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Sample records for early postmenopausal women

  1. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT.

  2. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  3. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  4. Apolipoprotein E genotype and cognitive function in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Koleck, Theresa A; Bender, Catherine M; Sereika, Susan M; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Jankowitz, Rachel C; McGuire, Kandace P; Ryan, Christopher M; Conley, Yvette P

    2014-11-01

    To examine the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype in the cognitive function of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer prior to initiation of adjuvant therapy and over time with treatment. Longitudinal, genetic association study. Urban university cancer center. Three cohorts of postmenopausal women: 37 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and anastrozole, 41 women with breast cancer receiving anastrozole alone, and 50 healthy women. Cognitive function was evaluated three times during a 12-month period using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Participants were genotyped and classified based on the presence or absence of at least one APOE e4 allele. Multiple linear regression was used to determine if APOE genotype accounted for observed variability in cognitive function data. APOE genotype, breast cancer treatment, and cognitive function. Performance or changes in performance on tasks of executive function, attention, verbal learning and memory, and visual learning and memory were found to be influenced by APOE genotype and/or interactions between APOE genotype and study cohort. The results indicate that cognitive function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer is modified by APOE genotype and the combination of APOE genotype and treatment. APOE genotype, along with other biomarkers, may be used in the future to assist nurses in identifying women with breast cancer most at risk for cognitive decline.

  5. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Cognitive Function in Postmenopausal Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koleck, Theresa A.; Bender, Catherine M.; Sereika, Susan M.; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; McGuire, Kandace P.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Conley, Yvette P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype in the cognitive function of post-menopausal women with early-stage breast cancer prior to initiation of adjuvant therapy and over time with treatment. Design Longitudinal, genetic association study. Setting Urban university cancer center. Sample Three cohorts of postmenopausal women: 37 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and anastrozole, 41 women with breast cancer receiving anastrozole alone, and 50 healthy women. Methods Cognitive function was evaluated three times during a 12-month period using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Participants were genotyped and classified based on the presence or absence of at least one APOE ε4 allele. Multiple linear regression was used to determine if APOE genotype accounted for observed variability in cognitive function data. Main Research Variables APOE genotype, breast cancer treatment, and cognitive function. Findings Performance or changes in performance on tasks of executive function, attention, verbal learning and memory, and visual learning and memory were found to be influenced by APOE genotype and/or interactions between APOE genotype and study cohort. Conclusions The results indicate that cognitive function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer is modified by APOE genotype and the combination of APOE genotype and treatment. Implications for Nursing APOE genotype, along with other biomarkers, may be used in the future to assist nurses in identifying women with breast cancer most at risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25355028

  6. Aromatase inhibitors and their future role in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Lønning, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Anastrozole is the first aromatase inhibitor to show a significant survival advantage over megestrol acetate in post-menopausal women with advanced breast cancer. The rationale for extending the use of aromatase inhibitors to the treatment of early breast cancer is based on the efficacy observed in the advanced setting, combined with good tolerability and a convenient dosing regimen. Furthermore, oestrogen deprivation by ovarian ablation (similar to oestrogen antagonism with tamoxifen) is already established as an effective adjuvant treatment in premenopausal women with modality breast cancer. Anastrozole produces a profound suppression of plasma oestrogen levels which is greater than that obtained with earlier aromatase inhibitors (formestane, aminoglutethimide) or megestrol acetate. This could account for the differences in clinical efficacy seen between anastrozole and megestrol acetate. In terms of benefits over other endocrine agents, anastrozole causes significantly less weight gain than megestrol acetate; it does not have the partial agonist activity of tamoxifen, and is unlikely to lead to tumour stimulation in patients resistant to tamoxifen or to exert proliferative effects on the endometrium. The lack of oestrogen agonist activity, however, may possibly have detrimental effects on bone mineral density and blood lipid profile. Current clinical trials are investigating the efficacy and safety of anastrozole in the early breast cancer setting. The results of these trials will help to determine whether anastrozole has any benefits over tamoxifen, the current treatment of choice in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer. PMID:9741783

  7. Anastrozole Use in Early Stage Breast Cancer of Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Monica; Jha, Gautam; Potter, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The majority of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor and depend on estradiol (E2) for their growth. Hormonal therapy aims at depriving estrogen signaling either by using selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)—that interfere with the binding of E2 to its receptor (ER)—or aromatase inhibitors (AI)—that block the aromatase-dependent synthesis of E2. While SERMs are recommended for both pre- and post-menopausal patients, AIs are indicated only for post-menopausal patients. For the past 20 years, the SERM tamoxifen has been considered the “gold standard” for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancers. However, tamoxifen’s role is now challenged by third generation AIs, such as anastrozole, which exhibit greater efficacy in the adjuvant setting in several recently reported trials. This review will focus on anastrozole’s mechanism of action, dosing, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical applications. It will briefly discuss the clinical trials that determined anastrozole’s efficacy in the treatment of advanced breast cancer (ABC) and in the neoadjuvant setting. Finally, it will present the clinical trials that established anastrozole as a frontline agent in the treatment of post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer. PMID:19794821

  8. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  9. Cost effectiveness of fracture prevention in postmenopausal women who receive aromatase inhibitors for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kouta; Blinder, Victoria S; Elkin, Elena B

    2012-05-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) increase the risk of osteoporosis and related fractures in postmenopausal women who receive adjuvant AIs for hormone receptor (HR) -positive early breast cancer (EBC). We compared the cost effectiveness of alternative screening and treatment strategies for fracture prevention. We developed a Markov state transition model to simulate clinical practice and outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of women age 60 years with HR-positive EBC starting a 5-year course of AI therapy after primary surgery for breast cancer. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), lifetime cost, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). We compared the following strategies: no intervention; one-time bone mineral density (BMD) screening and selective bisphosphonate therapy in women with osteoporosis or osteopenia; annual BMD screening and selective bisphosphonate therapy in women with osteoporosis or osteopenia; and universal bisphosphonate therapy. ICERs for annual BMD screening followed by oral bisphosphonates for those with osteoporosis, annual BMD screening followed by oral bisphosphonates for those with osteopenia, and universal treatment with oral bisphosphonates were $87,300, $129,300, and $283,600 per QALY gained, respectively. One-time BMD screening followed by oral bisphosphonates for those with osteoporosis or osteopenia was dominated. Our results were sensitive to age at the initiation of AI therapy, type of bisphosphonates, post-treatment residual effect of bisphosphonates, and a potential adjuvant benefit of intravenous bisphosphonates. In postmenopausal women receiving adjuvant AIs for HR-positive EBC, a policy of baseline and annual BMD screening followed by selective treatment with oral bisphosphonates for those diagnosed with osteoporosis is a cost-effective use of societal resources.

  10. Effect of hormone therapy on exercise capacity in early postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mercuro, Giuseppe; Saiu, Francesca; Deidda, Martino; Mercuro, Silvia; Vitale, Cristiana; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2007-10-01

    To compare the exercise capacity of postmenopausal women with matched premenopausal controls, as well as postmenopausal women before and after 3 months of hormone therapy (HT). This study examined the response to strenuous isotonic exercise in 30 women with recently developed menopause (age, mean+/-standard deviation, 50.6+/-1.1 years) without cardiovascular risk factors or diseases. Thirty premenopausal subjects, matched one-to-one for age and biophysical characteristics, were the control group. Postmenopausal women underwent examination before (T(0)) and 3 months after (T(1)) HT (oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate/day) with high-resolution ultrasound determination of peripheral flow-mediated vasodilation and an integrative cardiopulmonary test. Postmenopausal women showed an impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation (P<.001) in the radial artery and a worsening of physical performance, primarily exemplified by lower maximal workload (P<.01) and peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)max, P<.001) compared with premenopausal women. After 3 months on HT, ergometabolic parameters and vasodilation reserve were at a level comparable to premenopausal women. Flow-mediated vasodilation measurements after 3 months on HT significantly correlated with those of peak oxygen consumption (r=0.77, P<.001) and the ratio between the increase in oxygen consumption and that in work rate (DeltaVo(2)/DeltaWR) (r=0.73, P<.001). The peripheral circulation is the limiting system in postmenopausal women experiencing exercise intolerance, and there are benefits in introducing HT.

  11. Exercise for health for early postmenopausal women: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, Tuula-Maria; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Miilunpalo, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    Women who pass menopause face many changes that may lead to loss of health-related fitness (HRF), especially if sedentary. Many exercise recommendations are also relevant for early postmenopausal women; however, these may not meet their specific needs because the recommendations are based mainly on studies on men. We conducted a systematic review for randomised, controlled exercise trials on postmenopausal women (aged 50 to 65 years) on components of HRF. HRF consists of morphological fitness (body composition and bone strength), musculoskeletal fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility), motor fitness (postural control), cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal aerobic power, blood pressure) and metabolic fitness (lipid and carbohydrate metabolism). The outcome variables chosen were: bodyweight; proportion of body fat of total bodyweight (F%); bone mineral density (BMD); bone mineral content (BMC); various tests on muscle performance, flexibility, balance and coordination; maximal oxygen consumption (V-dotO(2max)); resting blood pressure (BP); total cholesterol (TC); high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; triglycerides; blood glucose and insulin. The feasibility of the exercise programme was assessed from drop-out, attendance and injury rates. Twenty-eight randomised controlled trials with 2646 participants were assessed. In total, 18 studies reported on the effects of exercise on bodyweight and F%, 16 on BMD or BMC, 11 on muscular strength or endurance, five on flexibility, six on balance or coordination, 18 on V-dotO(2max), seven on BP, nine on lipids and two studies on glucose an one on insulin. Based on these studies, early postmenopausal women could benefit from 30 minutes of daily moderate walking in one to three bouts combined with a resistance training programme twice a week. For a sedentary person, walking is feasible and can be incorporated into everyday life. A feasible way to start resistance training is to

  12. [Clinical usefulness of biochemical markers of bone turnover in early postmenopausal women: two years longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Navarro Casado, Laura; Blázquez Cabrera, José Antonio; Del Pino Montes, Javier; Almar Marqués, Enrique; Cháfer Rudilla, Matilde; Mateos Rodríguez, Fernando

    2008-09-20

    Many studies have been performed on the ability of bone turnover markers (BTM) for the prediction of bone loss and to assess the correlation of BTM with bone mineral density (BMD). However, the results from these studies have been mixed. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of BTM to predict bone loss and to analize the correlation of BTM with BMD in early postmenopausal women. 183 healthy women, aged 50 to 55 years, with natural menopause of 6 to 36 months were randomly selected. We measured bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), intact osteocalcine (OC) and C-telopeptide (sCTx) in serum, and calcium, deoxipiridinoline (DPD) and N-telopeptide (NTx) in urine. Bone densitometry of the spine (L(2)-L(4)) was performed at the start of the study and two years later. Student t test, ANOVA, chi2 test and ROC curves were used for the statistical analysis. Bone markers, mainly OC and CTx, correlated with BMD and discriminated osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal bone mass (p < 0.001). According to the ROC curves, OC had a sensitivity of 77.8% and specificity of 80.6% for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and sCTx, 83.3% and 74.5%, respectively. Regarding the relation to bone loss, only sCTx showed difference between the lowest and the highest quartile (p = 0.042), but we did not find an association between high turnover and fast bone losers. Bone markers, mainly OC and sCTx, are useful for identification of osteoporotic and osteopenic early postmenopausal women. However, regarding the bone loss, only CTx has a weak predictive value.

  13. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  14. Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women. PMID:22427070

  15. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Early Discontinuation in Aromatase Inhibitor-Treated Postmenopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kadakia, Kunal C; Snyder, Claire F; Kidwell, Kelley M; Seewald, Nicholas J; Flockhart, David A; Skaar, Todd C; Desta, Zereunesay; Rae, James M; Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Storniolo, Anna M; Hayes, Daniel F; Stearns, Vered; Henry, N Lynn

    2016-05-01

    Early discontinuation of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is common and leads to poor outcomes but is challenging to predict. In the Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetics trial, a high rate of early discontinuation due to intolerance was observed. We hypothesized that early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) predict AI discontinuation and that biochemical factors are associated with changes in PROs. Postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer enrolled in a prospective randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole completed questionnaires at baseline and serially over 24 months to assess overall quality of life (EuroQOL Visual Analog Scale [VAS]); mood; and multiple symptoms, including a musculoskeletal symptom cluster. A joint mixed-effects/survival model was used to estimate the effect of the change in PROs on AI discontinuation. Associations between biochemical factors and change in PROs were examined. A total of 490 patients were analyzed. Worsening of EuroQOL VAS and the musculoskeletal cluster were associated with the highest risk for early discontinuation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.72-2.81; p = .015]; HR, 4.39 [95% CI, 2.40-8.02; p < .0001], respectively). Pharmacokinetics and estrogen metabolism were not consistently associated with change in PRO measures. No clinically significant differences in any PRO between AIs were observed. Changes in PROs early during AI therapy were associated with treatment discontinuation. Identification of these changes could be used to target interventions in patients at high risk for early discontinuation. Early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can predict nonpersistence to aromatase inhibitor therapy. If used in clinical practice, PROs might identify women at highest risk for early discontinuation and allow for interventions to improve tolerance before significant toxicities develop. Further research is needed to improve capturing PROs in routine clinical practice.

  16. Altered Brain Connectivity in Early Postmenopausal Women with Subjective Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Albert, Kimberly; Melo, Alyssa; Boyd, Brian; Dumas, Julie; Woodward, Neil; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Park, Joon H.; Naylor, Magdalena; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive changes after menopause are a common complaint, especially as the loss of estradiol at menopause has been hypothesized to contribute to the higher rates of dementia in women. To explore the neural processes related to subjective cognitive complaints, this study examined resting state functional connectivity in 31 postmenopausal women (aged 50–60) in relationship to cognitive complaints following menopause. A cognitive complaint index was calculated using responses to a 120-item questionnaire. Seed regions were identified for resting state brain networks important for higher-order cognitive processes and for areas that have shown differences in volume and functional activity associated with cognitive complaints in prior studies. Results indicated a positive correlation between the executive control network and cognitive complaint score, weaker negative functional connectivity within the frontal cortex, and stronger positive connectivity within the right middle temporal gyrus in postmenopausal women who report more cognitive complaints. While longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, these data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that high levels of cognitive complaints may reflect changes in brain connectivity and may be a potential marker for the risk of late-life cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women with otherwise normal cognitive performance. PMID:27721740

  17. Fracture risk prediction using BMD and clinical risk factors in early postmenopausal women: sensitivity of the WHO FRAX tool.

    PubMed

    Trémollieres, Florence A; Pouillès, Jean-Michel; Drewniak, Nicolas; Laparra, Jacques; Ribot, Claude A; Dargent-Molina, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was (1) to identify significant and independent clinical risk factors (CRFs) for major osteoporotic (OP) fracture among peri- and early postmenopausal women, (2) to assess, in this population, the discriminatory capacity of FRAX and bone mineral density (BMD) for the identification of women at high risk of fracture, and (3) to assess whether adding risk factors to either FRAX or BMD would improve discriminatory capacity. The study population included 2651 peri- and early postmenopausal women [mean age (+/- SD): 54 +/- 4 years] with a mean follow-up period of 13.4 years (+/-1.4 years). At baseline, a large set of CRFs was recorded, and vertebral BMD was measured (Lunar, DPX) in all women. Femoral neck BMD also was measured in 1399 women in addition to spine BMD. Women with current or past OP treatment for more than 3 months at baseline (n = 454) were excluded from the analyses. Over the follow-up period, 415 women sustained a first low-energy fracture, including 145 major OP fractures (108 wrist, 44 spine, 20 proximal humerus, and 13 hip). In Cox multivariate regression models, only 3 CRFs were significant predictors of a major OP fracture independent of BMD and age: a personal history of fracture, three or more pregnancies, and current postmenopausal hormone therapy. In the subsample of women who had a hip BMD measurement and who were not receiving OP therapy (including hormone-replacement therapy) at baseline, mean FRAX value was 3.8% (+/-2.4%). The overall discriminative value for fracture, as measured by the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), was equal to 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.69] and 0.66 (95% CI 0.60-0.73), respectively, for FRAX and hip BMD. Sensitivity of both tools was low (ie, around 50% for 30% of the women classified as the highest risk). Adding parity to the predictive model including FRAX or using a simple risk score based on the best predictive model in our

  18. P17 - Early Menopause Influences Osteopenic or Osteoporotic Status in Postmenopausal Women: Preliminary Results from the Prof Project

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, P.; Rigliano, V.; Neglia, C.; Chitano, G.; Argentiero, A.; Paladini, D.; Mundi, S.; Paladini, L.; Greco, M.; Girasoli, C.; Gianicolo, M. E.; Pantile, V.; Argentiero, D.; De Padova, G.; Nibio, L.; Pansa, L.; Di Giuseppe, P.; Minosi, A.; Cirasino, L.; Laselva, G.; Scialpi, M.; D’Angela, D.; Benvenuto, M.; Brandi, M. L.; Distante, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: There is evidence that demographic trends in Southern Apulia are characterised by a huge proportion of elderly people relative to the general population, resulting in an ageing index which is higher than that recorded in other Southern Italian regions and/or sub-regions. Within the PROF (Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures) project, which aims to foster synergistic efforts between researchers and clinicians, we investigated the correlation between early menopause and osteopenic or osteoporotic status in postmenopausal women by quantitative bone ultrasound evaluation (QUS). Methods: In a period of almost six years (2004–2010), 5665 postmenopausal women (mean age 55, ranging from 39 to 84) were screened by QUS at either the heel or the phalanx. Demographic and anamnestic data were recorded for all the patients, including BMI, nutrition, menopause, physical activity, previous fractures, familial fragility fractures. Three categories of demineralisation were identified: a) Demineralisation, when any T-score <−1.0 SD was observed; b) Severe demineralisation, whenever a T-score <−2.0 was observed, corresponding to a higher risk of fracture; c) Osteoporosis, whenever a T-score <−2.5±0.2 (for the heel) or T-score <−3.2±0.2 (for the phalanx) was observed. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed in order to assess the correlation between early menopause (<45 years of age) and the osteopenic or osteoporotic status of the patients. Results: Of the 5665 subjects examined overall, demineralisation was observed in 4487 subjects (79%), with severe osteopenia or osteoporotic status being documented in 2823 women (50%) and frank osteoporotic status in 846 (15%). In total, of 1169 women reporting an early menopause, 937 showed demineralisation corresponding to at least an osteopenic status (80%). In 605 of these patients (65%), there was a severe osteopenic or osteoporotic status, while 182 women experiencing an early menopause were found to be frankly

  19. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Leuzzi, Chiara; Modena, Maria Grazia

    2011-03-01

    Hypertension is the most common chronic disease in industrialized countries and represents the most common major cardiovascular risk factor after the fifth decade of life in both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension is lower in premenopausal women than men, whereas in postmenopausal women it is higher than in men. Mechanisms responsible for the increase in blood pressure are complex and multifactorial, including loss of estrogen, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, modification in renin-angiotensin system spillover and sympathetic activation. In addition, postmenopausal hypertension can be considered an isolated disease, more typical of elderly women, or part of the metabolic syndrome, which is indeed more common in early postmenopausal women. In particular, metabolic syndrome may be considered a potentially unfavourable prognostic factor in hypertensive postmenopausal women, because it seems to worsen the severity of hypertension and reduce the capacity to respond to specific treatments. This article summarizes the different causes of postmenopausal hypertension and the specific treatment recommended by guidelines for this condition.

  20. Early Postmenopausal Phase Is Associated With Reduced Prostacyclin-Induced Vasodilation That Is Reversed by Exercise Training: The Copenhagen Women Study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Nielsen, Mads B; Mogensen, Alexander S; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age were included. Before the training period, the vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of either the prostacyclin analog epoprostenol or acetylcholine was lower (≈13%-41%; P<0.05) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women. Acetylcholine infusion induced a similar release of prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F1a). To elucidate the role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, acetylcholine infusion was combined with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac and here the vascular response to acetylcholine was reduced to a similar extent in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training increased (P<0.05) the vasodilator response to epoprostenol (≈100%-150%) and acetylcholine (≈100%-120%) infusion in the postmenopausal group. These findings demonstrate that the early postmenopausal phase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent postmenopausal women.

  1. Impact of walking on eating behaviors and quality of life of premenopausal and early postmenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Riesco, Eléonor; Tessier, Sébastien; Pérusse, Francine; Turgeon, Sabrina; Tremblay, Angelo; Weisnagel, John; Doré, Jean; Mauriège, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is known to improve health-related quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 16-week walking program on eating behaviors and QoL between late premenopausal and early postmenopausal obese and sedentary women, once chronological aging is taken into account. Sixteen women 49 +/- 2 years old and 14 women 53 +/- 2 years old, whose body mass index ranged between 29 and 35 kg/m, were subjected to three sessions per week of 45-minute walking at 60% of their heart rate reserve. Fat mass and lean mass (bioelectrical impedance), cardiorespiratory fitness estimated by maximum oxygen consumption (2-km walking test), eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire), and QoL, estimated by the Short Form-36 Health Survey, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 questionnaires, were recorded before and after exercise. With the exception of a higher attitude of self-regulation in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P = 0.05), no between-group differences were observed in body composition, eating behaviors, and QoL at baseline. In all participants, body weight and fat mass decreased, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness increased after walking (0.001 < P < 0.0001). Situational susceptibility was the only eating behavior reduced after training in all women (P = 0.02). Neither the sleep quality index nor the perceived stress score changed in response to endurance exercise. Finally, in all women, Short Form-36 physical and mental scores increased after walking (0.001 < P < 0.05). Despite modest body weight and fat mass losses, a 16-week walking program seems to be sufficient to improve physical and mental well-being, irrespective of menopause status.

  2. Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ≥75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ≥75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years. PMID:21482873

  3. Saliva in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tarkkila, Laura; Furuholm, Jussi; Tiitinen, Aila; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate salivary flow and biochemical constituents of menopausal-age women with the hypothesis that women using hormone therapy (HT) might present better saliva values than non-users. Two hundred HT users and 200 non-users were selected at random from a cohort study of 3,173 peri- and postmenopausal women and invited to a 2-year clinical follow-up study. Clinical examination with saliva sampling was made at baseline and 2 years later. Salivary total protein, albumin, and immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were analyzed. Final material included 106 consistent HT users and 55 non-users. Backward logistic regression analysis was made to determine the risk factors for higher or lower than medium salivary protein values. No difference was seen in salivary flow rate, total protein, and IgA values between baseline and follow-up measurements or between the groups. Albumin, IgG, and IgM concentrations were significantly lower in the 2-year samples of the HT group when compared with baseline. IgA and IgM values were higher in the non-HT 2-year samples when compared with the corresponding HT samples. The only significant explanatory factor for higher than median salivary albumin concentration was the number of teeth both at baseline and 2 years later. HT possibly improved epithelial integrity since the concentrations of serum components albumin, IgG, and IgM decreased during the follow-up. HT as such does not seem to affect saliva, although it may modify it. The clinical relevance of these results needs to be assessed in future studies.

  4. Health Maintenance in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Baill, I Cori; Castiglioni, Analia

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in postmenopausal women older than 50 years. Clinicians should use the pooled cohort risk assessment equations or another risk calculator every three to five years to estimate a woman's 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Major guidelines concur that women at average risk of breast cancer benefit from screening mammography at least every other year from 50 to 74 years of age. Several effective options for colorectal cancer screening are recommended for women 50 to 75 years of age. Cervical cancer screening should occur at three- or five-year intervals depending on the test used, and can generally be discontinued after 65 years of age or total hysterectomy for benign disease. Screening for ovarian cancer is not recommended. Clinicians should consider screening for sexually transmitted infections in older women at high risk. Postmenopausal women should be routinely screened for depression, alcohol abuse, and intimate partner violence.

  5. Periodontal Health in Women with Early Stage Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Newly on Aromatase Inhibitors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, LS; Inglehart, MR; Giannobile, W; Braun, T; Kolenic, G; Van Poznak, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitor (AI) use results in low estrogen levels which in turn affect bone mineral density (BMD). Periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, and tooth loss are associated with low BMD. The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of periodontitis, perceived oral health, and evaluate salivary biomarkers in postmenopausal women who are early stage (I-IIIA) breast cancer (BCa) survivors and receive adjuvant AI therapy. Methods Participants included 58 postmenopausal women; 29 with BCa on AIs and 29 controls without BCa diagnoses. Baseline periodontal status was assessed with: (1) periodontal pocket depth (PD); (2) bleeding on probing (BOP); and (3) attachment loss (AL). Demographic and dental utilization information was gathered by questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to analyze the outcomes. Results No differences in mean PD or the number of teeth were found. The AI group had significantly more sites with BOP (27.8 vs. 16.7; p = 0.02), higher worst-site AL (5.2 mm vs. 4.0 mm; p < 0.01) and more sites with dental calculus than did controls (18.2 vs. 6.4; p < 0.001). Linear regression adjusted for income, tobacco use, and dental insurance, and previous radiation and chemotherapy exposure demonstrated AI use increased CAL over 2 mm (95% CI: 0.46 -3.92). Median salivary osteocalcin and Tumor Necrosis Factor levels were significantly higher in the BCa group than the control group. Conclusions This first investigation of the periodontal status of women initiating adjuvant AI therapy identifies this population as having an increased risk for periodontitis (NCT1272570). PMID:25672657

  6. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  7. A Comparison of Self-reported Oral Contraceptive Use and Automated Pharmacy Data in Peri- and Early Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Leslie; Ichikawa, Laura; Hubbard, Rebecca; Operskalski, Belinda; LaCroix, Andrea; Ott, Susan; Scholes, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Oral contraceptive (OC) use can occur throughout a woman’s reproductive lifespan with the potential for long- term impacts on health. To assess potential measurement error in prior OC use, this study compared level of agreement between self-reported prior OC use and pharmacy dispensing data in peri-/early postmenopausal women. Methods The study’s 1,399 women (ages 45–59 years) were participants in a population based case-control study of the association between OC use and fracture risk. Episodes of lifetime self-reported OC use (in months) were collected, by telephone interview, for 1/1/2008 through 11/25/2012. Pharmacy fills, back to 1980, were collected from automated data. Agreement was measured using the Prevalence Adjusted and Bias Adjusted Kappa Index (PABAK). Results The number of women with OC pharmacy fills was 11–45% higher than those who reported OC use during each time period. Between-measures agreement was better for more recent use. PABAK values ranged from 0.88 (95% CI 0.85–0.90) within 5 years from the reference date to 0.65 (95% CI 0.59–0.71) within 15–20 years. Conclusion For studies designed to assess the long term effects of OC use, the current results are reassuring in noting moderate agreement between self-reported OC use and pharmacy data for up to 15–20 years before the interview. PMID:25453353

  8. A comparison of self-reported oral contraceptive use and automated pharmacy data in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Leslie; Ichikawa, Laura E; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Operskalski, Belinda; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Ott, Susan M; Scholes, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use can occur throughout a woman's reproductive life span with the potential for long-term impacts on health. To assess potential measurement error in prior OC use, this study compared level of agreement between self-reported prior OC use and pharmacy dispensing data in perimenopausal and/or early postmenopausal women. The study's 1399 women (ages, 45-59 years) were participants in a population-based case-control study of the association between OC use and fracture risk. Episodes of lifetime self-reported OC use (in months) were collected, by telephone interview, for January 1, 2008 through November 25, 2012. Pharmacy fills, back to 1980, were collected from automated data. Agreement was measured using the prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa index. The number of women with OC pharmacy fills was 11% to 45% higher than those who reported OC use during each time period. Between-measures agreement was better for more recent use. Prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa index values ranged from 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.90) within 5 years from the reference date to 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.71) within 15 to 20 years. For studies designed to assess the long-term effects of OC use, the current results are reassuring in noting moderate agreement between self-reported OC use and pharmacy data for up to 15 to 20 years before the interview. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dyspareunia in postmenopausal women: A critical review

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Alina; Binik, Yitzchak M; Kapuscinski, Anita; Khalifé, Samir

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyspareunia, or pain during sexual intercourse, is among the problems most frequently reported by postmenopausal women. Past literature has almost unanimously attributed dyspareunic pain occurring during or after the menopausal transition to declining estrogen levels and vaginal atrophy. OBJECTIVES: To critically review the literature on the prevalence, risk factors, etiology, clinical presentation and treatment of post-menopausal dyspareunia. The present review also examines the traditional and widely held conceptualization of postmenopausal dyspareunia as a direct symptom of hormonal decline. METHODS: Searches of medical and psychological databases were performed for relevant articles and empirical studies. The methodological quality and outcomes of the studies were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: Available empirical evidence suggests that dyspareunia is common in postmenopausal women, and that it is not highly correlated with menopausal status, estrogen levels or vaginal atrophy. Decreasing levels of endogenous estrogen contribute to the development of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women suffering from vaginal atrophy. Hormonal supplementation is beneficial in alleviating their pain. However, a substantial proportion of treated women do not report relief. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal dyspareunia occurring concurrently with vaginal atrophy is strongly associated with a lack of estrogen in the genital tract. However, a significant percentage of postmenopausal women experience dyspareunic pain that is not caused by hypoestrogenism. It is likely that other types of dyspareunia that occur premenopausally are also occurring in postmenopausal women. Research is needed to adequately address this issue. A change in perspective toward a multiaxial pain-focused approach is proposed for future research concerning dyspareunia in postmenopausal women. PMID:18592062

  10. Vitamin d deficiency among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Narula, Ramesh; Tauseef, Mujtaba; Ahmad, Iraqi Aftab; Agarwal, Kiran; Ashok, Agarwal; Anjana, Arya

    2013-02-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is widely prevalent in India and is a formidable issue especially in postmenopausal women. The study intends to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The study was performed at a referral teaching institute in north India between 2007 and 2009. One hundred and ninety postmenopausal osteoporotic women were enrolled and the clinical information was collected along with the assessment of biochemical parameters. Serum vitamin D was found to be de- ficient in two third of patients. A significant correlation was observed between body mass index and bone mineral density at lumbar spine. Prevention and early detection of hypovitaminosis D is the key to reduce the incidence of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women.

  11. BMD and Serum Intact Osteocalcin in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Women.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Vanita R; Ganu, Jayashri V; Nagane, Nitin S

    2011-01-01

    India seems to have the highest prevalence of osteoporosis. With growing awareness of osteoporosis and its impact on life span especially in India, special attention is being paid to early detection, management and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Measurement of BMD and osteocalcin are of value in estimating bone turnover rates. The aim of this study is (1) to measure the specific, sensitive bone formation marker such as osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis women and postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women; (2) the follow up study to evaluate the impact of specific antiresorptive therapy (alendronate + calcium + vitamin D) regimen in postmenopausal osteoporosis by assaying osteocalcin and BMD. Sixty clinically diagnosed postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and 60 normal subjects (postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women) were recruited as control. Mean bone mineral density T score and Z score was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients as compared to controls. Highly significant increase in the mean score of BMD-T score and Z score from baseline to post therapy of 3 months was observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. Serum osteocalcin levels were significantly increased (P < 0.001) as compared to control group. Serum osteocalcin levels were decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from baseline to post therapy of 3 months in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. BMD is the best quantifiable predictor of osteoporotic fracture and osteocalcin is specific, sensitive, promising, currently used marker for better prognosis of osteoporosis and for monitoring responses to antiresorptive therapy.

  12. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Compston, Juliet

    2015-07-01

    Although obesity was previously believed to be protective against fracture, there is now evidence that a significant proportion of fractures in postmenopausal women occur in those who are obese. In this article the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management of fractures in obese postmenopausal women are discussed with particular focus on the site specificity of the effect of BMI on fracture, interactions between fat and bone and risk assessment and prevention of fractures. There is similarity in many respects between risk factors for fracture in obese and nonobese women, although falls may play a particularly important role in the obese. Treatment rates in obese postmenopausal women with fracture are currently low, and further studies are required to establish effective preventive strategies. Fractures in obese postmenopausal women contribute significantly to the overall fracture burden in this population. Further work is required to establish their pathophysiology and to develop effective preventive strategies.

  13. Alternative therapies for postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2005-01-01

    Alternative therapies are being used by postmenopausal women in attempts to treat all of the complaints and medical conditions of the menopause. One-fifth of those who take prescription drugs for these indications also take herbal remedies and/or high-dose vitamins, most often without disclosing the fact to the physician. Although studies of alternative therapies are short-term and rarely focused on safety--let alone efficacy--in the long-term, there are many studies spread over the large number of substances involved. More than 130 studies, including meta-analyses, are reviewed in this article under the headings of phytoestrogens, especially from soy; therapies for hot flushes; and preventives for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Special attention is given to the recently recognized daidzein metabolite equol, and for the sake of completeness there are reviews of the unconventional, but not botanical, treatments estriol, transdermal progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The total picture produced by conscientious review of the studies is bleak overall, but there seems to be good reason to pursue the possibilities inherent in soy protein with phytoestrogens in populations of women who endogenously produce equol.

  14. The Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study: a controlled exercise trial in early postmenopausal women with low bone density-first-year results.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Weineck, Jürgen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the effect of a 2-year vigorous, combined high-impact, strength, and endurance training program on bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and ultrasound in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Nonrandomized controlled trial, reporting 1-year data. Community. Early postmenopausal (1-8y postmenopausal) osteopenic women (DXA T score at lumbar spine or total hip between -1 and -2.5 standard deviations). The exercise group (n=59; mean age, 55.1+/-3.4y) and control group (n=41; mean age, 55.9+/-3.1y) were recruited from community registers. Fourteen months of exercise training, with 2 joint sessions and 2 additional home training sessions. Exercise and control groups were supplemented individually with calcium and cholecalciferol up to 1500mg of calcium and 500IU of vitamin D per day. BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip measured by DXA, isometric maximum strength, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during a stepwise running test to exhaustion. Bone density increased significantly at the lumbar spine for the exercise group (1.3%, P<.001) and decreased in the control group (-1.2%, P<.01). Differences at the total hip (-0.3%, not significant vs -0.8%, P<.05) and the femoral neck (-0.8%, P<.05 vs -1.8%, P<.001) were nonsignificant. Changes in isometric maximum strength were significant for each region (grip strength, trunk flexors and extensors, hip flexors, leg adductors and abductors, arm flexors and extensors) in the exercise group (11%-39%) compared with nonrelevant changes (-1.1% to 3.9%) in the control group. Between-group differences were significant (P<.01-.001) for all strength parameters. VO2max increased significantly by 11% (P<.001) in the exercise group but decreased in the control group by 4% (P<.05) while showing significant between-group differences. High-intensity exercise training can have a positive influence on bone density in early

  15. Prediction of tamoxifen outcome by genetic variation of CYP2D6 in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brauch, Hiltrud; Schwab, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 can affect treatment outcome in patients with early post-menopausal oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been a matter of debate over the past few years. In this article we revisit the hypothesis of CYP2D6 being a potential tamoxifen outcome predictor and provide detailed insight into the ongoing controversy that prevented the CYP2D6 marker from being accepted by the scientific and clinical community. We summarize the available pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic evidence and resolve the controversy based on the recognized methodological and statistical issues. The cumulative evidence suggests that genotyping for CYP2D6 is clinically relevant in post-menopausal women. This is important, because the clarification of this issue has the potential to resolve a clinical management question that is relevant to hundreds of thousands of women diagnosed with ER-positive breast cancer each year, who should not be denied effective endocrine therapy. PMID:24033728

  16. Comparison of Changes in the Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Exemestane or Letrozole

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lauren Nicole; Nguyen, Anne Thi Phuong; Li, Lang; Desta, Zeruesenay; Lynn Henry, N.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Stearns, Vered; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Flockhart, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy on the plasma lipid profile are not clear. Here the authors describe changes in fasting lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) before and after 3 months of exemestane or letrozole treatment. HDL was reduced in the entire cohort (P < .001) and in the exemestane group (P < .001) but unchanged in the letrozole group (P = .169). LDL was increased in the entire cohort (P = .005) and in the letrozole group (P = .002) but unchanged in the exemestane group (P = .361). This effect was at least partially attributable to washout of tamoxifen as only patients with prior use of tamoxifen experienced a significant increase in LDL. Baseline HDL was an independent predictor of the change in HDL (r2 = −0.128, P < .001), and prior tamoxifen use was associated with greater increases in LDL (r2 = 0.057, P < .001). Use of lipid-altering medications did not protect against the exemestane-induced drop in HDL or the increase in LDL observed in women with prior use of tamoxifen taking letrozole. In conclusion, AI treatment and/or washout of tamoxifen induced detrimental changes in the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. PMID:22174434

  17. Soy germ isoflavones improve menopausal symptoms but have no effect on blood lipids in early postmenopausal Chinese women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yan-bin; Wang, Zi-lian; Zhuo, Shu-yu; Lu, Wei; Liao, Hui-fang; Verbruggen, Mariana; Fang, Shi; Mai, Hai-yan; Chen, Yu-ming; Su, Yi-xiang

    2012-07-01

    Estrogen therapy is, to date, the most effective treatment of menopausal syndrome and also has a favorable effect on lipid profiles. Because of its potential adverse effects, however, a more acceptable alternative therapy needs to be identified. This study examines the effect of soy germ isoflavones on menopausal symptoms and serum lipids. Ninety early postmenopausal Chinese women, aged 45 to 60 years, were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (30 each) receiving daily doses of 0 (placebo), 84, and 126 mg of soy germ isoflavones. Hot flush frequency, Kupperman scores, serum 17β-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and serum lipids, including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B100, were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks after treatment. Both the frequency of hot flushes and the Kupperman index score decreased in all three treatment groups during the intervention period, but the percentage decreases in both were significantly greater in the two isoflavone groups (44.3 ± 19.1 and 57.8 ± 37.4 [84 mg isoflavones]; 48.5 ± 27.2 and 56.7 ± 26.7 [126 mg isoflavones]) than in the placebo group (27.8 ± 15.5 and 34.6 ± 46.2; p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the changes in estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone among the three treatment groups during the study, and no significant differences were observed in the lipid components. A daily supplement of 84 or 126 mg soy germ isoflavones may improve menopausal symptoms, although neither dose was found to affect lipid profiles in early postmenopausal Chinese women after 24 weeks of treatment. The favorable effects are unlikely to be associated with female hormones.

  18. Neuroactive steroids after estrogen exposure in depressed postmenopausal women treated with sertraline and asymptomatic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Melinda L; Rapkin, Andrea J; Biggio, Giovanni; Serra, Mariangela; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Rasgon, Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Neuroactive steroids (NAS) allopregnanolone (ALLO), Allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are important in the regulation of mood and behavior. Knowledge about these steroids in postmenopausal depression and the effect of estrogen on NAS is lacking. We elected to determine if there were differences in NAS between postmenopausal depressed women and age matched controls. We also investigated the effect of estradiol on NAS in post menopausal depressed women receiving a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and in non-depressed postmenopausal controls. As part of a previously published double blind study on estrogen acceleration of antidepressant action, post menopausal women with major depression receiving sertraline and healthy non depressed controls were randomized to transdermal estrogen patch 0.1 mg or placebo. NAS were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of treatment. Depressed subjects were treated with sertraline 50 mg/day to 100 mg/day for 9 weeks. At the baseline and after treatment ALLO and DHEA were significantly lower in depressed women compared to controls. Although all depressed subjects experienced a positive clinical response, estrogen administration was not associated with changes in NAS in either the depressed or the asymptomatic postmenopausal women. The lower ALLO and DHEA in postmenopausal depressed women suggests that symptoms of depression may be influenced by the synthesis or fluctuation of these NAS. Estradiol exposure did not alter ALLO, DHEA, or THDOC, implying these NAS are unlikely to play a role in any mood changes in post menopausal women given estrogen therapy.

  19. Serum cholesterol in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Samanta, B B

    1998-05-01

    Hypercholes erolaemia is a modifiable risk factor in atherosclerosis. Women lose their relative protection against coronory heart disease at menopause because of changed lipid profile due to oestrogen deficiency. Total serum cholesterol was estimated in 82 healthy postmenopausal women in the age group of 46-72 years (51.5 +/- 7.39). Thirty five healthy pre-menopausal women in the age group of 18-38 years (29.5 +/- 6.4) served as controls. The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group compared to control group (178.5 +/- 39.8 Vs 155.4 +/- 24 mg/dl; P < 0.01). Serum cholesterol concentration in the study group was not related to social class, dietary habit and obesity.

  20. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  1. Risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal African-American women.

    PubMed

    Woodson, Grattan C

    2004-10-01

    Although postmenopausal African-American women are at lower risk for osteoporosis-related fractures compared with white women, fractures in African-American women are associated with significantly higher morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in this population is just as important as it is for other ethnic groups and worthy of the attention of physicians and healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal African-American women. This was a retrospective, case-control study in 201 postmenopausal African-American women at a community-based osteoporosis center. Spine and hip bone mineral density measurements were obtained by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Patient and family medical history, past and present pharmaceutical use, and dietary and exercise habits were collected using a patient self-administered questionnaire. Using the manufacturer's African-American referent database, 56 women had osteoporosis, 99 had osteopenia, and 46 had normal bone mineral density. Risk factors more common in the osteoporotic group compared with the normal group included sedentary lifestyle (P < 0.03), family history of osteoporosis (P < 0.03), low body mass index (P < 0.05), and history of bilateral oophorectomy (P < 0.03). Polyarthritis was more prevalent in the normal versus the osteoporotic group (P < 0.001). In addition, premenopausal use of oral contraceptives (P < 0.005) and postmenopausal use of estrogen therapy (P < 0.05) were more common in the normal compared with the osteoporotic group. Many risk factors for osteoporosis in African-American women are similar to those in white women and can aid in the selection of patients in need of bone density testing.

  2. Ultrasonographic observation of the breast in early postmenopausal women during therapy with Cimicifuga foetida extract and sequential therapy with estrogen and progestin.

    PubMed

    Gaowa, Sharen; Sun, Ai-Jun; Jiang, Ying; He, Fa-Wei; Zheng, Ting-Ping; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-04-20

    It is now recognized that Cimicifuga foetida (C. foetida) extract is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms. But the durations reported were usually short. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C. foetida extract therapy and different estrogen and progesterone sequential therapies, on the breasts of early postmenopausal women. This was a prospective randomized trial. Ninety-six early menopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned into three groups treated with different therapies for 2 years. Patients were given C. foetida extract in Group A, estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate in Group B, and estradiol valerate and progesterone in Group C. Ultrasonography was used to monitor changes in breast during treatment. In comparing breast glandular section thickness before and after 1 and 2 years of treatment, no significant difference was observed in Group A (11.97 ± 2.84 mm vs. 12.09 ± 2.58 mm and 12.61 ± 3.73 mm, P > 0.05); in Group B glandular section thickness had increased significantly (10.98 ± 2.34 mm vs. 11.84 ± 2.72 mm and 11.90 ± 3.33 mm, P < 0.05) after treatment, the same as Group C (11.56 ± 3.03 mm vs. 12.5 ± 3.57 mm and 12.22 ± 4.39 mm P < 0.05). In comparing breast duct width before and after 1 and 2 years of treatment, no significant difference was seen in Group A (1.07 ± 0.19 mm vs. 1.02 ± 0.18 mm and 0.98 ± 0.21 mm, P > 0.05); in Group B the duct width had a downward trend after treatment (0.99 ± 0.14 mm vs. 0.96 ± 0.22 mm and 0.90 ± 0.18 mm, P < 0.05), the same as Group C (1.07 ± 0.20 mm vs. 1.02 ± 0.17 mm and 0.91 ± 0.19 mm, P < 0.05). The nodules detected before treatment had disappeared after 1-year of treatment or exhibited no distinct changes in the three groups. However, new breast nodules had appeared after 2 years of treatment: There was one case in Group A, two cases in Group B and four cases in Group C, with breast hyperplasia after the molybdenum target check. In early

  3. Chronic kidney disease in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kondo, Kazuoki

    2012-02-01

    Menopause is derived from the Greek words men (month) and pauses (cessation) and means permanent cessation of menstruation after the loss of ovarian activity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has recently been associated with cardiovascular events in several studies. CKD patients have a heavy burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in addition to a range of nontraditional risk factors such as inflammation and abnormal metabolism of calcium and phosphate. In this review, the association of CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is discussed. CKD mineral and bone disorder, characterized by disturbances of calcium/phosphate/parathyroid hormone, bone abnormalities and vascular and soft tissue calcification, is highly prevalent in CKD and is a strong, independent predictor of bone fracture, CVD and death. Estrogen has been shown to: (a) decrease the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptors in vasculature and kidneys; (b) reduce the expression and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, and (c) cause the release of angiotensinogen substrate from the liver. However, the degree of activation or suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by estrogen has not been clearly established. Clinical data on the effects of estrogen therapy on bone mineral densities are extremely limited in the ESRD population. CVD is the most common cause of death in postmenopausal women with CKD and many contributing factors have been explored. Future research for prevention of CVD in postmenopausal women with CKD would focus on the biology of vascular calcification as well as bone loss.

  4. Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Henderson, Victor W; Shoupe, Donna; Budoff, Matthew J; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Kono, Naoko; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Selzer, Robert H; Azen, Stanley P

    2016-03-31

    Data suggest that estrogen-containing hormone therapy is associated with beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease when the therapy is initiated temporally close to menopause but not when it is initiated later. However, the hypothesis that the cardiovascular effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy vary with the timing of therapy initiation (the hormone-timing hypothesis) has not been tested. A total of 643 healthy postmenopausal women were stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early postmenopause] or ≥10 years [late postmenopause]) and were randomly assigned to receive either oral 17β-estradiol (1 mg per day, plus progesterone [45 mg] vaginal gel administered sequentially [i.e., once daily for 10 days of each 30-day cycle] for women with a uterus) or placebo (plus sequential placebo vaginal gel for women with a uterus). The primary outcome was the rate of change in carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which was measured every 6 months. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT), which was performed when participants completed the randomly assigned regimen. After a median of 5 years, the effect of estradiol, with or without progesterone, on CIMT progression differed between the early and late postmenopause strata (P=0.007 for the interaction). Among women who were less than 6 years past menopause at the time of randomization, the mean CIMT increased by 0.0078 mm per year in the placebo group versus 0.0044 mm per year in the estradiol group (P=0.008). Among women who were 10 or more years past menopause at the time of randomization, the rates of CIMT progression in the placebo and estradiol groups were similar (0.0088 and 0.0100 mm per year, respectively; P=0.29). CT measures of coronary-artery calcium, total stenosis, and plaque did not differ significantly between the placebo group and the estradiol group in either postmenopause stratum. Oral estradiol

  5. Periodontal assessment of postmenopausal women receiving risedronate.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Leena; Bissada, Nabil F; Liu, James

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare periodontal status of postmenopausal women with mild to moderate osteoporosis who use risedronate therapy with those who do not. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 60 age-matched postmenopausal women with mild to moderate osteoporosis diagnosed by a bone density scan T score below -2.5 at either spine or hip were divided into two groups. Women in the experimental group had used systemic risedronate once weekly (35 mg) for at least 3 months. Women in the control group had never used bisphosphonate therapy. The periodontal status of each subject was evaluated through a clinical periodontal examination including evaluation of periodontal probing depth, gingival recession, gingival index, plaque score, attachment loss, and alveolar bone level. The significance in differences between the two groups was assessed using two-tailed paired t tests. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between risedronate and control groups for periodontal probing depth (2.6 vs 2.9 mm), gingival index (0.37 vs 0.71), plaque score (56.2 vs 77.0), attachment loss (2.8 vs 3.2 mm), and alveolar bone level (3.1 and 4.0), respectively. Gingival recession parameters did not differ significantly. Five of six periodontal parameters evaluated show that postmenopausal women with mild to moderate osteoporosis using risedronate therapy have healthier periodontal status than those who do not use bisphosphonates. Women using risedronate therapy show significantly less plaque accumulation, less gingival inflammation, lower probing depths, less periodontal attachment loss, and greater alveolar bone levels. These observations suggest that risedronate therapy may play a beneficial role in periodontal status.

  6. [Epidemiologic variables in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Carranza-Lira, S; Martínez-Trejo, N A; Santos González, J E

    1999-10-01

    The objective was to know the characteristics of presentation, its clinical aspects and the modification in the diagnostic tools in a selected population of Mexican women with spontaneous menopause. The age at menarche, age at menopause, marital status, age at marriage, number of pregnancies and occupation of 1,099 women with spontaneous menopause were studied. In 619 women which were not receiving nor had received hormone replacement therapy the clinical, laboratory such as glucose, lipids, hormones, bone remodeling biochemistry; and X ray studies such as densitometry and mammography were analyzed. The age average of menarche presentation was at 13 years, and that of spontaneous menopause at 48.1 years 78% were married, with an age at marriage of 23 years, 66% had home duties. The screening tests showed that 30% of patients required cardiovascular evaluation, 40% showed alterations on lipids levels and at least 40% had some alteration on bone remodeling biochemistry or in densitometry. The mammography was normal in 81%. This study showed that most of the data in these group of women were similar to those of other populations, and many of them need intensive surveillance and adequate therapeutic prescriptions to diminish risk factors.

  7. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Bela I; Shveiky, David; Gutman, Robert E; Jacoby, Vanessa; Sokol, Andrew I; Rodabough, Rebecca; Howard, Barabara V; Blanchette, Patricia; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate an association between hysterectomy and urinary incontinence (UI) in postmenopausal women. Women (aged 50-79) with uteri (N = 53,569) and without uteri (N = 38,524) who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study between 1993 and 1996 were included in this secondary analysis. Baseline (BL) and 3-year demographic, health/physical forms and personal habit questionnaires were used. Statistical analyses included univariate and logistic regression methods. The baseline UI rate was 66.5 %, with 27.3 % of participants having stress urinary incontinence (SUI), 23 % having urge UI (UUI), and 12.4 % having mixed UI (MUI). 41.8 % of women had undergone hysterectomy, with 88.1 % having had the procedure before age 54. Controlling for health/physical variables, hysterectomy was associated with UI at BL (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.19, 1.32) and over the 3-year study period (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.11, 1.36). Excluding women with UI at BL, a higher incidence of UUI and SUI episodes was found in hysterectomy at year 3. Among women who had undergone hysterectomy, those with bilateral oophorectomy (BSO) did not have increased odds of developing UI at BL or over the 3-year study period. Hormone use was not associated with a change in UI incidence (estrogen + progesterone, p = 0.17; unopposed estrogen, p = 0.41). Risk of UI is increased in postmenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy compared with women with uteri.

  8. Assessment of postmenopausal women and significant risk factors for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, Peter F; Marakovits, Kimberly A; O'Sullivan, David M

    2010-09-01

    The assessment of osteoporosis risk factors can help guide early intervention. The objective of this study was to analyze numerous potential risk factors to see which were associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Women aged 49 or greater presenting for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scans were recruited from radiology sites in the Hartford, Connecticut, area between January 2007 and March 2009, inclusive. Information was collected regarding primary and secondary risk factors for osteoporosis development, as well as family history and history of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Survey results were subsequently correlated with each woman's dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan results. In a sample of 619 women, history of fracture (odds ratio [OR], 12.49), weight less than 127 pounds (OR, 3.50), and use of anticoagulants (OR, 5.40) increased the chance of developing osteoporosis. In contrast, multiparity (OR, 0.45) and history of breast-feeding (OR, 0.38) decreased the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In women aged 49 to 54, breast-feeding was significantly protective, while low body mass index was most indicative of osteoporosis in women ages 55 to 64. Both previous fracture and low body mass index were associated with osteoporosis in women over age 64. The current results are consistent with other studies suggesting that previous fracture, low body weight, and use of anticoagulants increase the risk of osteoporosis. Our results also suggest that a history of pregnancy and breast-feeding protects against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in women aged 49 to 54.

