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Sample records for early postnatal lethality

  1. Neuronal redox imbalance results in altered energy homeostasis and early postnatal lethality.

    PubMed

    Maity-Kumar, Gandhari; Thal, Dietmar R; Baumann, Bernd; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Redox imbalance is believed to contribute to the development and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. Our aim was to develop an animal model that exhibits neuron-specific oxidative stress in the CNS to study the consequences and eventually find clues regarding the pathomechanisms of oxidative insults in neuronal homeostasis. We therefore generated a novel neuron-specific superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)-deficient mouse by deleting exon 3 of the SOD2 gene using CamKIIα promoter-driven Cre expression. These neuron-specific SOD2 knockout (SOD2(nko)) mice, although born at normal frequencies, died at the age of 4 weeks with critical growth retardation, severe energy failure, and several neurologic phenotypes. In addition, SOD2(nko) mice exhibited severe neuronal alterations such as reactive astrogliosis, neuronal cell cycle inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. JNK activation and stabilization of p53, as a result of reactive oxygen species accumulation, are most likely the inducers of neuronal apoptosis in SOD2(nko) mice. It is remarkable that hypothalamic regulation of glucose metabolism was affected, which in turn induced necrotic brain lesions in SOD2(nko) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that exclusive deficiency of SOD2 in neurons results in an impaired central regulation of energy homeostasis that leads to persistent hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia-related neuropathology, and an early lethality of the mutant mice. © FASEB.

  2. AMPA receptor desensitization mutation results in severe developmental phenotypes and early postnatal lethality

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Louisa A.; Russell, Theron A.; Xu, Jian; Wood, Lydia; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.; Contractor, Anis

    2010-01-01

    AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) recep-tors desensitize rapidly and completely in the continued presence of their endogenous ligand glutamate; however, it is not clear what role AMPA receptor desensitization plays in the brain. We generated a knock-in mouse in which a single amino acid residue, which controls desensitization, was mutated in the GluA2 (GluR2) receptor subunit (GluA2L483Y). This mutation was homozygous lethal. However, mice carrying a single mutated allele, GluA2L483Y/wt, survived past birth, but displayed severe and progressive neurological deficits including seizures and, ultimately, increased mortality. The expression of the AMPA receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 was decreased, whereas NMDA receptor protein expression was increased in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Despite this, basal synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus were largely unaffected, suggesting that neurons preferentially target receptors to synapses to normalize synaptic weight. We found no gross neuroanatomical alterations in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Moreover, there was no accumulation of AMPA receptor subunits in intracellular compartments, suggesting that folding and assembly of AMPA receptors are not affected by this mutation. Interestingly, EPSC paired pulse ratios in the CA1 were enhanced without a change in synaptic release probability, demonstrating that postsynaptic receptor properties can contribute to facilitation. The dramatic phenotype observed in this study by the introduction of a single amino acid change demonstrates an essential role in vivo for AMPA receptor desensitization. PMID:20439731

  3. Aberrant activation of the human sex-determining gene in early embryonic development results in postnatal growth retardation and lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Kido, Tatsuo; Sun, Zhaoyu; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris

    2017-06-23

    Sexual dimorphisms are prevalent in development, physiology and diseases in humans. Currently, the contributions of the genes on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in these processes are uncertain. Using a transgene activation system, the human sex-determining gene hSRY is activated in the single-cell embryos of the mouse. Pups with hSRY activated (hSRY ON ) are born of similar sizes as those of non-activated controls. However, they retard significantly in postnatal growth and development and all die of multi-organ failure before two weeks of age. Pathological and molecular analyses indicate that hSRY ON pups lack innate suckling activities, and develop fatty liver disease, arrested alveologenesis in the lung, impaired neurogenesis in the brain and occasional myocardial fibrosis and minimized thymus development. Transcriptome analysis shows that, in addition to those unique to the respective organs, various cell growth and survival pathways and functions are differentially affected in the transgenic mice. These observations suggest that ectopic activation of a Y-located SRY gene could exert male-specific effects in development and physiology of multiple organs, thereby contributing to sexual dimorphisms in normal biological functions and disease processes in affected individuals.

  4. Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl

    2003-11-01

    Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.

  5. Methylxanthines during pregnancy and early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, many fetuses and infants are exposed to methylxanthines via maternal consumption of coffee and other beverages containing these substances. Methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and aminophylline) are also commonly used as a medication for apnea of prematurity.The metabolism of methylxanthines is impaired in pregnant women, fetuses and neonates, leading to accumulating levels thereof. Methylxanthines readily passes the placenta barrier and enters all tissues and thus may affect the fetus/newborn at any time during pregnancy or postnatal life, given that the effector systems are mature.At clinically relevant doses, the major effector system for methylxanthines is adenosine receptors. Animal studies suggest that adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune system are developed at birth, but that cerebral adenosine receptors are not fully functional. Furthermore animal studies have shown protective positive effects of methylxanthines in situations of hypoxia/ischemia in neonates. Similarly, a positive long-term effect on lung function and CNS development was found in human preterm infants treated with high doses of caffeine for apneas. There is now evidence that the overall benefits from methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity outweigh potential short-term risks.On the other hand it is important to note that experimental studies have indicated that long-term effects of caffeine during pregnancy and postnatally may include altered behavior and altered respiratory control in the offspring, although there is currently no human data to support this.Some epidemiology studies have reported negative effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes related to maternal ingestion of high doses of caffeine, but the results are inconclusive. The evidence base for adverse effects of caffeine in first third of pregnancy are stronger than for later parts of pregnancy and there is currently insufficient evidence to advise women to restrict

  6. Early Postnatal Cardiomyocyte Proliferation Requires High Oxidative Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Ana Elisa Teófilo Saturi; Bassaneze, Vinícius; Forni, Maria Fernanda; Keusseyan, Aline Alfonso; Kowaltowski, Alicia Juliana; Krieger, José Eduardo

    2017-11-13

    Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth. Cardiomyocyte extracellular flux analysis indicated that the decrease in oxidative metabolism between the first and seventh days after birth was mostly related to lower rates of ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that overall energetic demands decrease during this period. In parallel, the proliferation rate was higher for early cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, in vitro nonlethal chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration reduced the proliferative capacity of early cardiomyocytes, indicating a high energy demand to sustain cardiomyocyte proliferation. Altogether, we provide evidence that early postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity correlates with high oxidative energy metabolism. The energy requirement decreases as the proliferation ceases in the following days, and both oxidative-dependent metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis subside.

  7. Oligodendrocytes as Regulators of Neuronal Networks during Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Maria; Ikrar, Taruna; Kinoshita, Chisato; De Mei, Claudia; Tirotta, Emanuele; Xu, Xiangmin; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the glial cells responsible for myelin formation. Myelination occurs during the first postnatal weeks and, in rodents, is completed during the third week after birth. Myelin ensures the fast conduction of the nerve impulse; in the adult, myelin proteins have an inhibitory role on axon growth and regeneration after injury. During brain development, oligodendrocytes precursors originating in multiple locations along the antero-posterior axis actively proliferate and migrate to colonize the whole brain. Whether the initial interactions between oligodendrocytes and neurons might play a functional role before the onset of myelination is still not completely elucidated. In this article, we addressed this question by transgenically targeted ablation of proliferating oligodendrocytes during cerebellum development. Interestingly, we show that depletion of oligodendrocytes at postnatal day 1 (P1) profoundly affects the establishment of cerebellar circuitries. We observed an impressive deregulation in the expression of molecules involved in axon growth, guidance and synaptic plasticity. These effects were accompanied by an outstanding increase of neurofilament staining observed 4 hours after the beginning of the ablation protocol, likely dependent from sprouting of cerebellar fibers. Oligodendrocyte ablation modifies localization and function of ionotropic glutamate receptors in Purkinje neurons. These results show a novel oligodendrocyte function expressed during early postnatal brain development, where these cells participate in the formation of cerebellar circuitries, and influence its development. PMID:21589880

  8. Early postnatal nutrition determines adult physical activity and energy expenditure in female mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...

  9. Impact of Early Postnatal Androgen Exposure on Voice Development

    PubMed Central

    Grisa, Leila; Leonel, Maria L.; Gonçalves, Maria I. R.; Pletsch, Francisco; Sade, Elis R.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zagonel, Ivete P. S.; Longui, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT) in childhood. Methods The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0), vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years) and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years) female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. Results Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89%) had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5%) at 8.16 years, and 1 (5%) at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months) was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19) of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz) and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. Conclusions Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors. PMID:23284635

  10. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target and risk of ductus arteriosus closure failure.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Kei; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yonemoto, Hiroki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawase, Akihiko; Kondo, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    Early postnatal hyperoxia is a major risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. To reduce the occurrence of ROP, we adopted a lower early postnatal oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) target range (85-92%) from April 2011. Lower SpO 2 target range, however, may lead to hypoxemia and an increase in the risk of ductus arteriosus (DA) closure failure. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether a lower SpO 2 target range, during the early postnatal stage, increases the risk of DA closure failure. Infants born at <28 weeks' gestation were enrolled in this study. Oxygen saturation target range during the first postnatal 72 h was 84-100% in study period 1 and 85-92% in period 2. Eighty-two infants were included in period 1, and 61 were included in period 2. The lower oxygen saturation target range increased the occurrence of hypoxemia during the first postnatal 72 h. Prevalence of DA closure failure in period 2 (21%) was significantly higher than that in period 1 (1%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lower oxygen saturation target range was an independent risk factor for DA closure failure. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target range increases the risk of DA closure failure. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Insights from Australian parents into educational experiences in the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Lois V; Pincombe, Jan I; Henderson, Ann M

    2006-12-01

    to investigate the provision of parent education during the early postnatal period in order to gain insight that, through stakeholder collaboration, will contribute to the development of innovative strategies to enhance the provision of postnatal education in a contemporary health-care environment. the study comprises the first stage of an action-research project. The first stage of research sought to explore the experiences of mothers and fathers in the early postnatal period by conducting a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the birth of their baby. The data obtained from the questionnaire is to inform an action-research group for stage two of the project. The Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, a large city maternity hospital in South Australia, covering a range of socio-economic strata. 85 parents completed and returned the questionnaire, comprising 52 mothers and 33 fathers. an anonymous self-report questionnaire was purpose designed to provide each parent with an opportunity to reflect on their own experience, with particular emphasis given to the provision of education and support during the early postnatal period. a number of themes emerged, including a window of opportunity during the postnatal hospital stay to provide education and support, despite the reduction in the length of stay; the need for a family-centred approach to maternity services; and the significance of self and social network in the early transition to parenthood. The findings from this stage of the research, combined with a review of the literature, provide insight that will contribute to stage two of the study. At this stage, an action-research group will continue planning to develop specific actions to enhance the provision of education to parents in the early postnatal period. These actions will subsequently be implemented and assessed.

  12. [Electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal postnatal early development mediated by AMPA receptors in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Yi; Zhang, Ai-Feng; Zhao, Wen; Gao, Yu-Dan; Duan, Hong-Mei; Hao, Peng; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2018-04-25

    The present study was aimed to investigate the electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal postnatal early development mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into postnatal 0.5-, 1-, 2- and 3-month groups (n = 12). Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) mediated by AMPA receptors were recorded to evaluate the changes in the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by using patch-clamp and MED64 planar microelectrode array technique respectively. The results showed that, during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months, some of the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, such as the membrane capacitance (Cm) and the resting membrane potential (RMP), showed no significant changes, while the membrane input resistance (Rin) and the time constant (τ) of the cells were decreased significantly. The amplitude, frequency and kinetics (both rise and decay times) of sEPSCs were significantly increased during the period of postnatal 0.5-1 month, but they were all decreased during the period of postnatal 1-3 months. In addition, the range of evoked fEPSPs in hippocamal CA1 region was significantly expanded, but the fEPSP amplitudes were decreased significantly during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months. Furthermore, the evoked fEPSPs could be significantly inhibited by extracellular application of the AMPA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). These results suggest that AMPA receptor may act as a major type of excitatory receptor to regulate synaptic transmission and connections during the early stage of hippocampal postnatal development, which promotes the development and functional maturation of hippocampus in rats.

  13. MEAL PARAMETERS AND VAGAL GASTROINTESTINAL AFFERENTS IN MICE THAT EXPERIENCED EARLY POSTNATAL OVERNUTRITION

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, Jessica E.; Fox, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Early postnatal overnutrition results in a predisposition to develop obesity due in part to hypothalamic and sympathetic dysfunction. Potential involvement of another major regulatory system component - the vagus nerve - has not been examined. Moreover, feeding disturbances have rarely been investigated prior to development of obesity when confounds due to obesity are minimized. To examine these issues, litters were culled on the day of birth to create small litters (SL; overnutrition), or normal-size litters (NL; normal nutrition). Body weight, fat pad weight, meal patterns, and vagal sensory duodenal innervation were compared between SL and NL adult mice prior to development of obesity. Meal patterns were studied 18 hour/day for 3 weeks using a balanced diet. Then vagal mechanoreceptors were labeled using anterograde transport of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the nodose ganglion and their density and morphology were examined. Between postnatal day 1 and weaning, body weight of SL mice was greater than for NL mice. By young adulthood it was similar in both groups, whereas SL fat pad weight was greater in males, suggesting postnatal overnutrition produced a predisposition to obesity. SL mice exhibited increased food intake, decreased satiety ratio, and increased first meal rate (following mild food deprivation) compared to NL mice, suggesting postnatal overnutrition disrupted satiety. The density and structure of intestinal IGLEs appeared similar in SL and NL mice. Thus, although a vagal role cannot be excluded, our meal parameter and anatomical findings provided no evidence for significant postnatal overnutrition effects on vagal gastrointestinal afferents. PMID:20403369

  14. Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yadong; Joachimski, Michael M.; Wignall, Paul B.; Yan, Chunbo; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Wang, Lina; Lai, Xulong

    2012-10-01

    Global warming is widely regarded to have played a contributing role in numerous past biotic crises. Here, we show that the end-Permian mass extinction coincided with a rapid temperature rise to exceptionally high values in the Early Triassic that were inimical to life in equatorial latitudes and suppressed ecosystem recovery. This was manifested in the loss of calcareous algae, the near-absence of fish in equatorial Tethys, and the dominance of small taxa of invertebrates during the thermal maxima. High temperatures drove most Early Triassic plants and animals out of equatorial terrestrial ecosystems and probably were a major cause of the end-Smithian crisis.

