LD, parity, BMI, and age are important factors influencing BMD at hip and spine in postmenopausal women, and have site-specific effects on BMD.

  6. Destructive bone disease in early syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dismukes, W E; Delgado, D G; Mallernee, S V; Myers, T C

    1976-12-06

    Although destructive bone disease is a well-known complication of tertiary syphilis, osteitis or osteomyelitis are not commonly recognized as complications of early (primary or secondary) syphillis. A patient with secondary syphilis characterized by generalized lymphadenopathy, perianal condyloma lata, and positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) tests also complained of headache, right should pain, and right anterior chest pain and swelling. Roentgenograms showed mottled osteolytic lesions consistent with previously described luetic bone disease. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of syphilitic osteomyelitis, and treatment with penicillin resulted in prompt resolution of symptoms.

  7. Vitamin D status in relation to obesity, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and vitamin D receptor genotypes in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ardawi, M-S M; Qari, M H; Rouzi, A A; Maimani, A A; Raddadi, R M

    2011-02-01

    The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency were examined among healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among studied Saudi women with obesity, poor sunlight exposure, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation and age as the main risk factors. The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in relation to bone health among Saudi women are not known. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the factors influencing vitamin D status in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and vitamin D receptor genotype (VDR) in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. A total number of 1,172 healthy Saudi women living in the Jeddah area were randomly selected and studied. Anthropometric parameters, socioeconomic status, sun exposure index together with serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcitriol, intact PTH, Ca, PO4, Mg, creatinine, albumin, and biochemical BTMs were measured. BMD was measured by a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and VDR genotypes were also determined. About 80.0% of Saudi women studied exhibited vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D<50.0 nmol/L) with only 11.8% of all women were considered with adequate vitamin D status (serum 25(OH)D>75 nmol/L). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was evident in 18.5% and 24.6% in pre- and postmenopausal women with 25(OH)D<50 nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D was lower (P<0.001) and intact PTH higher (P<0.001) in the upper quintiles of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI, sun exposure index, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation, WHR, and age were independent positive predictors of serum 25(OH)D values. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among healthy Saudi pre-and postmenopausal women and largely attributed to obesity, poor exposure to sunlight

  8. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Comparative effects of denosumab or bisphosphonate treatment on bone mineral density and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Augoulea, A; Tsakonas, E; Triantafyllopoulos, I; Rizos, D; Armeni, E; Tsoltos, N; Tournis, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Antoniou, A; Lambrinoudaki, I

    2017-03-01

    To clarify potential differences between denosumab (DNS) and bisphosphonates (BIS) in terms of bone density and bone metabolism, in a sample of postmenopausal women. A total of 113 postmenopausal women aged 53-66 years were treated with either DNS or BIS for 12 months. Bone densitometry and laboratory tests were compared between baseline and follow-up. Femoral neck BMD increased in both treatment-arms (FN-BMD, DNS: 0.69±0.07 g/cm 2 to 0.75±0.09 g/cm 2 ; BIS: 0.69±0.06 g/cm 2 to 0.71±0.07 g/cm 2 ; p≤0.001 in both cases). Lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD) increased significantly only in the DNS-group (0.83±0.14 g/cm 2 to 0.89±0.14 g/cm 2 , p=0.0001). Only women under treatment with DNS had a significant increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH: 44.87±17.54 pg/mL to 53.27±15.77 pg/mL, p=0.04), independently of baseline vitamin D levels. DNS-administration resulted in higher increase from baseline in FN-BMD compared to BIS (DNS vs BIS: 8.7%±8.5 vs 3.8%±7.3, p=0.004). Finally, baseline 25OH vitamin D levels did not determine the extent of PTH-increase following administration of DNS- or BIS-treatment. Both treatments increased BMD, however, the effect of DNS on FN-BMD was superior compared to that of BIS. DNS-treatment increased serum PTH. Baseline 25OH vitamin D levels did not predict the extent of PTH increase at follow-up.

  10. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  11. Follicle-stimulating hormone and bioavailable estradiol are less important than weight and race in determining bone density in younger postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Preisser, J. S.; Hammett-Stabler, C. A.; Renner, J. B.; Rubin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The association between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and bone density was tested in 111 postmenopausal women aged 50–64 years. In the multivariable analysis, weight and race were important determinants of bone mineral density. FSH, bioavailable estradiol, and other hormonal variables did not show statistically significant associations with bone density at any site. Introduction FSH has been associated with bone density loss in animal models and longitudinal studies of women. Most of these analyses have not considered the effect of weight or race. Methods We tested the association between FSH and bone density in younger postmenopausal women, adjusting for patient-related factors. In 111 postmenopausal women aged 50–64 years, areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and distal radius using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and volumetric BMD was measured at the distal radius using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Height, weight, osteoporosis risk factors, and serum hormonal factors were assessed. Results FSH inversely correlated with weight, bioavailable estradiol, areal BMD at the lumbar spine and hip, and volumetric BMD at the ultradistal radius. In the multivariable analysis, no hormonal variable showed a statistically significant association with areal BMD at any site. Weight was independently associated with BMD at all central sites (p<0.001), but not with BMD or pQCT measures at the distal radius. Race was independently associated with areal BMD at all sites (p≤0.008) and with cortical area at the 33% distal radius (p=0.004). Conclusions Correlations between FSH and bioavailable estradiol and BMD did not persist after adjustment for weight and race in younger postmenopausal women. Weight and race were more important determinants of bone density and should be included in analyses of hormonal influences on bone. PMID:21125395

  12. Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andy K.O.; Beattie, Karen A.; Bhargava, Aakash; Cheung, Marco; Webber, Colin E.; Chettle, David R.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting evidence suggests that bone lead or blood lead may reduce areal bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about how lead at either compartment affects bone structure. This study examined postmenopausal women (N = 38, mean age 76 ± 8, body mass index (BMI): 26.74 ± 4.26 kg/m2) within the Hamilton cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), measuring bone lead at 66% of the non-dominant leg and at the calcaneus using 109Cadmium X-ray fluorescence. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters were obtained from peripheral quantitative computed tomography images (200 μm in-plane resolution, 2.3 ± 0.5 mm slice thickness) of the same 66% site and of the distal 4% site of the tibia length. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and blood-to-bone lead partition coefficients (PBB, log ratio) were computed. Multivariable linear regression examined each of bone lead at the 66% tibia, calcaneus, blood lead and PBB as related to each of volumetric BMD and structural parameters, adjusting for age and BMI, diabetes or antiresorptive therapy. Regression coefficients were reported along with 95% confidence intervals. Higher amounts of bone lead at the tibia were associated with thinner distal tibia cortices (−0.972 (−1.882, −0.061) per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral) and integral volumetric BMD (−3.05 (−6.05, −0.05) per μg Pb/g of bone mineral). A higher PBB was associated with larger trabecular separation (0.115 (0.053, 0.178)), lower trabecular volumetric BMD (−26.83 (−50.37, −3.29)) and trabecular number (−0.08 (−0.14, −0.02)), per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral after adjusting for age and BMI, and remained significant while accounting for diabetes or use of antiresorptives. Total lead exposure activities related to bone lead at the calcaneus (8.29 (0.11, 16.48)) and remained significant after age and antiresorptives-adjustment. Lead accumulated in bone can have a mild insult on bone structure; but

  13. Bone and cartilage characteristics in postmenopausal women with mild knee radiographic osteoarthritis and those without radiographic osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Multanen, J.; Heinonen, A.; Häkkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.; Kujala, U.M.; Lammentausta, E.; Jämsä, T.; Kiviranta, I.; Nieminen, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the association between radiographically-assessed knee osteoarthritis and femoral neck bone characteristics in women with mild knee radiographic osteoarthritis and those without radiographic osteoarthritis. Methods: Ninety postmenopausal women (mean age [SD], 58 [4] years; height, 163 [6] cm; weight, 71 [11] kg) participated in this cross-sectional study. The severity of radiographic knee osteoarthritis was defined using Kellgren-Lawrence grades 0=normal (n=12), 1=doubtful (n=25) or 2=minimal (n=53). Femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC), section modulus (Z), and cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured with DXA. The biochemical composition of ipsilateral knee cartilage was estimated using quantitative MRI measures, T2 mapping and dGEMRIC. The associations between radiographic knee osteoarthritis grades and bone and cartilage characteristics were analyzed using generalized linear models. Results: Age-, height-, and weight-adjusted femoral neck BMC (p for linearity=0.019), Z (p for linearity=0.033), and CSA (p for linearity=0.019) increased significantly with higher knee osteoarthritis grades. There was no linear relationship between osteoarthritis grades and knee cartilage indices. Conclusions: Increased DXA assessed hip bone strength is related to knee osteoarthritis severity. These results are hypothesis driven that there is an inverse relationship between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. However, MRI assessed measures of cartilage do not discriminate mild radiographic osteoarthritis severity. PMID:25730654

  14. Association analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    González-Mercado, A; Sánchez-López, J Y; Regla-Nava, J A; Gámez-Nava, J I; González-López, L; Duran-Gonzalez, J; Celis, A; Perea-Díaz, F J; Salazar-Páramo, M; Ibarra, B

    2013-07-30

    We investigated associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, FokI T>C (rs2228570), BsmI G>A (rs1544410), ApaI G>T (rs7975232), and TaqI T>C (rs731236), with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Three hundred and twenty postmenopausal women participated, who were classified according to World Health Organization criteria as non-osteoporotic (Non-OP; N = 88), osteopenic (Opn; N = 144), and osteoporotic (OP; N = 88). BMD measurements at the lumbar (L1-L4) spine and at the left and right femoral neck were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan probes. Genotype and allelic frequencies of the 4 VDR SNPs were similar among the 3 groups. Polymorphic allele frequencies were as follows: FokI (C) 0.53, 0.49, 0.56; BsmI (A) 0.26, 0.22, 0.23; ApaI (T) 0.43, 0.39, 0.44; TaqI (C) 0.27, 0.22, 0.23 for the Non-OP, Opn, and OP groups, respectively. Although no associations were found between the SNPs and BMD, based on the putative function of the FokI SNP, we constructed, for the first time, the haplotype with the 4 VDR SNPs, and found that the CGGT haplotype differed between the Non- OP and OP groups (21.8 vs 31.8%, P < 0.05). The risk analysis for this haplotype was nearly significant under the dominant model (OR = 1.783, 95%CI = 0.98-3.25, P = 0.058). This result suggests a possible susceptibility effect of the C allele of the FokI SNP for the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.

  15. Association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Lee, Won-Kee; Hwang, In-Ryang; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that high sodium chloride intake increases urinary calcium excretion and may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the effect of oral sodium chloride intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and risk of osteoporosis has been inadequately researched. The aim of the present study was to determine whether urinary sodium excretion (reflecting oral sodium chloride intake) associates with BMD and prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study involved a nationally representative sample consisting of 2,779 postmenopausal women who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys in 2008-2011. The association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with BMD and other osteoporosis risk factors was assessed. In addition, the prevalence of osteoporosis was assessed in four groups with different urinary sodium/creatinine ratios. Participants with osteoporosis had significantly higher urinary sodium/creatinine ratios than the participants without osteoporosis. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, urinary sodium/creatinine ratio correlated inversely with lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.001). Similarly, when participants were divided into quartile groups according to urinary sodium/creatinine ratio, the average BMD dropped as the urinary sodium/creatinine ratio increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to quartile 1, quartile 4 had a significantly increased prevalence of lumbar spine osteoporosis (odds ratios 1.346, P for trend = 0.044). High urinary sodium excretion was significantly associated with low BMD and high prevalence of osteoporosis in lumbar spine. These results suggest that high sodium chloride intake decreases lumbar spine BMD and increases the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  16. Effects of rosiglitazone on bone mineral density and remodelling parameters in Postmenopausal diabetic women: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Zehra; Yazici, Ayse C; Demirag, Nilgun G

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone on bone metabolism and bone density. An open-label, randomized, controlled trial of 24-month duration. Patients and measurements Obese, postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed diabetes were studied. Before and after the intervention, metabolic bone markers and bone density were assessed. Twenty-six patients received rosiglitazone (4 mg/day), and 23 remained on diet alone. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels decreased by 17% (P < 0.001 vs control group) and 26% (P < 0.01 vs control group), respectively, in the rosiglitazone group. There were no significant changes in the deoxypyridinoline levels between the two groups. Annual bone loss at the trochanter and at the lumbar spine associated with each year of rosiglitazone use was 2.56% (P = 0.01 vs control group) and 2.18% (P < 0.01 vs control group), respectively. Femoral neck and total hip bone density declined significantly in both groups (P < 0.01, and P = 0.01, respectively) but was not significantly different between the two groups. Rosiglitazone treatment adversely affects bone formation over a 2-year period. It increases bone loss at the lumbar spine and trochanter in postmenopausal, type 2 diabetic women. However, bone loss at the total hip did not differ with use of this agent.

  17. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results two years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Von Thun, Nancy L.; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Shapses, Sue A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact on bone in the reduced overweight/obese woman compared to those who regain their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 42, body mass index of 28.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 60.7 ± 5.5 y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6 month weight loss trial and those who maintained their weight (WL-M) were matched to a cohort who regained weight (WL-R). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN), trochanter, spine, radius, and total body and soft tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 and 2 years. Results During WL, both groups lost 9.3 ± 3.4% body weight with no significant difference between groups. After weight loss, weight change was −0.1 ± 2.7 % and 6.0 ± 3.3% in the WL-M (n=22) and WL-R (n=20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the FN and trochanter (p ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (p < 0.001). There was a greater BMD loss at the trochanter (−6.8 ± 5.7%) and the 1/3 radius (−4.5 ± 3.3%) in the WL-M compared to the WL-R group after 2 years. Multiple linear regression showed that change in leg fat mass (but not trunk fat) contributed to trochanter BMD loss (p <0.05). Conclusions After 2 years, there is no BMD recovery of weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight-regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for both those who maintain or regain weight. PMID:24149920

  18. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P < 0.001). There was greater BMD loss at the trochanter (-6.8% [5.7%]) and 1/3 radius (-4.5% [3.3%]) in the WL-M group compared with the WL-R group after 2 years. Multiple linear regression showed that change in leg fat mass (but not trunk fat) contributed to trochanter BMD loss (P < 0.05). After 2 years, there is no BMD recovery of weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  19. Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L C; Oliveira, R G; Pires-Oliveira, D A A

    2016-10-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified significant effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (in the sensitivity analysis and seven subgroup analyses), femoral neck (in one subgroup analysis), and trochanter (four subgroup analyses) in postmenopausal women, but not other measurements of BMD. Interventions using WBV training have been conducted in postmenopausal women, aimed at increasing BMD; however, the results are contradictory. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs examining WBV effect on BMD. RCTs were considered eligible, with follow-up ≥6 months, which verified the effects of WBV on the BMD of postmenopausal women. The calculations of the meta-analysis were performed through the weighted mean difference between the WBV and control groups, or the WBV and combined training, through the absolute change between pre- and post-intervention in the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) or trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMDt). Fifteen RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. No differences were observed in the primary analysis. WBV was found to improve aBMD compared with the control group, after exclusion of studies with low quality methodological (lumbar spine), when excluding the studies which combined WBV with medication or combined training (lumbar spine), with the use of low frequency and high magnitude (lumbar spine and trochanter), high frequency and low magnitude (lumbar spine), high cumulative dose and low magnitude (lumbar spine), low cumulative dose and high magnitude (lumbar spine and trochanter), with semi-flexed knee (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter), and side-alternating type of vibration (lumbar spine and trochanter). Despite WBV presenting potential to act as a coadjuvant in the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, especially for aBMD of the lumbar spine, the ideal intervention is not yet

  20. [Number of teeth and hormonal profile of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal bone mineral density--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Stagraczyński, Maciej; Kulczyk, Tomasz; Leszczyński, Piotr; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-10-01

    Profound hypoestrogenism causes increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture in menopause. This period of women life is also characterized by decrease number of teeth and deterioration of oral cavity health. The aim of the study was to assess the number of teeth, hormonal profile (Follicle-stimualting hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar part of the spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal BMD. The next step of the study was to determine whether there was a correlation between vertebral mineral bone density, the hormonal profile and the number of teeth. A total number of 47 women was involved in the study. Based on the results of densitometry tests (DEXA) of vertebral column the subjects were divided into 3 groups: 10 with osteoporosis, 20 with osteopenia and 17 with normal BMD. All the subjects had undergone a hormonal assessment which included blood serum estimation for FSH, E2, DHEA-S and T levels. Also the total number of teeth present was recorded. Serum estradiol and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women were found to be positively correlated with the number of teeth present. A negative correlation was found between age and the number of maxillary teeth in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. There was no influence of serum FSH, estradiol, testosterone and DHEA-S levels on vertebral BMD loss in postmenopausal women. There was no correlation between teeth number and BMD of vertebral column. Serum levels of estradiol and testosterone in postmenopausal women positively correlate with teeth numbers. Age is the main risk factor for teeth loss in postmenopausal women. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  1. Physical activity and coronary artery calcification in two cohorts of women representing early and late postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Storti, Kristi L; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Underwood, Darcy A; Kuller, Lewis H; Kriska, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity (PA) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among two cohorts of postmenopausal (PM) women representing early and late postmenopause. The cross-sectional relationship between PA and CAC was examined in 173 younger PM women (mean age ± SD, 56.8 ± 2.9 y) from the Women on the Move Through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) study and 121 older PM women (mean age ± SD, 73.9 ± 3.8 y) from the Walking Women Follow-up (WWF) study who had complete PA and CAC data. PA was measured objectively using a pedometer over a 7-day period in both cohorts. CAC was assessed using electron beam tomography. Descriptive statistics were used to describe median levels of PA and CAC, as well as proportions of detectable CAC (0 vs > 0). Fifty-seven percent of WOMAN study participants and 74% of WWF study participants had detectable CAC. The median (interquartile range) CAC score was 1.4 (0-23.3) for participants in the WOMAN study and 38.8 (0-264.4) among WWF study participants. Median (interquartile range) step counts were 6,447 (4,823-8,722) steps per day in the WOMAN study and 5,466 (3,610-7,576) steps per day for WWF study participants. Among WWF study participants, there was a statistically significant inverse association between pedometer steps and CAC (P for trend = 0.002); no association was found among WOMAN study participants. Among older PM women, higher levels of PA were associated with lower CAC. However, the relationship was not observed in PM women, likely due to the lower prevalence of CAC in this age group.

  2. Letrozole: a review of its use in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2009-08-20

    Letrozole (Femara) is a third-generation, nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. Adjuvant therapy with letrozole is more effective than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer, and extended adjuvant therapy with letrozole after the completion of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is more effective than placebo in this patient population; letrozole is generally well tolerated. Ongoing trials will help answer outstanding questions regarding the optimal duration of letrozole therapy in early breast cancer and its efficacy compared with other third-generation aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. In the meantime, letrozole should be considered a valuable option in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer, both as adjuvant and extended adjuvant therapy.

  3. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.

  4. Influence of number of deliveries and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density in premenopausal and young postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tsvetov, Gloria; Levy, Sigal; Benbassat, Carlos; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Hirsch, Dania

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy and lactation have been associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD). It is not clear if there is a full recovery of BMD to baseline. This study sought to determine if pregnancy or breast-feeding or both have a cumulative effect on BMD in premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. We performed single-center cohort analysis. Five hundred women aged 35-55 years underwent routine BMD screening from February to July 2011 at a tertiary medical center. Patients were questioned about number of total full-term deliveries and duration of breast-feeding and completed a background questionnaire on menarche and menopause, smoking, dairy product consumption, and weekly physical exercise. Weight and height were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure spinal, dual femoral neck, and total hip BMD. Associations between background characteristics and BMD values were analyzed. Sixty percent of the women were premenopausal. Mean number of deliveries was 2.5 and mean duration of breast-feeding was 9.12 months. On univariate analysis, BMD values were negatively correlated with patient age (p=0.006) and number of births (p=0.013), and positively correlated with body mass index (p<0.001). On multiple (adjusted) logistic regression analysis, prolonged breast-feeding duration, but not number of deliveries, was significantly correlated to a low BMD (p=0.008). An effect was noted only in postmenopausal women. The spine was the most common site of BMD decrease. Prolonged breast-feeding may have a deleterious long-term effect on BMD and may contribute to increased risk of osteoporosis later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary Hyperparathyroidism is Associated with Abnormal Cortical and Trabecular Microstructure and Reduced Bone Stiffness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Emily M; Silva, Barbara C; Boutroy, Stephanie; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Udesky, Julia; Zhang, Chiyuan; McMahon, Donald J; Romano, Megan; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Costa, Aline G.; Cusano, Natalie; Irani, Dinaz; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward; Bilezikian, John P

    2013-01-01

    Typically, in the milder form of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), seen in most countries now, bone density by DXA and detailed analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies by histomorphometry and µCT show detrimental effects in cortical bone, whereas the trabecular site (lumbar spine by DXA) and the trabecular compartment (by bone biopsy) appear to be relatively well preserved. Despite these findings, fracture risk at both vertebral and non-vertebral sites is increased in PHPT. Emerging technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), may provide additional insight into microstructural features at sites such as the forearm and tibia that have heretofore not been easily accessible. Using HRpQCT, we determined cortical and trabecular microstructure at the radius and tibia in 51 postmenopausal women with PHPT and 120 controls. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) and micro finite element (µFE) analyses of the HRpQCT images were also performed to further understand how the abnormalities seen by HRpQCT might translate into effects on bone strength. Women with PHPT showed, at both sites, decreased volumetric densities at trabecular and cortical compartments, thinner cortices, and more widely spaced and heterogeneously distributed trabeculae. At the radius, trabeculae were thinner and fewer in PHPT. The radius was affected to a greater extent in the trabecular compartment than the tibia. ITS analyses revealed, at both sites, that plate-like trabeculae were depleted, with a resultant reduction in the plate/rod ratio. Microarchitectural abnormalities were evident by decreased plate-rod and plate-plate junctions at the radius and tibia, and rod-rod junctions at the radius. These trabecular and cortical abnormalities resulted in decreased whole bone stiffness and trabecular stiffness. These results provide evidence that in PHPT, microstructural abnormalities are pervasive and not limited to the cortical compartment. They may help to

  6. Quantitative studies of bone in postmenopausal women using (18)F-fluoride and (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Blake, Glen M; Park-Holohan, So-Jin; Fogelman, Ignac

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative radionuclide studies of bone using the short-lived tracers (18)F-fluoride and (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) are an alternative method to biochemical markers of bone turnover for investigating the dynamic state of the skeleton. In this study we evaluated their use to quantify bone turnover in women receiving antiresorptive therapy compared with that of untreated control subjects. The patients were 69 healthy postmenopausal women. Twenty-six women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and 43 were untreated age-matched control subjects. After bolus injection of (18)F-fluoride (1 MBq), (99m)Tc-MDP (1 MBq), (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (3 MBq), and (125)I-labeled human serum albumin (0.25 MBq), multiple blood samples and urine collections were taken between 0 and 4 h. The clearance to bone mineral K(bone) was first evaluated using the area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) on the assumption that the rate constant k(4) for the outflow of tracer from bone was negligibly small. AUC values of K(bone) were then compared with those found using a compartmental model method that allowed k(4) to be fitted as a free parameter. Using the AUC method the mean plus minus SD for K(bone) for the 2 tracers were: (18)F-fluoride, 61.8 plus minus 12.0 mL center dot min(-1) (HRT group) versus 67.2 plus minus 12.6 mL center dot min(-1) (control group) (P = 0.045); and (99m)Tc-MDP, 40.3 plus minus 8.2 mL center dot min(-1) (HRT group) versus 44.2 plus minus 7.6 mL center dot min(-1) (control group) (P = 0.024). Values for the 2 tracers in individual patients were moderately well correlated (r = 0.76; P < 0.001). Using the compartmental model method, k(4) for (18)F-fluoride was shown to lie in the range 0--0.0025 min(-1) with a best-fit value of 0.0018 min(-1). Values of K(bone) determined using k(4) = 0.0018 min(-1) were highly correlated with the AUC values (r = 0.989; SEE = 2.05 mL center dot min(-1)) with numeric values that were larger by

  7. The soy isoflavones for reducing bone loss study: 3-yr effects on pQCT bone mineral density and strength measures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shedd-Wise, Kristine M; Alekel, D Lee; Hofmann, Heike; Hanson, Kathy B; Schiferl, Dan J; Hanson, Laura N; Van Loan, Marta D

    2011-01-01

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density-preserving effects, but the bone strength-preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength (by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography) in healthy postmenopausal women (46-63yr). We measured 3-yr changes in cortical BMD (CtBMD), cortical thickness (CtThk), periosteal circumference (PC), endosteal circumference (EC), and strength-strain index (SSI) at 1/3 midshaft femur (N=171), and trabecular BMD (TbBMD), PC, and SSI at 4% distal tibia (N=162). We found no treatment effect on femur CtThk, PC, or EC, or tibia TbBMD or PC. The strongest predictors (negative) of tibia TbBMD and SSI and femur CtBMD were timepoint and bone resorption; whole-body fat mass was protective of SSI. As time since last menstrual period (TLMP) increased (p=0.012), 120-mg/d dose was protective of CtBMD. The strongest predictors of femur SSI were timepoint, bone resorption, and TLMP (protective). Isoflavone tablets were negative predictors of SSI, but 80-mg/d dose became protective as bone turnover increased (p=0.011). Soy isoflavone treatment for 3yr was modestly beneficial for midshaft femur vBMD as TLMP increased and for midshaft femur SSI as bone turnover increased. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost effectiveness of letrozole versus anastrozole in postmenopausal women with HR+ early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Michael; Delea, Thomas E; Guo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 and Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trials demonstrated that, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive (HR+) early-stage breast cancer, 5 years of initial adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole or anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen. With expected generic availability of anastrozole in July 2010 and letrozole in June 2011, there may be financial pressures prior to letrozole's generic availability to start treatment-naïve patients on anastrozole vs. letrozole or to switch patients already receiving letrozole to anastrozole. A Markov model was used to estimate cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained with letrozole vs. anastrozole from the US healthcare system perspective. Cost effectiveness was examined separately in treatment-naïve patients and in patients already receiving letrozole. For the latter, cost effectiveness of continued letrozole vs. therapeutic substitution (TS) to generic anastrozole was evaluated separately in cohorts defined on years of endocrine therapy remaining. TS to generic anastrozole was assumed to result in an additional 5% of patients discontinuing endocrine therapy. Probabilities of distant recurrence and death were taken from reports of BIG 1-98, ATAC, the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group meta-analysis of tamoxifen, and other published sources. Carry-over effects of aromatase inhibitors were assumed to be proportional to treatment duration. Costs of aromatase inhibitors were assumed to decline by 75% with generic availability. In treatment-naïve patients, total expected lifetime costs are $3916 greater with letrozole vs. anastrozole. However, initiation of treatment with letrozole results in a gain of 0.15 QALYs. Cost per QALY gained with letrozole vs. anastrozole is $25,846. In patients already receiving letrozole, the increase in total expected lifetime costs with continued letrozole vs. TS to anastrozole is between $4200 and

  9. Serum cathepsin K levels are not suitable to differentiate women with chronic bone disorders such as osteopenia and osteoporosis from healthy pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Adolf, Daniela; Wex, Thomas; Jahn, Oliver; Riebau, Christian; Halangk, Walter; Klose, Silke; Westphal, Sabine; Amthauer, Holger; Winckler, Stephan; Piatek, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is expressed in high levels in osteoplasts and therefore plays an important role in bone resorption. Thus CatK serum levels may be useful in the diagnosis of chronic bone disorders such as osteopenia and osteoporosis. Therefore we aimed at studying CatK levels in women putatively free of known skeletal disorders. In total, 121 voluntary women, 27 premenopausal women aged between 20 and 45 years, and 94 postmenopausal women aged 59-81 years, all free of known skeletal disorders were included. All women underwent bone density measurement, routine labor parameter and measurement of serum CatK levels. Based on WHO criteria, women were stratified in four groups (premenopausal: healthy; postmenopausal: healthy, osteopenia, osteoporosis), and their CatK levels were statistically analyzed. Using WHO criteria 21 postmenopausal women had normal bone mineral density (BMD), 49 had osteopenia and 24 had osteoporosis. All 27 premenopausal women had normal BMD. There were no significant differences in CatK between these groups. ROC analysis resulted in poor diagnostic validity of CatK, where the area under curve was 0.544. There was no correlation neither between CatK and other biomarkers as C-telopeptide crosslaps (CTX) or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) nor between CatK and age. Serum levels of CatK are not suitable to differentiate women with osteoporosis from healthy subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone mass improved effect of icariin for postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomy-induced rats: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Hai; Yao, Min; Ye, Jie; Wang, Guo-Dong; Wang, Jing; Cui, Xue-Jun; Mo, Wen

    2016-10-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats are the most frequently used animal model to research postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our objective was to summarize and critically assess the bone mass improved effect of icariin (ICA) for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in an OVX-induced rat model. The PUBMED, EMBASE, and Chinese databases were searched from their inception date to February 2015. Two reviewers independently selected animal studies that evaluated the bone mass improved effect of ICA compared with control in OVX-induced rats. Extracted data were analyzed by RevMan statistical software, and the methodological quality of each study was assessed. Seven studies with adequate randomization were included in the systematic review. Overall, ICA seemed to significantly improve bone mass as assessed using the bone mineral density (seven studies, n = 169; weighted mean difference, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.02, I = 77%, P < 0.00001) using a random-effects model. There is no significant difference between ICA and estrogen (E) (six studies, n = 128; weighted mean difference, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.00 to 0.01, I = 54%, P = 0.01). Bone mass improved effect of ICA for postmenopausal osteoporosis was observed in OVX-induced rats. Assessment of the methodological quality of studies involving OVX-induced animal models is required, and good methodological quality should be valued in systematic reviews of animal studies.