  9. Physical training increases osteoprotegerin in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ingrid; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Sven A; Andersson, Göran; Brinck, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether mechanical loading by exercise over a 1-year period in postmenopausal women had an effect on the receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) system or the levels of the Wnt-signaling antagonist sclerostin. A total of 112 postmenopausal were randomized to either sedentary life (controls) or physical activity (training group). Ninety-two women fulfilled the study protocol. The training program consisted of three fast 30-min walks and one or two 1-h aerobic training sessions per week. The effect on the bone mineral density of the hip assessed with dual X-ray absorptiometry was positive as reported earlier. Blood samples were taken from participants at baseline and after 1 year and serum levels of OPG, RANKL and sclerostin were quantified together with the bone metabolism markers C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP). The results were analyzed using an analysis of covariance model using baseline values as the covariate. The training group displayed a clear mean increase of OPG +7.55 pg/ml compared to controls (p = 0.007). The mean changes for RANKL +0.19 pg/ml (square-root transformed data) and sclerostin +0.62 pmol/l were non-significant (p = 0.13 and p = 0.34). The changes in bone turnover markers CTX and BALP showed a tendency to decrease in the training group versus controls but the changes were small and non-significant. Although our study is limited in number of participating women, we have been able to show an OPG-associated, and RANKL- and sclerostin-independent, training-induced inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss.

  10. Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Content in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta E.; McManis, Beth G.

    1990-01-01

    Study tested the effect of exercise programs on bone mineral content (BMC) and BMC/bone width in 31 postmenopausal women. Subjects were placed in groups with aerobic exercise, aerobics plus upper-body weight training, or no exercise. Results indicate that regular exercise programs positively affect bone mineral maintenance in postmenopausal women.…

  11. [Morbidity in postmenopausal women with poverty].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Mary Carmen; Saavedra, Pedro; DE Miguel, Emilio; Castro, Rosa; Bonet de La N, Mario; Sosa, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Less favored social classes usually have more unhealthy life-styles and a more difficult access to Health Resources. To study the possible association between poverty and some common diseases, in a population of postmenopausal women. Four hundred and forty nine poor women aged 56 +/- 12 years and 776 consecutive women aged 53 +/- 12 years, answered a personal interview about their lifestyles and medications used. Their medical records were reviewed and they were subjected to a complete physical examination, including weight and height measurement. A fasting blood sample was also obtained. Poverty was defined according to criteria of the Spanish National Institute of Statistics that is based on the income in Euros and the number of family members that share such income. A higher proportion of poor women live in rural areas. They were shorter, had a higher weight and thus a higher body mass index, smoked less and drank less alcohol than their non-poor counterparts drink. The consumption of caffeine, the actual calcium intake and the physical activity during leisure time was similar in both groups. Compared with their counterparts, poor women had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (15.9 and 10.1% respectively, p = < 0.01), obesity (44.2 and 24.3% respectively, p < 0.01) hypertension (24.3 and 16.4%o respectively, p<0.01) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases (7.8 and 4.8% > respectively, p = 0.03). A multiple logistic regression model showed that obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption and living in rural areas, were independently associated to poverty. Poor postmenopausal women have a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, autoimmune rheumatic diseases and hypertension and lower frequency of smoking and alcohol consumption than their affluent counterparts do.

  12. Clinical effects of strontium ranelate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Delmas, Pierre D

    2005-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis has long-term physical, psychological, and social consequences with a major impact on patients' daily life. Treatment for such a chronic disease needs to be clinically effective and well tolerated, and should ultimately result in a beneficial effect on quality of life. The antifracture efficacy of strontium ranelate, 2 g/day orally, an agent that appears to have dissociation effects on resorption and formation, has been assessed in two large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies: the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) trial and the TReatment Of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study (TROPOS), including more than 6,700 postmenopausal women. Pending the results of TROPOS, a 3-year analysis of SOTI results shows that strontium ranelate significantly reduces new vertebral and clinical vertebral fracture incidence in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. This significant reduction in the risk of clinical and new vertebral fractures has been demonstrated as early as after 1 year of treatment (RR = 0.48, p = 0.003; and RR = 0.51, p < 0.001, respectively) and is maintained over 3 years (RR = 0.62, p < 0.001; and RR = 0.59, p < 0.001, respectively). This is accompanied by decreased back pain and body height loss in the strontium ranelate group compared with the placebo group. As strontium ranelate appears to improve clinical signs and is, furthermore, well tolerated especially in the upper gastrointestinal region, this treatment is expected to result in an improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Strontium ranelate thus offers significant clinical benefits in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and ease of administration in the treatment of postmenopausal women with vertebral osteoporotic fractures.

  13. Ultrasonographic Observation of the Breast in Early Postmenopausal Women during Therapy with Cimicifuga Foetida Extract and Sequential Therapy with Estrogen and Progestin

    PubMed Central

    Gaowa, Sharen; Sun, Ai-Jun; Jiang, Ying; He, Fa-Wei; Zheng, Ting-Ping; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is now recognized that Cimicifuga foetida (C. foetida) extract is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms. But the durations reported were usually short. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C. foetida extract therapy and different estrogen and progesterone sequential therapies, on the breasts of early postmenopausal women. Methods: This was a prospective randomized trial. Ninety-six early menopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned into three groups treated with different therapies for 2 years. Patients were given C. foetida extract in Group A, estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate in Group B, and estradiol valerate and progesterone in Group C. Ultrasonography was used to monitor changes in breast during treatment. Results: In comparing breast glandular section thickness before and after 1 and 2 years of treatment, no significant difference was observed in Group A (11.97 ± 2.84 mm vs. 12.09 ± 2.58 mm and 12.61 ± 3.73 mm, P > 0.05); in Group B glandular section thickness had increased significantly (10.98 ± 2.34 mm vs. 11.84 ± 2.72 mm and 11.90 ± 3.33 mm, P < 0.05) after treatment, the same as Group C (11.56 ± 3.03 mm vs. 12.5 ± 3.57 mm and 12.22 ± 4.39 mm P < 0.05). In comparing breast duct width before and after 1 and 2 years of treatment, no significant difference was seen in Group A (1.07 ± 0.19 mm vs. 1.02 ± 0.18 mm and 0.98 ± 0.21 mm, P > 0.05); in Group B the duct width had a downward trend after treatment (0.99 ± 0.14 mm vs. 0.96 ± 0.22 mm and 0.90 ± 0.18 mm, P < 0.05), the same as Group C (1.07 ± 0.20 mm vs. 1.02 ± 0.17 mm and 0.91 ± 0.19 mm, P < 0.05). The nodules detected before treatment had disappeared after 1-year of treatment or exhibited no distinct changes in the three groups. However, new breast nodules had appeared after 2 years of treatment: There was one case in Group A, two cases in Group B and four cases in Group C, with breast hyperplasia after the molybdenum

  14. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  15. Selection to postmenopausal therapy by women's characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, E; Malin, M; Topo, P

    1993-03-01

    Many surveys have shown that women using postmenopausal hormone therapy have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases and lower overall mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare past and non-users with current users of hormone therapy in regard to characteristics known to, or assumed to, predict poor subsequent health (indicators). The main data source was a survey in 1989 of a random sample (n = 2000, 86% response rate) of 45-64 year-old Finnish women. Among women with their uterus, after adjusting for age and urbanism, of the 21 indicators studied, 10 suggested a poorer and none a better health prognosis for the non-users than for current users. Many differences were greater among older women, suggesting a cohort effect or long-term users being an especially selected group. Among hysterectomized women, differences between users and non-users were similar or smaller than among women with uteri. The past users were more similar to non-users than current users. Our study suggests that women with a better health prognosis are selected or select themselves for hormone therapy, and that may impede interpretation of observational studies on hormone therapy and health.

  16. Vitamin D and bone health in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Malabanan, Alan O; Holick, Michael F

    2003-03-01

    Osteoporosis, a disease of increased skeletal fragility, is becoming increasingly common as the U.S. population ages. Adequate vitamin D and calcium intake is the cornerstone of osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Age-related changes in vitamin D and calcium metabolism increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Although longitudinal data have suggested a role of vitamin D intake in modulating bone loss in perimenopausal women, studies of vitamin D and calcium supplementation have failed to support a significant effect of vitamin D and calcium during early menopause. There is a clearer benefit in vitamin D and calcium supplementation in older postmenopausal women. Vitamin D intake between 500 and 800 IU daily, with or without calcium supplementation, has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in women with a mean age of approximately 63 years. In women older than 65, there is even more benefit with vitamin D intakes of between 800 and 900 IU daily and 1200-1300 mg of calcium daily, with increased bone density, decreased bone turnover, and decreased nonvertebral fractures. The decreases in nonvertebral fractures may also be influenced by vitamin D-mediated decreases in body sway and fall risk. There are insufficient available data supporting a benefit from vitamin D supplementation alone, without calcium, to prevent osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women.

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Postmenopausal Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-06-01

    Declined estrogen levels in women after menopause can cause a number of significant health issues, and various estrogen receptor ligands have been clinically evaluated for postmenopausal treatment. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to display protective effects against menopausal symptoms such as bone loss and metabolic dysfunctions in both animals and humans. In particular, it inhibits the proliferations of breast and endometrial cancer cells through estrogen receptor α-mediated mechanism(s). These findings suggest that CLA may provide beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms, while protecting the endometrium and breast from estrogen stimulation. Thus, understanding the effects of CLA on menopausal disorders and ER metabolism is important in development of novel therapeutic options for use in postmenopausal women with or without conventional estrogen therapy. In this report, we review literature regarding the impact of CLA on menopausal symptoms in cell lines, rodents, and humans, along with potential mechanism(s). We also discuss safety consideration for CLA use in humans. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Osteoporosis management in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Christenson, E S; Jiang, X; Kagan, R; Schnatz, P

    2012-06-01

    Osteoporosis is most prevalent in women over the age of 50 as the hormonal influence of estrogen on bone health dissipates with the onset of menopause. The progressive changes in bone structure, quality and density lead to pathological fractures and an increase in morbidity and mortality among menopausal women. This review will examine the 2010 North American Menopause Society (NAMS) position statement and other recent publications to summarize the data and combinations of therapies used to treat women 50 years or older with osteoporosis. To review the latest research and guidelines for osteoporosis management we performed a PubMed search using the parameters Linked to free full text, Humans, Female, Review, English, Middle Age (45-64 years and 45+ years), Age 65+ years, and published in the last five years. Articles were sorted by relevance and hand searching of these articles was done to further increase the yield. While a perfect treatment has yet to be discovered to completely cure this progressive disease, many breakthroughs have been made in order to prevent fractures and improve quality of life. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are recommended for patients undergoing pharmacological treatment, however, trials looking at their effectiveness have mixed findings. Bisphosphonates are considered the first line therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis and reduce vertebral fractures by 40% to 70% and non-vertebral fractures by 20% to 35%. Calcitonin showed promise during early trials in 2000 with a 33% reduction in fractures but these results have not been replicated and this therapy is now relegated to a second line treatment. Teriparatide is recommended for patients with severe osteoporosis and has been shown to reduce vertebral fractures 65% and non-vertebral fractures 53%. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are another useful therapy resulting in a 55% reduction in vertebral fractures without any documented advantage when looking at non

  19. Aortic hemodynamics and white matter hyperintensities in normotensive postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N; Harvey, Ronée E; Zuk, Samantha M; Lundt, Emily S; Lesnick, Timothy G; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Shuster, Lynne T; Miller, Virginia M; Jack, Clifford R; Joyner, Michael J; Kantarci, Kejal

    2017-04-07

    Hypertension is associated with development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain, which are risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. Hormonal shifts at menopause alter vascular function putting women at risk for both hypertension and WMH. Elevations in aortic hemodynamics precede the appearance of clinically defined hypertension but the relationship of aortic hemodynamics to development of WMH in women is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize aortic hemodynamics in relationship to WMH in postmenopausal women. Aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), aortic augmentation index (Alx) and aortic round trip travel time (Aortic T R) by tonometry were examined in 53 postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 2 years). WMH was calculated from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI using a semi-automated segmentation algorithm. WMH as a fraction of total white matter volume positively associated with aortic systolic BP (regression coefficient = 0.018; p = 0.04) after adjusting for age. In addition, WMH fraction was positively associated with AIx (0.025; p = 0.04), and inversely associated with Aortic T R (-0.015; p = 0.04) after adjusting for age. Our results suggest that assessing aortic hemodynamics may identify individuals at risk for accelerated development of WMH and guide early treatment to reduce WMH burden and cognitive impairment in the future.

  20. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis during early postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Miriam F

    2006-02-01

    During the perimenopause, both the quantity and quality of bone decline rapidly, resulting in a dramatic increase in the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Although many factors are known to be associated with osteoporotic fractures, measures to identify and treat women at risk are underused in clinical practice. Consequently, osteoporosis is frequently not detected until a fracture occurs. Identification of postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture therefore is a priority and is especially important for women in early postmenopause who can benefit from early intervention to maintain or to increase bone mass and, thus, reduce the risk of fracture. Most authorities recommend risk-factor assessment for all postmenopausal women, followed by bone mineral density measurements for women at highest risk (ie, all women aged > or =65 years, postmenopausal women aged <65 years with > or =1 additional risk factors for osteoporosis, and postmenopausal women with fragility fractures). All postmenopausal women can benefit from nonpharmacologic interventions to reduce the risk of fracture, including a balanced diet with adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, measures to prevent falls or to minimize their impact, smoking cessation, and moderation of alcohol intake. Several pharmacologic agents, including the bisphosphonates (eg, alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate) and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, have been shown to increase bone mass, to reduce fracture risk, and to have acceptable side-effect profiles. Women who have discontinued hormone therapy are in particular need of monitoring for fracture risk, in light of the accelerated bone loss and increased risk of fracture that occurs after withdrawal of estrogen treatment.

  1. Melatonin and Female Hormone Secretion in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Chojnacki, Jan; Stępień, Agnieszka; Wachowska-Kelly, Patrycja; Klupińska, Grażyna; Chojnacki, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is considered to be the main cause of increased appetite and increased weight in postmenopausal women. In this period, reduced secretion of melatonin (MEL) was also observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the secretion of melatonin, 17-β estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study included 90 women divided into three equal groups: group I (control)—women without menstrual disorders, group II—postmenopausal women without change in appetite and body weight, group III—postmenopausal women experiencing increased appetite and weight gain. In each patient, serum melatonin, 17-β-estradiol, FSH and urine a 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) were determined. Compared to the control group, the level of melatonin and estradiol was statistically lower. The FSH level was higher than in the groups of postmenopausal women. No significant correlation was found in all groups between the level of melatonin and the levels of estradiol and FSH. A negative correlation was found between aMT6s excretion and BMI, and a positive correlation between the level of FSH and BMI, mainly in overweight women. The obtained results indicate a significant effect of melatonin deficiency on the process of weight gain in postmenopausal women and justify its use in treatment of these disorders. PMID:25569084

  2. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

  3. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID

  4. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Fionnuala; Walker-Bone, Karen; Tariq, Shema

    2017-01-01

    The widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a life-limiting condition to one with near-normal life expectancy. HIV is associated with an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, with people living with HIV (PLHIV) potentially experiencing these conditions at a younger age than their HIV-negative counterparts. The mechanisms driving bone disease in HIV are complex and include: an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors; other comorbid conditions; and HIV-associated factors such as viral effects, systemic inflammation, and ART-related factors. One-third of PLHIV in the United Kingdom are female, and increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) are reaching menopausal age. Oestrogen decline in the context of an elevated background risk of poor bone health results in WLHIV being at greater risk of osteoporosis than women without HIV. European HIV guidelines therefore recommend routine screening of postmenopausal WLHIV using FRAX(©) for clinical risk factors, with or without bone mineral density scanning. Data support the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis in PLHIV. Additionally, some patients with confirmed osteoporosis may benefit from a switch to an ART agent with a better bone safety profile. However, there remains a notable paucity of data on HIV and menopause, including the impact of hormone replacement therapy on the bone health of WLHIV. In conclusion, it is important that clinicians are aware that postmenopausal WLHIV are a group at particular risk of bone disease, who require proactive screening and advice about preventative measures.

  5. Life Satisfaction and Morbidity among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lukkala, Pyry S.; Honkanen, Risto J.; Rauma, Päivi H.; Williams, Lana J.; Quirk, Shae E.; Kröger, Heikki; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between morbidity and global life satisfaction in postmenopausal women taking into account type and number of diseases. Materials and Methods A total of 11,084 women (age range 57–66 years) from a population-based cohort of Finnish women (OSTPRE Study) responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Life satisfaction was measured with a 4-item scale. Self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician and categorized according to ICD-10 main classes were used as a measure of morbidity. Enquiry data on health and lifestyle were used as covariates in the multivariate logistic models. Results Morbidity was strongly associated with life dissatisfaction. Every additional disease increased the risk of life dissatisfaction by 21.1% (p < .001). The risk of dissatisfaction was strongest among women with mental disorders (OR = 5.26; 95%CI 3.84–7.20) and neurological disorders (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 2.60–5.02) compared to the healthy (each p < .001). Smoking, physical inactivity and marital status were also associated with life dissatisfaction (each p < .001) but their introduction to the multivariate model did not attenuate the pattern of associations. Conclusions Morbidity and life dissatisfaction have a disease-specific and dose-dependent relationship. Even if women with mental and neurological disorders have the highest risk for life dissatisfaction, monitoring life satisfaction among aging women regardless of disorders should be undertaken in order to intervene the joint adverse effects of poor health and poor well-being. PMID:26799838

  6. [Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Reyes Balaguer, J; Moreno Olmos, J

    2005-04-30

    To know the osteoponia and osteoporosis prevalence in postmenopausal women determined with broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA). Descriptives cross-sectional study of prevalence. Salvador Allende Health Center. Valencia, Spain. A total of 115 postmenopausal women aged 49 at 85 years old was studied, initiated in September to December 2003. Iatrogenic menopause or women with calcium, vitamin D, estrogen replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, and biphosphonates therapy were considered criteria for exclusion. We measured bone mineral density with BUA at right calcaneus. We analyzed the age, height, and weight, the result of BUA, tobacco and diuretics consumption and years of amenorrhea. . The prevalence of osteoporosis was 50.4%. Other 29.6% had osteopenia. Of the postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, 27.6% were 70 to 75 years old. The 82.8% of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were younger than 75 years old. The 66.7% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 25 had osteoporosis. The osteoporosis prevalence in our patients was greater than other studies (30%). Emphasis may be placed on screening osteoporosis with BUA in primary health care. We suggested that educational community programs should start at an earlier age to identify factors that contribute to maintaining bone mineral density among postmenopausal women.

  7. Androgens and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spoletini, I; Vitale, C; Pelliccia, F; Fossati, C; Rosano, G M C

    2014-12-01

    Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on the link between androgens and cardiovascular disease and the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women has been conducted. The few existing studies on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women indicate no effect or a deleterious effect of increasing androgens and increased cardiovascular risk. However, there is evidence of a favorable effect of androgens on surrogate cardiovascular markers in postmenopausal women, such as high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, body fat mass and triglycerides. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the impact of therapy with androgens on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. The cardiovascular effect of testosterone or methyltestosterone with or without concomitant estrogens needs to be elucidated.

  8. Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease: lessons from a monkey model of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Williams, J Koudy; Suparto, Irma

    2004-01-01

    Concerns exist about the cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women because results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) are contradictory. In both of these studies, postmenopausal conjugated equine estrogens + medroxyprogesterone acetate did not reduce risk, and somewhat increased the risk of myocardial infarction in both primary (WHI) and secondary (HERS) prevention. These results appear to contradict numerous observational clinical trials and animal studies, which reported profound beneficial effects of HRT on cardiovascular disease risk. Results of both human and monkey studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)/HRT is effective in inhibiting progression of early stage (fatty streak) atherosclerosis but that ERT/HRT is much less effective in inhibiting progression of more advanced (established plaque) atherosclerosis. Results of these monkey studies are consistent with those of studies in women wherein ERT/HRT was initiated in postmenopausal women with different initial amounts of atherosclerosis. Based on these findings, it is speculated that ERT/HRT may be more cardioprotective in younger postmenopausal women with less coronary artery disease, and less effective in women with established coronary artery disease. Researchers are challenged to define the relative cardiovascular risk/benefit in different populations of postmenopausal women based on differences in age, amounts of pre-existing atherosclerosis, and risk factors.

  9. Carotid intima-media thickness in pre- and postmenopausal women with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kablak-Ziembicka, Anna; Przewlocki, Tadeusz; Tracz, Wieslawa; Pieniazek, Piotr; Musialek, Piotr; Sokolowski, Andrzej; Drwila, Rafal; Rzeznik, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an early marker of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to evaluate CIMT value for CAD prediction in pre-and postmenopausal women referred for coronary angiography with angina-like symptoms and a positive result of the treadmill test. The study comprised 321 women referred for coronary angiography with symptoms suggesting CAD. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured in common, bifurcation, and internal carotid artery, and expressed as the mean maximum value. Coronary angiography showed coronary stenosis > or = 50% in 211 (65.7%) women, including 27 with regular menses (47.3 +/- 3.4 years) and 184 postmenopausal (65.8 +/- 7.2 years). Normal coronary arteries were found in 110 women: 17 (47.3 +/- 4.9 years) with regular menses and 93 postmenopausal (64.3 +/- 6.5 years). The highest CIMT values were found in postmenopausal CAD women (1.360 +/- 0.32 mm), as compared to premenopausal with CAD (1.178 +/- 0.36 mm, P = 0.005), pre- (0.860 +/- 0.23 mm, P < 0.001) and postmenopausal (1.022 +/- 0.30 mm, P < 0.001) women without CAD. Carotid intima-media thickness (P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.018), and myocardial infarction (P < 0.001), but not menopause itself or the number of years since menses cessation, were found to be independent CAD predictors. By receiver operating characteristic calculation, the mean maximum CIMT cut-off values discriminating CAD were lower in premenopausal (> or = 0.933 mm) than in postmenopausal women (> or = 1.075 mm; P < 0.05) resulting in similar sensitivity (85.2% and 82.6%) and specificity (70.6% and 69.9%). Carotid intima-media thickness is a strong CAD predictor in both pre- and postmenopausal women, in contrast to the menopausal status.

  10. Obesity is Not Protective Against Fracture in Postmenopausal Women: GLOW

    PubMed Central

    Compston, Juliet E.; Watts, Nelson B.; Chapurlat, Roland; Cooper, Cyrus; Boonen, Steven; Greenspan, Susan; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Silverman, Stuart; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Lindsay, Robert; Saag, Kenneth G.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Gehlbach, Stephen; Hooven, Frederick H.; Flahive, Julie; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Rossini, Maurizio; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Siris, Ethel S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and incidence of clinical fractures in obese, postmenopausal women enrolled in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). METHODS This was a multinational, prospective, observational, population-based study carried out by 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. A total of 60,393 women aged ≥55 years were included. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires that covered domains that included patient characteristics, fracture history, risk factors for fracture, and anti-osteoporosis medications. RESULTS Body mass index (BMI) and fracture history were available at baseline, 1 and 2 years in 44,534 women, 23.4% of whom were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Fracture prevalence in obese women at baseline was 222 per 1,000 and incidence at 2 years was 61.7 per 1,000, similar to rates in non-obese women (227 and 66.0 per 1,000, respectively). Fractures in obese women accounted for 23% and 22% of all previous and incident fractures, respectively. The risk of incident ankle and upper leg fractures was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese women whilst the risk of wrist fracture was significantly lower. Obese women with fracture were more likely to have experienced early menopause and to report two or more falls in the past year. Self-reported asthma, emphysema, and type 1 diabetes were all significantly more common in obese than non-obese women with incident fracture. At 2 years, 27% of obese women with incident fracture were receiving bone-protective therapy, compared with 41% of non-obese and 57% of underweight women. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that obesity is not protective against fracture in postmenopausal women and is associated with increased risk of ankle and upper leg fractures. These findings have major public health implications in view of the rapidly rising incidence of obesity. Further studies are required to establish the pathogenesis of fractures in the obese

  11. Endothelial function and insulin resistance in early postmenopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors: importance of ESR1 and NOS3 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Clapauch, Ruth; Mourão, André Felipe; Mecenas, Anete S; Maranhão, Priscila A; Rossini, Ana; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular benefits from estradiol activation of nitric oxide endothelial production may depend on vascular wall and on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) polymorphisms. We have evaluated the microcirculation in vivo through nailfold videocapillaroscopy, before and after acute nasal estradiol administration at baseline and after increased sheer stress (postocclusive reactive hyperemia response) in 100 postmenopausal women, being 70 controls (healthy) and 30 simultaneously hypertensive and diabetic (HD), correlating their responses to PvuII and XbaI ESR1 polymorphisms and to VNTR, T-786C and G894T NOS3 variants. In HD women, C variant allele of ESR1 Pvull was associated to higher vasodilatation after estradiol (1.72 vs 1.64 mm/s, p = 0.01 compared to TT homozygotes) while G894T and T-786C NOS3 polymorphisms were connected to lower increment after shear stress (15% among wild type and 10% among variant alleles, p = 0.02 and 0.04). The G variant allele of ESR1 XbaI polymorphism was associated to higher HOMA-IR (3.54 vs. 1.64, p = 0.01) in HD and higher glucose levels in healthy women (91.8 vs. 87.1 mg/dl, p = 0.01), in which increased waist and HOMA-IR were also related to the G allele in NOS3 G894T (waist 93.5 vs 88.2 cm, p = 0.02; HOMA-IR 2.89 vs 1.48, p = 0.05). ESR1 Pvull, NOS3 G894T and T-786C polymorphism analysis may be considered in HD postmenopausal women for endothelial response prediction following estrogen therapy but were not discriminatory for endothelial response in healthy women. ESR1 XbaI and G894T NOS3 polymorphisms may be useful in accessing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes risks in all women, even before menopause and occurrence of metabolic disease.

  12. Endothelial Function and Insulin Resistance in Early Postmenopausal Women with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Importance of ESR1 and NOS3 Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Clapauch, Ruth; Mourão, André Felipe; Mecenas, Anete S.; Maranhão, Priscila A.; Rossini, Ana; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular benefits from estradiol activation of nitric oxide endothelial production may depend on vascular wall and on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) polymorphisms. We have evaluated the microcirculation in vivo through nailfold videocapillaroscopy, before and after acute nasal estradiol administration at baseline and after increased sheer stress (postocclusive reactive hyperemia response) in 100 postmenopausal women, being 70 controls (healthy) and 30 simultaneously hypertensive and diabetic (HD), correlating their responses to PvuII and XbaI ESR1 polymorphisms and to VNTR, T-786C and G894T NOS3 variants. In HD women, C variant allele of ESR1 Pvull was associated to higher vasodilatation after estradiol (1.72 vs 1.64 mm/s, p = 0.01 compared to TT homozygotes) while G894T and T-786C NOS3 polymorphisms were connected to lower increment after shear stress (15% among wild type and 10% among variant alleles, p = 0.02 and 0.04). The G variant allele of ESR1 XbaI polymorphism was associated to higher HOMA-IR (3.54 vs. 1.64, p = 0.01) in HD and higher glucose levels in healthy women (91.8 vs. 87.1 mg/dl, p = 0.01), in which increased waist and HOMA-IR were also related to the G allele in NOS3 G894T (waist 93.5 vs 88.2 cm, p = 0.02; HOMA-IR 2.89 vs 1.48, p = 0.05). ESR1 Pvull, NOS3 G894T and T-786C polymorphism analysis may be considered in HD postmenopausal women for endothelial response prediction following estrogen therapy but were not discriminatory for endothelial response in healthy women. ESR1 XbaI and G894T NOS3 polymorphisms may be useful in accessing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes risks in all women, even before menopause and occurrence of metabolic disease. PMID:25077953

  13. Romosozumab Treatment in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Cosman, Felicia; Crittenden, Daria B; Adachi, Jonathan D; Binkley, Neil; Czerwinski, Edward; Ferrari, Serge; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Lau, Edith; Lewiecki, E Michael; Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Zerbini, Cristiano A F; Milmont, Cassandra E; Chen, Li; Maddox, Judy; Meisner, Paul D; Libanati, Cesar; Grauer, Andreas

    2016-10-20

    Background Romosozumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds sclerostin, increases bone formation and decreases bone resorption. Methods We enrolled 7180 postmenopausal women who had a T score of -2.5 to -3.5 at the total hip or femoral neck. Patients were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of romosozumab (at a dose of 210 mg) or placebo monthly for 12 months; thereafter, patients in each group received denosumab for 12 months, at a dose of 60 mg, administered subcutaneously every 6 months. The coprimary end points were the cumulative incidences of new vertebral fractures at 12 months and 24 months. Secondary end points included clinical (a composite of nonvertebral and symptomatic vertebral) and nonvertebral fractures. Results At 12 months, new vertebral fractures had occurred in 16 of 3321 patients (0.5%) in the romosozumab group, as compared with 59 of 3322 (1.8%) in the placebo group (representing a 73% lower risk with romosozumab; P<0.001). Clinical fractures had occurred in 58 of 3589 patients (1.6%) in the romosozumab group, as compared with 90 of 3591 (2.5%) in the placebo group (a 36% lower risk with romosozumab; P=0.008). Nonvertebral fractures had occurred in 56 of 3589 patients (1.6%) in the romosozumab group and in 75 of 3591 (2.1%) in the placebo group (P=0.10). At 24 months, the rates of vertebral fractures were significantly lower in the romosozumab group than in the placebo group after each group made the transition to denosumab (0.6% [21 of 3325 patients] in the romosozumab group vs. 2.5% [84 of 3327] in the placebo group, a 75% lower risk with romosozumab; P<0.001). Adverse events, including instances of hyperostosis, cardiovascular events, osteoarthritis, and cancer, appeared to be balanced between the groups. One atypical femoral fracture and two cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were observed in the romosozumab group. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, romosozumab was associated with a lower risk of vertebral

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of anastrozole versus tamoxifen as primary adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: a US healthcare system perspective. The 5-year completed treatment analysis of the ATAC ('Arimidex', Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) trial.

    PubMed

    Locker, Gershon Y; Mansel, Robert; Cella, David; Dobrez, Deborah; Sorensen, Sonja; Gandhi, Sanjay K

    2007-12-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of anastrozole versus generic tamoxifen for primary adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer (EBC), from a US healthcare perspective. A probabilistic Markov model was developed using the 5-year completed treatment analysis of the ATAC ('Arimidex', Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) trial (ISRCTN 18233230) to project outcomes for anastrozole and tamoxifen to 25 years. Resource utilization data were obtained primarily from published literature and a physician survey (including expert opinion from ATAC Steering Committee members). Drug costs were taken from published wholesale acquisition costs (anastrozole $6.56/day, generic tamoxifen $1.33/day). Other unit costs ($US 2003-4) were from standard sources. Utility estimates of relevant health states, used to compute quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), were collected using the standard gamble technique in a cross-sectional sample of 44 patients. Costs and benefits were discounted 3% annually. In a cohort of 1000 postmenopausal women with HR+ EBC, the model showed anastrozole treatment (versus tamoxifen) would lead to 257 QALYs gained (0.26 QALYs gained per patient), at an additional cost of $5.21 million over 25 years ($5,212 per patient). The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of anastrozole compared with tamoxifen was $20,246 per QALY gained ($23,541 per life-year gained). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves indicated a >90% probability that the cost per QALY gained with anastrozole would be <$50,000. Results were robust in a sensitivity analysis. Anastrozole is a cost-effective alternative to tamoxifen for the primary adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with HR+ EBC.

  15. Immediate Administration of Zoledronic Acid Reduces Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer: 12-month analysis of the E-ZO-FAST trial.

    PubMed

    Llombart, Antonio; Frassoldati, Antonio; Paija, Outi; Sleeboom, Harm Peter; Jerusalem, Guy; Mebis, Jeroen; Deleu, Ines; Miller, Joel; Schenk, Nora; Neven, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Letrozole is a proven and effective adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+)) early breast cancer (EBC). As with other aromatase inhibitors (AIs), long-term letrozole administration is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. This study compared potential bone-protecting effects of immediate vs. delayed administration of zoledronic acid (ZOL) in patients with EBC receiving adjuvant letrozole. Patients with HR(+) EBC in whom adjuvant letrozole treatment was initiated (2.5 mg/day for 5 years) were randomized to immediate ZOL treatment (immediate ZOL) or delayed ZOL treatment (delayed ZOL) (both at 4 mg every 6 months). Patients in the delayed ZOL group received ZOL only for a BMD T-score that decreased to < -2.0 (lumbar spine [LS] or total hip [TH]) or for fracture. The primary endpoint was percentage change in the LS BMD at month 12. Patients were stratified by established or recent postmenopausal status, baseline T-scores, and adjuvant chemotherapy history. At 12 months, the LS BMD increased in the immediate ZOL group (+2.72%) but decreased in the delayed ZOL group (-2.71%); the absolute difference between groups was significant (5.43%; P < .0001). Across all subgroups, patients receiving immediate ZOL had significantly increased LS and TH BMD vs. those who received delayed ZOL (P < .0001). Differences in fracture incidence or disease recurrence could not be ascertained because of early data cutoff and low incidence of events. Adverse events were generally mild, transient, and consistent with the known safety profiles of both agents. Immediate ZOL administration effectively prevented BMD loss and increased BMD in postmenopausal women with HR(+) EBC receiving adjuvant letrozole, regardless of BMD status at baseline. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum osteocalcin and total body calcium in normal pre- and postmenopausal women and postmenopausal osteoporotic patients.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, S; Aloia, J F; Gundberg, C M; Yeh, J; Vaswani, A N; Yuen, K; Lo Monte, A F; Ellis, K J; Cohn, S H

    1987-04-01

    Serum osteocalcin was measured in 51 normal pre- and 114 postmenopausal women and in 41 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. Total body calcium (TBCa) was determined in the same individuals by neutron activation analysis. Many of the perimenopausal nonosteoporotic women had increased serum osteocalcin values, but 15 yr or more after the menopause most of the women had serum osteocalcin levels in the normal range. Comparing normal women before and after menopause, the mean serum osteocalcin levels [7.8 +/- 4.7 (+/- SE) and 10.1 +/- 9.4 ng/mL] were not significantly different; however, the TBCa values (898 +/- 99 and 806 +/- 111 g) were significantly different (P less than 0.001). When the normal postmenopausal women were regrouped according to high vs. low osteocalcin values, TBCa and phosphorus content as well as forearm linear bone density were significantly lower in the high osteocalcin group, even though most of the other variables, including urinary hydroxyproline excretion, serum alkaline phosphatase, age, height, and weight, were not different. Osteoporotic women had a mean serum osteocalcin concentration of 17.4 +/- 8.6 ng/ml and a TBCa of 657 +/- 83 g, both significantly different from the respective values in normal and pre- and postmenopausal women (P less than 0.001 for both variables in comparison to each group). These data suggest that high serum osteocalcin levels, at least on a group basis, are an index of low skeletal mass.

  17. Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity In Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak

    2016-12-01

    The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity In Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. Aim To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. Results The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:28208850

  19. Low-dose hormone therapy in postmenopausal women in China.

    PubMed

    Zang, H; Shi, H; Speroff, L

    2010-12-01

    To review the experience of menopausal symptoms and low-dose hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women in China. Literature review and critical summaries of available prospective, clinical trials (randomized, controlled trials, RCTs). Chinese women experience menopausal symptoms less frequently compared with women in developed countries, and the prevalence of menopausal symptoms is less in women of southern China than in women of northern China. The majority of postmenopausal Chinese women lack knowledge about HT, and the usage rate of HT is low in these women compared to that in women of developed countries. Some RCTs investigated the efficacy and safety of low- or ultra-low-dose HT, including conjugated equine estrogen, estradiol valerate, transdermal estradiol, nylestriol alone or in combination with progesterone, and tibolone in postmenopausal Chinese women. These RCTs reported that low- or ultra-low-dose HT relieved menopausal symptoms and prevented bone loss as well as standard-dose HT and was less likely to induce side-effects, including irregular vaginal bleeding and breast tenderness; there may be dose-dependent effects of HT. No study evaluated the effects of low-dose HT on cardiovascular events or breast mammographic density/risk of breast cancer. More RCTs are required to confirm efficacy and to assess the safety of low- or ultra-low-dose HT for a long-term period in a large group of postmenopausal women.

  20. Training of support afferentation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Kholodina, N V; Nikolenko, E D; Payet, J

    2017-05-02

    We have recently shown a diminishing of the Menopause Index in old-aged women who underwent special training directed at the enhancement of support afferentation by increasing the plantar forefoot sensitivity (Bazanova et al., 2015). Based on these results we hypothesized, that purposeful training of support afferentation through stimulation of plantar graviceptors by Aikido practice will decrease excessive postural and psychoemotional tension not only in rest condition, but during cognitive and manual task performance too. Fluency of cognitive and motor task performance, EEG alpha power as an index of neuronal efficiency of cognitive control, amount of alpha power suppression as a visual activation measure and EMG power of forehead muscles as a sign of psychoemotional tension were compared in three groups of post-menopausal women: i) 8years training with forefeet support afferentation with Aikido practice (A), ii) 8years fitness training (F) and iii) no dedicated fitness training for past 8years (N). Simultaneous stabilometry, EEG, and frontal EMG recording were performed in sitting and standing up position in eyes closed and eyes open condition. Recording done at rest and while performing cognitive and finger motor tasks. We compared studied parameters between groups with one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc two-tailed unpaired t-tests. The fluency of tasks performance, EMG and alpha-EEG-activity displayed similar values in all groups in a sitting position. Center of pressure (CoP) sway length, velocity and energy demands for saving balance increased when standing up, more in group N than in groups F and A (all contrasts p values<0.002, η(2)>0.89). Post hoc t-tests showed increased fluency in standing in both Aikido (p<0.01) and Fitness (p<0.05) subjects in relation to untrained subjects. Increasing fluency in motor task performance was in parallel with enhancing the EEG alpha-2

  1. Interpreting Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regan, Meredith M; Price, Karen N; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Thürlimann, Beat; Gelber, Richard D

    2011-05-26

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205.

  2. Interpreting breast international group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205. PMID:21635709

  3. [Risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women from southeast Brazilian].

    PubMed

    Buttros, Davi de Araújo Brito; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Barral, Ana Beatriz Cesar Rodrigues; Kawakami, Márcia Suemy

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and their risk factors associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. A cross-sectional clinical study was performed on 431 women (aged 40-75 years). amenorrhea > 12 months and age > 45 years or, bilateral oophorectomy > 40 years with BMD values (T-score of lumbar spine/femur neck) by DXA of the last 12 months. Risk factors evaluated: age, age and time of menopause, smoking, physical activity (30 min/5 times/week), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), use of corticotherapy and hormone therapy (HT), previous fracture, maternal hip fracture and body mass index (BMI = weight/height²). The χ2 test and the logistic regression method (Odds Ratio--OR) were used to determine osteoporosis risk. According to WHO criteria, 106 (24.6%) women showed osteoporosis (T-score < -2.5 DP), 188 (43.6%) osteopenia (-1.0/-2.4 DP), and 137 (31.8%) were normal (> -1.0 DP). Osteoporosis was detected in 12% of women aged 40-49 years, in 21.8% of women aged 50-59 years and in 45.7% of women aged > 60 years (p < 0.001). Osteoporosis occurred in 11.8% of women with a menopause period < 5 years, in 29.4% with a menopause period from 6 to 10 years, and in 41% of women with a menopause period > 10 years (p < 0.001). Of the women with early menopause, 80% showed osteopenia/osteoporosis (p = 0.03), and of those with BMI < 20 kg/m², 50% were osteoporotic (p < 0.001). The risk for osteoporosis detection increased with age (OR = 1.1; CI 95% = 1.0-1.1), time of menopause (OR = 1.1; CI 95% = 1.0-1.1), smoking (OR = 1.9; CI 95% = 1.2-3.2), RA (OR = 3.6; CI 95% = 1.3-9.6) and maternal fracture history (OR = 2.1; CI 95% = 1.1-3.0) (p < 0.05). In contrast, HT use (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) and high BMI (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.8-0.9) reduced the risk (p < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, age, time of menopause, smoking and maternal history of fracture were clinical indicators of risk for osteoporosis, whereas HT use and high BMI proved to be protective factors.

  4. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kork, Felix; Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Tepel, Martin; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. After menopause, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes and women are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared to fertile women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serum oxLDL in postmenopausal women and to identify possible associations of clinical and laboratory features with oxLDL in these patients. After clinical examination and completing a clinical questionnaire, an ultrasound examination of both carotid arteries was conducted and blood was drawn from 533 postmenopausal women. oxLDL concentration was determined using proton NMR spectroscopy. Oxidized LDL was detected in 12.4% (95% confidence interval 9.7-15.5) of postmenopausal women with a median of 0.18 mg/dl (interquartile range 0.10-0.43). Although intima-media thickness did not differ, postmenopausal women with serous oxLDL had more often atherosclerotic plaques compared to women without oxLDL (6/66 vs. 0/467; P < 0.01). Higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein, impaired glucose intolerance, and DBP were independently associated with the occurrence of oxLDL. If oxLDL was present, higher high-density lipoprotein and glucose intolerance were associated with higher concentrations of oxLDL. In contrast, higher blood urea concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of oxLDL. This study presents the prevalence and concentration of oxLDL in postmenopausal women and demonstrates that oxLDL concentration can be quantified by proton NMR spectroscopy in large patient samples. The data suggest that oxLDL may be a biomarker for incipient atherosclerotic changes in postmenopausal women. In contrary to the association of dyslipoproteinemia and diabetes, higher blood urea concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of oxLDL.

  5. Risk Assessment for Psychological Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. Objective: To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Result: Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Conclusion: Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women. PMID:24551665

  6. Hormone therapy and asymmetrical dimethylarginine in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karkanaki, Artemis; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Traianos, Alexandros; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Women present an estradiol-dependent cardiovascular risk profile. Based on various studies, it was considered that estrogen therapy (ET) in postmenopausal women could probably reduce the higher cardiovascular risk in this group. Assymetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous methylated arginine which inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by competing with the substrate of NO, L-arginine, leading to endothelial dysfunction and, consequently, to atherosclerosis. Moreover, ADMA has been considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has also been found that hormone therapy (HT), and mainly oral estrogen therapy, lowers ADMA concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women. The effect of estrogens on ADMA levels, although small, is considered important, as physiological variation of ADMA is limited. Nevertheless, larger randomized trials are necessary to establish that estrogens substantially lower ADMA levels and that these changes really reflect improved cardiovascular prognosis in postmenopausal women.

  7. [Intermediate-density lipoproteins and liver lipase in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Halperin, H; Berg, G; Aisemberg, L; Brites, F; Siseles, N; Wikinski, R

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate atherogenic lipoproteins in post-menopause, we studied 73 healthy women, 49 to 65 years old (Post-menopausal Group), with 1 to 10 years of amenorrhea and body mass index below 27 Kg/m2, and 20 young women (Control Group). We have determined plasma cholesterol concentration in the lipoproteins of intermediate density in addition to the classical lipoprotein parameters: total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins by electrophoresis. In 63 women from the Post-menopausal Group and 16 from the Control Group we studied the activity of hepatic lipase. Among these patients we selected at random 25 post-menopausal women and 13 controls to add measurements of triglycerides in the lipoproteins of intermediate density. Table 1 shows that the average plasma concentration of total cholesterol in the Post-menopausal Group was higher than that of the Controls (p < 0.001). The same was found for LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001) and for triglycerides (p < 0.001) whereas the average concentration of HDL-cholesterol did not show significant differences. The Post-menopausal Group had high values of plasma lipoproteins of intermediate density, even with normal phenotypes (Table 2). Cholesterol but also triglycerides (Fig. 1) were responsible for this increase. A triglyceride rich lipoprotein subspecies of intermediate density was predominant in 73% of Post-menopausal women vs 23% of the Controls (p < 0.01, Table 3). No differences in hepatic lipase activity were seen between the two groups (Table 4), and non statistic correlation between the enzyme activity and IDL-triglycerides or HDL-cholesterol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The Influence of Menopausal Status and Postmenopausal Use of Hormone Therapy on Presentation of Major Depression in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kornstein, Susan G.; Young, Elizabeth A.; Harvey, Annie T.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Barkin, Jennifer L.; Thase, Michael E.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Rush, A. John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in depression characteristics among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder. This study also evaluated these differences between postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder who are taking and not taking hormone therapy. Methods: Analyses conducted with data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study focused on female outpatients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder seeking treatment in 41 primary or psychiatric care settings across the United States. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among women not taking hormone therapy who were premenopausal (N=950), perimenopausal (N=380), or postmenopausal (N=562). These comparisons were also made between postmenopausal women (n=768) taking (N=171) or not taking (N=562) hormone therapy. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical baseline differences, premenopausal women were more likely to present with irritability than either peri- or postmenopausal women, and were more likely to have decreased appetite and less likely to have early morning insomnia than perimenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were more likely to have suicidal ideation and poorer physical functioning than either of the other groups, and were more likely to have sympathetic arousal and gastrointestinal symptoms than premenopausal women. After adjusting for baseline differences, postmenopausal women taking hormone therapy had better physical functioning, fewer melancholic features, less sympathetic arousal, and more lack of involvement in activities than women not taking hormone therapy. Conclusions: Menopausal status and postmenopausal use of hormone therapy may influence the clinical presentation of major depressive episodes in women. PMID:20616669

  9. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-corrected, outpatient, multi-centre (five sites) clinical study, in which a total of 168 Caucasian early-postmenopausal women volunteers (age>49 years) participated after fulfilling the criteria: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >30 IU/ml and estrogen (E2) <40 pg/ml levels at admission. They were randomly allocated to Placebo and Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) treatment, according to different monthly treatment sequences scheduled for each site. Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day) during three (Trial I; n=102) or four (Trial II; n=66) months study periods. At the baseline and follow- up monthly intervals, blood levels of FSH, E2, progesterone (PRG) and lutinizing hormone (LH), as well as serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TRG), high- and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were measured. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly results in one model and Maca versus Placebo contrast in another model. A total of 124 women concluded the study. Maca-GO significantly stimulated production of E2 (P<0.001) with a simultaneous suppression (P<0.05) of blood FSH, increase (P<0.05) in HDL. Maca-GO significantly reduced both frequency and severity of individual menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweating in particular) resulting in significant (P<0.001) alleviation of KMI (from 22 to 10), thus, offering an attractive non-hormonal addition to the choices available to early-postmenopausal women in the form of a natural plant alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) - hence, reducing dependence on hormone therapy programs.

  10. SKIN WRINKLES AND RIGIDITY IN EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN VARY BY RACE/ETHNICITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN ANCILLARY STUDY OF THE KEEPS TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461

  11. Skin wrinkles and rigidity in early postmenopausal women vary by race/ethnicity: baseline characteristics of the skin ancillary study of the KEEPS trial.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Baseline assessment of participants before randomization to study drug. Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and body mass index (BMI). In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races, where black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In white women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity. Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however, only in the white subgroup. In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling. Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex hormone levels and intraocular pressure in postmenopausal Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N

    2013-12-01

    A number of hormones are known to affect intra ocular pressure (IOP). Of these, the female sex hormones are the predominant ones to cause variations in IOP. During menopause, a changing hormone profile in the body causes important shifts in the levels of these hormones. Studies on the effect of menopause on visual function, cardiovascular and ocular hemodynamics showed that menopausal women had significantly higher IOP as compared to premenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of serum levels of sex hormones on IOP in postmenopausal Nigerian women. This study was an experimental, cross sectional study. Twenty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 55 years (mean age 52 +/- 2.32) and twenty premenopausal women aged 45 to 50 years (mean age 50 +/- 2.13) were selected by systematic random sampling. The women were free from systemic or ocular diseases. IOP was measured and serum levels of progesterone, estradiol and testosterone were determined by hormone assay for all subjects. Data was analyzed by correlation analysis. Mean IOP between the postmenopausal (16.00 +/- 5.81 mmHg) and premenopausal women (15.50 +/- 3.28 mmHg, p = 0.24) was not statistically significant. Although there was a positive correlation between IOP and estradiol level in the postmenopausal women (r = 0.567, p = 0.009), no significant correlation was found between IOP and serum levels of sex hormones among the premenopausal women. Our result suggests a relation between levels of estradiol and IOP in postmenopausal Nigerian women. However further studies may be required to determine a direct cause and effect relationship.

  13. Evaluating the efficacy of current clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal women with early-stage, estrogen or progesterone receptor–positive, one-to-three positive axillary lymph node, breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hannouf, M.B.; Brackstone, M.; Xie, B.; Zaric, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the benefit of the current clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy for postmenopausal women with early-stage, estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive (er/pr+), one-to-three positive axillary lymph node (1–3 ln+), breast cancer (esbc). Methods Using the Manitoba Cancer Registry, we identified all postmenopausal women diagnosed with er/pr+ 1–3 ln+ esbc during the periods 1995–1997, 2000–2002, and 2003–2005 (n = 156, 161, and 171 respectively). Treatment data were obtained from the Manitoba Cancer Registry and by linkage with Manitoba administrative databases. Seven-year survival data were available for the 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 populations. Using Cox regression, we assessed the independent effect of the clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy on disease-free (dfs) and overall survival (os). Results Clinical breast cancer treatments did not differ significantly between the 2000–2002 and 2003–2005 populations. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 103 patients in the 2000–2002 population (64%) and in 44 patients in the 1995–1997 population [28.2%; mean difference: 36%; 95% confidence interval (ci): 31% to 40%; p < 0.0001]. Compared with 1995–1997, 2000–2002 was not significantly associated with an incremental dfs benefit for patients over a period of 7 years (2000–2002 vs. 1995–1997; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% ci: 0.64 to 1.4). Conclusions The treatment standard of adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to endocrine therapy may not be effective for all women with er/pr+ 1–3 ln+ esbc. There could be a subgroup of those women who do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy as expected and who are therefore being overtreated. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to confirm our results. PMID:23144580

  14. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A.; Paine, Nicola J.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared to men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known, but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of nighttime SBP and endothelial function, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared to women with normal nighttime SBP. Methods One-hundred postmenopausal women (mean age: 65.8 ± 7.5 years, body mass index: 28.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2, hypertension: 47%, coronary artery disease: 51%, mean clinic BP 137 ± 17/67 ± 11 mm Hg, 34 with nighttime hypertension) underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessments. Results Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjusting for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95%±0.65 vs 5.52%±0.46, p = .002). Conclusions In postmenopausal women, nighttime hypertension was associated with reduced endothelial function. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of treating nighttime hypertension on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted. PMID:25563797

  15. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

  16. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    SciTech Connect

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-02-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius (bone mineral content (BMC)) and total neutron activation analysis (total body calcium (TBCa)), respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements.