  15. Disproportionate cardiac hypertrophy during early postnatal development in infants born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lamata, Pablo; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Ohuma, Eric O; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Wopperer, Samuel; Packham, Alice; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Adults born very preterm have increased cardiac mass and reduced function. We investigated whether a hypertrophic phenomenon occurs in later preterm infants and when this occurs during early development. Methods Cardiac ultrasound was performed on 392 infants (33% preterm at mean gestation 34±2 weeks). Scans were performed during fetal development in 137, at birth and 3 months of postnatal age in 200, and during both fetal and postnatal development in 55. Cardiac morphology and function was quantified and computational models created to identify geometric changes. Results At birth, preterm offspring had reduced cardiac mass and volume relative to body size with a more globular heart. By 3 months, ventricular shape had normalized but both left and right ventricular mass relative to body size were significantly higher than expected for postmenstrual age (left 57.8±41.9 vs. 27.3±29.4%, P<0.001; right 39.3±38.1 vs. 16.6±40.8, P=0.002). Greater changes were associated with lower gestational age at birth (left P<0.001; right P=0.001). Conclusion Preterm offspring, including those born in late gestation, have a disproportionate increase in ventricular mass from birth up to 3 months of postnatal age. These differences were not present before birth. Early postnatal development may provide a window for interventions relevant to long-term cardiovascular health. PMID:28399117

  16. Profiling analysis of long non-coding RNAs in early postnatal mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Yang, Yao; Chen, Hanying; Wang, Fangjie; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Yuan; Chu, Jianhong; Yu, Jianhua; Shou, Weinian; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo a critical hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition at early postnatal age, which is important in establishing normal physiological function of postnatal hearts. In the current study, we intended to explore the role of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs in this transitional stage. We analyzed lncRNA expression profiles in mouse hearts at postnatal day (P) 1, P7 and P28 via microarray. We identified 1,146 differentially expressed lncRNAs with more than 2.0-fold change when compared the expression profiles of P1 to P7, P1 to P28, and P7 to P28. The neighboring genes of these differentially expressed lncRNAs were mainly involved in DNA replication-associated biological processes. We were particularly interested in one novel cardiac-enriched lncRNA, ENSMUST00000117266, whose expression was dramatically down-regulated from P1 to P28 and was also sensitive to hypoxia, paraquat, and myocardial infarction. Knockdown ENSMUST00000117266 led to a significant increase of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in G0/G1 phase and reduction in G2/M phase, suggesting that ENSMUST00000117266 is involved in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferative activity and is likely associated with hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. In conclusion, our data have identified a large group of lncRNAs presented in the early postnatal mouse heart. Some of these lncRNAs may have important functions in cardiac hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. PMID:28266538

  17. Disproportionate cardiac hypertrophy during early postnatal development in infants born preterm.

    PubMed

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lamata, Pablo; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Ohuma, Eric O; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Wopperer, Samuel; Packham, Alice; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundAdults born very preterm have increased cardiac mass and reduced function. We investigated whether a hypertrophic phenomenon occurs in later preterm infants and when this occurs during early development.MethodsCardiac ultrasound was performed on 392 infants (33% preterm at mean gestation 34±2 weeks). Scans were performed during fetal development in 137, at birth and 3 months of postnatal age in 200, and during both fetal and postnatal development in 55. Cardiac morphology and function was quantified and computational models created to identify geometric changes.ResultsAt birth, preterm offspring had reduced cardiac mass and volume relative to body size with a more globular heart. By 3 months, ventricular shape had normalized but both left and right ventricular mass relative to body size were significantly higher than expected for postmenstrual age (left 57.8±41.9 vs. 27.3±29.4%, P<0.001; right 39.3±38.1 vs. 16.6±40.8, P=0.002). Greater changes were associated with lower gestational age at birth (left P<0.001; right P=0.001).ConclusionPreterm offspring, including those born in late gestation, have a disproportionate increase in ventricular mass from birth up to 3 months of postnatal age. These differences were not present before birth. Early postnatal development may provide a window for interventions relevant to long-term cardiovascular health.

  18. Pre- and Postnatal Parental Smoking and Acute Otitis Media in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Håberg, Siri E.; Bentdal, Yngvild E.; London, Stephanie J.; Kværner, Kari J.; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per

    2010-01-01

    Aim To explore associations between acute otitis media in early childhood and prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Subjects were 32,077 children born 2000 – 2005 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Study with questionnaire data on tobacco smoke exposure and acute otitis media up to 18 months of age. Multivariate regression models were used to obtain adjusted relative risks for acute otitis media. Results Acute otitis media was slightly more common in children exposed to parental smoking. The incidence from 0–6 months was 4.7% in unexposed children, and 6.0% in children exposed both pre-and postnatally. After adjusting for postnatal exposure and covariates, the relative risk for acute otitis media 0–6 months when exposed to maternal smoking in pregnancy was 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.69. Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with acute otitis media up to 12 months of age. Compared to non-exposed children, there was a slightly increased risk of recurrent acute otitis media for children exposed both pre- and postnatally with a relative risk of 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.52,. Conclusion Even in a cohort with relatively low exposure levels of parental smoking, maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of acute otitis media in early childhood. PMID:19764924

  19. The effect of early postnatal discharge from hospital for women and infants: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eleanor; Taylor, Beck; MacArthur, Christine; Pritchett, Ruth; Cummins, Carole

    2016-02-08

    The length of postnatal hospital stay has declined over the last 40 years. There is little evidence to support a policy of early discharge following birth, and there is some concern about whether early discharge of mothers and babies is safe. The Cochrane review on the effects of early discharge from hospital only included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which are problematic in this area, and a systematic review including other study designs is required. The aim of this broader systematic review is to determine possible effects of a policy of early postnatal discharge on important maternal and infant health-related outcomes. A systematic search of published literature will be conducted for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series studies (ITS) that report on the effect of a policy of early postnatal discharge from hospital. Databases including Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Science Citation Index will be searched for relevant material. Reference lists of articles will also be searched in addition to searches to identify grey literature. Screening of identified articles and data extraction will be conducted in duplicate and independently. Methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria for risk of bias tool. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or by consulting a third author. Meta-analysis using a random effects model will be used to combine data. Where significant heterogeneity is present, data will be combined in a narrative synthesis. The findings will be reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews (PRISMA) statement. Information on the effects of early postnatal discharge from hospital will be important for policy makers and clinicians providing maternity care. This review will also identify any gaps in the current

  20. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  1. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    PubMed

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lethal short-limbed chondrodysplasia in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Yang, S S; Heidelberger, K P; Brough, A J; Corbett, D P; Bernstein, J

    1976-01-01

    Nineteen cases of chondrodysplastic short-limbed dwarfism in early infancy were studied in the context of current clinical classification based on established radiographic criteria. The histopathologic findings were sufficiently distinctive in most categories to provide additional diagnostic criteria and to contribute to the understanding and delineation of these disorders. 1. Homozygous achondroplasia is distinguished by markedly disturbed endochondral ossification that differs from the pattern seen in typical heterozygous achondroplasia. The physeal chondrocytes contain abundant granules of glycogen. 2. Achondrogenesis, the severest form of chondrodysplasia, exists in 2 types, in which the histopathologic findings appear to be distinctive and diagnostic. Type 1 is characterized by severe disturbance in endochondral ossification. The zone of resting cartilage contains relatively normal matrix, and the chondrocytes contain intracytoplasmic inclusions. The cartilaginous matrix in type 2 is markedly deficient, and the chondrocytes have a large, primitive, mesenchymatous appearance. 3. Thanatophoric dwarfism is associated with disorganized endochondral ossification similar to that in homozygous achondroplasia, but there is no accumulation of glycogen within chondrocytes. Type 2 thanatophoric dwarfism is differentiated from classical type 1 by the presence of cloverleaf skull and histologically by many bone-lined, penetrating vascular canals in the physis and by hyperactive osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the metaphysis. 4. Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia of Jeune is differentiated histologically into 2 types. Type 1 is characterized by patchy distribution of endochondral ossification in the physis, irregular physeal-metaphyseal junction and large islands of poorly mineralized cartilage in the metaphysis. Type 2 is characterized by uniform distribution of endochondral ossification that is disorganized and is accompanied by advancing cartilage forming latticelike

  4. Meal parameters and vagal gastrointestinal afferents in mice that experienced early postnatal overnutrition.

    PubMed

    Biddinger, Jessica E; Fox, Edward A

    2010-08-04

    Early postnatal overnutrition results in a predisposition to develop obesity due in part to hypothalamic and sympathetic dysfunction. Potential involvement of another major regulatory system component--the vagus nerve--has not been examined. Moreover, feeding disturbances have rarely been investigated prior to development of obesity when confounds due to obesity are minimized. To examine these issues, litters were culled on the day of birth to create small litters (SL; overnutrition), or normal size litters (NL; normal nutrition). Body weight, fat pad weight, meal patterns, and vagal sensory duodenal innervation were compared between SL and NL adult mice prior to development of obesity. Meal patterns were studied 18 h/day for 3 weeks using a balanced diet. Then vagal mechanoreceptors were labeled using anterograde transport of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the nodose ganglion and their density and morphology were examined. Between postnatal day 1 and weaning, body weight of SL mice was greater than for NL mice. By young adulthood it was similar in both groups, whereas SL fat pad weight was greater in males, suggesting postnatal overnutrition produced a predisposition to obesity. SL mice exhibited increased food intake, decreased satiety ratio, and increased first meal rate (following mild food deprivation) compared to NL mice, suggesting postnatal overnutrition disrupted satiety. The density and structure of intestinal IGLEs appeared similar in SL and NL mice. Thus, although a vagal role cannot be excluded, our meal parameter and anatomical findings provided no evidence for significant postnatal overnutrition effects on vagal gastrointestinal afferents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Formation of antioxidant defence system of geese in embryogenesis and early postnatal ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Danchenko, O O; Kalytka, V V

    2002-01-01

    The features of antioxidant protection of tissues of a liver and blood of the gooses in embriogenesis and early postnatal ontogenesis are found out. Maximal contents TBA active products both in a liver, and in a blood are observed in 28 diurnal embriones. Is shown, that in a liver the activity of basic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in a liver is developed already at early stages embriogenesis and is considerably enlarged in the end embriogenesis. The becoming of enzymatic system of a blood descends much more slower.

  6. The influence of early postnatal nutrition on retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Peter J; Weaver, R Grey

    2010-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) is the most common serious ophthalmic disease in preterm infants. Human milk may provide a protective effect for ROP; however, beneficial effects of human milk preclude randomized trials. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing early postnatal nutrition with ROP development. Evaluate relationship between early postnatal nutriture and ROP surgery. Nutrition data was collected for inborn AGA infants, BW 700-1000 g. ROP surgery was the primary outcome variable. A single pediatric ophthalmologist supervised examinations. All infants received triweekly IM vitamin A as chronic lung disease prophylaxis (Tyson: NEJM, 1999). BW and gestational age were 867+/-85 g and 26.3+/-1.2 weeks (n=77, mean+/-1SD). ROP surgery infants(n=11) received more parenteral nutrition, 1648 mL, and less human milk, 13.8 mL/kg-day, and vitamin E, 1.4 mg/kg-day, during the second postnatal week. Human milk was a negative predictor for ROP surgery, odds ratio=0.94. Both groups met vitamin A recommendations; however, 74% was administered via IM injections. Neither group met vitamin E recommendations. Human milk feeding, parenteral nutrition volume and vitamin E intake were predictors for ROP surgery. IM vitamin A injections provided the majority of vitamin A; vitamin E administration was insufficient. Improving human milk feeding rates and vitamin dosing options may affect ROP surgery rates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal and early postnatal depression and child maltreatment among Japanese fathers.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kenji; Suto, Maiko; Kakee, Naoko; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the association of paternal depression in the prenatal and early postnatal period with child maltreatment tendency at two months postpartum among Japanese fathers. This population-based longitudinal study recruited Japanese perinatal women and their partners living in Nishio City, Aichi, Japan. Of the 270 fathers who participated, 196 were included in the analysis. All data were collected via self-administrated questionnaires at four time points: 20 weeks' gestation and in the first few days, one month, and two months postpartum. Paternal depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Three definitions of paternal depression were coded based on participants' scores on this measure: prenatal, prior, and current. Child maltreatment tendency was evaluated using the Child Maltreatment Scale at two months postpartum. The associations of the three definitions of paternal depression and child maltreatment tendency were separately analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of prenatal, prior, and current paternal depression was 9.7%, 10.2%, and 8.8%, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, current paternal depression was significantly associated with child maltreatment tendency at two months postpartum (adjusted odds ratio: 7.77, 95% CI: 1.83-33.02). The other two types of depression, however, were not related to child maltreatment tendency. Thus, current paternal depression increased the risk of child maltreatment tendency in the postnatal period, suggesting that early detection and treatment of paternal depression might be useful for the prevention of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired GABAergic inhibition in the prefrontal cortex of early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP)-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2014-09-01