  11. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation for three years in postmenopausal osteoporosis significantly alters bone mineral and organic matrix quality.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, E P; Gamsjaeger, S; Hassler, N; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Dobnig, H; Stepan, J J; Pavo, I; Eriksen, E F; Klaushofer, K

    2017-02-01

    Prospective, controlled clinical trials in postmenopausal osteoporosis typically compare effects of an active drug with placebo in addition to vitamin D and calcium supplementation in both treatment arms. While clinical benefits are documented, the effect of this supplementation in the placebo arm and in clinical practice on bone material composition properties is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate these bone quality indices (specifically mineral/matrix, nanoporosity, glycosaminoglycan content, mineral maturity/crystallinity, and pyridinoline content) in patients that either received long-term vitamin D (400-1200IU) and calcium (1.0-1.5g) supplementation, or did not. We have analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy the bone forming trabecular surfaces of iliac crest in pre-treatment samples of a teriparatide study and the endpoint biopsies of the control arm obtained from the HORIZON trial. In general, the mineral/matrix ratio and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content was higher while nanoporosity, (a surrogate for tissue water content), the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC) and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content was lower in patients without long-term supplementation. Moreover, all indices were significantly dependent on tissue age. In conclusion, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is associated with altered mineral and organic matrix properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial12

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Jessica W; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Jackson, George S; Peacock, Munro; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal estrogen depletion is a major contributing factor to bone loss. Soy isoflavones have variable effects on the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, which is possibly related to the specific isoflavone content or the variable equol-producing capacity of individuals. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of the content of isoflavones in a soy supplement and the equol-producing ability of the individual on postmenopausal bone calcium retention. Design: The study was a blinded, randomized, crossover intervention trial in 24 postmenopausal women who were prescreened for their ability to convert daidzein to equol. Women were equilibrated with 41Ca before the intervention. Interventions were 5 soy isoflavone oral supplements (2 doses of a genistein-rich soy supplement and 3 doses of mixed isoflavones in various proportions) and a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Each intervention was given sequentially for 50 d followed by a 50-d washout period. The percentage of bone calcium retention was determined from the change in urinary 41Ca:calcium. Results: Interventions that ranged from 52 to 220 mg total isoflavones/d increased bone calcium retention between 3.4% and 7.6% (P < 0.05), which was a moderate effect compared with that of risedronate at 15.3% (95% CI: 7.1%, 22.7%; P = 0.0014). The most-effective soy intervention delivered 105.23 mg total isoflavones/d as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein in their natural ratios and increased bone calcium retention by 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 10.2%; P < 0.0001). Genistein, at 52.85 mg/d, increased bone calcium retention by 3.4% (95% CI: 0.5%, 6.2%; P = 0.029); but there was no benefit at higher amounts (113.52 mg/d). There was no difference (P = 0.5) in bone calcium retention between equol producers and nonproducers. Conclusion: Soy isoflavones, although not as potent as risedronate, are effective bone-preserving agents in postmenopausal women regardless of their equol-producing status, and mixed

  13. Differences of bone mineral mass, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical and structural parameters and derived strength of the tibia between premenopausal and postmenopausal women of different age groups: a peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) study

    PubMed Central

    Stathopoulos, K.D.; Zoubos, A.B.; Papaioannou, N.A.; Mastrokalos, D.; Galanos, A.; Papagelopoulos, P.J.; Skarantavos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Menopause constitutes a significant cause of bone loss, and it is currently debated whether bone mass is preserved or begins to decline substantially before that time in women. We used pQCT of the tibia to estimate differences of bone mineral mass, bone geometry and derived strength between premenopausal and postmenopausal Caucasian women of different age-groups per decade of age (20-79y). For each individual, we assessed total, trabecular and cortical bone mineral content (BMC, mg) and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm3); total and cortical cross-sectional areas (CSA, mm2); periosteal circumference (PERI_C, mm); endosteal circumference (ENDO_C, mm); mean cortical thickness (CRT_THK, mm); and Stress-Strain Index (SSI). Comparisons were made both between premenopausal (N=84) and postmenopausal (N=231) women as distinct groups, and among women of the different age-groups. Our results indicated that premenopausal women had significantly higher trabecular and cortical BMC and vBMD, with higher cortical CSA, CRT_THK and SSI than postmenopausal women. Moreover, significant differences of trabecular but not cortical BMC, vBMD or SSI were found between women of the younger (<48y) age-groups. PERI_C, ENDO_C displayed lower values in the 20-29y group and higher values in the 70-79y group, denoting significant differences of bone geometry with aging. PMID:27282455

  14. Negative correlation between bone mineral density and TSH receptor antibodies in long-term euthyroid postmenopausal women with treated Graves’ disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyrotoxicosis is a cause of secondary osteoporosis. High concentrations of triiodotironine (T3) in Graves’ disease stimulate bone turnover, but it is unclear if euthyroidism will always normalize bone metabolism. Thyrotropin (TSH) is known to affect directly the bone metabolism through the TSH receptor and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) may have an important role in bone turn-over. The aim of our study was to determine, in pre and postmenopausal euthyroidism patients with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as factors that could affect BMD in each group, including TRAb. Methods Cross-sectional, non-interventional study. Fifty-seven patients with previous hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease (premenopausal: 30, postmenopausal: 27) that remained euthyroid for at least 6 months prior to study were included and compared with fifty- two matched respective controls. Thyrotoxine (T4), TSH, TRAb and BMD were measured. Results Only euthyroid postmenopausal patients with a history of hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease showed lower whole body BMD than matched controls. The BMD expressed as Z-score was less in whole body and lumbar spine in postmenopausal in relation to premenopausal women with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. In the postmenopausal patients, the Z-score of lumbar spine BMD correlated negatively with TRAb (r = −0,53, p < 0.008), positively with the time of evolution of the disease (r = +0.42, p < 0.032) and positively with the time of euthyroidism (r = + 0.50, p < 0.008), but neither with serum T4 nor TSH. In a multiple regression analysis TRAb was the only significant independent variable in relation to lumbar spine BMD (F = 3. 90, p < 0.01). Conclusions In euthyroid women with a history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, BMD was only affected in the postmenopausal group. The negative correlation of Z-score of lumbar spine BMD with TRAb suggests that this

  15. Antioxidant enzymes GSR, SOD1, SOD2, and CAT gene variants and bone mineral density values in postmenopausal women: a genetic association analysis.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic; Osredkar, Josko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2012-03-01

    Oxidative stress participates in decreasing bone formation and stimulating bone resorption. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymes have been observed to have low protective activity in women with osteoporosis.The aim of the present study was to examine any association of selected gene polymorphisms of the glutathione S-reductase (GSR), superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), and catalase (CAT) genes, alone or in combination, with the bone mineral density (BMD) values of femoral neck (fn), lumbar spine (ls), and total hip (th) in Slovenian postmenopausal women. The gene polymorphisms of CAT, GSR, SOD1, and SOD2 genes in 468 postmenopausal women were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism and a fluorescent 5'-exonuclease genotyping method. BMD_fn, BMD_ls, and BMD_th were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Moreover, univariate statistic analysis and two-way analysis of variance for interaction testing were performed. A significant association of BMD_th values (P = 0.027) was found in genotype subgroups of 423-287G>A GSR polymorphism located in the third intron among postmenopausal women. Furthermore, women with at least one G allele showed significantly higher levels of BMD_fn (P = 0.044), BMD_th (P = 0.009), and BMD_ls (P = 0.043) than those that are AA homozygotes. Interestingly, the 423-287G>A_GSR*1154-393T>A_GSR combination was significantly associated with BMD_fn (P = 0.013) and BMD_th (P = 0.002) in postmenopausal women. The results of our study demonstrate for the first time that antioxidant enzyme GSR gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with BMD, suggesting that the A allele of 423-287G>A GSR polymorphism could contribute to decreased BMD values in postmenopausal women.

  16. Polymorphism of SLC25A32, the folate transporter gene, is associated with plasma folate levels and bone fractures in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Urano, Tomohiko; Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Noriko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    Elevation of homocysteine is associated with an increased risk for bone fractures. We previously reported that the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism is associated with homocysteine levels and fracture. The association between the fracture and folate levels or their related gene polymorphisms is not completely clear. We speculated that the SLC25A32 gene, the mitochondrial inner membrane folate transporter, also could be implicated in the regulation of folate metabolism and fracture. A total of 851 Japanese postmenopausal women participated in the association study between the single nucleotide polymorphism genotype and plasma homocysteine or folate. We also tested the association between the candidate single nucleotide polymorphism and 663 postmenopausal women. The AA genotype of rs2241777 single nucleotide polymorphism at the 3'UTR region in the SLC25A32 gene was associated with lower plasma folate concentration compared with the other genotypes in 851 postmenopausal women. A total of 674 postmenopausal ambulatory Japanese women were followed up for 5.5 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE). The AA genotype groups also showed an apparently higher rate and earlier onset of incident fractures than the other genotypes. A total of 407 participants had >70% young-adult mean bone mineral density at the start of the observation. These results show that the SLC25A32 gene polymorphism could be a risk factor for lower folate concentration and future fracture. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Selected adipose tissue hormones, bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand in postmenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Zofia; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Marek, Bogdan; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna; Wołkowska-Pokrywa, Kinga; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that changes in the production of adipose tissue hormones in obese postmenopausal women might affect their bone status. The aim of this study was to determine whether obese postmenopausal women exhibited any relationship between serum levels of LP, ADIPO, RES, VISF, APE and bone metabolism markers (OC and CTx), OPG, sRANKL, the OPG/sRANKL ratio as well as BMD. 80 postmenopausal women (60 obese and 20 healthy) underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine L2-L4. Serum levels of selected adipose tissue hormones, OC, CTx, OPG and its soluble ligand, sRANKL, were assessed by ELISA. Obese postmenopausal women demonstrated a significant increase in body mass, BMI and WHR associated with significant increases in LP and RES levels, a decrease in ADIPO concentration, suppression of OC, CTx, OPG and sRANKL and an increase in the OPG/sRANKL ratio and BMD. BMI correlated positively with BMD, LP, RES, OPG and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, whereas in the case of ADIPO, OC, CTx, sRANKL the relationship was negative. WHR was positively correlated with the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and negatively with ADIPO and APE. A positive correlation was found between BMD and LP, APE and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, while the correlation between BMD and ADIPO, CTx, sRANKL was negative. Significant positive correlations were also revealed between OC, CTx and ADIPO; OPG and ADIPO; sRANKL and ADIPO, RES; the OPG/sRANKL ratio and LP. OC correlated negatively with LP, RES, VISF, APE; CTx with LP, VISF, APE; OPG with LP; sRANKL with LP and APE; the OPG/sRANKL ratio with VISF. ADIPO was an independent predictor of OC, OPG and sRANKL, while LP turned out to be an independent predictor of CTx, OPG, sRANKL and the OPG/sRANKL ratio. Obesity in postmenopausal women can lead to changes in BMD, circulating levels of bone markers, OPG, sRANKL and/or the OPG/sRANKL ratio; these changes are associated with alterations in the concentrations of adipose tissue hormones

  18. Increase of bioavailable testosterone is associated with gain in bone mineral density after cure of primary hyperparathyroidism in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, Erik G; Becker, Charlotte; Bondeson, Anne-Greth; Bondeson, Lennart; Svensson, Johan

    2006-01-01

    The recovery of bone mineral density (BMD) after surgical cure of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) seems to be multifactorial and not just dependent on declining PTH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of sex steroids in this context. Thirty-six postmenopausal women with PHPT were examined before and 1 year after curative parathyroidectomy. Their mean age at inclusion in the study was 71.7 +/- 1.1 years (range 54-83). BMD was measured in hip and lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. No patient received any replacement therapy with sex hormones or treatment with corticosteroids, oestrogen receptor modulators or bisphosphonates. Serum concentrations of oestradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, SHBG, PTH and calcium. Postoperative increase of free (bioavailable) testosterone was positively correlated to the change of BMD in the hip (P < 0.01), whereas the change of PTH in serum correlated to the change of BMD in the lumbar spine (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that bioavailable testosterone was the most important determinant of change in BMD in both spine and hip (femoral neck: P < 0.05; Ward's triangle: P < 0.001; trochanter: P < 0.01; lumbar spine: P < 0.05). The increase of bioavailable testosterone after curative parathyroidectomy was related to declining SHBG. An increase of bioavailable testosterone following surgical cure of PHPT is related to improvement of hip and lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women. This previously unknown hormonal interaction may also be important to other aspects of hyperparathyroidism.

  19. Physical activity and 5-year changes in physical performance tests and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: the Yokogoshi Study.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Oshiki, Rieko; Saito, Toshiko; Oyama, Mari; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on musculoskeletal health in older adults is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity and 5-year changes in physical performance tests and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. The design was a 5-year cohort study. Subjects were 507 women (55-74 years old) living in a rural community in Japan. Physical activity assessed included housework, farm work, and moderate leisure-time physical activity within the previous week. Measurements at baseline included handgrip strength, walking time (timed "Up & Go" test) and BMD of the femoral neck and vertebrae. Five-year changes in these measures (outcome variables) were compared among groups with different levels of physical activity by analysis of covariance. Women who did not do housework performed worse in changes in handgrip strength (difference=2.22 kg, P=0.0201) and worse in changes in the walking time (difference=0.54 s, P=0.0072) than those who did housework alone. Women who spent at least 9h per week (median=24) doing farm work performed better in changes in handgrip strength (difference=0.28 kg, P=0.0334), but worse in changes in the walking time (difference=0.66 s, P<0.0001) than those who did not do farm work. However, leisure-time activity was not associated with changes in any outcome variable, and none of the physical activities predicted BMD changes. Engaging in housework and farm work are determinants of physical function in postmenopausal women, which may help them maintain independence in daily living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and efficacy of tocotrienol supplementation for bone health in postmenopausal women: protocol for a dose-response double-blinded placebo-controlled randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Mo, Huanbiao; Yang, Shengping; Wang, Shu; Felton, Carol K; Tomison, Michael D; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2016-12-23

    Osteoporosis is a major health concern in postmenopausal women, and oxidative stress contributes to the development of bone loss. Cellular studies and ovariectomised rat model mimicking bone loss in postmenopausal women show the bone-protective effect of tocotrienols (TTs) with antioxidant capability. We aim to access the safety and efficacy of TT consumption for bone health in postmenopausal women. In this 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial for the effects of dietary TT supplementation in postmenopausal women, postmenopausal women aged 45 years and older with at least 1 year after menopause and bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip 2.5 or more below the reference values will be randomly assigned to 3 daily supplements: (1) placebo group receiving 860 mg olive oil, (2) low TT group receiving 430 mg of 70% pure TTs (containing 300 mg TT) and (3) high TT group receiving 860 mg of 70% pure TTs (600 mg TT). The primary outcome measure will be urinary N-terminal telopeptide. The secondary outcome measures will be serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and quality of life. At 0, 6 and 12 weeks, the following will be assessed: (1) primary and secondary outcome measures; (2) serum TT and tocopherol concentrations; (3) physical activity and food frequency questionnaires. Liver function will be monitored every 6 weeks for safety. 'Intent-to-treat' principle will be employed for data analysis. A model of repeated measurements with random effect error terms will be applied. Analysis of covariance, χ 2 analysis and regression will be used for comparisons. This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal in the areas of bone or nutrition and international conferences. NCT02058420; results

  1. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01), as BMD increased by 0.5% in the 1 mg/day group (P = 0.55) and by 2.3% (P < 0.01) in the 3 mg/day group. In the melatonin group, trabecular thickness in tibia increased by 2.2% (P = 0.04), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the spine, by 3.6% (P = 0.04) in the 3 mg/day. Treatment did not significantly affect BMD at other sites or levels of bone turnover markers; however, 24-hr urinary calcium was decreased in response to melatonin by 12.2% (P = 0.02). In conclusion, 1-yr treatment with melatonin increased BMD at femoral neck in a dose-dependent manner, while high-dose melatonin increased vBMD in the spine. Further studies are needed to assess the mechanisms of action and whether the positive effect of nighttime melatonin will protect against fractures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association of Thr420Lys polymorphism in DBP gene with fat-soluble vitamins and low radial bone mineral density in postmenopausal Thai women.

    PubMed

    Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Schweigert, Florian J; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn; Preutthipan, Sangchai

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the genetic markers for osteoporosis bone mineral density by the genotyping of rs7041, rs4588 and rs1352845 in the DBP gene with either bone mineral density or serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, retinol and α-tocopherol, among 365 postmenopausal Thai women. The DBP genotypes were analyzed by a PCR restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. Serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was assessed using a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay. Serum retinol and α-tocopherol were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. After adjustment for age >50 years, elder Thai subjects with low BMI (≤25 kg/m(2)) and carrying the rs4588 CC genotype had a higher risk of radial bone mineral density osteoporosis (odds ratio: 6.29; p = 0.048). The rs1352845 genotype also had a statistical association with total hip bone mineral density; however, it disappeared after adjustment for age and BMI. No association was found in fat-soluble vitamins with bone mineral density. DBP genotypes may influence the osteoporosis bone mineral density in postmenopausal Thai women.

  3. Effects of D-003 (10 mg/day) on Bone Mineral Density of the Lumbar Spine and Femoral Neck in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Alfredo; Castaño, Gladys; González, Juan; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Lilia; Illnait, José; Mesa, Meilis; Gámez, Rafael; Fernández, Julio César; Telles, Ricardo; Marrero, Duany; Eng, Mainel Gómez; Ruiz, Dalmer; Jardines, Yunaisi

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Increased osteoclast activity is a pivotal finding in osteoporosis. This increase is mediated via the mevalonate-to-cholesterol pathway, which is involved in producing the intermediates required for osteoclast activity. D-003, a mixture of high molecular weight sugarcane wax acids, has been shown to inhibit cholesterol synthesis prior to mevalonate production, resulting in a reduction of bone loss and resorption in ovariectomized rats. Moreover, previous studies have demonstrated that short-term D-003 treatment reduces urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline/creatinine in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of D-003 (10 mg/day) treatment for 3 years on bone mineral density (BMD) in 83 postmenopausal women with low BMD. Results Over 3 years, D-003 treatment increased lumbar spine BMD (5.1%, p < 0.01) and improved osteoporosis-related quality of life scores as compared with placebo-treated controls. D-003 was also well tolerated; the frequency of adverse events in the bone, joints, or muscle with D-003 treatment (p < 0.05) was lower than in the placebo group. Conclusions D-003 treatment (10 mg/day) for 3 years increased lumbar spine BMD and produced clinical improvements in postmenopausal women with low BMD. Further studies, however, will be required to confirm these results. PMID:21716593

  4. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight.

  5. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    László, Adám

    2004-01-04

    Due to its incidence and clinical consequences osteoporosis followed by vertebral, hip, and forearm fractures represents an outstanding problem of nowadays' health care. Because of its high mortality rate hip fractures are of special interest. The number of fractures caused by postmenopausal osteoporosis increases with age. Costs of examinations and treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and fractures are also increasing and represent a significant amount all over the world. Organization of Osteoporosis Centres in Hungary was founded in 1995 and has been since functioning, however, only the one-sixth of osteoporotic patients are treated. Several risk factors are known in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, first of all the lack of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake, age, genetic factors, and circumstances known to predispose falling. Estrogen deficiency is the most likely cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteodensitometry by DEXA is the most important method to evaluate osteoporosis, since decrease in bone mineral density strongly correlates with fracture incidence. Physical, radiologic, and laboratory examination are also required at the first visit and during follow-up. The quantity of bone can hardly be influenced after the 35th year of age, thus prevention of osteoporosis has special significance: appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, weight-bearing sports and physical activity can prevent fractures. According to the results from studies fulfilling the criteria of evidence-based medicine, first choice treatment of osteoporosis involves hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, the tissue specific tibolone, raloxifen and calcitonin. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are always necessary to be added to any antiporotic treatment. Other combinations of different antiporotic drugs are useless and make the treatment more expensive. Other treatments like massage, physiotherapy, hip-protecting pants, etc. as well as

  6. Effects of Romosozumab Compared With Teriparatide on Bone Density and Mass at the Spine and Hip in Postmenopausal Women With Low Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Genant, Harry K; Engelke, Klaus; Bolognese, Michael A; Mautalen, Carlos; Brown, Jacques P; Recknor, Chris; Goemaere, Stefan; Fuerst, Thomas; Yang, Yu-Ching; Grauer, Andreas; Libanati, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Romosozumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds sclerostin, has a dual effect on bone by increasing bone formation and reducing bone resorption, and thus has favorable effects in both aspects of bone volume regulation. In a phase 2 study, romosozumab increased areal BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip as measured by DXA compared with placebo, alendronate, and teriparatide in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. In additional analyses from this international, randomized study, we now describe the effect of romosozumab on lumbar spine and hip volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BMC at month 12 as assessed by QCT in the subset of participants receiving placebo, s.c. teriparatide (20 µg once daily), and s.c. romosozumab (210 mg once monthly). QCT measurements were performed at the lumbar spine (mean of L 1 and L 2 entire vertebral bodies, excluding posterior processes) and hip. One year of treatment with romosozumab significantly increased integral vBMD and BMC at the lumbar spine and total hip from baseline, and compared with placebo and teriparatide (all p < 0.05). Trabecular vertebral vBMD improved significantly and similarly from baseline (p < 0.05) with both romosozumab (18.3%) and teriparatide (20.1%), whereas cortical vertebral vBMD gains were larger with romosozumab compared with teriparatide (13.7% versus 5.7%, p < 0.0001). Trabecular hip vBMD gains were significantly larger with romosozumab than with teriparatide (10.8% versus 4.2%, p = 0.01), but were similar for cortical vBMD (1.1% versus -0.9%, p = 0.12). Cortical BMC gains were larger with romosozumab compared with teriparatide at both the spine (23.3% versus 10.9%, p < 0.0001) and hip (3.4% versus 0.0%, p = 0.03). These improvements are expected to result in strength gains and support the continued clinical investigation of romosozumab as a potential therapy to rapidly reduce fracture risk in ongoing phase 3 studies. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016

  7. Bone Density, Balance and Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women Taking Alendronate Participating in Different Physical Activity Programs

    PubMed Central

    Borba-Pinheiro, Cláudio Joaquim; de Alencar Carvalho, Mauro César Gurgel; da Silva, Nádia Souza Lima; Drigo, Alexandre Janotta; Bezerra, Jani Cléria Pereira; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different physical activity (PA) programs on bone density, balance and quality of Life of postmenopausaL women taking concomitant aLendronate. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 35 volunteers divided into four groups: practitioners of resistance training (RTG, n = 9, 49.8±4.2 years), judo (JUG, n= 11, 52.2 ±5.3 years), water aerobics (WAG, n = 8, 57.1 ±7.4 years) and the control group (CG, n = 7, 53.8±4.4 years). Methods: The following assessment tools were used: bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry of the spine and proximal femur, the ‘Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire’ (OPAQ) and the ‘Static Balance Test with Visual Control’. The physical activities were planned for 12 months in cycles with different intensities. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis between groups, and a Scheffe post-hoc test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: The multiple comparisons results showed that the RTG and JUG groups were significantly more efficient in the variables studied, including: Lumbar BMD (Δ% = 6.8%, p = 0.001), balance (Δ% = 21.4%, p = 0.01), OPAQ (Δ% = 9.1%, p = 0.005) and Lumbar BMD (Δ% = 6.4%, p = 0.003), balance (Δ% = U%, p = 0.02) and OPAQ (Δ% = 16.8%, p =0.000) compared with the CG. Furthermore, the RTG (Δ% = 4.8%, p =0.02) was significantly better than the WAG for the neck of femur BMD, and the JUG (Δ% = 16.8, p = 0.0003) also demonstrated superiority to the WAG in the OPAQ. Conclusions: The physical activities studied appear to improve BMD, balance and quality of Life of postmenopausaL women taking a bisphosphonate. In this small sample, the RTG and the JUG groups were superior to the other groups. PMID:22870446

  8. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID

  9. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

  10. Effect of green tea and Tai Chi on bone health in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shen, C-L; Chyu, M-C; Yeh, J K; Zhang, Y; Pence, B C; Felton, C K; Brismée, J-M; Arjmandi, B H; Doctolero, S; Wang, J-S

    2012-05-01

    Postmenopausal women with osteopenia received green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplement and/or Tai Chi exercise for 6 months. Bone turnover biomarkers, calcium metabolism, and muscle strength were measured. This study showed that GTP supplementation and Tai Chi exercise increased bone formation biomarkers and improved bone turnover rate. Tai Chi exercise increased serum parathyroid hormone. GTP supplementation, Tai Chi exercise, and the combination of the two all improved muscle strength in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. This study evaluated the effect of GTP supplementation and Tai Chi (TC) exercise on serum markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP), calcium metabolism, and muscle strength in postmenopausal osteopenic women. One hundred and seventy-one postmenopausal osteopenic women were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) placebo (500 mg starch/day), (2) GTP (500 mg GTP/day), (3) placebo + TC (placebo plus TC training at 60 min/session, three sessions/week), and (4) GTP + TC (GTP plus TC training). Overnight fasting blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months for biomarker analyses. Muscle strength was evaluated at baseline, 3, and 6 months. One hundred and fifty subjects completed the 6-month study. Significant increases in BAP level due to GTP intake (at 1 month) and TC (at 3 months) were observed. Significant increases in the change of BAP/TRAP ratio due to GTP (at 3 months) and TC (at 6 months) were also observed. Significant main effect of TC on the elevation in serum parathyroid hormone level was observed at 1 and 3 months. At 6 months, muscle strength significantly improved due to GTP, TC, and GTP + TC interventions. Neither GTP nor TC affected serum TRAP, serum and urinary calcium, and inorganic phosphate. In summary, GTP supplementation and TC exercise increased BAP and improved BAP/TRAP ratio. TC exercise increased serum parathyroid hormone. GTP

  11. The effect of whole-body vibration therapy on bone metabolism, motor function, and anthropometric parameters in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaotian; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhang, Chi; He, Chengqi; Wang, Pu

    2017-11-01

    To review the research literature on the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers. Mean differences (MDs), standardized mean differences (SMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed with the I 2 test. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Nine randomized controlled trials involving 625 patients met the inclusion criteria. No significant improvement was found in bone mineral density (BMD) (SMD = -0.06, 95%CI= -0.22-0.11, p = 0.50); bone turnover markers (MD = -0.25, 95%CI= -0.54-0.03, p = 0.08); anthropometric parameters, including muscle mass, fat mass, body mass index (BMI), and weight (SMD = 0.02, 95%CI= -0.16-0.21, p = 0.81); or maximal isotonic knee extensor strength (SMD = 0.16, 95%CI= -0.63-0.95, p = 0.69). However, maximal isometric knee extensor strength improved (SMD = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.34-1.08, p = 0.0002). WBV is beneficial for enhancing maximal isometric knee extensor strength, but it has no overall treatment effect on BMD, bone turnover markers, anthropometric parameters, or maximal isotonic knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Implication of rehabilitation Osteoporosis is the leading underlying cause of fractures in postmenopausal women, whole body vibration (WBV) has received much attention as a potential intervention for the management of osteoporosis in recent years. Whole body vibration is beneficial for enhancing maximal isometric knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Whole body vibration has no overall treatment effect on bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, anthropometric parameters and maximal isotonic knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  12. Use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure analysis at the distal radius for osteoporosis diagnostics: a study in post-menopausal women with breast cancer and treated with aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Pencheva, Tsvetelina D; Jungmann, Pia M; Rummeny, Ernst J; Müller, Dirk; Bauer, Jan S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with aromatase inhibitor (AI) is recommended for post-menopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, AI therapy is known to induce bone loss leading to osteoporosis with an increased risk for fragility fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes of magnetic resonance (MR)-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters as advanced imaging biomarker can already be detected in subjects with AI intake but still without evidence for osteoporosis according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as current clinical gold standard. Twenty-one postmenopausal women (62±6 years of age) with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, ongoing treatment with aromatase inhibitor for 23±15 months, and no evidence for osteoporosis (current DXA T-score greater than -2.5) were recruited for this study. Eight young, healthy women (24±2 years of age) were included as controls. All subjects underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the distal radius to assess the trabecular bone microstructure. Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) different between subjects with AI intake and controls, including apparent bone fraction (0.42±0.03 vs. 0.42±0.05), trabecular number (1.95±0.10 mm(-1) vs 1.89±0.15 mm(-1)), trabecular separation (0.30±0.03 mm vs 0.31±0.06 mm), trabecular thickness (0.21±0.01 mm vs 0.22±0.02 mm), and fractal dimension (1.70±0.02 vs. 1.70±0.03). These findings suggest that the initial deterioration of trabecular bone microstructure as measured by MRI and BMD loss as measured by DXA occur not sequentially but rather simultaneously. Thus, the use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure assessment is limited as early diagnostic biomarker in this clinical setting.

  13. Treatment decisions and the impact of adverse events before and during extended endocrine therapy in postmenopausal early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blok, Erik J; Kroep, Judith R; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Duijm-de Carpentier, Marjolijn; Putter, Hein; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Nortier, Johan W R; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Seynaeve, Caroline M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2018-05-01

    Extended endocrine therapy beyond 5 years for postmenopausal breast cancer has been studied within multiple phase III trials. Treatment compliance in these trials is generally poor. In this analysis, we aimed to determine factors that were associated with participation in the phase III Investigation on the Duration of Extended Adjuvant Letrozole (IDEAL) trial and with early treatment discontinuation, and how this influenced survival outcome. In the IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients were randomised between 2.5 or 5 years of extended letrozole, after completing 5 years of endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. A subgroup of this population participated earlier in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational trial (5 years of exemestane or 2.5 years of tamoxifen followed by exemestane as primary adjuvant therapy) in which we explored which factors were determinative for enrolment in the IDEAL study. In the IDEAL cohort, we evaluated which factors predicted for early treatment discontinuation and the effect of early treatment discontinuation on disease-free survival (DFS). Nodal status, younger age and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with higher enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In the IDEAL cohort, adverse events (AEs), the type of primary endocrine therapy and the interval between primary and extended therapy were associated with early treatment discontinuation. Among the reported AEs, depressive feelings (56%) were most frequently associated with early treatment discontinuation. Early treatment discontinuation was not associated with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.76-1.37). In this analysis, we found that risk factors were most strongly associated enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In contrast, patient experiences were the most significant factors leading to early treatment discontinuation, with no effect on DFS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of adding alendronate to ongoing hormone therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Dong-Yun; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Joo Han; Choi, DooSeok; Yoon, Byung-Koo

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding the bisphosphonate alendronate (ALEN) to ongoing hormone therapy (HT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial at a university hospital included a total of 139 postmenopausal women who had low BMD after HT lasting at least 1 year. Women received either ALEN (10 mg/d) or placebo in combination with HT for 1 year. Changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover were evaluated. Lumbar spine and total hip BMDs increased significantly in both treatment groups after 1 year. The addition of ALEN, when compared with HT alone, did not produce a significant change in BMD at the lumbar spine (3.7% vs 4.3%) and total hip (2.2% vs 3.2%) after adjusting for controllable variables. Serum osteocalcin showed a similar change, but urinary deoxypyridinoline response differed between treatment groups. Compared with HT alone, the addition of ALEN to ongoing HT for 1 year does not make a difference in BMD among postmenopausal Korean women with low BMD.