  17. Why Do Only Some Women Develop Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0307 TITLE: Why Do Only Some Women Develop Post- Menopausal Osteoporosis ? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marc D...Only Some Women Develop Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0307 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...proposed project addresses a novel and potentially important mechanism of osteoporosis which may determine which women suffer the disease. Confirmation

  18. Vasomotor symptoms and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Szmuilowicz, Emily D.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Howard, Barbara V.; Margolis, Karen L.; Greep, Nancy C.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Wu, Chunyuan; Allison, Matthew; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Johnson, Karen C.; Ockene, Judith K.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that women with menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk as measured by surrogate markers. We investigated the relationships between VMS and clinical CVD events and all-cause mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Methods We compared the risk of incident CVD events and all-cause mortality between four groups of women (total N=60,027): (1) No VMS at menopause onset and no VMS at WHI-OS enrollment (no VMS [referent group]); (2) VMS at menopause onset, but not at WHI-OS enrollment (early VMS); (3) VMS at both menopause onset and WHI-OS enrollment (persistent VMS [early and late]); and (4) VMS at WHI-OS enrollment, but not at menopause onset (late VMS). Results For women with early VMS (N=24,753), compared to no VMS (N=18,799), hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in fully-adjusted models were: major CHD, 0.94 (0.84, 1.06); stroke, 0.83 (0.72, 0.96); total CVD, 0.89 (0.81, 0.97); and all-cause mortality, 0.92 (0.85, 0.99). For women with persistent VMS (N=15,084), there was no significant association with clinical events. For women with late VMS (N=1,391) compared to no VMS, HRs and 95% CIs were: major CHD, 1.32 (1.01, 1.71); stroke, 1.14 (0.82, 1.59); total CVD, 1.23 (1.00, 1.52); and all-cause mortality, 1.29 (1.08, 1.54). Conclusions Early VMS were not associated with increased CVD risk. Rather, early VMS were associated with decreased risk of stroke, total CVD events, and all-cause mortality. Late VMS were associated with increased CHD risk and all-cause mortality. The predictive value of VMS for clinical CVD events may vary with onset of VMS at different stages of menopause. Further research examining the mechanisms underlying these associations is needed. Future studies will also be necessary to investigate whether VMS that develop for the first time in the later postmenopausal years represent a pathophysiologic process distinct

  19. Impact of adolescent pregnancy on hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Soo; Jung, Inkyung; Youn, Jong-Chan; Cho, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the detrimental effects on maternal health due to pregnancy during adolescence, but no studies have reported the influence of adolescent pregnancy on blood pressure in women's later life. We investigated whether there was an association between adolescent pregnancy and the risk of hypertension in Korean postmenopausal women. This study used the data of 2538 postmenopausal women from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010-2011. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent association between adolescent pregnancy and hypertension by adjusting for potential confounding factors. Postmenopausal women with a history of adolescent pregnancy had a higher prevalence of hypertension than those without a history of adolescent pregnancy. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, lifestyle, sociodemographic factors, known hypertension risk factors, and reproductive factors, a history of adolescent pregnancy was significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio, 1.702; 95% confidence interval, 1.125-2.574). This study showed that a history of adolescent pregnancy is significantly and independently associated with a higher risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  20. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  1. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  2. Body iodine status in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Arslanca, Tufan; Korkmaz, Vakkas; Arslanca, Seyma B; Karadag, Burak; Ergün, Yusuf

    2017-09-25

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a frequent cause of morbidity and can negatively impact life expectancy; iodine is an essential element for bone mineralization, and iodine deficiency is frequently observed. The aim of the present study was to understand the connection between postmenopausal osteoporosis and the level of iodine in the body. A total of 132 participants were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 34), group 2 comprised osteopenic women (n = 38), and group 3 included women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 60). The three groups were compared according to demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings. The urinary iodine levels were recorded as 216.1 ± 125.2 in the control group, 154.6 ± 76.6 in the osteopenic group, and 137.5 ± 64.9 in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (P < 0.001). These differences were maintained after adjustment for body mass index (P < 0.001). The urinary iodine level accurately correlated with the total T-score for the lumbar spine (r = 0.236, P = 0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that corrected for body mass index, alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme, and urinary deoxypyridinoline, the urinary iodine level was significantly associated with total T-score (beta coefficient = 0.270, P = 0.006). The urinary iodine level was significantly lower in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and iodine replacement may be important in preventing osteoporosis in areas where iodine deficiency is endemic.

  3. Progesterone Therapy, Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A 3-Month Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Healthy Early Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Elliott, Thomas G.; Norman, Eric; Stajic, Vesna; Hitchcock, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Progesterone is effective treatment for hot flushes/night sweats. The cardiovascular effects of progesterone therapy are unknown but evidence suggests that premenopausal normal estradiol with also normal progesterone levels may provide later cardiovascular protection. We compared the effects of progesterone to placebo on endothelial function, weight, blood pressure, metabolism, lipids, inflammation and coagulation. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized, double-blind, 3-month placebo-controlled trial of progesterone (300 mg daily) among 133 healthy postmenopausal women in Vancouver, Canada from 2003–2009. Endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography was a planned primary outcome. Enrolled women were 1–11 y since last menstruation, not using hormones (for >6 months), non-smoking, without diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or their medications. Randomized (1∶1) women (55±4 years, body mass index 25±3) initially had normal blood pressure, fasting lipid, glucose and electrocardiogram results. Endothelial function (% forearm blood flow above saline) was not changed with progesterone (487±189%, n = 18) compared with placebo (408±278%, n = 16) (95% CI diff [−74 to 232], P = 0.30). Progesterone (n = 65) and placebo (n = 47) groups had similar changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. High-density lipoprotein was lower (−0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.001) on progesterone compared with placebo. Fasting glucose, hs-C-reactive protein, albumin and D-dimer changes were all comparable to placebo. Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile scores were initially low and remained low with progesterone therapy and not statistically different from placebo. Conclusions Results indicate that progesterone has short-term cardiovascular safety. Endothelial function, weight

  4. Progesterone therapy, endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors: a 3-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy early postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prior, Jerilynn C; Elliott, Thomas G; Norman, Eric; Stajic, Vesna; Hitchcock, Christine L

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone is effective treatment for hot flushes/night sweats. The cardiovascular effects of progesterone therapy are unknown but evidence suggests that premenopausal normal estradiol with also normal progesterone levels may provide later cardiovascular protection. We compared the effects of progesterone to placebo on endothelial function, weight, blood pressure, metabolism, lipids, inflammation and coagulation. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, 3-month placebo-controlled trial of progesterone (300 mg daily) among 133 healthy postmenopausal women in Vancouver, Canada from 2003-2009. Endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography was a planned primary outcome. Enrolled women were 1-11 y since last menstruation, not using hormones (for >6 months), non-smoking, without diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or their medications. Randomized (1∶1) women (55 ± 4 years, body mass index 25 ± 3) initially had normal blood pressure, fasting lipid, glucose and electrocardiogram results. Endothelial function (% forearm blood flow above saline) was not changed with progesterone (487 ± 189%, n = 18) compared with placebo (408 ± 278%, n = 16) (95% CI diff [-74 to 232], P = 0.30). Progesterone (n = 65) and placebo (n = 47) groups had similar changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. High-density lipoprotein was lower (-0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.001) on progesterone compared with placebo. Fasting glucose, hs-C-reactive protein, albumin and D-dimer changes were all comparable to placebo. Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile scores were initially low and remained low with progesterone therapy and not statistically different from placebo. Results indicate that progesterone has short-term cardiovascular safety. Endothelial function, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference

  5. Breastfeeding experience and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Enger, S M; Ross, R K; Paganini-Hill, A; Bernstein, L

    1998-05-01

    Results of studies of breastfeeding and postmenopausal breast cancer risk have been inconsistent, with many investigators concluding that breastfeeding does not influence risk. We examined whether breastfeeding reduces postmenopausal breast cancer risk as well as the details of this relationship, including possible modification in risk by the age that a woman first breastfed a child and the number of children she breastfed. This population-based case-control study compared 974 women who were residents of Los Angeles County and newly diagnosed with breast cancer to 973 women with no history of breast cancer who were matched to patients by age (within 3 years) and neighborhood of residence. Subjects were parous and postmenopausal. Breast cancer patients were ages 55-64 years at diagnosis. Women who breastfed at least 16 months experienced a reduced odds of breast cancer relative to women who never breastfed (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.01). Risk decreased as the number of children breastfed increased, but the association was attenuated after accounting for lifetime duration of breastfeeding. Breast cancer risk was 30% lower among women ages 20-24 years at first breastfeeding than women who had never breastfed (odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.88), independent of the effect of age at first birth. This study provides some evidence that the protective effect of breastfeeding persists into the postmenopausal years. The potential for nondifferential error in recall of breastfeeding habits among postmenopausal patients and controls may explain the inconsistent results observed across studies and underscores the need for careful assessment of this relationship.

  6. Resveratrol supplementation reduces pain experience by postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rachel H X; Evans, Hamish M; Howe, Peter R C

    2017-08-01

    Pain is a common complaint among postmenopausal women. It has been postulated that vascular dysfunction caused by estrogen decline at menopause plays a key role in the initiation and progression of degradative joint disease, namely age-related osteoarthritis. We evaluated whether supplementation with resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, could improve aspects of well-being such as chronic pain that is commonly experienced by postmenopausal women. A 14-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with trans-resveratrol (75 mg, twice daily) was conducted in 80 healthy postmenopausal women. Aspects of well-being, including pain, menopausal symptoms, sleep quality, depressive symptoms, mood states, and quality of life were assessed by Short form-36 at baseline and at the end of treatment. Rating scales were averaged to provide a composite score representing overall well-being. Cerebral vasodilator responsiveness to hypercapnia was also assessed as a surrogate marker for cerebrovascular function. Compared with placebo treatment, there was a significant reduction in pain and an improvement in total well-being after resveratrol supplementation. Both benefits, including measures of quality of life, correlated with improvements in cerebrovascular function. Our preliminary findings indicate potential for resveratrol treatment to reduce chronic pain in age-related osteoarthritis. Resveratrol consumption may also boost perceptions of well-being in postmenopausal women. Further investigation to elucidate underlying mechanisms is warranted.

  7. Mediating Influences on Serum Lipids among Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    The purpose of this study was to investigate among postmenopausal women the relationship of dietary fat intake, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body weight to total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol measures in order to assess the relative influence of each…

  8. Biochemical Changes in Postmenopausal Women Following a Muscle Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow-Harter, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Twelve postmenopausal women attending a 50 minute exercise class three times a week for eight weeks were compared with 10 controls who maintained sedentary routines. Results showed that the exercise group had higher serum alkaline phosphatase and lower serum calcium than the controls. (Author/CB)

  9. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  10. Impact of Phytoestrogens on Serum Lipids in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Terzic, M.; Micic, J.; Dotlic, J.; Maricic, S.; Mihailovic, T.; Knezevic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of soy- and red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women and to compare the effects to the lipid levels of healthy postmenopausal women without phytoestrogen supplementation. Materials and Methods: Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were assessed. Measurements were performed before treatment and at 6-month intervals over a period of 18 months. The investigation included 74 healthy postmenopausal women randomized into three groups according to treatment. The first group of 23 patients received soy-derived isoflavones, the second group (26 patients) was given red clover-derived phytoestrogens, while the third control group (25 patients) received no supplements. Results: Mean triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL levels of patients in the control group were significantly higher than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001) at all three time points, while mean values did not differ significantly between the soy and the red clover groups. The mean HDL levels of patients in the control group was significantly lower than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Phytoestrogen supplementation had a positive metabolic effect on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women. The impact on serum lipids levels was similar for soy and red clover. PMID:25284841

  11. Biochemical Changes in Postmenopausal Women Following a Muscle Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow-Harter, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Twelve postmenopausal women attending a 50 minute exercise class three times a week for eight weeks were compared with 10 controls who maintained sedentary routines. Results showed that the exercise group had higher serum alkaline phosphatase and lower serum calcium than the controls. (Author/CB)

  12. Attitudes of postmenopausal women toward interactive video dance for exercise.

    PubMed

    Inzitari, Marco; Greenlee, Adam; Hess, Rachel; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2009-08-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is universally recommended, most adults are not regular exercisers. Interactive video dance is a novel form of PA in widespread use among young adults, but interest among adults is not known. Postmenopausal women are an appropriate target for interventions to promote PA because they have an increased risk of health problems related to sedentary behavior. We explored perceived advantages and disadvantages of video dance as a personal exercise option in postmenopausal women. Forty sedentary postmenopausal women (mean age +/- SD 57 +/- 5 years), were oriented in eight small groups to interactive video dance, which uses a force-sensing pad with directional panels: the player steps on the panels in response to arrows scrolling on a screen, synchronized to music. Perceived advantages and disadvantages were elicited through a nominal group technique (NGT) process. Participants generated 113 advantages and 71 disadvantages. The most frequently cited advantages were "it's fun" and "improves coordination" (seven of eight groups), the fact that challenge encourages progress (five of eight groups), the potential for weight loss (four of eight groups), and the flexibility of exercise conditions (three of eight groups). Concerns were the potentially long and frustrating learning process, cost (six of eight groups), and possible technical issues (two of eight groups). The recreational nature of interactive dance exercise was widely appealing to postmenopausal women and might help promote adherence to PA. Initial support to learn basic technical and movement skills may be needed.

  13. Screening and validation of serum protein biomarkers for early postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Hu, Ya-Qian; Zhao, Zhuo-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Gao, Bo; Lu, Wei-Guang; Xu, Xiao-Long; Lin, Xi-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Peng; Jie, Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Yang, Liu

    2017-09-26

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most prominent worldwide public health problems and the morbidity is increasing with the aging population. It has been demonstrated that early diagnosis and intervention delay the disease progression and improve the outcome. Therefore, searching for biomarkers that are able to identify postmenopausal women at high risk for developing osteoporosis is an effective way to improve the quality of life of patients, and alleviate social and economic burdens. In the present study, a protein array was used to identify potential biomarkers. The bone mineral densities of 10 rats were dynamically measured in an ovariectomized model by micro‑computed tomography assessment, and the early stage of osteoporosis was defined. Through the protein array‑based screening, the expression levels of six serum protein biomarkers in ovariectomized rats were observed to alter at the initiation stage of the postmenopausal osteoporosis. Fractalkine, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‑1 and monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 were finally demonstrated to be increased in the serum of eight enrolled postmenopausal osteoporosis patients using ELISA assay and were correlated with the severity of progressive bone loss. These biomarkers may be explored as potential early biomarkers to readily evaluate and diagnose postmenopausal osteoporosis in the clinic.

  14. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia in post-menopausal women: pros.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, D; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in women peaks during the 3rd-4th decade and then greatly decreases after the menopause. Apart from the effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin can act directly on bone metabolism. Hyperprolactinemia is a recognized cause of secondary osteoporosis, and treatment with dopamine agonists can lead to improved BMD. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to weight gain and insulin resistance, which can be ameliorated following medical treatment. Although relatively rare, prolactinomas can be observed in post-menopausal women and are frequently large and invasive; dopamine agonists appear to be as effective in these patients as in younger women to induce reduction of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. Here, we review data potentially favouring medical treatment with dopamine agonists in post-menopausal women diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia.

  15. Ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Paton, D M

    2014-05-01

    Ospemifene is a third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), structurally closely related to toremifene. Clinical studies in postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal atrophy demonstrated that it produced significant improvements in the structure of the vagina and its pH, and significantly reduced dyspareunia, the main complaint of the women treated. Preclinical studies demonstrated that ospemifene, unlike tamoxifen, did not produce DNA adducts, suggesting that it has less carcinogenic potential than tamoxifen. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that ospemifene has an agonist action on bone and reduced the growth of all breast cancer models in animal studies, providing they expressed estrogen receptor-α. Ospemifene had minimal effects on the endometrium of postmenopausal women. Ospemifene 60 mg once a day was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in February 2013 for women with moderate to severe dyspareunia.

  16. Endometrial bleeding in postmenopausal women: with and without hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present a review of the potential mechanisms involved in the occurrence of endometrial bleeding in postmenopausal women using hormone therapy. Selected literature on the incidence of bleeding in postmenopausal women using estrogen progestogen therapy was reviewed. The incidence of spotting and bleeding in women using continuous-combined hormone therapy was presented. Relevant articles related to the role of angiogenic factors and vasculogenesis in the endometrium, endometrial leukocytes, and endometrial metalloproteinases were used for the review. The cause or etiology of endometrial bleeding with hormone therapy is unknown. Several options are known to alter angiogenesis or be involved in tissue remodeling during normal menstruation. Vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin-1 are proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors that could cause dysfunction in vasculogenesis that could result in blood vessel fragility and bleeding. The role of pericytes in maintaining vessel morphology and integrity is discussed. Endometrial leukocytes and metalloproteinases are involved in normal menstruation, but their role in postmenopausal bleeding is not clear suggesting involvement of mechanisms in the bleeding. There is limited information on clinical investigation into the etiology of postmenopausal bleeding associated with hormone therapy. The major cause of hormone therapy-related bleeding is unknown. Alterations in angiogenic factors that could result in vascular dysfunction and vessel breakdown provide a working hypothesis as to the potential cause of vessel breakdown.

  17. Exemestane for breast-cancer prevention in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Ingle, James N; Alés-Martínez, José E; Cheung, Angela M; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; McTiernan, Anne; Robbins, John; Johnson, Karen C; Martin, Lisa W; Winquist, Eric; Sarto, Gloria E; Garber, Judy E; Fabian, Carol J; Pujol, Pascal; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Farmer, Patricia; Gelmon, Karen A; Tu, Dongsheng; Richardson, Harriet

    2011-06-23

    Tamoxifen and raloxifene have limited patient acceptance for primary prevention of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors prevent more contralateral breast cancers and cause fewer side effects than tamoxifen in patients with early-stage breast cancer. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of exemestane designed to detect a 65% relative reduction in invasive breast cancer, eligible postmenopausal women 35 years of age or older had at least one of the following risk factors: 60 years of age or older; Gail 5-year risk score greater than 1.66% (chances in 100 of invasive breast cancer developing within 5 years); prior atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ; or ductal carcinoma in situ with mastectomy. Toxic effects and health-related and menopause-specific qualities of life were measured. A total of 4560 women for whom the median age was 62.5 years and the median Gail risk score was 2.3% were randomly assigned to either exemestane or placebo. At a median follow-up of 35 months, 11 invasive breast cancers were detected in those given exemestane and in 32 of those given placebo, with a 65% relative reduction in the annual incidence of invasive breast cancer (0.19% vs. 0.55%; hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.70; P=0.002). The annual incidence of invasive plus noninvasive (ductal carcinoma in situ) breast cancers was 0.35% on exemestane and 0.77% on placebo (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.79; P=0.004). Adverse events occurred in 88% of the exemestane group and 85% of the placebo group (P=0.003), with no significant differences between the two groups in terms of skeletal fractures, cardiovascular events, other cancers, or treatment-related deaths. Minimal quality-of-life differences were observed. Exemestane significantly reduced invasive breast cancers in postmenopausal women who were at moderately increased risk for breast cancer. During a median follow-up period of 3 years, exemestane was

  18. Black cohosh improves objective sleep in postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, K; Jin, Y; Huang, L; Feng, S; Hou, X; Du, B; Zheng, J; Li, L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are prominent after menopause. The aim of our study was to look into the effect of black cohosh on both objective and subjective sleep in early postmenopausal women with sleep complaints. We performed a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled research during a 6-month period. Forty-eight postmenopausal women aged 45-60 years with sleep disturbance were enrolled and received daily administration of either black cohosh or placebo. Polysomnography and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were performed at the initiation and termination of the study, as well as the Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone tests. Liver and renal functions and breast and pelvic ultrasound were set as safety measures, carried out every 3 months. Seventy-six women were interviewed, of whom 42 women completed the whole trial. Compared with placebo, black cohosh treatment led to significant polysomnographic changes, including increased sleep efficiency and decreased wake after sleep onset (WASO) duration, and tended to improve PSQI with a medium effect size. On average, 15.8% of WASO duration was reduced in the black cohosh group. Vasomotor and physical domains of life quality were improved compared with placebo. Safety measures did not yield any adverse event assigned to black cohosh. In early postmenopausal women with a major sleep complaint, black cohosh effectively improved sleep and might be a safe measure in managing menopausal sleep disturbance.

  19. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P < 0.05). There were no significant associations between history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  20. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality of life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The study aim is to ask whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use are examined in an exploratory fashion. Methods Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during the peri- and post-menopause initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997–2004. Associations between the number of visits reporting hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Results Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reporting hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b=2.87, SE=1.21, p<0.05). There were no significant associations between history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Conclusions Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reporting hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women. PMID:20042895

  1. Breast cancer after hormone replacement therapy--does prognosis differ in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Baumgärtner, A K; Häusler, A; Seifert-Klauss, V; Schuster, T; Schwarz-Boeger, U; Kiechle, M

    2011-10-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been associated with higher incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but it is unclear if breast cancers developing after HRT use have different prognosis. 1053 women with hormone receptor positive non-metastasized breast cancer were analyzed in a retrospective trial, stratifying by HRT use before diagnosis. Postmenopausal HRT users had significantly more early tumor stages (p<0.001). HRT in postmenopausal patients was associated with longer time to progression (TTP) (HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.55-1.19, p=0.28) and overall survival (OS) (HR 0.68, 95%CI 0.45-1.02, p=0.059). Perimenopausal HRT users showed shorter TTP and OS (HR 1.99, 95%CI 0.57-6.91, p=0.28 and HR 4.59, 95%CI 0.91-23.25, p=0.06 respectively). Higher BMI was significantly associated with poorer prognosis in perimenopausal women only (TTP: HR=1.16; OS: HR=1.31). In this retrospective analysis postmenopausal HRT users seemed to have a better breast cancer prognosis. For perimenopausal HRT users however, a trend towards worse prognosis was found.

  2. [Risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women from Guadalajara, Jalisco].

    PubMed

    González-Mercado, Anahí; Sánchez-López, J Yoaly; Ibarra, Bertha

    2013-12-01

    To know risk factors and the frequency of osteoporosis (OP) in postmenopausal women. Bone mineral density was measured in lumbar spine of 513 postmenopausal women from a hospital of Guadalajara, Jalisco during 2007-2008. The cutoff points of the associated variables were obtained by ROC curves and odds ratio (OR) by logistic regression. The 25.2% (95%CI 21.44-28.96) of the women was OP. The variables associated with OP and cutoff points were age >60 years, weight <71 kg, height <1.54 m and BMI <29.2 kg/m(2), with OR greater than 3.19 (p<0.0001). It is recommended setting cutoff points to estimate risk factors for OP more accurately in each population.

  3. Sleep Disturbance, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Veteran Women.

    PubMed

    Rissling, Michelle B; Gray, Kristen E; Ulmer, Christi S; Martin, Jennifer L; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Gray, Shelly L; Hale, Lauren; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Naughton, Michelle; Woods, Nancy F; LaCroix, Andrea; Calhoun, Patrick S; Stefanick, Marcia; Weitlauf, Julie C

    2016-02-01

    To compare the prevalence and cardiometabolic health impact of sleep disturbance among postmenopausal Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The prevalence of five categories of sleep disturbance--medication/alcohol use for sleep; risk for insomnia; risk for sleep disordered breathing [SDB]; risk for comorbid insomnia and SDB (insomnia + SDB); and aberrant sleep duration [SLD]--was compared in 3,707 Veterans and 141,354 non-Veterans using logistic or multinomial regression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of sleep disturbance and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Type 2 diabetes in Veterans and non-Veterans. Women Veterans were more likely to have high risk for insomnia + SDB relative to non-Veteran participants. However, prevalence of other forms of sleep disturbance was similar across groups. Baseline sleep disturbance was not differentially associated with cardiometabolic health outcomes in Veteran versus non-Veteran women. Risks for SDB and insomnia + SDB were both linked to heightened risk of CVD and diabetes; SLD was consistently linked with greater risk of CVD and diabetes in non-Veterans but less strongly and consistently in Veterans. Efforts to identify and treat sleep disturbances in postmenopausal women are needed and may positively contribute to the attenuation of cardiometabolic morbidity risk. Increased awareness of women Veterans' vulnerability to postmenopausal insomnia + SDB may be particularly important for health care providers who treat this population. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2016.

  4. Resilience, depressed mood, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo; Fernández-Iñarrea, José; Fernández-Alonso, Ana M; Chedraui, Peter; Llaneza, Plácido

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to assess resilience, depressed mood, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 169 postmenopausal women aged 48 to 68 years were asked to fill out the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (WYRS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), and a questionnaire containing personal and partner sociodemographic data. The median [interquartile range] age of participating women was 54 [10.0] years. Among the women, 55.6% had increased body mass index, 76.9% had a partner, 17.8% were current smokers, 14.2% had hypertension, 25.4% used psychotropic drugs, and 13.0% used hormone therapy. Forty-five percent of the women had depressed mood (CESD-10 scores ≥10), and 34.9% had severe menopausal symptoms (total MRS scores ≥17). Less resilience (lower WYRS scores) correlated with depressed mood (higher CESD-10 scores) and severe menopausal symptoms (higher total, psychological, and urogenital MRS scores). Multiple linear regression analysis determined that WYRS scores positively correlated with exercising regularly and inversely correlated with CESD-10 scores (depressed mood). CESD-10 scores positively correlated with somatic and psychological MRS subscale scores and inversely correlated with WYRS scores (less resilience). In this postmenopausal sample, depressed mood and participation in regular exercise correlate with lower and higher resilience, respectively. Depressed mood is associated with the severity of menopausal symptoms (somatic and psychological).

  5. Soy protein supplementation does not cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Soung, Do Y; Patade, Anagha; Khalil, Dania A; Lucas, Edralin A; Devareddy, Latha; Greaves, Kathryn A; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2006-01-01

    Background The health benefits of soy isoflavones have been widely investigated; however, there are some concerns as to whether soy isoflavones, similar to ipriflavone, a synthetic isoflavone, cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which 12-month supplementation of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones alters lymphocyte counts or other hematological parameters in postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy. Methods Eighty-seven postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive either soy protein or an equivalent amount of control protein devoid of isoflavones. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and at the end of twelve month study period for complete blood count analyses. Results Between the two treatment groups, the percent changes in hematological parameters, including lymphocytes, were not different. While women consuming the soy supplement had an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell distribution width index (RDW; a marker of reticulocytes), women consuming the control diet had higher percentage of only MCHC. Conclusion Overall, the results of the present study indicate that consumption of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones daily for one year does not cause lymphocytopenia. PMID:16608514

  6. Time to Clinically Relevant Fracture Risk Scores in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Overman, Robert A; Fine, Jason P; Crandall, Carolyn J; Robbins, John; Schousboe, John T; Ensrud, Kristine E; LeBlanc, Erin S; Gass, Margery L; Johnson, Karen C; Womack, Catherine R; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-07-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend use of fracture risk scores for screening and pharmacologic treatment decisions. The timing of occurrence of treatment-level (according to 2014 National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines) or screening-level (according to 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines) fracture risk scores has not been estimated in postmenopausal women. We conducted a retrospective competing risk analysis of new occurrence of treatment-level and screening-level fracture risk scores in postmenopausal women aged 50 years and older, prior to receipt of pharmacologic treatment and prior to first hip or clinical vertebral fracture. In 54,280 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 years without a bone mineral density test, the time for 10% to develop a treatment-level FRAX score could not be estimated accurately because of rare incidence of treatment-level scores. In 6096 women who had FRAX scores calculated with bone mineral density, the estimated unadjusted time to treatment-level FRAX ranged from 7.6 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.6-8.7) for those aged 65 to 69, to 5.1 years (95% CI, 3.5-7.5) for those aged 75 to 79 at baseline. Of 17,967 women aged 50 to 64 with a screening-level FRAX at baseline, 100 (0.6%) experienced a hip or clinical vertebral fracture by age 65 years. Postmenopausal women with sub-threshold fracture risk scores at baseline were unlikely to develop a treatment-level FRAX score between ages 50 and 64 years. After age 65, the increased incidence of treatment-level fracture risk scores, osteoporosis, and major osteoporotic fracture supports more frequent consideration of FRAX and bone mineral density testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Yogasanas on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Motorwala, Zainab S; Kolke, Sona; Panchal, Priyanka Y; Bedekar, Nilima S; Sancheti, Parag K; Shyam, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is commonly encountered by postmenopausal women. There is an increased need for a low cost and efficient treatment alternative to address this population. Aims: To study the effects of integrated yoga on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Settings and Designs: Experimental pre-post study conducted in a community setting. Materials and Methods: 30 females in the age group of 45–62 years suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) score of ≤−2.5 underwent a 6 months fully supervised yoga session. All the participants completed the study. Pretraining and posttraining BMD was calculated. Outcome measure: DEXA score at the lumbar spine. Statistical Analysis: The study was statistically analyzed using paired t-test to see the significance of pretraining and posttraining effects of a yoga session. Results: Improvement in T-score of DEXA scan of −2.55 ± 0.25 at posttraining as compared to a pretraining score of −2.69 ± 0.17. Conclusions: Integrated yoga is a safe mode of physical activity which includes weight bearing as well as not weight bearing asanas, Pranayama, and suryanamaskar, all of which helps induce improvement in BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic females. PMID:26865770

  8. Randomized phase II placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of topical pure emu oil for joint pain related to adjuvant aromatase inhibitor use in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: JUST (Joints Under Study).

    PubMed

    Chan, Arlene; De Boer, R; Gan, A; Willsher, P; Martin, R; Zissiadis, Y; Miller, K; Bauwens, A; Hastrich, D

    2017-07-09

    Aromatase inhibitors are standard of care in women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. Published evidence demonstrates that adverse effects may have an impact on drug compliance, with arthralgias being one of the most commonly reported adverse effects. Eligible patients were postmenopausal women who had experienced arthralgia following initiation of an aromatase inhibitor. Patients who experienced arthralgias following a minimum of a 3-month treatment on the aromatase inhibitor were randomized to emu oil or placebo oil. The primary endpoint was to assess for a reduction in pain as measured by a visual analogue score after 8 weeks of treatment. Seventy-three patients comprised the intent-to-treat population, and there was no statistically significant benefit with use of EO. However, there was a statistically significant improvement in pain (visual analogue score was -1.28; p < 0.001) and Brief Pain Inventory severity score -0.88 (p < 0.001), as well as functional interference (Brief Pain Inventory interference -1.10 (p < 0.001) for the entire population following an 8-week administration of EO or placebo oil. Arthralgias, as a result of aromatase inhibitor use, may be ameliorated by the use of topical oil massaged onto the joint. Further research into interventions for this common side effect is needed.

  9. Hormone therapy at early post-menopause increases cognitive control-related prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Romuald; Météreau, Elise; Thomas, Julie; Pugeat, Michel; Qu, Chen; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data have been equivocal and controversial as to the benefits to the brain and cognition of hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women. Recent reevaluation of the role of estrogens proposed that HT may effectively prevent the deleterious effects of aging on cognition, and reduces the risks of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, if initiated early at the beginning of menopause. Yet, little is known about the effects of HT on brain activation related to cognitive control, the ability to make flexible decisions in relation to internal goals. Here, we used fMRI to directly test for a modulation of sequential 17β estradiol (2 mg/day) plus oral progesterone (100 mg/day) on task switching-related brain activity in women at early postmenopause. The results showed that HT enhanced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment during task switching. Between-subjects correlation analyses revealed that women who engaged more the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed higher task switching performance after HT administration. These results suggest that HT, when taken early at the beginning of postmenopause, may have beneficial effect on cognitive control prefrontal mechanisms. Together, these findings demonstrate that HT can prevent the appearance of reduced prefrontal cortex activity, a neurophysiological measure observed both in healthy aging and early dementia. PMID:28322310

  10. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  11. Investigation of Women with Postmenopausal Uterine Bleeding: Clinical Practice Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal uterine bleeding is defined as uterine bleeding after permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. Bleeding can be spontaneous or related to ovarian hormone replacement therapy or to use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (eg, tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma). Because anovulatory “cycles” with episodes of multimonth amenorrhea frequently precede menopause, no consensus exists regarding the appropriate interval of amenorrhea before an episode of bleeding that allows for the definition of postmenopausal bleeding. The clinician faces the possibility that an underlying malignancy exists, knowing that most often the bleeding comes from a benign source. Formerly, the gold-standard clinical investigation of postmenopausal uterine bleeding was institution-based dilation and curettage, but there now exist office-based methods for the evaluation of women with this complaint. Strategies designed to implement these diagnostic methods must be applied in a balanced way considering the resource utilization issues of overinvestigation and the risk of missing a malignancy with underinvestigation. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations were developed to consider these issues and the diverse spectrum of practitioners who evaluate women with postmenopausal bleeding. The guideline development group determined that, for initial management of spontaneous postmenopausal bleeding, primary assessment may be with either endometrial sampling or transvaginal ultrasonography, allowing patients with an endometrial echo complex thickness of 4 mm or less to be managed expectantly. Guidelines are also provided for patients receiving selective estrogen receptor modulators or hormone replacement therapy, and for an endometrial echo complex with findings consistent with fluid in the endometrial cavity. PMID:24377427

  12. Attitudes of Postmenopausal Women toward Interactive Video Dance for Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Inzitari, Marco; Greenlee, Adam; Hess, Rachel; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aims Although physical activity (PA) is universally recommended, most adults are not regular exercisers. Interactive video dance is a novel form of PA in widespread use among young adults, but interest among adults is not known. Postmenopausal women are an appropriate target for interventions to promote PA because they have an increased risk of health problems related to sedentary behavior. We explored perceived advantages and disadvantages of video dance as a personal exercise option in postmenopausal women. Methods Forty sedentary postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD 57 ± 5 years), were oriented in eight small groups to interactive video dance, which uses a force-sensing pad with directional panels: the player steps on the panels in response to arrows scrolling on a screen, synchronized to music. Perceived advantages and disadvantages were elicited through a nominal group technique (NGT) process. Results Participants generated 113 advantages and 71 disadvantages. The most frequently cited advantages were “it's fun” and “improves coordination” (seven of eight groups), the fact that challenge encourages progress (five of eight groups), the potential for weight loss (four of eight groups), and the flexibility of exercise conditions (three of eight groups). Concerns were the potentially long and frustrating learning process, cost (six of eight groups), and possible technical issues (two of eight groups). Conclusions The recreational nature of interactive dance exercise was widely appealing to postmenopausal women and might help promote adherence to PA. Initial support to learn basic technical and movement skills may be needed. PMID:19630550

  13. Vascular adaptations to hypobaric hypoxic training in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Kawakami, Ryoko; Saito, Kazuto; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Takekura, Hiroaki; Ogita, Futoshi

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exercise training in hypoxia on arterial stiffness and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in postmenopausal women. Sixteen postmenopausal women (56±1 years) were assigned to a normoxic exercise group (Normoxic group, n=8) or a hypoxic exercise group (Hypoxic group, n=8). The Hypoxic group performed exercise under hypobaric hypoxic conditions corresponding to 2000 m above sea level, and was exposed to these conditions for 2 h per session. Aquatic exercise was performed at an intensity of around 50% peak oxygen uptake for 30min, 4days per week, for 8 weeks. Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and FMD was evaluated by peak diameter of the popliteal artery during reactive hyperemia. After the 8 weeks of training, the Normoxic group showed no significant changes. In contrast, baPWV (P < 0.05) was significantly reduced and peak diameter (P<0.05) and %FMD (P<0.01) were significantly increased in the Hypoxic group after training. These results suggest that exercise training under mild intermittent hypoxic conditions could more effectively reduce arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women, compared with exercise training performed at the same relative intensity under normoxic conditions. Our data also indicate that hypoxic exercise training may induce vascular functional adaptation, for example an increase in FMD response. These findings therefore could have important implications for the development of a new effective exercise prescription program.

  14. Application of FRAX model to Sri Lankan postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lekamwasam, Sarath

    2010-01-01

    The FRAX software developed by the World Health Organization provides a method to estimate fracture probability of old men and women based on their bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors (CRFs). The validity of 4 selected ethnic-specific FRAX tools in determining prevalent fracture or treatment decisions in a group of postmenopausal women from Sri Lanka was examined. Women with a history of fragility fracture/s and those who were detected to have femoral neck T-score<2.5 were considered eligible for specific osteoporosis treatment. Ten-year all osteoporotic fracture (vertebral and nonvertebral) probability (10y-AOFP) of 481 postmenopausal women were estimated on US Caucasian, US Asian, Japanese, and Chinese FRAX tools, first using CRFs alone and then combining with femoral neck T-scores. At 20% 10y-AOFP, Chinese tool showed a very low sensitivity in detecting prevalent fracture or detecting women needing intervention (1.3%). Sensitivities observed with US Asian and Japanese tools ranged from 33% to 42%, showing their limitations in predicting prevalent fracture in this group of women. The US Caucasian tool, either with CRFs alone or with BMD incorporated, showed a relatively higher sensitivity in detecting fractures or identifying those needing interventions (71% and 76%, respectively). Furthermore, the US Caucasian tool showed a relatively high specificity (ranging from 70% to 87%). In conclusion, this analysis showed the limitations of the current FRAX tools in predicting fractures when applied to a different ethnic group. Until a separate FRAX tool is developed, the US Caucasian tool can be used to predict fractures in Sri Lankan postmenopausal women.

  15. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  16. Argan oil and postmenopausal Moroccan women: impact on the vitamin E profile.

    PubMed

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; El Hamdouchi, Asma; Labraimi, Hanane; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Kartah, Badreddine; El Kari, Khalid; Bensouda, Yahya; Derouich, Abdelfettah; Dodin, Sylvie; Denhez, Clément; Guillaume, Dom; Agnaou, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E supplements could be beneficial for postmenopausal women. To evaluate the effect of edible argan oil consumption on the antioxidant status of postmenopausal women, the vitamin E serum level of 151 menopausal women consuming either olive or argan oil was determined. Serum level of vitamin E was increased in the argan oil consumer group. Therefore, an argan oil-enriched diet can be recommended to help prevent some postmenopausal disorders.

  17. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  18. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant.

  19. Alendronate improves QOL of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kawate, Hisaya; Ohnaka, Keizo; Adachi, Masahiro; Kono, Suminori; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Matsuo, Hisashi; Higuchi, Kazumi; Takayama, Takehiko; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Postmenopausal osteoporosis causes bone fracture as well as pain, physical, psychological and socially adverse effects, which affects a patient’s quality of life (QOL). The effect of alendronate on QOL was investigated compared with that of alfacalcidol in post-menopausal osteoporotic women. Patients and methods: A total of 44 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (mean age 69.8 years) with back or joint pain, although capable of walking, were randomly assigned to two groups; group A (n = 25) received 5 mg/day of alendronate, and group B (n = 19) received 0.5 μg/day of alfacalcidol, for the first 4 months. For the following 2 months, the group A received 0.5 μg/day of alfacalcidol and the group B received 5 mg/day of alendronate in a crossover design. The patient’s QOL was evaluated by score of Japanese Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JOQOL), and pain intensity using a visual analog scale (VAS). Bone metabolism was measured by bone mineral density (BMD) and a biomarker for bone resorption, urinary crosslinked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX). Results: With 4-month treatment, alendronate, but not alfacalcidol, improved pain-related QOL, reduced joint pain by VAS, and increased bone mineral density. Both treatments significantly reduced bone resorption, the inhibition was significantly higher with alendronate (−56.5%) compared with alfacalcidol (−18.1%). After crossover, the patients in group A received alfacalcidol and had a reduced total and daily living activity-related QOL scores, and increased upper back pain by VAS. The group B received alendronate had significantly reduced bone resorption after the 2 months. Conclusion: Alendronate improves the QOL of Japanese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis by reducing pain intensity as well as increasing bone mineral density. PMID:20458350

  20. Two cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Trujillo, Adriano; Martínez-Serrano, María José; Saco, Adela; Torné, Aureli

    2017-06-05

    Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a rare gestational trophoblastic neoplasm usually presenting in women of reproductive age, with a history of a prior gestational event. Its presentation in postmenopausal women is extremely rare. Immunohistochemical staining is a helpful aid to distinguish epithelioid trophoblastic tumor from other gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Correct diagnosis is crucial for clinical management that can vary according to the type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We report the case of a 63-year-old postmenopausal woman 33 years after her last full-term pregnancy and another case of a 57-year-old postmenopausal woman who had had a first-trimester abortion 30 years previously as her last gestational event, both presenting cervical epithelioid trophoblastic tumors. In both cases, immunohistochemistry played an important role in differentiating this entity from other gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Surgery was the primary treatment in both cases. The first patient remained disease-free and died 5 years later due to a rectal adenocarcinoma, and the second patient remains disease-free at publication. In both cases, the hysterectomy specimen confirmed the presence of two large epithelioid trophoblastic tumors arising in the endocervix and lower uterine segment with no extrauterine disease. Nuclear positivity for p63 allowed differentiation from a placental site trophoblastic tumor. The Ki67 proliferative index was 20% and 35%, respectively. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors may occur a long time after a prior gestational event and should even be excluded in postmenopausal women with uterine masses. Immunohistochemical staining is helpful to make the differential diagnosis with other gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

  1. Predictors of impact of vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mary M; Nakagawa, Sanae; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Kuppermann, Miriam; Huang, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify factors associated with greater impact of vaginal symptoms on the functioning and well-being of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women who reported vaginal dryness, itching, irritation, or pain with sexual activity completed the multidimensional Day-to-day Impact of Vaginal Aging (DIVA) questionnaire and underwent assessment of multiple sociodemographic and clinical factors that have the potential to influence the impact of vaginal symptoms. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined relationships between selected participant characteristics and DIVA scale scores assessing symptom impact on activities of daily living, emotional well-being, self-concept and body image, and sexual functioning. Among 745 symptomatic participants, the mean (SD) age was 56 (9) years, and 66% were racial/ethnic minorities. Women with comorbid depression reported greater impact of vaginal symptoms on all dimensions of functioning and well-being measured by the DIVA questionnaire (11%-22% estimated increase in impact scores associated with every three-point increase in Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale scores). Women with urinary incontinence also reported greater impact of vaginal symptoms on activities of daily living, emotional well-being, and self-concept and body image (27%-37% estimated increase in impact scores). Age, partner status, frequency of sexual activity, general health, and body mass index also predicted greater impact on at least one domain. Findings suggest that special efforts should be made to identify and treat vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women known to have depression or urinary incontinence, as these women may experience greater impact of vaginal symptoms on multiple domains of functioning and quality of life.

  2. Profiling of plasma metabolites in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Miho; Harada, Sei; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Ayano; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Asako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of amino acids and other polar metabolites with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women in a lean Asian population. Methods: The participants were 1,422 female residents enrolled in a cohort study from April to August 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for Japanese women. Associations were examined between MetS and 78 metabolites assayed in fasting plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Replication analysis was performed to confirm the robustness of the results in a separate population created by random allocation. Results: Analysis was performed for 877 naturally postmenopausal women, including 594 in the original population and 283 in the replication population. The average age, body mass index, and levels of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the entire population were 64.6 years, 23.0 kg/m2, 72.1 mg/dL, and 126.1 mg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between women with and without MetS. Thirteen metabolites were significantly related to MetS: multiple plasma amino acids were elevated in women with MetS, including branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamate, and proline; and alpha-aminoadipate, which is generated by lysine degradation, was also significantly increased. Conclusions: Our large-scale metabolomic profiling indicates that Japanese postmenopausal women with MetS have abnormal polar metabolites, suggesting altered catabolic pathways. These results may help to understand metabolic disturbance, including in persons with normal body mass index and relatively high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and may have clinical utility based on further studies. PMID:27070805

  3. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Zheng, Lu; Wei, Dengyun; Ye, Ming; Li, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years) were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45-50 years, 51-53 years, 54-56 years, 57-59 years, and 60-64 years. Total BMD, L2-4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2-4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%-35% total BMD variance. Different optimal strength measurements were identified for different age groups. Age-appropriate testing mode can improve detection of osteoporotic fracture risk in early menopause by determining muscular strength reduction related to BMD loss. This may enable early initiation of preventative therapies.

  4. Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Joan; Vena, John; Brasure, John; Freudenheim, Jo; Graham, Saxon

    2003-01-01

    Examined associations between leisure time and occupational physical activity (PA) across the lifespan and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Data on women age 40-85 years indicated that strenuous PA related to reduced breast cancer risk among both pre- and postmenopausal women. The effects were strongest for women active at least 20 years…

  5. Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Joan; Vena, John; Brasure, John; Freudenheim, Jo; Graham, Saxon

    2003-01-01

    Examined associations between leisure time and occupational physical activity (PA) across the lifespan and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Data on women age 40-85 years indicated that strenuous PA related to reduced breast cancer risk among both pre- and postmenopausal women. The effects were strongest for women active at least 20 years…

  6. Cortical porosity exhibits accelerated rate of change in peri- compared with post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Burt, L A; Bhatla, J L; Hanley, D A; Boyd, S K

    2017-01-10

    The rate of change in bone density was not different between peri- and post-menopausal women. Differences in rate of change were observed in bone microarchitecture, specifically cortical porosity (Ct.Po), where peri-menopausal women increased +9% per year compared with the +6% per year for post-menopausal women.

  7. Risk of breast cancer after onset of type 2 diabetes: evidence of detection bias in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Samantha L; Richardson, Kathryn; Marra, Carlo A; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2011-12-01

    To examine the risk of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This was a population-based retrospective cohort study. Cox regression, stratified by pre- (<55 years) and postmenopausal (≥55 years) status, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer, during earlier (0-3 months) and later (3 months to 10 years) time windows after diabetes index date. Compared with women without T2D, HRs for breast cancer were 0.95 (95% CI 0.48-1.86; P = 0.88) and 1.31 (0.92-1.86; P = 0.14) in pre- and postmenopausal women with T2D, respectively, in the early time window, and 0.92 (0.75-1.13; P = 0.45) and 1.00 (0.90-1.11; P = 0.93) in pre- and postmenopausal women with T2D, respectively, in the later time window. We observed a trend toward an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with T2D, but only in the time period immediately after diabetes index date.

  8. [Parity and menarche as risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, María Cleofas; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    At the moment the studies lead at world-wide level and even in our country have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. A retrospective and analytical cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sampling technique in women rightful claimants of the IMSS, San Luis Potosi. In all of them the bone mineral density was measured with X-ray dual absorptiometry in the distal forearm. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (< 13 yrs) and late menarche (> or = 13 yrs). 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria of the World Health Organization, 18% of postmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 43% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of pregnancies and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had four or more children were older than the other women, average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. We found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46, p: 0.035). In postmenopausal women a menarche older than 13 years is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  9. The relationship between fibroblast growth factor 23 and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Celik, E; Guzel, S; Abali, R; Guzelant, A Y; Celik Guzel, E; Kuçukyalcin, V

    2013-10-01

    A lack of estrogen in postmenopausal women is an important factor causing the development of osteoporosis. Our purpose is to investigate the effects of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) on bone mineral metabolism and bone turnover. Twenty-eight patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), 32 patients with postmenopausal osteopenia and 30 healthy control subjects (postmenopausal non-osteoporosis) were included in this study. In order to assess the bone mineral metabolism; FGF 23, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and hydroxyproline levels were measured. FGF 23 levels were found significantly higher in PMO group compared with postmenopausal osteopenia and control groups (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Urine hydroxyproline level was detected to be significantly lower in PMO patients compared with control group (P<0.01). Lomber and femur BMD levels were found to be significantly lower in PMO patients compared with postmenopausal osteopenia and control groups (P<0.001, P<0.001; P<0.001, P<0.001 respectively). On the other hand, when we categorized the PMO group subjects according to the age of menopause, the FGF 23 levels were found to be significantly higher in the group of menopausal age <5 years compared to the group of menopausal age >10 and to the group of menopausal age 5-10 years (P<0.05, P<0.05). We think our findings indicate that serum FGF 23 level is a significant determinant of increased bone turnover at early periods in PMO patients.

  10. Osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Rezqi, Asmaa; El Mrahi, Salwa; Sadni, Siham; Ghozlani, Imad; Mounach, Aziza

    2014-12-10

    The combined effect of the metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors on bone health has led to controversial results and it is still not clear whether this effect is protective or detrimental. The study aimed to examine the association between MS and bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, and vertebral fractures (VFs) among ambulatory older postmenopausal women. 270 post-menopausal women with a mean age of 61.0 years ± 7.8 (50 to 90) with no prior known diagnosis of osteoporosis were recruited. BMD and Lateral vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) images were obtained using a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy densitometer. VFs were defined using a combination of Genant semiquantitative approach and morphometry. The MS as defined by the NCEP-ATP III was present in 62 women (23.0%). According to the WHO classification, 82 had osteoporosis at any site (30.4%). VFs were identified in 116 (43.0%): 80 (29.6%) had grade 1 and 36 (13.3%) had grade 2 or 3. Women with MS had a significantly higher BMD and lower prevalence of osteoporosis (17.7% vs. 34.1%) than those without MS. No significant statistical difference was noted in prevalence of VFs (14.5 vs. 13.0%). There were significantly less women with MS among the group of osteoporotic women (13% vs. 27%; p = 0.018). Conditional regression binary analysis assessing the presence of osteoporosis as the dependent variable showed that women with a MS had a significant 71% decrease in the odds of being osteoporotic by BMD compared with women who had not MS accounting for age, BMI, number of parities and years since menopause. Women with MS had higher BMD at the hip and spine, suggesting a protective effect of MS on bone. However, the prevalence of VFs was similar between women with or without MS.

  11. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-05-01

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P=0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P=0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P=0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Physical activity and mammographic parenchymal patterns among Greek postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Marmara, Eleni A; Papacharalambous, Xenofon N; Kouloulias, Vassilios E; Maridaki, D Maria; Baltopoulos, J Panayiotis

    2011-05-01

    To examine whether physical activity during the last five years is related to later breast mammographic density in postmenopausal Greek women. We designed a cross-sectional study in 724 women, of ages 45-67 years. An interview-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on duration and intensity of recreational physical activity during five years preceding study recruitment. Mammograms were evaluated according to BIRADS classification and BIRADS score was also estimated. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between physical activity index and breast density according to the BIRADS classification methods. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of mammographic breast density measured by the BIRADS classification method and recreational exercise (OR=-0.10; 95% CI -0.018, -0.001; p=0.022). For one unit increase in physical activity as expressed by the MET-h/week score, the odds of lower versus higher breast density categories are 1.105 greater, given that all of the other variables in the model are held constant. A modifying effect by age at recruitment was evident among participants, with a stronger inverse association between recreational activity and mammographic breast density among older women (OR=-0.036; 95% CI -0.063, -0.009; p=0.009). An inverse association between physical activity and BIRADS score was evident, not reaching statistical significance (OR=0.00; 95% CI -0.009, 0.008; p=0.887). Mammographic breast area was lower in postmenopausal women who participated in sports/recreational physical activity compared to inactive controls. Increasing physical activity levels among postmenopausal women might be a reasonable approach to reduce mammographic density. However, until more physical activity and mammographic breast density studies are conducted that confirm our findings, they have to be interpreted with caution, due to the retrospective nature of our data and the possibility of

  13. Prevalence and correlates of body image dissatisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Jingmin; Gray, James; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with one's body image is widespread and can have serious health consequences; however, research about its prevalence and correlates in older women is limited. We analyzed data from 75,256 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women's health. Measures used in the study were collected at baseline and/or the third year of follow-up between 1993 and 2002. The majority of participants (83%) in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies because they perceived themselves as heavier than their ideal. Overall, the multiple and significant correlates of body image dissatisfaction explained 36.2% of the variance in the body image dissatisfaction score, with body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI being the two most important contributors to explaining the variance. The results of this study suggest future research should focus on the utility of interventions to reduce dissatisfaction with body image in postmenopausal women that target either maintenance of a lower BMI through diet and exercise, and/or body acceptance. Further, future research should aim to identify factors in addition to body size that drive body image dissatisfaction.