    A compromised γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and also diminished currents passed by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. The observed impairments in GABAergic function are compatible with the alteration of GABAergic markers as well as cognitive dysfunction observed in early postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    PubMed

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High uptake of exclusive breastfeeding and reduced early post-natal HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Kasonde, Prisca; Scott, Nancy; Mwiya, Mwiya; Vwalika, Cheswa; Walter, Jan; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Thea, Donald M

    2007-12-26

    Empirical data showing the clear benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for HIV prevention are needed to encourage implementation of lactation support programs for HIV-infected women in low resource settings among whom replacement feeding is unsafe. We conducted a prospective, observational study in Lusaka, Zambia, to test the hypothesis that EBF is associated with a lower risk of postnatal HIV transmission than non-EBF. As part of a randomized trial of early weaning, 958 HIV-infected women and their infants were recruited and all were encouraged to breastfeed exclusively to 4 months. Single-dose nevirapine was provided to prevent transmission. Regular samples were collected from infants to 24 months of age and tested by PCR. Detailed measurements of actual feeding behaviors were collected to examine, in an observational analysis, associations between feeding practices and postnatal HIV transmission. Uptake of EBF was high with 84% of women reporting only EBF cumulatively to 4 months. Post-natal HIV transmission before 4 months was significantly lower (p = 0.004) among EBF (0.040 95% CI: 0.024-0.055) than non-EBF infants (0.102 95% CI: 0.047-0.157); time-dependent Relative Hazard (RH) of transmission due to non-EBF = 3.48 (95% CI: 1.71-7.08). There were no significant differences in the severity of disease between EBF and non-EBF mothers and the association remained significant (RH = 2.68 95% CI: 1.28-5.62) after adjusting for maternal CD4 count, plasma viral load, syphilis screening results and low birth weight. Non-EBF more than doubles the risk of early postnatal HIV transmission. Programs to support EBF should be expanded universally in low resource settings. EBF is an affordable, feasible, acceptable, safe and sustainable practice that also reduces HIV transmission providing HIV-infected women with a means to protect their children's lives. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00310726.

  11. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Factors associated with early resumption of sexual intercourse among postnatal women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alum, Alice C; Kizza, Irene B; Osingada, Charles P; Katende, Godfrey; Kaye, Dan K

    2015-11-19

    Despite being a key component to be addressed during postnatal period, sexuality has long been a subject of secrecy and taboo in Africa. Resumption of sexual intercourse after giving birth has been shown to reduce extramarital affairs and consequently reduce risk of sexually transmitted infections like HIV/AIDS. Consequences of early resumption of sexual intercourse include unwanted pregnancy, genital trauma and puerperal infection. The objective of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with early resumption of sexual intercourse among postnatal mothers attending postnatal clinic at a National referral Hospital in Uganda. A cross-sectional study that employed an interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted among 374 women who delivered six months prior to conducting the study. The independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics of the participant, socio-demographic characteristics of the spouse, perceived cultural norms, medical history, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications. The dependent variable was timing of resumption of sexual intercourse after childbirth (before or after six weeks postpartum). Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. The study showed that 105 participants (21.6%) had resumed sexual intercourse before 6 weeks after childbirth. The participants' education level, occupation, and parity; education level of the spouse, age of baby and use of family planning were the factors associated with early resumption of sexual intercourse after child birth (before six weeks postpartum) (p < 0.05). Many women resumed sexual intercourse after six weeks. Women with high income, low parity, who ever-used contraception or had a spouse with high education level were more likely to have early resumption of sexual intercourse.

  13. Glial glycine transporter 1 function is essential for early postnatal survival but dispensable in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Eulenburg, Volker; Retiounskaia, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Gomeza, Jesús; Betz, Heinrich

    2010-07-01

    The glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) is expressed in astrocytes and selected neurons of the mammalian CNS. In newborn mice, GlyT1 is crucial for efficient termination of glycine-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. Furthermore, GlyT1 has been implicated in the regulation of excitatory N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptors. To evaluate whether glial and neuronal GlyT1 have distinct roles at inhibitory synapses, we inactivated the GlyT1 gene cell type-specifically using mice carrying floxed GlyT1 alleles GlyT1((+)/+)). GlyT1((+)/(+)) mice expressing Cre recombinase in glial cells developed severe neuromotor deficits during the first postnatal week, which mimicked the phenotype of conventional GlyT1 knock-out mice and are consistent with glycinergic over-inhibition. In contrast, Cre-mediated inactivation of the GlyT1 gene in neuronal cells did not result in detectable motor impairment. Notably, some animals deficient for glial GlyT1 survived the first postnatal week and did not develop neuromotor deficits throughout adulthood, although GlyT1 expression was efficiently reduced. Thus, glial GlyT1 is critical for the regulation of glycine levels at inhibitory synapses only during early postnatal life. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Early postnatal hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Louise Bering; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Greisen, Gorm; Cour, Morten de la

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national registers were searched, and data were linked through a unique civil registration number. The study sample consisted of 106 cases each matched with two comparison infants. Matching criteria were gestational age (GA) at birth, ROP not registered and born at the same neonatal intensive care unit. Potential 'new' risk factors were analysed in a multivariate logistic regression model, while adjusted for previously recognised risk factors (ie, GA at birth, small for gestational age, multiple birth and male sex). Hospital records of 310 preterm infants (106 treated; 204 comparison infants) were available. Nutrition in terms of energy (kcal/kg/week) and protein (g/kg/week) given to the preterm infants during the first postnatal week were statistically insignificant between the study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; p=0.165/p=0.163). Early postnatal weight gain between the two study groups was borderline significant (t-test; p=0.047). Hyperglycaemic events (indexed value) were statistically significantly different between the two study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; p<0.001). Hyperglycaemia was a statistically independent risk factor (OR: 1.022; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.042; p=0.031). An independent association was found between the occurrence of hyperglycaemic events during the first postnatal week and later development of treatment-demanding ROP, when adjusted for known risk factors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Intestinal microbiota influence the early postnatal development of the enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Collins, J; Borojevic, R; Verdu, E F; Huizinga, J D; Ratcliffe, E M

    2014-01-01

    Normal gastrointestinal function depends on an intact and coordinated enteric nervous system (ENS). While the ENS is formed during fetal life, plasticity persists in the postnatal period during which the gastrointestinal tract is colonized by bacteria. We tested the hypothesis that colonization of the bowel by intestinal microbiota influences the postnatal development of the ENS. The development of the ENS was studied in whole mount preparations of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of specific pathogen-free (SPF), germ-free (GF), and altered Schaedler flora (ASF) NIH Swiss mice at postnatal day 3 (P3). The frequency and amplitude of circular muscle contractions were measured in intestinal segments using spatiotemporal mapping of video recorded spontaneous contractile activity with and without exposure to lidocaine and N-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA). Immunolabeling with antibodies to PGP9.5 revealed significant abnormalities in the myenteric plexi of GF jejunum and ileum, but not duodenum, characterized by a decrease in nerve density, a decrease in the number of neurons per ganglion, and an increase in the proportion of myenteric nitrergic neurons. Frequency of amplitude of muscle contractions were significantly decreased in the jejunum and ileum of GF mice and were unaffected by exposure to lidocaine, while NOLA enhanced contractile frequency in the GF jejunum and ileum. These findings suggest that early exposure to intestinal bacteria is essential for the postnatal development of the ENS in the mid to distal small intestine. Future studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms by which enteric microbiota interact with the developing ENS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Early postnatal ozone exposure alters rat nodose and jugular sensory neuron development

    PubMed Central

    Zellner, Leor C.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Hunter, Dawn D.; Dey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neurons originating in nodose and jugular ganglia that innervate airway epithelium (airway neurons) play a role in inflammation observed following exposure to inhaled environmental irritants such as ozone (O3). Airway neurons can mediate airway inflammation through the release of the neuropeptide substance P (SP). While susceptibility to airway irritants is increased in early life, the developmental dynamics of afferent airway neurons are not well characterized. The hypothesis of this study was that airway neuron number might increase with increasing age, and that an acute, early postnatal O3 exposure might increase both the number of sensory airway neurons as well as the number SP-containing airway neurons. Studies using Fischer 344 rat pups were conducted to determine if age or acute O3 exposure might alter airway neuron number. Airway neurons in nodose and jugular ganglia were retrogradely labeled, removed, dissociated, and counted by means of a novel technique employing flow cytometry. In Study 1, neuron counts were conducted on postnatal days (PD) 6, 10, 15, 21, and 28. Numbers of total and airway neurons increased significantly between PD6 and PD10, then generally stabilized. In Study 2, animals were exposed to O3 (2 ppm) or filtered air (FA) on PD5 and neurons were counted on PD10, 15, 21, and 28. O3-exposed animals displayed significantly less total neurons on PD21 than FA controls. This study shows that age-related changes in neuron number occur, and that an acute, early postnatal O3 exposure significantly alters sensory neuron development. PMID:22140294

  17. Screening Tool for Early Postnatal Prediction of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Preterm Newborns (STEP-ROP).

    PubMed

    Ricard, Caroline A; Dammann, Christiane E L; Dammann, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the preterm newborn characterized by neurovascular disruption in the immature retina that may cause visual impairment and blindness. To develop a clinical screening tool for early postnatal prediction of ROP in preterm newborns based on risk information available within the first 48 h of postnatal life. Using data submitted to the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) between 1995 and 2015, we created logistic regression models based on infants born <28 completed weeks gestational age. We developed a model with 60% of the data and identified birth weight, gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and multiple gestation as predictors of ROP. We tested the model in the remaining 40%, performed tenfold cross-validation, and tested the score in ELGAN study data. Of the 1,052 newborns in the VON database, 627 recorded an ROP status. Forty percent had no ROP, 40% had mild ROP (stages 1 and 2), and 20% had severe ROP (stages 3-5). We created a weighted score to predict any ROP based on the multivariable regression model. A cutoff score of 5 had the best sensitivity (95%, 95% CI 93-97), while maintaining a strong positive predictive value (63%, 95% CI 57-68). When applied to the ELGAN data, sensitivity was lower (72%, 95% CI 69-75), but PPV was higher (80%, 95% CI 77-83). STEP-ROP is a promising screening tool. It is easy to calculate, does not rely on extensive postnatal data collection, and can be calculated early after birth. Early ROP screening may help physicians limit patient exposure to additional risk factors, and may be useful for risk stratification in clinical trials aimed at reducing ROP. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Impairments in prehension produced by early postnatal sensory motor cortex activity blockade.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Donarummo, L; Hacking, A

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of blocking neural activity in sensory motor cortex during early postnatal development on prehension. We infused muscimol, either unilaterally or bilaterally, into the sensory motor cortex of cats to block activity continuously between postnatal weeks 3-7. After stopping infusion, we trained animals to reach and grasp a cube of meat and tested behavior thereafter. Animals that had not received muscimol infusion (unilateral saline infusion; age-matched) reached for the meat accurately with small end-point errors. They grasped the meat using coordinated digit flexion followed by forearm supination on 82.7% of trials. Performance using either limb did not differ significantly. In animals receiving unilateral muscimol infusion, reaching and grasping using the limb ipsilateral to the infusion were similar to controls. The limb contralateral to infusion showed significant increases in systematic and variable reaching end-point errors, often requiring subsequent corrective movements to contact the meat. Grasping occurred on only 14.8% of trials, replaced on most trials by raking without distal movements. Compensatory adjustments in reach length and angle, to maintain end-point accuracy as movements were started from a more lateral position, were less effective using the contralateral limb than ipsilateral limb. With bilateral inactivations, the form of reaching and grasping impairments was identical to that produced by unilateral inactivation, but the magnitude of the reaching impairments was less. We discuss these results in terms of the differential effects of unilateral and bilateral inactivation on corticospinal tract development. We also investigated the degree to which these prehension impairments after unilateral blockade reflect control by each hemisphere. In animals that had received unilateral blockade between postnatal weeks (PWs) 3 and 7, we silenced on-going activity (after PW 11) during task performance using continuous

  19. Effect of salinity on the upper lethal temperature tolerance of early-juvenile red drum.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Dusty; Bumguardner, Britt; Cason, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Previous work investigating the temperature tolerance of juvenile red drum ranging 18-50mm TL found evidence for positive size dependence (smaller fish less tolerant to higher temperatures) suggesting smaller size classes (<18mm TL) potentially may succumb to extreme summer water temperatures. Here, we explored the upper lethal temperature tolerance (ULT) in smaller-sized red drum which ranged from 10 to 20mm TL across multiple salinities to further understand the thermal limitations of this propagated game fish. In order to investigate the combined effect of temperature and salinity on ULT, temperature trials were conducted under three levels of salinity which commonly occur along the coast of Texas (25, 35, and 45ppt). The rate of temperature increase (+0.25°C/h) was designed to mimic a natural temperature increase of a summer day in Texas. We determined that the lethal temperature at 50% (LT50) did not differ between the three salinities examined statistically; median lethal temperature for individuals exposed to 25ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, 35ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, and 45ppt ranged from 36.1 to 37.4°C. Further, LT50 data obtained here for early-juvenile red drum did not differ from data of a similar experiment examining 25mm TL sized fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Sensitivity of seven PCRs for early detection of koi herpesvirus in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L., by lethal and non-lethal sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Bergmann, S M