  15. Effects of pioglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bone, Henry G; Lindsay, Robert; McClung, Michael R; Perez, Alfonso T; Raanan, Marsha G; Spanheimer, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Meta-analyses of clinical studies have suggested an increased incidence of peripheral fractures in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking pioglitazone. The mechanism behind this apparent increase is unknown. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover. Twenty-five sites (in the United States) enrolled participants in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Postmenopausal women (n = 156) with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance participated in the study. The intervention consisted of pioglitazone 30 mg/d (n = 78) or placebo (n = 78), increased to 45 mg/d after 1 month, for 12 months of treatment total, followed by 6 months of washout/follow-up. Percentage changes from baseline to month 12 and from month 12 to month18 in BMD in total proximal femur (primary end point), total body, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and radius were measured. Least squares mean changes from baseline to month 12 in total proximal femur BMD were -0.69% for pioglitazone and -0.14% for placebo (P = .170). No statistically significant between-group differences were observed for any BMD or bone remodeling marker end point. We observed improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. In addition, pioglitazone appeared to increase body fat, which may affect bone density measurements, especially in the lumbar spine. One pioglitazone-treated and three placebo-treated women experienced confirmed fractures. Over 18 months, one pioglitazone-treated (1.3%) and eight placebo-treated women (10.3%) developed overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pattern and incidence of adverse events with pioglitazone were consistent with clinical experience with thiazolidinediones. Maximal-dose pioglitazone had no effects on BMD or bone turnover, while improving glycemic control as expected, in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

  16. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Versus Pilates Exercise on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized and Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Laís Campos; de Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves; de Almeida Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida

    2018-02-12

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a common condition in postmenopausal women that can be managed with impact activities. Among the activities studied are the whole-body vibration (WBV) and muscle-strengthening exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of WBV versus Pilates exercise on BMD in postmenopausal women. In this study, 51 postmenopausal women were randomized into 3 groups: vibration (n = 17), Pilates (n = 17), and control (n = 17). Outcomes were the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) (lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, and ward's area) assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up. The interventions were performed 3 times a week for 6 months, totaling 78 sessions. The analysis was performed with intention-to-treat and covariance analyses adjusted for baseline outcomes. After 6 months, 96.1% of the participants completed the follow-up. The analyses demonstrated significant mean between-group differences in favor of the interventions: vibration versus control, for the aBMD of the lumbar spine (0.014 g/cm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.006-0.022; P= .018, d = 1.21) and trochanter (0.018 g/cm; 95% CI, 0.006-0.030; P = .012, d = 1.03); and Pilates versus control, for the aBMD of the lumbar spine (0.016 g/cm; 95% CI, 0.007-0.025; P = .008, d = 1.15) and trochanter (0.020 g/cm; 95% CI, 0.010-0.031; P = .005, d = 1.28). In postmenopausal women, 3 weekly sessions of WBV or Pilates administered for 6 months provided an equal effect on BMD.

  17. Impact of oral ibandronate 150 mg once monthly on bone structure and density in post-menopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia derived from in vivo μCT.

    PubMed

    Bock, Oliver; Börst, Hendrikje; Beller, Gisela; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Degner, Corina; Martus, Peter; Roth, Heinz-Jürgen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ibandronate 150 mg/once monthly in the treatment of post-menopausal osteopenia and osteoporosis on bone micro-structure at the distal tibia and radius has not been considered to date. Seventy post-menopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia were recruited. All subjects received calcium and vitamin D supplementation and were randomized to either a group which took 150 mg ibandronate oral monthly or a placebo group over a 12-month period. μCT measures of the distal tibia and radius were conducted every three months, with DXA lumbar spine and hip measurements conducted only pre and post and serum markers of bone formation and resorption measured every 6 months. After 12-months no significant impact of ibandronate on the primary outcome measures bone-volume to tissue-volume and trabecular separation at the distal tibia (p≥0.15) was found. Further multiple regression analyses of the primary end-points indicated a significant effect favoring the ibandronate intervention (p=0.045). Analysis of secondary end-points showed greater increases in distal tibia cortical thickness, cortical density and total density (p≤0.043) with ibandronate and no significant effects at the distal radius, but greater increases of hip DXA-BMD and lumbar spine DXA-BMD (p≤0.017). Ibandronate use resulted in a marked reduction in bone turnover (p<0.001). While ibandronate resulted in greater mineralization of bone, this effect differed from one body region to another. There was some impact of ibandronate on bone structure (cortical thickness) at the distal tibia, but not on bone-volume to tissue-volume or trabecular separation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of bone mineral density by DXA and the trabecular microarchitecture of the calcaneum by texture analysis in pre- and postmenopausal women in the evaluation of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Karunanithi, R; Ganesan, S; Panicker, T M R; Korath, M Paul; Jagadeesan, K

    2007-10-01

    The in vivo evaluation of trabecular bone structure could be useful in the diagnosis of osteoporosis for the characterization of therapeutic response and understanding the role of parameters other than bone mineral density (BMD) in defining skeletal status. This study was made to evaluate changes taking place in the trabecular architecture of bone with age and menopausal status in women. The findings are compared with the femoral neck bone as well as the trochantar bone mineral density determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is a standard reference test for evaluation of osteoporosis. Seventy females were recruited for the study, 25 premenopausal (mean age ± SD: 39.4 ± 3.8) and 45 postmenopausal (mean age ± SD: 57.9 ± 7.9) women. The right femoral neck bone mineral density was measured for them by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For the same individuals, lateral view radiographs of the right calcaneum were taken as well. The radiographs were digitized and the region of interest (ROI) of 256 × 256 pixels was selected, the run length matrix was computed for calculating seven parameters [Table 1] and the two dimensional fast Fourier transform of the image was calculated. Using the FFT, the power spectral density (PSD) was derived and the root mean square (RMS) value was determined. Our results confirm that age has a significant influence on the texture of the trabecular bone and bone mineral density.

  19. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  20. Association Between Polymorphisms of VDR, COL1A1, and LCT genes and bone mineral density in Belarusian women with severe postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Marozik, Pavel; Mosse, Irma; Alekna, Vidmantas; Rudenko, Ema; Tamulaitienė, Marija; Ramanau, Heorhi; Strazdienė, Vaidilė; Samokhovec, Volha; Ameliyanovich, Maxim; Byshnev, Nikita; Gonchar, Alexander; Kundas, Liubov; Zhur, Krystsina

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Variation of osteoporosis in the population is the result of an interaction between the genotype and the environment, and the genetic causes of osteoporosis are being widely investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), type I collagen (COL1A1), and lactase (LCT) genes and severe postmenopausal osteoporosis as well as bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 54 women with severe postmenopausal osteoporosis and 77 controls (mean age, 58.3 years [SD, 6.2] and 56.7 years [SD, 7.42], respectively) were included into the study. The subjects were recruited at the City Center for Osteoporosis Prevention (Minsk, Belarus). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. Severe osteoporosis was diagnosed in the women with the clinical diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and at least 1 fragility fracture. The control group included women without osteoporosis. Polymorphic sites in osteoporosis predisposition genes (ApaI, BsmI, TaqI, and Cdx2 of the VDR gene, G2046T of the COL1A1 gene, and T-13910C of the LCT gene) were determined using the polymerase chain reaction on the deoxyribonucleic acid isolated from dried bloodspots. RESULTS. The data showed that the ApaI and BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and T- 13910C of the LCT gene were associated with severe postmenopausal osteoporosis in the analyzed Belarusian women (P<0.01). A statistically significant positive correlation between the VDR risk genotypes ApaI and TaqI and bone mineral density was found (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS. The findings of this study suggest that at least the ApaI and BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and T-13910C of the LCT gene are associated with the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in our sample of the Belarusian women.

  1. Protective effects of Tualang honey on bone structure in experimental postmenopausal rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Siti Sarah Mohamad; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Othman, Nor Hayati; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Muhamad, Norliza

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8): four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum). The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey). Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water), and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment. RESULTS: All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium. PMID:22892923

  2. Protective effects of Tualang honey on bone structure in experimental postmenopausal rats.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Siti Sarah Mohamad; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Othman, Nor Hayati; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Muhamad, Norliza

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats. Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n =8): four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum). The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey). Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water), and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment. All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group. In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium.

  3. The relationship of depression, anxiety and stress with low bone mineral density in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Erez, Hany Burstein; Weller, Aron; Vaisman, Nachum; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized negative relations between those mood variables and BMD in three assessed areas. The study showed association between depression and decreased BMD. The hypothesis regarding anxiety and stress was partially confirmed. In the last decade, the relationship of osteoporosis to psychological variables has been increasingly studied. The accumulating evidence from these studies supports the conclusion that depression is related to decreased BMD. Nevertheless, several studies found no support for this relationship. Moreover, only a small number of studies examined the association between anxiety or stress and decreased BMD. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with BMD by means of adequate measuring instruments, while controlling for background factors known to be related to BMD decrease (e.g., body mass index, family history). The study included 135 post-menopausal female participants, who arrived for BMD screening, between the years 2006 and 2009. Several days prior to the examination, participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing depression and anxiety. BMD was measured using DXA, in spine, right and left hip. The study showed negative associations between depression and BMD variables in the three assessed areas. There were negative correlations between anxiety, stress and spine BMD, as well as a tendency towards negative relations in the right and left hip BMD. Concurrent hierarchical regressions showed that the addition of the three psychological variables increased the explained variance by 6–8 %. In addition, depression was found to have a unique significant contribution to the explained variance in right and left hip BMD. The findings provide supporting evidence for the existence of associations between mood variables and decreased BMD. Further

  4. Physical therapy for urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or low bone density: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sran, Meena; Mercier, Joanie; Wilson, Penny; Lieblich, Pat; Dumoulin, Chantale

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of 12 weekly physical therapy sessions for urinary incontinence (UI) compared with a control intervention, for reducing the number of UI episodes measured with the 7-day bladder diary, at 3 months and 1 year postrandomization. A single parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted at one outpatient public health center, in postmenopausal women aged 55 years and over with osteoporosis or low bone density and UI. Women were randomized to physical therapy (PT) for UI or osteoporosis education. The primary outcome measure was number of leakage episodes on the 7-day bladder diary, assessed at baseline, after treatment and at 1 year. The secondary outcome measures included the pad test and disease-specific quality of life and self-efficacy questionnaires assessed at the same timepoints. Forty-eight women participated (24 per group). Two participants dropped out of each group and one participant was deceased before 3-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. At 3 months and 1 year, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of leakage episodes on the 7-day bladder diary (3 mo: P = 0.04; 1 y: P = 0.01) in favor of the PT group. The effect size was 0.34 at 1 year. There were no harms reported. After a 12-week course of PT once per week for UI, PT group participants had a 75% reduction in weekly median number of leakage episodes, whereas the control group's condition had no improvement. At 1 year, the PT group participants maintained this improvement, whereas the control group's incontinence worsened.

  5. The association of plasma IGF-I with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric, and early life factors in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Balkwill, Angela; Tipper, Sarah J; Crowe, Francesca L; Reeves, Gillian K; Green, Jane; Beral, Valerie; Key, Timothy J

    2015-04-01

    Higher circulating concentrations of insulin like growth factor (IGF-I) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between circulating IGF-I concentrations and dietary factors (intakes of protein, dairy protein, and alcohol), lifestyle factors (smoking and HT use), anthropometric indices (height and adiposity) and factors in early life (birth weight, having been breastfed, body size at age 10, and at age 20) in postmenopausal women in the UK. An analysis of plasma IGF-I concentrations (measured by immunoassay) in 1883 postmenopausal women. Multivariate analysis was used to examine correlates of plasma IGF-I concentrations. Women in the highest quintile of total protein and dairy protein intakes had, respectively, 7.6% and 5.5% higher plasma IGF-I concentrations than women in the lowest quintile (p trend <0.05 for both). Other factors significantly (p<0.05) associated with reduced IGF-I concentrations were: consuming 14 or more vs 3-7 alcoholic drinks per week (8.8% lower IGF-I); current vs non-current HT users (9.9% lower IGF-I); current use of oestrogen alone vs oestrogen+progestagen (16.9% lower IGF-I); obese vs overweight (6.8% lower IGF-I); and women who reported wearing larger vs smaller clothes sizes at age 20 (4.9% lower IGF-I). This study in post-menopausal women identified several potentially modifiable determinants of circulating IGF-I concentrations. There is now strong evidence from this and other studies that IGF-I concentrations are associated with dietary protein intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered Brain Connectivity in Early Postmenopausal Women with Subjective Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Albert, Kimberly; Melo, Alyssa; Boyd, Brian; Dumas, Julie; Woodward, Neil; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Park, Joon H.; Naylor, Magdalena; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive changes after menopause are a common complaint, especially as the loss of estradiol at menopause has been hypothesized to contribute to the higher rates of dementia in women. To explore the neural processes related to subjective cognitive complaints, this study examined resting state functional connectivity in 31 postmenopausal women (aged 50–60) in relationship to cognitive complaints following menopause. A cognitive complaint index was calculated using responses to a 120-item questionnaire. Seed regions were identified for resting state brain networks important for higher-order cognitive processes and for areas that have shown differences in volume and functional activity associated with cognitive complaints in prior studies. Results indicated a positive correlation between the executive control network and cognitive complaint score, weaker negative functional connectivity within the frontal cortex, and stronger positive connectivity within the right middle temporal gyrus in postmenopausal women who report more cognitive complaints. While longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, these data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that high levels of cognitive complaints may reflect changes in brain connectivity and may be a potential marker for the risk of late-life cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women with otherwise normal cognitive performance. PMID:27721740

  7. Reported zinc, but not copper, intakes influence whole-body bone density, mineral content and T score responses to zinc and copper supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Lukaski, Henry C; Johnson, LuAnn K; Roughead, Z K Fariba

    2011-12-01

    A supplementation trial starting with 224 postmenopausal women provided with adequate vitamin D and Ca was conducted to determine whether increased Cu and Zn intakes would reduce the risk for bone loss. Healthy women aged 51-80 years were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Women with similar femoral neck T scores and BMI were randomly assigned to two groups of 112 each that were supplemented daily for 2 years with 600 mg Ca plus maize starch placebo or 600 mg Ca plus 2 mg Cu and 12 mg Zn. Whole-body bone mineral contents, densities and T scores were determined biannually by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 5 d food diaries were obtained annually. Repeated-measures ANCOVA showed that bone mineral contents, densities and T scores decreased from baseline values to year 2. A priori contrasts between baseline and year 2 indicated that the greatest decreases occurred with Cu and Zn supplementation. Based on 5 d food diaries, the negative effect was caused by Zn and mainly occurred with Zn intakes ≥ 8·0 mg/d. With Zn intakes < 8·0 mg/d, Zn supplementation apparently prevented a significant decrease in whole-body bone densities and T scores. Food diaries also indicated that Mg intakes < 237 mg/d, Cu intakes < 0·9 mg/d and Zn intakes < 8·0 mg/d are associated with poorer bone health. The findings indicate that Zn supplementation may be beneficial to bone health in postmenopausal women with usual Zn intakes < 8·0 mg/d but not in women consuming adequate amounts of Zn.

  8. Effect of 1-year dietary supplementation with vitaminized olive oil on markers of bone turnover and oxidative stress in healthy post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Laura; Battino, Maurizio; Nanetti, Laura; Raffaelli, Francesca; Alidori, Alessandro; Sforza, Giulia; Carle, Flavia; Quagliarini, Veronica; Cester, Nelvio; Vignini, Arianna

    2015-11-01

    Osteoporosis represents a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of fractures and mortality. Nutrition should form part of bone disease prevention strategies, especially in the light of the population ageing and the diet effect on bone health. Thus the study aimed at verifying whether 1 year of oral supplementation with either extra virgin olive oil (VOO) enriched with vitamins D3, K1 and B6 (VitVOO) or VOO used as placebo (PlaVOO) is able to modify some bone turnover and oxidative stress markers. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 60 healthy post-menopausal women together with the bone vitamin K status by measuring undercarboxylated osteocalcine (ucOC) plasma levels, the ratio between ucOC and carboxylated osteocalcine (UCR) and the relations with oxidative stress markers. After 1 year (T 1), subjects taking VitVOO showed lower ucOC levels than those taking PlaVOO; the same trend was found for UCR. As far as BMD is concerned, a significant increase in T-score at T 1 in VitVOO subjects compared to PlaVOO was found. All oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes showed a significant reduction after VitVOO supplementation, whilst plasma total antioxidant capacity values was significantly increased in VitVOO group compared to PlaVOO group at T 1. It might be suggested that the use of VitVOO in the diet of post-menopausal women could represent a proper tool for bone protection and a useful strategy against oxidative stress and related diseases, thus confirming the antioxidant role played by the added vitamins.

  9. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunjoo; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association.

  10. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  11. Exercise frequency and bone mineral density development in exercising postmenopausal osteopenic women. Is there a critical dose of exercise for affecting bone? Results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Due to older people's low sports participation rates, exercise frequency may be the most critical component for designing exercise protocols that address bone. The aims of the present article were to determine the independent effect of exercise frequency (ExFreq) and its corresponding changes on bone mineral density (BMD) and to identify the minimum effective dose that just relevantly affects bone. Based on the 16-year follow-up of the intense, consistently supervised Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention-Study, ExFreq was retrospectively determined in the exercise-group of 55 initially early-postmenopausal females with osteopenia. Linear mixed-effect regression analysis was conducted to determine the independent effect of ExFreq on BMD changes at lumbar spine and total hip. Minimum effective dose of ExFreq based on BMD changes less than the 90% quantile of the sedentary control-group (n=43). Cut-offs were determined after 4, 8, 12 and 16years using bootstrap with 5000 replications. After 16years, average ExFreq ranged between 1.02 and 2.96sessions/week (2.28±0.40sessions/week). ExFreq has an independent effect on LS-BMD (p<.001) and hip-BMD (p=.005) changes. Bootstrap analysis detected a minimum effective dose at about 2sessions/week/16years (cut-off LS-BMD: 2.11, 95% CI: 2.06-2.12; total hip-BMD: 2.22, 95% CI: 2.00-2.78sessions/week/16years). In summary, the minimum effective dose of exercise frequency that relevantly addresses BMD is quite high, at least compared with the low sport participation rate of older adults. This result might not be generalizable across all exercise types, protocols and cohorts, but it does indicate at least that even when applying high impact/high intensity programs, exercise frequency and its maintenance play a key role in bone adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does Discontinuing Teriparatide Treatment and Replacing It with Bisphosphonate Maintain the Volume of the Bone Fusion Mass after Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion in Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to determine whether discontinuing teriparatide treatment and replacing it with bisphosphonate treatment maintains the volume of the fusion mass after posterolateral fusion (PLF) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical data support the efficacy of parathyroid hormone (PTH) for lumbar PLF. However, the use of PTH is limited to 2 years. We treated 19 women diagnosed with osteoporosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis with teriparatide (20 µg daily subcutaneously). All patients underwent one-level instrumented PLF. Teriparatide was used during 2 months prior to surgery and more than 8 months after surgery. After discontinuing teriparatide treatment, all patients used bisphosphonate (17.5 mg risedronate weekly, oral administration). Area of the fusion mass across the transverse processes at one segment was determined on an anteroposterior radiograph at 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery. We followed 19 patients for 3 years. The average duration of teriparatide treatment was 11.5 months. The bone union rate was 95%. The average area of the bone fusion mass was not significantly different between the right and left sides at 1, 2, or 3 years after surgery ( p >0.05). This study showed that replacing teriparatide treatment with bisphosphonate maintained the bone fusion mass volume after PLF in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. The effect of circulating nitric oxide level on axial bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women with rheumatoid arthritis: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gunsah; Guler, Hayal; Sezgin, Melek; Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Polat, Gurbuz

    2006-07-01

    The aim is to investigate the differences in the circulating nitric oxide (NO) levels of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, healthy controls and osteoporotic (OP) patients. We also examined whether the circulating NO levels may be correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) in RA patients. Forty-five patients with RA, 30 healthy women and 30 osteoporotic patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic. All the subjects were female and postmenopausal. Serum NO levels were measured (Nitrite/Nitrate, calorimetric method 1746081, Roche diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) and BMD was measured at the spine and hip using dual energy X-Ray absorbtiometry (DEXA, Norland XR-46). Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated. Circulating NO levels were significantly higher in RA patients than other groups. Moreover, the RA group showed significantly higher BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions compared to osteoporotic patients. However, the RA group showed significantly lower BMD at all sites than the controls. There was no correlation between circulating NO levels and BMD in all groups. We suggest that, unlike postmenopausal osteoporosis, inflammation induced osteoporosis is associated with RA is characterised by relatively preserved bone mass at the axial bone regions, and circulating NO levels as a parameter or determinant of inflammation are not correlated with axial BMD in RA patients.

  14. Dietary Inflammatory Index, Bone Mineral Density, and Risk of Fracture in Postmenopausal Women: Results From the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Tonya; Yildiz, Vedat; Steck, Susan E; Hébert, James R; Ma, Yunsheng; Cauley, Jane A; Li, Wenjun; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Johnson, Karen C; Sattari, Maryam; LeBoff, Meryl; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that bone loss and fracture risk are associated with higher inflammatory milieu, potentially modifiable by diet. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the association of the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a measure of the inflammatory potential of diet, with risk of hip, lower-arm, and total fracture using longitudinal data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials. Secondarily, we evaluated changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and DII scores. DII scores were calculated from baseline food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) completed by 160,191 participants (mean age 63 years) without history of hip fracture at enrollment. Year 3 FFQs were used to calculate a DII change score. Fractures were reported at least annually; hip fractures were confirmed by medical records. Hazard ratios for fractures were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, further stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Pairwise comparisons of changes in hip BMD, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from baseline, year 3, and year 6 were analyzed by quartile (Q1 = least inflammatory diet) of baseline DII scores in a subgroup of women (n = 10,290). Mean DII score improved significantly over 3 years (p < 0.01), but change was not associated with fracture risk. Baseline DII score was only associated with hip fracture risk in younger white women (HR Q4,1.48; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.01; p = 0.01). There were no significant associations among white women older than 63 years or other races/ethnicities. Women with the least inflammatory DII scores had less loss of hip BMD (p = 0.01) by year 6, despite lower baseline hip BMD, versus women with the most inflammatory DII scores. In conclusion, a less inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with less BMD loss in postmenopausal women. A more inflammatory diet was associated with increased hip fracture risk only in white women younger than 63 years. PMID

  15. Supplementation with bio-calcium from shells Pinctada maxima in postmenopausal women with decreased mineral bone density--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vujasinović-Stupar, Nada; Novković, Snezana; Jezdić, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of osteoporosis, in addition to a specific antiresorptive or anabolic treatment, requires supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Widespread cultivation of pearl shells has made pearls available for commercial use for a very reasonable price. The main chemical compound of pearls from shells Pinctada maxima is calcium-carbonate (CaCO3). Recently developed technologies applied in a micronisation process have provided increased gastrointestinal resorption of calcium, estimated at over 90% of calcium intake. The paper is aimed at monitoring of efficacy and tolerance of six-month bio-calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women with reduced bone mineral density. Group 1 (30 patients) received, three times a day, capsules of pearl powder from shells Pinctada maxima (it is equal to 260 mg of elementary calcium); group II (20 patients) received a daily dose of 500 mg inorganic CaCO3. Both groups received 666 IU of cholecalciferol per day. In all patients, bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine or hip, serum blood and urine levels of Ca, phosphates and alkaline phosphatase, were measured before and after six months of the treatment. Group I/Group II: average age 61.7/61.7 years; beginning of menopause: 48.32 /48 years; menopause duration 13.4/13.7 years; average body mass index 27.2/27 kg/m2. These two groups did not different significantly before supplementation. Six-month supplementation with CaCO3 of the biological origin led to the increase of BMD from 0.901 g/cm2 to 0.948 g/cm2 (p = 0.067), while BMD remained the same in the group supplemented with inorganic CaCO3 Gastrointestinal tolerability of bio-calcium was excellent, without any adverse events. These data could not strongly support the hypothesis of better efficacy of bio-calcium taking into account a small number of patients and a short follow-up period in this pilot study. Tolerance of CaCO3 of the biological origin was excellent and free of any adverse events. The results of laboratory values

  16. Association of the g.19074G>A genetic variant in the osteoprotegerin gene with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y D; Zhang, Z; Zhou, N F; Jia, W T; Cheng, X G; Wei, X J

    2014-08-28

    Primary osteoporosis is a common health problem in postmenopausal women. This study aimed to detect the association of the g.19074G>A genetic variant in the osteoprotegerin gene (OPG) with bone mineral density (BMD) and primary osteoporosis. The created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction method was used to investigate the g.19074G>A genetic variant. The BMD of the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L2-4), and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 856 unrelated Chinese postmenopausal women. We found significant differences in the BMDs of the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L2-4), and total hip among different genotypes; individuals with the GG genotype had significantly higher BMDs than those with the GA and AA genotypes (P < 0.05). Our results indicated that the A allele was an increased risk factor for primary osteoporosis and the g.19074G>A genetic variant of the OPG gene was associated with BMD and primary osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  17. Effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Tina; Faghihimani, Elham; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Fallah, Aziz A; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-02-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) are common in type 2 diabetic patients and cause several complications particularly, in postmenopausal women due to their senile and physiological conditions. This study aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group clinical trial, 59 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received fortified yogurt (FY; 2000 IU vitamin D in 100 g/day) or plain yogurt (PY) for 12 weeks. Glycemic markers, anthropometric indexes, inflammatory, and bone turnover markers were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. After intervention, in FY group (vs PY group), were observed: significant increase in serum 25(OH)D and decrease of PTH (stable values in PY); significant improvement in serum fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, QUICKI, and no changes in serum fasting glucose and HbA1c (significant worsening of all indexes in PY); significant improvement in WC, WHR, FM, and no change in weight and BMI (stable values in PY); significant increase of omentin (stable in PY) and decrease of sNTX (significant increase in PY). Final values of glycemic markers (except HbA1c), omentin, and bone turnover markers significantly improved in FY group compared to PY group. Regarding final values of serum 25(OH)D in FY group, subjects were classified in insufficient and sufficient categories. Glycemic status improved more significantly in the insufficient rather than sufficient category; whereas the other parameters had more amelioration in the sufficient category. Daily consumption of 2000 IU vitamin D-fortified yogurt for 12 weeks improved glycemic markers (except HbA1c), anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. www.irct.ir (IRCT2013110515294N1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European

  18. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Joseph J; Holick, Michael F; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome poses additional risk for postmenopausal women who are already at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesized that a nutritional supplement containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and essential bone nutrients would produce a favorable bone biomarker profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. In this 14-week, randomized trial, 51 women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in aerobic exercise. Those in the intervention arm (n = 25) additionally received 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D₃, and 500 μg vitamin K₁ twice daily. Forty-five women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. Compared with baseline, the intervention arm exhibited an approximate 25% mean decrease (P < .001) in serum osteocalcin (indicative of bone turnover), whereas the placebo arm exhibited a 21% increase (P = .003). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased 23% (P = .001) in the intervention arm and decreased 12% (P = .03) in the placebo arm. The between-arm differences for osteocalcin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were statistically significant. Serum insulin-like growth factor I was statistically increased in both arms, but the between-arm differences were not statistically significant. Subanalysis showed that among those in the highest tertile of baseline insulin-like growth factor I, the intervention arm exhibited a significant increase in amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, whereas the placebo arm showed a significant decrease at 14 weeks. Treatment with rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. OPG, RANKL, and RANK gene polymorphisms and the bone mineral density response to alendronate therapy in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Wang, Chun; He, Jin-Wei; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the association between OPG, RANKL, and RANK gene variations and the bone mineral density (BMD) response to alendronate therapy in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. In the present study, 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPG, RANKL, and RANK genes were genotyped in 501 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia who were given alendronate (70 mg weekly) orally for 1 year. The BMD at the lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-L4), femoral neck, and total hip was measured. A total of 442 patients completed 1 year of alendronate therapy. The rs7239261 SNP of the RANK gene was significantly associated with baseline L1-L4 BMD (P=0.0004) after correction for age and BMI. Participants with the SNP A allele (C/A and A/A) had a higher BMD than those with the C/C genotype (C/A vs. C/C, P=0.001; A/A vs. C/C, P=0.025). Haplotypes AG of rs7239261-rs12969154, GG of rs3826619-rs11877530, and CACG of rs1805034-rs8083511-rs17069895-rs7231887 in the RANK gene were genetic protective factors toward a higher baseline L1-L4 BMD. No association was observed between any SNP or haplotype of the OPG, RANKL, and RANK genes and the response of BMD to alendronate therapy. The RANK gene might contribute to genetic variability in L1-L4 BMD in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. No evidence of an association between any SNP or haplotype of the OPG, RANKL, and RANK genes and the response of BMD to alendronate therapy was found in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

  20. Laxative use and incident falls, fractures and change in bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laxatives are among the most widely used over-the-counter medications in the United States but studies examining their potential hazardous side effects are sparse. Associations between laxative use and risk for fractures and change in bone mineral density [BMD] have not previously been investigated. Methods This prospective analysis included 161,808 postmenopausal women (8907 users and 151,497 nonusers of laxatives) enrolled in the WHI Observational Study and Clinical Trials. Women were recruited from October 1, 1993, to December 31, 1998, at 40 clinical centers in the United States and were eligible if they were 50 to 79 years old and were postmenopausal at the time of enrollment. Medication inventories were obtained during in-person interviews at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up visit on everyone. Data on self-reported falls (≥2), fractures (hip and total fractures) were used. BMD was determined at baseline and year 3 at 3 of the 40 clinical centers of the WHI. Results Age-adjusted rates of hip fractures and total fractures, but not for falls were similar between laxative users and non-users regardless of duration of laxative use. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for any laxative use were 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.10) for falls, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.85-1.22) for hip fractures and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96-1.07) for total fractures. The BMD levels did not statistically differ between laxative users and nonusers at any skeletal site after 3-years intake. Conclusion These findings support a modest association between laxative use and increase in the risk of falls but not for fractures. Its use did not decrease bone mineral density levels in postmenopausal women. Maintaining physical functioning, and providing adequate treatment of comorbidities that predispose individuals for falls should be considered as first measures to avoid potential negative consequences associated with laxative use. PMID:23635086

  1. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism (TaqI and Apa1) with bone mineral density in North Indian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Israr; Jafar, Tabrez; Mahdi, Farzana; Ameta, Keerti; Arshad, Md; Das, Siddharth Kumar; Waliullah, Shah; Rizvi, Imran; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2018-06-15

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has an important role as a candidate gene for the regulation of bone mass in osteoporosis. However, its association with bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial and has not been established in different ethnic populations. To enhance the understanding of VDR gene polymorphism in the context of BMD, we investigated the plausible genetic association of TaqI and ApaI polymorphism with BMD in North Indian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.254 osteoporotic women (Age 55.82 ± 6.91) and 254 postmenopausal non osteoporotic women (Age 54.76 ± 6.26) were included in the study. VDR TaqI and ApaI polymorphism were determined by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). BMD was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine (L 1 -L 4 ), hip, forearm and femoral neck. The average BMD with TT genotype was significantly lower at lumbar spine, hip and forearm. The Frequency of TT genotype and t allele was significantly high in osteoporotic women when compared with controls. The average BMD with Aa genotype was higher in ApaI. Furthermore, comparison of frequency distribution of genotype and allele for VDR ApaI between osteoporotic patients and controls did not show any significant difference. Our findings revealed that TaqI gene TT genotype was associated with low BMD in North Indian osteoporotic women. Moreover, TT genotype and t allele associated significantly with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Therefore, VDR TaqI gene is an important determinant of risk factor for osteoporosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. UGT2B17 gene deletion associated with an increase in bone mineral density similar to the effect of hormone replacement in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Giroux, S; Bussières, J; Bureau, A; Rousseau, F

    2012-03-01

    UGT2B17 is one of the most important enzymes for androgen metabolism. In addition, the UGT2B17 gene is one of the most commonly deleted regions of the human genome. The deletion was previously found associated with higher femoral bone density in men and women, and we replicated this association in a sample of postmenopausal who never used hormone therapy. Deletion of the UGT2B17 gene was previously shown to be associated with a higher hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using a PCR assay, we tried to replicate the association among a large group of 2,379 women. We examined the effect of the deletion on femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD according to the menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We used a high-throughput PCR assay to identify the gene and the deletion in a population of well-characterized women. Two additional polymorphisms, UGT2B28 deletion and UGT2B15 rs1902023 G > T were also investigated. Only UGT2B17 deletion was associated with LS and FN BMD. Furthermore, the association was seen only among postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement as in the first reported association. We confirmed the association between UGT2B17 deletion and a higher LS and FN BMD. In addition, we show that the association is observed among postmenopausal women who never used HRT consistent with the enzymatic function of UGT2B17. The analysis shows that those having one or two UGT2B17 alleles benefit from HRT, which is not the case for null carriers.