  14. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: considerations in prevention and treatment: (women's health series).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Suzanne; Geraci, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis, the most common human bone disease, affects 8 million American women and has significant morbidity and mortality. Screening is important in older women and younger postmenopausal women with additional risk factors for osteoporosis/fracture. Preventive measures include avoiding smoking, excessive alcohol/caffeine intake, and falls in addition to maintaining adequate calcium/vitamin D intake and exercise. Estrogen/hormone therapy may be considered in some patients. Various medications have proven efficacy in treating postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, potential adverse effects such as hypocalcemia, worsening of renal impairment, and osteonecrosis of the jaw must be considered. The optimal duration of therapy requires further investigation.

  15. Risk of Diabetes After Hysterectomy With or Without Oophorectomy in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Manson, JoAnn E; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Hendryx, Michael; LeBlanc, Erin S; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), and incidence of diabetes in postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a series of trials conducted in the United States, during the period 1993-1998. A total of 67,130 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years were followed for a mean of 13.4 years. Among them, 7,430 cases of diabetes were diagnosed. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between hysterectomy/oophorectomy status and diabetes incidence. Compared with women without hysterectomy, women with hysterectomy had a significantly higher risk of diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.21). The increased risk of diabetes was similar for women with hysterectomy only and for women with hysterectomy with concomitant BSO. Compared with hysterectomy alone, hysterectomy with BSO was not associated with additional risk of diabetes after stratification by age at hysterectomy and hormone therapy status. In our large, prospective study, we observed that hysterectomy, regardless of oophorectomy status, was associated with increased risk of diabetes among postmenopausal women. However, our data did not support the hypothesis that early loss of ovarian estrogens is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The modest increased risk of diabetes associated with hysterectomy may be due to residual confounding, such as the reasons for hysterectomy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cumulative duration of breast-feeding influences cortisol levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lankarani-Fard, A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; Goodman-Gruen, D

    2001-09-01

    Cortisol levels dramatically increase during pregnancy, peak at birth, and subsequently decline. However, all previous studies examined women during pregnancy and early postpartum. None examined the long-term association of parity and lactation with cortisol levels. We examined the relation of reproductive history to cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Subjects were 749 women, aged 50-89, who were not using estrogen in 1984-1987 when morning cortisol was measured. Parity was not significantly associated with cortisol. However, women who breast-fed for >12 months had significantly higher cortisol levels than women who breast-fed for shorter durations or not at all (p = 0.003). This association was stronger among women with three or more births. Duration of breast-feeding is a determinant of cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Because both increased cortisol and increased duration of breast-feeding may play protective roles in certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, we suggest that the beneficial effect of lactation on the course of these diseases may be mediated by cortisol.

  17. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  18. Effects of vitamin K in postmenopausal women: mini review.

    PubMed

    Guralp, Onur; Erel, Cemal Tamer

    2014-03-01

    Possible benefits of vitamin K on bone health, fracture risk, markers of bone formation and resorption, cardiovascular health, and cancer risk in postmenopausal women have been investigated for over three decades; yet there is no clear evidence-based universal recommendation for its use. Interventional studies showed that vitamin K1 provided significant improvement in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels in postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD); however, there are inconsistent results in women with low BMD. There is no study showing any improvement in bone-alkaline-phosphatase (BAP), n-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (NTX), 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and urinary markers. Improvement in BMD could not be shown in the majority of the studies; there is no interventional study evaluating the fracture risk. Studies evaluating the isolated effects of menatetrenone (MK-4) showed significant improvement in osteocalcin (OC); however, there are inconsistent results on BAP, NTX, and urinary markers. BMD was found to be significantly increased in the majority of studies. The fracture risk was assessed in three studies, which showed decreased fracture risk to some extent. Although there are proven beneficial effects on some of the bone formation markers, there is not enough evidence-based data to support a role for vitamin K supplementation in osteoporosis prevention among healthy, postmenopausal women receiving vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Interventional studies investigating the isolated role of vitamin K on cardiovascular health are required. Longterm clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of vitamin K on gynecological cancers. MK-4 seems safe even at doses as high as 45 mg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  20. Circulating sex hormones and mammographic breast density among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Buist, Diana S. M.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Sisney, Gale S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of breast density as an intermediate or predictive marker of breast cancer risk is limited by an incomplete understanding of the etiology of breast density. High blood levels of endogenous estrogens and androgens are associated with increased risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We sought to examine whether these hormones are also associated with breast density. The Wisconsin Breast Density Study enrolled 257 postmenopausal women, ages 55–70 years, with no history of postmenopausal hormone use, from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin. Subjects provided a blood sample for sex hormone analysis, and breast density was measured from subjects’ screening mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Numerous sex hormones were associated with breast density in age-adjusted analyses. However, further adjustment for body mass index and other potentially confounding factors substantially attenuated or eliminated these associations. In the fully adjusted model, there remained a positive association between percent breast density and serum progesterone (P=0.03), with percent density rising from 11.9% (95% CI: 9.8, 14.1%) among women in the lowest quartile of serum progesterone to 15.4% (12.9, 18.2%) among women in the highest quartile. There was also a positive association between sex hormone binding globulin and percent breast density (P=0.06). In contrast, there were no associations between percent breast density and estradiol (total, free, or bioavailable), estrone, estrone sulfate, or testosterone (total, free, or bioavailable). These results suggest that breast density has a hormonal etiology, however, it may differ in important ways from that of breast cancer risk. PMID:21318123

  1. Sleep and the menopause - do postmenopausal women experience worse sleep than premenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Kalleinen, Nea; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Alhola, Paula; Joutsen, Atte; Urrila, Anna S; Polo, Olli

    2008-09-01

    To examine the sleep characteristics in three cross-sectional populations: young, premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and the associations between sleep, menopause, mood and cognitive performance. Twenty-one premenopausal (45-51 years), 29 postmenopausal (59-71 years) and 11 young (20-26 years, using oral contraceptives) women were recruited. Polysomnography was used to measure objective sleep quality. Subjective sleep quality, sleepiness and mood were assessed using questionnaires. Cognitive performance was investigated by means of three attentional tests. Total sleep time in pre- and postmenopausal women was similar (404.9 and 384.7 minutes), but shorter than in young women (448.2 minutes, P = 0.030 and <0.003, respectively). Sleep efficiency followed the same pattern, being 84.3% in premenopausal (P = 0.027), 80.2% in postmenopausal (P < 0.003) and 93.4% in young women. Pre- and postmenopausal women had less slow wave sleep (duration or activity) and more wake time after sleep onset (duration or frequency). Insomnia complaints were more frequent after the menopause (P = 0.023). Sleepiness and mood scores were similar in all groups. Reaction speeds slowed with increasing age. After the menopause, better cognitive performance was associated with more rapid eye movement sleep. Objective sleep measures differed significantly between the young and postmenopausal groups. These differences may be more because of the physiology of ageing than the rapid changes across the menopause, since similar sleep characteristics were already present in the premenopausal women. The increase in sleep complaints after menopause was not associated with sleepiness or disturbances in objective sleep quality, mood or cognitive performance.

  2. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: A randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Purpose To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. Methods From 1998–2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. Results The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Limitations Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. Conclusions BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving

  3. Efficacy and safety of bazedoxifene in postmenopausal Asian women.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Tsai, K-S; Kim, G S; Wu, Y; Vincendon, P; Chines, A A; Constantine, G D

    2011-02-01

    This 6-month study examined the efficacy and safety of bazedoxifene 20 mg in postmenopausal Asian women. Bazedoxifene showed statistically significant improvements over placebo in bone mineral density at all skeletal sites evaluated. Bazedoxifene significantly reduced bone turnover and had favorable effects on lipid parameters. Bazedoxifene was safe and well tolerated. This 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study conducted in China, Korea, and Taiwan evaluated the efficacy and safety of bazedoxifene in postmenopausal Asian women. Generally, healthy postmenopausal Asian women (N=487; mean age, 57.2 years; mean lumbar spine bone mineral density [BMD], -1.1) were randomized to daily therapy with bazedoxifene 20 mg or placebo; all subjects received daily supplemental calcium carbonate 600 mg. The changes from baseline in BMD at the lumbar spine (primary end point) and at other skeletal sites, bone turnover markers, and lipid parameters were evaluated at 6 months. Safety assessments included adverse event (AE) reporting and physical/gynecologic examination. At 6 months, women who received bazedoxifene 20 mg had significantly greater BMD compared with those receiving placebo at the lumbar spine (0.41% vs -0.32%, P<0.01), femoral neck (-0.08% vs -0.69%, P=0.014), trochanter (0.50% vs -0.23%, P=0.010), and total hip (-0.03% vs -0.77%, P<0.001), respectively. Bazedoxifene 20 mg was also associated with significant differences from placebo in median percent reductions from baseline in serum C-telopeptide (-21.8%, P<0.001) and osteocalcin (-12.9%, P<0.001) levels and total (-5.0%, P<0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.5%, P<0.001) levels. The incidence of AEs was not different between subjects treated with bazedoxifene and those who received placebo. Bazedoxifene was generally safe and effective in preventing bone loss in this short-term study of postmenopausal Asian women.

  4. Management of hypercholesterolaemia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Maki, Kevin C; Karp, Sherry Katz; Ingram, Kate A

    2002-01-01

    Increased rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) occur with advancing age in both sexes, although CHD rates in women lag behind those of men by about 10 years. There is a sharp increase in CHD rate among women after approximately 50 years of age. The reasons for this are not completely understood and are undoubtedly multifactorial. Cross-sectional data from large-scale population studies suggest that around the time of the menopause, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels increase by approximately 15 to 25%. Because this increase is larger than that observed in men over the same age span and closely approximates that observed in women after oophorectomy, it is likely that reduced circulating estrogen levels associated with menopause play a role in the adverse changes in both blood lipid levels and CHD incidence. There is clear evidence that treating hypercholesterolemia reduces cardiovascular risk in women, as well as in men. In the US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines, diet and other lifestyle changes are recommended as first-line therapy. If the treatment goals cannot be achieved through non-pharmacological measures, drug therapy should be added. Of the available lipid-lowering agents, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the clear choice to decrease LDL-cholesterol levels. However the favourable effects of statins on high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride levels are more modest, and statins are not known to decrease lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels. Estrogen or hormone replacement therapy (ERT/HRT) and nicotinic acid improve LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels and also decrease Lp(a) levels. However, ERT/HRT is no longer recommended as first-line therapy for decreasing CHD risk. Nicotinic acid is particularly useful for decreasing triglyceride levels (as are fibrates) and raising HDL-cholesterol levels. Bile-acid sequestrants reduce LDL-cholesterol and slightly increase HDL

  5. Tissue-selective estrogen complexes for postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, Sebastian; Komm, Barry S

    2013-11-01

    Although hormone therapy using estrogens plus progestogens (EPT) is effective for the management of menopausal symptoms (e.g., vasomotor symptoms and vulvar/vaginal atrophy) and prevention/treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, EPT is associated with safety and tolerability concerns. A new alternative to EPT is the tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), which partners a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with one or more estrogens and is designed to treat menopausal symptoms and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis without the tolerability concerns associated with EPT. The first TSEC to reach advanced clinical development is a combination of the SERM bazedoxifene (BZA) with conjugated estrogens (CE). BZA has been shown to inhibit the stimulatory activity of CE on uterine tissue and breast in vitro and in vivo. In clinical studies, BZA/CE treatment has been associated with significant improvements in menopausal symptoms including hot flushes and vulvar/vaginal atrophy and significant increases in bone mineral density, coupled with reductions in bone turnover marker levels and improvements in sleep and health-related quality of life. Additionally, BZA/CE has been shown to have a neutral effect on endometrial and breast tissue because BZA inhibits the stimulatory effects of estrogens in tissue-selective fashion in these 2 organs. Taken together, results of these preclinical and clinical studies indicate that the benefits of estrogens for treating menopausal symptoms are maintained with BZA/CE without endometrial or breast stimulation, resulting in a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic postmenopausal women.

  6. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P < 0.01). Compared with women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those who had early menopause (age <40 y) or late menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  7. Can a questionnaire predict vitamin D status in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine whether a questionnaire can identify subjects with vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). Design Subjects completed the vitamin D and sun (VIDSUN) questionnaire and we measured their serum 25(OH)D levels. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire to identify VDI (25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L). Setting Clinical Research Unit, University of Wisconsin-Madison Subjects Postmenopausal women Results We recruited 609 postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 61 ± 6 years, of whom 113 (19%) had VDI. Subjects with VDI were more likely to be Black (17% vs. 2%, p<0.001), heavier (BMI 33±7 kg/m2 vs. 29±7 kg/m2, p<0.001) and less likely to tan in the past year (49% vs. 72%, p<0.001), use sunscreen (57% vs. 72%, p<0.001) or report sun exposure in the last three months. They consumed less vitamin D from supplements (86±210 vs. 188±344 IU/day, p=0.003). In logistic regression models, Black race, BMI, suntan within one year, sun exposure in the past three months, sunscreen use and supplemental vitamin D intake were the most useful questions to identify VDI. From these six items, a composite score ≤2.25 demonstrated ≥89% sensitivity but ≤35% specificity for VDI. Conclusion The VIDSUN questionnaire provides an initial tool to identify postmenopausal women at high or low risk of VDI. Existing studies suggest that inclusion of physical activity and triglyceride levels might improve the performance of the VIDSUN questionnaire. PMID:23870503

  8. Monophasic estrogen-progestogen therapy and sexuality in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A M; Bagnoli, V R; Penteado, S R L; Paixão, J S; Cavalcanti, A L; Pinotti, J A

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of monophasic estrogen-progestogen therapy on the sexuality and climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women. A prospective, randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-centre study was carried out over a total of 12 consecutive months in 40 postmenopausal women with an intact uterus who had no contraindications to hormone therapy. Patients received 17beta-estradiol 2mg in combination with norethisterone acetate 1mg (Cliane) daily for 6 months or one placebo tablet daily for 6 months. The tablets were identical in appearance. After 6 months, the groups were crossed over and the patients were followed up for another 6 months. The groups were homogenous with respect to age, height, bodyweight, body mass index and race. For the statistical analysis, the group receiving hormone therapy was referred to as group A and the placebo group was designated group B, irrespective of the placebo/hormone therapy sequence. In group A there were fewer hot flashes (F=22.85, p<0.01) and an improvement in sexual interest (F=5.55, p<0.05). The sequence in which the medication was received resulted in a statistically significant difference with respect to dyspareunia (F=9.65, p<0.01) and satisfaction with the duration of penetration (F=6.58, p<0.05). In the intrapatient analysis of variation with respect to orgasmic capability and the presence of dialogue with partner regarding the couple's sexual life, whether the placebo was taken prior to or following hormone therapy was significant (F=17.12, p<0.001 and F=7.10, p<0.05, respectively). Monophasic estrogen-progestogen therapy has a beneficial effect on sexuality and on hot flashes in postmenopausal women.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  10. The effect of 4-week aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gunendi, Zafer; Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Demirsoy, Nesrin

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of submaximal aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Twenty-five postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and 28 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis enrolled in this study. Balance ability of all subjects was measured by timed up and go test (TUG), four square step test (FSS), Berg balance scale (BBS) and Kinesthetic ability trainer 3000. After completion of initial measurements of balance, postmenopausal women with osteoporosis attended the submaximal aerobic exercise program on treadmill. At the end of the exercise program, balance tests were repeated. Balance tests of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were repeated approximately 4-weeks after the initial measurement. There was statistically significant improvement in all balance scores in the postmenopausal women with osteoporosis after exercise training whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the scores of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis who did not exercise. This study showed that a 4-week submaximal aerobic exercise program provided significant improvements in static and dynamic balances in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  11. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  12. Increase in vertebral body size in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Briot, K; Kolta, S; Fechtenbaum, J; Said-Nahal, R; Benhamou, C L; Roux, C

    2010-08-01

    Bone geometry plays a prominent role in bone strength. Cross-sectional studies have shown that advancing age is associated with increasing diameter of long bones, related to both periostal apposition and endosteal resorption. However, there are few data provided by prospective studies, especially concerning the changes in vertebral body dimensions. The objective of this prospective study was to measure the changes occurring in the vertebral body size of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-year data from placebo groups of the SOTI and TROPOS trials, performed in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, were used for this study. In these trials, patients underwent lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine at baseline and annually over 3 years, according to standardized procedures. Six-point digitization method was used: the four corner points of the vertebral body from T4 to L4 are marked, as well as an additional point in the middle of the upper and lower endplates. From these 6 points, the vertebral body perimeter, area and depth were measured at baseline and at 3 years. The analysis excluded all vertebrae with prevalent or incident fracture. A total of 2017 postmenopausal women (mean age 73.4+/-6.1 years) with a mean lumbar spine T score of -3.1+/-1.5, and a mean femoral neck T score of -3.0+/-0.7 are included in the analysis. Vertebral body dimensions increased over 3 years, by 2.1+/-5.5% (mean depth+/-SD), by 1.7+/-8.3% (mean area+/-SD) and by 1.5+/-4.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD) at the thoracic level (T4 to T12). At the lumbar level (L1 to L4), these dimensions increased as well: 1.4+/-3.6% (mean depth+/-SD), 1.4+/-5.7% (mean area+/-SD), 0.7+/-2.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD). A significant increase in vertebral body size was observed for each vertebral level from T5 to L4 for each of these parameters (p<0.01). These prospective results demonstrate that vertebral body dimensions increase over 3 years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

  13. Phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular risk markers in Bangladeshi postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Saleh, F; Afnan, F; Ara, F; Yasmin, S; Nahar, K; Khatun, F; Ali, L

    2011-04-01

    Menopause is the transitional event of female life creating a considerable degree of clinical and psychological as well as social problem and it is known to affect the risk markers of cardiovascular diseases. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was though to be a cornerstone in the management of menopause, but evidences accumulated in the recent past have raised serious questions regarding its safety and usability. In this context, phytoestrogens are getting increasingly more attention for therapeutic (as an alternate of HRT) and dietary interventions. Menopause is a special problem for women in developing countries and intake of phytoestrogens can be highly useful also from the economic point of views. The nutraceuticals of specific vitamins, minerals and especially phytoestrogens supplementations are a vital component of the strategy to reduce health problem. The present study was aimed to assess the association of phytoestrogens and risk markers of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. A total of 111 postmenopausal subjects [age, (years, M±SD) 52±5.35] were studied. The dietary intake of phytoestrogens by study subjects was calculated by a specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum fasting homocysteine was measured by AxSYM system. Serum glucose was estimated by glucose-oxidase method. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-C were estimated by enzymatic-colorimetric method LDL-C was estimated by the Friedewald's formula. The intake of total phytoestrogens, isoflavones and lignans (mean±SD, mg/day) were 7.65±3.33, 0.32±0.16, 7.32±3.28 respectively in postmenopausal women. The intake of diadzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.085±0.035, 0.168±0.101, 0.074±0.052 and 0.001±0.0008 respectively. The intake of matairesinol and secoisolaiciresinol (SILR) (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.022±0.006 and 7.30±3.28 respectively. The total phytoestrogens (r=-0.19, p=0.03) and SILR, one specific type of lignans (r

  14. Sleep duration and incidence of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, L; Duan, Z; Sangi-Haghpeykar, H; Hale, L; White, D L; El-Serag, H B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration is dependent on circadian rhythm that controls a variety of key cellular functions. Circadian disruption has been implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis in experimental studies. We prospectively examined the association between sleep duration and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, 75 828 postmenopausal women reported habitual sleep duration at baseline 1993–1998. We used Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CRC and its associated 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: We ascertained 851 incident cases of CRC through 2010, with an average 11.3 years of follow-up. Compared with 7 h of sleep, the HRs were 1.36 (95% CI 1.06–1.74) and 1.47 (95% CI 1.10–1.96) for short (⩽5 h) and long (⩾9 h) sleep duration, respectively, after adjusting for age, ethnicity, fatigue, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), physical activity, and waist to hip ratio. The association was modified by the use of HRT (P-interaction=0.03). Conclusion: Both extreme short and long sleep durations were associated with a moderate increase in the risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. Sleep duration may be a novel, independent, and potentially modifiable risk factor for CRC. PMID:23287986

  15. Adipokines linking obesity with colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ho, Gloria Y F; Wang, Tao; Gunter, Marc J; Strickler, Howard D; Cushman, Mary; Kaplan, Robert C; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Xue, Xiaonan; Rajpathak, Swapnil N; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Vitolins, Mara Z; Scherer, Philipp E; Rohan, Thomas E

    2012-06-15

    Mechanistic associations between obesity and colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether adipokines are risk factors for colorectal cancer and whether they may mediate its association with obesity. In a case-cohort study nested within the Women's Health Initiative cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 457 colorectal cancer cases and 841 subcohort subjects were assayed for seven adipokines-adiponectin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and TNF-α. Serum insulin and estradiol values measured previously were also available for data analysis. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, colonoscopy history, and estrogen level, a low level of anti-inflammatory adiponectin and high levels of proinflammatory leptin, PAI-1, and IL-6 were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, though only leptin remained significant after further adjustment for insulin [HRs comparing extreme quartiles (HR(Q4-Q1)), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.17-2.90]. Mediation analyses showed that leptin and insulin partially explained the association between waist circumference and colorectal cancer and attenuated it by 25% and 37%, respectively, with insulin being a significant mediator (P = 0.041). Our findings support the conclusion that adipokines involved in inflammation are associated with colorectal cancer risk, but that their effects may be mediated mostly by insulin, with leptin exerting an independent effect. Hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia may therefore partially explain the adiposity association with colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.

  16. Use of SERMs for treatment in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Joann V; Thomas, Semara

    2014-07-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic non-steroidal agents which have varying estrogen agonist and antagonist activities in different tissues, most likely due to the receptor conformation changes associated with that SERM's binding and the subsequent effect on transcription. Clinical trials aim to differentiate amongst SERMs on selected target tissues for use in postmenopausal women including effects on breast, bone, cardiovascular venous thrombosis risk, endometrium, vagina, vasomotor symptoms, and brain. This paper describes differences in clinical effects on selected target tissues of SERMs that are approved, discontinued or in development. FDA approved SERMs include tamoxifen and toremifene used for prevention and treatment of breast cancer, raloxifene approved for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of invasive breast cancer, and ospemifene approved for treatment of dyspareunia from menopausal vaginal atrophy. The FDA approved first tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) a pairing of conjugated equine estrogens with the SERM, bazedoxifene. This pairing reduces the risk of endometrial hyperplasia that can occur with the estrogenic component of the TSEC without the need for a progestogen in women with a uterus. It also allows for the estrogenic benefits on relief of hot flashes and prevention of bone loss without stimulating the breast or the endometrium. In clinical practice, the tissue-selective actions of SERMs, alone or paired with estrogens, allow for individualization in meeting the treatment needs of postmenopausal women by providing targeted tissue effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'.

  17. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: how to approach hypertension in menopause.

    PubMed

    Modena, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.

  18. Benefits of physical exercise in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Nicolás; De Teresa, Carlos; Cano, Antonio; Godoy, Débora; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lapotka, Maryna; Llaneza, Placido; Manonelles, Pedro; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ocón, Olga; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Laura; Vélez, Mercedes; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity not only places women's health at risk during menopause, but also increases menopausal problems. Abundant evidence links habitual physical exercise (PE) to a better status on numerous health indicators and better quality of life and to the prevention and treatment of the ailments that typically occur from mid-life onwards. We can infer that PE is something more than a lifestyle: it constitutes a form of therapy in itself. A panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies related to PE and menopause (Spanish Menopause Society, Spanish Cardiology Society, Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine) met to reach a consensus on these issues and to decide the optimal timing of and methods of exercise, based on the best evidence available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Sexual Function in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Trompeter, Susan E; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Limited literature suggests that sexual dysfunction in women covaries with the metabolic syndrome. This study examined the association of sexual function with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in healthy older women. There were 376 postmenopausal, community-dwelling women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean baseline age = 73 years) that completed a clinic visit during 1999-2002 and returned the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire mailed in 2002. Thirty-nine percent reported being sexually active; 41.5% met a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome components was strongly associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and low sexual satisfaction. Waist girth, diabetes, and hypertension were associated with decreased sexual activity. Elevated triglycerides were associated with low desire. Among the cardiovascular endpoints, heart attack, coronary artery bypass, and angina were associated with decreased sexual activity, but not with sexual desire or satisfaction. Past diagnosis of heart failure, poor circulation, and stroke were not associated with sexual function. Sexually active women with metabolic syndrome met criteria for sexual dysfunction in desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains. The FSFI Total Score did not differ significantly between sexually active and inactive women. Metabolic syndrome was associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and satisfaction in all women and with sexual dysfunction in most domains in sexually active women. Coronary artery disease was more prevalent in women with low sexual activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leg vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high-intensity exercise training are enhanced in the early postmenopausal phase.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Andersen, Caroline B; Hansen, Karen M B E; Hergel, Ida-Marie F; Valbak-Andersen, Nicholai; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-02-23

    Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included. Before training, leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, and lactate release during knee-extensor exercise were similar in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, lactate release, blood pressure and heart rate during the same absolute workloads in the postmenopausal women. These effects were not detected in the premenopausal women. Quadriceps muscle protein contents of mitochondrial complex II, III, and IV, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX.1), COX-2, and oestrogen related receptor α (ERRα) were increased (P < 0.05) with training in the postmenopausal women whereas only the levels of mitochondrial complex V, eNOS, and COX-2 were increased (P < 0.05) in the premenopausal women. These findings demonstrate that vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high intensity exercise training are more pronounced in recent post- compared to premenopausal women, possibly as an effect of enhanced ERRα signalling. Also, the hyperaemic response to acute exercise appears to be preserved in the early postmenopausal phase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone Density and Clinical Periodontal Attachment in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Penoni, D C; Fidalgo, T K S; Torres, S R; Varela, V M; Masterson, D; Leão, A T T; Maia, L C

    2017-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and has been considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the scientific evidence for the association of periodontal attachment loss with low BMD in postmenopausal women. A systematic search of the literature was performed in databases until August 2016, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies that compared clinical attachment loss (CAL) between postmenopausal women with low and normal BMD. Studies using similar methodology, with lower and higher risk of bias, were pooled into 3 different meta-analyses to compare CAL among women with normal BMD, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In the first meta-analysis, mean CAL was compared among groups. In the other 2 meta-analyses, the mean percentages of sites with CAL ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm were respectively compared among groups. From 792 unique citations, 26 articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven of the studies were appraised as presenting low risk of bias, and the association between low BMD and CAL was observed in 10 of these studies. Thirteen cross-sectional articles were included in the meta-analysis for osteoporosis and 9 in the osteopenia analysis. Women with low BMD presented greater mean CAL than those with normal BMD (osteoporosis = 0.34 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.49], P < 0.001; osteopenia = 0.07 mm [95% CI, 0.01-0.13], P = 0.02). Only studies with lower risk of bias were available for the analysis of CAL severity. Women with low BMD presented more severe attachment loss, represented as mean percentage of sites with CAL ≥4 mm (osteoporosis = 3.04 [95% CI, 1.23-4.85], P = 0.001; osteopenia = 1.74 [95% CI, 0.36-3.12], P = 0.01) and CAL ≥6 mm (osteoporosis = 5.07 [95% CI, 2.74-7.40], P < 0.001). This systematic review

  2. Malabsorption of iron as a cause of iron deficiency anemia in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Khansa; Saboor, Muhammad; Qudsia, Fatima; Khosa, Shafi Muhammad; Moinuddin; Usman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malabsorption is one of the causes of iron deficiency anemia in postmenopausal women. The main objective of this study was to access the frequency of malabsorption in iron deficient anemic postmenopausal women. Methods: A total of 123 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. Of these 123 women, 50 were included as ‘control group’ and 73 patients with comparable severity of anemia were the ‘patient group’. Two tablets of ferrous sulfate (200 mg/tablet) along with one tablet of vitamin C (500 mg) were given to all participants. Serum iron levels were determined on samples collected from all participants before and after the administration of ferrous sulfate. Difference between before and after serum iron levels of normal and patients were compared. Results: No change in serum iron between sample one and sample two represented malabsorption. Out of 73, 5 postmenopausal anemic patients showed no change in their serum iron level after the administration of ferrous sulfate. This study shows that frequency of malabsorption of iron in postmenopausal women is 6.8%. Conclusion: Malabsorption should be considered as a prevalent cause of iron deficiency anemia in postmenopausal women. It should be properly diagnosed and iron response should be monitored properly in postmenopausal women with IDA after oral iron therapy. If a postmenopausal woman does not show any response to oral iron therapy, she should be evaluated for iron loss (blood loss and/or malabsorption). Intravenous route should be used for the administration of iron in these patients. PMID:26101480

  3. Use of cone beam computed tomography in identifying postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, C B; Chalub, L L F H; Abreu, M H N G; Barreiros, I D; Amaral, T M P; Kakehasi, A M; Mesquita, R A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to correlate radiometric indices from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Quantitative CBCT indices can be used to screen for women with low BMD.

  4. Tear lipocalin, lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Careba, I; Chiva, A; Totir, M; Ungureanu, E; Gradinaru, Sinziana

    2015-01-01

    Among the most frequently encountered pathologies examined by the ophthalmologist is dry eye syndrome (DE), which can be discovered particularly in the elderly. The initial diagnosis of DE is of high importance, but also challenging. This is because the biochemical changes in the tear film often develop before any detectable signs. In this study, the possible relationship between ocular symptomatology, tear volume and tear break-up time (TBUT) and lipocalin, lactoferrin and lysozyme concentrations in the tear film were explored in a group of symptomatic dry-eyed postmenopausal (PM) women compared to age-matched controls. Sixty-six healthy PM females with ages of at least 50 years were grouped in two homogeneous lots (by age, post-menopause, co-morbidities) of 33 females each, one lot presenting mild or moderate dry eye syndrome (DE) and one asymptomatic non-dry eye (NDE), based on their feedback to the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and noninvasive TBUT and Schirmer test results. Tears were collected via capillary tubes and an eye wash method. Tear lysozyme, lactoferrin and lipocalin concentrations were determined via electrophoresis. OSDI responses revealed 3 mild DE, 30 moderate DE and 33 NDE. The OSDI total score and sub scores for the DE group were significantly greater than for the NDE group (p < 0.001). The mild and moderate DE group exhibited significantly shorter TBUTs compared to NDE (p < 0.001). No difference in tear lysozyme or lipocalin concentrations was found between DE and NDE groups, irrespective of the tear collection method, but a significant difference was found in lactoferrin concentration (p<0.001). No significant correlations were found between symptoms or signs of DE compared to either lipocalin, lysozyme or lactoferrin concentrations. In a PM population, lipocalin and lysozyme are invariable, irrespective of the presence and severity of DE symptoms. However, lactoferrin shows a significant decrease. This is a comprehensive

  5. Resting Heart Rate and Coronary Artery Calcium in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Aragaki, Aaron; Eaton, Charles B.; Hsai, Judith; Phillips, Lawrence; Kuller, Lewis; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis of a significant association between resting heart rate (RHR) and coronary artery calcium (CAC). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a subset of women enrolled in the estrogen-alone clinical trial of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We used a longitudinal study that enrolled 998 postmenopausal women with a history of hysterectomy between the ages of 50 and 59 at enrollment at 40 different clinical centers. RHR was measured at enrollment and throughout the study, and CAC was determined approximately 7 years after the baseline clinic visit. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 55 (2.8) years. With adjustment for age and ethnicity, a 10-unit increment in RHR was significantly associated with CAC (SD 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.38), but this was no longer significant after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), income, education, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and hypertension (SD 1.06, 95% CI 0.90-1.25). In a fully adjusted multivariable model, however, there was a significant interaction (p=0.03) between baseline RHR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) for the presence of any CAC. Compared to women with an RHR < 80 beats per minute (BPM) and an SBP < 140 mm Hg, those who had an RHR ≥ 80 BPM and an SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg had 2.66-fold higher odds (1.08-6.57) for the presence of any CAC. Conclusions Compared to those with normal BP and RHR, postmenopausal, hysterectomized women with an elevated SBP and RHR have a significantly higher odds for the presence of calcified coronary artery disease. PMID:21438696

  6. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  7. Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Saensak, Suprawita; Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Somboonporn, Woraluk; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR) technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education. This is a 16-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in a menopausal clinic in a tertiary health care center in Northeastern Thailand. The intervention group received a 60-minute session of MR training and were encouraged to practice 15-20 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. The control group received lifestyle education, including diet and exercise. The primary and secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Of 432 participants, 215 and 217 were randomly allocated to the MR and control groups, respectively. Of those, 167 participants in the MR group and 175 participants in the control group completed the study. The SBP was significantly more reduced in the MR group, with a mean of 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between groups on the changed DBP. The MR technique may be effective in lowering SBP in Thai postmenopausal women visiting a menopause clinic. Its efficacy may be observed as soon as 4 weeks after start of treatment. Long-term and combined relaxation therapy and antihypertensive agents are warranted in a large cohort of this population. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (number NCT01429662).

  8. [A predictive model of fall prevention behaviors in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Sukhee

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to propose and test a predictive model that would explain and predict fall prevention behaviors in postmenopausal women. The health belief model was the theoretical basis to aid development of a nursing intervention fall prevention program. Data for 421 postmenopausal women were selected from an original data set using a survey design. The structural equation model was tested for 3 constructs: modifying factors, expectation factors, and threat factors. Expectation factors were measured as relative perceived benefit (perceived benefit minus perceived barrier), self-efficacy, and health motivation; threat factors, as perceived susceptibility (fear of falling) and perceived severity (avoiding activity for fear of falling); and modifying factors: level of education and knowledge about fall prevention. Data were analyzed using SPSS Windows and AMOS program. Mean age was 55.7 years (range 45-64), and 19.7% had experienced a fall within the past year. Fall prevention behaviors were explained by expectation and threat factors indicating significant direct effects. Mediating effect of health beliefs was significant in the relationship between modifying factors and fall prevention behaviors. The proposed model explained 33% of the variance. Results indicate that fall prevention education should include knowledge, expectation, and threat factors based on health belief model.

  9. Adipokines Linking Obesity with Colorectal Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Gloria Y.F.; Wang, Tao; Gunter, Marc J.; Strickler, Howard D.; Cushman, Mary; Kaplan, Robert C.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Xue, Xiaonan; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic associations between obesity and colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether adipokines are risk factors for colorectal cancer and whether they may mediate its association with obesity. In a case–cohort study nested within the Women’s Health Initiative cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 457 colorectal cancer cases and 841 subcohort subjects were assayed for seven adipokines—adiponectin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and TNF-α. Serum insulin and estradiol values measured previously were also available for data analysis. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, colonoscopy history, and estrogen level, a low level of antiinflammatory adiponectin and high levels of proinflammatory leptin, PAI-1, and IL-6 were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, though only leptin remained significant after further adjustment for insulin [HRs comparing extreme quartiles (HRQ4–Q1), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.17–2.90]. Mediation analyses showed that leptin and insulin partially explained the association between waist circumference and colorectal cancer and attenuated it by 25% and 37%, respectively, with insulin being a significant mediator (P = 0.041). Our findings support the conclusion that adipokines involved in inflammation are associated with colorectal cancer risk, but that their effects may be mediated mostly by insulin, with leptin exerting an independent effect. Hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia may therefore partially explain the adiposity association with colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:22511581

  10. Submaximal exercise coronary artery flow increases in postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease after estrogen and atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Puntawangkoon, Chirapa; Morgan, Tim M; Herrington, David M; Hamilton, Craig A; Hundley, W Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of statins and hormone therapy on submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow in postmenopausal women without a history of coronary artery disease. Hormone therapy or statin therapy in early postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease has been shown to enhance arterial endothelial function; we hypothesized that these agents would improve submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow. Sixty-four postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years without documented coronary artery disease, were randomized in a double-blind, crossover fashion to receive 8 weeks of hormone therapy versus placebo, with or without 80 mg/day of atorvastatin. Before receipt of any therapy and after each treatment period, each woman underwent measures of coronary artery blood flow at rest and stress. The combination of hormone therapy and atorvastatin increased submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow (P = 0.04). In the subgroups of women compliant with treatment, resting coronary artery blood flow increased in those receiving hormone therapy (P = 0.03) or statin therapy (P = 0.02). In postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years without documented coronary artery disease, resting and submaximal exercise-induced coronary artery blood flow improves after receipt of high-dose atorvastatin and conjugated estrogens therapy.

  11. Long-term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, Jane; Farquhar, Cindy; Roberts, Helen; Lethaby, Anne; Lee, Jasmine

    2017-01-17

    BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) is widely provided for control of menopausal symptoms and has been used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and dementia in older women. This is an updated version of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of long-term HT (at least 1 year's duration) on mortality, cardiovascular outcomes, cancer, gallbladder disease, fracture and cognition in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women during and after cessation of treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to September 2016: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO. We searched the registers of ongoing trials and reference lists provided in previous studies and systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised double-blinded studies of HT versus placebo, taken for at least 1 year by perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. HT included oestrogens, with or without progestogens, via the oral, transdermal, subcutaneous or intranasal route. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the quality of the evidence by using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included 22 studies involving 43,637 women. We derived nearly 70% of the data from two well-conducted studies (HERS 1998; WHI 1998). Most participants were postmenopausal American women with at least some degree of comorbidity, and mean participant age in most studies was over 60 years. None of the studies focused on perimenopausal women.In relatively healthy postmenopausal women (i.e. generally fit, without overt disease), combined continuous HT increased the risk of a coronary event (after 1 year's use

  12. [High prevalence of osteoporosis in asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche women].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.

  13. Mortality in Postmenopausal Women by Sexual Orientation and Veteran Status.

    PubMed

    Lehavot, Keren; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Weitlauf, Julie; Kimerling, Rachel; Wallace, Robert B; Sadler, Anne G; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Shipherd, Jillian C; Mattocks, Kristin; Cirillo, Dominic J; Stefanick, Marcia L; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    To examine differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality by sexual orientation and Veteran status among older women. Data were from the Women's Health Initiative, with demographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and health behaviors assessed at baseline (1993-1998) and mortality status from all available data sources through 2014. Women with baseline information on lifetime sexual behavior and Veteran status were included in the analyses (N = 137,639; 1.4% sexual minority, 2.5% Veteran). The four comparison groups included sexual minority Veterans, sexual minority non-Veterans, heterosexual Veterans, and heterosexual non-Veterans. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate mortality risk adjusted for demographic, psychosocial, and health variables. Sexual minority women had greater all-cause mortality risk than heterosexual women regardless of Veteran status (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.36) and women Veterans had greater all-cause mortality risk than non-Veterans regardless of sexual orientation (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.22), but the interaction between sexual orientation and Veteran status was not significant. Sexual minority women were also at greater risk than heterosexual women for cancer-specific mortality, with effects stronger among Veterans compared to non-Veterans (sexual minority × Veteran HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85). Postmenopausal sexual minority women in the United States, regardless of Veteran status, may be at higher risk for earlier death compared to heterosexuals. Sexual minority women Veterans may have higher risk of cancer-specific mortality compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Examining social determinants of longevity may be an important step to understanding and reducing these disparities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2016.

  14. Intensity and Timing in Life of Recreational Physical Activity in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk Among Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Regular recreational physical activity has been found to be associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk in women in the majority of epidemiologic studies, but research findings are inconsistent regarding the intensity of activity and timing in life. To address these issues the relations of moderate and vigorous intensity recreational physical activity during ages 14-20, 21-34, 35-50, and over age 50 years to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were examined. A case-control study of 858 women, with histological confirmation of invasive breast cancer, and 1085 controls, free of any cancer diagnosis, all subjects aged 28-79 years was conducted in the Region of Western Pomerania (Poland). Physical activity was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire with questions on type of activity, duration, frequency, and intensity for each type of activity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer associated with physical activity were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Vigorous physical activity at ages 14-20 and 21-34 years lowered breast cancer risk by at least 35% in premenopausal women and by at least 51% in postmenopausal women for the highest versus lowest quartiles of the activity. The risk was also reduced in postmenopausal women who reported on average more than 1.74 hours per week of vigorous intensity recreational activity in ages >50 years (OR = 0.58; 95%CI = 0.27-0.97; P for trend = 0.013). For moderate activity the relationships remained statistically significant only in postmenopausal women active during ages 14- 20 years. The results indicate also a plausible risk reduction among premeno-pausal women. These results support the hypothesis that recrea-tional activity, particularly done early in life, is associated with a decrease in the invasive breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, only vigorous forms of activity may significantly decrease the risk. Key points

  15. Structural model for osteoporosis preventing behavior in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Estok, Patricia J; Sedlak, Carol A; Doheny, Margaret O; Hall, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis prevention behaviors (OPBs) can prevent and delay bone deterioration; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan can identify osteoporosis and provide personal osteoporosis risk information that may promote prevention behaviors. This study was designed to estimate relationships between receiving personal knowledge of bone mineral density (gained through DXA scan), general knowledge of osteoporosis, health beliefs, and the two OPBs of calcium intake and weight-bearing exercise in healthy postmenopausal women 50 to 65 years. In this longitudinal, randomized clinical trial (including covariates), receipt of personal DXA information was manipulated by random assignment to the experimental or control group. The remaining antecedent and outcome variable measures were collected by questionnaire at three time points (initial [T1; pre-DXA], 6 months [T2], 12 months [T3]) and by bone density assessment from 203 women over an 18-month period in 2001-2003. The experimental manipulation (DXA results) had a direct positive effect (beta = .23, p < .05) on calcium intake at T2, and indirectly at T3 through T2. Women in the experimental group who were informed they had osteopenia or osteoporosis had a greater T1-T2 change in daily calcium intake than those with normal bone density (beta = .23, p < .05). However, providing DXA results did not relate to change in exercise. Health beliefs and general osteoporosis knowledge predicted initial calcium and exercise levels; there was tentative evidence that susceptibility beliefs partially mediate between DXA results and change in calcium intake. Personal knowledge of DXA results was related significantly to increases in calcium intake in postmenopausal women, but not to exercise. Directions for further study are discussed.

  16. Gingival recession in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    DUNCEA, IOANA; POP, DAN; GEORGESCU, CARMEN

    2013-01-01

    Background The periodontal disease is a complex chronic progressive inflammatory and destructive process of the tooth attachment apparatus: gingiva, alveolar bone, desmodontium, cementum. Systemic osteoporosis has a potential influence on both the periodontal and gingival inflammation indices, on the gingival recession (GR) and teeth mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the menopause osteoporosis and gingival recession, by studying the correlations between osteoporosis and gingival recession, and between the bone mineral density (BMD) at the level of L1–L4, femur, hip, mandible and gum recession. Materials and methods The present study included a total of 97 postmenopausal patients. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made based on the WHO definition. The results were expressed as absolute BMD values in g/cm2 and as T score form. We used dual x-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements in assessing the lumbar column, proximal femur and mandible and we calculated the T scores. The gingival recession, which is an indicator of ligament tissue lysis and apical migration of the periodontal tissue, was measured as the distance between the anatomical tooth neck and the gumline. For the statistical analysis the Medcalc program version 12.3 was used. Results We found statistically significant differences between the two groups of women, with and without osteoporosis, in terms of the distribution of the cases of GR (p=0.003). The only parameter with statistical significance of the differences between the three categories of gingival recessions (absent, moderate, major), was p=0.034 for the femoral neck BMD. There were significant differences between the mean values of lumbar column L1–L4 BMD according to the presence or absence of recession signs. Conclusions 1) The prevalence of moderate and major gingival recession was statistically significantly higher in the group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. 2) In postmenopausal

  17. Oral findings in postmenopausal women attending dental hospital in Western part of India.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Patil; Nidhi, Sinha; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman; Bharati, Doni; Ashok, Kp

    2013-02-01

    To know the nature, incidence and severity of oral manifestations occurring in postmenopausal women. Oral changes were observed in 365 postmenopausal women and 365 age matched male individuals attending the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were asked about complaints of dry mouth, taste and breath changes, mucosal and facial pain and were examined for oral changes such as ulceration, white and red lesions. The results obtained from the study were then correlated with various other similar studies. The important oral findings in postmenopausal women were mucosal burning/pain (25.8%), dry mouth (27.1%), altered taste (3.6%), altered breath (6.3%) and facial pain (3.6%). Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) was significantly more common in males (5.5%) as compared to postmenopausal females (1.9%). Results from the present study reveal that oral symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal patients showed significantly more oral changes than the control. These changes could be related to the hormone alterations. Therefore, dentists need to refer postmenopausal women with oral symptoms to a gynaecologist for more careful examinations and medical interventions if necessary. Key words:Menopause; postmenopause; xerostomia; pallor; oral changes.

  18. Oral findings in postmenopausal women attending dental hospital in Western part of India

    PubMed Central

    Nidhi, Sinha; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman; Bharati, Doni; Ashok, KP

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To know the nature, incidence and severity of oral manifestations occurring in postmenopausal women. Study design: Oral changes were observed in 365 postmenopausal women and 365 age matched male individuals attending the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were asked about complaints of dry mouth, taste and breath changes, mucosal and facial pain and were examined for oral changes such as ulceration, white and red lesions. The results obtained from the study were then correlated with various other similar studies. Results: The important oral findings in postmenopausal women were mucosal burning/pain (25.8%), dry mouth (27.1%), altered taste (3.6%), altered breath (6.3%) and facial pain (3.6%). Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) was significantly more common in males (5.5%) as compared to postmenopausal females (1.9%). Conclusion: Results from the present study reveal that oral symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal patients showed significantly more oral changes than the control. These changes could be related to the hormone alterations. Therefore, dentists need to refer postmenopausal women with oral symptoms to a gynaecologist for more careful examinations and medical interventions if necessary. Key words:Menopause; postmenopause; xerostomia; pallor; oral changes. PMID:24455055

  19. Blood pressure, arterial function, structure, and aging: the role of hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, Angelo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of natural menopause may indicate that a woman is entering a period of increased risk for cardiovascular disease, due to both chronologic aging and lower levels of estrogen. This brief review aims to demonstrate the relevance of changes in blood pressure and large artery structure and function occurring after menopause. These changes, i.e., thickening and stiffening of large arteries (which, in turn would also result in increased systolic and pulse pressures), were found to predict subsequent cardiovascular events, independently of other known cardiovascular risk. The benefits of early hormone replacement therapy on the life expectancy of women have dramatically lost consensus since publication of the Womens Health Initiative study results. However, the authors believe that those results should increase the attention paid by clinicians and public health researchers to the individualization of hormone replacement therapy prescription for postmenopausal women, and to a better characterization of those vascular parameters and profiles identifying postmenopausal women who are most likely to benefit from specific hormone replacement therapy in terms of cardiovascular protection.

  20. Are metatarsal fractures indicative of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Bridges, Matthew J; Ruddick, Sheila

    2011-10-01

    Patients who sustain low trauma fractures are at a higher risk of osteoporosis. However, there are conflicting data concerning whether metatarsal fractures are also associated with low bone mineral density. The authors retrospectively analyzed data on 68 postmenopausal women who had sustained a low trauma metatarsal fracture. Routine assessment of these patients included identification of risk factors for fracture, height and weight measurement, and measurement of peripheral bone density at the heel by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Calscan, Demetech AB, Täby, Sweden). Bone density in the patients was compared with manufacturer's reference database. The mean Z-score for the patients was -0.08. In total, 14 women (20.5% [confidence interval 10.5 to 29.5]) had a Z-score ≤-1, and 1 patient (1.5% [confidence interval -1.4 to 4.4]) had a Z-score ≤-2. Mean T-score in these women was -1.95. Since the number of women with a Z-score ≤-1 was not significantly greater than the 16% that would be expected, and the number of women with a Z-score ≤-2 was not significantly greater than the 2.5% expected, it is concluded that low trauma metatarsal fracture is not a risk factor for low calcaneal bone mineral density.

  1. Bone Density Screening and Re-screening in Postmenopausal Women and Older Men.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Overman, Robert A; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines universally recommend bone mineral density (BMD) screening to identify osteoporosis in women aged 65 years and older. Risk assessment is recommended to guide BMD screening in postmenopausal women under age 65. Insufficient data are available to inform standard ages to start and stop BMD screening in postmenopausal women. Based on longitudinal studies of incident osteoporosis and fracture in postmenopausal women, an initial BMD test should be ordered for all women aged 65, and the frequency of re-screening should be based on age and BMD T score (more frequent testing for older age and lower T score). Although clinical practice guidelines recommend BMD screening according to risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal women under age 65, no standard approach to risk assessment exists. Minimal evidence is available to guide osteoporosis screening in men, but some experts recommend initiation of BMD screening in men at age 70.

  2. Bone Density Screening and Re-screening in Postmenopausal Women and Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Robert A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines universally recommend bone mineral density (BMD) screening to identify osteoporosis in women aged 65 years and older. Risk assessment is recommended to guide BMD screening in postmenopausal women under age 65. Insufficient data are available to inform standard ages to start and stop BMD screening in postmenopausal women. Based on longitudinal studies of incident osteoporosis and fracture in postmenopausal women, an initial BMD test should be ordered for all women aged 65, and the frequency of re-screening should be based on age and BMD T score (more frequent testing for older age and lower T score). Although clinical practice guidelines recommend BMD screening according to risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal women under age 65, no standard approach to risk assessment exists. Minimal evidence is available to guide osteoporosis screening in men, but some experts recommend initiation of BMD screening in men at age 70. PMID:26408154

  3. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  4. Endometrial Samples From Postmenopausal Women: A Proposal for Adequacy Criteria.