    2015-03-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes an economically important, highly infectious disease in common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Since the occurrence of mass mortalities worldwide, highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnostic methods have been developed for KHV detection. The sensitivity and reliability of these assays have essentially focused at the detection of low viral DNA copy numbers during latent or persistent infections. However, the efficacy of these assays has not been investigated with regard to low-level viraemia during acute infection stages. This study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of seven different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect KHV during the first hours and days post-infection (hpi; dpi), using lethal and non-lethal sampling methods. The results highlight the limitations of the assays for detecting virus during the first 4 dpi despite rapid mortality in experimentally infected carp. False-negative results were associated with time post-infection and the tissue sampled. Non-lethal sampling appears effective for KHV screening, with efficient detection in mucus samples obtained from external swabs during this early infection period (<5 dpi), while biopsies from gills and kidney were negative using the same PCR assays. Non-lethal sampling may improve the reliability of KHV detection in subclinical, acutely infected carp. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Early postnatal weight gain as a predictor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Biniwale, Manoj; Weiner, Angela; Sardesai, Smeeta; Cayabyab, Rowena; Barton, Lorayne; Ramanathan, Rangasamy

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to validate the reliability of early postnatal weight gain as an accurate predictor of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment in a large predominantly Hispanic US cohort with the use of an online tool called WINROP (weight, neonatal retinopathy of prematurity (IGF-1), neonatal retinopathy of prematurity). Retrospective cohort study consisted of preterm infants <32 weeks gestation and birth weight <1500 g. Weekly weights to 36 weeks post-menstrual age or discharge if earlier were entered into the WINROP tool. This tool generated alarm and risk indicator for developing ROP. The infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment as well as all stages of ROP were compared with the alarms and risks generated by WINROP tool. A total of 492 infants were entered into the WINROP tool. The infants who developed type 1 ROP requiring treatment, the WINROP tool detected 80/89 (90%) at less than 32 weeks gestation. Nine infants developed type 1 ROP were classified as low risk and did not alarm. Postnatal weight gain alone, in predominantly Hispanic US population, predicted type 1 ROP requiring treatment before 32 weeks of gestation in infants with a sensitivity of 90%. The tool appeared to identify majority of affected infants much earlier than the scheduled screening.

  2. [Effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yue-Ju; Song, Yan-Yan; Huang, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian; Qi, Jun-Ye; Xiao, Xu-Wen; Wang, Lan-Xiu

    2015-09-01

    To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was significantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All five developmental quotients evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale (gross motor, fine motor, language, adaptability and individuality) in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 3 months. At the corrected gestational age of 6 months, the developmental quotients of fine motor and language in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group, however, there were no significant differences in the developmental quotients of gross motor, adaptability and individuality between the two groups. All five developmental quotients in IUGR infants with catch-up lag in weight were significantly lower than in IUGR and AGA infants who had caught up well. Growth retardation at early postnatal stages may adversely affect the early neurodevelopment in infants with IUGR.

  3. Intervention among new parents followed up by an interview study exploring their experiences of telemedicine after early postnatal discharge.

    PubMed

    Danbjørg, D B; Wagner, L; Kristensen, B R; Clemensen, J

    2015-06-01

    a move towards earlier postnatal discharge raises the challenge of finding new ways to support families when they are discharged early after childbirth. to explore how postnatal parents experienced the use of telemedicine following early discharge from hospital (i.e. 24 hours after childbirth) by investigating if they consider that their postnatal needs are met, and whether or not they experience a sense of security and parental self-efficacy. intervention followed by a qualitative interview study. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1000 births a year. An app including chat, a knowledgebase and automated messages was trialled between postnatal parents at home and the hospital. Parents had access to the app for seven days after discharge. 42 new mothers were recruited from the postnatal ward in accordance with the inclusion criteria (i.e. discharged within 24 hours of childbirth). Both parents were invited for interview. 42 sets of parents participated in the trial, and 28 sets agreed to be interviewed. Interviews (n=28) were conducted with 27 mothers and 11 fathers. Parents were interviewed together in 10 cases, 17 mothers were interviewed alone, and one father was interviewed alone. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation based on Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological method. parents were confident in use of the app, and did not experience any barriers in contacting the nurses via asynchronous communication. Parents received timely information and guidance by communicating online, and felt that their follow-up support needs were met. parents viewed the app as a lifeline, and saw it as a means of informing and guiding them following early discharge from hospital after childbirth. As such, this app shows potential for enhancing self-efficacy and postnatal sense of security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke impairs the antigen-specific T-cell responses in the spleen.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi P; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Pena-Philippides, Juan C; Langley, Raymond J; Mishra, Neerad C; Sopori, Mohan L

    2006-12-15

    Annually, approximately two million babies are exposed to cigarette smoke in utero and postnatally through cigarette smoking of their mothers. Exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke is known to impair both innate and adaptive immunities, and it has been hypothesized that the effects of in utero exposure to cigarette smoke on children's health might primarily stem from the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system. To simulate the environment that babies from smoking mothers encounter, we examined the effects of prenatal mainstream and postnatal sidestream cigarette smoke on spleen cell responses. Results show that postnatal exposure of newborn Balb/c mouse pups to sidestream cigarette smoke through the first 6 weeks of life strongly suppresses the antibody response of spleen cells to the T-cell-dependent antigen, sheep red blood cells. The reduction in the antibody response seen within 6 weeks of postnatal smoke exposure is much quicker than the published data on the time 25 weeks) required to establish reproducible immunosuppression in adult rats and mice. Moreover, the immunosuppression is not associated with significant changes in T-cell numbers or subset distribution. While the postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke did not affect the mitogenic response of T and B cells, the exposure inhibited the T cell receptor-mediated rise in the intracellular calcium concentration. These results suggest that the early postnatal period is highly sensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of environmental tobacco smoke, and the effects are causally associated with impaired antigen-mediated signaling in T cells.

  5. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytesmore » and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.« less

  6. A missense mutation in myosin VIIA prevents aminoglycoside accumulation in early postnatal cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G P; Forge, A; Kros, C J; Marcotti, W; Becker, D; Williams, D S; Thorpe, J; Fleming, J; Brown, S D; Steel, K P

    1999-11-28

    Myosin VIIA is expressed by sensory hair cells in the inner ear and proximal tubule cells in the kidney, the two primary targets of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Using cochlear cultures prepared from early postnatal Myo7a6J mice with a missense mutation in the head region of the myosin VIIA molecule we show that this myosin is required for aminoglycoside accumulation in cochlear hair cells. Hair cells in homozygous mutant Myo7a6J cochlear cultures have disorganized hair bundles, but are otherwise morphologically normal and transduce. However, and in contrast to hair cells from heterozygous Myo7a6J cultures, the homozygous Myo7a6J hair cells do not accumulate [3H]gentamicin and do not exhibit an ototoxic response on exposure to aminoglycoside. Possible roles for myosin VIIA in the process of aminoglycoside accumulation are discussed.

  7. Understanding How Postnatal Depression Screening and Early Intervention Work in the Real World - A Singaporean Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theresa My; Bautista, Dianne; Chen, Helen Y

    2016-10-01

    Postnatal depression is a major public health problem with clearly established adverse effects in child outcomes. This study examines the 4-year outcomes of a screening and early intervention programme, in relation to improvement in symptoms, functioning and health quality of life. Women were prospectively recruited up to 6 months postdelivery, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) as a screening tool. High-scorers (EPDS >13), were offered psychiatric consultation, and those with borderline scores (EPDS 10-12) were provided counselling, and offered follow-up phone counselling by the assigned case manager. Outcome measures were obtained at baseline, and at 6 months or discharge if earlier, for levels of symptoms, functioning, and health quality of life. From 2008 to 2012, 5245 women were screened, with 307 (5.9%) women with EPDS >13 receiving intervention. Of these, 70.0% had depression, 4.6% anxiety and 3.4% psychosis. In the depression subgroup, the net change was improvement of 93.4% EPDS symptom scores, 92.2% Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, and 88.3% visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) health quality of life scores. Outcome scores across diagnostic categories demonstrated median changes of 10 points on EPDS, 20 points on GAF, and 25 points on EQ VAS, reflecting 73.9%, 36.4% and 41.7% change from baseline scores. Women with psychosis showed the biggest (80.0%) relative change in GAF functioning scores from baseline to discharge but had the lowest median change in EPDS symptom scores. A screening and intervention programme rightly-sited within an obstetric setting can improve clinical outcomes because of early detection and intervention.

  8. Abnormal neural precursor cell regulation in the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C

    2017-07-01

    The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis. In this study, we examined NPCs from the early postnatal hippocampus and DG of Fragile X mice (Fmr1-KO). Immunocytochemistry on neurospheres showed increased Nestin expression and decreased Ki67 expression, which collectively indicated aberrant NPC biology. Intriguingly, flow cytometric analysis of the expression of the antigens CD15, CD24, CD133, GLAST, and PSA-NCAM showed a decreased proportion of neural stem cells (GLAST + CD15 + CD133 + ) and an increased proportion of neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM + CD15 + ) in the DG of P7 Fmr1-KO mice. This was mirrored by lower expression levels of Nestin and the mitotic marker phospho-histone H3 in vivo in the P9 hippocampus, as well as a decreased proportion of cells in the G 2 /M phases of the P7 DG. Thus, the absence of FMRP leads to fewer actively cycling NPCs, coinciding with a decrease in neural stem cells and an increase in neuroblasts. Together, these results show the importance of FMRP in the developing hippocampal formation and suggest abnormalities in cell cycle regulation in Fragile X. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiac Med1 deletion promotes early lethality, cardiac remodeling, and transcriptional reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Spitler, Kathryn M.; Ponce, Jessica M.; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Hall, Duane D.

    2017-01-01

    The mediator complex, a multisubunit nuclear complex, plays an integral role in regulating gene expression by acting as a bridge between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Genetic deletion of mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in embryonic lethality, due in large part to impaired cardiac development. We first established that Med1 is dynamically expressed in cardiac development and disease, with marked upregulation of Med1 in both human and murine failing hearts. To determine if Med1 deficiency protects against cardiac stress, we generated two cardiac-specific Med1 knockout mouse models in which Med1 is conditionally deleted (Med1cKO mice) or inducibly deleted in adult mice (Med1cKO-MCM mice). In both models, cardiac deletion of Med1 resulted in early lethality accompanied by pronounced changes in cardiac function, including left ventricular dilation, decreased ejection fraction, and pathological structural remodeling. We next defined how Med1 deficiency alters the cardiac transcriptional profile using RNA-sequencing analysis. Med1cKO mice demonstrated significant dysregulation of genes related to cardiac metabolism, in particular genes that are coordinated by the transcription factors Pgc1α, Pparα, and Errα. Consistent with the roles of these transcription factors in regulation of mitochondrial genes, we observed significant alterations in mitochondrial size, mitochondrial gene expression, complex activity, and electron transport chain expression under Med1 deficiency. Taken together, these data identify Med1 as an important regulator of vital cardiac gene expression and maintenance of normal heart function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Disruption of transcriptional gene expression is a hallmark of dilated cardiomyopathy; however, its etiology is not well understood. Cardiac-specific deletion of the transcriptional coactivator mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in dilated cardiomyopathy, decreased cardiac function, and lethality. Med1 deletion disrupted cardiac

  10. Treatment with soy isoflavones during early adulthood improves metabolism in early postnatally overfed rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pamelli; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Prates, Kelly Valério; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Silveira, Sandra da Silva; Malta, Ananda; Lopes, Denise Alves; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Torrezan, Rosana; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    The incidences of obesity and related diseases have reached epidemic proportions, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Soy isoflavones have been identified as an important dietary factor for preventing and treating metabolic dysfunction. This study examined the effects of high doses of isoflavone on glucose and fat metabolism in a model of programmed obesity and evaluated its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Litters of Wistar rats were standardized at nine pups per dam in normal litters (NL) or reduced to three pups per dam at the third day of life (P3) in small litters (SL) to induce postnatal overfeeding. Gavage with a soy bean isoflavone mixture (1 g/day) diluted in water was started at P60 and continued for 30 days. The control animals received vehicle gavage. At P90, biometric and metabolic parameters as well as direct autonomic nerve activity were measured. Increases in glycaemia and insulinaemia observed in SL rats were reduced by isoflavone treatment, which also caused lower glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Sympathetic activity in the major splanchnic nerve was increased, while vagus nerve activity was reduced by isoflavone treatment. The dyslipidaemia induced by overfeeding in SL rats was restored by isoflavone treatment. The present study shows that treatment with isoflavone reduces adiposity and improves glucose and lipid metabolism. Collectively, these effects may depend on autonomic changes.