  3. Early development and osteoporosis and bone health.

    PubMed

    Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Cole, Z A

    2010-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Evidence is now accumulating from human studies that programming of bone growth might be an important contributor to the later risk of osteoporotic fracture. Body weight in infancy is a determinant of adult bone mineral content, as well as of the basal levels of activity of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, and recent work has suggested a central role for vitamin D. Epidemiological studies have shown that maternal smoking and nutrition during pregnancy influence intrauterine skeletal mineralization. Childhood growth rates have been directly linked to the risk of hip fracture many decades later, and now evidence is emerging from experimental animal studies that support these observational data. Recent studies have also highlighted epigenetic phenomena as potential mechanisms underlying the findings from epidemiological studies.

  4. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups.

  5. Energy balance, early life body size, and plasma prolactin levels in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefen; Hankinson, Susan E.; Clevenger, Charles V.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationships of prolactin with birth weight; childhood, adolescent and adult body size measures; adult physical activity and inactivity; and alcohol consumption among 1,423 postmenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study. Methods Information on exposures was collected on biennial questionnaires beginning in 1976. Blood was collected from 32,826 participants in 1990; prolactin was measured in a subset of women who were controls for a nested breast cancer case-control study. Generalized linear models were adjusted for assay batch, medication use at blood draw, and other potential predictors of prolactin. Results No associations were observed for adult factors (p-trend≥0.17), body mass index at age 18, birth weight, or height (p-trend≥0.27). There was an inverse association between body size at ages 5 (p-trend=0.03) and 10 (p-trend=0.05) and prolactin, with levels 9% lower among women with the heaviest versus leanest average childhood body size. This association was more pronounced among women with a birth weight <7 pounds (p-trend=0.004; p-interaction between birth weight and childhood body size=0.01). Conclusions Our results suggest that few adult lifestyle risk factors are associated with prolactin levels in postmenopausal women; however, childhood body size may be a predictor of levels later in life. PMID:18853263

  6. Common allelic variants of the vitamin receptor D gene rs7975232 (ApaI) do not influence bone mineral density figures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Moran, Jose M; Vera, Vicente; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Aliaga, Ignacio; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and the rs7975232 (ApaI) polymorphism of the vitamin receptor D (VDR) gene. The polymorphism was detected using the real-time PCR TaqMan method. The rs7975232 genotype was determined in 274 postmenopausal osteoporotic Spanish women who were 60.53±8.02 years old. The observed genotype frequencies were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (χ(2)=1.85, P=0.1736). There were no significant differences in the rs7975232 genotype groups in our total sample of osteoporotic women regarding age, years since menopause, height, weight, and BMD at femoral neck, femoral trochanter and lumbar spine. Significant differences were found in menarche age (aa vs Aa; P=0.008) and BMI (aa vs AA; P=0.029). We conclude that the VDR gene rs7975232 polymorphism is not related to figures of bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic Spanish women.

  7. Effects of whole body vibration exercises on bone mineral density of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis without medications: novel findings and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Dionello, C.F.; Sá-Caputo, D.; Pereira, H.V.F.S.; Sousa-Gonçalves, C.R.; Maiworm, A.I.; Morel, D.S.; Moreira-Marconi, E.; Paineiras-Domingos, L.L.; Bemben, D.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the literature about the effect of whole body vibration exercise in the BMD in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis without medications. Methods: A systematic review was performed. Results: The frequency of the mechanical vibration used in the protocols has varied from 12 to 90 Hz. The time used in the protocols varied from 2 up to 22 months. Techniques with X-rays were used in nine of the twelve publications analyzed, the Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in eight studies and the High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in one publication. The concentration of some biomarkers was determined, as the sclerostin, the bone alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide X and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Among the twelve articles analyzed, seven of them have shown an improvement of the BMD of some bone of postmenopausal women exposed to whole body vibration exercises not associated to medications; as well as modifications in biomarkers. PMID:27609034

  8. Increase of bone resorption and the parathyroid hormone in postmenopausal women in the long-term after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Valderas, Juan P; Velasco, Soledad; Solari, Sandra; Liberona, Yessica; Viviani, Paola; Maiz, Alberto; Escalona, Alex; González, Gilberto

    2009-08-01

    The effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) on bone in the long-term remains unclear. We assessed bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) 1 to 5 years after RYGB. We designed a retrospective cohort study in 26 postmenopausal women (58.0+/-3.9 years old) with RYGB 3.5+/-1.1 years before (body mass index (BMI) 29.5+/-3.8 kg/m2, presurgery 43.6+/-5.5 kg/m2) and 26 nonoperated women (57.5+/-4.7 years old, BMI 29.2+/-4.1 kg/m2) matched by age and BMI. The main measures were BMD, serum carboxy telopeptide (CTx), total alkaline phosphatases (ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and ghrelin. RYGB group, compared to nonoperated women, had higher CTx (0.71+/-0.21 vs. 0.43+/-0.15 ng/ml; P<0.01) and PTH (68.3+/-35 vs. 49.4+/-16 pg/ml; P=0.02). There were no differences between RYGB and nonoperated women in: calcium and vitamin D intake (759+/-457 vs. 705+/-460 mg/day; 176+/-160 vs. 111+/-86 UI/day), ghrelin (763+/-336 vs. 621+/-274 pg/ml), ALP (101+/-22 vs. 94+/-25 UI/l), 25OHD (18.8+/-7.6 vs. 17.4 +/- 5.9 ng/ml), lumbar spine BMD (1.059+/-0.32 vs. 1.071+/-0.207 g/cm2), or femoral neck BMD (0.892+/-0.109 vs. 0.934+/-1.1 g/cm2). RYGB is associated to high bone resorption and hyperparathyroidism prevalence in postmenopausal women in the long-term. This occurs independently of the intake of calcium, vitamin D status, or ghrelin and does not seem to affect BMD after RYGB.

  9. Long-term effect of exercise on bone mineral density and body composition in post-menopausal ex-elite athletes: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, A; Celi, M; Volpe, S L; Sorge, R; Tarantino, U

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the long-term effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and body composition (BC) in post-menopausal women who were elite athletes during their youth compared with sedentary controls. It is a retrospective study and carried out in an outpatient clinic. A total of 48 post-menopausal women (54-73 years of age) were enrolled. Ex-elite athletes with long-term (>20 years) histories of significant training and performance were divided into two groups: weight-bearing sports (runners, n=12) and non-weight-bearing sports (swimmers, n=12). The athletes were age matched with sedentary controls (n=24). BMD, BMC and BC were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Healthcare and sport activity histories were evaluated using a questionnaire. No significant differences were found with regard to body weight, height, body mass index and hours of activity between the two groups of athletes. There were no significant differences in activity levels between athletes and controls at the time of this study. BMD and BMC were not significantly different between athletes; they were significantly higher in athletes than in controls (P<0.001). Although the ex-athletes did not significantly differ in BC, left and right lean arm mass and arm BMD were significantly higher in swimmers than in runners (P<0.0001). The high level of physical activity observed in female athletes is associated with improved muscle mass, BMD and BMC, and physical activity during youth seems to have a beneficial effect on bone mass and helps to prevent bone loss due to aging.

  10. Effects of low-dose ibuprofen supplementation and resistance training on bone and muscle in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Duff, Whitney R D; Kontulainen, Saija A; Candow, Darren G; Gordon, Julianne J; Mason, Riley S; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Nair, Bindu; Szafron, Michael; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Zello, Gordon A; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effects of nine months of exercise training and ibuprofen supplementation (given immeditately after exercise sessions) on bone and muscle in postmenopausal women. In a double-blind randomized trial, participants (females: n = 90, mean age 64.8, SD 4.3 years) were assigned (computer generated, double blind) to receive supervised resistance training or stretching 3 days/week, and ibuprofen (400 mg, post-exercise) or placebo (i.e. 4 groups) for 9 months. In this proof-of-concept study the sample size was halved from required 200 identified via 90% power calculation. Baseline and post-intervention testing included: Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total body areal bone mineral density (aBMD); geometry of proximal femur; total body lean tissue and fat mass; predicted 1-repetition maximum muscle strength testing (1RM; biceps curl, hack squat). Exercise training or ibuprofen supplementation had no effects on aBMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total body. There was a significant exercise × supplement × time interaction for aBMD of Ward's region of the femoral neck (p = 0.015) with post hoc comparison showing a 6% decrease for stretching with placebo vs. a 3% increase for stretching with ibuprofen (p = 0.017). Resistance training increased biceps curl and hack squat strength vs. stretching (22% vs. 4% and 114% vs. 12%, respectively) (p < 0.01) and decreased percent body fat compared to stretching (2% vs. 0%) (p < 0.05). Ibuprofen supplementation provided some benefits to bone when taken independent of exercise training in postmenopausal women. This study provides evidence towards a novel, easily accessible stimulus for enhancing bone health [i.e. ibuprofen].

  11. Consumption of onion juice modulates oxidative stress and attenuates the risk of bone disorders in middle-aged and post-menopausal healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Law, Yat-Yin; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Lee, Hui-Hsin; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2016-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic inflammatory condition that is characterized by the loss of bone mineral density (BMD). The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of onion juice intake on the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in corroboration with antioxidant effects in human (in vivo) as well as inhibitory effects on the differentiation of osteoclasts in the cell line (in vitro). For in vitro studies, the RAW 264.7 (osteoclast progenitor) cells were used to examine the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of onion. In the case of in vivo studies, twenty-four subjects were divided into two groups and advised to intake 100 mL of onion juice or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the initial, 2(nd), 6(th), 8(th) and 10(th) week. The result of in vitro studies indicated that onion extract would effectively inhibit the osteoclastogenesis and its differentiation. Significant changes in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), free radicals, total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and various antioxidants were observed in onion administered subjects. The BMD of three postmenopausal women was also found to be mildly improved on supplementation with onion juice. Onion juice consumption showed a positive modulatory effect on the bone loss and BMD by improving antioxidant activities and thus can be recommended for treating various bone-related disorders, especially osteoporosis.

  12. Sexual Desire During the Menopausal Transition and Early Postmenopause: Observations from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan; Smith-Di Julio, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims To describe levels of sexual desire across the menopausal transition (MT) and early postmenopause (PM), including effects of age, MT-related factors, health, stress, symptoms (hot flash, sleep, mood), and social opportunity factors. Methods A subset of Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study (SMWHS) participants who provided data during the early reproductive, early and late menopausal transition stages, or postmenopause (n = 286), including menstrual calendars for staging the MT, annual health reports between 1990 and 2005, and morning urine samples assayed for estrone glucuronide (E1G), testosterone (T), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was included. Multilevel modeling using the R program was used to test factors related to sexual desire. Results Women experienced a significant decrease in sexual desire during the late MT stage (p < 0.01) and early PM (p < 0.0001). Those with higher urinary E1G and T reported significantly higher levels of sexual desire, whereas those with higher FSH levels reported significantly lower sexual desire (p < 0.0001, 0.06, and 0.0002, respectively). Women using hormone therapy also reported higher sexual desire (p = 0.02). Those reporting higher perceived stress reported lower sexual desire (p < 0.0001), but history of sexual abuse did not have a significant effect. Those most troubled by symptoms of hot flashes, fatigue, depressed mood, anxiety, difficulty getting to sleep, early morning awakening, and awakening during the night also reported significantly lower sexual desire (p range from <0.03 to 0.0001), but there was no effect of vaginal dryness. Women with better perceived health reported higher sexual desire (p < 0.0001), and those reporting more exercise and more alcohol intake also reported greater sexual desire (p < 0.0001). Having a partner was associated with lower sexual desire. Conclusions Clinicians working with women traversing the MT should be aware that promoting

  13. Sleep Symptoms During the Menopausal Transition and Early Postmenopause: Observations from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nancy Fugate; Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Describe the severity of getting to sleep, nighttime awakening, and early morning awakening across the menopausal transition (MT) and early postmenopause (PM) and their relationship to age, menopausal transition factors, symptoms, stress-related factors, and health related factors. Design: Cohort Setting: community Participants: 286 women from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study cohort Measurements: Participants completed annual menstrual calendars for MT staging, diaries in which they rated their symptoms, stress levels, and perceived health multiple times per year from 1990-2007 and provided first morning urine samples assayed for E1G, FSH, cortisol, and catecholamines. Multilevel modeling (R program) was used for data analysis. Results: Severity of self-reported problems going to sleep was associated with all symptoms, perceived stress, history of sexual abuse, perceived health (-), alcohol use (-) (all P < 0.001), and lower cortisol (P = 0.009), but not E1G or FSH. Severity of nighttime awakening was significantly associated with age, late MT stage. and early PM, FSH, E1G (-), hot flashes, depressed mood, anxiety, joint pain, backache, perceived stress, history of sexual abuse, perceived health (-), and alcohol use (-) (all P < 0.001, except E1G for which P = 0.030). Severity of early morning awakening was significantly associated with age, hot flashes, depressed mood anxiety, joint pain, backache, perceived stress, history of sexual abuse, perceived health (-) (all P ≤ 0.001, except E1G for which P = 0.02 and epinephrine (P = 0.038), but not MT stages or FSH. Multivariate models for each symptom included hot flashes, depressed mood, and perceived health. Conclusion: Sleep symptoms during the MT may be amenable to symptom management strategies that take into account the symptom clusters and promote women's general health rather than focusing only on the MT. Citation: Woods NF; Mitchell ES. Sleep symptoms during the menopausal transition

  14. Pulsed electromagnetic fields for postmenopausal osteoporosis and concomitant lumbar osteoarthritis in southwest China using proximal femur bone mineral density as the primary endpoint: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Fang; He, Hong-Chen; Yang, Lin; Yang, Zhou-Yuan; Yao, Ke; Wu, Yuan-Chao; Yang, Xi-Biao; He, Cheng-Qi

    2015-06-10

    Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are prevalent skeletal disorders among postmenopausal women. Coexistence is common especially that of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and lumbar OA. An hypothesis has been raised that OP and OA might share the same pathogenic mechanism, and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) were reported to have anti-osteoporosis and anti-osteoarthritis properties, but this suggestion was based primarily on biomarker data. Therefore, whether these two effects could take place simultaneously has not yet been investigated. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to explore the effect of PEMFs for PMO and concomitant lumbar OA. The study will include PMO patients (postmenopausal women; aged between 50 and 70 years; have been postmenopausal for at least 5 years and diagnosed with OP using proximal femur T-score) with concomitant lumbar OA (patients with confounding disorders like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and previous fracture history, etcetera, will be excluded) will be randomly assigned to two arms: PEMFs group and sham PEMFs group. There will be 25 participants in each arm (50 in total) and the outcome assessment, including the primary endpoint (proximal femur bone mineral density), will be performed at 5 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after enrollment. PMO and lumbar OA are prominent public health problem, especially for postmenopausal women. We hope this RCT will provide scientific evidence to primary care of the postmenopausal women regarding the use of these nonpharmaceutical, noninvasive modalities, PEMFs, in managing PMO and lumbar OA. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-14005156 (28 August 2014).

  15. Zoledronic acid increases bone mineral density and improves health-related quality of life over two years of treatment in Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shushu; Lin, Hua; Zhu, Xiufen; Chen, Xin; Fan, Lu; Liu, Changchang

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by decreased bone mass and weakened bones, with an increased risk of fractures. Osteoporotic fracture, the most serious complication of osteoporosis, is related not only to lower bone mineral density (BMD), but also falls. Osteoporosis and fractures are associated with a decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL). Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is an intravenous once-yearly bisphosphonate that has been shown to be effective and safe in improving BMD and reducing fracture risk in controlled clinical trials. In this self-controlled, prospective trial, 220 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age 67 years) received a single infusion of ZOL 5 mg at baseline and month 12. BMD, HRQL and Fall Index (FI) were measured at baseline, and months 12 and 24 (before each use of ZOL). The main outcome measures were the changes in lumbar spine and hip BMD and the changes in HRQL, the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). Additional comparisons were based on the FI. LSD multiple comparisons were used in the comparisons of BMD, SF-36 domain scores and FI. The patients had significantly higher L1-4, total hip, femoral neck and trochanter BMD (P < 0.05) with improved HRQL (P < 0.05) over two years of treatment of once-yearly ZOL 5mg. FI was reduced (P < 0.05) with oral daily elemental calcium and vitamin D in the treatment course. ZOL improves BMD and HRQL, especially in the physical aspects, over two years of treatment in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and can help improve balance ability.

  16. Feasibility of a clinical trial to assess the effect of dietary calcium v. supplemental calcium on vascular and bone markers in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Haddad, Rouba; Gorgui, Jessica; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne N

    2016-07-01

    Whether supplemental Ca has similar effects to dietary Ca on vascular and bone markers is unknown. The present trial investigated the feasibility of applying dietary and supplemental interventions in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) aiming to estimate the effect of supplemental Ca as compared with dietary Ca on vascular and bone markers in postmenopausal women. In total, thirteen participants were randomised to a Ca supplement group (CaSuppl) (750 mg Ca from CaCO3+450 mg Ca from food+20 µg vitamin D supplement) or a Ca diet group (CaDiet) (1200 mg Ca from food+10 µg vitamin D supplement). Participants were instructed on Ca consumption targets at baseline. Monthly telephone follow-ups were conducted to assess adherence to interventions (±20 % of target total Ca) using the multiple-pass 24-h recall method and reported pill count. Measurements of arterial stiffness, peripheral blood pressure and body composition were performed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months in all participants who completed the trial (n 9). Blood and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and at 12 months. Both groups were compliant to trial interventions (±20 % of target total Ca intake; pill count ≥80 %). CaSuppl participants maintained a significantly lower average dietary Ca intake compared with CaDiet participants throughout the trial (453 (sd 187) mg/d v. 1241 (sd 319) mg/d; P<0·001). There were no significant differences in selected vascular outcomes between intervention groups over time. Our pilot trial demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a large-scale RCT to estimate the differential effects of supplemental and dietary Ca on vascular and bone health markers in healthy postmenopausal women.

  17. Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Hartl, F; Tyndall, A; Kraenzlin, M; Bachmeier, C; Gückel, C; Senn, U; Hans, D; Theiler, R

    2002-02-01

    The discriminatory potential to classify subjects with or without vertebral fractures was tested cross-sectionally with different methods for the measurement of bone status in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement at the calcaneus (Lunar Achilles, Hologic Sahara), the proximal phalanges (Igea Bone Profiler), and measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar Expert) at several anatomic sites was performed in 500 postmenopausal women (aged 65-75 years) randomly selected from the population. In addition, 50 young female subjects (20-40 years old) had QUS measurements and served as controls to express QUS results as T-score values. Radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine were performed in the elderly women. Two independent radiologists reviewed the X-rays for the presence of vertebral fractures. Of 486 eligible study participants, no fracture was seen in 396 participants. Single vertebral fractures were observed in 71 subjects; 19 individuals presented multiple fractures. The overall prevalence of vertebral fractures was 18.5%. Participants without vertebral fractures were compared with subjects with vertebral fractures. Normal statistical distributions were found for all bone measurement results. Risk of vertebral fracture in subjects with no and multiple vertebral fracture was estimated using age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for QUS and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) values. Each SD decrease in bone measurement increased the risk of multiple vertebral fracture by 3.0 (95% CI, 1.6-5.6) for the Achilles stiffness, by 3.8 (95% CI, 1.8-8.2) for the Sahara QUI, 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.4) for the Bone Profiler amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SOS), and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2-3.9) and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.3-4.3) for DXA lumbar spine and for DXA total hip, respectively. Results of a discriminant analysis showed sensitivities between 84% and 58% and specificities between 72

  18. Early mechanical stimulation only permits timely bone healing in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tufekci, Pelin; Tavakoli, Aramesh; Dlaska, Constantin; Neumann, Mirjam; Shanker, Mihir; Saifzadeh, Siamak; Steck, Roland; Schuetz, Michael; Epari, Devakar

    2018-06-01

    Bone fracture healing is sensitive to the fixation stability. However, it is unclear which phases of healing are mechano-sensitive and if mechanical stimulation is required throughout repair. In this study, a novel bone defect model, which isolates an experimental fracture from functional loading, was applied in sheep to investigate if stimulation limited to the early proliferative phase is sufficient for bone healing. An active fixator controlled motion in the fracture. Animals of the control group were unstimulated. In the physiological-like group, 1 mm axial compressive movements were applied between day 5 and 21, thereafter the movements were decreased in weekly increments and stopped after 6 weeks. In the early stimulatory group, the movements were stopped after 3 weeks. The experimental fractures were evaluated with mechanical and micro-computed tomography methods after 9 weeks healing. The callus strength of the stimulated fractures (physiological-like and early stimulatory) was greater than the unstimulated control group. The control group was characterized by minimal external callus formation and a lack of bone bridging at 9 weeks. In contrast, the stimulated groups exhibited advanced healing with solid bone formation across the defect. This was confirmed quantitatively by a lower bone volume in the control group compared to the stimulated groups.The novel experimental model permits the application of a well-defined load history to an experimental bone fracture. The poor healing observed in the control group is consistent with under-stimulation. This study has shown early mechanical stimulation only is sufficient for a timely healing outcome. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:1790-1796, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Pilot Genome-Wide Association Study in Postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo Women Implicates the RMND1/CCDC170 Locus Is Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Estrada, Karol; Parra-Torres, Alma Y.; González-Mercado, Anahí; Patiño, Nelly; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Fernandez-López, Juan Carlos; Ibarra, Bertha; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Salmerón, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic variants influencing bone mineral density (BMD) in the Mexican-Mestizo population, we performed a GWAS for femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women. In the discovery sample, 300,000 SNPs were genotyped in a cohort of 411 postmenopausal women and seven SNPs were analyzed in the replication cohort (n = 420). The combined results of a meta-analysis from the discovery and replication samples identified two loci, RMND1 (rs6904364, P = 2.77 × 10−4) and CCDC170 (rs17081341, P = 1.62 × 10−5), associated with FN BMD. We also compared our results with those of the Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis (GEFOS) Consortium meta-analysis. The comparison revealed two loci previously reported in the GEFOS meta-analysis: SOX6 (rs7128738) and PKDCC (rs11887431) associated with FN and LS BMD, respectively, in our study population. Interestingly, rs17081341 rare in Caucasians (minor allele frequency < 0.03) was found in high frequency in our population, which suggests that this association could be specific to non-Caucasian populations. In conclusion, the first pilot Mexican GWA study of BMD confirmed previously identified loci and also demonstrated the importance of studying variability in diverse populations and/or specific populations. PMID:28840121

  20. Association of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms with bone mineral density variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Bertha; Vilchis, Felipe; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Canto, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we investigated potential associations between polymorphisms of genes related to estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study, in which two hundred and ninety postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women were studied. The BMD of the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) was measured. The distribution of the genetic polymorphisms, including rs1799814 and rs1048943 at CYP1A1 as well as rs1056836 at CYP1B1, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP), and DNA sequencing. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were tested, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) was calculated by direct correlation (r 2 ). Moreover, haplotype analysis was performed. All polymorphisms were in HWE. The genotype and allele distributions of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied showed no significant differences. However, statistical significance was reached when constructing haplotypes. The CG haplotype in CYP1A1 was associated with variations in LS and FN BMD after adjustment for covariates (p = 0.021 and 0.045, respectively), but the association with TH BMD was not significant. These results suggested that the CG haplotype in CYP1A1 may play an important role in the mechanism of osteoporosis and may be useful as a genetic marker.

  1. Relationship between equol producer status and metabolic parameters in 743 Japanese women: equol producer status is associated with antiatherosclerotic conditions in women around menopause and early postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Yoshikata, Remi; Myint, Khin Z; Ohta, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    Equol, an active metabolite possessing estrogen-like activity, is produced by the action of intestinal flora on soy isoflavones. There is an increasing evidence regarding its efficacy in the relief of menopausal symptoms, suppression of decreased bone mineral density, and lipid profile improvement. Only those with equol-producing capacity, however, seem to benefit. Thus, we examined the relationship between equol producer status and parameters associated with lifestyle-related diseases in women from their 20s to 80s. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 743 women (21-89 y; average age: 52.5 ± 11.8 y) who have undergone health screening at Tokyo Midtown Medical Center and given consent to participate in the study. The relationship between equol producer status and metabolic parameters was assessed. In our study, 236 women (32%) were equol producers. Equol producers had significantly lower triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with nonproducers. Equol-producing women in their 50s showed significantly lower body fat level, visceral fat area, triglyceride levels, pulse wave velocity, uric acid levels, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. In addition, women in their 60s showed significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In multivariate logistic regression, for women in their 50s, equol production was significantly associated with lower arterial stiffness and uric acid levels, and a high ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid, whereas it was significantly associated with lower urinary N-telopeptides in their 60s. Equol producer status was associated with favorable metabolic parameters, in women in the early phase postmenopause, with the transitional periods noted with declining intrinsic estrogen levels.

  2. Association of larger holes in the trabecular bone at the distal radius in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Janet M; Giangregorio, Lora M; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Beattie, Karen A; Inglis, Dean; Ioannidis, George; Punthakee, Zubin; Adachi, J D; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have an elevated fracture risk despite normal areal bone mineral density (aBMD). The study objective was to compare trabecular bone microarchitecture of postmenopausal women with type 2 DM and women without type 2 DM. An extremity 1T magnetic resonance imaging system was used to acquire axial images (195 × 195 × 1,000 μm(3) voxel size) of the distal radius of women recruited from outpatient clinics or by community advertisement. Image segmentation yielded geometric, topologic, and stereologic outcomes, i.e., number and size of trabecular bone network holes (marrow spaces), endosteal area, trabecular bone volume fraction, nodal and branch density, and apparent trabecular thickness, separation, and number. Lumbar spine (LS) and proximal femur BMD were measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry. Microarchitectural differences were assessed using linear regression and adjusted for percent body fat, ethnicity, timed up-and-go test, Charlson Index, and calcium and vitamin D intake; aBMD differences were adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Women with type 2 DM (n = 30, mean ± SD age 71.0 ± 4.8 years) had larger holes (+13.3%; P = 0.001) within the trabecular bone network than women without type 2 DM (n = 30, mean ± SD age 70.7 ± 4.9 years). LS aBMD was greater in women with type 2 DM; however, after adjustment for BMI, LS aBMD did not differ between groups. In women with type 2 DM, the average hole size within the trabecular bone network at the distal radius is greater compared to controls. This may explain the elevated fracture risk in this population. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Consumption of vitamin D-and calcium-fortified soft white cheese lowers the biochemical marker of bone resorption TRAP 5b in postmenopausal women at moderate risk of osteoporosis fracture.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Benoit, Valérie; Rousseau, Brigitte; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2012-04-01

    The prevention of increased bone remodeling in postmenopausal women at low 10-y risk of osteoporotic fractures essentially relies on reinforcement of environmental factors known to positively influence bone health, among which nutrition plays an important role. In institutionalized women in their mid-eighties, we previously found that consumption of fortified soft plain cheese increased vitamin D, calcium, and protein intakes, reduced bone resorption biochemical markers, particularly the serum bone specific acid phosphatase tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, isoform 5b (TRAP 5b) that reflects osteoclast activity, and stimulated the serum bone anabolic factor insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Whether these effects occur in much younger women was tested in a prospective control study. Seventy-one healthy postmenopausal women aged 56.6 ± 3.9 y (mean ± SD) with low spontaneous supply of both Ca and vitamin D were randomized to consume daily (treated, n = 36) or not (controls, n = 35) two servings (2 × 100 g) of skimmed-milk, soft plain cheese for 6 wk. The vitamin D and Ca-fortified dairy product provided daily: 661 kJ, 2.5 μg vitamin D, 400 mg calcium, and 13.8 g protein. At the end of the intervention, the decrease in TRAP 5b and the increase in IGF-I were greater in the treated than in the control group (P < 0.02). The changes in serum carboxy terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen did not differ significantly between the two groups. In conclusion, like in elderly women, consumption by healthy postmenopausal women of a vitamin D and calcium-fortified dairy product that also increases the protein intake, reduces the serum concentration of the bone resorption biomarker TRAP 5b. This response, combined with the increase in serum IGF-I, is compatible with a nutrition-induced reduction in postmenopausal bone loss rate.