    PubMed

    Sakhdari, Ali; Moghaddam, Parnian A; Liu, Yuxin

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 75% of endometrial cancer occurs in women older than 55 yr of age. Postmenopausal bleeding is often considered endometrial cancer until proven otherwise. One diagnostic challenge is that endometrial biopsy or curettage generally yields limited samples from elderly patients. There are no well-defined and unified diagnostic criteria for adequacy of endometrial samples. Pathologists who consider any sample including those lacking endometrial tissue as "adequate" run the risk of rendering false-negative reports; on the contrary, pathologists requiring ample endometrial glands along with stroma tend to designate a greater number of samples as "inadequate," leading to unnecessary follow-up. We undertook a quantitative study of 1768 endometrial samples from women aged 60 yr and older aiming to propose validated adequacy criteria for diagnosing or excluding malignancy. Using repeat-procedure outcomes as reference, we found that samples exceeding 10 endometrial strips demonstrated high negative predictive value close to 100%. Such samples can be scant, yet appear to be sufficient in excluding malignant conditions. When tissue diminished to <10 strips, negative predictive value dropped significantly to 81%. The risk of undersampled malignancy rose to 19%. Among 274 malignant cases, only 4 cases yielded limited tissue yet >10 strips. In conclusion, we propose 10 endometrial strips as the minimum for adequate samples from postmenopausal women. Applying such validated adequacy criteria will greatly reduce false-negative errors and avoid unnecessary procedures while ultimately improving diagnostic accuracy. Our criteria may serve as a reference point in unifying the pathology community on this important and challenging topic.

  5. Soy consumption alters endogenous estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Duncan, A M; Wangen, K E; Kurzer, M S

    2000-08-01

    Isoflavones are soy phytoestrogens that have been suggested to be anticarcinogenic. Our previous study in premenopausal women suggested that the mechanisms by which isoflavones exert cancer-preventive effects may involve modulation of estrogen metabolism away from production of potentially carcinogenic metabolites [16alpha-(OH) estrone, 4-(OH) estrone, and 4-(OH) estradiol] (X. Xu et al., Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 7: 1101-1108, 1998). To further evaluate this hypothesis, a randomized, cross-over soy isoflavone feeding study was performed in 18 healthy postmenopausal women. The study consisted of three diet periods, each separated by a washout of approximately 3 weeks. Each diet period lasted for 93 days, during which subjects consumed their habitual diets supplemented with soy protein isolate providing 0.1 (control), 1, or 2 mg isoflavones/kg body weight/day (7.1 +/- 1.1, 65 +/- 11, or 132 +/- 22 mg/day). A 72-h urine sample was collected 3 days before the study (baseline) and days 91-93 of each diet period. Urine samples were analyzed for 10 phytoestrogens and 15 endogenous estrogens and their metabolites by a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Compared with the soy-free baseline and very low isoflavone control diet, consumption of 65 mg isoflavones increased the urinary 2/16alpha-(OH) estrone ratio, and consumption of 65 or 132 mg isoflavones decreased excretion of 4-(OH) estrone. When compared with baseline values, consumption of all three soy diets increased the ratio of 2/4-(OH) estrogens and decreased the ratio of genotoxic: total estrogens. These data suggest that both isoflavones and other soy constituents may exert cancer-preventive effects in postmenopausal women by altering estrogen metabolism away from genotoxic metabolites toward inactive metabolites.

  6. Prospective assessment of thoracic kyphosis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Roux, Christian; Fechtenbaum, Jacques; Kolta, Sami; Said-Nahal, Roula; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2010-02-01

    We attempt to assess quantitatively thoracic kyphosis and its influence on incident fractures and quality of life over three years in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and the effect of strontium ranelate on thoracic kyphosis progression. This study was performed on women with postmenopausal osteoporosis from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) and Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) studies. Vertebral fractures were assessed on lateral thoracic radiographs performed at baseline and at three years according to standardized procedure. Kyphosis index (KI, %), was defined as the percentage ratio between the maximum depth of thoracic curvature and the height measured from the T4 to the T12 vertebrae. Baseline characteristics of the 3218 patients (1594 strontium ranelate, 1624 placebo) were mean age 73.3 years, spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score (L2-4) -3.1, femoral neck T-score -3.0, and KI 25.4%. In the placebo group, patients with the highest baseline KI experienced significantly more vertebral fractures than those with medium KIs [relative risk (RR) = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.96, p < .001) or the lowest KIs (RR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.32-2.21, p < .001), even after adjusting for the presence of prevalent fractures, age, body mass index (BMI), and BMD. There was no difference in the risk of nonvertebral fractures according to baseline KI. Three-year changes in quality-of-life physical scores reflected significantly better status for patients in the lowest tertile of KI compared with those in the highest at baseline. Over three years, the KI increased for all patients, indicating worsening of thoracic kyphosis, whatever the presence of prevalent or incident vertebral fractures. This KI progression was lower in the strontium ranelate group than in the placebo group. Thoracic kyphosis is a risk factor for vertebral fractures over three years and influences physical capacity changes in postmenopausal women with

  7. Association between Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Depression in Post-Menopausal Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi Un; Kim, Mi Ran; Min, Jung Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Chang Uk; Lee, Chul; Paik, In Ho

    2010-01-01

    Post-menopausal women experience variable biological and psychological changes. The effect of reduced levels of estrogen can effect on post-menopausal depression. Estrogen triggers physiological responses by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Two subtypes of ER, ERa and ERb are now known. We investigated the significance of ERa and ERb polymorphisms and post-menopasal depression in this study. Forty three women with post-menopausal depression and 63 post-menopausal women without depression as normal controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to investigate genotypes of ERa and ERb polymorphisms. Genotypes of PvuII and XbaI polymorphism of ERa receptor were significantly different in patients with post-menopausal depression comparing with controls. Genotypes of ERb did not show association with post-menopausal depression. Our study showed that ERa receptor polymorphism had an association with depression in post-menopausal women. It suggests that investigation of ER genes and their functions might be important for understanding pathophysilogical mechanism of post-menopausal depression. PMID:20927313

  8. Pregnancy in peri- and postmenopausal women: challenges in management.

    PubMed

    Tower, Clare

    2009-12-01

    Pregnancy in peri- and postmenopausal women is associated with an increased risk of complications and represents several challenges in terms of clinical management. Women in these age groups typically fall into one of two distinct groups, those who have conceived following assisted reproductive techniques, using ovum donation and those who have conceived spontaneously. While both have age in common, they differ in terms of additional risk factors. Recipients of assisted reproductive technologies have pregnancy risks associated with that treatment, but are at lower risks of a fetus affected by aneuploidy. Furthermore, they have been rigorously screened for medical complications, but are more likely to be primiparous and have multiple pregnancies. In contrast, women conceiving spontaneously are more likely to be of high parity and have additional medical complications such as obesity, hypertension or diabetes. In addition to the increased risk of antenatal complications such as miscarriage, ectopic pregnancies, gestational diabetes and hypertension, these women have a high risk of unexplained stillbirth. They also have a very high rate of Caesarean section. All these risk factors interact to modify clinical management. However, there are no randomized trials available to guide clinical management, thus decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcio H; Bruno, Anderson S; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Santos, Maria Emilia S; Nahas, Eliana A P

    2014-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western countries. NAFLD includes a spectrum ranging from a simple steatosis to a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is defined by the presence of inflammatory infiltrate, cellular necrosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and fibrosis and cirrhosis that can eventually develop into hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies emphasize the role of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines in the development and progression of NAFLD. It seems to be independently associated with type II diabetes mellitus, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. These findings are in accordance with the criteria used in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we will discuss the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of NAFLD and the association of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  10. Soy foods, isoflavones, and the health of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Over the past 2 decades, soy foods have been the subject of a vast amount of research, primarily because they are uniquely rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The phytoestrogenic effects of isoflavones have led some to view soy foods and isoflavone supplements as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. However, clinical research shows that isoflavones and estrogen exert differing effects on a variety of health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that soy foods have the potential to address several conditions and diseases associated with the menopausal transition. For example, data suggest that soy foods can potentially reduce ischemic heart disease through multiple mechanisms. Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, soflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isoflavone supplements also consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein. In contrast, the evidence that isoflavones reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women is unimpressive. Whether adult soy food intake reduces breast cancer risk is unclear. Considerable evidence suggests that for soy to reduce risk, consumption during childhood and/or adolescence is required. Although concerns have been raised that soy food consumption may be harmful to breast cancer patients, an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence. In summary, the clinical and epidemiologic data indicate that adding soy foods to the

  11. Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Paolillo, F R; Corazza, A V; Paolillo, A R; Borghi-Silva, A; Arena, R; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (1) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (2) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (3) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate, which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Quadriceps performance was measured during isokinetic exercise testing at 60°/s and 300°/s. Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (∆ = 21 ± 6 W and ∆ = 634 ± 156 J, p < 0.05) when compared to both the exercise group (∆ = 13 ± 10 W and = 410 ± 270 J) and the sedentary group (∆ = 10 ± 9 W and ∆ = 357 ± 327 J). Fatigue was also significantly lower in the LED group (∆ = -7 ± 4%, p < 0.05) compared to both the exercise group (∆ = 3 ± 8%) and the sedentary group (∆ = -2 ± 6%). Infrared-LED during treadmill training may improve quadriceps power and reduce peripheral fatigue in postmenopausal women.

  12. Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.

  13. Physical impairment and body weight history in postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Sourdet, Sandrine S.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Waring, Molly E.; Nassir, Rami; Garcia, Lorena; Bea, Jennifer W.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Limacher, Marian; Manini, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether weight history and weight transitions over adult lifespan contribute to physical impairment among postmenopausal women. DESIGN Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) categories were calculated among postmenopausal women who reported their weight and height at age 18. Multiple-variable logistic regression was used to determine the association between BMI at age 18 and BMI transitions over adulthood on severe physical impairment (SPI), defined as scoring < 60 on the Physical Functioning Subscale of the Random 36-Item Healthy Survey. SETTING Participants were part of the Women's Health Initiative Observational study (WHI OS), where participants’ health were followed over time via questionnaires and clinical assessments. SUBJECTS Postmenopausal women (n=76,016; 63.5 ± 7.3 years) RESULTS Women with overweight (BMI=25.0-29.9) or obesity (BMI≥30) at 18 years had greater odds of SPI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-1.69 and 2.14, 95% CI: 1.72-2.65, respectively] than normal weight (BMI=18.5-24.9) counterparts. Transitions from normal weight to overweight/obese or to underweight (BMI <18.5) were associated with greater odds of SPI (1.97 [1.84-2.11] and 1.35 [1.06-1.71], respectively) compared to weight stability. Shifting from underweight to overweight/obese also had increased odds of SPI (1.52 [1.11-2.09]). Overweight/obese to normal BMI transitions resulted in a reduced SPI odds (0.52 [0.39-0.71]). CONCLUSIONS Higher weight history and transitions into higher weight classes were associated with higher likelihood of severe physical impairment, while transitioning into lower weight classes for those with overweight/obesity was protective among postmenopausal women. PMID:27269298

  14. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  15. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of gait in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There's lack in the literature respecting changes in the trunk and hip angles, and power profile of the lower extremities in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, this study aimed to examine gait characteristics of that population, and find out which characteristics may be predictors to BMD. This may provide suitable interventions for subjects with osteoporosis. Methods Seventeen healthy postmenopausal women and seventeen with low BMD engaged in this study. Dual X-ray Absorbiometry measured BMD at lumber (L2–4) and femoral neck. Qualysis gait analysis system assessed the gait pattern of each subject. Results Compared to healthy peers, women with low BMD showed less trunk rotation (p = 0.02), hip adduction (p = 0.005) and extension moments (p = 0.008). They showed less hip power generation during early stance (H1S) (p = 0.000), and swing phase (H3S) (p = 0.005), and less hip power absorption (H2S) (p = 0.005). They also, showed less knee power absorption during terminal swing (K4S) (p = 0.002), and ankle power generation at push off (A2S) (p = 0.000). The ability of the gait variables to discriminate between subjects with or without osteopenia was (0.72%, p = 0.016) for trunk rotation, (78%, p = 0.0004) for hip adductor moment, (76%, p = 0.0013) for hip extensor moment, (87%, p < 0.0001) for H1S, (79%, p = 0.0001) for H2S, (77%, p = 0.0008) H3S, (81%, p = 0.0001) for K4S, and (93%, p < 0.0001) for A2S. Conclusion Less power generation at the hip and ankle as well as, less power absorption at the hip and knee, may suggest that postmenopausal women with low BMD showed less propulsion, and stability during walking. Trunk rotation, hip adduction and extension moments, H1S, H2S, H3S, K4S, and A2S are significant predictors for low bone mass in the postmenopausal women. PMID:24720866

  17. Correlation between bone mineral density and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Tripti; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Jamal; Akhtar, Nishat; Beg, Mujahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects large fraction of elderly women. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to be involved in its pathogenesis. The scarcity of human studies focusing on the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and OS in postmenopausal women has prompted us to study on this issue. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in 95 subjects, between 21–65 years of age, including postmenopausal osteoporotic females (n = 35), healthy postmenopausal females (n = 30) and healthy females in reproductive age group (n = 30). We measured serum antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant power (TAP). BMD was obtained at lumbar spine and femur neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results: Serum GPx, SOD, catalase and TAP level were found significantly lower in osteoporotic postmenopausal group as compared to healthy postmenopausal women and women in healthy reproductive age group healthy reproductive women (P < 0.005). but correlation between BMD and serum antioxidants were not found to be statistically significant (P > 0.005). Conclusion: These findings support that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We did not find any significant association between BMD and serum level of antioxidants (P > 0.05). The failure to detect this association does not preclude the role of OS in osteoporosis because OS is complex and dynamic process. PMID:26180764

  18. Sleep Disturbance and Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50–79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for sleep disturbance (insomnia and sleep duration) and risk of thyroid cancer. Insomnia score was measured using a validated 5-item Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale. Overall, a total of 295 thyroid cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, women with greater insomnia scores had a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer than did women with low scores (hazard ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.05). The significant association between insomnia score and thyroid cancer was confined to nonobese women (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.62) and was not seen in obese women (hazard ratio = 0.94 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.84) (P for interaction = 0.07). In conclusion, postmenopausal women with greater insomnia scores, especially nonobese women, had a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer. More studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23221728

  19. Sleep disturbance and incidence of thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50-79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for sleep disturbance (insomnia and sleep duration) and risk of thyroid cancer. Insomnia score was measured using a validated 5-item Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale. Overall, a total of 295 thyroid cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, women with greater insomnia scores had a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer than did women with low scores (hazard ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.05). The significant association between insomnia score and thyroid cancer was confined to nonobese women (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.62) and was not seen in obese women (hazard ratio = 0.94 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.84) (P for interaction = 0.07). In conclusion, postmenopausal women with greater insomnia scores, especially nonobese women, had a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-12-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss.

  1. Early Postmenopausal Transdermal 17β-Estradiol Therapy and Amyloid-β Deposition.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Kejal; Lowe, Val J; Lesnick, Timothy G; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Bailey, Kent R; Fields, Julie A; Shuster, Lynne T; Zuk, Samantha M; Senjem, Matthew L; Mielke, Michelle M; Gleason, Carey; Jack, Clifford R; Rocca, Walter A; Miller, Virginia M

    2016-05-07

    It remains controversial whether hormone therapy in recently postmenopausal women modifies the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on amyloid-β deposition in recently postmenopausal women. Participants within 5-36 months past menopause in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, a randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial, were randomized to: 1) 0.45 mg/day oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE); 2) 50μg/day transdermal 17β-estradiol; or 3) placebo pills and patch for four years. Oral progesterone (200 mg/day) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging was performed in 68 of the 118 participants at Mayo Clinic approximately seven years post randomization and three years after stopping randomized treatment. PiB Standard unit value ratio (SUVR) was calculated. Women (age = 52-65) randomized to transdermal 17β-estradiol (n = 21) had lower PiB SUVR compared to placebo (n = 30) after adjusting for age [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.31(0.11-0.83)]. In the APOEɛ4 carriers, transdermal 17β-estradiol treated women (n = 10) had lower PiB SUVR compared to either placebo (n = 5) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.04(0.004-0.44)], or the oral CEE treated group (n = 3) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.01(0.0006-0.23)] after adjusting for age. Hormone therapy was not associated with PiB SUVR in the APOEɛ4 non-carriers. In this pilot study, transdermal 17β-estradiol therapy in recently postmenopausal women was associated with a reduced amyloid-β deposition, particularly in APOEɛ4 carriers. This finding may have important implications for the prevention of AD in postmenopausal women, and needs to be confirmed in a larger sample.

  2. Early Postmenopausal Transdermal 17β-Estradiol Therapy and Amyloid-β Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Kejal; Lowe, Val J.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Bailey, Kent R.; Fields, Julie A.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Gleason, Carey; Jack, Clifford R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It remains controversial whether hormone therapy in recently postmenopausal women modifies the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on amyloid-β deposition in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants within 5–36 months past menopause in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, a randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial, were randomized to: 1) 0.45 mg/day oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE); 2) 50μg/day transdermal 17β-estradiol; or 3) placebo pills and patch for four years. Oral progesterone (200 mg/day) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging was performed in 68 of the 118 participants at Mayo Clinic approximately seven years post randomization and three years after stopping randomized treatment. PiB Standard unit value ratio (SUVR) was calculated. Results: Women (age = 52–65) randomized to transdermal 17β-estradiol (n = 21) had lower PiB SUVR compared to placebo (n = 30) after adjusting for age [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.31(0.11–0.83)]. In the APOE ɛ4 carriers, transdermal 17β-estradiol treated women (n = 10) had lower PiB SUVR compared to either placebo (n = 5) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.04(0.004–0.44)], or the oral CEE treated group (n = 3) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.01(0.0006–0.23)] after adjusting for age. Hormone therapy was not associated with PiB SUVR in the APOE ɛ4 non-carriers. Conclusion: In this pilot study, transdermal 17β-estradiol therapy in recently postmenopausal women was associated with a reduced amyloid-β deposition, particularly in APOE ɛ4 carriers. This finding may have important implications for the prevention of AD in postmenopausal women, and needs to be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:27163830

  3. [Clinical, vegetative and cognitive disorders in hypertensive postmenopausal women in relation to menopause causes].

    PubMed

    Kolbasnikov, S V; Bakhareva, O N

    2006-01-01

    To specify clinical, vegetative and cognitive disorders in hypertensive women depending on the type of menopause. A total of 195 hypertensive women were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 50, age 45.6 +/- 4.5 years) consisted of premenopausal women, group 2 (n = 100, age 57.4 +/- 4.7 years) - of women with natural menopause, group 3 (n = 45, age 55.1 +/- 5.9 years)--with early and/or surgical menopause. Severity of the menopausal syndrome, anxiety, depression, alexitimia, mental performance, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm were examined. The premenopausal women were characterized by cardial and cerebral disorders, unaffected psychovegetative function and initial symptoms of lowering mental performance. Hypertensive women with natural menopause showed combination of cardial and cerebral symptoms with moderate anxio-depressive disorders, alexitimia, subnormal parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system in high centralization of heart rhythm regulation and attention disturbances. Patients with surgical and/or early menopause had marked cardial and cerebral symptoms, moderate anxiodepressive disorders, alexitimia, inhibition of mental performance, vegetative dysfunction, overcentralization of heart rhythm control. With development of postmenopausal metabolic symptom complex, severity of hypertension grows with emergence of anxiodepressive disorders which combine with vegetative regulation disorders and attenuation of mental performance.

  4. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. [Effects of exercise and sports on bone health in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa

    Exercise and sports are an important means of improving bone health in pre- and postmenopausal women. Generally accepted strategies to improve bone health in this population aim to minimize age-related bone loss. In terms of physical activity, those forms that feature high-impact or weight-bearing activity appear to exert positive influences on bone health. Results of recent meta-analyses have shown that high-impact exercise significantly improves bone mineral density(BMD)in pre- and postmenopausal women. Studies have also shown that walking as an exercise therapy for more than 6 months exerts significant and positive effects on femoral neck BMD in peri- and postmenopausal women. Exercise and sports can be strongly recommended as non-pharmacologic interventions for improving bone health in pre- and postmenopausal women.

  6. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results.

  7. Diet, weight, cytokines and bone health in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunn, C A; Weber, J L; Kruger, M C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate diet and nutrition-related factors associated with bone loss in a group of postmenopausal (PM) women. Nutritional intake, inflammatory markers and body composition (weight, body mass index, fat/lean mass) were analysed for associations with bone mineral density (BMD). A cross sectional study examining correlations between BMD (Duel-energy X ray absorptiometry; (DXA) and dietary intake (3-day diaries), body composition and plasma bone and inflammatory markers: C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and procollagen type I N propeptide (P1NP), C- reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 and 10 (IL-6, IL-10), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Community dwelling women from the Auckland, Hawke's Bay and Manawatu regions in New Zealand. 142 healthy, PM women aged 50-70 years. OPG (per kilogram fat mass) was increased in women with osteoporosis (p<0.001) compared to groups classified with normal BMD and osteopenia. Protein, vitamin B12, zinc, potassium and dairy intake were all positively correlated with higher BMD while dairy and potassium intakes also inversely correlated with CTX. Body composition (weight, BMI and fat/lean mass) had strong positive associations with BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed body weight, potassium and dairy intake were predictors of increased BMD in PM women and explained 39% (r2=0.39, p< 0.003) of variance. BMD was negatively correlated with OPG and positively with weight, dairy and potassium intake. This study highlights the importance of maintaining adequate body weight and emphasising dairy and potassium predominantly sourced from fruit/vegetables to reduce bone loss at midlife.

  8. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Caucasian, Filipina, and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Morton, Deborah J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Wingard, Deborah L; Schneider, Diane L

    2003-02-01

    Previous bone mineral density (BMD) studies have suggested Asian women have lower BMD and Hispanic women have similar or higher BMD compared with Caucasian women, partially explained by ethnic differences in body size. This study compared the effect of different variables representing body size on BMD in postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years from three ethnic groups in San Diego County, CA: 354 Caucasians, 285 Filipinas, and 164 Hispanics. In all three groups, BMD was measured by DXA (Hologic 2000) at the hip, lumbar spine, and total body. Lifestyle variables and anthropometric measures were assessed by standard methodology; medication and supplement use were validated by a nurse. Regardless of the variables used to represent body size in the regression modelling, either body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, ethnic differences were minimal across the three groups. The only significant differences observed using the two fully adjusted models (age, height, body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, smoking, alcohol, exercise, current oestrogen and calcium supplement use, and osteoarthritis) were at the total body BMD site where Filipinas had significantly higher BMD than the Caucasians or Hispanics, whose total body BMD was similar to one another. The independent variables in the fully adjusted models explained approximately 20-40% of the variation in BMD at each of the four sites. Income or occupation did not help explain BMD differences, but a pattern of increased BMD among those with some college education in all three groups was observed. Accounting for body size using either body mass index or fat and lean tissue mass along with height and other lifestyle variables minimizes ethnic differences and explains a considerable amount of variation in mean BMD among older ethnic minority and Caucasian women.

  9. Treatment of osteoporosis and reduction in risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women with raloxifene

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung Sang; Jordan, V Craig

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Raloxifene, a non-steroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), offers a new dimension for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and risk reduction of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal populations at high risk. Both osteoporosis and breast cancer are important public health issues for postmenopausal women. It is well known that estrogen and estrogen receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Initially, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was used for the purpose of preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, HRT significantly contributed to an increase in breast cancer risk. The SERM, raloxifene, is used for the prevention and for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Areas covered This article reviews the emerging evidence of the efficacy of raloxifene in postmenopausal women, summarizes the results and places in perspective their therapeutic uses for women having either a high risk of osteoporosis or breast cancer. Emerging clinical evidence suggests bisphosphonates, currently used as drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, may also reduce breast cancer risk. The status of other SERMs and bisphosphonates are included for completeness. A Medline search of raloxifene, osteoporosis, breast cancer and SERMs was used to derive a database of 355 references. Expert opinion Readers will understand the value of raloxifene to prevent osteoporosis and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Although most women do not require pharmacotherapy for menopausal symptoms, many are severely affected by osteoporosis or breast cancer at and beyond menopause and, for such women, pharmacologic intervention is important if they are to retain an acceptable quality of life. It is reasonable to use raloxifene or bisphosphonate as an appropriate drug that targets symptom-free postmenopausal women for treatment and prevention of

  10. Establishing reference intervals for hCG in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Patel, Khushbu K; Qavi, Abraham J; Hock, Karl G; Gronowski, Ann M

    2017-03-01

    Plasma concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been shown to increase with age due to pituitary secretion. We previously recommended that an hCG cutoff of 14.0IU/L be used for women ≥55years of age. However, it remains unknown whether concentrations >14.0IU/L can be expected in women with advanced age. Our objectives were to establish plasma hCG reference intervals and correlate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and hCG concentrations in postmenopausal females ≥55years. Residual plasma samples from 798 women ≥55years were utilized with 303, 269, and 226 samples belonging to the age groups 55-69, 70-84, and ≥85years, respectively. FSH and hCG were measured using the Abbott ARCHITECT. All positive hCG samples (hCG ≥5IU/L) were analyzed for potential heterophile antibody interference and 3 were excluded. Electronic medical records were reviewed and patients with malignancy were excluded. 8% (56/666) of women age≥55years had plasma hCG ≥5IU/L. There were 19, 16, and 21 patients with hCG ≥5IU/L in the age groups 55-69, 70-84, and ≥85years, respectively. The highest hCG concentrations observed in each age group were: 55-69years maximum=11.7IU/L and 97.5th percentile=9.6IU/L; 70-84years maximum=18.09IU/L, 97.5th percentile=6.2IU/L; ≥85years maximum=11.1IU/L and 97.5th percentile=10.0IU/L, and the overall 97.5th percentile=8.5IU/L for all women ≥55years of age. Neither hCG nor FSH concentrations continued to increase with age in women ≥55years. The prevalence of positive hCG in women ≥55years is 8%. This study confirms our previously recommended cutoff of 14IU/L for women ≥55years of age. In women ≥55years of age, FSH concentrations do not predict hCG concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors.

  12. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During aging, chronic systemic inflammation increases in prevalence and antioxidant balance shifts in favor of oxidant generation. Avenanthramide (AVA) is a group of oat phenolics that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capability. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation after a bout of downhill walking (DW) in postmenopausal women. Women at age of 50–80 years (N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA or 0.4 mg AVA (control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen, each group of subjects walked downhill on a treadmill (−9% grade) for 4 bouts of 15 minutes at a speed of 4.0 km/h with 5 minutes rest between sessions. Blood samples were collected at rest, 24 h post-DW, and 48 h post-DW pre- and post-supplementation. Both DW sessions increased plasma creatine kinase activity (P < 0.05). Before supplementation, in vitro neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) activity was increased at 24 h post-DW (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased 48 h post-DW (P < 0.05). AVA supplementation decreased DW-induced NRB at 24 h (P < 0.05) and CRP level 48 h (P < 0.05). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β concentration and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB binding were suppressed at rest and during post-DW period in AVA but not C group (P < 0.05). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were increased in AVA vs. C (P < 0.05), whereas glutathione redox status was elevated 48 h post-DW but not affected by AVA. Thus, chronic AVA supplementation decreased systemic and DW-induced inflammation and increased blood-borne antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women. PMID:24645793

  13. The effect of sequential therapy for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Shenghan; Lv, Houchen; Wang, Guoqi; Li, Zhirui; Li, Ming; Zhang, Licheng; Tang, Peifu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Osteoporosis, more likely to occur in postmenopausal women, is a chronic condition that usually requires a long-term treatment strategy, but the use of either antiresorptive or anabolic drugs should be limited to 18 to 24 months. Discontinuing antiosteoporosis drugs may result in rapidly declining bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, many patients are treated with the sequential use of 2 or more drugs. However, whether switching treatment from anabolic to antiresorptive drugs or the reverse could maintain or further increase BMD; and whether the sequential therapy could outperform the monotherapy under the same treatment duration still remains unclear. Nowadays, no firm conclusions were drawn. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from January 1, 1974 until February 1, 2016 to identify all randomized controlled trials for evaluating the effectiveness of sequential therapy of antiresorptive and anabolic drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis women with the BMD changes of lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip as the outcomes. We evaluated the methodological quality and abstracted relevant data according to the Cochrane Handbook. Results: Eight trials involving 1509 patients were included. The pooled data showed that after switching treatment, the alternative drugs maintained the BMD and significantly increased the percentage change in BMD at the lumbar spine (MD, 3.59; 95% CI, 2.26–4.93), femoral neck (MD, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.60–2.27), and total hip (MD, 1.24; 95% CI, −0.12 to 2.60), although change in BMD was not significantly increased at the total hip. The sequential therapy significantly increased BMD from baseline at the lumbar spine (SMD, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.26–0.91), femoral neck (SMD, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06–0.37), and total hip (SMD, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.01–0.56). Conclusions: After switching treatment, sequential therapy further increased BMD. The sequential therapy showed a more significant improvement in BMD

  14. Psychomotor vigilance task performance during total sleep deprivation in young and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Urrila, Anna S; Stenuit, Patricia; Huhdankoski, Outi; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2007-06-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age on women's performance in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) during total sleep deprivation (SD). A total of 46 healthy women volunteered. They belonged to two age groups: young (n=34; age range 19-30 years; 12 without, and 22 with oral contraceptives (OC); early phase of the menstrual cycle) and older (n=12; age range 60-68; postmenopausal; without hormone therapy). During a 40-h total SD, the subjects performed the PVT and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) at 2-h intervals. At baseline, the reaction speed of the young women was faster as compared to the older women (Mann-Whitney U-test p<0.01). During SD, all the PVT measures as well as the SSS scores changed similarly in the two age groups, when the baseline performance difference in favour of the young women was taken into account (area under curve analyses, Mann-Whitney U-tests n.s.). No age difference in the time course of the SD-related deterioration in PVT performance or subjective sleepiness was observed. OC use had no effects on any of the measures during SD. After recovery sleep, young women had higher subjective sleepiness scores than older women, the sleepiness scores being highest in young women not taking OCs. In conclusion, in women, aging has no effects on the amount or the time course of the decline in PVT performance caused by total SD. OC use does not significantly affect young women's PVT performance during SD in the early phase of the menstrual cycle.

  15. Sleep Duration and Risk of Liver Cancer in Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative Study.

    PubMed

    Royse, Kathryn E; El-Serag, Hashem B; Chen, Liang; White, Donna L; Hale, Lauren; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Jiao, Li

    2017-09-21

    Sleep duration has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but its association with liver cancer remains unknown. In the prospective Women's Health Initiative Study, 139,368 postmenopausal women reported sleep habits at baseline (1993-1998). We ascertained 175 incident liver cancer cases during an average 13.8 years of follow-up through August 2014. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate a hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for risk of liver cancer in association with nocturnal sleep duration. Compared to women reporting 6-8 hours of sleep, the HR for liver cancer was 1.94 (95% CI 1.07-3.53) for women reporting ≥9 hours of sleep. Among the obese women, the HR associated with ≥9 hours of sleep was 3.18 (95% CI 1.84-8.60). The HR was 0.93 (95% CI 0.34-2.53) among nonobese women (p value for interaction = 0.18). Short sleep duration (≤5 hours) was not associated with liver cancer risk. Long sleep duration was associated with a moderate increase in liver cancer risk in obese postmenopausal women in the United States. Larger study is needed to confirm our observation on effect modification by adiposity status.

  16. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. We conducted an online survey in women aged between 40 and 66. Eating behavior was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in premenopausal (N = 318) and postmenopausal women (N = 250). All participants rated their self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and reported their weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference. 15.7% of all participants showed clinically meaningful scores on restrained eating. Postmenopausal women showed significantly higher scores on the EDE-Q subscale of restrained eating as compared to premenopausal women, but when controlling for body mass index, however, this finding was no longer significant. Further exploratory analyses suggest that particularly low or high self-esteem levels are associated with restrained eating. Self-esteem might serve as a mediator between menopausal status and restrained eating, however results of these additional analyses were inconsistent. Restrained eating may appear in middle-aged women. Particularly in postmenopausal women, restrained eating might be associated with lower and higher self-esteem.

  17. Serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber: differences between pre- and post-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kuo, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women and men. Psyllium, a soluble fiber has been known to reduce serum lipids. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether menopausal status would affect the serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber in women. Methods Eleven post-menopausal and eight pre-menopausal women with serum total cholesterol >200 mg/dL were included in the study. Subjects consumed their habitual diet and 15 g psyllium/d for 6 weeks. Psyllium was incorporated into cookies. Each cookie contained ≈5 g of psyllium fiber. Subjects ate one cookie in each meal. Results With psyllium fiber, total cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (≈5.2%, P < 0.05) in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women (≈1.3%). Also, there was a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol in post-menopausal women (≈10.2%, P < 0.05). There were no significant changes observed in concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B in both pre- and post-menopausal women with psyllium. Conclusion In this pilot study, post- and pre-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women responded differently to psyllium fiber supplementation. Post-menopausal women would benefit from addition of psyllium to their diets in reducing the risk for heart diseases. The results of this study should be used with caution because the study was based on a small sample size. PMID:18727833

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise on urinary estrogens and progestagens in pre and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Robles Gil, María Concepción; Timón, R; Toribio, A F; Muñoz, D; Maynar, J I; Caballero, M J; Maynar, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of 6 months of aerobic exercise on urinary excretion of female steroid hormones in pre and postmenopausal women and to check the basal values of urinary steroid. To this end, 20 premenopausal (age 45.56 ± 4.06 years) and 20 postmenopausal (age 52.27 ± 3.80 years) women, all sedentary, were studied before and after a supervised 6-month exercise training program (at 60-70% of maximal heart rate, 60 min/day, 3 days/week), based on aerobic dance. The exercise included standing on one leg, squatting, walking, and touching their heels. Before and after the program, anthropometric data and VO(2max) were measured and urine samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/Q-MS). Both, pre and postmenopausal women, improved their VO(2max) after the aerobic exercise program. Regarding the urinary steroids, on the one hand, important differences were observed between urinary estrogens and progestagens in pre and postmenopausal women in basal values. Estrone (P < 0.05), pregnanediol (P < 0.01), pregnanetriol (P < 0.05), and estriol (P < 0.01) levels were lower in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. On the other hand, the aerobic exercise program did not affect postmenopausal women in the same way as premenopausal women. After the exercise program, no changes in urinary steroid levels were observed in premenopausal women. However, the aerobic exercise program caused an increase in urinary excretion of pregnanediol (P < 0.05) and pregnanetriol (P < 0.05) in postmenopausal women.

  19. Benefits and risks of sex hormone replacement in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Seelig, Mildred S; Altura, Burton M; Altura, Bella T

    2004-10-01

    Because cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is far less common in young women than in men, but increases in prevalence in the postmenopausal years to that of men, estrogen repletion therapy (ERT) or combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT), has been widely used to protect against development of both CVD and osteoporosis, and possibly to delay or prevent cognitive loss or Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test the validity of favorable findings in many small-scale studies, and in clinical practice, a large-scale trial: the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was undertaken by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a trial that was prematurely ended because of increased CVD complications, despite some lessening of hip fractures. This paper suggests that the customary high intake of calcium (Ca)-advised to protect against osteoporosis, and the marginal magnesium (Mg) intake in the USA, might well be contributory to the adverse CV effects, that were all thromboembolic in nature. The procoagulant effect of estrogen is intensified by Ca; Mg-which counteracts many steps in the coagulation cascade and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion-is commonly consumed in sub-optimal amounts. The high American dietary Ca/Mg ratio might also be contributory to the WHI failure to confirm ERT's favorable mental effects. Discussed are mechanisms by which Mg enhances estrogen's central nervous system protective effects. Mg's improvement of cerebral blood flow, which improves brain metabolism, can also enhance removal of the beta amyloid peptide, accumulation of which is implicated in AD.

  20. [The metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Arturo; Basurto, Lourdes; Hernández, Marcelino

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the major cause of death in postmenopausal women. Before menopause, women are relatively protected from ischemic heart disease and thromboembolism by their circulating estrogens, but this protection is lost after menopause. Following menopause, adverse lipid changes occur and the levels of several coagulation factor increase. One of the major predisposing factors for CVD is the metabolic syndrome, including myriad risk biomarkers: abdominal girth, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, lipids. In many ways, the metabolic syndrome is a precursor to the development of abnormalities of insulin action and diabetes. In parallel, there are effects upon blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Common preventive therapies require rigorous evaluation. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has not produced the expected reduction in CVD and the ideal HRT is probably unobtainable. For long-term HRT users, the risk of thromboembolism needs to be weighed against probable benefits. With respect to the effects of HRT, oral estrogen is associated with elevation in C-reactive protein and varied effects on IL-6, but transdermal estradiol has no significant effect on these parameters. Despite the varied effects of HRT on inflammatory biomarkers, there is no definitive evidence that change in these markers results in modification of cardiovascular risk.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and sexual function in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dombek, Kathiussa; Capistrano, Emille Joana Medeiros; Costa, Ana Carolina Carioca; Marinheiro, Lizanka Paola Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to identify factors that contribute to FSD in postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study in 111 sexually active women aged 45-65 years. We applied the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to evaluate the participant's sexual function and a structured questionnaire to collect demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory data. The prevalences of MS and FSD were 68.5% and 70.3%, respectively. After logistic regression analysis, we identified the following variables associated with FSD: married status (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.16-2.47, p < 0.01), 6-10 years elapsed since menopause (PR 1.60, 95% CI 1.22-2.09, p < 0.01), occurrence of climacteric symptoms (PR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, p = 0.03), and history of sexual abuse (PR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.73, p < 0.01). We found a high prevalence of MS and FSD, but no association between both. Married status, time elapsed since menopause, climacteric symptoms, and history of sexual abuse emerged as factors associated with FSD on multivariate analysis.

  2. Serum Biomarker Profile Associated With High Bone Turnover and BMD in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  3. Effect of black cohosh (cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nahaee, Jila; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bayatipayan, Somaye

    2013-06-01

    Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups) in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes. According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms.

  4. Effect of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa) on Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nahaee, Jila; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bayatipayan, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups) in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes. Conclusion:According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25276716

  5. A simple anthropometric tool for the assessment of pre-sarcopenia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morosano, M E; Menoyo, I M; Tomat, M F; Masoni, A M; Pezzotto, S M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the performance of anthropometric tools in the assessment of low muscle mass in a group of postmenopausal women. Fifty consecutive ambulatory postmenopausal women were studied. A complete clinical examination and an anthropometric evaluation following a standardized procedure were performed. Three indicators were devised: upper limb adjusted perimeter (ULAP), lower limb adjusted perimeter (LLAP), and appendicular adjusted perimeter (AAP). Sixteen sarcopenic patients (32%) were identified using the DXA appendicular lean mass/h(2) threshold. ULAP and AAP correctly classified 82% of the patients, while LLAP showed a lower performance (72%). The sensitivity and specificity values of ULAP and AAP were higher than those obtained using LLAP; their positive and negative predictive values were 65.2%, 96.3% and 68.4%, 90.3%, respectively. A highly significant concordance was observed for the three anthropometric indicators. The availability of reliable and simple clinical instruments to identify low muscle mass is of great relevance. Anthropometric methods reported in this paper could represent an innovative resource for muscle mass assessment in daily practice. The contribution of these approaches in the detection and management of sarcopenia should allow the physician to make early interventions and thus prevent or modify its relevant health consequences.

  6. Osteoporosis screening in postmenopausal women aged 50-64 years: BMI alone compared with current screening tools.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuezhi; Good, Lauren E; Spinka, Ryan; Schnatz, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Consensus on when to initiate DXA screening for early postmenopausal women (< 65 years of age) is lacking. Low body mass index (BMI) has been proposed as one of the major risk factors for osteoporosis. This study sought to compare the predictive performance of BMI alone with 5 screening modalities (the U.S. Preventive services task force [USPSTF] FRAX threshold of 9.3%, a risk factor based approach [≥ 1 risk factors], the osteoporosis self-assessment tool [OST < 2], the osteoporosis risk assessment instrument [ORAI ≥ 9], and the simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimation [SCORE ≥ 6]) in identifying early postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women aged 50-64 years presenting for a DXA test were recruited between January 1, 2007, and March 1, 2009. Demographic data and osteoporosis risk factors were obtained through a telephone survey. The performance of each screening tool in predicting osteoporosis was compared. Of 445 study participants, 95% were White, 38 had osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5). BMI (< 28) was associated with the highest Sensitivity (95%), the lowest Negative Likelihood Ratio (LR-) of 0.14, an AUC of 0.73, and the number needed to scan (NNS) of 8. The USPSTF approach had the lowest sensitivity (24%), highest LR- (0.91), lowest AUC (0.62), and highest NNS (9). Among 5 established modalities, SCORE (≥ 6) appears to be the best (sensitivity: 92%, LR-: 0.24, AUC: 0.75, NNS: 9). BMI (< 28) had a comparable numerical screening performance overall to the current screening modalities. BMI (< 28) could be considered a potential indicator when screening early postmenopausal White women for osteoporosis. However, a better osteoporosis screening tool remains to be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Very low density lipoproteins and subclasses of intermediate density lipoproteins in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Halperín, H; Siseles, N; Wikinski, R

    1996-01-01

    Post menopausal women present an increase of cardiovascular risk associated with the atherogenic plasma lipoproteins IDL and LDL. Our purpose was to study the composition of VLDL, IDL and the subfractions IDL-1 and IDL-2, and the Lipoprotein Lipase and Hepatic Lipase activities in a group of twelve healthy post menopausal women as compared with eleven fertile controls. The mean values of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly increased in the post menopausal group compared to the controls (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001 respectively). The contribution of the HDL-cholesterol plasma concentration to total cholesterol was lower in the postmenopausal women (p < 0.02) although no one had HDL-cholesterol lower than 35 mg/dl and the mean value was 50 mg/dl. Postmenopausal women had increased concentrations of VLDL, total IDL and IDL-2 compared to controls (p < 0.05, p < 0.005 and p < 0.001 respectively). Plasma concentrations of total IDL was increased in postmenopausal women (33.6 +/- 3.4 vs 22.6 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, p < 0.005). The increase in total IDL was due to IDL-2 (19.9 +/- 1.7 vs 11.5 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, p < 0.001, in postmenopausal women vs controls). The IDL-2 subfraction was 60 +/- 2.6% of total IDL in postmenopausal women and 51 +/- 2.0% in controls (p < 0.02). In postmenopausal women and in controls the ratio triglyceride/protein (which indicates particles size) was significantly higher in IDL-1 than in IDL-2 (p < 0.005 and p < 0.01 respectively), but this ratio did not show differences when VLDL, total IDL and IDL-2 were compared between postmenopausal and control women. Then, the increased plasma concentration of these lipoproteins would show an increased number of particles in the postmenopausal women vs controls. There were no differences in the Lipoprotein Lipase and Hepatic Lipase activities between both groups. Lipoprotein Lipase vs total IDL-triglycerides and IDL-2-triglycerides showed a significant inverse correlation in controls (p < 0.05) but not

  8. Fracture incidence in pre- and postmenopausal women after completion of adjuvant hormonal therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Koopal, C; Janssen-Heijnen, M L; van de Wouw, A J; van den Bergh, J P

    2015-04-01

    Although the effect of hormonal therapy (HT) on fracture risk during treatment of breast cancer is established, information about fracture incidence after completion of HT is scarce. In this hospital based observational study we evaluated fracture rates after completion of HT in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. All women diagnosed with breast cancer in the VieCuri Medical Center between 1998 and 2005 who started adjuvant HT with aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen were included (n = 289). Data on fracture rate, fracture type and risk factors for fracture after completion of HT were collected. The overall fracture rate was 12% in pre- and 15% in postmenopausal women respectively during an average follow-up of 3.1 ± 2.9 years. The number of patients with at least one fracture was 41 (14%). There was no difference in fracture rates between different types of HT (P = 0.15). The most common types of fractures were toe/finger fractures in premenopausal- and hip and major fractures in postmenopausal women. Median time to first fracture was shorter in premenopausal women (1.4 years, IQR 0.2-3.5) than in postmenopausal women (2.4 years, IQR 0.7-5.1, P = 0.01). A history of previous fracture was a significant risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-11.7). Fracture rates in the first years after cessation of HT for breast cancer were 12% and 15% for pre- and postmenopausal women respectively. The most common fractures in postmenopausal women were hip and major fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An exploratory comparison of vaginal glycogen and Lactobacillus levels in pre- and post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Modur, Sharada; Burgad, Derick; Gilbert, Douglas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; French, Audrey L.; McCotter, Kerrie; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Greg T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested that glycogen expression in vaginal epithelium decreases at menopause, resulting in reduced levels of lactobacilli. However, free glycogen in genital fluids and its relationship to Lactobacillus levels has not been compared in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods 82 cervico-vaginal lavage samples were collected at different phases of the menstrual cycle from 11 pre-menopausal (4 HIV-uninfected and 7 HIV-infected) and 12 post-menopausal (7 HIV-uninfected and 5 HIV-infected) women over a 1–3 month period. Free glycogen was quantified in genital fluid. Lactobacillus levels were quantified by real time PCR. Estrogen and progesterone levels in blood were determined by ELISA. Results Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Across all samples, those from post-menopausal women had significantly lower levels of free glycogen than those from pre-menopausal women (median 0.002 vs. 0.065 µg/µl, respectively; p = 0.03). Lactobacillus levels correlated positively with free glycogen in both pre- (Spearman r=0.68, p <0.0001) and post-menopausal women (r=0.60, p <0.002). Samples from pre-menopausal women had higher Lactobacillus levels and a lower vaginal pH (median log=8.1; median pH= 4) than those from post-menopausal women (median log=7.1; median pH=4.6) although these differences were not significant. HIV status had no significant effect on these relationships. Conclusion Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women and correlated with Lactobacillus in both groups. These results point to the complexity of the relationship between menopause and vaginal microbiota and indicate that more careful studies of the role played by glycogen are warranted. PMID:25535963

  10. Prevalence of Ischemia on Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy of Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daniel Augusto Message; Navarro, Wendy Yasdin Sierraalta; Alexandre, Leonardo Machado; Cestari, Priscila Feitosa; Smanio, Paola Emanuela Poggio

    2013-01-01

    Background In postmenopausal women, the presence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) increases. However, the difference in prevalence of ischemia between pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD has not been well established. Objectives To compare the prevalence of ischemia on Tc99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in pre-and postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether menopause can be considered an independent risk predictor of ischemia in women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Methods This study retrospectively assessed 500 MPS of pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Statistical analysis was performed by using Fisher exact test and univariate and multivariate analysis, a p value ≤ 0.05 being considered significant. Results Postmenopausal women represented 55.9% of the sample; 83.3% were hypertensive; 28.9%, diabetic; 32.1%, smokers; 25%, obese; 61.2% had high cholesterol levels; and 34.3% had known CAD. Postmenopausal women were more often hypertensive, diabetic and dyslipidemic, and had lower functional capacity on exercise testing (p = < 0.005). The presence of ischemia on MPS did not significantly differ between the pre- and postmenopausal groups (p = 0.395). The only variable associated with ischemia on MPS was known CAD (p = 0.004). Conclusion The results suggest that, in women with multiple risk factors for CAD, menopause was not an independent predictor of ischemia on MPS. Those data support the idea that the investigation of ischemia via MPS in women with multiple risk factors for CAD should begin prior to menopause. PMID:24217403

  11. Differential factors associated with hot flashes in Chinese perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoli; Li, Fen; Yu, Ying; Yu, Xuewen; Sheng, Qiu; Zhang, Xinwen

    2009-05-20

    This study investigated factors associated with hot flashes in Chinese perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study recruited Chinese women aged 40-60 years who were perimenopausal or postmenopausal and examined factors associated with hot flashes. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing demographic information, characteristics of menstruation, reproductive history, use of hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives, personal lifestyle factors (exercise, multivitamin use, soy products use, diet), and symptoms of hot flashes. Height, weight, blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference were also measured. A total of 1399 participants (817 perimenopausal women and 582 postmenopausal women) completed the study. In perimenopausal women, college or higher education decreased the prevalence of hot flashes (odds ratio (OR) 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.86). In postmenopausal women, an omnivorous diet decreased the prevalence of hot flashes (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.17-0.85). Strenuous exercise (> or =3 times a week) increased the prevalence of hot flashes (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.83) in perimenopausal women. It is possible that modifiable risk factors for hot flashes exist in Chinese perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Future studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Over-the-counter treatments and perineal hygiene in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Yip, Sallis O.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this descriptive study was to quantify the personal hygiene habits/practices and over-the-counter (OTC) products used by postmenopausal women. Specifically, we were interested in any product that would contact the vulva or vagina. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care. We developed questionnaire of personal hygiene habits/practices and OTC products used by women that would contact the vulva or vagina. We recruited postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care from two separate gynecology practices. Descriptive statistics were performed as appropriate to characterize the frequency of reported treatments and practices. Results The questionnaire on OTC treatments and perineal hygiene was completed by 114 postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight women (50.9%) reported using at least one OTC vulvovaginal treatment in the last three months, including barrier treatments, topical anesthetics, powders, and antifungals. Women often used more than one OTC product. Thirty-seven women (32.5%) reported the use of two or more OTC products. Powders were used by 34 women (29.8%). Talcum powder was the most commonly used powder (76.5%, n/N = 26/34). Nine (7.9%) postmenopausal women reported douching in the last three months. Conclusions We found that over half of postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care have used an OTC product for vulvovaginal symptoms in the last three months and 1/3 of women use 2 or more products. Because the use of OTC products is so common, our study highlights the need for detailed history inquiry about OTC product use and perineal hygiene practices. PMID:23880795

  13. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in early postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Moratalla-Cecilia, N; Soriano-Maldonado, A; Ruiz-Cabello, P; Fernández, M M; Gregorio-Arenas, E; Aranda, P; Aparicio, V A

    2016-10-01

    To assess the association of different components of physical fitness with HRQoL in early postmenopause and to test which physical fitness components are independently associated with the physical and mental components of HRQoL. The final sample comprised 67 early postmenopausal women. Physical fitness was assessed with the Senior Fitness Test battery (additionally including handgrip strength test), and HRQoL was evaluated with the Short-Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36). We also analyzed plasma gonadotropic hormones and estradiol. Overall, most of the fitness components were positively associated with HRQoL. Lower-body flexibility, upper-body muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were the fitness components more strongly associated with HRQoL (r range from 0.28 to 0.56). Static balance was especially associated with mental health (r = -0.46, P < 0.001). Lower-body flexibility (assessed with the chair sit-and-reach test) and upper-body muscle strength (assessed with handgrip dynamometry) were independently associated with the SF-36 Physical Component Summary (both, P < 0.001). Upper-body muscle strength (P < 0.01) and cardiorespiratory fitness (assessed with the 6-min walk test, P < 0.05) were independently associated with the SF-36 Mental Component Summary. Higher physical fitness is associated with better HRQoL in early postmenopause. Lower-body flexibility and upper-body muscle strength were the most important independent fitness indicators, explaining ~30 % of HRQoL.

  14. Hypnotic relaxation therapy for reduction of hot flashes in postmenopausal women: examination of cortisol as a potential mediator.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Cassie; Johnson, Aimee K; Sliwinski, Jim; Patterson, Vicki; Fisher, William I; Elkins, Gary R; Carpenter, Janet S

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic relaxation therapy (HRT) has been shown to reduce hot flashes in postmenopausal women and breast cancer survivors. While the biological mechanism by which HRT reduces hot flashes is unknown, it has been speculated that reduction of stress mediates the intervention's effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of HRT on a known biomarker of stress (cortisol) and changes in cortisol as a mediator. Sixty-two postmenopausal women received hypnotic relaxation therapy for hot flashes and completed measures of hot flashes in addition to providing cortisol samples at baseline and endpoint. HRT resulted in significantly decreased early evening salivary cortisol concentrations. However, changes in salivary cortisol concentrations did not mediate the effects of HRT.