  11. Duodenal Ca2+ absorption is not stimulated by calcitriol during early postnatal development of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, B; Dahl, M R; Breves, G

    1998-08-01

    The role of calcitriol in stimulating intestinal active Ca2+ absorption during postnatal life was studied in newborn, suckling, and weaned control (Con) piglets and piglets suffering from inherited calcitriol deficiency (Def piglets). In addition, a group of Def piglets was treated with vitamin D3 (Def-D3 piglets), which normalized plasma calcitriol levels. Regardless of age, duodenal calbindin-D9k concentrations ranged between 1,839 and 2,846 microg/g mucosa in Con piglets, between 821 and 1,219 microg/g mucosa in Def piglets, and between 2,960 and 3,692 microg/g mucosa in Def-D3 animals. In weaned animals, active Ca2+ absorption as calculated from in vitro 45Ca2+ flux rate measurements in Ussing chambers could be related to calbindin-D9k levels. Thus active Ca2+ absorption was completely absent in Def animals but was reconstituted in Def-D3 animals. In contrast, in newborn Def piglets active Ca2+ absorption functioned normally despite the low plasma calcitriol and mucosal calbindin-D9k levels and could not be affected by treatment with vitamin D3. Similar results were obtained from suckling Def piglets. The microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine caused significant inhibition of transepithelial net Ca2+ absorption in duodenal epithelia from newborn piglets without exerting an effect in suckling and weaned animals. Colchicine had no effect on Ca2+ uptake across the brush border membrane of mucosal enterocytes or on glucose-dependent electrogenic net ion flux rates in duodenal preparations from newborn Con piglets. In conclusion, our findings reveal intestinal active Ca2+ absorption during early postnatal life of pigs that involves calcitriol-independent mechanisms and that may include intact microtubule actions.

  12. Monoamine Oxidases Regulate Telencephalic Neural Progenitors in Late Embryonic and Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aiwu; Scott, Anna L.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Chen, Kevin; Ouyang, Xin; Lathia, Justin D.; Mughal, Mohamed; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.; Shih, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters play major roles in regulating a range of brain functions in adults and increasing evidence suggests roles for monoamines in brain development. Here we show that mice lacking the monoamine metabolic enzymes MAO A and MAO B (MAO AB-deficient mice) exhibit diminished proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the developing telencephalon beginning in late gestation [embryonic day (E) 17.5], a deficit that persists in neonatal and adult mice. These mice showed significantly increased monoamine levels and anxiety-like behaviors as adults. Assessments of markers of intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) and mitosis showed that NSC in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but not in the ventricular zone, are reduced in MAO AB-deficient mice. A developmental time course of monoamines in frontal cortical tissues revealed increased serotonin levels as early as E14.5, and a further large increase was found between E17.5 and postnatal day 2. Administration of an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (parachlorophenylalanine) between E14.5 and E19.5 restored the IPC numbers and SVZ thickness, suggesting the role of serotonin in the suppression of IPC proliferation. Studies of neurosphere cultures prepared from the telencephalon at different embryonic and postnatal ages showed that serotonin stimulates proliferation in wild-type, but not in MAO AB-deficient, NSC. Together, these results suggest that a MAO-dependent long-lasting alteration in the proliferation capacity of NSC occurs late in embryonic development and is mediated by serotonin. Our findings reveal novel roles for MAOs and serotonin in the regulation of IPC proliferation in the developing brain. PMID:20702706

  13. Participation of the Olfactory Bulb in Circadian Organization during Early Postnatal Life in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Erika; Ortega-Bernal, Juan Roberto; Trejo-Muñoz, Lucero; Díaz, Georgina; Montúfar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo; Caldelas, Ivette

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits. From postnatal day 1 (P1), pups were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: intact pups (INT), intact pups fed by enteral gavage (INT+ENT), sham operated pups (SHAM), pups with unilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-UNI), and pups with bilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-BI). At the beginning of the experiment, from P1-8, the animals in all groups were fed at 11:00, from P9-13 the feeding schedule was delayed 6 h (17:00), and finally, from P14-15 the animals were subjected to fasting conditions. The rabbit pups of the INT, INT+ENT, SHAM and OBx-UNI groups exhibited a clear circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity, with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to the nursing or feeding schedule, which persisted even during fasting conditions. In addition, phase delays in the nursing or feeding schedule induced a clear phase shift in both parameters. In contrast, the OBx-BI group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters under entrained conditions that altered the anticipatory component, as well as deficient phase control of both rhythms. The present results demonstrate that the expression of circadian rhythmicity at behavioral and physiological levels during early stages of rabbit development largely depends on the integrity of the main olfactory bulb. PMID:27305041

  14. Early postnatal changes in respiratory activity in rat in vitro and modulatory effects of substance P.

    PubMed

    Shvarev, Y N; Lagercrantz, H

    2006-10-01

    Developmental changes in the respiratory activity and its modulation by substance P (SP) were studied in the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparation from the day of birth to day 3 (P0-P3). The respiratory network activity in the ventrolateral medulla was represented by two types of bursts: basic regular bursts with typical decrementing shape and biphasic bursts appearing after augmented biphasic discharges in inspiratory neurons. With advancing postnatal age the respiratory output was considerably modified; the basic rhythm became faster by 20%, whereas the biphasic burst rate, which was originally 15 times slower, declined further by 180% and the C4 burst duration significantly decreased by 20% due to reduced decay time without preceding changes in the central inspiratory drive. SP had an age-dependent excitatory effect on respiratory activity. In the basic rhythm, SP could induce transient rhythm cessations on P0-P2 but not on P3. For the biphasic burst frequency, the sensitivity to SP significantly decreased from P0 to P3, whereas the range of SP-induced changes increased. In both types of bursts, SP prolonged C4 burst duration due to increasing decay time. This effect was three times greater on P3 and did not depend on the central inspiratory drive. Our results suggest that the potency of SP to regulate the respiratory activity elevates during the early postnatal period. The developmental changes in the respiratory activity appear to represent the transient stage in the maturation of rhythm and pattern generation mechanisms facilitating adaptive behavior of a quickly growing organism.

  15. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-04-01

    Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion.

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Alters Postnatal Immunity and Airway Smooth Muscle Contractility during Early-Life Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Terri J.; Agrawal, Vandana; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Rezaee, Fariba; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Maternal viral infections can have pathological effects on the developing fetus which last long after birth. Recently, maternal-fetal transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to cause postnatal airway hyperreactivity (AHR) during primary early-life reinfection; however, the influence of prenatal exposure to RSV on offspring airway immunity and smooth muscle contractility during recurrent postnatal reinfections remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine whether maternal RSV infection impairs specific aspects of cell-mediated offspring immunity during early-life reinfections and the mechanisms leading to AHR. Red fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant RSV (rrRSV) was inoculated into pregnant rat dams at midterm, followed by primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV inoculations of their offspring at early-life time points. Pups and weanlings were tested for specific lower airway leukocyte populations by flow cytometry; serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations by multiplex ELISA and neurotrophins concentrations by standard ELISA; and ex vivo lower airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction by physiological tissue bath. Pups born to RSV-infected mothers displayed elevated total CD3+ T cells largely lacking CD4+ and CD8+ surface expression after both primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV infection. Cytokine/chemokine analyses revealed reduced IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-18, and TNF-α, as well as elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) expression. Prenatal exposure to RSV also increased ASM reactivity and contractility during early-life rrRSV infection compared to non-exposed controls. We conclude that maternal RSV infection can predispose offspring to postnatal lower airways dysfunction by altering immunity development, NGF signaling, and ASM contraction during early-life RSV reinfections. PMID:28178290

  17. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  18. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy. In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  19. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

  20. Early (< 8 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L

    2017-10-24

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first seven days of life for preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. For the 2017 update, we used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); Embase (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 2013 to 21 February 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. For this review, we selected RCTs examining systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment within the first seven days of life (early) in high-risk preterm infants. Most studies evaluated the use of dexamethasone, but we also included studies that assessed hydrocortisone, even when used primarily for management of hypotension. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.We extracted and analysed data regarding clinical outcomes that included mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, failure to extubate, complications during primary hospitalisation, and long-term health outcomes. We included 32 RCTs enrolling a total of 4395 participants. The overall risk of bias of included studies was probably low, as all were RCTs, and most trials used rigorous methods. Investigators reported significant benefits for the following outcomes overall: lower rates of failure to extubate, decreased

  1. Antenatal and early infant predictors of postnatal growth in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; De Livera, Alysha M; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which antenatal and early-life factors were associated with infant postnatal growth in a resource-poor setting in Vietnam. Study design Prospective longitudinal study following infants (n=1046) born to women who had previously participated in a cluster randomised trial of micronutrient supplementation (ANZCTR:12610000944033), Ha Nam province, Vietnam. Antenatal and early infant factors were assessed for association with the primary outcome of infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age using multivariable linear regression and structural equation modelling. Results Mean length-for-age z score was −0.58 (SD 0.94) and stunting prevalence was 6.4%. Using structural equation modelling, we highlighted the role of infant birth weight as a predictor of infant growth in the first 6 months of life and demonstrated that maternal body mass index (estimated coefficient of 45.6 g/kg/m2; 95% CI 34.2 to 57.1), weight gain during pregnancy (21.4 g/kg; 95% CI 12.6 to 30.1) and maternal ferritin concentration at 32 weeks' gestation (−41.5 g per twofold increase in ferritin; 95% CI −78 to −5.0) were indirectly associated with infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age via birth weight. A direct association between 25-(OH) vitamin D concentration in late pregnancy and infant length-for-age z scores (estimated coefficient of −0.06 per 20 nmol/L; 95% CI −0.11 to −0.01) was observed. Conclusions Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of early infant growth. Elevated antenatal ferritin levels were associated with suboptimal infant growth in this setting, suggesting caution with iron supplementation in populations with low rates of iron deficiency. PMID:25246090

  2. Deficits in adult prefrontal cortex neurons and behavior following early post-natal NMDA antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leon G; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Moy, Sheryl S; Crews, Fulton T

    2009-09-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with higher cognitive functions including attention and working memory and has been implicated in the regulation of impulsivity as well as the pathology of complex mental illnesses. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist treatment with dizocilpine induces cell death which is greatest in the frontal cortex on post-natal day seven (P7), however the long-term structural and behavioral effects of this treatment are unknown. This study investigates both the acute neurotoxicity of P7 dizocilpine and the persistent effects of this treatment on pyramidal cells and parvalbumin interneurons in the adult PFC, a brain region involved in the regulation of impulsivity. Dizocilpine treatment on P7 increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity (IR) in the PFC on P8. In adult mice (P82), P7 dizocilpine treatment resulted in 50% fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons (p<0.01) and 42% fewer layer V pyramidal neurons (p<0.01) in the PFC. Double immunohistochemistry revealed cleaved caspase-3 IR in both GAD67 IR interneurons and GAD67 (-) neurons. Following dizocilpine treatment at P7, adults showed reduced time in the center of the open field suggesting increased anxiety-like behavior. These findings indicate that early brain insults affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission lead to persistent brain pathology that could contribute to impulsivity and cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R

    2017-02-01

    Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1-21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230-237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258.

  4. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. Objectives: To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Methods: Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1–21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Results: Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230–237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258 PMID:27384154

  5. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  6. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth

  7. Antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism alters arterial tone regulation in 2-week-old rats.

    PubMed

    Sofronova, Svetlana I; Gaynullina, Dina K; Shvetsova, Anastasia A; Borzykh, Anna A; Selivanova, Ekaterina K; Kostyunina, Daria S; Sharova, Anna P; Martyanov, Andrey A; Tarasova, Olga S

    2017-11-01

    The mechanisms of vascular alterations resulting from early thyroid hormones deficiency are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism would alter the activity of endothelial NO pathway and Rho-kinase pathway, which are specific for developing vasculature. Dams were treated with propylthiouracil (PTU, 7 ppm) in drinking water during gestation and 2 weeks after delivery, and their progeny had normal body weight but markedly reduced blood levels of thyroid hormones (ELISA). Small arteries from 2-week-old male pups were studied using wire myography, qPCR and Western blotting. Mesenteric arteries of PTU pups, compared to controls, demonstrated smaller maximum response to α 1 -adrenergic agonist methoxamine and reduced mRNA contents of smooth muscle differentiation markers α-actin and SERCA2A. Inhibition of basal NO synthesis by l-NNA led to tonic contraction of mesenteric arteries and augmented their contractile responses to methoxamine; both l-NNA effects were impaired in PTU pups. PTU pups demonstrated lower blood level of NO metabolites compared to control group (Griess reaction). Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 strongly reduced mesenteric arteries responses to methoxamine in PTU pups, that was accompanied by elevated Rho-kinase content in their arteries in comparison to control ones. Unlike mesenteric, saphenous arteries of PTU pups, compared to controls, had no changes in α-actin and SERCA2A contents and in responses to l-NNA and Y27632. In conclusion, thyroid hormones deficiency suppresses the anticontractile effect of NO and potentiates the procontractile Rho-kinase effects in mesenteric arteries of 2-week-old pups. Such alterations disturb perinatal cardiovascular homeostasis and might lead to cardiovascular pathologies in adulthood. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Early-postnatal changes in adiposity and lipids profile by transgenerational developmental programming in swine with obesity/leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Ayuso, Miriam; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, both deficiency and excess, induces changes in the intrauterine environment and the metabolic status of the offspring, playing a key role in the growth, status of fitness/obesity and appearance of metabolic disorders during postnatal life. There is increasing evidence that these effects may not be only limited to the first generation of descendants, the offspring directly exposed to metabolic challenges, but to subsequent generations. This study evaluated, in a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance, the existence and extent of transgenerational developmental programming effects. Pre- and postnatal development, adiposity and metabolic features were assessed in the second generation of piglets, descendant of sows exposed to either undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy. The results indicated that these piglets exhibited early-postnatal increases in adiposity and disturbances in lipid profiles compatible with the early prodrome of metabolic syndrome, with liver tissue also displaying evidence of paediatric liver disease. These features indicative of early-life metabolic disorders were more evident in the males that were descended from overfed grandmothers and during the transition from milk to solid feeding. Thus, this study provides evidence supporting transgenerational developmental programming and supports the necessity for the development of strategies for avoiding the current epidemics of childhood overweight and obesity. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Antenatal and early infant predictors of postnatal growth in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; De Livera, Alysha M; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2015-02-01