  4. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP17 and COMT Genes--relation to bone mass and longitudinal bone changes in postmenopausal women with or without hormone replacement therapy. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Tofteng, C L; Abrahamsen, B; Jensen, J E B; Petersen, S; Teilmann, J; Kindmark, A; Vestergaard, P; Gram, J; Langdahl, B L; Mosekilde, L

    2004-08-01

    Sex steroids are important physiologic regulators of bone mass, and genes regulating sex steroid production and metabolism are obvious as candidate genes for osteoporosis susceptibility. We present data from a study of 1795 recent postmenopausal women, assigned to either hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or no treatment and followed for 5 years. The association between bone mass measurements and two single nucleotide polymorphisms, a T (A1) to C (A2) transition in the 5'-UTR of the cytochrome P450c17alpha (CYP17) gene and a G (Val) to A (Met) transition in exon 4 of the catechol- O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, was evaluated. Association with CYP17 genotype was modified by body mass index (BMI). In lean women, individuals homozygous for the CYP17 A2 allele were 1 cm shorter and had lower baseline BMD (bone mineral density), BMC, and CSA (cross sectional area) in the spine and femoral neck than did other women (BMD spine A2A2: 0.975 g/cm2 versus 1.011 g/cm2 in A1A1 + A1A2, P = 0.002). Conversely, an adverse association with A2A2 and bone loss over 5 years seemed present only in overweight women, but differences were small. Response to HRT was not dependent on CYP17 genotype. COMT genotype was not associated with bone mass at baseline, bone loss in untreated women, or response to HRT. In conclusion, the A2 allele of the CYP17 T(27)-C polymorphism is associated with reduced bone mass and bone size in lean perimenopausal women, whereas high BMI protects against this negative association. The COMT G(1947)-A polymorphism is not associated with bone parameters in this study.

  5. The effects of low-repetition and light-load power training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with sarcopenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Kanako; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-05-02

    Age-related reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) is generally accelerated in women after menopause, and could be even more pronounced in individuals with sarcopenia. Light-load power training with a low number of repetitions would increase BMD, significantly reducing bone loss in individuals at risk of osteoporosis. This study investigated the effects of low-repetition, light-load power training on BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women with sarcopenia. The training group (n = 7) followed a progressive power training protocol that increased the load with a weighted vest, for two sessions per week, over the course of 6 weeks. The training exercise comprised five kinds of exercises (squats, front lunges, side lunges, calf raises, and toe raises), and each exercise contained eight sets of three repetitions with a 15-s rest between each set. The control group (n = 8) did not undergo any training intervention. We measured BMD, muscle strength, and anthropometric data. Within-group changes in pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength were significantly greater in the training group than the control group (p = 0.029 and 0.030 for pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength, respectively). After low-repetition, light-load power training, we noted improvements in pelvis BMD (1.6%) and knee extensor strength (15.5%). No significant within- or between-group differences were observed for anthropometric data or forearm BMD. Six weeks of low-repetition, light-load power training improved pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength in postmenopausal women with sarcopenia. Since this training program does not require high-load exercise and is therefore easily implementable as daily exercise, it could be an effective form of exercise for sedentary adults at risk for osteoporosis who are fearful of heavy loads and/or training that could cause fatigue. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network on 31 October 2016 ( UMIN000024651 ).

  6. The Asn19Lys substitution in the osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) gene is associated with a reduction of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Begoña; Laporta, Paz; Cano, Antonio; García-Pérez, Miguel Angel

    2008-05-01

    Osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) is a newly recognized inhibitor of mouse and human osteoclast differentiation whose cellular expression is similar to that of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANKL). The main objective of the present work was to elucidate whether naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene could be associated with bone mass in postmenopausal women. To that end, we studied the association of bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with two nonsynonymous SNPs in the OCIL gene resulting in Asn19Lys and Leu23Val substitutions in a population of 500 postmenopausal Spanish women. A weak association was detected for Asn19Lys SNP with femoral neck (FN) BMD and lumbar spine (LS) BMD in the whole population. When the population was stratified by age, however, the association was strong in older women (> or =53 years). Thus, in this group of participants, women with CG/GG genotype displayed reductions of 5.6% and 6.7% in FN BMD and LS BMD adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), respectively, compared to women with CC genotype. The Asn19Lys SNP alleles explained about 7% of BMD variance in older women but only 1.7-3.9% in the whole population in regression models including age and BMI. In conclusion, women with a lysine (GG genotype) at position 19 of the OCIL protein displayed lower BMD at femoral neck and at lumbar spine sites than women having an asparagine residue. Since the OCIL protein inhibits osteoclast differentiation, this amino acid substitution could have consequences for OCIL functionality.

  7. Improved efficacy of intramuscular weekly administration of clodronate 200 mg (100 mg twice weekly) compared with 100 mg (once weekly) for increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Frediani, Bruno; Bertoldi, Ilaria; Pierguidi, Serena; Nicosia, Antonella; Picerno, Valentina; Filippou, Georgios; Cantarini, Luca; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    Clodronate is a bisphosphonate used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and all conditions characterized by excess bone resorption. We have previously reported that intramuscular (IM) therapy with clodronate at a dose of 100 mg/week displays significant effects on bone mineral density (BMD) although a plateau effect is observed after 1 year of treatment. Previous reports indicate that the densitometric effects of bisphosphonates directly correlate with the drug dosage and suggest that using IM clodronate at doses higher than 100 mg/week may result in improved efficacy. However, to the best of our knowledge, this has never been proved. The primary endpoint of the study was the effect on BMD of IM clodronate 100 mg once weekly or 100 mg twice weekly in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The incidence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures and adverse events was also reported. The present study was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial conducted between January 2007 and December 2009 in the Osteoporosis and Osteoarticular Instrumental Diagnosis Centre (University of Siena, Siena, Italy). The study involved 60 women, aged 57-78 years, with a history of postmenopausal osteoporosis for more than 5 years. Patients were randomized to receive IM clodronate 100 mg once weekly (Group A, 30 patients) or 100 mg twice weekly (Group B, 30 patients), for 2 years. Significant increases compared with baseline in BMD were observed for both groups at 1 and 2 years, with significantly higher increases for Group B compared with Group A. Group B displayed a BMD increase (± SD) at the lumbar spine of +4.0 % (± 2.1) and +5.9 % (± 2.0) at 1 and 2 year(s), respectively, compared with +2.8 % (± 1.7) and +3.5 % (± 2.2), respectively, observed for Group A. Similarly, Group B showed better performance compared with Group A for BMD increase at the femoral neck, with an observed increase of +3.5 % (± 1.7) and +5.4 % (± 1.8) at 1 and 2 year(s), respectively

  8. CYP19 and ESR1 gene polymorphisms: response of the bone mineral density in post-menopausal women to hormonal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Masi, Laura; Ottanelli, Silva; Berni, Rossella; Cacudi, Ettore; Giusti, Francesca; Marcucci, Gemma; Cavalli, Loredana; Fossi, Caterina; Marini, Francesca; Ciuffi, Simone; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are important regulators of bone physiology and play an essential role in the maintenance of bone health throughout the life. Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment commonly used to relieve symptoms and some undesirable consequences of menopause such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis, characterized by the loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture with a consequent higher risk of fragility fractures, is under genetic influence. A tetranucleotide (TTTA)n microsatellite repeat polymorphism, at intron 4 of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene, has been previously associated with higher lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) and lower risk of spine fracture in postmenopausal women. Moreover, the ERα encoded by the ESR1 gene is another important candidate for the regulation of bone mass of menopause. Moreover prospective analysis from >18.000 subjects at the GENOMOS study indicated that XX homozygotes genotype had a reduced risk of fracture independently from BMD. In the present study, we investigated in postmenopausal Italian women, at baseline and after 1 year of HRT, whether ESR1 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms could affect BMD through different statistical models. This study has been performed on 100 post-menopausal Italian women, from a larger group of 250. The study group was administred HRT and LS-BMD was measured at baseline and after 1 year of therapy. Genetic analysis evaluating ESR1 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms was performed. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) test showed that women with normal LS-BMD at the baseline had a major statistically significant BMD increase of 0.1426 gr/cm(2) (p= 0.0001) with respect to the osteoporotic patients. In addition, subjects with genotype 1 and 2 of CYP19 gene had a lower modification in LS-BMD after 1 year of HRT (0.0837 gr/cm(2) and 0,076 g/cm(2); p=0.0470 and 0,0547 respectively) when compared to genotype 3. No influences of the aromatase genotypes were observed in the variable difference using

  9. Effects of risedronate 5 mg/d on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in late-postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a multinational, 24-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Matti J; Farrerons-Minguella, Jordi; Halse, Johan; Kröger, Heikki; Maroni, Marilyn; Mulder, Henk; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Sääf, Maria; Snorre Øfjord, Erik

    2007-09-01

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that risedronate reduces the risk for both ver- tebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (bone mineral density [BMD] T-score, <-2.5). If left untreated, osteopenia (T-score, between -1 and -2.5) may progress to osteo- porosis. Risedronate sodium, a pyridinyl bisphospho- nate, is an antiresorptive drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although the effects of risedronate in preventing frac- tures has been established, its effects in maintaining or increasing BMD in osteopenia have not. In this clinical trial, the efficacy and tol- erability of risedronate in improving and maintaining BMD levels in late-postmenopausal women with os- teopenia were assessed. This 24-month, randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase III trial was conducted at 14 study centers across Finland, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden. Late- postmenopausal (> or =5 years from menopause) women with lumbar spine (LS) BMD T-score between -1 and -2.5 and the presence of > or =1 additional risk factor for osteo- porosis or proximal femur (Fern) BMD T-score < or = -1 were randomized to receive risedronate 5 mg (n = 114) or placebo (n = 57) PO QD for 24 months. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage change from baseline in LS BMD at study end point (24 months or last observation carried forward). Secondary efficacy end points were the percentage changes from base- line in total proximal Fern BMD and 2 bone turnover markers-urinary type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (uNTx) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP)-at 12 months and study end point. Tolerability was assessed using reported adverse events (AEs), laboratory analysis, and physical exami- nation including vital-sign measurements. A total of 171 women were included (mean [SD] age, 65.9 [6.8] years; mean [SD] LS BMD T

  10. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Erik J.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Carlson, Cathy S.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  11. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erik J; Lindgren, Bruce R; Carlson, Cathy S

    2008-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  12. Effect of serum from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibiting the Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern on bone formation in an hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line

    PubMed Central

    LI, YACHAN; LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; YIN, LIANHUA; SHEN, JIANYING; KANG, JIE; DING, SHANSHAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of the Kidney-Yang deficiency (KYD) pattern of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women of a certain age range by comparing the effect of serum from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibiting the KYD pattern with that of serum from postmenopausal women without osteoporosis on bone formation in an hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cell line. A random selection of 30 female, postmenopausal volunteers aged 60–70 years, including 15 cases without osteoporosis and 15 cases with the KYD pattern of osteoporosis, were enrolled at the Physical Examination Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Venous blood was extracted and the serum was separated. The hFOB 1.19 cells were treated with 10% KYD pattern-serum or control serum from postmenopausal women of the same age range without osteoporosis. It was found that the KYD pattern-serum significantly decreased the cell viability, activity of alkaline phosphatase and number of calcified nodules, as well as downregulated the expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and upregulated that of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in the hFOB 1.19 cells. In addition, the present results showed that the concentrations of estradiol (E2), OPG and insulin-like factor-1 (IGF-1) in the KYD pattern-serum were lower than those in the control serum. In combination, these findings suggest that the downregulation of E2, OPG and IGF-1 in the KYD pattern-serum inhibits the OPG/RANKL system, leading to a decrease in bone formation in the hFOB 1.19 cells. This indicates that the alterations in E2, OPG and IGF-1 may account for the susceptibility of certain postmenopausal women to the KYD pattern of osteoporosis. PMID:26622445

  13. Bone density and brain atrophy in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Loskutova, Natalia; Honea, Robyn A; Vidoni, Eric D; Brooks, William M; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between bone loss and Alzheimer's disease. To examine bone mineral density (BMD) in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its relationship to brain structure and cognition, we evaluated 71 patients with early stage AD (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5 and 1) and 69 non-demented elderly control participants (CDR 0). Measures included whole body BMD by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and normalized whole brain volumes computed from structural MRI scans. Cognition was assessed with a standard neuropsychological test battery. Mean BMD was lower in the early AD group (1.11 +/- 0.13) compared to the non-demented control group (1.16 +/- 0.12, p = 0.02), independent of age, gender, habitual physical activity, smoking, depression, estrogen replacement, and apolipoprotein E4 carrier status. In the early AD group, BMD was related to whole brain volume (b = 0.18, p = 0.03). BMD was also associated with cognitive performance, primarily in tests of memory (logical memory [b = 0.15, p = 0.04], delayed logical memory [b = 0.16, p = 0.02], and the selective reminding task - free recall [b = 0.18, p = 0.009]). BMD is reduced in the earliest clinical stages of AD and associated with brain atrophy and memory decline, suggesting that central mechanisms may contribute to bone loss in early AD.

  14. Trabecular Bone Strength Predictions of HR-pQCT and Individual Trabeculae Segmentation (ITS)-Based Plate and Rod Finite Element Model Discriminate Postmenopausal Vertebral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. Sherry; Wang, Ji; Zhou, Bin; Stein, Emily; Shi, Xiutao; Adams, Mark; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X. Edward

    2013-01-01

    While high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has advanced clinical assessment of trabecular bone microstructure, nonlinear microstructural finite element (μFE) prediction of yield strength by HR-pQCT voxel model is impractical for clinical use due to its prohibitively high computational costs. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient HR-pQCT-based plate and rod (PR) modeling technique to fill the unmet clinical need for fast bone strength estimation. By using individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) technique to segment the trabecular structure into individual plates and rods, a patient-specific PR model was implemented by modeling each trabecular plate with multiple shell elements and each rod with a beam element. To validate this modeling technique, predictions by HR-pQCT PR model were compared with those of the registered high resolution μCT voxel model of 19 trabecular sub-volumes from human cadaveric tibiae samples. Both Young’s modulus and yield strength of HR-pQCT PR models strongly correlated with those of μCT voxel models (r2=0.91 and 0.86). Notably, the HR-pQCT PR models achieved major reductions in element number (>40-fold) and CPU time (>1,200-fold). Then, we applied PR model μFE analysis to HR-pQCT images of 60 postmenopausal women with (n=30) and without (n=30) a history of vertebral fracture. HR-pQCT PR model revealed significantly lower Young’s modulus and yield strength at the radius and tibia in fracture subjects compared to controls. Moreover, these mechanical measurements remained significantly lower in fracture subjects at both sites after adjustment for aBMD T-score at the ultradistal radius or total hip. In conclusion, we validated a novel HR-pQCT PR model of human trabecular bone against μCT voxel models and demonstrated its ability to discriminate vertebral fracture status in postmenopausal women. This accurate nonlinear μFE prediction of HR-pQCT PR model, which requires only seconds of

  15. The 3D-based scaling index algorithm to optimize structure analysis of trabecular bone in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporotic spine fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Dirk; Monetti, Roberto A.; Bohm, Holger F.; Bauer, Jan; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.; Rath, Christoph W.

    2004-05-01

    The scaling index method (SIM) is a recently proposed non-linear technique to extract texture measures for the quantitative characterisation of the trabecular bone structure in high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI). The three-dimensional tomographic images are interpreted as a point distribution in a state space where each point (voxel) is defined by its x, y, z coordinates and the grey value. The SIM estimates local scaling properties to describe the nonlinear morphological features in this four-dimensional point distribution. Thus, it can be used for differentiating between cluster-, rod-, sheet-like and unstructured (background) image components, which makes it suitable for quantifying the microstructure of human cancellous bone. The SIM was applied to high resolution magnetic resonance images of the distal radius in patients with and without osteoporotic spine fractures in order to quantify the deterioration of bone structure. Using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis the diagnostic performance of this texture measure in differentiating patients with and without fractures was compared with bone mineral density (BMD). The SIM demonstrated the best area under the curve (AUC) value for discriminating the two groups. The reliability of our new texture measure and the validity of our results were assessed by applying bootstrapping resampling methods. The results of this study show that trabecular structure measures derived from HR-MRI of the radius in a clinical setting using a recently proposed algorithm based on a local 3D scaling index method can significantly improve the diagnostic performance in differentiating postmenopausal women with and without osteoporotic spine fractures.

  16. Effect of whole-body vibration on reduction of bone loss and fall prevention in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chiyuan; Liu, An; Sun, Miao; Zhu, Hanxiao; Wu, Haobo

    2016-02-17

    To examine whole-body vibration (WBV) effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and fall prevention in postmenopausal women, we performed a meta-analysis and systematic review of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing change in BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine and related factors of falls between WBV group and control group. EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched up to April 2015; search strategy was used as follows: (vibration) AND (osteoporo* OR muscle* OR bone mineral density OR BMD). All prospective randomized controlled trials comparing related factors of falls and BMD change in the femoral neck and lumbar spine between WBV group and control group were retrieved. Eight of 3599 studies with 1014 patients were included, 477 in the WBV group, and 537 in the control group. We found that there was no significant difference in all magnitude groups of the femoral neck (N = 936, WMD: 0.00 (-0.00, 0.01); p = 0.18). A statistical significance showed in the all magnitude groups (N = 1014, WMD: 0.01 (0.00, 0.01); p = 0.01) and low-magnitude group (N = 838, WMD: 0.01 (0.00, 0.01); p = 0.007) of the lumbar spine. No significant difference was found in high-magnitude group of the lumbar spine (N = 176, WMD: 0.00 (-0.01, 0.02); p = 0.47), low-magnitude group (N = 838, WMD: 0.00 (-0.00, 0.00); p = 0.92) and high-magnitude group (N = 98, WMD: 0.02 (-0.00, 0.05); p = 0.06) of the femoral neck. All the studies provided data of related factors of falls such as strength of the lower limb, balance, and fall rate reported effectiveness of WBV therapy. In addition, no complication was reported. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration therapy can provide a significant improvement in reducing bone loss in the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Moreover, whole-body vibration can be used as an intervention for fall prevention.

  17. Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ≥75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ≥75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years. PMID:21482873

  18. Vildagliptin has the same safety profile as a sulfonylurea on bone metabolism and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Andre Gustavo Daher; de Lacerda, Claudio Silva; Pechmann, Luciana Muniz; Polesel, Michelle Garcia; Marino, Emerson Cestari; Borba, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski; Barreto, Fellype de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Several antidiabetic therapies affect bone metabolism. Sulfonylureas have the lowest impact on bone among oral antidiabetics. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of vildagliptin and gliclazide modified release (MR) on bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D). Forty-two postmenopausal women with uncontrolled T2D were randomly allocated into vildagliptin or gliclazide MR (control) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in the BTMs in months 6 and 12 compared with the baseline. The secondary endpoint was the variation in the BMD, which was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip at baseline and month 12. After a 12-month treatment, the BTM serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen increased 0.001 ± 0.153 ng/mL in the vildagliptin group versus 0.008 ± 0.060 ng/mL in the gliclazide MR group ( p  = 0.858). The serum osteocalcin, serum amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I and urinary amino-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen remained stable in both groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the effect of vildagliptin and gliclazide MR on these variables. The lumbar spine BMD did not change in the vildagliptin or gliclazide MR groups after a 12-month treatment (0.000 ± 0.025 g/cm 2 versus -0.008 ± 0.036, respectively, p  = 0.434). Furthermore, there was a similar lack of change in the femoral neck and total hip BMD values in both treatments. Bone turnover markers and BMD remained unchanged after a 12-month treatment in both groups, which suggests that vildagliptin has the same safety profile as gliclazide MR on bone metabolism. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01679899.

  19. The association of RANK gene C421T and C575T polymorphisms with bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Işleten, Banu; Durmaz, Burak; Durmaz, Berrin; Onay, Hüseyin; Ozkınay, Ferda; Durmaz, Asude; Turan, Volkan; Oztekin, Kemal

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the association between C421T polymorphism within exon 4, C575T polymorphism within exon 6 of the RANK gene and bone mineral density (BMD) variations in postmenopausal Turkish women. One hundred seventy-eight postmenopausal women (patients = 100 and controls = 78) who applied to Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, for osteoporosis examination were analyzed. BMDs of the lumbar spine and femoral sites were measured. Patient and control groups were established based on their T-score values being above and/or below -1. After venous blood sampling, C421T and C575T polymorphisms of the RANK gene were assessed through PCR process following DNA extraction. Genotype frequencies for the C421T and C575T polymorphisms were compared between the control group and the patient group. No significant difference was detected between the two groups for both polymorphisms. There was also no significant difference between the control and patient groups in terms of the combined genotype (p = 0.752) and the combined haplotype analysis of the C421T and C575T polymorphisms (p = 0.723). In the control and patient groups separately, no significant differences in BMD values either at the femoral sites or at the lumbar spine were detected between the combined genotypes of the two polymorphisms. The genotypes, combined genotypes and allele frequencies of C421T and C575T polymorphisms of the RANK gene have not been found to be associated with BMD in Turkish women. Further studies including both sexes and more cases are required.

  20. Polymorphism of LRP5, but not of TNFRSF11B, is associated with a decrease in bone mineral density in postmenopausal Maya-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Polanco Reyes, Lucila; González Herrera, Lizbeth; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease characterized principally by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is determined by an interaction of genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association among one polymorphism of LRP5 and three polymorphisms of TNFRSF11B as well as their haplotypes with BMD variations in Maya-Mestizo postmenopausal women. We studied 583 postmenopausal women of Maya-Mestizo ethnic origin. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was measured in lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. One single-nucleotide polymorphism of LRP5 (rs3736228, p.A1330V) and three of TNFRSF11B (rs4355801, rs2073618, and rs6993813) were studied using real-time PCR allelic discrimination for genotyping. Differences between the means of the BMDs according to the genotype were analyzed with covariance. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r(2), and haplotype analysis of TNFRSF11B was conducted. The Val genotype of the rs3736228 (p.A1330V) of LRP5 was significantly associated with BMD variations at the LS, TH, and FN. None of the three polymorphisms of TNFRSF11B was associated with BMD variations. Our results show that p.A1330V was significantly associated with BMD variations at all three skeletal sites analyzed; the Val allele and the Val/Val genotype were those most frequently found in our population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  2. Fossil traces of the bone-eating worm Osedax in early Oligocene whale bones

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Steffen; Goedert, James L.; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Rouse, Greg W.

    2010-01-01

    Osedax is a recently discovered group of siboglinid annelids that consume bones on the seafloor and whose evolutionary origins have been linked with Cretaceous marine reptiles or to the post-Cretaceous rise of whales. Here we present whale bones from early Oligocene bathyal sediments exposed in Washington State, which show traces similar to those made by Osedax today. The geologic age of these trace fossils (∼30 million years) coincides with the first major radiation of whales, consistent with the hypothesis of an evolutionary link between Osedax and its main food source, although older fossils should certainly be studied. Osedax has been destroying bones for most of the evolutionary history of whales and the possible significance of this “Osedax effect” in relation to the quality and quantity of their fossils is only now recognized. PMID:20424110

  3. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a consensus document by the Belgian Bone Club

    PubMed Central

    Body, J.-J.; Bergmann, P.; Boonen, S.; Boutsen, Y.; Devogelaer, J.-P.; Goemaere, S.; Kaufman, J.-M.; Rozenberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    Several drugs are available for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This may, in daily practice, confuse the clinician. This manuscript offers an evidence-based update of previous treatment guidelines, with a critical assessment of the currently available efficacy data on all new chemical entities which were granted a marketing authorization. Osteoporosis is widely recognized as a major public health concern. The availability of new therapeutic agents makes clinical decision-making in osteoporosis more complex. Nation-specific guidelines are needed to take into consideration the specificities of each and every health care environment. The present manuscript is the result of a National Consensus, based on a systematic review and a critical appraisal of the currently available literature. It offers an evidence-based update of previous treatment guidelines, with the aim of providing clinicians with an unbiased assessment of osteoporosis treatment effect. PMID:20480148

  4. The relationship between inhibitors of the Wnt signalling pathway (Dickkopf-1(DKK1) and sclerostin), bone mineral density, vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Geeta; Edwards, Sylvie; Conroy, Soraya; Blake, Glen M; Fogelman, Ignac; Frost, Michelle L

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bone loss/osteoporosis and vascular calcification (VC). Recent studies have implicated the Wnt signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of VC. We investigated the association between circulating concentrations of Wnt inhibitors; DKK1 and sclerostin with bone mineral density (BMD), abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women. One hundred and forty six post-menopausal women aged (mean [SD]) 61.5[6.5] years were studied. Sclerostin and DKK1 were measured in serum. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH). AAC was detected by Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) imaging and quantified using an 8- and 24- point scoring methods. Arterial stiffness was determined by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). A significant positive correlation was observed between sclerostin and BMD at the FN (r = 0.166, p = 0.043) and TH (r = 0.165, p = 0.044). The association remained significant at the FN (p = 0.045) and TH (p = 0.026) following adjustment for confounders. No significant correlation was observed between DKK1 and BMD. In contrast, there was a significant negative correlation between log DKK1 and AAC (24-point score: r = -0.25, p = 0.008 and 8-point score: r = -0.21, p = 0.024). Subjects with AAC score of 1 or less had significantly higher DKK1 (p = 0.01). The association between DKK1 and AAC remained significant following correction for age, blood pressure, cholesterol (24-point score: p = 0.017, 8-point score: p = 0.044). In adjusted linear regression analysis, sclerostin was positively associated with AAC (24-point score: p = 0.048, 8-point score: p = 0.031). Subjects with a PWV>9 m/s had significantly higher sclerostin than those with PWV <9 m/s: 23.8[12.3], vs 29.7 [14] pmol/l, p = 0.03). No association was observed between DKK1 and PWV. The opposite association between AAC and the 2 Wnt signaling inhibitors is of interest and merits further

  5. 5-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of immediate versus delayed zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer starting letrozole after tamoxifen: N03CC (Alliance) trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Johnston, Nina D; Sloan, Jeff A; Liu, Heshan; Kearns, Ann E; Hines, Stephanie L; Puttabasavaiah, Suneetha; Dakhil, Shaker R; Lafky, Jacqueline M; Perez, Edith A; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2015-08-01

    Postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitors are at an increased risk of bone loss. The current study was undertaken to determine whether upfront versus delayed treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) impacted bone loss. This report described the 5-year follow-up results. A total of 551 postmenopausal women with breast cancer who completed tamoxifen treatment and were undergoing daily letrozole treatment were randomized to either upfront (274 patients) or delayed (277 patients) ZA at a dose of 4 mg intravenously every 6 months. In the patients on the delayed treatment arm, ZA was initiated for a postbaseline bone mineral density T-score of <-2.0 or fracture. The incidence of a 5% decrease in the total lumbar spine bone mineral density at 5 years was 10.2% in the upfront treatment arm versus 41.2% in the delayed treatment arm (P<.0001). A total of 41 patients in the delayed treatment arm were eventually started on ZA. With the exception of increased NCI Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade 1/2 elevated creatinine and fever in the patients treated on the upfront arm and cerebrovascular ischemia among those in the delayed treatment arm, there were no significant differences observed between arms with respect to the most common adverse events of arthralgia and back pain. Osteoporosis occurred less frequently in the upfront treatment arm (2 vs 8 cumulative cases), although this difference was not found to be statistically significant. Bone fractures occurred in 24 patients in the upfront treatment arm versus 25 patients in the delayed treatment arm. Immediate treatment with ZA prevented bone loss compared with delayed treatment in postmenopausal women receiving letrozole and these differences were maintained at 5 years. The incidence of osteoporosis or fractures was not found to be significantly different between treatment arms. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking) and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training) exercise on femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1) randomized controlled trials, (2) exercise intervention ≥ 24 weeks, (3) comparative control group, (4) postmenopausal women, (5) participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents) weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents) weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training < 2 times per week, (6) published and unpublished studies in any language since January 1, 1989, (7) BMD data available at the FN and/or LS. Studies were located by searching six electronic databases, cross-referencing, hand searching and expert review. Dual selection of studies and data abstraction were performed. Hedge’s standardized effect size (g) was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ≤0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28 g’s, 1632 participants, g = 0.288, 95% CI = 0.102, 0.474, p = 0.002, Q = 90.5, p < 0.0001, I2 = 70.1%, NNT = 6

  7. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2012-09-20

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking) and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training) exercise on femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD in postmenopausal women. The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1) randomized controlled trials, (2) exercise intervention ≥ 24 weeks, (3) comparative control group, (4) postmenopausal women, (5) participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents) weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents) weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training < 2 times per week, (6) published and unpublished studies in any language since January 1, 1989, (7) BMD data available at the FN and/or LS. Studies were located by searching six electronic databases, cross-referencing, hand searching and expert review. Dual selection of studies and data abstraction were performed. Hedge's standardized effect size (g) was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ≤0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10. Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28 g's, 1632 participants, g = 0.288, 95% CI = 0.102, 0.474, p = 0.002, Q = 90.5, p < 0.0001, I2 = 70.1%, NNT = 6) and LS (28 g's, 1504

  8. Variations in locoregional therapy in postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer treated in different countries.

    PubMed

    van Nes, J G H; Seynaeve, C; Jones, S; Markopoulos, C; Putter, H; van de Velde, C J H; Hasenburg, A; Rea, D W; Vannetzel, J-M; Dirix, L; Hozumi, Y; Kerin, M J; Kieback, D G; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, W M; Hille, E T M; Nortier, J W R

    2010-05-01

    The Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial is an international randomized trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of exemestane, alone or following tamoxifen. The large number of patients already recruited offered the opportunity to explore locoregional treatment practices between countries. Patients were enrolled in Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, the UK and the USA. The core protocol had minor differences in eligibility criteria between countries, reflecting variations in national guidelines and practice regarding adjuvant endocrine therapy. Between 2001 and 2006, 9779 patients of mean(s.d.) age 64(9) years were randomized. Some 58.4 per cent had T1 tumours (range between countries 36.8-75.9 per cent; P < 0.001) and 47.3 per cent were axillary node positive (range 25.9-84.6 per cent; P < 0.001). Independent factors for type of breast surgery were country, age, tumour status and calendar year of surgery. After breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy was given to 93.2 per cent of patients, 86.0 per cent in the USA and 100 per cent in France. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed in 82.0 (range 74.6-99.1) per cent. Despite international consensus guidelines, wide global variations were observed in treatment practices of early breast cancer. There should be further efforts to optimize locoregional treatment for breast cancer worldwide. Copyright 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

  9. [Sexual hormone and traditional Chinese patent medicine for early postmenopausal women: effect on quality of life and cost-utility analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling-Ling; Xu, Liang-Zhi; Liu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Tang, Liu-Lin; Zhuang, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Xian; Qiao, Lin

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of Premarin and Kuntai capsule (a traditional Chinese patent medicine) on the quality of life (QOL) and their cost-utility in early postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven women with menopausal syndrome in the early postmenopausal stage were randomly allocated into Premarin group (0.3 mg/day and 0.6 mg/day alternately, n=29) and Kuntai group (4 g/day, n=28). The therapies lasted for one year and the patients were followed up every 3 months. The QOL of the patients was evaluated and the utility scores were obtained from rating scale to conduct a cost-utility analysis (CUA). At each follow-up examination, no significant difference was found in the QOL between the two groups (P>0.05). The QOL obviously increased after the 1-year-long therapy in both the groups, and Kuntai required longer treatment time than Premarin to take effect. The cost-utility ratio of Premarin and Kuntai were 13581.45 yuan/QALY (quality adjusted life year) and 25105.12 yuan/QALY, respectively. Both incremental cost analysis and sensitivity analysis showed that Kuntai was more costly than Premarin. The result of per-protocol analysis was consistent with that of intention-to-treat analysis. At early stage of menopause, the QOL of women with menopausal syndrome can be significantly improved by low-dose Premarin and Kuntai capsule, but the latter is more costly.