  15. Relationships Between Dog Ownership and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Howard, Barbara V.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Methods Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5 yrs), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9 yrs) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150 min/wk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10–1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8 hr/day (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5 MET-hr/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07). Conclusions Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. PMID:25449694

  16. Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Shanying; Shao, Xiaofei; Guo, Jia; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Aiqun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,834 community-based Southern Chinese participants from June to October 2012. Sex-specific SUA quartiles were used as follows: <345, 345–<400, 400–<468, ≥468 µmol/L in males; and <248, 248–<288, 288–<328, ≥328 µmol/L in females. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) Criteria. The association between SUA and MS was then analyzed using the STATA software. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA levels was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 4.34, p = 0.002) in men after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.64 to 5.70, p < 0.001). The OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.38 to 8.64, p = 0.008) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.16 to 3.37, p = 0.08) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 10.18, p = 0.03) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05 to 3.33, p = 0.03) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels are positively associated with the presence of MS in males and females. Higher SUA levels had a higher risk of having MS in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal

  17. Relationship between bone turnover biomarkers, mandibular bone mineral density, and systemic skeletal bone mineral density in premenopausal and postmenopausal Indian women.

    PubMed

    Makker, Annu; Singh, Man Mohan; Mishra, Geetanjali; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Jain, Girish Kumar; Jadhav, Satyawan

    2012-06-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone disorders. Osteoporosis is reported to cause bone loss in the alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible, which provide bony framework for tooth anchorage. However, the association between systemic osteoporosis and oral health remains controversial. Available evidence suggests that Indian women have lower peak bone mass than their Western/other Asian counterparts. The present study evaluated the relationship between mandibular bone mineral density (mBMD), systemic skeletal BMD, and bone metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal Indian women. One hundred twenty-four premenopausal and 247 postmenopausal healthy women were included in the study. The BMD of the body of mandible, radius ultradistal, total hip, femur neck, and lateral spine were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urine biomarkers were determined using commercial kits. Univariate regression analysis followed by stepwise multivariate regression analysis to obtain the best fit model demonstrated the BMD of radius ultradistal, serum inorganic phosphorus, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin as significant predictors of mBMD in premenopausal women. The BMD of femur neck, serum ionized calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urine total pyridinoline were significantly associated with mBMD in postmenopausal women. The significant association between mBMD and number of teeth present was observed in the whole group of premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Varied predictors of mBMD were observed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The results suggest that the screening for these biomarkers and serum ionized calcium should be useful (1) to assess the status of mBMD particularly in women requiring surgical dental intervention that include bone manipulation and (2) for early detection and management of women with the risk of developing osteoporosis.

  18. Bone mineral density and perceived menopausal symptoms: factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sukhee; Song, Rhayun

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between the factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women (i.e. menopausal symptoms, bone mineral density, duration of menopause, hormonal therapy, obesity, inactivity during leisure time, parity, osteoarthritis and drinking coffee). Previous studies have shown that low back pain in postmenopausal women is associated with bone mineral density, menopausal symptoms and lifestyle factors, yet the factors influencing low back pain are not clear and vary with ethnicity. A survey was conducted with postmenopausal women (n = 134) in Korea in 2006. Bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, back pain status, menopausal symptoms and health habits were assessed. Participants' mean age was 59 years. About 70% experienced back pain on more than 1 day during the week prior to the survey and 35% suffered back pain daily. Women with back pain reported more severe menopausal symptoms than those without back pain. Based on bone mineral density scores, 26.9% of the women were considered to be at risk of osteoporosis. However, there was no association between back pain status and fracture risk status. Based on a multiple logistic regression model, menopausal symptoms, drinking coffee and inactivity during leisure time were statistically significant influencing factors for low back pain in this sample. The prevalence of low back pain in postmenopausal women should be recognized in association with menopausal symptoms and health habits. Further research is needed to develop interventions for the management of low back pain in postmenopausal women.

  19. Serum Sclerostin Levels Negatively Correlate with Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Free Estrogen Index in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal S.; Padhi, I. Desmond; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone formation. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare serum sclerostin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and evaluate its relationship to estrogen, TH, bone turnover, and bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of healthy community-dwelling pre- and postmenopausal women. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared serum sclerostin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women and correlated sclerostin levels with female sex hormones, calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density. Results: Premenopausal women were 26.8 yr old, and postmenopausal women were 56.8 yr old. Postmenopausal women had lower values for estradiol (30 ± 23 vs. 10 ± 4 pg/ml; P < 0.001), estrone (61 ± 24 vs. 29 ± 10 pg/ml; P <0.001), and free estrogen index (FEI) (6 ± 4 vs. 3 ± 2 pmol/nmol; P = 0.008) and significantly lower bone mineral density at all sites compared to premenopausal women, with no significant differences in levels of PTH, 25-hydroxy or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum sclerostin levels (1.16 ± 0.38 ng/ml vs. 0.48 ± 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Because most of the premenopausal women were on oral contraceptives, subsequent analyses were limited to postmenopausal women. There were significant negative correlations between sclerostin and FEI and sclerostin and PTH in this group. Using multiple regression analysis, both FEI (β = −0.629; P = 0.002) and PTH (β = −0.554; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors of sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum sclerostin levels are regulated by both estrogens and PTH in postmenopausal women. These findings need to be explored further in larger prospective studies. PMID:20156921

  20. Randomised controlled trial of effect of whole soy replacement diet on features of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne; Hao, Yuan-tao; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; He, Qiqiang; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Bailing; Su, Xue-fen; Lao, Xiang-qian; Wong, Carmen; Chan, Ruth; Ling, Wen-hua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a public health problem in postmenopausal women. Whole soy foods are rich in unsaturated fats, high quality plant protein and various bioactive phytochemicals that may have a beneficial role in the management of MetS. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of whole soy replacement diet on the features of MetS among postmenopausal women. Methods and analysis This will be a 12-month, randomised, single-blind, parallel controlled trial among 208 postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. After 4 weeks' run-in, subjects will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups, whole soy replacement group or control group, each for 12 months. Subjects in the whole soy group will be required to include four servings of whole soy foods (containing 25 g soy protein) into their daily diet iso-calorically, replacing red or processed meat and high fat dairy products. Subjects in the control group will remain on a usual diet. The outcome measures will include metabolic parameters as well as a 10-year risk for ischaemic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesise that the whole soy substitution diet will notably improve features of MetS in postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. The study will have both theoretical and practical significance. If proven effective, the application of the whole soy replacement diet model will be a safe, practical and economical strategy for MetS prevention and treatment. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The results will be disseminated via conference presentations and papers in academic peer reviewed journals. Data files will be deposited in an accessible repository. Trial registration number NCT02610322. PMID:27678545

  1. Evaluation of diet pattern and weight gain in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is unclear which of four popular contemporary diet patterns is best for weight maintenance among postmenopausal women. Four dietary patterns were characterised among postmenopausal women aged 49-81 years (mean 63.6 (sd 7.4) years) from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study: (1) a low-...

  2. Reproductive history in relation to plasma hormone levels in healthy post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ness, R B; Buhari, A; Gutai, J; Kuller, L H

    2000-05-29

    We sought to examine the relationship between reproductive history and measures of selected gonadotrophins and steroid hormones among post-menopausal women. Previous studies have suggested that there is a negative correlation between parity and post-menopausal serum estrogens, which may be a mechanism by which pregnancies protect women from the development of breast cancer. We analyzed women who experienced a natural menopause within the Healthy Women Study cohort both 1 and 8 years after menopause. Lifetime reproductive history was obtained and blood was assayed for estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) at 1 year post-menopause and for many of these steroid hormones at 8 years post-menopause. Also at 8 years post-menopause, a hip bone mineral density measure was obtained. Age at menopause related to a modest increase in estrone at 1 year but a decrease in estrone and estradiol at eight years. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI), oral contraceptive use, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and education had little impact on these findings. There were no other internally consistent relationships between reproductive variables and steroid hormones or hip-bone mineral density. These observations do not support the hypothesis that parity acts to diminish endogenous levels of post-menopausal estrogens.

  3. Influence of Fructooligosaccharide on Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Techatoei, Sujitra; Rojanasthein, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to determine the influence of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. The study was a fixed-sequence, two-phase, crossover study. Twelve subjects received a single oral dose of 300 mL of a soy beverage. Blood samples were collected before the dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 32 h after the administration of the soy beverage. After a washout period of at least 1 week, subjects were assigned to receive oral doses of FOS, 5 g each time, twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 14 days, followed by a single oral dose of the same soy beverage on the next day. Blood samples were then collected at the same time points mentioned previously. Plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Continuous oral administrations of FOS followed by a single oral administration of soy beverage caused significant increases in Cmax, AUC0–32, and AUC0–∞ of genistein and AUC0–32 of daidzein, comparing to those obtained following a single oral dose of soy beverage alone. Other pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax and t1/2 of both aglycones and AUC0–∞ of daidzein) between both regimens were not significantly different. PMID:22611432

  4. Attitude toward menopause and aging: a study on postmenopausal women of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2013-01-01

    We examined the attitude of postmenopausal women toward menopause and aging with respect to sociodemographic variables and postmenopausal years. Four hundred and eighty postmenopausal women representing Bengali-speaking Hindu ethnic group of West Bengal, India were interviewed about their attitude toward menopause and aging. Information on sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and menopausal symptoms were also collected. The participants were categorized into four groups based on postmenopausal years (Group 1: ≤2; Group 2: >2 to ≤5; Group 3: >5 to ≤8; and Group 4: >8). The attitude did not differ significantly among different groups, but it differed significantly when compared for residential status and per capita monthly household expenditure (pooled groups), for residential and educational status (Groups 3 and 4), and per capita monthly household expenditure (Group 3). Hierarchical linear regression (stepwise) shows per capita monthly expenditure, age at menopause, years after menopause, and menopausal symptoms (irritability and inability to hold urine) significantly predict attitude.

  5. An open, crossover trial of calcium-fortified milk in prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, D B; O'Loughlin, P D; Schroeder, B J; Nordin, B E

    2001-09-03

    To establish whether calcium-enriched milk reduces bone loss in women who are within five years of the menopause and have a basal calcium intake < or = 1,250 mg. Two-year open, crossover study. A community-based study carried out in Adelaide, South Australia, between September 1997 and June 2000. 115 women recruited by newspaper advertisement, who were less than five years postmenopausal, were not taking hormone or other therapy that could affect bone and had a usual calcium intake < or = 1,250 mg daily. Participants were randomly allocated to Group 1 (who received a supplement of 3 L of calcium-fortified milk weekly in the first year) or Group 2 (who followed their usual diets in the first year). In the second year, Group 1 reverted to their usual diets, and Group 2 received the milk supplement. Difference in loss of bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and forearm in the same individuals on and off the milk supplement; urinary excretion of bone resorption markers in a subset of 72 participants in the first year. With each woman serving as her own control, the rate of bone loss from the spine was 1.76 percentage points less when the women were taking the milk supplement than when they were on their usual diet (95% CI, 0.54%-2.98%; P=0.006). However, there was no significant difference in bone loss in the forearm. Fasting urine levels of two markers of bone resorption (hydroxyproline and deoxypyridinoline) were significantly lower in 36 women in the milk group than in 36 women in the usual-diet group (P=0.03 for both markers). Supplementing the diet with calcium-fortified milk early in the postmenopausal period delays bone loss at the spine but not at the forearm, and reduces the excretion of bone resorption markers.

  6. Association of sleep disturbance and sexual function in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kling, Juliana M; Manson, JoAnn E; Naughton, Michelle J; Temkit, M'hamed; Sullivan, Shannon D; Gower, Emily W; Hale, Lauren; Weitlauf, Julie C; Nowakowski, Sara; Crandall, Carolyn J

    2017-06-01

    Sleep disturbance and sexual dysfunction are common in menopause; however, the nature of their association is unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether sleep characteristics were associated with sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. Sexual function in the last year and sleep characteristics (past 4 wk) were assessed by self-report at baseline for 93,668 women age 50 to 79 years enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). Insomnia was measured using the validated WHI Insomnia Rating Scale. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) risk was assessed using questions adapted from the Berlin Questionnaire. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined cross-sectional associations between sleep measures and two indicators of sexual function: partnered sexual activity and sexual satisfaction within the last year. Fifty-six percent overall reported being somewhat or very satisfied with their current sexual activity, and 52% reported partnered sexual activity within the last year. Insomnia prevalence was 31%. After multivariable adjustment, higher insomnia scores were associated with lower odds of sexual satisfaction (yes/no) (odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% CI, 0.87-0.96). Short sleep duration (<7-8 h) was associated with lower odds of partnered sexual activity (yes/no) (≤5 h, OR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.80-0.96) and less sexual satisfaction (≤5 h, OR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.81-0.95). Shorter sleep durations and higher insomnia scores were associated with decreased sexual function, even after adjustment for potential confounders, suggesting the importance of sufficient, high-quality sleep for sexual function. Longitudinal investigation of sleep and its impact on sexual function postmenopause will clarify this relationship.

  7. Comparison of metabolic ratios of urinary estrogens between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogen metabolism may be associated with the pathophysiological development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods To evaluate the differential estrogen metabolism between benign and malignant PTCs, estrogen profiling by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was applied to urine samples from postmenopausal patients with 9 benign tumors and 18 malignant stage I and III/IV PTCs. Results The urinary concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol was significantly lower in the stage I malignant patients (3.5-fold; P < 0.025) than in the benign group. The metabolic ratios of 16α-OH-estrone/estrone and estriol/estradiol, which are responsible for 16α-hydroxylase activity, were increased more than 2.5-fold in the advanced-stage malignant PTC (P < 0.02 each). The more than 6.2-fold decrease in the urinary 2-/16α-hydroxylase ratio in stage III/IV malignant PTC was consistent with the ratio in postmenopausal patients with endocrine gland cancers. In addition, reductive 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD; estradiol/estrone or estriol/16α-OH-estrone) was present at significantly higher levels in subjects with stage III/IV malignant PTCs than in benign subjects (>3.5-fold difference; P < 0.002). In particular, the estriol/16α-OH-estrone ratio differentiated between the benign and early-stage malignant patients (P < 0.01). Conclusions Increased 16α-hydroxylation and/or a decreased 2-/16α-ratio, as well increased reductive 17β-HSD, with regard to estrogen metabolism could provide potential biomarkers. The devised profiles could be useful for differentiating malignant thyroid carcinomas from benign adenomas in postmenopausal women. PMID:24156385

  8. [Parity and menarche as risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, Mariá Cleofás; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; de Jesús, Rafael Natividad Nieva; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide studies, even in our country, have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. Transversal, retrospective and analytical study. Non-probabilistic sampling technique was performing with users women of the IMSS in San Luis Potosí. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (before the age of 13) and late menarche (at 13 years of age or after). It was measured bone mineral density with dual distal forearm x-ray absorptiometry to all patients. 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria, of the World Health Organization, 18% of posmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 41% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of deeds and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had 4 or more children were older than the other women. average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. In addition we found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46; p = 0.035). In posmenopausal women a menarche at the age of 13 years or after is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  9. Abdominal fat distribution in pre- and postmenopausal women: The impact of physical activity, age, and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Sames, C; Swisher, L; Swick, A G; Ploutz-Snyder, L L; Steppan, C M; Sagendorf, K S; Feiglin, D; Jaynes, E B; Meyer, R A; Weinstock, R S

    2001-08-01

    Age-related increases in total body fat have been reported, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of menopausal status on abdominal fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, we investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution on blood lipid profiles and leptin concentrations. Twenty-three premenopausal (PRE), 27 postmenopausal (POST), and 28 postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) had measurements of regional abdominal fat, blood lipids, and serum leptin concentrations. The women were matched for body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass. Age and menopausal status were not found to be significant predictors of total abdominal fat, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, while physical activity was a significant predictor (P <.01) for total abdominal fat (R(2) =.16), visceral fat (R(2) =.32) and percent visceral fat (R(2) =.25). There was a trend for a greater visceral fat content in the POST women compared with the PRE women (2,495.0 +/- 228.4 v 1,770.4 +/- 240.8 cm(2), respectively, P =.06). The percent visceral abdominal fat was significantly lower (P <.05) in the premenopausal women than in either postmenopausal group (PRE, 23.2% +/- 1.7%; POST, 28.9% +/- 1.8%; ERT, 28.9% +/- 1.6%). Menopausal status and age did not influence any of the blood lipid values. Abdominal fat distribution was a significant predictor of cholesterol concentrations and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, but only accounted for approximately 15% of the variability in these levels. Total body fat and physical activity accounted for 47% of the variability in leptin concentrations, while abdominal fat distribution, age, and menopausal status were not significant predictors. In conclusion, in early postmenopausal women, the level of physical activity accounts for the variability in abdominal fat distribution observed

  10. Effect of walking exercise on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Satoshi; Ichimura, Shoichi; Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2004-01-01

    postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis appears to be the suppression of bone turnover, and that an early change in the urinary NTX level may be useful to predict the long-term response of increasing lumbar BMD to exercise, although its efficacy for lumbar BMD may be quite modest.

  11. Serotoninergic involvement in gonadotropin and TSH secretion in normal cycling and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Krause, B T; Möller, S; Schmeisser, J O

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a specific serotonin receptor blockade on pituitary hormone secretion in normal cycling women and postmenopausal women not receiving hormone replacement therapy. Serotonin receptor blockade was performed by using the HT-3 receptor subtype antagonist ondansetron as an i.v. bolus injection of 8 mg. Blood samples were taken before as well as 20, 30 and 40 min after ondansetron administration for the estimation of LH, FSH, and TSH. We could not find any hormonal changes in the normal cycling women. The postmenopausal women showed a significant decline in LH secretion, whereas FSH and TSH levels remained unchanged. Our results suggest serotoninergic involvement in LH secretion in postmenopausal hypoestrogenic hypergonadism.

  12. [Decrease of labor absenteeism associated with hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Blümel, J E; Sáez, L; Roncagliolo, M E; Tacla, X; Brandt, A

    1995-08-01

    Absenteeism affects efficiency and costs of health care. Most of health workers are middle age women, whose climacteric symptoms may reduce their work capacity working at a public hospital in Santiago during 1992. Fifty-eight percent were postmenopausal and 34.8% of these were receiving hormone replacement therapy. Global absenteeism rate was 17.1 days/year. These figures were 14.8 days/year for premenopausal and 17.8 days/year for postmenopausal women (NS). Among the latter, those women receiving hormone replacement therapy had a significantly lower absenteeism rate (9.4 days/year compared to 20.4 days/year among those not receiving hormones). Osteoarticular diseases were responsible for 44.3% and psychiatric diseases for 18.1% of sick leaves. No differences in absenteeism were observed between different professional levels. We conclude that hormone replacement therapy is associated with a better working capacity in postmenopausal women.

  13. Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: a review.

    PubMed

    Roush, Karen

    2011-08-01

    This article provides an overview of osteoporosis, describes current recommendations for its prevention and treatment, and discusses nursing implications. This is part two of a four-part series on postmenopausal health.

  14. Do calcium supplements increase serum and urine calcium levels in post-menopausal women?

    PubMed

    Samozai, M N; Kulkarni, A K

    2015-05-01

    The frequent prescription of calcium supplements with vitamin D by health practitioners is a topic of concern globally. The present study was designed to find out whether the calcium supplements with vitamin D really affect serum and urinary calcium levels in post-menopausal women. The age-matched comparative study was performed among postmenopausal women who were already on and those who were not on calcium supplements with vitamin D for a period of time in relation to the estimation of the serum calcium and the urine calcium levels. Sixty healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled, with thirty among them forming the study group (SG) - who were on calcium supplements with vitamin D for a period of a month, three months, and up to twelve months - were studied and compared the results obtained with the age-matched control group (CG) of thirty post-menopausal women who were not on calcium supplements. The serum and the urinary calcium levels were estimated by using appropriate biochemical methods and the data were analysed using relevant statistical methods. The serum calcium levels did not vary significantly in SG in spite of consuming calcium supplements over a period of time, whereas the urinary calcium levels increased progressively (p value < 0.005) in those who have taken calcium supplements for a year compared to those who have taken for a month. Thus, the calcium supplements were of little significance on the serum calcium levels, but have a significant effect on the urinary calcium levels in post-menopausal women.

  15. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Chinese women treated with calcium fortification in soymilk and cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Gui, J-C; Brašić, J R; Liu, X-D; Gong, G-Y; Zhang, G-M; Liu, C-J; Gao, G-Q

    2012-05-01

    Eighteen months of daily consumption of milk containing 250 mg calcium prevented bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the hip and the femoral neck in postmenopausal Chinese women aged 45 to 65. Estrogen-related bone loss in postmenopausal women can be prevented by the consumption of milk with high doses of calcium and soymilk with high doses of isoflavones. However, high doses of calcium and isoflavones may not be necessary to attain a beneficial effect of milk and soymilk on BMD. We hypothesized that BMD will increase in postmenopausal Chinese women who consume daily 250 mg calcium in milk or soymilk. Milk prevented bone loss at the hip and the femoral neck in postmenopausal Chinese women. A total of 141 eligible Chinese women without osteoporosis, aged 45-65, and postmenopausal for more than 2 years were randomized into groups receiving for 18 months (A) milk with 250 mg calcium daily, (B) soymilk with 250 mg calcium daily, or (C) neither milk nor soymilk. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured the BMD of the spine and hip at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months. The BMD in the hip (2.52%) and the femoral neck (2.82%) of the women consuming milk was significantly higher (hip, P = 0.01; femoral neck, P < 0.0000001). The women in the control group experienced a reduction in BMD at all sites; the reduction in BMD was only significant at the hip during 12 months (P = 0.008) and at the femoral neck during 18 months (P = 0.005). Daily consumption of milk containing 250 mg calcium over 18 months prevents BMD loss at the hip and the femoral neck in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  16. Sympathetic nerve hyperactivity of essential hypertension is lower in postmenopausal women than men.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, A J; Burns, J; Mackintosh, A F; Mary, D A S G

    2008-08-01

    Sympathetic activation has been associated with the development and complications of hypertension. While the prevalence of hypertension and its cardiovascular risks in women are found to be less than in men and tend to become similar to men after the menopause, there have been no data on the level of sympathetic activation in postmenopausal women relative to men. Therefore, we planned to find out whether muscle sympathetic nerve hyperactivity of essential hypertension (EHT) in postmenopausal women is different from that in matched men. We quantified muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) as mean frequency of single units (s-MSNA) and multiunit bursts (b-MSNA) in 21 postmenopausal women with EHT (W-EHT) relative to 21 matched men with EHT (M-EHT), in comparison to two control groups of 21 normal women (W-NC) and 21 men (M-NC), respectively. The EHT groups had greater MSNA indices than NC groups. W-EHT had lower (P<0.05) s-MSNA (63+/-22.7 impulses per 100 cardiac beats) than M-EHT (78+/-11.2 impulses per 100 cardiac beats). W-NC had lower (P<0.05) s-MSNA (53+/-12.4 impulses per 100 cardiac beats) than M-NC (65+/-16.3 impulses per 100 cardiac beats). Similar results were obtained for b-MSNA. Postmenopausal women with EHT had lower level of central sympathetic hyperactivity than men. Similarly, normal postmenopausal women had lower MSNA than men. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women continue to have a lower sympathetic nerve activity than men even after the development of EHT, and that this could have implications for gender-specific management of hypertension.

  17. Physical activity and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer - the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between physical activity (PA) throughout life and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, has been reported, but without consistent results. The present study aimed to investigate PA from young age to adulthood in participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study, in order to determine whether changes in PA level affect the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Methods 1767 invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 80,202 postmenopausal participants of the NOWAC Study during 8.2 years of median follow-up. PA levels at age 14 years, 30 years and at cohort enrollment were obtained via a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer overall and by ER/PR status. Results Risk of postmenopausal breast cancer overall and by ER/PR status was not associated with physical activity level at enrollment. Women with a low PA level at age 30 had an increased risk of ER+/PR + breast tumors (P for trend = 0.04) compared to women with a moderate physical activity level at age 30. Women with a low physical activity level at all three periods of life had a 20% significantly reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, as well as a reduced risk of ER+/PR + and ER+/PR- breast tumors, compared with women who maintained a moderate physical activity level. However, when analyses were corrected for multiple tests, the result was no longer statistically significant. The findings were consistent over strata of age, body mass index and use of hormone replacement therapy. Conclusions The study results from this large Norwegian cohort do not support an association between physical activity at different periods of life and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:24580799

  18. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  19. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  20. Hormone supplementation differently affects migraine in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, F; Nappi, R E; Tirelli, A; Polatti, F; Nappi, G; Sances, G

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of three schemes of oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on migraine course in postmenopausal women. Thirty-eight patients presenting for clinical evaluation of menopausal status and suffering from migraine were enrolled. The observational period lasted 7 months, during which women filled in a daily diary with the clinical features of headache attacks and analgesic use. We evaluated climacteric symptoms, anxiety and depression. After a 1-month run-in period, women were assigned to one of three regimens of HRT: estradiol hemihydrate 1 mg/day plus norethisterone 0.5 mg/day for 28 days, in a continuous combined scheme; oral conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day for 28 days plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/day in the last 14 days, in a sequential continuous scheme; and estradiol valerate 2 mg/day for 21 days plus cyproterone acetate 1 mg/day from day 12 to 21 in a sequential cyclical scheme. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 3 and 6 months. During the run-in period, the three subgroups of patients were similar as far as the features of migraine are concerned. Overall, a progressive increase in attack frequency (from 2.2 +/- 1.0 to 3.8 +/- 1.3, P<.001), days with headache (from 3.4 +/- 1.3 to 4.9 +/- 1.9, P<.001), and analgesic consumption (from 3.4 +/- 1.3 to 5.6 +/- 2.2, P<.001) was observed after 6 months. Duration of attacks decreased (from 18.1 +/- 7.4 to 13.6 +/- 4.2 hours, P =.005), whereas severity worsened (from 1.9 +/- 0.2 to 2.1 +/- 0.2, P<.001). The increase in number of days with headache and number of analgesics used was smaller in the group receiving the continuous combined regimen than in the other two groups. Although HRT typically will lead to some worsening of headache syndrome, estradiol hemihydrate plus norethisterone given in a combined continuous scheme was the regimen best tolerated by our patients.

  1. Sitting, physical activity, and serum oestrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hannah; Arem, Hannah; Matthews, Charles E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Reding, Kerryn W; Brinton, Louise A; Anderson, Garnet L; Coburn, Sally B; Cauley, Jane A; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Deborah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Falk, Roni T; Xu, Xia; Trabert, Britton

    2017-09-26

    Prolonged sitting and lower levels of physical activity have been associated with increased levels of parent oestrogens (oestrone and oestradiol), the key hormones in female cancers, in postmenopausal women. However, it is unknown whether sitting and physical activity are associated with circulating oestrogen metabolite levels. Among 1804 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, 15 serum oestrogens/oestrogen metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Physical activity and sitting were self-reported via questionnaire. Using baseline, cross-sectional data, geometric means (GM) of oestrogens/oestrogen metabolites (pmol l(-1)) were estimated using inverse probability weighted linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and stratified on menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use. Longer time spent sitting (⩾10 vs ⩽5h per day) was associated with higher levels of unconjugated oestrone, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and body mass index, among both never/former (GM=70.6 vs 57.7) and current MHT users (GM=242 vs 179) (P-trend ⩽0.03). Among never/former MHT users, sitting (⩾10 vs ⩽5h per day) was positively associated with 2-methoxyestradiol (GM=16.4 vs 14.4) and 4-methoxyestradiol (GM=2.36 vs 1.98) (P-trend ⩽0.04), independent of parent oestrogens. Inverse associations between moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (⩾15 vs 0 metabolic equivalent task-hours per week) and parent oestrogens were found as expected. After adjustment for parent oestrogens, physical activity was not associated with oestrogen metabolites. Our data suggest that prolonged sitting and lower moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity are associated with higher levels of postmenopausal oestrogens/oestrogen metabolites, the oestrogen metabolism patterns that have previously been associated with higher endometrial and breast cancer risk.

  2. HLA-A gene polymorphisms contribute to osteoporosis susceptibility in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, S M; Guo, H; Yang, H J; Lv, M Q; Zhou, D X

    2015-08-28

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mineral density, deterioration in bone microarchitecture, and increased fracture risk and is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. HLA is a complex gene family; previous studies have shown that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis among Japanese and Greek populations. Prompted by these findings, this study was designed to explore the associations between HLA-A gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method was used for DNA genotyping at the HLA-A locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls. We identified 17 HLA-A alleles in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 20 HLA-A alleles in control subjects. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of the HLA-A* 02:07 allele was significantly higher in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis than in control subjects (P = 0.023), and the relative risk was 4.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.109-14.893). Our study provides supportive evidence for the contribution of HLA-A gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to postmenopausal osteoporosis and suggests that HLA-A* 02:07 is likely an important genetic risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population.

  3. Calcium and vitamin d supplementation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aloia, John F; Dhaliwal, Ruban; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul; Yeh, James K

    2013-11-01

    Bone health is influenced by the intake of both calcium and vitamin D. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on PTH and bone turnover. SETTING, PATIENTS, AND DESIGN: At an ambulatory research center, 159 postmenopausal healthy white women participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel, longitudinal factorial study that was 6 months in duration. Subjects were randomly allocated to 4 groups: 1) double placebo, 2) calcium (1200 mg daily) plus placebo, 3) vitamin D3 (100 μg) plus placebo, and 4) vitamin D3 and calcium. Serum and urine were collected fasting and 2 hours after a calcium load at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Serum PTH, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were measured. Before study medication, a calcium load resulted in a decline in PTH and CTX and an increase in urinary calcium excretion. Serum CTX and P1NP declined over time with calcium supplementation but did not change with increased vitamin D intake. There was a decline in PTH in the vitamin D groups in the fasting state compared with placebo. Suppression of PTH was greater after a calcium load in the vitamin D groups. A calcium load decreased PTH and CTX and raised urinary calcium. Fasting PTH declines with vitamin D supplementation. PTH declines after calcium intake. Supplementation of the diet with 1200 mg calcium/d reduces bone turnover markers, whereas supplementation with up to100 μg vitamin D3/d does not.

  4. Equol production changes over time in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M; Pagano, Ian; Kono, Naoko; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N

    2012-06-01

    Equol (EQ) is produced by intestinal bacteria from the soy isoflavone daidzein (DE) in 30%-60% of the population and is believed to provide benefits from soy intake. A robust EQ status definition is lacking, and it is uncertain whether EQ is formed consistently within an individual and ceases upon oral antibiotic treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled soy intervention trial with 350 postmenopausal women, DE and EQ were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and every 6 months over 2.5 years in overnight urine, spot urine and plasma. Equol production changes and status (remaining an EQ producer or nonproducer or changing towards an EQ producer or nonproducer) were assessed. Equol status was determined most dependably by overnight urine applying as cutoff a ratio of EQ/DE≥0.018 with a DE threshold ≥2 nmol/mg creatinine: the soy and placebo groups had approximately 30% consistent EQ producers during the study, but 14% and 35%, respectively, changed EQ status (mean 1.4-1.7 times), while 27% and 17%, respectively, had antibiotic treatment (P<.01 for inverse association). No significant trend in change of EQ production or status was observed when overnight urine was limited to collections closest to before and after antibiotic treatment. Similarly, antibiotic type or class, duration, dose or time between antibiotic treatment and overnight urine collection showed no consistent influence on EQ production. Equol production can markedly change intraindividually over 2.5 years, and antibiotic treatment impacts it inconsistently. Factors other than antibiotic treatment must be considered as causes for EQ production changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Construct Validation of the Dietary Inflammatory Index among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred K.; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D.; Agalliu, Ilir; Hingle, Melanie; Hou, Lifang; Hurley, Thomas G.; Jiao, Li; Martin, Lisa W.; Millen, Amy E.; Park, Hannah L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Shikany, James M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Ockene, Judith K.; Hebert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many dietary factors have either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. We previously developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In this study we conducted a construct validation of the DII based on data from a food frequency questionnaire and three inflammatory biomarkers in a subsample of 2,567 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods We used multiple linear and logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to test whether baseline DII predicted concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFα-R2), or an overall biomarker score combining all three inflammatory biomarkers. Results The DII was associated with the four biomarkers with beta estimates (95%CI) comparing the highest with lowest DII quintiles as follows: IL-6: 1.26 (1.15, 1.38), Ptrend<0.0001; TNFα-R2: 81.43 (19.15, 143.71), Ptrend=0.004; dichotomized hs-CRP (odds ratio for higher versus lower hs-CRP): 1.30 (0.97, 1.67), Ptrend=0.34); and the combined inflammatory biomarker score: 0.26 (0.12, 0.40), Ptrend=0.0001. Conclusion The DII was significantly associated with inflammatory biomarkers. Construct validity of the DII indicates its utility for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet and for expanding its use to include associations with common chronic diseases in future studies. PMID:25900255

  6. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brand, Judith S; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  7. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. PMID:24349146

  8. Relationship between sleep quality and cardiovascular disease risk in Chinese post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chair, Sek Ying; Wang, Qun; Cheng, Ho Yu; Lo, Sally Wai-Sze; Li, Xiao Mei; Wong, Eliza Mi-Ling; Sit, Janet Wing-Hung

    2017-09-11

    Menopause is an inevitable stage affecting every middle-aged woman. China has a large and increasing group of post-menopausal women. Most post-menopausal women suffer from increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and sleep problems. Previous studies have demonstrated the associations between sleep disorders and increased CVD risks in general population. The current study is to examine the relationship between sleep quality and CVD risks among Chinese post-menopausal women. This study was a sub-study nested in a cross-sectional study that investigated the sleep quality of community-dwelling adults in Xian, Shaanxi Province, China. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Framingham 10-year risk score (FRS) were used to measure sleep quality and CVD risk among 154 Chinese post-menopausal women. Multivariate regression and logistic regression were used to determine the association between sleep quality and CVD risk. The participants (age: 63.65 ± 4.47 years) experienced poor sleep quality (mean score of global PSQI = 8.58) and a 10-year risk of CVD of 12.54%. The CVD risk was significantly associated with sleep duration (β = - 0.18, p = 0.04) and sleep disturbance (β = 0.33, p < 0.001). Women with good sleep quality (PSQI ≤5) were less likely to be at high risk for CVD (FRS > 10%) (odds ratio = 0.51, p = 0.04). Poor sleep quality might increase the CVD risk in post-menopausal women. Interventions to promote the cardiovascular health of Chinese post-menopausal women may need to include sleep promotion strategies.

  9. Women in Early Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Eleanor S.

    1982-01-01

    Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)

  10. [Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis assessed by densitometry in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Guzmán Ibarra, Ma; Ablanedo Aguirre, Judith; Armijo Delgadillo, Ricardo; García Ruíz Esparza, Miriam

    2003-05-01

    Our goal was to know the osteopenia and osteoporosis prevalence, determined by densitometry using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. A total the 202 postmenopausal women aged 37 at 74 years old was studied, at the Gynecologist and Obstetrics Hospital No. 3 Medical Center "La Raza" from the IMSS, initiated in December 2001 to June 2002. The measurement BMD using DXA with a LUNAR device and according the WHO criteria, we have calculated the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in normal postmenopausal women at the lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN). The osteopenia prevalence in LS was: 18.2% in the group aged 45-49 years old, 47.1% in the group aged 50-54, 43.7% in the group aged 55-59, 63.6 in the group aged 60-64, 53% in the group aged 65-69, and 30% in the group aged 70-74. The overall osteopenia prevalence in LS was 43.5%, confidence interval (CI) 95% from 43.08 to 44.03%. The osteoporosis of LS was 17.1% in the group aged 50-54 years old; 21.8 in the group aged 55-59; 22.7 in the group aged 60-64; 35.29% in the group aged 65-69; and 30% in the group aged 70-74. The overall osteoporosis prevalence in the LS was 19.8% (CI) 95% from 14.3 to 25.2%. The osteopenia prevalence in FN was. 19% in the group aged 45-49 years old; 40% in the group aged 50-54; 49% in the group aged 55-59; 54% in the group aged 60-64; 76% in the group aged 65-69 and 60% in the group aged 70-74. The overall osteopenia prevalence of FN was the 48% CI 95% from 40.65-54.59%. The osteoporosis prevalence in FN: 2.38% in the group aged 45-49 years old; 7.14 in the group aged 50-54; 5.45% in the group aged 55-59; 13.6% in the group aged 60-64; 5.8 in the group aged 65-69, and 20% in the group aged 70-74. The overall osteoporosis prevalence in FN was 7.4% IC 95% from 3.6-10.68%. The osteoporosis prevalence in this group is less than between American women (15%), and early detection is possible between women with BMD

  11. Evaluation of trait and state anxiety levels in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramos PhD, Mónica; Silvestri Tomassoni, Roberto; Guerrero-López, José Benjamín; Salinas, Margus

    2017-02-16

    Our objective was to evaluate levels of trait and state anxiety in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women and to explore the relation of hormonal therapy to levels of anxiety. Peri- (n = 63) and postmenopausal (n = 236) women were evaluated between March and September 2013. The assessed variables were menopausal status, anxiety (using the state and trait anxiety inventory), and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Use of psychotropic medications and hormone therapy was also ascertained. The mean age of the participants was 51.9 years, ranging from 31 to 69 years. The mean state anxiety scores, as well as the mean trait anxiety scores, were higher in perimenopausal than postmenopausal women. High state anxiety (above the 75th percentile), but not high trait anxiety, was related to perimenopausal status. Anxiety levels appeared to be higher among perimenopausal than postmenopausal women, as also occurs with depressive symptoms. Anxiety state provides data about recent anxiety symptoms in women; however, anxiety trait could be present in some women before perimenopause. Our findings suggest that perimenopause is a period with increased anxiety levels in some women.

  12. Evaluation of Feasibility for a Case-Control Study of Adrenal Androgen Production in Postmenopausal Women With Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    responsiveness of adrenal hormones to ACTH stimulation in healthy postmenopausal women. We also evaluated variation in natural killer cell cytotoxicity in...stimulation. Other hormones measured and natural killer cell cytotoxictiy did not change significantly after ACTH. Future analyses will attempt to...case-control study that uses adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests to determine if postmenopausal women who develop breast cancer secrete

  13. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in North-West China.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Cheng, N; Zheng, S; Wang, D; Hu, X; Ren, X; Pei, H; Ma, H; Mu, H; Bai, Y

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are risk factors for breast cancer among postmenopausal women in China. Based on the baseline data of the Jinchang Cohort, a case-control study was carried out among postmenopausal women, including 43 cases and 86 controls. Both MetS and its components were evaluated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association were estimated by conditional logistic regression analysis. The odds ratio of postmenopausal breast cancer was 3.505 (95% CI 1.282-9.583) for MetS, 3.016 (95% CI 1.044-8.715) for body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2), and 3.191 (95% CI 1.253-8.125) for dyslipidemia. There was no significant association between postmenopausal breast cancer and hypertension as well as diabetes. Women with four metabolic factors showed greater risk for postmenopausal breast cancer (p(trend) < 0.05). Dyslipidemia and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) showed most significant interaction on breast cancer (odds ratio = 11.359; 95% CI 2.663-48.450). With BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), the interaction of dyslipidemia and other metabolic factors on breast cancer was higher than that without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). This case-control study suggested that MetS was associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in north-west China. Overweight and dyslipidemia had the strongest adverse effects on postmenopausal breast cancer.

  14. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds' consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  15. Esterified estrogens combined with methyltestosterone raise intraocular pressure in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rahul N; LaBree, Laurie D; Scott, Garrett; Smith, Ronald E; Yiu, Samuel C

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the effect of esterified estrogens combined with methyltestosterone (EECM) (Estratest, Solvay, Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Baudette, Minnesota, USA) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in postmenopausal women. Observational case series. The IOP of 13 consecutive postmenopausal women with dry eye syndrome were recorded before and during EECM therapy (1.25 mg of esterified estrogens and 2.5 mg of methyltestosterone for several months). The mean IOP increased from a baseline of 15.0 mm Hg before treatment to 18.2 mm Hg on EECM therapy (P < .0001) after a median duration of 11.3 months (range, 0.9 to 24 months). The increase in IOP was statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance within three months and continued over 12 months. Two patients whose pressures increased (>4 mm Hg) returned to baseline levels after EECM was discontinued. Esterified estrogens combined with methyltestosterone produce a clinically significant increase in IOP in postmenopausal women with dry eye syndrome.

  16. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  17. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement.

  18. Haemodynamic responses to exercise stress test in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Sangeeta; Walia, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death and disability in women. The incidence of coronary artery disease increases sharply after menopause. Coronary artery disease results from imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and oxygen demand of the heart. Myocardial oxygen consumption is a helpful indicator of the response of the coronary circulation to the myocardial oxygen demand. Myocardial oxygen consumption is calculated by indirect methods like Stroke's work, Fick's principle, tension time index and rate pressure product. Rate pressure product is a major determinant of cardiac oxygen consumption. It is the product of heart rate with systolic blood pressure. It indicates that adequate stress was achieved and is an important indicator of ventricular function. It increases progressively with exercise. Peak rate pressure product is the rate pressure product at peak of exercise. Peak rate pressure product gives an accurate reflection of the myocardial oxygen demand and myocardial workload. The higher the peak rate pressure product, more will be the myocardial oxygen consumption. The ability to reach higher peak rate pressure product is associated with more adequate coronary perfusion. Thus the low value of peak rate pressure product suggests significant compromise of coronary perfusion and decreased left ventricular function. In the present study effect of exercise on haemodynamic parameters of postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease and postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease were compared. The percentage increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly more in postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease. The peak rate pressure product was significantly more in postmenopausal women without coronary artery disease (28.04 +/- 0.8293 mm of Hg beats / minute x 10(3)) as compared to postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease (25.14+/- 0.8993 mm of Hg beats/ minute x 10(3)) indicating more compromised coronary

  19. Essential Role of Estrogen for Improvements in Vascular Endothelial Function With Endurance Exercise in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Brian L.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In contrast to age-matched men, endurance exercise training is not consistently associated with enhanced endothelial function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. We determined whether endurance exercise training improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women treated with estrogen. In a substudy, we determined if oxidative stress is mechanistically linked to endothelial function adaptations to endurance exercise training. Participants and Design: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 36 sedentary, estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women (45–65 y) at study entry (baseline), after 12 weeks of either placebo, oral (1 mg/d) estradiol, or transdermal estradiol (0.05 mg/d) (randomized), and after an additional 12 weeks of continued estradiol or placebo treatment with concurrent endurance exercise training. In subgroups of women, FMD also was measured during the infusion of ascorbic acid at baseline and following estradiol/placebo plus endurance exercise training, and in seven habitually endurance-trained estrogen-deficient controls. Results: FMD increased in the estrogen-treated groups (both P < .01) after 12 weeks and remained unchanged in placebo. FMD further increased following 12 weeks of endurance exercise training in estrogen-treated (both P < .025), but not placebo-treated women (P = .55). In the substudy, baseline FMD was similar between sedentary and endurance-trained controls. Ascorbic acid increased FMD at baseline in sedentary women and endurance-trained controls, and following endurance exercise training in placebo-treated, but not in estrogen-treated women. Conclusions: Estrogen status appears to play an important modulatory role in improvements in endothelial function with endurance exercise training in postmenopausal women. The restored endurance exercise training adaptation in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women may be related to mitigation of oxidative stress. PMID:24092827

  20. The influence of BMI and predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction on postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia F; Silva, Elsa; Gomes, A Rui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare eating behaviors, body satisfaction, exercise, and life satisfaction between normal-weight and overweight postmenopausal women and to examine the predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction among postmenopausal women (n = 294). The overweight group had more eating disordered behavior, more body dissatisfaction, and lower physical quality of life. The increase of age predicted less disordered eating. Higher BMI, the perception of an ideal weight lower than the current one, lower body satisfaction, and physical quality of life predicted disordered eating. Higher body satisfaction, less psychosocial discomfort, and a greater degree of sexual symptom discomfort predicted life satisfaction.

  1. Portrait representation of postmenopausal women's experiences of living with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pakgohar, Minoo; Hamid, Tengku-Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Vahid-Dastjerdi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the meaning of the experiences of community-dwelling postmenopausal women who were born and grew up in a Muslim country when drawing a picture about their lived experiences of urinary incontinence. Hermeneutic phenomenology underpinned the study's interpretive research approach. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted in two sessions with nine postmenopausal women. The participants were asked to draw a picture about their lived experiences of urinary incontinence in a self-portrait. Three themes emerged to illuminate the meaning of urinary incontinence, including "disruption of normal functioning," "self-imposed restrictions," and "feeling of despair." Discussion of these themes was presented, and practice and research implications were suggested.

  2. Treatment of insomnia with hypnotics resulting in improved sexual functioning in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Defne; Ertekin, Erhan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Oztürk, Ozgür

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to determine whether trazodone used in hypnotic doses, compared to the hypnotic agent zopiclone, had any specific positive effect on sexual function in non-depressive post-menopausal women with insomnia. Fifty (50) subjects participated in the study. Insomnia and sexual performance were evaluated before and after 4 weeks of hypnotic treatment. At week four, both treatments improved sleep quality to a similar degree. Sexual function also improved significantly with both treatments, with no significant difference between the groups. In post-menopausal women, sexual problems and sleep problems may be related and solving sleep problems may help sexual functioning, independently of depression.

  3. Influence of weight gain on spine mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Trovas, G; Lyritis, G P; Galanos, A; Raptou, P; Katsiri, M

    1999-05-01

    We studied the relationships between weight variables and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in 183 postmenopausal women aged 34-76 years. There was a significant positive correlation of current body mass index (cBMI) and % of ideal body weight (IBW) with BMD. Moreover, the increase in BMI and % IBW was also positively and significantly associated with a higher age-adjusted lumbar BMD. Weight gain, estimated as the difference between current body weight and past "ideal" body weight, was associated with significant age-adjusted BMD with a threshold of 17%, and postmenopausal women with a gain of over 17% had significantly higher spine BMD.

  4. Frequency of FRAX risk factors in osteopenic postmenopausal women with and without history of fragility fracture.

    PubMed

    Baró, Francesc; Cano, Antonio; Sánchez Borrego, Rafael; Ferrer, Javier; González Rodríguez, Silvia Pilar; Neyro, Jose Luis; Rodriguez Bueno, Esteban; Sancho, Cristina; Inaraja, Verónica; Fernández, Cristina; Corral, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Fractures associated with bone fragility represent a major public health concern. Although the risk of bone fracture is higher among patients with osteoporosis, the number of fractures is usually higher among patients with osteopenia due to its higher prevalence. This is an observational case series study that compares the frequencies of nonskeletal risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in osteopenic postmenopausal women with previous clinical fragility fractures (FFs) and osteopenic postmenopausal women without previous FF. Risk factors included in the FRAX algorithm and other selected risk factors, including asymptomatic vertebral fractures, were evaluated. A total of 735 (50.3% with prior FF and 49.7% without prior FF) postmenopausal women were evaluated (median age, 60 y; mean bone mineral density [BMD] femoral neck T score of -1.67). The frequency of the following risk factors was significantly higher among women with FF-FRAX algorithm: age, use of corticosteroids, and BMD femoral neck T score; other factors: Hispanic ethnicity, falls during the last year, and BMD lumbar T score. In addition, the frequency of previously undetected asymptomatic vertebral fractures was four times higher among women with a history of FF. The results of the present study support the need to assess the presence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures and BMD T scores in osteopenic postmenopausal women. The risk evaluation of this subpopulation can be accomplished by using some of the risk factors included in the FRAX algorithm combined with other conventional risk factors.

  5. [Changes in bone mineral density of postmenopausal women in relation to the menstrual cycle length].

    PubMed

    Enchev, E; Dimitrakova, E

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between the age of menarche, the length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding and fracture risk in the postmenopausal period. Evaluation of the menstrual cycle length and lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. We investigated three groups of postmenopausal women (each - n = 50). The first group included women with menstrual duration of 27 days during reproductive age, the second group included postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 28 days during the reproductive age, and the third group consisted of postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 30 days during reproductive age. The average age of women was 58.80 +/- 0.94 y. in the first group, 60.36 +/- 5.12 y. in the second group and -61.84 +/- 0.80 y. in the third group. Age, age of menarche, number of childbirths, length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding, and lumbar bone density were assessed and registered for each woman. We used DXA in a anterior-posterior projection to assess the bone density of the lumbar spine; the obtained results are shown in gram/cm2. The women from the third group, with average menstrual cycle length of 30 days, reach menopause at a significantly later age, have longer menstrual cycle and shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density, compared to the other two groups. The data from our research show that women with anamnesis for average normal menstrual cycle length of 30 days reach menopausal period at a significantly later age, have shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density compared to those with shorter menstrual cycle duration (27 and 28 days).

  6. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Miguel Soares; Bonganha, Valéria; Vechin, Felipe Cassaro; de Barros Berton, Ricardo Paes; Lixandrão, Manoel Emílio; Nogueira, Felipe Romano Damas; de Souza, Giovana Vergínia; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg) or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg). In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8−10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162). Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001), and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%), reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75%) and noticeable increases in muscle strength after resistance training to leg press (P = 0.004, 41.29%) and bench press (P = 0.0001, 27.23%). Conclusion It was concluded that resistance training performed three times a week may reduce the metabolic syndrome Z-score with concomitant decreases in fasting blood glucose, improvements in body composition, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. PMID:24072967

  7. Longtime napping is associated with cardiovascular risk estimation according to Framingham risk score in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Sun, Kan; Lin, Diaozhu; Qi, Yiqin; Li, Yan; Yan, Li; Ren, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Menopause can affect the physiological timing system, which could result in circadian rhythm changes and development of napping habits. Whether longtime napping in postmenopausal women is associated with cardiovascular disease is, however, still debated. The present study aims to investigate this association. We conducted a population-based study in 4,616 postmenopausal Chinese women. Information on sleep duration was self-reported. The Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score was calculated and used to identify participants at high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Increased daytime napping hours were positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women, such as age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose, postload glucose, and hemoglobin A1C (all P for trend <0.05). The prevalence of high risk of CHD increased with daytime napping hours, and was 3.7%, 4.3%, and 6.9% in the no daytime napping group, the 0.1 to 1 hour group, and the more than 1 hour group, respectively (P for trend = 0.005). Compared with the no daytime napping group, postmenopausal women with daytime napping more than 1 hour had higher risk of CHD in both univariate (odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI, 1.29-2.95) and multivariate (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI, 1.03-2.52) logistic regression analyses. No statistically significant association was detected between night sleeping hours and high risk of CHD in postmenopausal participants. Daytime napping is positively associated with estimated 10-year CHD risk in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  8. Well-being during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    To examine relationships between well-being and the menopausal transition (MT) to determine (1) whether women's well-being varies over the course of the MT and early postmenopause (PM) and (2) whether any observed variation is predicted by MT variables, other midlife transitions, or personal resources. Women from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study (N = 334) provided data for these analyses from at least one annual health questionnaire and a menstrual calendar. A subset of women provided a first morning voided urine specimen from 1997 through 2005. Urine samples were assayed for estrone glucuronide and follicle-stimulating hormone. Mixed-effects modeling using the R library was used to investigate whether MT-related factors, including MT stage, presence of hot flashes, hot flash severity and levels of estrone glucuronide and follicle-stimulating hormone, number of negative life events, or personal resources of mastery and satisfaction with social support are significant predictors of well-being. The model that best fit the data showed that mastery and satisfaction with social support predicted increases in well-being, whereas negative life events predicted decreases in well-being. None of the MT-related factors predicted change in well-being. The variability in women's well-being in this study was more affected by life events other than the MT and early PM and by the personal resources available to meet transition demands. These findings suggest that for most women, the MT is not a predictor of level of well-being when considered in a broader life context.