    To determine which antenatal and early-life factors were associated with infant postnatal growth in a resource-poor setting in Vietnam. Prospective longitudinal study following infants (n=1046) born to women who had previously participated in a cluster randomised trial of micronutrient supplementation (ANZCTR:12610000944033), Ha Nam province, Vietnam. Antenatal and early infant factors were assessed for association with the primary outcome of infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age using multivariable linear regression and structural equation modelling. Mean length-for-age z score was -0.58 (SD 0.94) and stunting prevalence was 6.4%. Using structural equation modelling, we highlighted the role of infant birth weight as a predictor of infant growth in the first 6 months of life and demonstrated that maternal body mass index (estimated coefficient of 45.6 g/kg/m(2); 95% CI 34.2 to 57.1), weight gain during pregnancy (21.4 g/kg; 95% CI 12.6 to 30.1) and maternal ferritin concentration at 32 weeks' gestation (-41.5 g per twofold increase in ferritin; 95% CI -78 to -5.0) were indirectly associated with infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age via birth weight. A direct association between 25-(OH) vitamin D concentration in late pregnancy and infant length-for-age z scores (estimated coefficient of -0.06 per 20 nmol/L; 95% CI -0.11 to -0.01) was observed. Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of early infant growth. Elevated antenatal ferritin levels were associated with suboptimal infant growth in this setting, suggesting caution with iron supplementation in populations with low rates of iron deficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Effects of intratracheal budesonide during early postnatal life on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Chen; Feng, Xiuliang; Du, Yongping; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yueping

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to study the effects of intratracheal instillation of budesonide on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits. The developmental pattern of pulmonary alveoli in rabbits is similar to that in humans. Fetal rabbits were taken out from female rabbits on the 28th day of pregnancy (full term = 31 days) by cesarean section (c-section). The fetal rabbits were divided into four groups: control (normal saline, NS), budesonide (budesonide, BUD), calf pulmonary surfactant for injection (pulmonary surfactant, PS), and calf pulmonary surfactant + budesonide for injection (pulmonary surfactant + budesonide, PS + BUD). All premature rabbits were kept warm after c-section. After 15-min autonomous respiration, a tracheal cannula was implemented for instilling NS, BUD, PS, and PS + BUD. The morphology of lung tissues of premature fetal rabbits was analyzed using optical and electron microscopes. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA and protein levels in lung tissues were determined using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Intratracheal instillation of BUD could increase the alveolar area of the fetal rabbits (P < 0.01), decrease the alveolar wall thickness (P < 0.01), and increase the mean density of lamellar bodies (P < 0.05) and SP-B protein levels in type II epithelial cells of pulmonary alveoli (P < 0.05). Intratracheal instillation of BUD during early postnatal life is effective in promoting alveolarization and increasing SP-B expression, the pro-pulmonary maturity of BUD combined with PS is superior to that of BUD or PS alone. However, the long-term effect of BUD on lung development needs further exploration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chabowska-Kita, Agnieszka; Trabczynska, Anna; Korytko, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Monika M.; Kozak, Leslie P.

    2015-01-01

    The brown adipocyte phenotype (BAP) in white adipose tissue (WAT) is transiently induced in adult mammals in response to reduced ambient temperature. Since it is unknown whether a cold challenge can permanently induce brown adipocytes (BAs), we reared C57BL/6J (B6) and AxB8/PgJ (AxB8) mice at 17 or 29°C from birth to weaning, to assess the BAP in young and adult mice. Energy balance measurements showed that 17°C reduced fat mass in the preweaning mice by increasing energy expenditure and suppressed diet-induced obesity in adults. Microarray analysis of global gene expression of inguinal fat (ING) from 10-day-old (D) mice indicates that expression at 17°C vs. 29°C was not different. Between 10 and 21 days of age, the BAP was induced coincident with morphologic remodeling of ING and marked changes in expression of neural development genes (e.g., Akap 12 and Ngfr). Analyses of Ucp1 mRNA and protein showed that 17°C transiently increased the BAP in ING from 21D mice; however, BAs were unexpectedly present in mice reared at 29°C. The involution of the BAP in WAT occurred after weaning in mice reared at 23°C. Therefore, the capacity to stimulate thermogenically competent BAs in WAT is set by a temperature-independent, genetically controlled program between birth and weaning.—Chabowska-Kita, A., Trabczynska, A., Korytko, A., Kaczmarek, M. M., Kozak, L. P. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes. PMID:25896784

  12. A functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel development in the early postnatal brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shang; Kwon, Hyo Jun; Huang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Astroglia are a major cell type in the brain and play a key role in many aspects of brain development and function. In the adult brain, astrocytes are known to intimately ensheath blood vessels and actively coordinate local neural activity and blood flow. During development of the neural retina, blood vessel growth follows a meshwork of astrocytic processes. Several genes have also been implicated in retinal astrocytes for regulating vessel development. This suggests a role of astrocytes in promoting angiogenesis throughout the central nervous system. To determine the roles that astrocytes may play during brain angiogenesis, we employ genetic approaches to inhibit astrogliogenesis during perinatal corticogenesis and examine its effects on brain vessel development. We find that conditional deletion from glial progenitors of orc3, a gene required for DNA replication, dramatically reduces glial progenitor cell number in the subventricular zone and astrocytes in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. This, in turn, results in severe reductions in both the density and branching frequency of cortical blood vessels. Consistent with a delayed growth but not regression of vessels, we find neither significant net decreases in vessel density between different stages after normalizing for cortical expansion nor obvious apoptosis of endothelial cells in these mutants. Furthermore, concomitant with loss of astroglial interactions, we find increased endothelial cell proliferation, enlarged vessel luminal size as well as enhanced cytoskeletal gene expression in pericytes, which suggests compensatory changes in vascular cells. Lastly, we find that blood vessel morphology in mutant cortices recovers substantially at later stages, following astrogliosis. These results thus implicate a functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel growth during brain development.

  13. Cortical and subcortical connections of V1 and V2 in early postnatal macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Kaskan, Peter M; Zhang, Bin; Chino, Yuzo M; Kaas, Jon H

    2012-02-15

    Connections of primary (V1) and secondary (V2) visual areas were revealed in macaque monkeys ranging in age from 2 to 16 weeks by injecting small amounts of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Cortex was flattened and cut parallel to the surface to reveal injection sites, patterns of labeled cells, and patterns of cytochrome oxidase (CO) staining. Projections from the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar to V1 were present at 4 weeks of age, as were pulvinar projections to thin and thick CO stripes in V2. Injections into V1 in 4- and 8-week-old monkeys labeled neurons in V2, V3, middle temporal area (MT), and dorsolateral area (DL)/V4. Within V1 and V2, labeled neurons were densely distributed around the injection sites, but formed patches at distances away from injection sites. Injections into V2 labeled neurons in V1, V3, DL/V4, and MT of monkeys 2-, 4-, and 8-weeks of age. Injections in thin stripes of V2 preferentially labeled neurons in other V2 thin stripes and neurons in the CO blob regions of V1. A likely thick stripe injection in V2 at 4 weeks of age labeled neurons around blobs. Most labeled neurons in V1 were in superficial cortical layers after V2 injections, and in deep layers of other areas. Although these features of adult V1 and V2 connectivity were in place as early as 2 postnatal weeks, labeled cells in V1 and V2 became more restricted to preferred CO compartments after 2 weeks of age. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Late emerging effects of prenatal and early postnatal nicotine exposure on the cholinergic system and anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Eppolito, Amy K; Bachus, Susan E; McDonald, Craig G; Meador-Woodruff, James H; Smith, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of prenatal nicotine exposure clearly indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen. Some of the persisting effects of prenatal nicotine exposure include low birth weight, behavioral changes and deficits in cognitive function, although few studies have looked for neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects that might persist throughout the lifespan. Pregnant rats were given continuous infusions of nicotine (0.96mg/kg/day or 2.0mg/kg/day, freebase) continuing through the third trimester equivalent, a period of rapid brain development. Because the third trimester equivalent occurs postnatally in the rat (roughly the first week of life) nicotine administration to neonate pups continued via maternal milk until postnatal day (P) 10. Exposure to nicotine during pre- and early postnatal development had an anxiogenic effect on adult rats (P75) in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and blocked extinction learning in a fear conditioning paradigm, suggesting that pre- and postnatal nicotine exposure affect anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function well into adulthood. In contrast, nicotine exposure had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM in adolescent animals (P30). Analysis of mRNA for the alpha4, alpha7, and beta2 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors revealed lower expression of these subunits in the adult hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex following pre- and postnatal nicotine exposure, suggesting that nicotine altered the developmental trajectory of the brain. These long-term behavioral and neurochemical changes strengthen the case for discouraging cigarette smoking during pregnancy and clearly indicate that the use of the patch as a smoking cessation aid during pregnancy is not a safe alternative.

  15. Early intervention to protect the mother-infant relationship following postnatal depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Jeannette; Holt, Charlene

    2014-10-03

    postnatal depression group treatment programme. Primary outcome measures are the Parenting Stress Index (self-report measure) and the Parent-child Early Relational Assessment (observational measure coded by a blinded observer). Measurements are taken at baseline, after the postnatal depression programme, post-HUGS/Playtime, and at 6 months post-HUGS/Playtime. This research addresses the need for specific treatment for mother-infant interactional difficulties following postnatal depression. There is a need to investigate interventions in randomised trials to prevent detrimental effects on child development and make available evidence-based treatments. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12612001110875. Date Registered: 17 October 2012.

  16. Effect of early postnatal exposure to valproate on neurobehavioral development and regional BDNF expression in two strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Bath, Kevin G; Pimentel, Tiare

    2017-05-01

    Valproate has been used for over 30years as a first-line treatment for epilepsy. In recent years, prenatal exposure to valproate has been associated with teratogenic effects, limiting its use in women that are pregnant or of childbearing age. However, despite its potential detrimental effects on development, valproate continues to be prescribed at high rates in pediatric populations in some countries. Animal models allow us to test hypotheses regarding the potential effects of postnatal valproate exposure on neurobehavioral development, as well as identify potential mechanisms mediating observed effects. Here, we tested the effect of early postnatal (P4-P11) valproate exposure (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) on motor and affective development in two strains of mice, SVE129 and C57Bl/6N. We also assessed the effect of early valproate exposure on regional BDNF protein levels, a potential target of valproate, and mediator of neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that early life valproate exposure led to significant motor impairments in both SVE129 and C57Bl/6N mice. Both lines of mice showed significant delays in weight gain, as well as impairments in the righting reflex (P7-8), wire hang (P17), open field (P12 and P21), and rotarod (P25 and P45) tasks. Interestingly, some of the early locomotor effects were strain- and dose-dependent. We observed no effects of valproate on early markers of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, early life valproate exposure had significant effects on regional BDNF expression, leading to a near 50% decrease in BDNF levels in the cerebellum of both strains of mice, while not impacting hippocampal BDNF protein levels. These observations indicate that postnatal exposure to valproate may have significant, and region-specific effects, on neural and behavioral development, with specific consequences for cerebellar development and motor function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversification of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties during normal development and botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis in early postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, S T; Whelan, P J

    2010-05-01

    During early postnatal development, between birth and postnatal days 8-11, mice start to achieve weight-bearing locomotion. In association with the progression of weight-bearing locomotion there are presumed developmental changes in the intrinsic electrical properties of spinal -motoneurons. However, these developmental changes in the properties of -motoneuron properties have not been systematically explored in mice. Here, data are presented documenting the developmental changes of selected intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties, including statistically significant changes in action potential half-width, intrinsic excitability and diversity (quantified as coefficient of variation) of rheobase current, afterhyperpolarization half-decay time, and input resistance. In various adult mammalian preparations, the maintenance of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties is dependent on activity and/or transmission-sensitive motoneuron-muscle interactions. In this study, we show that botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis led to statistically significant changes in the normal development of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties in the postnatal mouse. This suggests that muscle activity during early neonatal life contributes to the development of normal motoneuron electrical properties.