  10. EARLY COMPLICATIONS IN THE ORTHOPEDIC TREATMENT OF BONE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu e Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. Method: There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Results: Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. Conclusion: The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage. PMID:27077063

  11. EARLY COMPLICATIONS IN THE ORTHOPEDIC TREATMENT OF BONE METASTASES.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu E Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope

    2009-01-01

    To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage.

  12. The effects of clinical pilates exercises on bone mineral density, physical performance and quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Angın, Ender; Erden, Zafer; Can, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Clinical Pilates Exercises on bone mineral density (BMD), physical performance and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Forty-one women were recruited to the study. The subjects were divided into two groups, as the Pilates group and the control group. Subjects were evaluated for BMD at the lumbar region. Physical performance level was measured. Pain intensity level was scored with Visual Analogue Scale. QUALEFFO-41 was used for assessing QOL. BMD values increased in the Pilates group (p < 0.05), while BMD decreased in the control group (p< 0.05). Physical performance test results showed significant increases in the Pilates group (p< 0.05) whereas there was no changes in the control group (p> 0.05). Pain intensity level in the Pilates group was significantly decreased after the exercise (p< 0.05), while it was unchanged in the control group. There were significant increases in all parameters of QOL in the Pilates group. Conversely, some parameters of QOL showed decreases in the control group (p< 0.05). Pilates Exercises is effective to increase BMD; QOL and walking distance and also beneficial to relieve pain. Physiotherapist can use Pilates Exercises for the subjects with osteoporosis in the clinics.

  13. Integrated analysis of DNA-methylation and gene expression using high-dimensional penalized regression: a cohort study on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lien, Tonje G; Borgan, Ørnulf; Reppe, Sjur; Gautvik, Kaare; Glad, Ingrid Kristine

    2018-03-07

    Using high-dimensional penalized regression we studied genome-wide DNA-methylation in bone biopsies of 80 postmenopausal women in relation to their bone mineral density (BMD). The women showed BMD varying from severely osteoporotic to normal. Global gene expression data from the same individuals was available, and since DNA-methylation often affects gene expression, the overall aim of this paper was to include both of these omics data sets into an integrated analysis. The classical penalized regression uses one penalty, but we incorporated individual penalties for each of the DNA-methylation sites. These individual penalties were guided by the strength of association between DNA-methylations and gene transcript levels. DNA-methylations that were highly associated to one or more transcripts got lower penalties and were therefore favored compared to DNA-methylations showing less association to expression. Because of the complex pathways and interactions among genes, we investigated both the association between DNA-methylations and their corresponding cis gene, as well as the association between DNA-methylations and trans-located genes. Two integrating penalized methods were used: first, an adaptive group-regularized ridge regression, and secondly, variable selection was performed through a modified version of the weighted lasso. When information from gene expressions was integrated, predictive performance was considerably improved, in terms of predictive mean square error, compared to classical penalized regression without data integration. We found a 14.7% improvement in the ridge regression case and a 17% improvement for the lasso case. Our version of the weighted lasso with data integration found a list of 22 interesting methylation sites. Several corresponded to genes that are known to be important in bone formation. Using BMD as response and these 22 methylation sites as covariates, least square regression analyses resulted in R 2 =0.726, comparable to an

  14. Effect of microdose transdermal 17beta-estradiol compared with raloxifene in the prevention of bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women: a 2-year, randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Matthias; Muysers, Christoph; Alexandersen, Peter; Christiansen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Declining estrogen levels after menopause result in bone loss and increased fracture risk. This study investigated whether transdermal microdose 17beta-estradiol (E2) has efficacy and safety comparable to those of raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study involved a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trial in 500 osteopenic postmenopausal women comparing transdermal microdose E2 (0.014 mg/d) versus oral raloxifene (60 mg/d), administered for 2 years. Percent change from baseline in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was measured after 2 years of treatment. Secondary endpoints included proportion of women with no loss of bone mineral density in lumbar spine, change in bone mineral density at hip, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and safety parameters. In the per protocol set, lumbar spine bone mineral density increased by 2.4% (95% CI, 1.9-2.9) with microdose E2 versus 3.0% (95% CI, 2.5-3.5) with raloxifene after 2 years; 77.3% of E2 recipients and 80.5% of those taking raloxifene had no bone loss in the lumbar spine. Both treatments were well tolerated. Most women (99% in the E2 group and 100% in the raloxifene group) showed no histological evidence of endometrial stimulation after 2 years. Mean dense area in breast mammograms was 19.8% in the E2 group versus 19.0% in the raloxifene group after 2 years. Transdermal microdose E2 was similarly effective as raloxifene in preventing bone loss at the lumbar spine. Both treatments were well tolerated, with no clinically significant effect on endometrium or breast density.

  15. Long-Term Supplementation of Green Tea Extract Does Not Modify Adiposity or Bone Mineral Density in a Randomized Trial of Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Dostal, Allison M; Arikawa, Andrea; Espejo, Luis; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green tea extract (GTE) consumption has been linked to favorable changes in adiposity and bone mineral density (BMD), although it is unknown if these effects are due to green tea catechins or caffeine. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype may also modify these associations. Objective: We examined the impact of decaffeinated GTE on body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-associated hormones. Methods: The Minnesota Green Tea Trial was a 12-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 937 postmenopausal women (aged 50–70 y) assigned to receive either GTE containing 843 mg (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate or placebo. This substudy was conducted in 121 overweight/obese participants [body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) ≥25.0]. Results: There were no differences in changes in BMI (−0.13 ± 0.11 compared with −0.05 ± 0.11; P = 0.61), total fat mass (−0.30 ± 0.16 compared with −0.12 ± 0.15 kg; P = 0.40), percentage of body fat (−0.15% ± 0.17% compared with −0.15% ± 0.16%; P = 0.99), or BMD (−0.006 ± 0.002 compared with −0.003 ± 0.002 g/cm2; P = 0.49) over 12 mo between women taking GTE (n = 61) and those taking a placebo (n = 60). Interactions were observed between treatment and time for gynoid percentage of fat (%fat) and tissue %fat. Gynoid %fat increased from baseline to month 12 in the placebo group as baseline BMI increased and decreased over time as baseline BMI increased in the GTE group (P-interaction = 0.02). Tissue %fat increased from baseline to month 12 in the placebo group as baseline BMI increased. In the GTE group, tissue %fat decreased during the intervention as baseline BMI increased (P-interaction = 0.04). No changes were seen in circulating leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, or insulin concentrations. COMT genotype did not modify the effect of GTE on any variable. Conclusions: Decaffeinated GTE was not associated with overall reductions in adiposity or improvements

  16. The QUALYOR (QUalité Osseuse LYon Orléans) study: a new cohort for non invasive evaluation of bone quality in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Chapurlat, Roland; Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Merle, Blandine; Confavreux, Elisabeth; Duvert, Florence; Fontanges, Elisabeth; Khacef, Farida; Peres, Sylvie Loiseau; Schott, Anne-Marie; Lespessailles, Eric

    2017-12-27

    The diagnostic performance of densitometry is inadequate. New techniques of non-invasive evaluation of bone quality may improve fracture risk prediction. Testing the value of these techniques is the goal of the QUALYOR cohort. The bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal women who sustain osteoporotic fracture is generally above the World Health Organization definition for osteoporosis. Therefore, new approaches to improve the detection of women at high risk for fracture are warranted. We have designed and recruited a new cohort to assess the predictive value of several techniques to assess bone quality, including high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (HRpQCT), hip QCT, calcaneus texture analysis, and biochemical markers. We have enrolled 1575 postmenopausal women, aged at least 50, with an areal BMD femoral neck or lumbar spine T-score between - 1.0 and - 3.0. Clinical risk factors for fracture have been collected along with serum and blood samples. We describe the design of the QUALYOR study. Among these 1575 women, 80% were aged at least 60. The mean femoral neck T-score was - 1.6 and the mean lumbar spine T-score was -1.2. This cohort is currently being followed up. QUALYOR will provide important information on the relationship between bone quality variables and fracture risk in women with moderately decreased BMD.

  17. Early loss of subchondral bone following microfracture is counteracted by bone marrow aspirate in a translational model of osteochondral repair

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Orth, Patrick; Müller-Brandt, Kathrin; Goebel, Lars K. H.; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Microfracture of cartilage defects may induce alterations of the subchondral bone in the mid- and long-term, yet very little is known about their onset. Possibly, these changes may be avoided by an enhanced microfracture technique with additional application of bone marrow aspirate. In this study, full-thickness chondral defects in the knee joints of minipigs were either treated with (1) debridement down to the subchondral bone plate alone, (2) debridement with microfracture, or (3) microfracture with additional application of bone marrow aspirate. At 4 weeks after microfracture, the loss of subchondral bone below the defects largely exceeded the original microfracture holes. Of note, a significant increase of osteoclast density was identified in defects treated with microfracture alone compared with debridement only. Both changes were significantly counteracted by the adjunct treatment with bone marrow. Debridement and microfracture without or with bone marrow were equivalent regarding the early cartilage repair. These data suggest that microfracture induced a substantial early resorption of the subchondral bone and also highlight the potential value of bone marrow aspirate as an adjunct to counteract these alterations. Clinical studies are warranted to further elucidate early events of osteochondral repair and the effect of enhanced microfracture techniques. PMID:28345610

  18. Hip bone loss is attenuated with 1000 IU but not 400 IU daily vitamin D3: a 1-year double-blind RCT in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen M; Wood, Adrian D; Aucott, Lorna S; Black, Alison J; Fraser, William D; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Reid, David M; Secombes, Karen R; Simpson, William G; Thies, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Few year-long vitamin D supplementation trials exist that match seasonal changes. The aim of this study was to determine whether daily oral vitamin D3 at 400 IU or 1000 IU compared with placebo affects annual bone mineral density (BMD) change in postmenopausal women in a 1-year double-blind placebo controlled trial in Scotland. White women aged 60 to 70 years (n = 305) were randomized to one of two doses of vitamin D or placebo. All participants started simultaneously in January/February 2009, attending visits at bimonthly intervals with 265 (87%) women attending the final visit and an additional visit 1 month after treatment cessation. BMD (Lunar iDXA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2 D], N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen [P1NP], C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [CTX], and fibroblast growth factor-23 [FGF23] were measured by immunoassay at the start and end of treatment. Circulating PTH, serum Ca, and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (latter by tandem mass spectrometry) were measured at each visit. Mean BMD loss at the hip was significantly less for the 1000 IU vitamin D group (0.05% ± 1.46%) compared with the 400 IU vitamin D or placebo groups (0.57% ± 1.33% and 0.60% ± 1.67%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Mean (± SD) baseline 25(OH)D was 33.8 ± 14.6 nmol/L; comparative 25(OH)D change for the placebo, 400 IU, and 1000 IU vitamin D groups was -4.1 ± 11.5 nmol/L, +31.6 ± 19.8 nmol/L, and +42.6 ± 18.9 nmol/L, respectively. Treatment did not change markers of bone metabolism, except for a small reduction in PTH and an increase in serum calcium (latter with 1000 IU dose only). The discordance between the incremental increase in 25(OH)D between the 400 IU and 1000 IU vitamin D and effect on BMD suggests that 25(OH)D may not accurately reflect clinical outcome, nor how much vitamin D is being stored. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. The relationship between sodium intake and some bone minerals and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Sepideh; Zayeri, Farid; Niroomand, Mahtab; Najarzadeh, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    The results of the studies on the effects of sodium on bone metabolism have been inconsistent. There is no definitive answer to the question of whether sodium restriction can be associated with a lower incidence of osteoporosis. What reinforces the necessity of designing this study is the lack of findings with the approach of examining the effects of sodium on bone in our country. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 185 retired female teachers aged 45 to 70. Sodium intake was evaluated using two methods: A 24-hour recall and a 12-hour urine sample. To assess bone health, ORAI index was calculated for each individual. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, potassium and serum vitamin D and PTH were measured as laboratory variables. To compare the general characteristics of the participants across tertiles of urinary sodium, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for quantitative variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Phosphorous, calcium and potassium urinary excretion rate increased with the increase in urinary sodium (p<0.05). However, the changes in serum vitamin D, and PTH levels across tertiles of urinary sodium were not significant. Changes in urinary sodium levels were not significant (p=0.933) in ORAI groups (sorted by rating). The relationship between urinary calcium and sodium was apparent in low calcium intake (r=0.415, p<0.001), but not in higher calcium intake (r=0.144, p=0.177). Although urinary calcium and potassium increased with the increase in sodium intake, no relationship was found between sodium and ORAI.

  20. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 receptor gene are associated with bone mineral density and body mass index in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M; Nogués, X; Mellibovsky, L; Agueda, L; Jurado, S; Cáceres, E; Blanch, J; Carreras, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Balcells, S

    2007-11-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity are complex diseases with a strong genetic component. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body mass index (BMI) linkage studies identified a locus at 1q21-23, where the interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) gene is located. The IL6R and the gp130 receptors are the mediators of IL6 action. Serum levels of IL6 and sIL6R (the soluble form of IL6R) are higher in several diseases such as osteoporosis or obesity. Variants at IL6R have been associated with BMI and obesity. However, IL6R is an as-yet-unexplored osteoporosis candidate gene. In the present study we analysed two polymorphisms in the IL6R promoter, -1435 C/T (rs3887104) and -208 G/A (rs4845617), and the Asp358Ala polymorphism (rs8192284), in relation to both BMD and BMI in a cohort of 559 postmenopausal Spanish women. The promoter polymorphisms, -1435 C/T and -208 G/A were associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD (P=0.011 and P=0.025 respectively). The C-A and T-G promoter haplotypes were also associated with FN BMD. Additionally, the Asp358Ala variant was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=0.038). Finally, the -208 G/A polymorphism and the C-G and C-A haplotypes were associated with BMI and obesity, where GG was the risk genotype (P=0.033 for BMI; P=0.010 for obesity). These data suggest that variants in the IL6R gene are not only involved in the determination of BMI but also relevant for the determination of BMD. The IL6R gene may belong to the growing list of genes known to be involved in both phenotypes.

  1. LncRNA MEG3 inhibited osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from postmenopausal osteoporosis by targeting miR-133a-3p.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiujun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yuanxia; Ma, Lan; Lin, Lin; Meng, Jia; Jiang, Lihong; Wang, Liping; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Yina

    2017-05-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MEG3 has proven to be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis and development of various human diseases. However, the functional involvement of MEG3 in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and its mechanism is still unclear. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and cultured from mouse pathologic models and patients with PMOP, respectively. The expression of MEG3 and miR-133a-3p in BMSCs was detected using qRT-PCR. The recombinant expression vector was constructed and transfected into BMSCs to regulate the endogenous expression of MEG3 and miR-133a-3p. The mineralized nodules formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Runx2, OCN, OPN expressions were used as specific markers for the differentiation of osteoblasts. The expressions of MEG3 and miR-133a-3p in BMSCs from PMOP were increased, and there was a positive correlation between MEG3 and miR-133a-3p expression in BMSCs. In the differentiation process from BMSCs to osteoblasts, the expressions of MEG3 and miR-133a-3p were markedly decreased, and MEG3 overexpression reversed the osteogenic induction-mediated downregulation of miR-133a-3p, which was accompanied by significant decline in SLC39A1 expression. Furthermore, miR-133a-3p silencing or upregulation eliminated the effects of MEG3 on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through direct binding. The research indicated that MEG3 regulated the expression of miR-133a-3p, and inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs induced PMOP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of tamoxifen outcome by genetic variation of CYP2D6 in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brauch, Hiltrud; Schwab, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 can affect treatment outcome in patients with early post-menopausal oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been a matter of debate over the past few years. In this article we revisit the hypothesis of CYP2D6 being a potential tamoxifen outcome predictor and provide detailed insight into the ongoing controversy that prevented the CYP2D6 marker from being accepted by the scientific and clinical community. We summarize the available pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic evidence and resolve the controversy based on the recognized methodological and statistical issues. The cumulative evidence suggests that genotyping for CYP2D6 is clinically relevant in post-menopausal women. This is important, because the clarification of this issue has the potential to resolve a clinical management question that is relevant to hundreds of thousands of women diagnosed with ER-positive breast cancer each year, who should not be denied effective endocrine therapy. PMID:24033728

  3. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  4. Dietary factors during early life program bone formation in female rats

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion du...

  5. [Local injection of exogenous nerve growth factor improves early bone maturation of implants].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Du, Yu; Gu, Xia; Guang, Meng-Kai; Huang, Bo; Gong, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the osteogenic action of implants and the maturation and reconstruction changes in bone tissues in the early stage of osseointegration. The mouse implant model was established by placing titanium in the femoral head of the mouse and locally injecting NGF in the implant zone. On 1, 2 and 4 weeks after operation, stain samples were collected from animals using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining. The effect of NGF on the bone maturation was compared at different time points of early stage osseointegration. The results of HE and Masson staining indicated that the local injection of external NGF can up-regulate bone mass, amount of bone trabecula, and bone maturity in the mouse model. The mature bone rate in treatment group of 1 week and 4 weeks after operation were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). NGF can shorten the period of bone maturation.

  6. No association between the vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms and bone biomarkers response to calcium and low dose calcitriol supplementation in postmenopausal Chinese women: a one-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiemei; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Hao; Yue, Hua; Hu, Weiwei; He, Jinwei; Fu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2018-05-18

    The aim of the study was to explore the association between the vitamin D pathway gene variations and the bone biomarkers response to calcium and low dose calcitriol supplementation in postmenopausal Chinese women. A total of 110 healthy postmenopausal Chinese women (61.51 ± 6.93 years) were enrolled. The participants were supplemented with calcium (600 mg/d) and calcitriol (0.25 μg/d), for 1 year. Four biomarkers, serum levels of beta C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (β-CTX), amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Multivariate regression models were established to explore the statistical association between the change rate of the four biomarkers and 15 key genes within the vitamin D metabolic pathway. This exclusion process left 98 participants for analysis. Serum levels of P1NP, β-CTX and PTH were significantly decreased at the 12-month follow-up (all p < 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D level had no significant change (p > 0.05). No association was found between the vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms and bone biomarkers response to calcium and low dose calcitriol supplementation. Genetic background of postmenopausal Chinese women might not influence supplemental response of the biomarkers to calcium and low dose calcitriol.

  7. Adverse events, bone mineral density and discontinuation associated with generic alendronate among postmenopausal women previously tolerant of brand alendronate: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A rise in gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) and a decline in bone mineral density (BMD) was observed in patients previously tolerant to brand alendronate shortly after generic versions were introduced in July 2005 to the Canadian market. The objective of our study was to quantify changes in AE rates and BMD scores, as well as associated alendronate discontinuation among patients before and after switch from brand to generic alendronate. Methods A chart review of postmenopausal women 50 years of age and older between 2003 and 2007 was conducted in two specialized tertiary care referral centers. Patients on alendronate both before and after July 2005 were included. The change in the number of AEs, changes in BMD and associated alendronate discontinuation was compared before and after the switch from brand to generic alendronate. Results 301 women with an average age of 67.6 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.5) had a total of 47 AEs between July 2003 and December 2007 that resulted in discontinuation of the medication. There was a significant increase in the rate of AEs per patient-months-at-risk from 0.0001 before to 0.0044 after October 2005 (p < 0.001). The most common AEs were GI in nature (stomach pain, GI upset, nausea, and reflux). In addition, 23 patients discontinued alendronate due to BMD reduction after January 2006. In these patients, BMD scores were significantly reduced from their prior BMD measures (change of -0.0534, p < 0.001 for spine BMD and change of -0.0338, p = 0.01 for femur BMD). Among patients who discontinued due to BMD reduction, BMD was stable in the period prior to January 2006 (change of -0.0066, p = 0.5 for spine BMD and change of 0.0011, p = 0.9 for femur BMD); however, testing for reduction after January 2006 in BMD measures (one-sided T-test) revealed there was a significant reduction in BMD scores for both anatomic sites (change of -0.0321, p = .005 for spine, change of -0.0205, p = 0.05 for femur). Conclusions

  8. Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density and falls: results of the randomized controlled ELVIS study with postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    von Stengel, S; Kemmler, W; Engelke, K; Kalender, W A

    2011-01-01

    We determined whether the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and falls can be enhanced by whole body vibration (WBV). In summary, the multi-purpose exercise training was effective to increase lumbar BMD but added WBV did not enhance this effect. However, falls were lowest in the exercise program combined with WBV. WBV is a new approach to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. In the "Erlangen Longitudinal Vibration Study" (ELVIS), we investigated whether WBV enhances the effect of multifunctional exercise on BMD and falls. One hundred fifty-one postmenopausal women (68.5 ± 3.1 years) were randomly assigned to a: (1) conventional training group (TG); (2) conventional training group including vibration (TGV); and (3) wellness control group (CG). TG conducted an exercise program consisting of 20 min dancing aerobics, 5 min balance training, 20 min functional gymnastics, and 15 min dynamic leg-strength training on vibration plates (without vibration) twice a week. TGV performed an identical exercise regimen with vibration (25-35 Hz) during the leg-strengthening sequence. CG performed a low-intensity wellness program. BMD was measured at the hip and lumbar spine at baseline and follow-up using the DXA method. Falls were recorded daily via the calendar method. After 18 months, an increase in BMD at the lumbar spine was observed in both training groups (TGV: +1.5% vs. TG: +2.1%). The difference between the TG and the CG (1.7%) was significant. At the hip no changes were determined in either group. The fall frequency was significantly lower in TGV (0.7 falls/person) compared with CG (1.5), whereas the difference between TG (0.96) and CG was not significant. A multifunctional training program had a positive impact on lumbar BMD. The application of vibration did not enhance these effects. However, only the training including WBV affected the number of falls significantly.

  9. Clinical Practice. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Black, Dennis M; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-01-21

    Key Clinical Points Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Fractures and osteoporosis are common, particularly among older women, and hip fractures can be devastating. Treatment is generally recommended in postmenopausal women who have a bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or less, a history of spine or hip fracture, or a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score indicating increased fracture risk. Bisphosphonates (generic) and denosumab reduce the risk of hip, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures; bisphosphonates are commonly used as first-line treatment in women who do not have contraindications. Teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been reported with treatment but are rare. The benefit-to-risk ratio for osteoporosis treatment is strongly positive for most women with osteoporosis. Because benefits are retained after discontinuation of alendronate or zoledronic acid, drug holidays after 5 years of alendronate therapy or 3 years of zoledronic acid therapy may be considered for patients at lower risk for fracture.

  10. Endocrine effects of adjuvant letrozole compared with tamoxifen in hormone-responsive postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer: the HOBOE trial.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Emanuela; Morabito, Alessandro; Di Rella, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Gravina, Adriano; Labonia, Vincenzo; Landi, Gabriella; Nuzzo, Francesco; Pacilio, Carmen; De Maio, Ermelinda; Di Maio, Massimo; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; De Feo, Gianfranco; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Chiodini, Paolo; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco; de Matteis, Andrea

    2009-07-01

    PURPOSE We compared the endocrine effects of 6 and 12 months of adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with hormone-responsive early breast cancer within an ongoing phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen, letrozole, or letrozole plus zoledronic acid. Serum values of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), progesterone, and cortisol were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. For each hormone, changes from baseline at 6 and 12 months were compared between treatment groups, and differences over time for each group were analyzed. Results Hormonal data were available for 139 postmenopausal patients with a median age of 62 years, with 43 patients assigned to tamoxifen and 96 patients assigned to letrozole alone or combined with zoledronic acid. Baseline values were similar between the two groups for all hormones. Many significant changes were observed between drugs and for each drug over time. Namely, three hormones seemed significantly affected by one drug only: estradiol that decreased and progesterone that increased with letrozole and cortisol that increased with tamoxifen. Both drugs affected FSH (decreasing with tamoxifen and slightly increasing with letrozole), LH (decreasing more with tamoxifen than with letrozole), testosterone (slightly increasing with letrozole but not enough to differ from tamoxifen), and DHEA-S (increasing with both drugs but not differently between them). Zoledronic acid did not have significant impact on hormonal levels. CONCLUSION Adjuvant letrozole and tamoxifen result in significantly distinct endocrine effects. Such differences can explain the higher efficacy of letrozole as compared with tamoxifen.

  11. Genomic Copy Number Imbalances Associated with Bone and Non-bone Metastasis of Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhong; Zhou, Renke; Baumbusch, Lars O.; Tsavachidis, Spyros; Brewster, Abenaa M.; Do, Kim-Anh; Sahin, Aysegul; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Taube, Joseph H.; Mani, Sendurai A.; Aarøe, Jørgen; Wärnberg, Fredrik; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Mills, Gordon B.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify and validate copy number aberrations in early-stage primary breast tumors associated with bone or non-bone metastasis. Patients and Methods Whole-genome molecular inversion probe arrays were used to evaluate copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors from 960 early-stage patients with information about site of metastasis. The CoxBoost algorithm was used to select metastasis site-related CNIs and to fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Results Gains at 1q41 and 1q42.12 and losses at 1p13.3, 8p22, and Xp11.3 were significantly associated with bone metastasis. Gains at 2p11.2, 3q21.3–22.2, 3q27.1, 10q23.1, and 14q13.2–3 and loss at 7q21.11 were associated with non-bone metastasis. To examine the joint effect of CNIs and clinical predictors, patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on the sum of predicted linear hazard ratios (HRs). For bone metastasis, the hazard (95% confidence interval) for the low-risk group was 0.32 (0.11–0.92) compared to the intermediate-risk group and 2.99 (1.74–5.11) for the high-risk group. For non-bone metastasis, the hazard for the low-risk group was 0.34 (0.17–0.66) and 2.33 (1.59–3.43) for the high-risk group. The prognostic value of loss at 8p22 for bone metastasis and gains at 10q23.1 for non-bone metastasis, and gain at 11q13.5 for both bone and non-bone metastases were externally validated in 335 breast tumors pooled from four independent cohorts. Conclusions Distinct CNIs are independently associated with bone and non-bone metastasis for early-stage breast cancer patients across cohorts. These data warrant consideration for tailoring surveillance and management of metastasis risk. PMID:24305980

  12. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Compston, Juliet

    2015-07-01

    Although obesity was previously believed to be protective against fracture, there is now evidence that a significant proportion of fractures in postmenopausal women occur in those who are obese. In this article the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management of fractures in obese postmenopausal women are discussed with particular focus on the site specificity of the effect of BMI on fracture, interactions between fat and bone and risk assessment and prevention of fractures. There is similarity in many respects between risk factors for fracture in obese and nonobese women, although falls may play a particularly important role in the obese. Treatment rates in obese postmenopausal women with fracture are currently low, and further studies are required to establish effective preventive strategies. Fractures in obese postmenopausal women contribute significantly to the overall fracture burden in this population. Further work is required to establish their pathophysiology and to develop effective preventive strategies.

  13. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  14. The roles of cellular and molecular components of a hematoma at early stage of bone healing.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Hoi Ting; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2018-04-01

    Bone healing is a complex repair process that commences with the formation of a blood clot at the injured bone, termed hematoma. It has evidenced that a lack of a stable hematoma causes delayed bone healing or non-union. The hematoma at the injured bone constitutes the early healing microenvironment. It appears to dictate healing pathways that ends in a regenerative bone. However, the hematoma is often clinically removed from the damaged site. Conversely, blood-derived products have been used in bone tissue engineering for treating critical sized defects, including fibrin gels and platelet-rich plasma. A second generation of platelet concentrate that is based on leukocyte and fibrin content has also been developed and introduced in market. Conflicting effect of these products in bone repair are reported. We propose that the bone healing response becomes dysregulated if the blood response and subsequent formation and properties of a hematoma are altered. This review focuses on the central structural, cellular, and molecular components of a fracture hematoma, with a major emphasis on their roles in regulating bone healing mechanism, and their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells. New angles towards a better understanding of these factors and relevant mechanisms involved at the beginning of bone healing may help to clarify limited or adverse effects of blood-derived products on bone repair. We emphasize that the recreation of an early hematoma niche with critical compositions might emerge as a viable therapeutic strategy for enhanced skeletal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Bone effect of adjuvant tamoxifen, letrozole or letrozole plus zoledronic acid in early-stage breast cancer: the randomized phase 3 HOBOE study.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, F; Gallo, C; Lastoria, S; Di Maio, M; Piccirillo, M C; Gravina, A; Landi, G; Rossi, E; Pacilio, C; Labonia, V; Di Rella, F; Bartiromo, A; Buonfanti, G; De Feo, G; Esposito, G; D'Aniello, R; Maiolino, P; Signoriello, S; De Maio, E; Tinessa, V; Colantuoni, G; De Laurentiis, M; D'Aiuto, M; Di Bonito, M; Botti, G; Giordano, P; Daniele, G; Morabito, A; Normanno, N; de Matteis, A; Perrone, F

    2012-08-01

    To measure bone mineral density (BMD) reduction produced by letrozole as compared with tamoxifen and the benefit of the addition of zoledronic acid. A phase 3 trial comparing tamoxifen, letrozole or letrozole+zoledronic acid in patients with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer was conducted; triptorelin was given to premenopausal patients. Two comparisons were planned: letrozole versus tamoxifen and letrozole+zoledronic acid versus letrozole. Primary end point was the difference in 1-year change of T-score at lumbar spine (LTS) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Out of 483 patients enrolled, 459 were available for primary analyses. Median age was 50 (range 28-80). The estimated mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) in 1-year change of LTS was equal to -0.30 (95% CI -0.44 to -0.17) in the letrozole versus tamoxifen comparison (P<0.0001) and to +0.60 (95% CI +0.46 to +0.77) in the letrozole+zoledronic acid versus letrozole comparison (P<0.0001). Bone damage by letrozole decreased with increasing baseline body mass index in premenopausal, but not postmenopausal, patients (interaction test P=0.004 and 0.47, respectively). In the HOBOE (HOrmonal BOne Effects) trial, the positive effect of zoledronic acid on BMD largely counteracts damage produced by letrozole as compared with tamoxifen. Letrozole effect is lower among overweight/obese premenopausal patients.