  9. Panic attacks and risk of incident cardiovascular events among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Smoller, Jordan W; Pollack, Mark H; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Jackson, Rebecca D; Oberman, Albert; Wong, Nathan D; Sheps, David

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have documented an association of depression and phobic anxiety with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the cardiovascular sequelae of panic anxiety. To determine whether panic attacks are associated with risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Prospective cohort survey. Ten clinical centers of the 40-center Women's Health Initiative. A total of 3369 community-dwelling, generally healthy postmenopausal women (aged 51-83 years) enrolled between 1997 and 2000 in the Myocardial Ischemia and Migraine Study who completed a questionnaire about occurrence of panic attacks in the previous 6 months. Cardiovascular/cerebrovascular outcomes (fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) and all-cause mortality were ascertained after a mean of 5.3 years of follow-up. A 6-month history of full-blown panic attacks, endorsed by 10% of postmenopausal women in this cohort, was associated with both coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 4.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-9.99) and the combined end point of coronary heart disease or stroke (hazard ratio, 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.60-5.94) after controlling for multiple potential confounders. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality, excluding those with a history of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events, was 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.94). Panic attacks are relatively common among postmenopausal women and appear to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in older women.

  10. Insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: concurrent effects of hormone replacement therapy and coffee.

    PubMed

    Catalano, D; Trovato, G M; Spadaro, D; Martines, G F; Garufi, G; Tonzuso, A; Grasso, D; Sciacchitano, S G

    2008-10-01

    In postmenopausal women, an increase in insulin resistance is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can reduce insulin resistance and coffee use is reported to decrease the incidence of diabetes. The aim of our study was to assess possible concurrent effects of HRT and espresso coffee intake on insulin resistance and on interdependent nutritional and clinical features. A total of 478 healthy postmenopausal, non-diabetic women (aged 54.5 +/- 4.2 years) were studied: 360 had been on HRT for at least 2 years and 118 were not treated. Insulin resistance was assessed by a conventional homeostasis model (HOMA-IR). Insulin resistance is directly related to body mass index (p < 0.0001), and not with age and blood pressure; hypertensive menopausal women have a slightly higher body mass index but the same degree of insulin resistance as normotensive women. Women on HRT show lower insulin resistance, but not lower prevalence of arterial hypertension. Coffee use is associated with a decrease in insulin resistance in non-obese women receiving HRT, but not in other subsets. The combination of coffee consumption and HRT could lower insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. In overweight women, greater insulin sensitivity is associated with intake of espresso coffee and not with HRT; in normal weight women, only HRT is associated with lower insulin resistance.

  11. Postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity choosing a nutritional approach for weight loss: A decisional needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Nadine; Légaré, France; Stacey, Dawn; Lemieux, Simone; Bégin, Catherine; Lapointe, Annie; Desroches, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    To identify the decisional needs of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity choosing between two nutritional approaches for weight loss: a low-fat diet or a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Our descriptive qualitative study was based on the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. Four focus groups were conducted with postmenopausal women. A thematic content analysis was performed to determine the decisional needs influencing the choice of a low-fat diet or a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Seventeen postmenopausal women participated in the study (median age 59 years). Most frequently reported decisional needs for each nutritional approach were sufficient levels of nutritional skills and knowledge, consideration of the physiological impacts and the sensory aspect of approaches, food availability, social support, finances and motivation. Partners, friends and daughters were considered as the most important individuals involved in the decision. We identified several decisional needs influencing postmenopausal women when choosing between a low-fat diet and a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. These findings could inform the design of decision support interventions that address the decisional needs of women for making and implementing informed decisions about a nutritional approach for weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Challoumas, D; Cobbold, C; Dimitrakakis, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of calcium supplements for the prevention of complications of osteoporosis has significantly increased during the last years. The effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiovascular events are controversial. Even though transient beneficial effects of calcium supplementation have been reported, especially in women with low dietary calcium intake, their long-term outcomes are inconclusive. Only a very few studies investigating serum lipids in postmenopausal women have been described and these showed significant increases in high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein ratio. With regards to cardiovascular events in this population group adverse effects have been reported on the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke with increased calcium intake by some authors, however, others described no effects or even beneficial outcomes. We present a review of the current literature which provides a balanced summary of the possible beneficial and adverse effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters. Taking into account the modest effect of calcium supplementation in reducing fracture rates, a reassessment of the role, benefits and adverse effects of calcium supplements should be conducted in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of metabolic syndrome on sexual function in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Dursun, Murat; Ozbek, Emin; Sahin, Suleyman; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Koklu, Ismail; Polat, Emre Can; Erkoc, Mustafa; Danis, Eyyup; Bozkurt, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and multidimensional disorder related to many biological, psychological, and social determinants. The authors assessed the effect of one of the many factors affect sexual function-metabolic syndrome-on female sexual function. They equally divided 400 women participants among 4 groups: (a) premenopausal with metabolic syndrome, (b) premenopausal without metabolic syndrome, (c) postmenopausal with metabolic syndrome, and (d) postmenopausal without metabolic syndrome. The authors used the Female Sexual Function Index to assess women's sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction was found more often in both pre- and postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (p =.001). Overall Female Sexual Function Index score and satisfaction, pain, and desire domain scores independently of the menopause status showed statistically significant differences across women with metabolic syndrome in comparison with participants with no metabolic syndrome (p <.05). The authors also evaluated the associations among 5 components of metabolic syndrome and Female Sexual Function Index scores. Higher fasting glucose levels were significantly associated with the Female Sexual Function Index score (p <.05). This study shows that sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in pre- and postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Does raloxifene treatment influence back pain and disability among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Papadokostakis, Georgios; Katonis, Pavlos; Damilakis, John; Hadjipavlou, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement treatment are more likely to experience back pain and related disability compared to women who do not take estrogens. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator has estrogen-like effects on bone tissue, and antagonize the action of estrogens on endometrium and breast tissue. It is unknown if the treatment of osteoporosis with raloxifene has estrogen-like or opposite effects on back pain and functional capacity among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A total of 120 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and chronic back pain were randomized to receive raloxifene 60 mg with 1,000 mg calcium, and 800 IU vitamin D daily or 1,000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D daily. Pain intensity and pain-related disability were measured before treatment at 6 months and after 1 year. Repeated measures of ANOVA, did not reveal statistically significant differences over time, on pain intensity and disability scores, between groups studied. There was a trend in pain intensity changes during the follow-up period, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. It seems that treatment with raloxifene does not influence back pain and disability among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Raloxifene may have estrogenic agonist effects on nociceptive processing in the central nervous system.

  15. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome and musculoskeletal symptoms in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer treated with exemestane or tamoxifen after 2-3 years of tamoxifen: a retrospective analysis of the Intergroup Exemestane Study.

    PubMed

    Mieog, J Sven D; Morden, James P; Bliss, Judith M; Coombes, R Charles; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2012-04-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are more effective than is tamoxifen in prevention of breast-cancer recurrence, but at the expense of increased musculoskeletal side-effects, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors and the prognostic value of musculoskeletal symptoms during treatment with the steroidal aromatase inhibitor exemestane or with tamoxifen after 2-3 years of tamoxifen. In the Intergroup Exemestane Study, postmenopausal women treated for early invasive breast cancer who remained disease free and on treatment after 2-3 years of tamoxifen were randomised to switch to exemestane or to continue tamoxifen for the remainder of the 5-year period of endocrine treatment. The primary endpoint for this retrospective analysis was occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome and any musculoskeletal events, analysed in the safety population, which consisted of all patients who had received any trial treatment. As well as case-report forms, questionnaires were distributed retrospectively to gain more details of cases of carpal tunnel syndrome. The relation between musculoskeletal symptoms reported by 6 months from randomisation and survival from 9 months onwards was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. The trial is registered, number ISRCTN11883920. It has completed accrual and follow-up is continuing for enrolled participants. After a median follow-up of 91·0 months (IQR 83·0-99·2), carpal tunnel syndrome had been reported for 66 (2·8%) of 2319 patients in the exemestane group compared with 13 (0·6%) of 2338 in the tamoxifen group (odds ratio [OR] 5·23, 99% CI 2·39-11·49; p<0·0001). More events occurred during treatment in the exemestane group than in the tamoxifen group (66 [2·8%] vs seven [0·3%], adjusted OR 9·90, 99% CI 3·52-27·82; p<0·0001). There was no significant difference between groups in events in the post-treatment period (ten with exemestane [0·4%] vs seven with tamoxifen [0·3%]; p=0·46). More patients in the

  17. Osteoporosis and polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin gene in postmenopausal women - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Selma; Grazio, Simeon; Kosovic, Pasezada; Uremovic, Melita; Nemcic, Tomislav; Bobic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has an important role in bone remodeling, and it has been proposed that the OPG gene might be a candidate gene for osteoporosis predisposition. Several studies have already assessed the connection between OPG gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we wanted to analyze the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD and bone turnover markers in women with and without osteoporosis. In 22 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (aged 65.6 ±12.6) and 59 women without osteoporosis (aged 60.8 ±8.7) we analyzed the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD, measured by dual energy absorptiometry and with bone turnover markers (crosslaps and osteoprotegerin). A163G, G209A, T245G and G1181C polymorphisms were determined. No significant differences in age, anthropometry, number of fractures, osteocalcin and cross-laps were found between women with and without osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis were significantly longer in postmenopause. Significantly more women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism (p = 0.038) compared to women without osteoporosis, while no significant difference was found in prevalence of TT and GG polymorphism between patients with and without osteoporosis. No relationship was found between investigated polymorphism and bone turnover markers. A significant negative correlation between total hip BMD and crosslaps (p = 0.046) as well as between total hip T score and crosslaps (p = 0.044) was found in women without osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism more frequently than women without osteoporosis. Our results indicate that A163G polymorphism could have an impact on higher bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  18. Effects of obesity and hormone therapy on surgically-confirmed fibroids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Eva M; Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane; Beral, Dame Valerie; Coffey, Kate

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI), use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), and incidence of uterine fibroids in postmenopausal women, 610,604 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy or diagnosis of fibroids were followed as part of a large United Kingdom prospective cohort study. We used Cox regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs) of surgically-confirmed fibroids (defined as a hospital admission with uterine fibroids as a primary diagnosis with a related surgical procedure), in relation to BMI and use of HT. During an average of 11.4 years of follow-up, 3561 women were admitted to hospital with surgically-confirmed fibroids. Five-year incidence rates decreased with age, from 0.50% (1 in 200 women) at age 50-54, to 0.11% (1 in 1000 women) at age 75-79. The 5-year rate in postmenopausal women aged 50-54 was about a quarter that seen in premenopausal women of the same age (1 in 200 vs. 1 in 50). Compared with normal weight women, obese women had a RR of surgically-detected fibroids of 1.46 (95% CI 1.33-1.59; p < 0.0001). HT use was associated with a RR of 2.33 (95% CI 2.18-2.49; p < 0.0001) in ever versus never users. When we analysed HT use and BMI together, obese vs. normal weight never users had a RR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.77-2.26): the highest risks were seen in women who were obese and had ever used HT, RR = 3.30 (95% CI 2.88-3.79). Uterine fibroids continue to occur in postmenopausal women; obesity and hormone therapy use are important modifiable risk factors.

  19. Osteoporosis and polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin gene in postmenopausal women – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Grazio, Simeon; Kosovic, Pasezada; Uremovic, Melita; Nemcic, Tomislav; Bobic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has an important role in bone remodeling, and it has been proposed that the OPG gene might be a candidate gene for osteoporosis predisposition. Several studies have already assessed the connection between OPG gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we wanted to analyze the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD and bone turnover markers in women with and without osteoporosis. Material and methods In 22 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (aged 65.6 ±12.6) and 59 women without osteoporosis (aged 60.8 ±8.7) we analyzed the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD, measured by dual energy absorptiometry and with bone turnover markers (crosslaps and osteoprotegerin). A163G, G209A, T245G and G1181C polymorphisms were determined. Results No significant differences in age, anthropometry, number of fractures, osteocalcin and cross-laps were found between women with and without osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis were significantly longer in postmenopause. Significantly more women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism (p = 0.038) compared to women without osteoporosis, while no significant difference was found in prevalence of TT and GG polymorphism between patients with and without osteoporosis. No relationship was found between investigated polymorphism and bone turnover markers. A significant negative correlation between total hip BMD and crosslaps (p = 0.046) as well as between total hip T score and crosslaps (p = 0.044) was found in women without osteoporosis Conclusions Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism more frequently than women without osteoporosis. Our results indicate that A163G polymorphism could have an impact on higher bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:27407270

  20. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    PubMed Central

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  1. Heart rate variability under resting conditions in postmenopausal and young women.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T F; Azevedo, G D; Crescêncio, J C; Marães, V R; Papa, V; Catai, A M; Verzola, R M; Oliveira, L; Silva de Sá, M F; Gallo Júnior, L; Silva, E

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the modulation of heart rate in a group of postmenopausal women to that of a group of young women under resting conditions on the basis of R-R interval variability. Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean +/- SD, 58.3 +/- 6.8 years) and 10 healthy young women (mean +/- SD, 21.6 +/- 0.82 years) were submitted to a control resting electrocardiogram (ECG) in the supine and sitting positions over a period of 6 min. The ECG was obtained from a one-channel heart monitor at the CM5 lead and processed and stored using an analog to digital converter connected to a microcomputer. R-R intervals were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis from the ECG recording in real time using a signal-processing software. Heart rate variability (HRV) was expressed as standard deviation (RMSM) and mean square root (RMSSD). In the supine position, the postmenopausal group showed significantly lower (P<0.05) median values of RMSM (34.9) and RMSSD (22.32) than the young group (RMSM: 62.11 and RMSSD: 49.1). The same occurred in the sitting position (RMSM: 33.0 and RMSSD: 18.9 compared to RMSM: 57.6 and RMSSD: 42.8 for the young group). These results indicate a decrease in parasympathetic modulation in postmenopausal women compared to young women which was possibly due both to the influence of age and hormonal factors. Thus, time domain HRV proved to be a noninvasive and sensitive method for the identification of changes in autonomic modulation of the sinus node in postmenopausal women.

  2. Relationship between serum estrogen levels and blood stasis syndrome in postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Chunyu; Ma, Xiaojuan; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Yin, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the difference of serum estrogen, serum lipids and inflammatory factors levels in postmenopausal women with coronary heart blood stasis syndrome and non-blood stasis syndrome. Twenty five healthy postmenopausal women were selected as a healthy control group who were compared with 43 postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease (CHD) first visiting a doctor for the CHD. Among the postmenopausal women with CHD, There were 23 patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and 20 patients with non-blood stasis syndrome (NBSS). The levels of plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) were determined in blood samples taken after patients' admission in Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The serum estradiol(E2) was measured by electrochemiluminescence assay and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1) was measured by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with the healthy control group, the levels of TG and TC, sICAM-1 in coronary heart disease group were all significantly increased (P<0.05),but serum E2 were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The levels of E2 of patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) were decreased further (P>0.05), and there was an increasing trend of serum sICAM-1 levels (P>0.05). There were negative significant correlations between serum E2 levels and TC, sICAM-1 levels in patient with coronary heart disease. The estrogen level of menopausal women with coronary heart disease is lower than healthy menopausal women. With the low estrogen levels, postmenopausal women tend to have high levels of blood lipids and sICAM-1, which elucidates that the estrogen could regulate lipids and attenuate inflammatory response to play a protective role on blood vessels.

  3. Self-reported estrogen use and newly incident urinary incontinence among postmenopausal community-dwelling women.

    PubMed

    Northington, Gina M; de Vries, Heather F; Bogner, Hillary R

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported estrogen use and newly incident urinary incontinence (UI) among community-dwelling postmenopausal women. The study was a population-based longitudinal survey of postmenopausal women who did not report UI in 1993 and for whom complete data were available. Women were classified as having newly incident UI if they reported uncontrolled urine loss within 12 months of the 2004 interview. Condition-specific functional loss secondary to UI was assessed using questions on the participants' inability to engage in certain activities because of UI. The duration of hormone therapy containing estrogen was obtained in 1993 using a structured questionnaire. Among the 167 postmenopausal women who did not report UI in 1993, 47 (28.1%) reported newly incident UI, and 31 (18.6%) reported newly incident UI with condition-specific functional loss in 2004. Of the 167 postmenopausal women, 46 (27.5%) reported using hormone therapy containing estrogen ever, and 14 (8.3%) women reported using hormone therapy containing estrogen for 5 years or more in 1993. Estrogen use for 5 years or more was significantly associated with newly incident UI with condition-specific functional loss compared with estrogen use for less than 5 years or having no reported history of estrogen (adjusted relative odds, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.02-15.43) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics. Postmenopausal community-dwelling women with a history of estrogen use for 5 years or more were more likely to report newly incident UI with condition-specific functional loss after 10 years of follow-up.

  4. Phentolamine mesylate in postmenopausal women with female sexual arousal disorder: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Lopez, Marcela; Lipezker, Mirtha; Lara, Claudia; Ramírez, Abraham; Rampazzo, Claudia; Hurtado de Mendoza, María T; Lowrey, Fred; Loehr, Lean A; Lammers, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential of phentolamine as a treatment of postmenopausal women with female arousal disorder (FSAD). Vaginal photoplethismography and a subjective questionnaire were used. Forty one women were enrolled and four treatments were tested: vaginal solutions 5 mg and 40 mg and an oral tablet each of 40 mg of phentolamine and placebo. Physiological readings were significantly different from placebo in the women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with 40 mg of phentolamine in vaginal solution (p = 0.0186). Subjective reports also were significantly different from placebo with the vaginal solution 40 mg and the oral tablet of 40 mg of phentolamine among hormone replacement users. No significant differences were found among women not receiving HRT. Results indicate that phentolamine may show promise as treatment for FSAD in estrogenized postmenopausal women.

  5. Correlation of the Lipid Profile, BMI and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Balaban, Jagoda; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To the reduction of bone density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women contribute elevated lipid parameters and Body Mass Index (BMI). Goal: The goal of our study was to determine the correlation between lipid parameters, BMI and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study was carried out by matched type between experimental group and controls. The experimental group consisted of 100 females at postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was diagnosed osteoporosis at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age but without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (± 2 years). To all participants of the study were carried out biochemical analysis of blood, or the analysis of the lipid profile that included total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol, and was determined the values of BMI and waist circumference (WC). Results: Analysis of the data of our research shows that by the univariate logistic regression the values of lipid parameters total cholesterol (p=0.000), LDL (p=0.005) and TG (p=0.033) were significantly associated with osteoporosis, while in multivariate logistic model only total cholesterol (p= 0.018) was found as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. BMI values were not statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis (p=0.727). Conclusion: On the decrease in bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women influence many risk factors whose identification has the aim to develop more effective prevention of this disease in the elderly. PMID:28144189

  6. [Bone mineral density and 17 beta-estradiol correlation in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Morales, Beatriz Eugenia; Pérez Campos, Eduardo; Gatica Valdez, Noé

    2004-03-01

    With the increased life-expectancy reached during 20th century, women will spend a very important part of their lives in the estrogenic deficiency state accompanying menopause. To detect serum 17beta-estradiol levels, bone mineral density values, and to see the correlation between both parameters as well as with postmenopausal period. A transversal study with ambulatory, community-dwelling postmenopausal women from Oaxaca de Juárez, Oax. was performed. We studied 70 women with spontaneous menopause, medium values were: age, 55.9 +/- 5.4 yr; menopause age, 48 +/- 3 yr; postmenopausal period, 7.9 +/- 5.3 yr; body mass index, 28.3 +/- 5.4, and serum 17beta-estradiol by radioimmunoassay, 62.78 +/- 25.83 pg/mL. Quantitative calcaneous ultrasound was used to measure bone mineral density and we found 30 women with normal level (-1.0 to 1.4 SD), 29 with osteopenia (-1.1 to -2.3 SD) and only 2 subjects with osteoporosis (-2.7 to 2.8 SD). Statistical analysis shows that bone mineral density and postmenopausal period were significantly correlated (p<0.05) as well as serum 17beta-estradiol levels with postmenopausal period; nevertheless, no correlation between bone mineral density and serum 17beta-estradiol or body mass index (p>0.05) was found. On the other hand, it is remarkable high serum 17beta-estradiol levels found in this group, related with postmenopausal status. These latter results are different from those reported in the literature.

  7. Understanding physical activity intentions and behavior in postmenopausal women: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Jeff K; Murray, Terra C; Johnson, Steven T; Elavsky, Steriani

    2011-06-01

    In the present paper, we report the social cognitive correlates of physical activity (PA) intentions in postmenopausal women using the two-component theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the utility of the TPB in understanding PA behavior in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (N = 297) residing in Southern Alberta, Canada completed a mailed questionnaire that assessed self-reported PA and TPB constructs. Data indicated that 67% of postmenopausal women intended to engage in PA behavior consistent with the public health PA guidelines. Multiple regression analysis suggested that the TPB model explained 44% of the variance in PA intentions with instrumental attitude (β = 0.33), affective attitude (β = 0.29), descriptive norm (β = 0.19), and self-efficacy (β = 0.24) making significant contributions to PA intentions. Postmenopausal women meeting PA guidelines reported higher scores across all TPB variables when compared to women not meeting PA guidelines. Unique behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were also elicited. The two-component TPB framework appears to be a useful model for understanding PA intentions and behavior in postmenopausal women. These data can be used in the development and establishment of PA behavior intervention and health promotion materials designed to facilitate PA intentions and behavior in postmenopausal women.

  8. Low sex hormone-binding globulin is associated with the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Melissa E; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Cook, Nancy R; Seely, Ellen W; Ridker, Paul M; Rexrode, Kathryn M

    2006-11-01

    Although an association between the metabolic syndrome and hyperandrogenism has been suggested in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, few studies have investigated this relationship in postmenopausal women. We measured estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated the free androgen index (FAI) in 212 postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy in the Women's Health Study. A modified definition of the metabolic syndrome (3 or more of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein, elevated blood pressure, and abnormal glucose metabolism) from the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults was used. Women with the metabolic syndrome had higher mean levels of estradiol, testosterone, and FAI values and lower SHBG levels. Higher FAI and lower SHBG were associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for BMI and other factors, women in the highest tertile of FAI had an odds ratio of 12.6 (95% confidence interval, 3.8-41.6) for the metabolic syndrome, whereas those in the lowest SHBG tertile had an odds ratio of 7.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.7-19.8). When stratified by body mass index, the associations with high FAI and low SHBG remained significant even in women with body mass index less than 26.7 kg/m2. An androgenic hormone profile is associated with both the individual components of the metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic abnormalities in postmenopausal women.

  9. Establishing reference intervals for bone turnover markers in healthy postmenopausal women in a nonfasting state.

    PubMed

    Gossiel, Fatma; Finigan, Judith; Jacques, Richard; Reid, David; Felsenberg, D; Roux, Christian; Glueer, Claus; Eastell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In order to interpret bone turnover markers (BTMs), we need to establish healthy reference intervals. It is difficult to establish reference intervals for older women because they commonly suffer from diseases or take medications that affect bone turnover. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify diseases and drugs that have a substantial effect on BTMs; (2) to establish reference intervals for premenopausal and postmenopausal women; and (3) to examine the effects of other factors on BTMs in healthy postmenopausal women. We studied women aged 30-39 years (n=258) and women aged 55-79 years (n=2419) from a five-European centre population-based study. We obtained a nonfasting serum and second morning void urine samples at a single baseline visit. BTMs were measured using automated immunoassay analysers. BTMs were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency and chronic kidney disease. Three or more BTMs were higher in women who were osteoporotic and at least two BTMs were lower in women who were oestrogen replete, taking osteoporosis treatments or having diseases known to affect bone turnover. These were used as exclusion criteria for selecting the populations for the reference intervals. The reference intervals for BTMs were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Levels of BTMs were not dependent on geographical location and increased with age.

  10. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    PubMed Central

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected postmenopausal Hispanic and African-American women.

    PubMed

    Stein, E M; Yin, M T; McMahon, D J; Shu, A; Zhang, C A; Ferris, D C; Colon, I; Dobkin, J F; Hammer, S M; Shane, E

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated vitamin D status in HIV+ and HIV- postmenopausal African-American (AA) and Hispanic women. Most women (74-78%) had insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, regardless of HIV status. 25OHD was lower in AA women and women lacking supplement use, providing support for screening and supplementation. Among HIV+ women, 25OHD was associated with current CD4 but not type of antiretroviral therapy. To evaluate vitamin D status and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in HIV-infected (HIV+) postmenopausal minority women. In this cross-sectional study, 89 HIV+ and 95 HIV- postmenopausal women (33% AA and 67% Hispanic) underwent assessment of 25OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of low 25OHD did not differ by HIV status; the majority of both HIV+ and HIV- women (74-78%) had insufficient levels (<30 ng/ml). Regardless of HIV status, 25OHD was significantly lower in AA subjects, and higher in subjects who used both calcium and multivitamins. In HIV+ women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 25OHD was directly associated with current CD4 count (r=0.32; p<0.01) independent of age, ethnicity, BMI, or history of AIDS-defining illness. No association was observed between 1,25(OH)(2)D and CD4 count or between serum 25OHD, 1,25(OH)(2)D or PTH and type of ART. In postmenopausal minority women, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent and associated with AA race and lack of supplement use, as well as lower current CD4 cell count. These results provide support for screening and repletion of vitamin D in HIV+ patients.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected postmenopausal Hispanic and African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Stein, E. M.; McMahon, D. J.; Shu, A.; Zhang, C. A.; Ferris, D. C.; Colon, I.; Dobkin, J. F.; Hammer, S. M.; Shane, E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We evaluated vitamin D status in HIV+ and HIV− postmenopausal African-American (AA) and Hispanic women. Most women (74–78%) had insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, regardless of HIV status. 25OHD was lower in AA women and women lacking supplement use, providing support for screening and supplementation. Among HIV+ women, 25OHD was associated with current CD4 but not type of antiretroviral therapy. Introduction To evaluate vitamin D status and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in HIV-infected (HIV+) postmenopausal minority women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 89 HIV+ and 95 HIV− postmenopausal women (33% AA and 67% Hispanic) underwent assessment of 25OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The prevalence of low 25OHD did not differ by HIV status; the majority of both HIV+ and HIV− women (74–78%) had insufficient levels (<30 ng/ml). Regardless of HIV status, 25OHD was significantly lower in AA subjects, and higher in subjects who used both calcium and multi-vitamins. In HIV+ women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 25OHD was directly associated with current CD4 count (r= 0.32; p<0.01) independent of age, ethnicity, BMI, or history of AIDS-defining illness. No association was observed between 1,25(OH)2D and CD4 count or between serum 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D or PTH and type of ART. Conclusions In postmenopausal minority women, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent and associated with AA race and lack of supplement use, as well as lower current CD4 cell count. These results provide support for screening and repletion of vitamin D in HIV+ patients. PMID:20585939

  13. Relationship between serum DHEAS and oxidative stress levels of body mass index in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Goy, Burhan; Atmaca, Murat; Aslan, Mehmet; Ucler, Rıfkı; Alay, Murat; Seven, Ismet; Demir, Halit; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Menopause is a natural step in the process of aging. Postmenopausal women have decreased levels of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress, the latter of which plays an important role in atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of the body mass index (BMI) with serum catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in healthy postmenopausal women and estimate whether the MDA/DHEAS ratio is a possible marker of oxidative stress for determining cardiovascular risk in these women. We investigated serum catalase activity, MDA, and DHEAS levels, parity history, age, and BMI in 96 healthy postmenopausal women aged 50-82 years. The serum MDA levels and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. The serum DHEAS levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ratio percentage of the serum DHEAS levels to serum MDA levels was designated as a biomarker for oxidative stress. The mean BMI of the patients was 31.72 ± 6.16 kg/m(2) (range = 20.5-47.94). The MDA/DHEAS ratio was significantly decreased in patients with a BMI over 30 compared to that of patients with a BMI between 25 and 30 (P = 0.025). Moreover, BMI was positively correlated with serum DHEAS levels (r = 0.285, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the MDA/DHEAS ratio (r = -0.241, P < 0.05) in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio based on covariance analysis (P = 0.039). Our results indicate that healthy, obese, postmenopausal women have a decreased MDA/DHEAS ratio. Additionally, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio.

  14. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.05). A weak but significant positive correlation between plasma silicon and simvastatin levels (r = 0.3, p < 0.05) was observed; this may be due to the fact that simvastatin contains silicon dioxide as an inactive ingredient. The mean simvastatin concentration was 9.02 ng/ml. All hypotheses were verified at the significance level of p < 0.05. A statistically significant decrease in the plasma calcium concentration of postmenopausal women, treated with simvastatin suggests that simvastatin may play a role in calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Positive correlation of simvastatin concentration with silicon level in the plasma suggests that both might prompt the positive effect of osteoarthritis treatment.

  15. Coexistence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy, untreated postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Massé, Priscilla G; Tranchant, Carole C; Dosy, Juliana; Donovan, Sharon M

    2005-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether apparently healthy, untreated postmenopausal women at risk of osteoporosis relative to nonmenopausal women are concomitantly at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of various aspects of lifestyle, personality, body shape and composition, and blood chemistry. Two homogeneous groups of 30 women having reached menopause for 3-5 years and 30 nonmenopausal controls, all non-estrogen users without apparent CVD risk factors, were compared in a cross-sectional design. Data related to physical activity, dietary intakes, personality type, anthropometry, and skinfold-thickness were collected. Plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and serum lipids were measured and used as biochemical predictors of osteoporosis and CVD, respectively. Compared to nonmenopausal controls, postmenopausal women were at greater risk of bone loss given their lower plasma IGF-1, lower physical activity level, and even given their higher serum lipids, as recent literature suggests. Moreover, their dietary calcium intake fulfilled only 70% of the current recommendation, which may reduce protection against osteoporosis and CVD (particularly hypertension) as well. The two groups did not differ regarding energy intake, body weight and frame size, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). However, postmenopausal subjects had more adipose tissue and differed in terms of lifestyle factors (lower dietary lipids and greater alcohol consumption). While neither group was at particular risk of CVD according to waist circumference, WHR, and serum triglycerides, postmenopausal women were at risk according to percent body adiposity and serum cholesterol. This study shows that several risk factors for osteoporosis and CVD can coexist in apparently healthy postmenopausal women after a few years of natural menopause. It emphasizes the need for a timely screening that would stress both heart and bone risk factors.

  16. Neck circumference has possibility as a predictor for metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Satomi; Miyake, Takashi; Harada, Toshihide; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nitta, Yumiko; Iida, Tadayuki; Chikamura, Chiho; Tamura, Noriko; Nitta, Kohsaku; Miyaguchi, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous fat depots play an important role in regulating metabolic profile in Japanese postmenopausal women. We investigated the possibility of neck circumference (NC) as a surrogate marker for metabolic disease risk estimates in Japanese postmenopausal women. We examined the association of NC with several markers of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in 64 healthy postmenopausal women aged 63.6 ± 7.1 years in community-based samples in Japan. As a result, NC was significantly associated with indices of whole body obesity and visceral fat accumulation, such as body mass index (BMI) and Waist circumference (WC). In the analysis of biomarkers for insulin resistance, NC was positively correlated to HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) and leptin. In addition, an increase in triglycerides (TG) and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were also associated with NC. Interestingly, NC was also associated with atherosclerosis-related indices. The measurement of NC is an easy, inexpensive and reproducible method for assessment of obesity, and a possible predictor to identify the risk for future metabolic diseases in Japanese postmenopausal women.

  17. Risk profiles for weight gain among postmenopausal women: A classification and regression tree analysis approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Risk factors for obesity and weight gain are typically evaluated individually while "adjusting for" the influence of other confounding factors, and few studies, if any, have created risk profiles by clustering risk factors. We identified subgroups of postmenopausal women homogeneous in their cluster...

  18. Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older.

    PubMed

    Fung, T T; Meyer, H E; Willett, W C; Feskanich, D

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we followed postmenopausal women and men aged 50 and above for up to 32 years and found no evidence that higher protein intake increased the risk of hip fracture. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease.

  20. Weight Lifted in Strength Training Predicts Bone Change in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Houtkooper, Linda B.; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight lifted in one year of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) among calcium-supplemented, postmenopausal women. BMD was measured at baseline and after one year. Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted during the 1-year…

  1. Decreased bone mineral density is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seok Kyo; Yun, Bo Hyon; Noe, Eun Bee; Suh, Jong Wook; Choi, Young Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 252 postmenopausal women who had visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Participants were divided into normal BMD and osteopenia-osteoporosis groups, according to the T-scores of their lumbar spine or femoral neck. Results Participants with osteopenia-osteoporosis had a significantly higher proportion of coronary atherosclerosis than did those with normal BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.003) and femoral neck (P=0.004). Osteopenia-osteoporosis at the lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 7.27) or femoral neck (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.57) was associated with coronary atherosclerosis, after controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Decreased BMD is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women, independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors. Postmenopausal women with decreased BMD may have a higher risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:25798428

  2. Effects of aging and postmenopausal hypoestrogenism on skin elasticity and bone mineral density in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Shuichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Endo, Yukie; Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Minegishi, Takashi; Ishikawa, Osamu; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2004-04-01

    Skin collagen content and bone mass decrease with aging. Loss of collagen from the skin might decrease its elasticity. We investigated associations between skin elasticity, bone mineral density (BMD), age, and menopausal hypoestrogenism. Thirty-eight healthy Japanese postmenopausal women were studied (mean age, 55.7 +/- 5.9 yr; range, 48 to 71). Skin elasticity was measured using a suction device applied to the dorsal right forearm. BMD values of L2 to 4 vertebral bodies were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age showed significant negative correlations with both skin elasticity and BMD (r = -0.57, p<0.001 and r = -0.40, p<0.05, respectively). Years since menopause also showed significant negative correlations with both skin elasticity and BMD (r = -0.51, p<0.01 and r = -0.41, p<0.05, respectively). We also found a positive correlation between skin elasticity and BMD in these postmenopausal women (r = 0.44, p<0.01). In conclusion, we demonstrated declining skin elasticity and bone mass in postmenopausal women to possibly be age- and estrogen-related. Additionally, decreased skin elasticity might serve as a predictor of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  3. How to decide intervention thresholds based on FRAX in central south Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhimin; Ou, Yangna; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

    2014-03-01

    The FRAX tool has been used to determine possible thresholds for therapeutic intervention; however, there are no FRAX-based intervention thresholds available for China, we proposed that the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture of about 4.0 and 1.3%, respectively, may be acceptable intervention thresholds for central south Chinese postmenopausal women.

  4. Evaluation of the association between osteoporosis and postural balance in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Plapler, Pérola Grinberg; de Souza Meirelles, Eduardo; Marcolino, Flora Maria D'Andrea; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andrea

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis has been increasing, as have fractures resulting from falls. Postural balance was evaluated in postmenopausal women with and without lumbar osteoporosis. One hundred and twenty-six postmenopausal women aged 55-65 years were evaluated and separated into two groups according to the bone mineral density values of their lumbar spine: the osteoporosis group and the control group, paired by age (P = 0.219) and physical activity (P = 0.611). There was no difference between the groups (P = 0.139) regarding falls reported in the previous 12 months. Functional mobility was evaluated through the Timed Up and Go Test. Postural balance was evaluated using a portable force platform in standard standing position, with eyes open and closed, for 60s. Muscle strength was evaluated through an isokinetic dynamometer. This study shows that there is no difference in knee muscle strength and functional mobility (P = 0.121), postural balance with eyes open [mediolateral displacement (P = 0.286) and mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) (P = 0.173)] and with eyes closed [mediolateral displacement (P = 0.163), and the mean velocity of displacement of the COP (P = 0.09)] in both groups. Subjects reporting falls had greater mediolateral displacement (P = 0.028) in both groups. Postmenopausal women aged between 55 and 65 years do not present changes in postural balance irrespective of lumbar osteoporosis. Greater COP mediolateral displacement is related to the occurrence of falls in postmenopausal women in the previous year.

  5. Association of circulating dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 levels with osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Baek, K H; Lee, S-Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S H; Koh, J-M; Rhee, Y; Kim, C H; Kim, D-Y; Kang, M-I; Kim, B-J; Min, Y-K

    2017-03-01

    Postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture (OF) had higher plasma dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels than those without. Furthermore, higher plasma DPP4 levels were significantly associated with higher bone turnover and a higher prevalence of OF. These results indicated that DPP4 may be associated with OF by mediating bone turnover rate.

  6. Weight Lifted in Strength Training Predicts Bone Change in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Houtkooper, Linda B.; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight lifted in one year of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) among calcium-supplemented, postmenopausal women. BMD was measured at baseline and after one year. Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted during the 1-year…

  7. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women. PMID:27134461

  8. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India.

    PubMed

    Sharanya Shre, E S; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women.

  9. [Efficacy of strontium ranelate for the mineralization of bone in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Basurto, Lourdes; Zárate, Arturo; Córdova, Nydia; Saucedo, Renata; Galván, Rosa; Campos, Sandra; Hernández, Marcelino

    2009-05-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common skeletal disorder and is considered a risk of fracture. Most medication used for the treatment of osteoporosis are antiresorptive; however strontium therapy in postmenopausal women has shown a double effect on resorption and bone formation. To evaluate the effect of strontium on bone mineral density (BMD) and circulating biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women who had a decreased BMD. A prospective study was carried out in 23 postmenopausal women who had decreased BMD, who received daily strontium orally by night during 12 months. Evaluation of BMD at lumbar spine and hip as well as biochemical markers in blood for bone turnover before and during therapy. BMD at the spine (0.755 +/- 0.104 to 0.792 +/- 0.094, p < 0.05) and hip (0.833 +/- 0.096 to 0.856 +/- 0.100, p < 0.05) increased significantly after 12 months of treatment. Bone turnover markers showed a decrement of osteocalcin, by contrast the specific alkaline phosphatase increased after 6 months of therapy; however C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not modified. Strontium ranelate increased significantly BMD at the spine and at the hip in postmenopausal women and simultaneously improved bone turnover estimated by circulating bone markers.

  10. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  11. Low appendicular muscle mass is correlated with femoral neck bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After menopause, rapid bone mass loss occurs in response to hypoestrogenism. Several studies suggest that muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively associated in postmenopausal women. Therefore, it may be assumed that postmenopausal low appendicular muscle mass (aMM) can increase BMD loss in a short period of time. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess relationship of aMM with femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods Prospective, controlled clinical Trial including 64 women aged 45-70 years, who had not had their last menstruation for at least one year. Subjects were divided into two groups: low aMM (n = 32), and normal aMM (n-32). Femoral neck BMD and muscle mass were measured by DXA at baseline and after twelve months. Pairwise and independent t tests were used for data analysis. Results Baseline weight, BMI and muscle mass (total and appendicular) significantly differ between groups (p < 0.05). After twelve months, femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in the group with low aMM, whereas no significant difference was observed in the group with normal aMM (p < 0.05). Conclusion In postmenopausal women, low appendicular muscle mass is associated negatively with femoral neck BMD in a short period of time. PMID:21981859

  12. [Fractures in postmenopausal women in the IMSS: frequency and costs of hospital care].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Pozos-Cavanzo, José Luis; Ojeda-Mijares, Rosalba Isabel; Camacho-Rodríguez, María de los Angeles

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the frequency and costs of hospitalary care due to fractures in postmenopausal period occurred in Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Study about hospitalary discharges in IMSS, among 2000-2001, with diagnosis of hip, distal forearm and vertebral fractures, with an analysis by sex and age groups. To estimate hospitalary costs, we utilized the data of Grupos Relacionados de Diagnóstico (GRD) used in IMSS. The cost for each case was $46,965.30 mexican pesos ($5,101.63 U.S.D.). It were registered 22,157 (8.2%) were fractures of the selected types. Of this number, 15,925 ocurred in persons of 50 years and more y 11,084 (69.6%) in postmenopausal women. The mentioned fractures were more frequent in men before 50 years with a proportion of 1.9 to 1. This proportion changed from 2 to 1 in women after 50 years. These differences were statistically significant. The cost of hospitalary care of hip fracture in postmenopausal women was $336,658.097 mexican pesos ($36' 593,271 U.S.D.) in the two years of the study. It is convenient to make costs-benefits evaluation about preventive resources, as widespread use of HRT, to reduce the frequency of fractures in postmenopausal women, due its high actual costs of hospitalary care.

  13. Association of Lipid Accumulation Product with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Asadi, Mojgan; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-06-01

    The lipid accumulation product is a novel, safe and inexpensive index of central lipid over accumulation based on waist circumference and fasting concentration of circulating triglycerides. This study was designed to investigate the ability of lipid accumulation product to predict Cardio-metabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. In this Cross-sectional study, 264 postmenopausal women by using convenience sampling method were selected from menopause clinic in Tehran. Cardio-metabolic risk factors were measured, and lipid accumulation product (waist-58×triglycerides [nmol/L]) was calculated. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was estimated by ROC (Receiver-operating characteristic) curve analysis. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 41.2% of subjects. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was 47.63 (sensitivity:75%; specificity:77.9%). High lipid accumulation product increases risk of all Cardio-metabolic risk factors except overweight, high Total Cholesterol, high Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and high Fasting Blood Sugar in postmenopausal women. Our findings show that lipid accumulation product is associated with metabolic syndrome and some Cardio-metabolic risk factors Also lipid accumulation product may have been a useful tool for predicting cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risk in postmenopausal women.

  14. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure: randomised, crossover trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Billington, E O; Bristow, S M; Gamble, G D; de Kwant, J A; Stewart, A; Mihov, B V; Horne, A M; Reid, I R

    2017-01-01

    Calcium supplements appear to increase cardiovascular risk, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated the acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller after calcium compared with the placebo in the hours following dosing.

  15. Effect of tamoxifen on lumbar spine bone mineral density in postmenopausal women after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Love, R R; Barden, H S; Mazess, R B; Epstein, S; Chappell, R J

    1994-11-28

    Because adjuvant tamoxifen citrate is given to women with early-stage breast cancer for long periods, it is important to know how it affects risk factors for osteoporotic bone fractures, particularly since rates of bone fracture increase rapidly with age in postmenopausal women. In a 2-year randomized placebo-controlled toxicity study in 140 subjects, we demonstrated that tamoxifen was associated with preservation of bone mineral density (BMD), a major risk factor for fractures, in the lumbar spine. Five years after entry on this study we reexamined 62 of the original subjects with lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin measurements. These were women available for study because they had not suffered major illnesses and had continued to receive (1) tamoxifen or (2) the no-tamoxifen regimen that they had originally been randomized to receive for the entire 5 years. For lumbar spine BMD at baseline, the 30 subjects in the long-term tamoxifen group and the 32 subjects in the long-term no-tamoxifen group were not significantly different (P = .26). During the first 2 years of follow-up, the 30 subjects in the long-term tamoxifen group showed the same BMD pattern as the entire 70-patient tamoxifen cohort, and similarly the 32 subjects in the long-term no-tamoxifen group showed the same pattern as the entire 70-patient cohort who received placebo. Five-year mean BMD measurements for each long-term follow-up group showed no significant changes from their respective 2-year levels. However, 5-year BMD measurements between the two groups differed (tamoxifen group, +0.8%; placebo group, -0.7%) (P = .06), and the mean regression lines for the changes in BMD over 5 years differed significantly between the two groups (P = .0005). Adjustment for differences in body mass index, reported exercise, and calcium supplementation between these two groups did not change these results. Osteocalcin levels, also comparable at baseline in the two groups, were significantly lower in tamoxifen

  16. Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels Are Associated with the Presence of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung Joo; Heo, Jin Young; Yun, Bo Hyon; Jung, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Menopause is a natural aging process causing estrogen deficiency, accelerating atherogenic processes including dyslipidemia. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also high in postmenopausal women, and it is known to elevate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we are to study on the associations in between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prevalence of CVD in postmenopausal women who have normal thyroid function. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 247 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center from January, 2007 to December, 2009. Postmenopausal women with normal serum TSH were included in the study. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results In multiple linear regression analysis, serum TSH was associated with serum triglyceride (TG) (β = 0.146, P = 0.023). In multiple logistic regression analysis, increasing age and serum TSH were associated with an increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis in euthyroid postmenopausal women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.107 [1.024-1.197], P = 0.011 and OR = 1.303 [1.024-1.658], P = 0.031, respectively). Conclusions It revealed that significant predictor of serum TSH was serum TG, and increasing age and TSH were found to have associations with an increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis in euthyroid postmenopausal women. Screening and assessing risks for CVD in healthy postmenopausal women would be helpful before atherosclerosis develops. PMID:28119894

  17. Risk Profiles for Weight Gain among Postmenopausal Women: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Yon; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Fenton, Jenifer; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Hursting, Stephen D.; Chang, Shine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Risk factors for obesity and weight gain are typically evaluated individually while “adjusting for” the influence of other confounding factors, and few studies, if any, have created risk profiles by clustering risk factors. We identified subgroups of postmenopausal women homogeneous in their clustered modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for gaining ≥ 3% weight. Methods This study included 612 postmenopausal women 50–79 years old, enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between February 1995 and July 1998. Classification and regression tree and stepwise regression models were built and compared. Results Of 27 selected variables, the factors significantly related to ≥ 3% weight gain were weight change in the past 2 years, age at menopause, dietary fiber, fat, alcohol intake, and smoking. In women younger than 65 years, less than 4 kg weight change in the past 2 years sufficiently reduced risk of ≥ 3% weight gain. Different combinations of risk factors related to weight gain were reported for subgroups of women: women 65 years or older (essential factor: < 9.8 g/day dietary factor), African Americans (essential factor: currently smoking), and white women (essential factor: ≥ 5 kg weight change for the past 2 years). Conclusions Our findings suggest specific characteristics for particular subgroups of postmenopausal women that may be useful for identifying those at risk for weight gain. The study results may be useful for targeting efforts to promote strategies to reduce the risk of obesity and weight gain in subgroups of postmenopausal women and maximize the effect of weight control by decreasing obesity-relevant adverse health outcomes. PMID:25822239

  18. Cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and health behaviours of postmenopausal women working in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Wierzbińska-Stępniak, Anna; Raczkiewicz, Dorota

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the impact of occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and metabolic syndrome (MS) diagnoses on the frequency of health behaviours in postmenopausal women working in agriculture. Eight hundred and ten postmenopausal women living in rural areas and working in agriculture, aged 46-70 and at least 12 months from the last menstrual period, were examined. Analysis of variance with multiple comparison tests was used to compare the Inventory of Health Behaviours among the women with and without CVDs and MS. The frequency of some health behaviours, mainly health practices, is higher in postmenopausal women working in agriculture with CVDs or MS than in those without CVDs or MS (p = 0.045). Women with such disorders more often limit their physical effort (p = 0.029), try to be less overworked (p < 0.001) and to take more rest (p = 0.027), more often limit consumption of animal fat and sugar (p = 0.024), more regularly visit physicians (p = 0.003) and more often take seriously recommendations concerning their health. However, an insufficient frequency of health behaviours was observed among both the healthy women and those with metabolic disorders and CVDs. One third of all the examined women had a high frequency of health behaviours, one third had an average frequency and one third had a low frequency; hence actions should be taken to improve the situation. Postmenopausal women working in agriculture more often perform beneficial health behaviours if they have MS and CVDs diagnosed in comparison to healthy women.

  19. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density.

  20. Effects of hormone therapy on soluble cell adhesion molecules in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Joseph; Klein, Karen; Brosnihan, Bridget; Reboussin, David; Herrington, David M

    2008-01-01

    Although observational studies showed an apparent lower ischemic coronary disease risk in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy (HT), randomized clinical trials in postmenopausal women showed an increase in ischemic cardiovascular events. Soluble cell adhesion molecules have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and events. HT reduces circulating levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in healthy postmenopausal women, but its effects in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease are less clear. We assessed the effect of HT on soluble cell adhesion molecules in the Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis trial. The Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study that randomized 309 postmenopausal women (mean age, 65.8 y) to daily unopposed estrogen (conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg), estrogen plus 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate, or placebo, with a mean follow-up period of 3.2 years. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin were measured in serum obtained from participants at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up. Of the 265 women with complete data, 87 women were assigned to unopposed estrogen, 88 women to estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 90 women to placebo. Compared with placebo, 12 months of HT (n = 175) was associated with reductions in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (25.6 +/- 4.7 vs 10.6 +/- 6.4 ng/mL, P = 0.06), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (80.2+/- 10.6 vs 28.8 +/- 14.7 ng/mL, P = 0.005), and E-selectin (8.8 +/- 0.9 vs -1.1 +/- 1.2 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Twelve months of HT in postmenopausal women with established coronary artery disease was associated with reductions in serum markers of endothelial cell activation/injury such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin.

  1. Sexual Self-concept and Its Relationship to Depression, Stress and Anxiety in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated (P < 0.05). Being stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions.

  2. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  3. Protective Effects of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Mice as a Model of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Kubo, Makoto; Liu, Zheng; Chu, Peiguo; Wang, Charles; Chen, Yate-Ching Yuan, Shiuan

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis). Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM), Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice (a model of postmenopausal women). OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas) and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6), were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women. PMID:22046322

  4. Postmenopausal obesity: 12,500 steps per day as a remedy? Relationships between body composition and daily steps in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Zając-Gawlak, Izabela; Pośpiech, Dariusz; Gába, Aleš; Přidalová, Miroslava; Pelclová, Jana

    2014-09-01

    To verify relationships between physical activity (steps per day) and obesity (components of body composition) among postmenopausal women. Physical activity (ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer; worn for 7 days) and obesity (body composition analyzer InBody 720) were assessed among 79 healthy postmenopausal women (age 63.25 ± 5.51 years; range: 51-81 years). In order to determine differences in body composition in women with different levels of physical activity, one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted, with age of participants as a covariate. Significant intergroup differences in almost all analyzed components of the body composition (weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, visceral fat area, body fat mass and percent of body fat) were obtained. Highly active women (≥ 12,500 steps/day) had lower weight and adiposity parameters than those that represented low (< 7,500 steps/day) or somewhat active (7,500-9,999 steps/day) groups. Besides, a noteworthy difference between active (10,000-12,499 steps/day) and low active women was recorded. Noticeably, only in the most active group was the BMI within normal ranges. The higher physical activity, the lower obesity in postmenopausal women. The recommended 10,000 steps/day seems insufficient for this age group. Based on the obtained results, postmenopausal women should walk at least 12,500 steps per day to improve their health.