  18. Early postnatal cranial vault reduction and fixation surgery for severe hydrocephalic macrocephaly.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajiv R; Carey, Carolyn M; Rottgers, S Alex; Tetreault, Lisa; Shimony, Nir; Katzenstein, Jennifer; Ruas, Ernesto; Tuite, Gerald F

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Infants with severe hydrocephalus and extreme macrocephaly typically undergo CSF diversion early in life, which can result in significant cranial deformity due to CSF overdrainage. In this scenario, overlap of the cranial plates can precede the development of secondary synostosis and/or severe, permanent cranial deformity. As a result, extensive cranial vault remodeling is sometimes undertaken later in life, which is often challenging and has been associated with mortality and a high morbidity rate. The authors have previously described a technique for early postnatal cranial vault reduction and fixation (CVRF), in which the calvarial bones are stabilized using absorbable fixation plates in the neonatal period, in an attempt to facilitate patient positioning, simplify hydrocephalus management, and improve cosmesis. Here, the authors describe their institutional experience managing patients with extreme neonatal hydrocephalus with CSF diversion, with and without CVRF, over the past 12 years. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of infants with extreme hydrocephalus (head circumference > 49 cm) treated at their children's hospital with ventriculoperitoneal shunting, with or without CVRF, between 2005 and 2017. Data collected included age, sex, etiology of hydrocephalus, type of CVRF performed (anterior, posterior, or combined), follow-up duration, orbitofrontal circumference, craniometric measurements, intraoperative blood loss, operative duration, and postoperative complications. Developmental data were collected using the third edition of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Photographic imaging was used to demonstrate esthetic outcomes, and family questionnaires were used to evaluate satisfaction with the esthetic outcome. RESULTS Eleven patients with extreme neonatal hydrocephalus underwent CSF shunting; 5 underwent shunting alone and 6 patients underwent shunting and CVRF. For patients who underwent shunting and CVRF, the median age at

  19. Early Postnatal Diets Affect the Bioregional Small Intestine Microbiome and Ileal Metabolome in Neonatal Pigs.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Brian D; Mercer, Kelly E; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bowlin, Anne K; Saraf, Manish K; Pack, Lindsay; Chintapalli, Sree V; Shankar, Kartik; Adams, Sean H; Badger, Thomas M; Yeruva, Laxmi

    2017-08-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome. Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs. Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21. Bacterial ecology was assessed in the contents of the small intestine through the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. α-Diversity, β-diversity, and differential abundances of operational taxonomic units were assessed by ANOVA, permutational ANOVA, and negative binomial regression, respectively. Ileum tissue metabolomics were measured by LC-mass spectrometry and assessed by weighted correlation network analysis. Results: Greater α-diversity was observed in the duodena of sow-fed compared with formula-fed neonatal pigs ( P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the ilea. Firmicutes represented the most abundant phylum across all diets in duodena (78.8%, 80.1%, and 53.4% relative abundance in sow, dairy, and soy groups, respectively), followed by Proteobacteria in sow (12.2%) and dairy (12.4%) groups and Cyanobacteria in soy-fed (36.2%) pigs. In contrast to those in the duodenum, Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the ileum, with >60% relative abundance in all of the groups. In the duodenum, 77 genera were altered by diet, followed by 48 in the jejunum and 19 in the ileum. Metabolomics analyses revealed associations between ileum tissue metabolites (e.g., acylcarnitines, 3-aminoisobutyric acid) and diet-responsive microbial genera. Conclusions: These results indicate that the neonatal diet has regional effects on the small intestine

  20. Telomere length dynamics differ in foetal and early post-natal human leukocytes in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Denise K; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Walkinshaw, Steve A; Alfirevic, Zarko; Johnston, Tracey A; Subhedar, Nimish V; Chittick, Rachel; Swindell, Richard; Wynn, Robert F

    2009-06-01

    Haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) undergo a process of self renewal to constantly maintain blood cell turnover. However, it has become apparent that adult HSC lose their self-renewal ability with age. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood leukocytes has been seen to occur with age and it has been associated with loss of HSC proliferative capacity and cellular ageing. In contrast foetal HSC are known to have greater proliferative capacity than post-natal stem cells. However it is unknown whether they undergo a similar process of telomere shortening. In this study we show a more accentuated rate of telomere loss in leukocytes from pre term infants compared to human foetuses of comparable age followed longitudinally for 8-12 weeks in a longitudinal study. Our results point to a difference in HSC behaviour between foetal and early postnatal life which is independent of age but may be influenced by events at birth itself.

  1. Developmental Injury to the Cerebellar Cortex Following Hydroxyurea Treatment in Early Postnatal Life: An Immunohistochemical and Electron Microscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Molina, Vanesa; Santa-Cruz, M C; Hervás, José P

    2017-02-01

    Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex was studied in rats administered with a single dose (2 mg/g) of the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) on postnatal day (P) 9 and collected at appropriate times ranging from 6 h to 45 days. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, BrdU-positive, and vimentin-stained cells revealed that HU compromises the survival of the external granular layer (EGL) cells. Moreover, vimentin immunocytochemistry revealed overexpression and thicker immunoreactive glial processes in HU-treated rats. On the other hand, we also show that HU leads to the activation of apoptotic cellular events, resulting in a substantial number of dying EGL cells, as revealed by TUNEL staining and at the electron microscope level. Additionally, we quantified several features of the cerebellar cortex of rats exposed to HU in early postnatal life and collected in adulthood. Data analysis indicated that the analyzed parameters were less pronounced in rats administered with this agent. Moreover, we observed several alterations in the cerebellar cortex cytoarchitecture of rats injected with HU. Anomalies included ectopic placement of Purkinje cells and abnormities in the dendritic arbor of these macroneurons. Ectopic granule cells were also found in the molecular layer. These findings provide a clue for investigating the mechanisms of HU-induced toxicity during the development of the central nervous system. Our results also suggest that it is essential to avoid underestimating the adverse effects of this hydroxylated analog of urea when administered during early postnatal life.

  2. Early post-natal neuroactive steroid manipulation modulates ondansetron effects on initial periods of alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Iris; Llidó, Anna; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2018-06-21

    Neuroactive steroids (NS) such as allopregnanolone are crucial for brain development and adult behaviour. Early post-natal alterations of NS by administering finasteride induce a decrease in the sensitivity to stimulant effects of low alcohol doses, an increase in alcohol consumption, and a decrease in ventrostriatal dopamine and serotonin levels. The aim of the present study is to observe if the effects of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron on initial alcohol consumption are modulated by post-natal NS manipulation. For this purpose, allopregnanolone, finasteride, or vehicle was injected from day 5 to 9. In adulthood, a novel object preference test was carried out in order to detect a possible novelty-seeking pattern in our animals, which has been related to vulnerability to drug abuse. The subjects then had access to two bottles (alcohol or control solutions) one hour daily for two consecutive weeks. Ondansetron (0.01 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg or vehicle) was administered before the hour of consumption in the initial phase (days 1, 2, 3) of the procedure, and after prolonged alcohol intake (days 11, 12, 13). Results indicated that finasteride animals showed a higher preference to explore the new object, as well as a higher alcohol consumption than the rest of the groups. Moreover, 0.1 mg/kg of ondansetron decreased alcohol consumption, but only in the post-natal finasteride group, suggesting a possible increase in 5HT3 receptor sensitivity in these animals. In conclusion, NS manipulation in crucial stages of development, such as early post-natal periods, seems to play an important role on the effects of ondansetron on alcohol intake and in the vulnerability to develop drug use or abuse. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Early postnatal GFAP-expressing cells produce multilineage progeny in cerebrum and astrocytes in cerebellum of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhibao; Wang, Xijuan; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yihui; Lu, Hong; Teng, Junfang; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-26

    Early postnatal GFAP-expressing cells are thought to be immature astrocytes. However, it is not clear if they possess multilineage capacity and if they can generate different lineages (astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes) in the brain of adult mice. In order to identify the fate of astroglial cells in the postnatal brain, hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2) transgenic mice were crossed with the R26R Cre reporter mouse strains which exhibit constitutive expression of β-galactosidase (β-gal). Mice carrying the hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)/R26R transgene were treated with Tamoxifen to induce Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal (P) day 6 and Cre recombinase-expressing cells were identified by X-gal staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the type(s) of these reporter-tagged cells. Sixty days after recombination, X-gal-positive cells in different cerebral regions of the adult mice expressed the astroglial markers Blbp and GFAP, the neuronal marker NeuN, the oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2 and the mature oligodendrocyte marker CC1. X-gal-positive cells in the cerebellum coexpressed the astroglial marker Blbp, but not the granule cell marker NeuN, Purkinje cell marker Calbindin or oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2. Our genetic fate mapping data demonstrated that early postnatal GFAP-positive cells possessed multilineage potential and eventually differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cerebrum and into astrocytes (including Bergmann glia) in the cerebellum of adult mice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Odorant Exposure Heightens Odor-Evoked Mitral Cell Responses in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Early sensory experience shapes the anatomy and function of sensory circuits. In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), prenatal and early postnatal odorant exposure through odorized food (food/odorant pairing) not only increases the volume of activated glomeruli but also increases the number of mitral and tufted cells (M/TCs) connected to activated glomeruli. Given the importance of M/TCs in OB output and in mediating lateral inhibitory networks, increasing the number of M/TCs connected to a single glomerulus may significantly change odorant representation by increasing the total output of that glomerulus and/or by increasing the strength of lateral inhibition mediated by cells connected to the affected glomerulus. Here, we seek to understand the functional impact of this long-term odorant exposure paradigm on the population activity of mitral cells (MCs). We use viral expression of GCaMP6s to examine odor-evoked responses of MCs following prenatal and early postnatal odorant exposure to two dissimilar odorants, methyl salicylate (MS) and hexanal, which are both strong activators of glomeruli on the dorsal OB surface. Previous work suggests that odor familiarity may decrease odor-evoked MC response in rodents. However, we find that early food-based odorant exposure significantly changes MC responses in an unexpected way, resulting in broad increases in the amplitude, number, and reliability of excitatory MC responses across the dorsal OB. PMID:28955723

  5. Early postnatal response of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus and target muscles to testosterone in male gerbils.

    PubMed

    Hadi Mansouri, S; Siegford, Janice M; Ulibarri, Catherine

    2003-05-14

    This study examined the response of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) and the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle, to testosterone in male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during the early postnatal period. Male gerbil pups were given testosterone propionate (TP) or vehicle for 2 days, then perfused on postnatal day (PND) 3, 5, 10 or 15. The BC and levator ani (LA) muscles were removed, weighed, and sectioned. Cross-sections of BC muscle fibers were measured and muscle fiber morphology examined. Spinal cords were removed and coronally sectioned in order to count and measure the SNB motoneurons. Following TP treatment, male pups of all ages had significantly heavier BC-LA muscles and larger fibers in the BC muscle compared to age-matched controls. The increase in muscle weight following TP treatment was greatest at PND10, while fiber size increased to a similar degree at all ages suggesting that hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy was responsible for the increase in muscle mass at this time. SNB motoneurons increased significantly in number and size with age and TP treatment. We hypothesize that the increase in SNB motoneuron number during normal ontogeny that can be augmented by TP treatment and represents an unusual means of establishing sexual dimorphism in the nervous system of a mammal through cell recruitment to the motor pool of a postnatal animal.

  6. Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Sarah M.; Glover, Matthew E.; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Mehi, Stephen J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; King, Gwendalyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development. PMID:23838326

  7. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor and early growth response gene 1 during postnatal development of two inbred strains of mice exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

    2010-07-01

    Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent

  8. The Heterozygous Disproportionate Micromelia (Dmm) Mouse: Morphological Changes in Fetal Cartilage Precede Postnatal Dwarfism and Compared With Lethal Homozygotes Can Explain the Mild Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Seegmiller, Robert E.; Bomsta, Brandon D.; Bridgewater, Laura C.; Niederhauser, Cindy M.; Montaño, Carolina; Sudweeks, Sterling; Eyre, David R.; Fernandes, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionate micromelia (Dmm) mouse has a mutation in the C-propeptide coding region of the Col2a1 gene that causes lethal dwarfism when homozygous (Dmm/Dmm) but causes only mild dwarfism observable ∼1-week postpartum when heterozygous (Dmm/+). The purpose of this study was 2-fold: first, to analyze and quantify morphological changes that precede the expression of mild dwarfism in Dmm/+ animals, and second, to compare morphological alterations between Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal cartilage that may correlate with the marked skeletal differences between mild and lethal dwarfism. Light and electron transmission microscopy were used to visualize structure of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) of fetal rib cartilage. Both Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal rib cartilage had significantly larger chondrocytes, greater cell density, and less ECM per unit area than +/+ littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a decrease in aggrecan mRNA in Dmm/+ vs +/+ cartilage. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm cartilage was occupied by significantly more distended rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) compared with wild-type chondrocytes. Fibril diameters and packing densities of +/+ and Dmm/+ cartilage were similar, but Dmm/Dmm cartilage showed thinner, sparsely distributed fibrils. These findings support the prevailing hypothesis that a C-propeptide mutation could interrupt the normal assembly and secretion of Type II procollagen trimers, resulting in a buildup of proα1(II) chains in the RER and a reduced rate of matrix synthesis. Thus, intracellular entrapment of proα1(II) seems to be primarily responsible for the dominant-negative effect of the Dmm mutation in the expression of dwarfism. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1003–1011, 2008) PMID:18678883

  9. The heterozygous disproportionate micromelia (dmm) mouse: morphological changes in fetal cartilage precede postnatal dwarfism and compared with lethal homozygotes can explain the mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, Robert E; Bomsta, Brandon D; Bridgewater, Laura C; Niederhauser, Cindy M; Montaño, Carolina; Sudweeks, Sterling; Eyre, David R; Fernandes, Russell J

    2008-11-01

    The disproportionate micromelia (Dmm) mouse has a mutation in the C-propeptide coding region of the Col2a1 gene that causes lethal dwarfism when homozygous (Dmm/Dmm) but causes only mild dwarfism observable approximately 1-week postpartum when heterozygous (Dmm/+). The purpose of this study was 2-fold: first, to analyze and quantify morphological changes that precede the expression of mild dwarfism in Dmm/+ animals, and second, to compare morphological alterations between Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal cartilage that may correlate with the marked skeletal differences between mild and lethal dwarfism. Light and electron transmission microscopy were used to visualize structure of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) of fetal rib cartilage. Both Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal rib cartilage had significantly larger chondrocytes, greater cell density, and less ECM per unit area than +/+ littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a decrease in aggrecan mRNA in Dmm/+ vs +/+ cartilage. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm cartilage was occupied by significantly more distended rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) compared with wild-type chondrocytes. Fibril diameters and packing densities of +/+ and Dmm/+ cartilage were similar, but Dmm/Dmm cartilage showed thinner, sparsely distributed fibrils. These findings support the prevailing hypothesis that a C-propeptide mutation could interrupt the normal assembly and secretion of Type II procollagen trimers, resulting in a buildup of proalpha1(II) chains in the RER and a reduced rate of matrix synthesis. Thus, intracellular entrapment of proalpha1(II) seems to be primarily responsible for the dominant-negative effect of the Dmm mutation in the expression of dwarfism.