  16. Adjuvant tamoxifen and exemestane in women with postmenopausal early breast cancer (TEAM): 10-year follow-up of a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Derks, Marloes G M; Blok, Erik J; Seynaeve, Caroline; Nortier, Johan W R; Kranenbarg, Elma Meershoek-Klein; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Putter, Hein; Kroep, Judith R; Rea, Daniel; Hasenburg, Annette; Markopoulos, Christos; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Jan B E; Dirix, Luc Y; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2017-09-01

    After 5 years of median follow-up, the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial reported no difference in disease-free survival between exemestane monotherapy and a sequential scheme of tamoxifen followed by exemestane in postmenopausal patients with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. As recurrence risk in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remains linear beyond 5 years after diagnosis, we analysed long-term follow-up outcomes of this trial. The TEAM trial, a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial, included postmenopausal patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer from nine countries. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) by a computer-generated random permuted block method (block sizes 4-8) to either 5 years of oral exemestane monotherapy (25 mg once a day) or a sequential scheme of oral tamoxifen (20 mg once a day) followed by exemestane for a total duration of 5 years. After the publication of the IES trial, the protocol was amended (Dec 13, 2004). Patients assigned to tamoxifen were switched after 2·5-3·0 years to exemestane therapy for a total duration of 5·0 years of treatment. Randomisation was done centrally in each country. Long-term follow-up data for disease recurrence and survival was collected in six participating countries and analysed by intention to treat. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival at 10 years of follow-up. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00279448 and NCT00032136; with Netherlands Trial Register, number NTR 267; and the Ethics Commission Trial, number 27/2001. 6120 patients of the original 9776 patients in the TEAM trial were included in the current intention-to-treat analysis. Median follow-up was 9·8 years (IQR 8·0-10·3). During follow-up, 921 (30%) of 3075 patients in the exemestane group and 929 (31%) of 3045 patients in the sequential group had a disease-free survival event. Disease-free survival at 10

  17. Bone mineral density referral for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using quantitative ultrasound as a prescreening tool in postmenopausal women from the general population: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Marín, F; López-Bastida, J; Díez-Pérez, A; Sacristán, J A

    2004-03-01

    The aim of our study was to assess, from the perspective of the National Health Services in Spain, the cost-effectiveness of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) as a prescreen referral method for bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women of the general population. Using femoral neck DXA and heel QUS. We evaluated 267 consecutive postmenopausal women 65 years and older and attending primary care physician offices for any medical reason. Subjects were classified as osteoporotic or nonosteoporotic (normal or osteopenic) using the WHO definition for DXA. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of the sensitivity and specificity of the referral decisions based on the QUS measurement. Local costs were estimated from health services and actual resource used. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of the expected cost per true positive osteoporotic case detected. Baseline prevalence of osteoporosis evaluated by DXA was 55.8%. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of osteoporosis by QUS using the optimal cutoff thresholds for the estimated heel BMD T-score were 97% and 94%, respectively. The average cost per osteoporotic case detected based on DXA measurement alone was 23.85 euros. The average cost per osteoporotic case detected using QUS as a prescreen was 22.00 euros. The incremental cost-effectiveness of DXA versus QUS was 114.00 euros per true positive case detected. Our results suggest that screening for osteoporosis with QUS while applying strict cufoff values in postmenopausal women of the general population is not substantially more cost-effective than DXA alone for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, the screening strategy with QUS may be an option in those circumstances where the diagnosis of osteoporosis is deficient because of the difficulty in accessing DXA equipment.

  18. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-11-27

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely.

  19. Identification of an Epigenetic Signature of Osteoporosis in Blood DNA of Post-menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Cheishvili, David; Parashar, Surabhi; Mahmood, Niaz; Arakelian, Ani; Kremer, Richard; Goltzman, David; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

    2018-06-20

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common age-related progressive bone diseases in elderly people. Approximately one in three women and one in five men are predisposed to developing OP. In postmenopausal women a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) leads to an increased risk of fractures. In the current study we delineated the DNA methylation signatures in whole blood samples of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. We obtained whole blood DNA from 22 normal women and 22 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (51-89 years) from the Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) cohort. These DNA samples were subjected to Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 K analysis. Illumina 450K raw data was analyzed by Genome Studio software. Analysis of the female participants with early and advanced osteoporosis resulted in the generation of a list of 1233 differentially methylated CpG sites when compared with age matched normal females. T-test, ANOVA and post-hoc statistical analyses were performed and 77 significantly differentially methylated CpG sites were identified. From the 13 most significant genes, ZNF267, ABLIM2, RHOJ, CDKL5, PDCD1 were selected for their potential role in bone biology. A weighted polygenic DNA methylation score of these genes predicted osteoporosis at an early stage with high sensitivity and specificity and correlated with measures of bone density. Pyrosequencing analysis of these genes was performed to validate the results obtained from Illumina 450 K methylation analysis. The current study provides proof of principal for the role of DNA methylation in osteoporosis. Using whole blood DNA methylation analysis, women at risk of developing osteoporosis can be identified before a diagnosis of osteoporosis is made using BMD as a screening method. Early diagnosis will help to select patients that might benefit from early therapeutic intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All

  20. Postmenopausal weight status, body composition and body fat distribution in relation to parameters of menstrual and reproductive history.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, S; Gruber, D; Sator, M; Huber, J

    1999-10-24

    In the present study the association between menstrual and reproductive history patterns and weight status, fat distribution and body composition during postmenopause was tested. In 106 healthy postmenopausal women ranging in age from 48 to 58 years (x = 53.7 year) the weight status was classified according to the recommendations of the WHO. Additionally body composition was estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and fat distribution was calculated using the fat distribution index. Weight status, body composition and fat distribution were correlated with self-reported parameters of menstrual and reproductive history (age at menarche, average cycle length, number of births, age at first and last birth, average pregnancy weight gain, age at menopause). It was shown that number of births, age at first birth and pregnancy weight gain were related significantly to the postmenopausal weight status, body composition and fat distribution. An early first birth a low number of births and a high weight gain during pregnancies can be assumed as risk factors for overweight, a higher amount of adipose tissue, android fat patterning and therefore for the development of the metabolic syndrome during postmenopause. In contrast no adverse effect of menstrual and reproductive parameters on postmenopausal bone mass was found.

  1. Effects of 24 months of treatment with romosozumab followed by 12 months of denosumab or placebo in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: A randomized, double-blind, phase 2, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    McClung, Michael R; Brown, Jacques P; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Resch, Heinrich; Caminis, John; Meisner, Paul; Bolognese, Michael A; Goemaere, Stefan; Bone, Henry G; Zanchetta, Jose R; Maddox, Judy; Bray, Sarah; Grauer, Andreas

    2018-04-25

    Over 12 months, romosozumab increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, resulting in increased BMD in postmenopausal women with low BMD (NCT00896532). Herein we report the study extension evaluating 24 months treatment with romosozumab, discontinuation of romosozumab, alendronate followed by romosozumab, and romosozumab followed by denosumab. Postmenopausal women age 55-85 years with a lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), or femoral neck T-score ≤-2.0 and ≥-3.5 were enrolled and randomly assigned to placebo, one of five romosozumab regimens (70mg, 140mg, 210mg monthly [QM]; 140mg Q3M; 210mg Q3M) for 24 months, or open-label alendronate for 12 months followed by romosozumab 140mg QM for 12 months. Eligible participants were then re-randomized 1:1 within original treatment groups to placebo or denosumab 60mg Q6M for an additional 12 months. Percentage change from baseline in BMD and bone turnover markers (BTMs) at months 24 and 36 and safety were evaluated. Of 364 participants initially randomized to romosozumab, placebo, or alendronate, 315 completed 24 months of treatment and 248 completed the extension. Romosozumab markedly increased LS and TH BMD through month 24, with largest gains observed with romosozumab 210mg QM (LS = 15.1%; TH = 5.4%). Women receiving romosozumab who transitioned to denosumab continued to accrue BMD, whereas BMD returned toward pretreatment levels with placebo. With romosozumab 210mg QM, bone formation marker P1NP initially increased following treatment initiation and gradually decreased to below baseline by month 12, remaining below baseline through month 24; and bone resorption marker β-CTX rapidly decreased following treatment, remaining below baseline through month 24. Transition to denosumab further decreased both BTMs, while after transition to placebo, P1NP returned to baseline and β-CTX increased above baseline. Adverse events were balanced between treatment groups through month 36. These data suggest that

  2. Bone and the Perimenopause

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Joan C.; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M.; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    The loss of ovarian function during the menopausal transition has a profound impact on female skeletal health. Currently it is estimated that one in every two Caucasian women will experience an osteoporotic fracture during her lifetime,1 contributing to considerable morbidity and an enormous economic burden within the aging female population. However, most studies have been conducted in postmenopausal women, with fewer investigations focusing specifically on perimenopausal bone health. The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is the largest prospective cohort to date where changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover have been examined in relation to ovarian aging among women followed across the menopause transition.2–3 As defined by bleeding pattern in SWAN, early perimenopause is characterized by increasing menstrual irregularity but less than 3 months of amenorrhea, late perimenopause by amenorrhea lasting greater than 3 months but less than 1 year, and postmenopause by the absence of menstrual bleeding for twelve consecutive months or more.3–4 A recent multi-study collaboration has further recommended that the early menopause transition be defined by a persistent 7+ day difference in consecutive cycle lengths and the late menopause transition by at least 60 days of amenorrhea.5–6 A serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level of 40 IU/L or greater has also been found to be an independent marker of the transition that may facilitate predicting the time to the final menstrual period.6–7 PMID:21961717

  3. Patterns of care in Dutch postmenopausal patients with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer participating in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial.

    PubMed

    van Nes, J G H; Seynaeve, C; Maartense, E; Roumen, R M H; de Jong, R S; Beex, L V A M; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, W M; Putter, H; Nortier, J W R; van de Velde, C J H

    2010-05-01

    The Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial investigates the efficacy and safety of adjuvant exemestane alone and in sequence after tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. As there was a nationwide participation in The Netherlands, we studied the variations in patterns of care in the Comprehensive Cancer Centre Regions (CCCRs) and compliance with national guidelines. Clinicopathological characteristics, carried out local treatment strategies and adjuvant chemotherapy data were collected. From 2001 to January 2006, 2754 Dutch patients were randomised to the study. Mean age of patients was 65 years (standard deviation 9). Tumours were < or =2 cm in 46% (within CCCRs 39%-50%), node-negative disease varied from 25% to 45%, and PgR status was determined in 75%-100% of patients. Mastectomy was carried out in 55% (45%-70%), sentinel lymph node procedure in 68% (42%-79%) and axillary lymph node dissections in 77% (67%-83%) of patients, all different between CCCRs (P < 0.0001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 15%-70% of eligible patients (P < 0.001). In spite of national guidelines, breast cancer treatment on specific issues widely varied between the various Dutch regions. These data provide valuable information for breast cancer organisations indicating (lack of) guideline adherence and areas for breast cancer care improvement.

  4. Childhood fractures are associated with decreased bone mass gain during puberty: an early marker of persistent bone fragility?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Serge L; Chevalley, Thierry; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Rizzoli, René

    2006-04-01

    Whether peak bone mass is low among children with fractures remains uncertain. In a cohort of 125 girls followed over 8.5 years, 42 subjects reported 58 fractures. Among those, BMC gain at multiple sites and vertebral bone size at pubertal maturity were significantly decreased. Hence, childhood fractures may be markers of low peak bone mass acquisition and persistent skeletal fragility. Fractures in childhood may result from a deficit in bone mass accrual during rapid longitudinal growth. Whether low bone mass persists beyond this period however remains unknown. BMC at the spine, radius, hip, and femur diaphysis was prospectively measured over 8.5 years in 125 girls using DXA. Differences in bone mass and size between girls with and without fractures were analyzed using nonparametric tests. The contribution of genetic factors was evaluated by mother-daughter correlations and that of calcium intake by Cox proportional hazard models. Fifty-eight fractures occurred in 42 among 125 girls (cumulative incidence, 46.4%), one-half of all fractures affecting the forearm and wrist. Girls with and without fractures had similar age, height, weight. and calcium intake at all time-points. Before and during early puberty, BMC and width of the radius diaphysis was lower in the fracture compared with no-fracture group (p < 0.05), whereas aBMD and BMAD were similar in the two groups. At pubertal maturity (Tanner's stage 5, mean age +/- SD, 16.4 +/- 0.5 years), BMC at the ultradistal radius (UD Rad.), femur trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS), and LS projected bone area were all significantly lower in girls with fractures. Throughout puberty, BMC gain at these sites was also decreased in the fracture group (LS, -8.0%, p = 0.015; UD Rad., -12.0%, p = 0.004; trochanter, -8.4%, p = 0.05 versus no fractures). BMC was highly correlated between prepuberty and pubertal maturity (R = 0.54-0.81) and between mature daughters and their mothers (R = 0.32-0.46). Calcium intake was not related to

  5. Androgens and bone health.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K A; Tho, S P

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases in the adult population and its prevalence will continue to rise as our population grows older. In both sexes, hypogonadism is associated with accelerated loss of bone and development of osteoporosis. Adrenal and gonadal androgen levels decline with advancing age in both sexes. Androgens act by either directly binding to androgen receptors, or by aromatization of androgens to estrogens and subsequently interacting with estrogen receptors. Both pathways are important for skeletal health. Direct androgen binding to an androgen receptor may play a more important role in early skeletal development and determination of sexual dimorphic traits. While bone remodeling, which is important in maintaining healthy bone through life, is primarily stimulated by estrogen, studies in the rat and human support the complex action of androgens and estrogens in bone modeling and remodeling, and hence the development and maintenance of healthy bone. In postmenopausal females, the addition of androgens to hormone replacement therapy results in significant additional improvement in bone mineral density compared to estrogen replacement alone. Accumulating evidence indicate that androgens play an important role in the health of bone and the potential benefit of adding these agents to hormone replacement regimens.

  6. Influence of side-effects on early therapy persistence with letrozole in post-menopausal patients with early breast cancer: Results of the prospective EvAluate-TM study.

    PubMed

    Nabieva, N; Fehm, T; Häberle, L; de Waal, J; Rezai, M; Baier, B; Baake, G; Kolberg, H-C; Guggenberger, M; Warm, M; Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R; Deuker, J-U; Dall, P; Richter, B; Wachsmann, G; Brucker, C; Siebers, J W; Popovic, M; Kuhn, T; Wolf, C; Vollert, H-W; Breitbach, G-P; Janni, W; Landthaler, R; Kohls, A; Rezek, D; Noesselt, T; Fischer, G; Henschen, S; Praetz, T; Heyl, V; Kühn, T; Krauss, T; Thomssen, C; Hohn, A; Tesch, H; Mundhenke, C; Hein, A; Hack, C C; Schmidt, K; Belleville, E; Brucker, S Y; Kümmel, S; Beckmann, M W; Wallwiener, D; Hadji, P; Fasching, P A

    2018-06-01

    Endocrine treatment (ET) with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) is the treatment of choice in post-menopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer (EBC). However, adverse events (AEs) often lead to treatment discontinuation. This analysis aimed to identify side-effects that lead to patients failing to persist with letrozole treatment. Post-menopausal hormone receptor-positive EBC patients starting ET with letrozole were enroled in EvAluate-TM, a non-interventional study. Information regarding treatment compliance and persistence was gathered in months 6 and 12. Persistence was defined as the time from 30 d after the start to the end of treatment. The influence on persistence of musculoskeletal syndrome, menopausal disorder, sleep disorder and other AEs within the first 30 d was analysed using Cox regression analyses. Among 3887 patients analysed, the persistence rate after 12 months was >85%. In all, 568 patients (14.6%) discontinued the treatment, 358 of whom (63.0%) did so only because of side-effects. The main AEs influencing persistence were musculoskeletal symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90-3.42), sleep disorders (HR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.41-2.70) and other AEs (HR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.51-2.73). Menopausal disorder was not associated with non-persistence (HR 1.17; 95% CI, 0.74-1.84). These results suggest that side-effects of AIs such as musculoskeletal syndrome and sleep disorder lead to ET discontinuation within the first treatment year in significant numbers of EBC patients. Compliance programmes adapted for subgroups that are at risk for early non-persistence might help to ensure the recommended therapy duration. CFEM345DDE19. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Denosumab in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: What the Clinician Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Lewiecki, E. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Denosumab is a subcutaneously (SC) administered investigational fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), a cytokine member of the tumor necrosis factor family that is the principal mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. RANKL stimulates the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders associated with increased bone remodeling. Denosumab binds RANKL, preventing it from binding to RANK, thereby reducing the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts and slowing the rate of bone resorption. Postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) treated with denosumab have a reduction of bone turnover markers and an increase in BMD that is rapid, sustained, and reversible. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, denosumab reduces the risk of vertebral, hip, and nonvertebral fractures. In postmenopausal women with low BMD randomized to receive denosumab or alendronate, denosumab is associated with a significantly greater increase in BMD and further reduction in bone turnover markers compared with alendronate. In postmenopausal women with low BMD who were previously treated with alendronate, those who switched to denosumab have a significantly greater BMD increase and further reduction in bone turnover markers compared with those continuing alendronate. Denosumab is well tolerated with a favorable safety profile. It is a promising emerging drug for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, offering a long dosing interval of every 6 months and convenient SC dosing, with the potential of improving long-term adherence to therapy compared with current oral treatments. PMID:22870424

  8. Denosumab: an investigational drug for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewiecki, E Michael

    2008-01-01

    Denosumab (AMG 162) is an investigational fully human monoclonal antibody with a high affinity and specificity for receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), a cytokine member of the tumor necrosis factor family. RANKL, the principal mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders associated with bone loss. Denosumab inhibits the action of RANKL, thereby reducing the differentiation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts, and lowering the rate of bone resorption. Clinical trials have shown that denosumab increases bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low BMD. Studies to evaluate the fracture risk benefit and long-term safety of denosumab in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) are ongoing. Denosumab is a potential treatment for PMO and other skeletal disorders. PMID:19707445

  9. The incidence of bone metastasis after early-stage breast cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Liede, Alexander; Jerzak, Katarzyna J; Hernandez, Rohini K; Wade, Sally W; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Current information on the incidence and prevalence of bone metastases in women with breast cancer is scarce. This study examined the occurrence and predictors of bone metastases, as well as post-metastasis survival in a prospective cohort of Canadian women with breast cancer. We included women treated for early-stage (stage I, II, or III) breast cancer at the Henrietta Banting Breast Centre (HBBC) in Toronto, Canada between 1987 and 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records and pathology reports in the HBBC database; follow-up extended to end of data availability or August 31, 2015. Actuarial survival analyses provided cumulative incidence of bone metastases at 5, 10, and 15 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves describe breast cancer mortality. Regression models assessed patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics as predictors of bone metastases with all-cause mortality as a competing risk. Among 2097 women studied, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year probability of bone metastasis was 6.5, 10.3, and 11.3 % for the first recurrence, and 8.4, 12.5, and 13.6 % for any bone recurrence. At median follow-up (12.5 years), 13.2 % of patients had bone metastases. Median survival was 1.6 years following bone metastasis, and shorter if both bone and visceral metastases occurred. Advanced age and adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen were protective against bone metastasis. In this representative cohort of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, with long follow-up, the incidence of bone metastases was consistent with longitudinal studies from the United Kingdom, Denmark, and the US.

  10. The impact of endocrine therapy on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer: encouraging results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Frechette, Dominique; Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Clemons, Mark; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Gertler, Stan Z; Song, Xinni; Graham, Nadine; Dent, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the contentious issue of a possible effect of endocrine therapy (ET) on sexual dysfunction (SD) in postmenopausal early stage breast cancer survivors. To date, few studies have assessed sexual functioning prior to initiating ET and none have taken sexual distress into account when reporting the prevalence of ET-induced SD. We report the findings of a study on the change in SD (defined as experiencing sexual problems causing distress) during the first 6 months of ET usage. Between January 2009 and May 2011, 118 patients entered the study and 66 completed questionnaires prior to initiation of ET and after 6 months of use. Sexual functioning (SF) was evaluated with the female sexual function index while sexual distress was assessed with the female sexual distress scale (FSDS-R). Gynecological symptoms were measured with the FACT-B ES subscale. Over time, the level of gynecological symptoms increased (p < 0.001), whereas no decline in SF was observed. The percentage of women who reported experiencing at least one sexual problem (85 %) and the percentage who were sexually distressed (30 %) remained the same across time. Importantly, the change in the prevalence of SD between baseline (24 %) and 6 months (29 %) was not statistically significant. Women experiencing SD at baseline were more likely to experience SD after 6 months of ET usage (OR = 7.4, 95 % CI = 1.5-36.9) than women who had no SD prior to initiating ET. The observation that SF remained stable across time is encouraging news. However, longer follow-up and the inclusion of women who were premenopausal at diagnosis are needed to determine the potential influence of extended duration of ET (e.g., at least 5 years) on SD. Further studies, including assessing the impact of early identification of patients at risk of developing SD and timely intervention, are warranted.

  11. Reduced limbic and hypothalamic volumes correlate with bone density in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Loskutova, Natalia; Honea, Robyn A; Brooks, William M; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated bone loss is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the central nervous system plays a direct role in regulating bone mass, primarily through the actions of the hypothalamus, there is little work investigating the possible role of neurodegeneration in bone loss. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and neuroimaging markers of neurodegeneration (i.e., global and regional measures of brain volume) in early AD and non-demented aging. Fifty-five non-demented and 63 early AD participants underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological assessment, structural MRI scanning, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. In early AD, voxel-based morphometry analyses demonstrated that low BMD was associated with low volume in limbic grey matter (GM) including the hypothalamus, cingulate, and parahippocampal gyri and in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal cortex. No relationship between BMD and regional GM volume was found in non-demented controls. The hypothesis-driven region of interest analysis further isolating the hypothalamus demonstrated a positive relationship between BMD and hypothalamic volume after controlling for age and gender in the early AD group but not in non-demented controls. These results demonstrate that lower BMD is associated with lower hypothalamic volume in early AD, suggesting that central mechanisms of bone remodeling may be disrupted by neurodegeneration.

  12. Osteostatin-coated porous titanium can improve early bone regeneration of cortical bone defects in rats.

    PubMed

    van der Stok, Johan; Lozano, Daniel; Chai, Yoke Chin; Amin Yavari, Saber; Bastidas Coral, Angela P; Verhaar, Jan A N; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Schrooten, Jan; Jahr, Holger; Zadpoor, Amir A; Esbrit, Pedro; Weinans, Harrie

    2015-05-01

    A promising bone graft substitute is porous titanium. Porous titanium, produced by selective laser melting (SLM), can be made as a completely open porous and load-bearing scaffold that facilitates bone regeneration through osteoconduction. In this study, the bone regenerative capacity of porous titanium is improved with a coating of osteostatin, an osteoinductive peptide that consists of the 107-111 domain of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein (PTHrP), and the effects of this osteostatin coating on bone regeneration were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SLM-produced porous titanium received an alkali-acid-heat treatment and was coated with osteostatin through soaking in a 100 nM solution for 24 h or left uncoated. Osteostatin-coated scaffolds contained ∼0.1 μg peptide/g titanium, and in vitro 81% was released within 24 h. Human periosteum-derived osteoprogenitor cells cultured on osteostatin-coated scaffolds did not induce significant changes in osteogenic (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagen type 1 [Col1], osteocalcin [OCN], runt-related transcription factor 2 [Runx2]), or angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) gene expression; however, it resulted in an upregulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene expression after 24 h and a lower receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RankL):OPG mRNA ratio. In vivo, osteostatin-coated, porous titanium implants increased bone regeneration in critical-sized cortical bone defects (p=0.005). Bone regeneration proceeded until 12 weeks, and femurs grafted with osteostatin-coated implants and uncoated implants recovered, respectively, 66% and 53% of the original femur torque strength (97±31 and 77±53 N·mm, not significant). In conclusion, the osteostatin coating improved bone regeneration of porous titanium. This effect was initiated after a short burst release and might be related to the observed in vitro upregulation of OPG gene expression by osteostatin in osteoprogenitor

  13. Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Effect of a three-year trial on hormones, adverse events, and endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Alekel, D. Lee; Genschel, Ulrike; Koehler, Kenneth J; Hofmann, Heike; Van Loan, Marta D; Beer, Bonnie S.; Hanson, Laura N; Peterson, Charles T; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the overall safety and potential endometrial stimulation of soy isoflavone tablets consumed (3-year) by postmenopausal women. To determine the endometrial thickness response-to-treatment among compliant women, taking into account hormone concentrations and other hypothesized modifying factors. Methods We randomized healthy postmenopausal women (45.8–65.0 years) to placebo control or two doses (80 or 120 mg/day) of soy isoflavones at two sites. We used intent-to-treat (N=224) and compliant (>95%; N=208) analyses to assess circulating hormone concentrations, adverse events, and endometrial thickness (via transvaginal ultrasound). Results Median values for endometrial thickness (mm) declined from baseline through 36 mo. Nonparametric ANOVA for treatment differences among groups showed no differences in absolute (or percentage change) endometrial thickness at any time point (Chi-Square p-values ranged from 0.12–0.69), nor in circulating hormones at any time point. A greater number of adverse events for the genitourinary system (p=0.005) was noted in the 80 compared to 120 mg/day group, whereas other systems showed no treatment effects. The model predicting the endometrial thickness response-(using natural logarithm)-to-treatment with compliant women across time points was significant (p<0.0001), indicating that estrogen exposure (p=0.0013), plasma 17 β-estradiol (p=0.0086), and alcohol intake (p=0.023) contributed significantly to the response. Neither the 80 (p=0.57) nor 120 (p=0.43) mg/day dose exerted an effect on endometrial thickness across time. Conclusions Our RCT verified the long-term overall safety of consuming soy isoflavone tablets by postmenopausal women who displayed excellent compliance. We found no evidence of a treatment effect on endometrial thickness, adverse events, or circulating hormone concentrations, most notably thyroid function, during a three year period. PMID:25003624

  14. Gene Expression Analyses of Subchondral Bone in Early Experimental Osteoarthritis by Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YuXian; Shen, Jun; Lu, HuaDing; Zeng, Chun; Ren, JianHua; Zeng, Hua; Li, ZhiFu; Chen, ShaoMing; Cai, DaoZhang; Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that affects both cartilage and bone. A better understanding of the early molecular changes in subchondral bone may help elucidate the pathogenesis of OA. We used microarray technology to investigate the time course of molecular changes in the subchondral bone in the early stages of experimental osteoarthritis in a rat model. We identified 2,234 differentially expressed (DE) genes at 1 week, 1,944 at 2 weeks and 1,517 at 4 weeks post-surgery. Further analyses of the dysregulated genes indicated that the events underlying subchondral bone remodeling occurred sequentially and in a time-dependent manner at the gene expression level. Some of the identified dysregulated genes that were identified have suspected roles in bone development or remodeling; these genes include Alp, Igf1, Tgf β1, Postn, Mmp3, Tnfsf11, Acp5, Bmp5, Aspn and Ihh. The differences in the expression of these genes were confirmed by real-time PCR, and the results indicated that our microarray data accurately reflected gene expression patterns characteristic of early OA. To validate the results of our microarray analysis at the protein level, immunohistochemistry staining was used to investigate the expression of Mmp3 and Aspn protein in tissue sections. These analyses indicate that Mmp3 protein expression completely matched the results of both the microarray and real-time PCR analyses; however, Aspn protein expression was not observed to differ at any time. In summary, our study demonstrated a simple method of separation of subchondral bone sample from the knee joint of rat, which can effectively avoid bone RNA degradation. These findings also revealed the gene expression profiles of subchondral bone in the rat OA model at multiple time points post-surgery and identified important DE genes with known or suspected roles in bone development or remodeling. These genes may be novel diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for OA. PMID:22384228

  15. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: The Role of Immune System Cells

    PubMed Central

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Marzano, Flaviana; Cavallo, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, new evidences of the relationship between immune system and bone have been accumulated both in animal models and in humans affected by bone disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a subsequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. The combined effects of estrogen deprivation and raising of FSH production occurring in menopause cause a marked stimulation of bone resorption and a rapid bone loss which is central for the onset of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This review focuses on the role of immune system in postmenopausal osteoporosis and on therapeutic strategies targeting osteoimmunology pathways. PMID:23762093

  16. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  17. [Osteoclasts and early bone remodeling after orthodontic micro-implant placement].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Jia-jia; Zhu, Wen-qian; Tang, Guo-hua

    2013-08-01

    To observe the incidence of osteoclasts during early bone remodeling after orthodontic micro-implant placement. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were randomly allotted into 4 groups. One micro-implant was implanted proximal to the epiphyseal plate of the tibia. Animals were sacrificed on day 3, 7, 14 and 28 (n=5). The sequence of histological changes around the micro-implants were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Osteoclasts were identified by TRAP staining. The differences of the number of the osteoclasts among each time point were analyzed by one way ANOVA with SPSS 19.0 software package. After 3 days of implantation, a large number of erythrocytes, inflammatory cells, mesenchymal cells and bone debris were seen at the implant bone interfaces. Few osteoclasts were observed. On day 7, granular woven bone was formed and some osteoclasts were found in the Howship's lacunae. New bone formation and mineralization were apparent on day 14. Meanwhile, large amounts of osteoclasts were found in the latticed woven bone. On day 28, woven trabeculae with lamellate structures connected to lamellar bone and fewer osteoclasts were identified. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that the number of the osteoclasts was at peak on day 14. There were significant differences among each time point (P<0.01). Osteoclast activity is closely related to bone formation and remodeling after micro-implant insertion.

  18. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  19. Tocotrienol supplementation in postmenopausal osteoporosis: evidence from a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Norliza; Luke, Douglas Alwyn; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2013-10-01

    Accelerated bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women has been linked to oxidative stress and increased free radicals. We propose the use of antioxidants to prevent and reverse postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of tocotrienol, a vitamin E analog, on bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. Our previous study showed that tocotrienol increased the trabecular bone volume and trabecular number in ovariectomized rats. In the current study, we investigated the effects of tocotrienol supplementation on various biochemical parameters in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. A total of 32 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The baseline group was sacrificed at the start of the study, and another group was sham operated. The remaining rats were ovariectomized and either given olive oil as a vehicle or treated with tocotrienol at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. After four weeks of treatment, blood was withdrawn for the measurement of interleukin-1 (IL1) and interleukin-6 (IL6) (bone resorbing cytokines), serum osteocalcin (a bone formation marker) and pyridinoline (a bone resorption marker). Tocotrienol supplementation in ovariectomized rats significantly reduced the levels of osteocalcin, IL1 and IL6. However, it did not alter the serum pyridinoline level. Tocotrienol prevented osteoporotic bone loss by reducing the high bone turnover rate associated with estrogen deficiency. Therefore, tocotrienol has the potential to be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent in postmenopausal women.