  5. Thrombogenic microvesicles and white matter hyperintensities in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Raz, Limor; Jayachandran, M; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G; Wille, Samantha M; Murphy, Matthew C; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jack, Clifford R; Miller, Virginia M; Kantarci, Kejal

    2013-03-05

    To determine the association of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, markers of platelet activation, and thrombogenic blood-borne microvesicles with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load and progression in recently menopausal women. Women (n = 95) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study underwent MRI at baseline and at 18, 36, and 48 months after randomization to hormone treatments. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-medial thickness, coronary arterial calcification, plasma lipids, markers of platelet activation, and thrombogenic microvesicles were measured at baseline. WMH volumes were calculated using a semiautomated segmentation algorithm based on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI. Correlations of those parameters with baseline WMH and longitudinal change in WMH were adjusted for age, months past menopause, and APOE ε4 status in linear regression analysis. At baseline, WMH were present in all women. The WMH to white matter volume fraction at baseline was 0.88% (0.69%, 1.16%). WMH volume increased by 122.1 mm(3) (95% confidence interval: -164.3, 539.5) at 36 months (p = 0.003) and 155.4 mm(3) (95% confidence interval: -92.13, 599.4) at 48 months (p < 0.001). These increases correlated with numbers of platelet-derived and total thrombogenic microvesicles at baseline (p = 0.03). Associations of platelet-derived, thrombogenic microvesicles at baseline and increases in WMH suggest that in vivo platelet activation may contribute to a cascade of events leading to development of WMH in recently menopausal women.

  6. Thrombogenic microvesicles and white matter hyperintensities in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Limor; Jayachandran, M.; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Wille, Samantha M.; Murphy, Matthew C.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jack, Clifford R.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, markers of platelet activation, and thrombogenic blood-borne microvesicles with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load and progression in recently menopausal women. Methods: Women (n = 95) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study underwent MRI at baseline and at 18, 36, and 48 months after randomization to hormone treatments. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-medial thickness, coronary arterial calcification, plasma lipids, markers of platelet activation, and thrombogenic microvesicles were measured at baseline. WMH volumes were calculated using a semiautomated segmentation algorithm based on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI. Correlations of those parameters with baseline WMH and longitudinal change in WMH were adjusted for age, months past menopause, and APOE ε4 status in linear regression analysis. Results: At baseline, WMH were present in all women. The WMH to white matter volume fraction at baseline was 0.88% (0.69%, 1.16%). WMH volume increased by 122.1 mm3 (95% confidence interval: −164.3, 539.5) at 36 months (p = 0.003) and 155.4 mm3 (95% confidence interval: −92.13, 599.4) at 48 months (p < 0.001). These increases correlated with numbers of platelet-derived and total thrombogenic microvesicles at baseline (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Associations of platelet-derived, thrombogenic microvesicles at baseline and increases in WMH suggest that in vivo platelet activation may contribute to a cascade of events leading to development of WMH in recently menopausal women. PMID:23408873

  7. Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Arjmandi, Bahram H.; Johnson, Sarah A.; Pourafshar, Shirin; Navaei, Negin; George, Kelli S.; Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C.; Akhavan, Neda S.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production, which causes accelerated bone loss. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of postmenopausal women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition and exercise, are known to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and therefore play an important role in bone health. In terms of nutrition, accumulating evidence suggests that dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) is potentially an efficacious intervention for preventing and reversing bone mass and structural loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, as well as in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Here, we provide evidence supporting the efficacy of dried plum in preventing and reversing bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in rodent models and in humans. We end with the results of a recent follow-up study demonstrating that postmenopausal women who previously consumed 100 g dried plum per day during our one-year clinical trial conducted five years earlier retained bone mineral density to a greater extent than those receiving a comparative control. Additionally, we highlight the possible mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds in dried plum exert bone-protective effects. Overall, the findings of our studies and others strongly suggest that dried plum in its whole form is a promising and efficacious functional food therapy for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, with the potential for long-lasting bone-protective effects. PMID:28505102

  8. Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi, Bahram H; Johnson, Sarah A; Pourafshar, Shirin; Navaei, Negin; George, Kelli S; Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Akhavan, Neda S

    2017-05-14

    Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production, which causes accelerated bone loss. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of postmenopausal women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition and exercise, are known to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and therefore play an important role in bone health. In terms of nutrition, accumulating evidence suggests that dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) is potentially an efficacious intervention for preventing and reversing bone mass and structural loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, as well as in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Here, we provide evidence supporting the efficacy of dried plum in preventing and reversing bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in rodent models and in humans. We end with the results of a recent follow-up study demonstrating that postmenopausal women who previously consumed 100 g dried plum per day during our one-year clinical trial conducted five years earlier retained bone mineral density to a greater extent than those receiving a comparative control. Additionally, we highlight the possible mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds in dried plum exert bone-protective effects. Overall, the findings of our studies and others strongly suggest that dried plum in its whole form is a promising and efficacious functional food therapy for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, with the potential for long-lasting bone-protective effects.

  9. TNF-α and IL10 gene polymorphisms in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kotrych, Daniel; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Sroczynski, Tomasz; Staniszewska, Marzena; Juzyszyn, Zygmunt; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a common disorder characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Proinflammatory cytokines are among the significant factors involved in bone turnover. They are the stimulants of bone resorption, acting directly on osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. In this study, we examined the TNF-α (-308G>A) (rs1800629) and IL10 (-1082G>A) (rs1800896), (-592C>A) (rs1800872) polymorphisms in postmenopausal women with BMD T-scores less than and greater than or equal to -2.5 SD. This study included 224 postmenopausal women with BMD T-scores lower than -2.5 SD (mean: -3.02±0.53) and 238 postmenopausal women with BMD T-scores -2.5 SD and greater (mean: -1.33±0.51). There was a decrease in the frequency of IL10 1082 G allele carriers (GG and GA genotypes) in women with T-scores below -2.5 SD (GG+GA vs AA: OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.44-0.97, p=0.037). With regard to the TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism, in the women with T-scores below -2.5 SD, the increased frequency of GG homozygotes and G allele carriers was detected (AA+GA vs GG: OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.35-0.82, p=0.004). The results of our study suggest an association between TNF-α -308G>A and IL10 -1082G>A polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GABA+ levels in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate depression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhensong; Zhang, Aiying; Zhao, Bin; Gan, Jie; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Gong, Tao; Liu, Wen; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of the ACC/mPFC and PCC using the “MEGA Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence” (MEGA-PRESS) technique. The severity of depression was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Quantification of MRS data was performed using Gannet program. Differences of GABA+ levels from patients and controls were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the linear associations between GABA+ levels and HAMD scores, as well as estrogen levels. Results: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were detected in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression compared to healthy controls (P = 0.002). No significant correlations were found between 17-HAMD/14-HAMA and GABA+ levels, either in ACC/mPFC (P = 0.486; r = 0.170/P = 0.814; r = −0.058) or PCC (P = 0.887; r = 0.035/ P = 0.987; r = −0.004) in the patients; there is also no significant correlation between GABA+ levels and estrogen levels in patients group (ACC/mPFC: P = 0.629, r = −0.018; PCC: P = 0.861, r = 0.043). Conclusion: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were found in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression, suggesting that the dysfunction of the GABAergic system may also be involved in the pathogenesis of depression in postmenopausal women. PMID:27684829

  11. Baseline observations from the POSSIBLE EU® study: characteristics of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Guillemin, Francis; Jonsson, Bengt; Ortolani, Sergio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Horne, Rob; Kakad, Shilpa; Shepherd, Susan; Möller, Gerd; Marciniak, Anne; Martinez, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study that utilises physician- and patient-reported measures to describe the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women on bone loss therapies. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of 3,402 women recruited from general practice across five European countries. Purpose The POSSIBLE EU® is a study describing the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications. Methods Between 2005 and 2008, general practitioners enrolled postmenopausal women initiating, switching or continuing treatment with bone loss treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires at study entry and at 3-month intervals, for 1 year. Results Of 3,402 women enrolled (mean age 68.2 years [SD] 9.83), 96% were diagnosed with low bone mass; 55% of these using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most women (92%) had comorbidities. Mean minimum T score (hip or spine) at diagnosis was −2.7 (SD 0.89; median −2.7 [interquartile range, −3.2, −2.2]) indicating low bone mineral density. Almost 40% of the women had prior fractures in adulthood, mostly non-vertebral, non-hip in nature, 30% of whom had at least two fractures and more than half experienced moderate/severe pain or fatigue. Bisphosphonates were the most common type of bone loss treatment prescribed in the 12 months preceding the study. Conclusions POSSIBLE EU® characterises postmenopausal women with low bone mass, exhibiting a high rate of prevalent fracture, substantial bone fragility and overall comorbidity burden. Clinical strategies for managing osteoporosis in this population varied across the five participating European countries, reflecting their different guidelines, regulations and standards of care. PMID:21258637

  12. Decreased Renal Function Is a Risk Factor for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (< 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) had significantly higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than women with normal eGFR (≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2). The eGFR was negatively correlated with baPWV (r = -0.352, P < 0.001), significantly. The eGFR was lower in women with coronary atherosclerosis than in normal control women, markedly. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with the presence of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.528, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.728-20.772, P < 0.001). Conclusions Decreased eGFR was closely associated with increased arterial stiffness and coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Evaluating subclinical atherosclerosis by screening the renal function in postmenopausal women may be helpful screening high risk group and considering starting menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897

  13. Augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising forearms of postmenopausal women is reversed by oestrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Paul J; Wang, Zhongyun; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Arbique, Debbie; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Thomas, Gail D

    2004-12-15

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction is normally attenuated in exercising muscles of young men and women. Recent evidence indicates that such modulation, termed functional sympatholysis, may be impaired in older men. Whether a similar impairment occurs in older women, and what role oestrogen deficiency might play in this impairment, are not known. Based on the strong positive correlation between circulating oestrogen levels and functional sympatholysis previously reported in female rats, we hypothesized that sympatholysis would be impaired in oestrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, and that this impairment would be reversed by oestrogen replacement. To test these hypotheses, we measured vasoconstrictor responses in the forearms of pre- and postmenopausal women using near infrared spectroscopy to detect decreases in muscle oxygenation in response to reflex activation of sympathetic nerves evoked by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). In eight premenopausal women, LBNP decreased muscle oxygenation by 20 +/- 1% in resting forearm, but only by 3 +/- 2% in exercising forearm (P < 0.05). In contrast, in eight postmenopausal women, LBNP decreased muscle oxygenation by 15 +/- 3% in resting forearm, and by 12 +/- 4% in exercising forearm (P > 0.05). After 1 month of transdermal oestradiol replacement in these women, the normal effect of exercise to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction was restored (rest, -19 +/- 3%; exercise, -2 +/- 3%; P < 0.05). These data indicate that functional sympatholysis is impaired in oestrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. The effect of short-term unopposed oestrogen replacement to correct this impairment implicates a role for oestrogen in the sympathetic neural control of muscle haemodynamics during exercise.

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Ahn, Gun Young; Choi, Jang Won; Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Hoon; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Young Il

    The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women by comparing postmenopausal and premenopausal subjects, and men, using DISE. We hope that our work will help the medical community to consult on, diagnose, and treat OSAS more effectively. A total of 273 patients (195 males and 78 females) diagnosed with OSAS were enrolled. Female patients were divided into pre-menopausal (n=41) and post-menopausal patients (n=37). The group of post-menopausal female patients was matched with a group of male patients with similar age and body mass index (BMI). DISE findings were compared between pre-menopausal female patients and post-menopausal female patients, and also between post-menopausal female patients and male patients matched for age and BMI. Upon PSG examination, post-menopausal patients (who had a significantly higher BMI than did pre-menopausal patients; 25.6kg/m(2) vs. 23.5kg/m(2); p=0.019) tended to have a higher AHI and a lower lowest SaO2, but the differences did not attain statistical significance. With DISE analysis, post-menopausal female patients showed higher values in all obstruction sites, with significantly higher value in lateral diameter of retropalatal (1.49 vs. 0.90; p=0.001) and retrolingual levels (1.14 vs. 0.61; p=0.003) compared to pre-menopausal females patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed significantly more retrolingual collapse (antero-posterior, AP, p≤0.0001, and lateral diameter, p=0.042) in the lower BMI group (BMI<25) and more concentric retropalatal collapse (lateral diameter, p=0.017 and tonsillar obstruction, p=0.003) in higher BMI group (BMI≥25) than BMI and age matched male patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed a different pattern of airway

  15. Subantimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Effects on Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jeffrey B.; Stoner, Julie A.; Nummikoski, Pirkka V.; Reinhardt, Richard A.; Goren, Arthur D.; Wolff, Mark S.; Lee, Hsi-ming; Lynch, James C.; Valente, Robert; Golub, Lorne M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Determine efficacy of two-year continuous subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD; 20 mg bid) on alveolar bone in postmenopausal osteopenic, estrogen-deficient women undergoing periodontal maintenance in a two-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: 128 subjects randomized to SDD or placebo (n=64 each). Posterior vertical bite-wings taken at baseline, one and two years for alveolar bone density (ABD), using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) and computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), and alveolar bone height (ABH). Statistical analyses utilized Generalized Estimating Equations; primary analyses were intent-to-treat (ITT). Results presented as SDD versus placebo. Results: Under ITT, there was no statistically-significant effect of SDD on ABD loss (RA: p=0.8; CADIA: p=0.2) or ABH loss (p=0.2). Most sites (81−95%) were inactive. For subgroup analyses, mean CADIA was higher with SDD for non-smokers (p=0.05) and baseline probing depths ≥ 5 mm (p =0.003). SDD was associated with 29% lower odds of more progressive ABH loss in women > 5 years postmenopausal (p=0.05) and 36% lower among protocol-adherent subjects (p =0.03). Conclusion: In postmenopausal osteopenic women with periodontitis, SDD did not differ overall from placebo. Based on exploratory subgroup analyses, additional research is needed to determine the usefulness of SDD in non-smokers, subjects > 5 years postmenopausal and in deeper pockets. PMID:17716313

  16. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Farsinejad-Marj, Maryam; Talebi, Shokufeh; Ghiyasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    Mediterranean diet (MD) has long been suspected to impact on health promotion. Epidemiologic studies reveal the protective role of adherence to this dietary pattern on cancer incidence. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern influence on breast cancer risk in postmenopausal and premenopausal women. We performed an electronic search of published studies earlier than Apr 2015 using Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Scopus databases. The search terms included: breast neoplasm, breast tumors, mammary carcinoma, mammary neoplasm, breast cancer, and Mediterranean diet. Study inclusion criteria were: 1) written in English; 2) with a study arm of MD intervention or MD style assessment; 3) reported the BC risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We summarized the findings of 8 studies in this review, including five cohorts and three case-control studies. Although, cohort studies reported controversial results in this field, case-control studies resulted inverse relation between this Mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in pre or/and postmenopausal women. It seems that there is no sufficient data to reach a conclusion about the effect of MD on breast cancer risk in pre and postmenopausal, but there are some evidences suggesting the protective association. More cohort studies in different parts of the world are needed to confirm these results.

  17. Acupuncture to Treat Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, A. G.; Pires, G. N.; Andersen, M. L.; Tufik, S.; Hachul, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly observed among postmenopausal women, with negative effects on their quality of life. The search for complementary therapies for sleep disorders during postmenopausal period is of high importance, and acupuncture stands out as an appropriate possibility. The present review intended to systematically evaluate the available literature, compiling studies that have employed acupuncture as treatment to sleep disorders in postmenopausal women. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed/Medline and Scopus. Articles which had acupuncture as intervention, sleep related measurements as outcomes, and postmenopausal women as target population were included and evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and to the STRICTA guidelines. Out of 89 search results, 12 articles composed our final sample. A high heterogeneity was observed among these articles, which prevented us from performing a meta-analysis. Selected articles did not present high risk of bias and had a satisfactory compliance rate with STRICTA guidelines. In general, these studies presented improvements in sleep-related variables. Despite the overall positive effects, acupuncture still cannot be stated as a reliable treatment for sleep-related complaints, not due to inefficacy, but rather limited evidence. Nevertheless, results are promising and new comprehensive and controlled studies in the field are encouraged. PMID:26366181

  18. Influence of 12-week Nordic Walking training on biomarkers of endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pospieszna, Barbara; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Tarnas, Jacek; Lewandowski, Jacek; Laurentowska, Maria; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week Nordic Walking (NW) intervention on nitric oxide synthase activity (eNOS), levels of antibodies against oxidatively modified low-density lipoproteins (oLAb), plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis risk factors (AIP) in postmenopausal women. A sample of 39 women, divided into two comparable groups: training (N.=20) and control (N.=19), took part in the study. Participants in the training group performed a 12-week supervised NW training: 60-minute sessions of exercise, repeated three times per week. The biochemical and anthropometric data were obtained before and after the intervention. During the first and the last training sessions, the individual walking distance in trained group was measured. After the intervention, significant differences in covered distance, body mass, BMI, fat mass, insulin level (P<0.01), systolic blood pressure and TBARS concentration (P<0.05) were found in trained women. Applied training was able to improve functional capacity and body composition in healthy postmenopausal women. It appears to be no direct link between a significant decrease in the level of systolic blood pressure, the level of eNOS activity, TAC, oLAb and plasma TBARS concentration in trained women. It seems probable that NW training would be more effective for postmenopausal women with more severely impaired endothelial function.

  19. [Association between cardiovascular risk and lycopene consumption in pre- and post-menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Torresani, María Elena

    2009-06-01

    This work aimed at assessing association between cardiovascular risk (CVR) and lycopene intake in pre- and post-menopausal women, as well as its correlation with LDL-C and HDL-C values and waist circumference (WC). A transversal design of comparison and correlation was carried out for independent samples. A 316 women (40-65 y) sample attending nutritional consultation at a Research Foundation for Endocrino Metabollic Diseases in Buenos Aires city (2005-2007) was randomized according to biological stage (35.8% premenopausal and 64.2% postmenopausal women). CVR was obtained based on Framingham Score and lycopene intake (source food and all lycopene containing food) according to weekly consumption frequency (mg/d and weekly/servings). Association between variables was calculated with the Student Test, Fisher Test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (alpha significance level: 0.05). At both biological stages and for each CVR category, an inverse relationship was observed with lycopene intake, but only in premenopausal women with low CVR (Category III), lycopene intake was significantly greater than in those women who had moderate CVR (Category II). There was a significant correlation in postmenopausal women between LDL-C values and lycopene intake supplied by source food. However, in both biological stages a significant correlation was found between LDL-C values and all lycopene containing food consumption. No significant correlation was found between lycopene intake, HDL-C values and WC. These findings point out the relevances of a preventive nutritional approach at woman's different biological stages.

  20. Resistance training for hot flushes in postmenopausal women: Randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Berin, Emilia; Hammar, Mats L; Lindblom, Hanna; Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta; Spetz Holm, Anna-Clara E

    2016-03-01

    Hot flushes and night sweats affect 75% of all women after menopause and is a common reason for decreased quality of life in mid-aged women. Hormone therapy is effective in ameliorating symptoms but cannot be used by all women due to contraindications and side effects. Engagement in regular exercise is associated with fewer hot flushes in observational studies, but aerobic exercise has not proven effective in randomized controlled trials. It remains to be determined whether resistance training is effective in reducing hot flushes and improves quality of life in symptomatic postmenopausal women. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of standardized resistance training on hot flushes and other health parameters in postmenopausal women. This is an open, parallel-group, randomized controlled intervention study conducted in Linköping, Sweden. Sixty symptomatic and sedentary postmenopausal women with a mean of at least four moderate to severe hot flushes per day or 28 per week will be randomized to an exercise intervention or unchanged physical activity (control group). The intervention consists of 15 weeks of standardized resistance training performed three times a week under supervision of a physiotherapist. The primary outcome is hot flush frequency assessed by self-reported hot flush diaries, and the difference in change from baseline to week 15 will be compared between the intervention group and the control group. The intention is that this trial will contribute to the evidence base regarding effective treatment for hot flushes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Similar to Adiponectin, Serum Levels of Osteocalcin are Associated with Mammographic Breast Density in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sara; Basurto, Lourdes; Saucedo, Renata; Barrera, Susana; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Garcia-Latorre, Ethel A; Zarate, Arturo

    2017-09-15

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Canadian women and worldwide. Mammographic density is a well-established breast cancer risk. Recent evidence suggested inverse correlations among adiponectin, osteocalcin, and the risk developing breast cancer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between breast density and adiponectin and osteocalcin concentrations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 239 women, age range 40 to 60. Mammographic density, serum adiponectin, and osteocalcin levels were measured. According to the Wolfe method, participants were divided into those with low-risk and high-risk pattern mammograms. The study population included 107 premenopausal and 132 postmenopausal women. Parameters were no different between women with low-risk and high-risk patterns. In obese postmenopausal women, the high-risk pattern mammogram group had significantly higher values of adiponectin and osteocalcin compared with the low-risk pattern group. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that adiponectin and osteocalcin levels were associated with high-risk pattern mammograms. Adiponectin and osteocalcin levels were directly associated with high-risk pattern mammograms in obese postmenopausal women. These results do not support the use of adipokines as biomarkers; nevertheless, the most important factor is to assess the risk through breast density. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Support Group Method on Quality of Life in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, M; Keshavarz, M; Khoei, ES Merghaati; Hosseini, AF; ESmaeilzadeh, S; Pebdani, M Amiri; Jafarzadeh, H

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life in post-menopausal women and menopausal symptoms are closely related concepts. Influence health education policy in order to promote health and adopt a menopause lifestyle requires alternative strategies, including health training programs with community – based interventions. The current study aims to survey the effects of support groups on quality of life of post-menopausal women. Methods: A blind field trial (2010) was conducted at Saadatmandii Clinical Center (Robat Karim, Iran). 110 women were selected randomly divided into test and control groups (consisting of 55 ones). Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was used for evaluation of life quality before and three months after intervention; there was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/16. Qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square tests and quantitative variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test, paired T-test and independent t-test. Results: There was significant difference between vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, sexual aspects and life quality of this group pf women (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of women in control group. Conclusion: According to the results method of support group can lead to improved quality of life for post-menopausal ones and it can be appropriate healthcare policy to promote health and improve life quality of this group of women. PMID:23304680

  3. Baseline age and time to major fracture in younger postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Margaret Lee; Overman, Robert A; Fine, Jason P; Ensrud, Kristine E; Crandall, Carolyn J; Gass, Margery L; Robbins, John; Johnson, Karen C; LeBlanc, Erin S; Womack, Catherine R; Schousboe, John T; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to estimate the incidence of first hip or clinical vertebral fracture or major osteoporotic (hip, clinical vertebral, proximal humerus, or wrist) fracture in postmenopausal women undergoing their first bone mineral density (BMD) test before age 65 years. We studied 4,068 postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 64 years without hip or clinical vertebral fracture or antifracture treatment at baseline, who were participating in the Women's Health Initiative BMD cohort study. BMD tests were performed between October 1993 and April 2005, with fracture follow-up through 2012. Outcomes were the time for 1% of women to sustain a hip or clinical vertebral fracture and the time for 3% of women to sustain a major osteoporotic fracture before initiating treatment, adjusting for clinical risk factors and accounting for competing risks. Women without osteoporosis and women with osteoporosis on their first BMD test were analyzed separately. During a maximum of 11.2 years of concurrent BMD and fracture follow-up, the adjusted estimated time for 1% of women to have a hip or clinical vertebral fracture was 12.8 years (95% CI, 8.0-20.4) for women aged 50 to 54 years without baseline osteoporosis, 7.6 years (95% CI, 4.8-12.1) for women aged 60 to 64 years without baseline osteoporosis, and 3.0 years (95% CI, 1.3-7.1) for all women aged 50 to 64 years with baseline osteoporosis. Results for major osteoporotic fracture were similar. Because of very low rates of major osteoporotic fracture, postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 years without osteoporosis on their first BMD test are unlikely to benefit from frequent rescreening before age 65 years.

  4. Second Harmonic Generation microscopy reveals collagen fibres are more organised in the cervix of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Narice, Brenda F; Green, Nicola H; MacNeil, Sheila; Anumba, Dilly

    2016-10-21

    During labour, the cervix undergoes a series of changes to allow the passage of the fetoplacental unit. While this visible transformation is well-described, the underlying and causative microscopic changes, in which collagen plays a major role, are poorly understood and difficult to visualise. Recent studies in mice and humans have shown that Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy, a non-destructive imaging technique, can detect changes in the cervical collagen. However, the question of whether SHG can identify changes in the arrangement of cervical collagen at different physiological stages still needs addressing. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the cervical collagen alignment between pre- and postmenopausal women using SHG and to generate proof-of-concept data prior to assessing this technique in pregnancy. Cervical biopsies from premenopausal (n = 4) and postmenopausal (n = 4) multiparous women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions were cross-sectionally scanned using an upright confocal microscope. SHG images were collected in Z-stacks and qualitatively evaluated using semi-quantitative scoring (0-3 in ascending degree of alignment) by assessors who were unaware of the classification of the SHG images, and quantitatively, using 2D Fourier transformation analysis. The dominant orientation and difference in dispersion of collagen fibres in each z-stack (X ± SD) was calculated and compared between groups. Qualitatively, collagen fibres appeared more organised in postmenopausal women, [premenopausal: median 0, range (0-1), postmenopausal: median 1.25, range (1-3); X (2) (df = 5) = 19.35, p = 0.002]. Quantitatively, there was a statistically significant difference in collagen fibre dispersion between premenopausal (5.39° ± 12.68°) and postmenopausal women (-1.58° ± 8.24°), [Welch's t-test (245.54) = 5.54, p < 0.01], with no significant differences in dispersion within each group [premenopausal, Welch

  5. HYSTERECTOMY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LARGE ARTERY STIFFENING IN ESTROGEN-DEFICIENT POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Kathleen M.; Jankowski, Catherine; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Seals, Douglas R.; Moreau, Kerrie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hysterectomy, with or without oophorectomy is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk due, in part, to an adverse CVD risk factor profile. Large artery stiffening, a biomarker of vascular aging, increases the risk for CVD. We determined whether hysterectomy with or without bilateral oophorectomy (BLO) is associated with arterial stiffening in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women who had a hysterectomy with ovarian preservation (N= 24; 59±1 year, mean±SE) or with BLO (N=21; 58±2 year), and had no hysterectomy/no BLO (N=58; 58±1 year). Arterial stiffness (arterial compliance and beta stiffness index) was measured by ultrasonography of the carotid artery. Results Carotid artery compliance was lower in women with hysterectomy alone and in women with hysterectomy with BLO compared to women with no hysterectomy (0.66±0.03 and 0.71±0.06 versus 0.89±0.03 mm2/mmHg×10−1, respectively, both P<0.05). There were no differences in traditional CVD risk factors (i.e., adiposity, blood pressure and fasted lipids and lipoproteins, glucose and insulin) between the groups. After adjustment for age, menopause duration, prior menopausal hormone therapy duration, parity, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and sex-hormone binding globulin, hysterectomy status remained a significant predictor of arterial compliance. Conclusions These results indicate that hysterectomy status (with or without BLO) is associated with greater arterial stiffening in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. The greater arterial stiffening with hysterectomy was not related to an adverse CVD risk profile. Large artery stiffening may be an important mechanism by which hysterectomy increases the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women. PMID:22692329

  6. Nighttime Blood Pressure Dipping in Postmenopausal Women With Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background Blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping is prognostic of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This relationship may be stronger among women than men. The present study hypothesized that coronary artery disease (CAD) and advancing age would be associated with reduced BP dipping in postmenopausal women. The effects of daytime physical activity and nighttime sleep quality on BP dipping were also examined. Methods 54 postmenopausal women with CAD (≥50% occlusion of at least one major coronary vessel) and 48 age-matched (range 50–80 years) postmenopausal women without CAD (non-CAD) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and actigraphic evaluations of daytime physical activity and nighttime sleep efficiency. Results Women with CAD evidenced higher nighttime systolic BP (SBP) (P = 0.05) and blunted SBP dipping (P = 0.017), blunted diastolic BP (DBP) dipping (P = 0.047), and blunted pulse pressure dipping (P = 0.01), compared to non-CAD women. Multivariable regression models showed that the presence of CAD, age, daytime physical activity, and nighttime sleep efficiency were independently related to the magnitude of SBP dipping, together accounting for 25% of its variability. DBP dipping showed similar associations. Conclusions For postmenopausal women, the presence of CAD and advancing age are accompanied by blunted nighttime BP dipping, which may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Lifestyle changes that increase daytime physical activity and improve nighttime sleep quality may help improve cardiovascular risk by enhancing nighttime BP dipping. American Journal of Hypertension, advance online publication 12 July 2012. doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.95 PMID:22785406

  7. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  8. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to climacteric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Idun Berenice Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To compare fibromyalgia prevalence in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to the climacteric symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred and nine women were studied, who attended the gynecology consultation at the hospital. They were divided in two groups: group I (premenopausal, n = 113) and group II (postmenopausal, n = 96). In all of them, climacteric symptoms and fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were investigated; for the latter, the evaluations were done according to the 1990 and 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Results When groups I and II were compared, no differences were found in somatometry, medicament consumption and associated diseases. When analyzing the general group, the fibromyalgia prevalence was greater in the postmenopausal women. However, when comparing the groups according to climacteric symptoms, in group I, 29% of symptomatic women had fibromyalgia, while only 4% of asymptomatic ones (p < 0.002). In group II, 15.7% of symptomatic women, and 2.5% of asymptomatic ones had fibromyalgia (p < 0.02). In group I, the more common painful points were the lower back (45.5%), neck (35.7%), and upper back (32.1%). The more frequent symptoms were non-restful sleep (49%), followed by fatigue and cognitive symptoms (42% for each one). In group II, the more common painful points were the lower back (42%), neck (40%) and upper back (38.5%). The more frequent symptoms were fatigue (69.6%), cognitive symptoms (59.3%) and non-restful sleep (57%). Conclusions In premenopausal women, fibromyalgia was related to the presence of climacteric symptoms and in postmenopausal women – to their absence. PMID:26327850

  9. Fracture risk assessment in postmenopausal women referred to an Italian center for osteoporosis: a single day experience in Messina.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Basile, Giorgio; Fusco, Sergio; Castagna, Graziella; Reitano, Francesca; Albanese, Raffaella Ciano; Lasco, Antonino

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of fragility fractures and these are responsible of large social burden; nevertheless, osteoporosis often remains an underdiagnosed disease. FRAX is a new and simple validate fracture risk assessment tool helping physicians to select patients at high risk of future fragility fractures. To promote early diagnosis of osteoporosis, we evaluated fracture risk by FRAX and performed phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements in a population of postmenopausal women referring to our center during the World Osteoporosis Day on 20th October 2011. Eighty post-menopausal women (age 60.8±8.6) were screened and the risk of major osteoporotic and hip fractures over ten years was calculated by considering multiple clinical risk factors (CRFs). The median risk of major osteoporotic fracture (%) was 4.9 (3.5-8.6) in women younger than 55 years, 7.3 (5.4-11) in women aged between 55 and 65 years and 17.5 (11-27) in women older than 65 years; the median risk of hip fracture (%) was 0.6 (0.3-1.3), 1.5 (0.9-2.5) and 7.2 (3.1-14) respectively. QUS measurements, were lower in the older women and when multiple CRFs coexisted, and were found to correlate with fracture risk, especially with hip fracture risk (p<0.05). Within one month from the screening, 75% (44/59) of the women over 55 years came back and received a diagnosis of osteoporosis/osteopenia by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); a positive association between DXA and QUS measurements was observed (p<0.0001). Adequate treatment of these subjects could reduce fracture rates, improve the quality of life, and reduce the social costs of osteoporosis.

  10. Bone density, microarchitecture and stiffness in Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhang, Zhendong; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Nickolas, Thomas L; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic Americans of Caribbean origin are a fast-growing subset of the US population, but there are no studies on bone density, microstructure and biomechanical integrity in this minority group. In this study, we aimed to compare Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women with respect to these characteristics. Thirty-three Caribbean Hispanics were age-matched to thirty-three Caucasian postmenopausal women. At the lumbar spine, the Hispanic women had significantly lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD). At the radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), there were minimal differences between Hispanic and Caucasian women. At the tibia, Hispanic women had lower trabecular volumetric bone density and trabecular number, and higher trabecular separation. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analyses indicated that at the tibia, Hispanic women not only had significantly lower bone volume fraction, but also had significantly lower rod bone volume fraction, plate trabecular number, rod trabecular number and lower plate–plate, plate–rod and rod–rod junction densities compared to Caucasian women. The differences in bone quantity and quality contributed to lower whole bone stiffness at the radius, and both whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Hispanic women. In conclusion, Hispanic women had poorer bone mechanical and microarchitectural properties than Caucasian women, especially at the load-bearing distal tibia. PMID:26273525

  11. Aging Independently of the Hormonal Status Changes Pain Responses in Young Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Marchand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Both aging and hormonal status have an effect on pain perception. The goal of this study was to isolate as much as possible the effect of aging in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two women with regular menstrual cycles (RMW) and 18 postmenopausal women (PMW) underwent a 2-minute cold pressor test (CPT) to activate DNIC with a series of tonic heat pain stimulations with a contact thermode to assess ascending pain pathways. We found that this procedure induced much less pain during the first 15 seconds of stimulation the PMW group (P = 0.03), while the mean thermode pain ratings, pain tolerance, pain threshold, and DNIC analgesia were similar for both groups (P > 0.05). The absence of the peak pain in the PMW was probably due to reduced function of the myelinated Aδ fibers that naturally occurs with age. PMID:22110943

  12. Risedronate’s Role in Reducing Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women with Established Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Brian J.; Das, Shyamal

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant concern for postmenopausal women and is a critical factor in hip fracture. Examining evidence for osteoporosis medications in hip fracture is important for optimizing treatment. Purpose Review risedronate’s role for hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Methods A literature search was conducted using Medline and Web of Science. The search was limited using the terms “risedronate” and “hip fracture,” and to studies that included women. Similar articles linked to the search and pertinent articles in bibliographies were also examined. Results Risedronate has demonstrated efficacy and cost effectiveness for hip fracture, but may not be beneficial for patients with low fracture risk. Risedronate is generally well tolerated, but may cause side effects in some patient populations. Conclusion Risedronate has benefit for hip fracture, but patients should be carefully screened to determine the appropriateness of risedronate before starting treatment. PMID:22267947

  13. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = −0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = −0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  14. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-03-16

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = -0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = -0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age.

  15. Visfatin correlates with hot flashes in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome: effects of genistein.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandra; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Alibrandi, Angela; D'Anna, Rosario; Corrado, Francesco; Atteritano, Marco; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    During menopause, an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and central obesity seems to increase hot flashes (HFs). Visfatin is an inflammatory adipokine secreted by visceral fat. We investigated visfatin levels and its relationship with hot flash number and BMI, in postmenopausal women with MetS. We also evaluated the effect of genistein, an isoflavone effective in reducing HFs, on visfatin levels and HFs after 1 year of treatment. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein (n = 60), daily for 1 year. As main outcome measures, hot flashes number and circulating visfatin levels were evaluated. Visfatin significantly correlated with BMI and HFs number in women with MetS at basal. After 6 and 12 months, our results indicate a strong correlation and a significant effect of genistein in reducing both HFs and visfatin in women with MetS. The present study suggests that visfatin plays a role in the vasomotor symptoms, at least in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Genistein may reduce HFs decreasing the circulating levels of this inflammatory adipokine.

  16. Soda intake and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women.

    PubMed

    Supplee, Joy D; Duncan, Glen E; Bruemmer, Barbara; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2011-11-01

    Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Soda consumption may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health. We examined the relationship between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, an at-risk population because of nutritional and other lifestyle-related factors. Cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression to examine associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis, and linear regression to examine the association between soda consumption and BMD, with and without adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Quantitative ultrasound of the heel was performed to estimate BMD (g/cm2). American-Indian communities in the Northern Plains and Southwestern USA. A total of 438 postmenopausal American-Indian women. Women with osteoporosis were significantly older and had lower BMI, average daily soda intakes, BMD levels and use of hormones than women without osteoporosis (P < 0·05). Soda consumption was not associated with increased odds of osteoporosis in either unadjusted or adjusted models (P > 0·05), although age (increased), BMI (decreased) and past hormone use (decreased) were all significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (P < 0·05). Although the present study did not find associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, analyses did confirm confounding between soda consumption and age and BMI. This suggests that any potential effects of soda consumption on bone health are largely mediated through these factors.

  17. History of major depressive disorder and endothelial function in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Mansoor, George A; Abbott, Gina

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether history of depression is associated with endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-nine postmenopausal women with no known or suspected cardiovascular disease participated. Nineteen had a positive lifetime history of major depressive disorder, and 20 were never depressed. None were currently depressed, and all had been free of major depressive disorder and antidepressant medications for > or =1 year. History of depression was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, enhanced by a modified version of the timeline follow-back method. Current depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Brachial artery FMD was measured with ultrasound and calculated as percent dilation from baseline. After controlling for current subclinical depressive symptoms, ethnicity, hormone replacement therapy, and presence of the metabolic syndrome, previously depressed women showed significantly and clinically meaningful lower FMD than never depressed women. Controlling the same covariates, there was a dose-response relationship between number of depressive episodes and FMD. Examination of FMD means showed a significant negative correlation between number of depressive episodes and FMD. In postmenopausal women, depression continues to show a negative relationship to endothelial functioning even after years of remission. This relationship is not accounted for by residual depressive symptoms. Implications pertain to exclusion of previously depressed persons from control groups in research exploring the relationship between depression and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Overweight and obese perimenopausal and postmenopausal women exhibit increased abnormal mammary epithelial cytology.

    PubMed

    Seewaldt, Victoria L; Goldenberg, Vanessa; Jones, Lee W; Peace, Charlotte; Broadwater, Gloria; Scott, Victoria; Bean, Gregory R; Wilke, Lee Gravit; Zalles, Carola M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2007-03-01

    High body mass index (BMI >or= 25 kg/m2) is associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, few studies have explored associations between BMI and direct measures on target tissue. Epithelial cytology was assessed in 62 high-risk perimenopausal and postmenopausal women using random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Masood cytology index scores were significantly higher among women with BMIs >or=25 kg/m2 than in women with BMIs <25 kg/m2 (13.9 +/- 0.42 versus 12.7 +/- 0.29 kg/m2; P = 0.017). Overweight or obese women also had significantly higher random periareolar fine needle aspiration epithelial cell counts compared with those who were normal weight (1,230 +/- 272 versus 521 +/- 185; P = 0.028). These data suggest that overweight in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women is associated with direct cytologic abnormalities within the breast. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine if this potential biomarker is responsive to changes in body weight resulting from diet and/or exercise interventions.

  19. Association of LRP5 genotypes with osteoporosis in Tunisian post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Rim; Sahli, Hela; Souissi, Chiraz; El Mahmoudi, Hejer; Zouari, Bechir; Ben Ammar ElGaaied, Amel; Sellami, Slaheddine; Ferrari, Serge Livio

    2014-04-30

    Osteoporosis is a highly heritable trait. Among the genes associated with bone mineral density (BMD), the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) has been consistently identified in Caucasians. However LRP5 contribution to osteoporosis in populations of other ethnicities remains poorly known. To determine whether LRP5 polymorphisms Ala1330Val and Val667Met are associated with BMD in North Africans, these genotypes were analyzed in 566 post-menopausal Tunisian women with mean age of 59.5 ± 7 .7 years, of which 59.1% have low bone mass (T-score<-1 at spine or hip). In post-menopausal Tunisian women, 1330Val was weakly associated with reduced BMD T-score at lumbar spine (p=0.047) but not femur neck. Moreover, the TT/TC genotypes tended to be more frequent in women with osteopenia and osteoporosis than in women with normal BMD (p=0.066). Adjusting for body size and other potential confounders, LRP5 genotypes were no longer significantly associated with aBMD at any site. The less common Val667Met polymorphism showed no association with osteoporosis. The Ala1330Val polymorphism is weakly associated with lower lumbar spine bone density and osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal Tunisian women. These observations expand our knowledge about the contribution of LRP5 genetic variation to osteoporosis risk in populations of diverse ethnic origin.

  20. Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women and Their Spouses: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadalizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Montazeri, Ali; Taheri, Safoura; Taghinejad, Hamid; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most women spend more than one-third of their lives after menopause. Due to physiologic changes in that period, menopause can cause a series of symptoms such as vasomotor symptoms, psychologic problems, and sexual dysfunction, which can affect the women’s quality of life (QoL) and other family members, especially their spouse. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the association between the QoL of postmenopausal women and their husbands. Patients and Methods: This descriptive-inferential cross-sectional study was conducted according to the census of 2006 in Iran. A total of 400 postmenopausal women aging 50 to 59 years and their spouses in 80 cluster heads of Ilam City residents were selected and studied in collaboration with the Statistical Center of Iran. The required data were gathered using the short-form health survey (SF-36) questionnaire and demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher-trained interviewers. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 through Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and correlation. Results: The participants’ mean age was 54.2 ± 2.8 years for women and 61.1 ± 6.1 years for their spouses. More than half of the women (57%) and about one-third of men (32.8%) were illiterate. The employed educated women aging 50 to 54 years had a higher mean score of SF-36 domains. The difference in education was significant in all domains except for mental health. There was a significant difference in age in all domains except in general health. The mean score of all domains of QoL was significantly less in the illiterate men than in the literate ones (P < 0.05). The results of the present study showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the couples’ QoL, vasomotor symptoms, and aging. Spearman test showed a significant positive correlation in all domains of QoL between postmenopausal women and their spouses (correlation coefficient, 0.48-0.63). Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study

  1. Association between Sleep and Breast Cancer Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Levitan, Emily B.; Hale, Lauren; Shikany, James M.; Shah, Neomi A.; Endeshaw, Yohannes; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether the duration of sleep, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance was associated with incident breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Women enrolled in one of the Clinical Trial (CT) arms or the Observational Study (OS) from the WHI conducted in the United States. Participants: This study included 110,011 women age 50 to 79 years with no history of cancer. Measurements and Results: Typical sleep duration, sleep quality, and other self-reported sleep measures over the past 4 weeks were assessed during the screening visits for both the CT and OS participants. The presence of insomnia and level of sleep disturbance was calculated from an index of the WHI Insomnia Rating Scale. The outcome for this study was primary, invasive breast cancer. A total of 5,149 incident cases of breast cancer were identified in this study. No statistically significant associations were found between sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or level of sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer after multivariable adjustment. A positive trend was observed for increasing sleeping duration with the risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, but the association estimates for each sleep duration category were weak and nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study does not provide strong support for an association between self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer. Citation: Vogtmann E; Levitan EB; Hale L; Shikany JM; Shah NA; Endeshaw Y; Lewis CE; Manson JE; Chlebowski RT. Association between sleep and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1437-1444. PMID:24082303

  2. Awareness of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Indian women: An evaluation of Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Sen, Mitali

    2016-01-01

    Context: The level of awareness about osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are the common sufferers. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the level of awareness in postmenopausal women using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS). Settings and Design: Osteoporosis has emerged as a common health problem in geriatric population. A proactive role needs to be played for preventing its consequences. Before initiating any preventive measures, an evaluation of awareness level of the target population is necessary. The questionnaire-based study design was used for this study. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire (OHBS)-based study in 100 postmenopausal women in Chandigarh was conducted. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in each case by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the participants were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate any correlation between the various components of the OHBS and the BMD. Results: No statistically significant difference was noted in the seven component parameters of OHBS among the normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic women suggesting that the health belief regarding susceptibility is not much different between the three groups of the study population. A statistically significant difference between the mean BMI of normal and osteoporotic population was noted. Conclusions: The results show that there is a great deficit in the awareness level of postmenopausal Indian women regarding osteoporosis. Most of the women were unaware of the condition and the means to prevent it. The study emphasizes that health care professionals have lot of ground to cover to decrease the incidence of osteoporosis and its associated health problem. PMID:28096642

  3. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E.; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:28121926

  4. Desvenlafaxine and escitalopram for the treatment of postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudio N; Thase, Michael E; Clayton, Anita; Guico-Pabia, Christine J; Focht, Kristen; Jiang, Qin; Kornstein, Susan G; Ninan, Phil; Kane, Cecelia P; Cohen, Lee S

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desvenlafaxine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram for major depressive disorder (MDD) in postmenopausal women. In this randomized, double-blind study, postmenopausal outpatients (aged 40-70 y) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition MDD received flexible-dose desvenlafaxine (100-200 mg/d) or escitalopram (10-20 mg/d) for 8 weeks. Acute-phase responders, that is, women with a 50% or greater reduction from baseline in the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) total score, were eligible to continue the same double-blind treatment in the 6-month continuation phase. The primary efficacy outcomes were mean change from baseline in HAM-D17 total score (acute phase), analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures, and the proportion of women who maintained response (continuation phase), analyzed using logistic regression. Reductions in HAM-D17 total score at acute-phase endpoint were similar for desvenlafaxine- and escitalopram-treated women (-13.6 vs -14.3, respectively; P = 0.24). No significant difference was observed between groups at continuation-phase endpoint in the proportion of women who maintained response (desvenlafaxine, 82%; escitalopram, 80%; P = 0.70). In both phases, desvenlafaxine and escitalopram were generally safe and well tolerated. Among postmenopausal outpatients with MDD, there were no significant differences in the efficacy of desvenlafaxine and escitalopram based on primary efficacy analyses. The results do not support the overall hypothesis that the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desvenlafaxine has an efficacy advantage for the treatment of MDD in postmenopausal women because, in this particular subgroup, desvenlafaxine failed to prove superiority over escitalopram. Safety and tolerability were comparable.

  5. Hormone treatment gives no benefit against cognitive changes caused by acute sleep deprivation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karakorpi, Maija; Alhola, Paula; Urrila, Anna Sofia; Kylmälä, Mervi; Portin, Raija; Kalleinen, Nea; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether hormone therapy (HT) gives any benefit against the possible impairment of cognitive performance when challenged by acute sleep deprivation. Twenty postmenopausal women volunteered (age range 59-72 years, mean=64.4 years, SD=4.4): 10 HT users and 10 nonusers. Eleven young women served as a control group for the cognitive age effect (age range 20-26 years, mean age 23.1 years, SD=1.6). The subjects spent four consecutive nights at the sleep laboratory and were exposed to acute sleep deprivation of 40 h. Measures of attention (reaction speed and vigilance), alertness, and mood were administered every 2 h during the daytime and every hour during the sleep deprivation night. Postmenopausal women performed slower than young controls, whereas young controls made more errors. In HT users, the recovery night did not fully restore the performance in the simple and two-choice reaction time tasks, but in nonusers it did so. Sleep deprivation had a detrimental, yet reversible effect on vigilance in all groups. In all groups, sleepiness started to increase after 15 h of sleep deprivation and remained elevated in the morning after the recovery night. Prolonged wakefulness or HT had no effect on mood. In conclusion, sleep deprivation impaired cognitive performance in postmenopausal as well as young women. Postmenopausal women kept up their performance at the expense of reaction speed and young women at the expense of accuracy. One night was not enough for HT users to recover from sleep deprivation. Thus, HT gave no benefit in maintaining the attention and alertness during sleep deprivation.

  6. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-08-01

    Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated.A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA.Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR = 0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.66, P = 0.021).Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause.

  7. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M

    2017-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis.

  8. Effect of exercise on serum estrogens in postmenopausal women: a 12-month randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    McTiernan, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Yasui, Yutaka; Irwin, Melinda L; Rajan, Kumar B; Sorensen, Bess; Rudolph, Rebecca E; Bowen, Deborah; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Potter, John D; Schwartz, Robert S

    2004-04-15

    Elevated circulating estrogens and a sedentary lifestyle increase risk for breast cancer. The effect of exercise on circulating estrogens in sedentary postmenopausal women is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention on serum estrogens. We randomly assigned 173 sedentary, overweight (body mass index > 24.0 kg/m(2), body fat > 33%), postmenopausal women, ages 50-75 years, not using hormone therapy, living in the Seattle, Washington, area for the next year, and willing to be randomly assigned to an exercise intervention or stretching control group. The exercise intervention included facility and home-based exercise (45 min, 5 days/week moderate intensity sports/recreational exercise). A total of 170 (98.3%) women completed the study with exercisers averaging 171 min/week of exercise. After 3 months, exercisers experienced declines in estrone, estradiol, and free estradiol of 3.8, 7.7, and 8.2%, respectively, versus no change or increased concentrations in controls (P = 0.03, 0.07, and 0.02, respectively). At 12 months, the direction of effect remained the same, although the differences were no longer statistically significant. The effect was limited to women who lost body fat: women whose percentage of body fat [by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DEXA)] decreased by >/==" BORDER="0">2% had statistically significant (comparing exercisers versus controls) decreases at 12 months of 11.9, 13.7, and 16.7% for serum estrone, estradiol, and free estradiol, respectively. We concluded that a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention in postmenopausal women resulted in significant decreases in serum estrogens. The association between increased physical activity and reduced risk for postmenopausal breast cancer may be partly explained by effects on serum estrogens.

  9. Fat Near the Heart a Hazard for Postmenopausal Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Heart Disease in Women Heart Diseases Women's Health Recent ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Disease in Women Heart Diseases Women's Health ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  10. It's not as bad as you think: menopausal representations are more positive in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lydia; Brown, Valerie; Judd, Fiona; Bryant, Christina

    2017-09-22

    The menopausal transition is associated with underlying hormonal changes that can contribute to a range of physical and emotional symptoms. Psycho-social factors including attitudes and internal representations play a central role in women's experience of the menopause, but very little is known about how representations might differ across menopausal stages. A sample of 387 women aged 40-60 completed a postal questionnaire that included the menopausal representations questionnaire, the emotional representation subscale adapted from the illness perception questionnaire, and data on menopausal status. Significant differences across menopausal stages were found for both cognitive [F(2, 381) = 4.32, p < .05, η(2) = 0.022], and emotional [F(2, 381) = 9.70, p < .01, η(2) = 0.048] menopausal representations. Postmenopausal women had a significantly more positive cognitive representations of the menopause relative to perimenopausal women (standardised mean difference = 0.25, p > .05). Postmenopausal women held a significantly more positive emotional representation of the menopause than both premenopausal (standardised mean difference = 0.56, p < .05) and perimenopausal (standardised mean difference = 0.43, p < .05) women. Women's emotional and cognitive representations of the menopause are more positive among postmenopausal women, compared to women in the late premenopausal stage. This is consistent with the affective forecasting theory, which proposes the tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of emotional reactions to future events. Given the association between representations and bothersomeness of menopausal symptoms, clinicians should educate women about their expectations, and challenge their negative beliefs about the menopause.

  11. Characterization of vascular disease risk in postmenopausal women and its association with cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N Maritza; Gleason, Carey E; Manson, Joann E; Hodis, Howard N; Miller, Virginia M; Brinton, Eliot A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, M Nanette; Cedars, Marcelle; Lobo, Rogerio; Merriam, George R; Wharton, Whitney; Naftolin, Frederi