  20. Tocotrienol supplementation in postmenopausal osteoporosis: evidence from a laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Norliza; Luke, Douglas Alwyn; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accelerated bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women has been linked to oxidative stress and increased free radicals. We propose the use of antioxidants to prevent and reverse postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of tocotrienol, a vitamin E analog, on bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. Our previous study showed that tocotrienol increased the trabecular bone volume and trabecular number in ovariectomized rats. In the current study, we investigated the effects of tocotrienol supplementation on various biochemical parameters in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The baseline group was sacrificed at the start of the study, and another group was sham operated. The remaining rats were ovariectomized and either given olive oil as a vehicle or treated with tocotrienol at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. After four weeks of treatment, blood was withdrawn for the measurement of interleukin-1 (IL1) and interleukin-6 (IL6) (bone resorbing cytokines), serum osteocalcin (a bone formation marker) and pyridinoline (a bone resorption marker). RESULTS: Tocotrienol supplementation in ovariectomized rats significantly reduced the levels of osteocalcin, IL1 and IL6. However, it did not alter the serum pyridinoline level. CONCLUSION: Tocotrienol prevented osteoporotic bone loss by reducing the high bone turnover rate associated with estrogen deficiency. Therefore, tocotrienol has the potential to be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent in postmenopausal women. PMID:24212841

  1. Low to moderate alcohol consumption on serum vitamin D and other indicators of bone health in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Heavy alcohol drinking adversely affects vitamin D status and bone health. However, data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption on vitamin D status and bone health in humans is unavailable. The objective of this cross-over RCT was to e...

  2. Dissolution behavior and early bone apposition of calcium phosphate-coated machined implants

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Wan; Lee, Eun-Ung; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, In-Seop

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Calcium phosphate (CaP)-coated implants promote osseointegration and survival rate. The aim of this study was to (1) analyze the dissolution behavior of the residual CaP particles of removed implants and (2) evaluate bone apposition of CaP-coated machined surface implants at the early healing phase. Methods Mandibular premolars were extracted from five dogs. After eight weeks, the implants were placed according to drilling protocols: a nonmobile implant (NI) group and rotational implant (RI) group. For CaP dissolution behavior analysis, 8 implants were removed after 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The surface morphology and deposition of the coatings were observed. For bone apposition analysis, block sections were obtained after 1-, 2-, and 4-week healing periods and the specimens were analyzed. Results Calcium and phosphorus were detected in the implants that were removed immediately after insertion, and the other implants were composed mainly of titanium. There were no notable differences between the NI and RI groups in terms of the healing process. The bone-to-implant contact and bone density in the RI group showed a remarkable increase after 2 weeks of healing. Conclusions It can be speculated that the CaP coating dissolves early in the healing phase and chemically induces early bone formation regardless of the primary stability. PMID:24455442

  3. Adolescent pregnancy is associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Geum Joon; Shin, Jung-Ho; Yi, Kyong Wook; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2012-04-01

    Adolescence is a critical time of life to accumulate bone for peak bone mass. Factors that may interfere with bone mass accrual during this period may increase the risk of osteoporosis. Several studies have reported that pregnancy during adolescence has detrimental effects on bone mass measurements after pregnancy. However, less is known about how adolescent pregnancy affects bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis after menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adolescent pregnancy and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 719 postmenopausal women, all of whom were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008. BMD was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Postmenopausal women with histories of adolescent pregnancy had lower BMD of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine than did women without histories of adolescent pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that postmenopausal women with history of adolescent pregnancy were at increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.12-4.30) compared with women without history of adolescent pregnancy after adjustments for age, body mass index, marital status, education level, household income, alcohol intake, smoking history, exercise, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, hormone therapy use, intake of energy and calcium, and vitamin D level. Adolescent pregnancy may be a predictor of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  4. Assessment of OPG, RANKL, bone turnover markers serum levels and BMD after treatment with strontium ranelate and ibandronate in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Stuss, Michał; Sewerynek, Ewa; Król, Iwona; Stępień-Kłos, Wioletta; Jędrzejczyk, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitative changes in OPG and RANKL proteins after treatment with strontium ranelate (SR) and ibandronate in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. A total of 89 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO), aged 51-85 years, patients of the Outpatient Clinic of Osteoporosis of the Military Teaching Hospital in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to different therapies: ibandronate and (SR). Patients of the control group received only calcium and vitamin D3 supplements. The patients' visits were repeated after three and six months. Measurements of beta-CTX (C-terminal Telopeptide of type 1 collagen), osteocalcin, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase concentrations in serum, as well as of total 24-hour calcium and phosphate levels in serum and urine, were carried out in material collected at baseline and after three and six months of therapy. Left hip and lumbar spine densitometry was done twice (at baseline visit and after six months). In all three groups there were no significant differences noted in the concentrations of OPG and RANKL serum protein levels during the study period. Both negative and positive correlations or tendencies of correlations were found between OPG serum concentrations and BMD changes in the SR group. Both ibandronate and SR do not seem to cause any significant changes in OPG and RANKL protein serum levels during the first six months of treatment. OPG may play a role in osteoclast activity suppression in the course of treatment with ibandronate in patients with PO. OPG may play an important role in the mechanism of SR therapy and may be viewed as a potentially valuable parameter for monitoring and predicting the course of treatment with SR in PO.

  5. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    SciT

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M.; Universidad de la Sierra Sur, C. P. 70800, Miahuatlan, Oax.

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible tomore » detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.« less

  6. The effects of thyrotropin-suppressing therapy on bone metabolism in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Min-Hee; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Baek, Ki Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Studies on the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) therapy on bone and bone metabolism have yielded conflicting results. This 1-year prospective study examined whether LT4 in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a risk factor for bone mass loss and the subsequent development of osteoporosis. We examined 93 patients with DTC over 12months after initiating LT4 therapy (early postoperative period). We examined another 33 patients on long-term LT4 therapy for DTC (late postoperative period). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and after 1year. The mean bone losses during the early postoperative period in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip, calculated as the percentage change between levels at baseline and 12months, were -0.88, -1.3 and -0.81%, respectively. Bone loss was more evident in postmenopausal women (lumbar spine -2.1%, femoral neck -2.2%, and hip -2.1%; all P<0.05). We compared the changes in annual bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women according to calcium/vitamin D supplementation. Bone loss tended to be higher in the postmenopausal women receiving no supplementation. There was no decrease in BMD among patients during the late postoperative period. The mean bone loss was generally greater in the early than in the late postoperative group, and this was significant at the lumbar spine (P=0.041) and femoral neck (P=0.010). TSH-suppressive levothyroxine therapy accelerates bone loss, predominantly in postmenopausal women and exclusively during the early post-thyroidectomy period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Winnard, Paul T; Dasari, Sidarth; Kominsky, Scott L; Doucet, Michele; Jayaraman, Swaathi; Raman, Venu; Barman, Ishan

    2018-01-21

    Breast neoplasms frequently colonize bone and induce development of osteolytic bone lesions by disrupting the homeostasis of the bone microenvironment. This degenerative process can lead to bone pain and pathological bone fracture, a major cause of cancer morbidity and diminished quality of life, which is exacerbated by our limited ability to monitor early metastatic disease in bone and assess fracture risk. Spurred by its label-free, real-time nature and its exquisite molecular specificity, we employed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy to assess and quantify early metastasis driven biochemical alterations to bone composition. As early as two weeks after intracardiac inoculations of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in NOD-SCID mice, Raman spectroscopic measurements in the femur and spine revealed consistent changes in carbonate substitution, overall mineralization as well as crystallinity increase in tumor-bearing bones when compared with their normal counterparts. Our observations reveal the possibility of early stage detection of biochemical changes in the tumor-bearing bones - significantly before morphological variations are captured through radiographic diagnosis. This study paves the way for a better molecular understanding of altered bone remodeling in such metastatic niches, and for further clinical studies with the goal of establishing a non-invasive tool for early metastasis detection and prediction of pathological fracture risk in breast cancer.

  8. Assessment of postmenopausal women and significant risk factors for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, Peter F; Marakovits, Kimberly A; O'Sullivan, David M

    2010-09-01

    The assessment of osteoporosis risk factors can help guide early intervention. The objective of this study was to analyze numerous potential risk factors to see which were associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Women aged 49 or greater presenting for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scans were recruited from radiology sites in the Hartford, Connecticut, area between January 2007 and March 2009, inclusive. Information was collected regarding primary and secondary risk factors for osteoporosis development, as well as family history and history of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Survey results were subsequently correlated with each woman's dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan results. In a sample of 619 women, history of fracture (odds ratio [OR], 12.49), weight less than 127 pounds (OR, 3.50), and use of anticoagulants (OR, 5.40) increased the chance of developing osteoporosis. In contrast, multiparity (OR, 0.45) and history of breast-feeding (OR, 0.38) decreased the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In women aged 49 to 54, breast-feeding was significantly protective, while low body mass index was most indicative of osteoporosis in women ages 55 to 64. Both previous fracture and low body mass index were associated with osteoporosis in women over age 64. The current results are consistent with other studies suggesting that previous fracture, low body weight, and use of anticoagulants increase the risk of osteoporosis. Our results also suggest that a history of pregnancy and breast-feeding protects against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in women aged 49 to 54.

  9. The Osteogenic Niche Promotes Early-Stage Bone Colonization of Disseminated Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Yu, Cuijuan; Gao, Xia; Welte, Thomas; Muscarella, Aaron M.; Tian, Lin; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Zhen; Du, Shiyu; Tao, Jianning; Lee, Brendan; Westbrook, Thomas F.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Jin, Xin; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Osborne, C. Kent; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer bone micrometastases can remain asymptomatic for years before progressing into overt lesions. The biology of this process, including the microenvironment niche and supporting pathways, is unclear. We find that bone micrometastases predominantly reside in a niche that exhibits features of osteogenesis. Niche interactions are mediated by heterotypic adherens junctions (hAJs) involving cancer-derived E-cadherin and osteogenic N-cadherin, the disruption of which abolishes niche-conferred advantages. We further elucidate that hAJ activates the mTOR pathway in cancer cells, which drives the progression from single cells to micrometastases. Human datasets analyses support the roles of AJ and the mTOR pathway in bone colonization. Our study illuminates the initiation of bone colonization, and provides potential therapeutic targets to block progression toward osteolytic metastases. Significance In advanced stages, breast cancer bone metastases are driven by paracrine crosstalk among cancer cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, which constitute a vicious osteolytic cycle. Current therapies targeting this process limit tumor progression, but do not improve patient survival. On the other hand, bone micrometastases may remain indolent for years before activating the vicious cycle, providing a therapeutic opportunity to prevent macrometastases. Here, we show that bone colonization is initiated in a microenvironment niche exhibiting active osteogenesis. Cancer and osteogenic cells form heterotypic adherens junctions, which enhance mTOR activity and drive early-stage bone colonization prior to osteolysis. These results reveal a strong connection between osteogenesis and micrometastasis and suggest potential therapeutic targets to prevent bone macrometastases. PMID:25600338

  10. Early bone anchorage to micro- and nano-topographically complex implant surfaces in hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Elnaz; Bell, Spencer; Liddell, Robert S; Davies, John E

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of implant surface design on early bone anchorage in the presence of hyperglycemia. 108 Wistar rats were separated into euglycemic (EG) controls and STZ-treated hyperglycemic (HG) groups, and received bilateral femoral custom rectangular implants of two surface topographies: grit blasted (GB) and grit-blast with a superimposed calcium phosphate nanotopography (GB-DCD). The peri-implant bone was subjected to a tensile disruption test 5, 7, and 9days post-operatively (n=28/time point); the force was measured; and the residual peri-implant bone was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Disruption forces at 5days were not significantly different from zero for the GB implants (p=0.24) in either metabolic group; but were for GB+DCD implants in both metabolic groups (p<0.001). Contact osteogenesis was greater on GB-DCD than the GB surface. The nano-and micro-surfaced implants showed significantly different disruption forces at all time points (e.g. >15N and <5N respectively at 9days). Such differences were not seen within the GB implants, as all values were very low (<5N). Even in hyperglycemia the GB-DCD surface outperformed the GB surfaces in both metabolic groups. Significantly, SEM of peri-implant bone showed compromised intra-fibrillar collagen mineralization in hyperglycemia, while inter-fibrillar and cement line mineralization remained unaffected. Enhanced bone anchorage to the implant surfaces was observed on the nanotopographically complex surface independent of metabolic group. The compromised intra-fibrillar mineralization observed provides a mechanism by which early bone mineralization is affected in hyperglycemia. It is generally accepted that the hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus compromises bone quality, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia is therefore a contra-indication for bone implant placement. It is also known that nano

  11. Influence of patient and tumor characteristics on early therapy persistence with letrozole in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: results of the prospective Evaluate-TM study with 3941 patients.

    PubMed

    Nabieva, N; Kellner, S; Fehm, T; Häberle, L; de Waal, J; Rezai, M; Baier, B; Baake, G; Kolberg, H-C; Guggenberger, M; Warm, M; Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R; Deuker, J-U; Dall, P; Richter, B; Wachsmann, G; Brucker, C; Siebers, J W; Fersis, N; Kuhn, T; Wolf, C; Vollert, H-W; Breitbach, G-P; Janni, W; Landthaler, R; Kohls, A; Rezek, D; Noesselt, T; Fischer, G; Henschen, S; Praetz, T; Heyl, V; Kühn, T; Krauss, T; Thomssen, C; Hohn, A; Tesch, H; Mundhenke, C; Hein, A; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Jacob, A; Schmidt, K; Belleville, E; Brucker, S Y; Kümmel, S; Beckmann, M W; Wallwiener, D; Hadji, P; Fasching, P A

    2018-01-01

    Patients' compliance and persistence with endocrine treatment has a significant effect on the prognosis in early breast cancer (EBC). The purpose of this analysis was to identify possible reasons for non-persistence, defined as premature cessation of therapy, on the basis of patient and tumor characteristics in individuals receiving adjuvant treatment with letrozole. The EvAluate-TM study is a prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study in which treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole was evaluated in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive EBC in the early therapy phase. Treatment persistence was evaluated at two pre-specified study visits after 6 and 12 months. As a measure of early therapy persistence the time from the start to the end of treatment (TTEOT) was analyzed. Cox regression analyses were carried out to identify patient characteristics and tumor characteristics predicting TTEOT. Out of the total population of 3941 patients with EBC, 540 (13.7%) events involving treatment cessation unrelated to disease progression were observed. This was due to drug-related toxicity in the majority of cases (73.5%). Persistence rates were 92.2%, 86.9%, and 86.3% after 6, 12, and 15 months, respectively. The main factors influencing premature treatment discontinuation were older age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.02/year], comorbidities (HR 1.06 per comorbidity), low body mass index, and lower tumor grade (HR 0.85 per grade unit). These results support the view that older, multimorbid patients with low tumor grade and low body mass index are at the greatest risk for treatment discontinuation and might benefit from compliance and support programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.
METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.
CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has

  13. Early arthritis induces disturbances at bone nanostructural level reflected in decreased tissue hardness in an animal model of arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cascão, Rita; Finnilä, Mikko A. J.; Lopes, Inês P.; Saarakkala, Simo; Zioupos, Peter; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Arthritis induces joint erosions and skeletal bone fragility. Objectives The main goal of this work was to analyze the early arthritis induced events at bone architecture and mechanical properties at tissue level. Methods Eighty-eight Wistar rats were randomly housed in experimental groups, as follows: adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) (N = 47) and a control healthy group (N = 41). Rats were monitored during 22 days for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight and sacrificed at different time points (11 and 22 days post disease induction). Bone samples were collected for histology, micro computed tomography (micro-CT), 3-point bending and nanoindentation. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers and systemic cytokine quantification. Results At bone tissue level, measured by nanoindentation, there was a reduction of hardness in the arthritic group, associated with an increase of the ratio of bone concentric to parallel lamellae and of the area of the osteocyte lacuna. In addition, increased bone turnover and changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties were observed in arthritic animals, since the early phase of arthritis, when compared with healthy controls. Conclusion We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induces very early changes at bone turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness. Bone tissue level is also affected since the early phase of arthritis, characterized by decreased tissue hardness associated with changes in bone lamella organization and osteocyte lacuna surface. These observations highlight the pertinence of immediate control of inflammation in the initial stages of arthritis. PMID:29315314

  14. Kaempferol stimulates bone sialoprotein gene transcription and new bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Takai, Hideki; Utsunomiya, Tadahiko; Li, Xinyue; Li, Zhengyang; Wang, Zhitao; Wang, Shuang; Sasaki, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2010-08-15

    Kaempferol is a typical flavonol-type flavonoid that is present in a variety of vegetables and fruits, and has a protective effect on postmenopausal bone loss. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone and could be crucial for osteoblast differentiation, bone matrix mineralization and tumor metastasis. In the present study we investigated the regulation of BSP transcription by kaempferol in rat osteoblast-like UMR106 cells, and the effect of kaempferol on new bone formation. Kaempferol (5 microM) increased BSP and Osterix mRNA levels at 12 h and up-regulated Runx2 mRNA expression at 6 h. Kaempferol increased luciferase activity of the construct pLUC3, which including the promoter sequence between nucleotides -116 to +60. Transcriptional stimulation by kaempferol abrogated in constructs included 2 bp mutations in the inverted CCAAT, CRE, and FRE elements. Gel shift analyses showed that kaempferol increased nuclear protein binding to CRE and FRE elements, whereas the CCAAT-protein complex did not change after kaempferol stimulation. Twelve daily injections of 5 microM kaempferol directly into the periosteum of parietal bones of newborn rats increased new bone formation. These data suggest that kaempferol increased BSP gene transcription mediated through inverted CCAAT, CRE, and FRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter, and could induce osteoblast activities in the early stage of bone formation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Clavicular bone tunnel malposition leads to early failures in coracoclavicular ligament reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jay B; Shaha, James S; Rowles, Douglas J; Bottoni, Craig R; Shaha, Steven H; Tokish, John M

    2013-01-01

    Modern techniques for the treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations have largely centered on free tendon graft reconstructions. Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that an anatomic reconstruction with 2 clavicular bone tunnels more closely matches the properties of native coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments than more traditional techniques. No study has analyzed tunnel position in regard to risk of early failure. To evaluate the effect of clavicular tunnel position in CC ligament reconstruction as a risk of early failure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of CC ligament reconstructions performed with 2 clavicular bone tunnels and a free tendon graft. The population was largely a young, active-duty military group of patients. Radiographs were analyzed for the maintenance of reduction and location of clavicular bone tunnels using a picture archiving and communication system. The distance from the lateral border of the clavicle to the center of each bone tunnel was divided by the total clavicular length to establish a ratio. Medical records were reviewed for operative details and functional outcome. Failure was defined as loss of intraoperative reduction. The overall failure rate was 28.6% (8/28) at an average of 7.4 weeks postoperatively. Comparison of bone tunnel position showed that medialized bone tunnels were a significant predictor for early loss of reduction for the conoid (a ratio of 0.292 vs 0.248; P = .012) and trapezoid bone tunnels (a ratio of 0.171 vs 0.128; P = .004); this correlated to an average of 7 to 9 mm more medial in the reconstructions that failed. Reconstructions performed with a conoid ratio of ≥0.30 were significantly more likely to fail (5/5, 100%) than were those performed lateral to a ratio of 0.30 (3/23, 13.0%) (P < .01). There were no failures when the conoid ratio was <0.25 (0/10, 0%). Conoid tunnel placement was also statistically significant for

  16. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1 g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8 h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8 h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8 h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8 h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover.

  17. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Leuzzi, Chiara; Modena, Maria Grazia

    2011-03-01

    Hypertension is the most common chronic disease in industrialized countries and represents the most common major cardiovascular risk factor after the fifth decade of life in both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension is lower in premenopausal women than men, whereas in postmenopausal women it is higher than in men. Mechanisms responsible for the increase in blood pressure are complex and multifactorial, including loss of estrogen, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, modification in renin-angiotensin system spillover and sympathetic activation. In addition, postmenopausal hypertension can be considered an isolated disease, more typical of elderly women, or part of the metabolic syndrome, which is indeed more common in early postmenopausal women. In particular, metabolic syndrome may be considered a potentially unfavourable prognostic factor in hypertensive postmenopausal women, because it seems to worsen the severity of hypertension and reduce the capacity to respond to specific treatments. This article summarizes the different causes of postmenopausal hypertension and the specific treatment recommended by guidelines for this condition.

  18. Early human bone response to laser metal sintering surface topography: a histologic report.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; d'Avila, Susana; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2010-01-01

    This histologic report evaluated the early human bone response to a direct laser metal sintering implant surface retrieved after a short period of healing. A selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 25-45 microm prepared this surface topography. One experimental microimplant was inserted into the anterior mandible of a patient during conventional implant surgery of the jaw. The microimplant and surrounding tissues were removed after 2 months of unloaded healing and were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Histologically, the peri-implant bone appeared in close contact with the implant surface, whereas marrow spaces could be detected in other areas along with prominently stained cement lines. The mean of bone-to-implant contact was 69.51%. The results of this histologic report suggest that the laser metal sintering surface could be a promising alternative to conventional implant surface topographies.

  19. A roadmap to the brittle bones of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gore, Ashwini P; Kwon, Soon Ho; Stenbit, Antine E

    2010-12-16

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder which despite advances in medical care continues to be a life-limiting and often fatal disease. With increase in life expectancy of the CF population, bone disease has emerged as a common complication. Unlike the osteoporosis seen in postmenopausal population, bone disease in CF begins at a young age and is associated with significant morbidity due to fractures, kyphosis, increased pain, and decreased lung function. The maintenance of bone health is essential for the CF population during their lives to prevent pain and fractures but also as they approach lung transplantation since severe bone disease can lead to exclusion from lung transplantation. Early recognition, prevention, and treatment are key to maintaining optimal bone health in CF patients and often require a multidisciplinary approach. This article will review the pathophysiology, current clinical practice guidelines, and potential future therapies for treating CF-related bone disease.

  20. Sink or swim? Bone density as a mechanism for buoyancy control in early cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Gray, Noel-Marie; Kainec, Kimberly; Madar, Sandra; Tomko, Lucas; Wolfe, Scott

    2007-06-01

    Previous analyses have shown that secondarily aquatic tetrapods, including whales, exhibit osteological adaptations to life in water as part of their complex buoyancy control systems. These structural specializations of bone span hyperostosis through osteoporosis. The past 15 years of paleontological effort has provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the osteological transformation of whales as they make their transition to an obligate aquatic lifestyle over a 10-million-year period. It is hypothesized that whales manifest their osteological specialization in the same manner as extant semiaquatic and fully aquatic mammals. This study presents and analysis of the microstructural features of bone in early and late archaic cetaceans, and in a comparative sample of modern terrestrial, semiaquatic, and aquatic mammals. Bone histology was examined from the ribs of 10 fossilized individuals representing five early cetacean families, including Pakicetidae, Ambulocetidae, Protocetidae, Remintonocetidae, and Basilosauridae. Comparisons were then made with rib histology from nine genera of extant mammals including: Odocoileus (deer), Bos (cow), Equus (horse), Canis (dog), Lutra (river otter), Enhydra (sea otter), Choeropsis (pygmy hippo), Trichechus (sea cow), and Delphinus (dolphin). Results show that the transition from terrestrial, to semiaquatic, to obligate aquatic locomotion in archaeocetes involved a radical shift in bone function achieved by means of profound changes at the microstructural level. A surprising finding was that microstructural change predates gross anatomical shift in archaeocetes associated with swimming. Histological analysis shows that high bone density is an aquatic specialization that provides static buoyancy control (ballast) for animals living in shallow water, while low bone density is associated with dynamic buoyancy control for animals living in deep water. Thus, there was a shift from the typical terrestrial form, to osteopetrosis

  1. Short Stature, Accelerated Bone Maturation, and Early Growth Cessation Due to Heterozygous Aggrecan Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ola; Guo, Michael H.; Dunbar, Nancy; Popovic, Jadranka; Flynn, Daniel; Jacobsen, Christina; Lui, Julian C.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many children with idiopathic short stature have a delayed bone age. Idiopathic short stature with advanced bone age is far less common. Objective: The aim was to identify underlying genetic causes of short stature with advanced bone age. Setting and Design: We used whole-exome sequencing to study three families with autosomal-dominant short stature, advanced bone age, and premature growth cessation. Results: Affected individuals presented with short stature [adult heights −2.3 to −4.2 standard deviation scores (SDS)] with histories of early growth cessation or childhood short stature (height SDS −1.9 to −3.5 SDS), advancement of bone age, and normal endocrine evaluations. Whole-exome sequencing identified novel heterozygous variants in ACAN, which encodes aggrecan, a proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix of growth plate and other cartilaginous tissues. The variants were present in all affected, but in no unaffected, family members. In Family 1, a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 (c.272delA) was identified, which is predicted to cause early truncation of the aggrecan protein. In Family 2, a base-pair substitution was found in a highly conserved location within a splice donor site (c.2026+1G>A), which is also likely to alter the amino acid sequence of a large portion of the protein. In Family 3, a missense variant (c.7064T>C) in exon 14 affects a highly conserved residue (L2355P) and is strongly predicted to perturb protein function. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that heterozygous mutations in ACAN can cause a mild skeletal dysplasia, which presents clinically as short stature with advanced bone age. The accelerating effect on skeletal maturation has not previously been noted in the few prior reports of human ACAN mutations. Our findings thus expand the spectrum of ACAN defects and provide a new molecular genetic etiology for the unusual child who presents with short stature and accelerated skeletal maturation. PMID:24762113

  2. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H; Enderby, Larry T; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Witt-Enderby, Paula A

    2017-01-26

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases.

  3. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H.; Enderby, Larry T.; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M.; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Witt-Enderby, Paula A.

    2017-01-01

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases. PMID:28130552

  4. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  5. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early matrix change of a nanostructured bone grafting substitute in the rat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiguo; Holzhüter, Gerd; Sorg, Heiko; Wolter, Daniel; Lenz, Solvig; Gerber, Thomas; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2009-11-01

    A nanocrystalline bone substitute embedded in a highly porous silica gel matrix (NanoBone) has previously been shown to bridge bone defects by an organic matrix. As the initial host response on the bone graft substitute might be a determinant for subsequent bone formation, our present purpose was to characterize the early tissue reaction on this biomaterial. After implantation of 80 mg of NanoBone into the adipose neck tissue of a total of 35 rats, grafts were harvested for subsequent analysis at days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 21. The biomaterial was found encapsulated by granulation tissue which partly penetrated the implant at day 3 and completely pervaded the graft at day 12 on implantation. Histology revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive giant cells covering the biomaterial. ED1 (CD68) immunopositivity of these cells further indicated their osteoclast-like phenotype. Scanning electron microscopy revealed organic tissue components within the periphery of the graft already at day 9, whereas the central hematoma region still presented the silica-surface of the biomaterial. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy further demonstrated that the silica gel was degraded faster in the peripheral granulation tissue than in the central hematoma and was replaced by organic host components by day 12. In conclusion, the silica gel matrix is rapidly replaced by carbohydrate macromolecules. This might represent a key step in the process of graft degradation on its way toward induction of bone formation. The unique composition and structure of this nanoscaled biomaterial seem to support its degradation by host osteoclast-like giant cells.

  7. Early life vitamin D depletion alters the postnatal response to skeletal loading in growing and mature bone

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Harriet; Owen, Robert; Marin, Ana Campos; Lu, Yongtau; Eyles, Darryl; Lacroix, Damien; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Skerry, Tim M.; Bishop, Nick J.

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of persistent effects of early life vitamin D exposure on later skeletal health; linking low levels in early life to smaller bone size in childhood as well as increased fracture risk later in adulthood, independently of later vitamin D status. A major determinant of bone mass acquisition across all ages is mechanical loading. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model system that early life vitamin D depletion results in abrogation of the response to mechanical loading, with consequent reduction in bone size, mass and strength during both childhood and adulthood. A murine model was created in which pregnant dams were either vitamin D deficient or replete, and their offspring moved to a vitamin D replete diet at weaning. Tibias of the offspring were mechanically loaded and bone structure, extrinsic strength and growth measured both during growth and after skeletal maturity. Offspring of vitamin D deplete mice demonstrated lower bone mass in the non loaded limb and reduced bone mass accrual in response to loading in both the growing skeleton and after skeletal maturity. Early life vitamin D depletion led to reduced bone strength and altered bone biomechanical properties. These findings suggest early life vitamin D status may, in part, determine the propensity to osteoporosis and fracture that blights later life in many individuals. PMID:29370213

  8. Reduced bone mass in Dutch adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life.

    PubMed

    Parsons, T J; van Dusseldorp, M; van der Vliet, M; van de Werken, K; Schaafsma, G; van Staveren, W A

    1997-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of a macrobiotic (vegan-type) diet, low in calcium and vitamin D, consumed in early life, on bone mineral during adolescence. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area were measured in 195 adolescents (103 girls, 92 boys) aged 9-15 years, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ninety-three adolescents (43 girls, 50 boys) had followed a macrobiotic diet in childhood, and 102 (60 girls, 42 boys) were control subjects. After adjustment for bone area, weight, height, percent body lean, age, and puberty, BMC was significantly lower in macrobiotic subjects, in boys and girls, respectively, at the whole body, -3.4% and -2.5%, spine, -8.5% and -5.0%, femoral neck, -8.0% and -8.2%, midshaft radius, -6.8% and -5.6%, and also in girls, at the trochanter, -5.8% (p < 0.05). No group differences were observed at the wrist. Group differences were not explained by current calcium adjusted bone mass at age 9-15 years, observations which may hold important implications for fracture risk in later life.

  9. [Early application of the antibiotic-laden bone cement (ALBC) combined with the external fixation support in treating the open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defect].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian; Mao, Zhao-Guang; Zhu, Hui-Hua; Guo, Liang

    2017-03-25

    To discuss the curative effect of the early application of the antibiotic-laden bone cement (ALBC) combined with the external fixation support in treating the open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defect. From December 2013 to January 2015, 36 cases of lower limb open comminuted fractures complicated with bone defects were treated by the vancomycin ALBC combined with the external fixation support, including 26 males and 10 females with an average age of 38.0 years old ranging from 19 to 65 years old. The included cases were all open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defects with different degree of soft tissue injuries. Among them, 25 cases were tibial fractures, 11 cases were femoral fractures. The radiographs indicated a presence of bone defects, which ranged from 3.0 to 6.1 cm with an average of 4.0 cm. The Gustilo classification of open fractures:24 cases were type IIIA, 12 cases were typr IIIB. The percentage of wound infection, bone grafting time, fracture healing time and postoperative joint function of lower limb were observed. The function of injured limbs was evaluated at 1 month after the clinical healing of fracture based on Paley evaluation criterion. All cases were followed up for 3 to 24 months with an average of (6.0±3.0) months. The wound surface was healed well, neither bone infections nor unhealed bone defects were presented. The reoperation of bone grafting was done at 6 weeks after the patients received an early treatment with ALBC, some of them were postponed to 8 weeks till the approximate healing of fractures, the treatment course lasted for 4 to 8 months w