  10. The effects of delivery route and anesthesia type on early postnatal weight loss in newborns: the role of vasoactive hormones.

    PubMed

    Okumus, Nurullah; Atalay, Yildiz; Onal, Eray E; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Senel, Saliha; Gunaydin, Berrin; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Koc, Esin; Ergenekon, Ebru; Unal, Suna

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of delivery route and maternal anesthesia type and the roles of vasoactive hormones on early postnatal weight loss in term newborns. Ninety-four term infants delivered vaginally (group 1, n=31), cesarean section (C/S) with general anesthesia (GA) (group 2, n=29), and C/S with epidural anesthesia (EA) (group 3, n=34) were included in this study. All infants were weighed at birth and on the second day of life and intravenous (IV) fluid infused to the mothers for the last 6 h prior to delivery was recorded. Serum electrolytes, osmolality, N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aldosterone and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentrations were measured at cord blood and on the second day of life. Our research showed that postnatal weight loss of infants was higher in C/S than vaginal deliveries (5.7% vs. 1.3%) (p < 0.0001) and in EA group than GA group (6.8% vs. 4.3%) (p < 0.0001). Postnatal weight losses were correlated with IV fluid volume infused to the mothers for the last 6 h prior to delivery (R = 0.814, p = 0.000) and with serum NT-proANP (R = 0.418, p = 0.000), BNP (R = 0.454, p = 0.000), and ADH (R = 0.509, p = 0.000) but not with aldosterone concentrations (p > 0.05). Large amounts of IV fluid given to the mothers who were applied EA prior to the delivery affect their offsprings' postnatal weight loss via certain vasoactive hormones.

  11. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity.

  12. Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Timothy J; Bleckert, Adam; Turner, Maxwell H; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-06-21

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate circadian light entrainment and the pupillary light response in adult mice. In early development these cells mediate different processes, including negative phototaxis and the timing of retinal vascular development. To determine if ipRGC physiologic properties also change with development, we measured ipRGC cell density and light responses in wild-type mouse retinas at post-natal days 8, 15 and 30. Melanopsin-positive cell density decreases by 17% between post-natal days 8 and 15 and by 25% between days 8 and 30. This decrease is due specifically to a decrease in cells co-labeled with a SMI-32, a marker for alpha-on ganglion cells (corresponding to adult morphologic type M4 ipRGCs). On multi-electrode array recordings, post-natal day 8 (P8) ipRGC light responses show more robust firing, reduced adaptation and more rapid recovery from short and extended light pulses than do the light responses of P15 and P30 ipRGCs. Three ipRGC subtypes - Types I-III - have been defined in early development based on sensitivity and latency on multielectrode array recordings. We find that Type I cells largely account for the unique physiologic properties of P8 ipRGCs. Type I cells have previously been shown to have relatively short latencies and high sensitivity. We now show that Type I cells show have rapid and robust recovery from long and short bright light exposures compared with Type II and III cells, suggesting differential light adaptation mechanisms between cell types. By P15, Type I ipRGCs are no longer detectable. Loose patch recordings of P8 M4 ipRGCs demonstrate Type I physiology. Type I ipRGCs are found only in early development. In addition to their previously described high sensitivity and rapid kinetics, these cells are uniquely resistant to adaptation and recover quickly and fully to short and prolonged light exposure. Type I ipRGCs correspond to the SMI-32 positive, M4 subtype and largely lose

  13. Postnatal BMI changes in children with different birthweights: A trial study for detecting early predictive factors for pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Satake, Eiichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Saegusa, Hirokazu; Kubota, Akira; Natsume, Hiromune; Shibata, Yukinobu; Fujisawa, Yasuko

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of early postnatal growth by birthweight and detect early predictive factors for pediatric obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and degree of obesity were examined in children in the fourth year of elementary school and second year of junior high school. Their BMI at birth and three years of age were also examined. Based on birthweight, participants were divided into three groups: low (< 2500 g), middle (2500–3500 g), and high (> 3500 g). Furthermore, according to the degree of obesity, they were divided into two groups: obese (20% ≤) and non-obese (20% >). The change of BMI from birth to three years of age (ΔBMI) showed a strong inverse relationship with birthweight and was significantly different among the three birthweight groups (low > middle > high). The ΔBMI and BMI at three years of age were higher in obese than in non-obese children and showed significant positive correlations with the degree of obesity. Early postnatal growth might be determined by birthweight and was higher in obese than in non-obese children. The ΔBMI from birth to three years of age and BMI at age of three years could be predictive factors for pediatric obesity. PMID:29403153

  14. Trehalose rescues glial cell dysfunction in striatal cultures from HD R6/1 mice at early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Perucho, Juan; Gómez, Ana; Muñoz, María Paz; de Yébenes, Justo García; Mena, María Ángeles; Casarejos, María José

    2016-07-01

    The pathological hallmark of Huntington disease (HD) is the intracellular aggregation of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) in striatal neurons and glia associated with the selective loss of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons. Up to the present, the role of glia in HD is poorly understood and has been classically considered secondary to neuronal disorder. Trehalose is a disaccharide known to possess many pharmacological properties, acting as an antioxidant, a chemical chaperone, and an inducer of autophagy. In this study, we analyzed at an early postnatal development stage the abnormalities observed in striatal glial cell cultures of postnatal R6/1 mice (HD glia), under baseline and stressing conditions and the protective effects of trehalose. Our data demonstrate that glial HD alterations already occur at early stages of postnatal development. After 20 postnatal days in vitro, striatal HD glia cultures showed more reactive astrocytes with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) but with less replication capacity, less A2B5(+) glial progenitors and more microglia than wild-type (WT) cultures. HD glia had lower levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and was more susceptible to H2O2 and epoxomicin insults. The amount of expressed GDNF and secreted mature-BDNF by HD astrocytes were much lower than by WT astrocytes. In addition, HD glial cultures showed a deregulation of the major proteolytic systems, the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS), and the autophagic pathway. This produces a defective protein quality control, indicated by the elevated levels of ubiquitination and p62 protein. Interestingly, we show that trehalose, through its capacity to induce autophagy, inhibited p62/SQSTM1 accumulation and facilitated the degradation of cytoplasmic aggregates from mHTT and α-synuclein proteins. Trehalose also reduced microglia activation and reversed the disrupted cytoskeleton of astrocytes accompanied with an increase in the replication capacity. In

  15. Prenatal and early postnatal NOAEL-dose clothianidin exposure leads to a reduction of germ cells in juvenile male mice

    PubMed Central

    YANAI, Shogo; HIRANO, Tetsushi; OMOTEHARA, Takuya; TAKADA, Tadashi; YONEDA, Naoki; KUBOTA, Naoto; YAMAMOTO, Anzu; MANTANI, Youhei; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoids are pesticides used worldwide. They bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with high affinity. We previously reported that clothianidin (CTD), one of the latest neonicotinoids, reduced antioxidant expression and induced germ cell death in the adult testis of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the male reproductive toxicity of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to CTD, because it is likely that developmental exposure more severely affects the testis compared to adults due to the absence of the blood-testis barrier. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given water gel blended with CTD (0, 10 or 50 mg/kg/day; no-observed-adverse-effect-level [NOAEL for mice]: 47.2 mg/kg/day) between gestational day 1 and 14 days post-partum. We then examined the testes of male offspring at postnatal day 14. The testis weights and the numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule were decreased in the CTD-50 group, and abnormal tubules containing no germ cells appeared. Nevertheless, the apoptotic cell number and proliferative activity were not significantly different between the control and CTD-exposed groups. There were no significant differences in the androgen-related parameters, such as the Leydig cell volume per testis, the Sertoli cell number and the tubule diameter. The present study is the first demonstration that in utero and lactational exposures to CTD at around the NOAEL for mice reduce the germ cell number, but our findings suggest that these exposures do not affect steroidogenesis in Leydig cells during prenatal or early postnatal life. PMID:28579575

  16. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to E-cigarette nicotine vapors during late prenatal and early postnatal life altered behavior in adult mice. Methods Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Results Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Conclusion Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth. PMID:26372012

  17. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze.Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base

  18. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Nagapan, Gowri; Meng Goh, Yong; Shameha Abdul Razak, Intan; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2013-07-31

    Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus

  19. Early postnatal development of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and peptide histidine isoleucine-immunoreactive structures in the cat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Wahle, P; Meyer, G

    1989-04-08

    The early postnatal development of neurons containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) has been analyzed in visual areas 17 and 18 of cats aged from postnatal day (P) 0 to adulthood. Neuronal types are established mainly by axonal criteria. Both peptides occur in the same neuronal types and display the same postnatal chronology of appearance. Several cell types are transient, which means that they are present in the cortex only for a limited period of development. According to their chronology of appearance the VIP/PHI-immunoreactive (ir) cell types are grouped into three neuronal populations. The first population comprises six cell types which appear early in postnatal life. The pseudohorsetail cells of layer I possess a vertically descending axon which initially gives rise to recurrent collaterals, then forms a bundle passing layers III to V, and finally, horizontal terminal fibers in layer VI. The neurons differentiate at P 4 and disappear by degeneration around P 30. The neurons with columnar dendritic fields of layers IV/V are characterized by a vertical arrangement of long dendrites ascending or descending parallel to each other, thus forming an up to 600 microns long dendritic column. Their axons always descend and terminate in broad fields in layer VI. The neurons appear at P 7 and are present until P 20. The multipolar neurons of layer VI occur in isolated positions and have broad axonal territories. The neurons differentiate at P 7 and persist into adulthood. Bitufted to multipolar neurons of layers II/III have axons descending as a single fiber to layer VI, where they terminate. The neurons appear at P 12 and persist into adulthood. The four cell types described above issue a vertically oriented fiber architecture in layers II-V and a horizontal terminal plexus in layer VI which is dense during the second, third and fourth week. Concurrent with the disappearance of the two transient types the number of

  20. Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Report From the 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Miyahira, Andrea K.; Lang, Joshua M.; Den, Robert B.; Garraway, Isla P.; Lotan, Tamara L.; Ross, Ashley E.; Stoyanova, Tanya; Cho, Steve Y.; Simons, Jonathan W.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Soule, Howard R.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND The 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting, themed: “Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer,” was held in La Jolla, California from June 25 to 28, 2015. METHODS The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) sponsors an annual, invitation-only, action-tank-structured meeting on a critical topic concerning lethal prostate cancer. The 2015 meeting was attended by 71 basic, translational, and clinical investigators who discussed the current state of the field, major unmet needs, and ideas for addressing earlier diagnosis and treatment of men with lethal prostate cancer for the purpose of extending lives and making progress toward a cure. RESULTS The questions addressed at the meeting included: cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, evaluating, and targeting the microenvironment in the primary tumor, advancing biomarkers for clinical integration, new molecular imaging technologies, clinical trials, and clinical trial design in localized high-risk and oligometastatic settings, targeting the primary tumor in advanced disease, and instituting multi-modal care of high risk and oligometastatic patients. DISCUSSION This article highlights the current status, greatest unmet needs, and anticipated field changes that were discussed at the meeting toward the goal of optimizing earlier interventions to potentiate cures in high-risk and oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. PMID:26477609

  1. Multidisciplinary intervention of early, lethal metastatic prostate cancer: Report from the 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Lang, Joshua M; Den, Robert B; Garraway, Isla P; Lotan, Tamara L; Ross, Ashley E; Stoyanova, Tanya; Cho, Steve Y; Simons, Jonathan W; Pienta, Kenneth J; Soule, Howard R

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting, themed: "Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer," was held in La Jolla, California from June 25 to 28, 2015. The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) sponsors an annual, invitation-only, action-tank-structured meeting on a critical topic concerning lethal prostate cancer. The 2015 meeting was attended by 71 basic, translational, and clinical investigators who discussed the current state of the field, major unmet needs, and ideas for addressing earlier diagnosis and treatment of men with lethal prostate cancer for the purpose of extending lives and making progress toward a cure. The questions addressed at the meeting included: cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, evaluating, and targeting the microenvironment in the primary tumor, advancing biomarkers for clinical integration, new molecular imaging technologies, clinical trials, and clinical trial design in localized high-risk and oligometastatic settings, targeting the primary tumor in advanced disease, and instituting multi-modal care of high risk and oligometastatic patients. This article highlights the current status, greatest unmet needs, and anticipated field changes that were discussed at the meeting toward the goal of optimizing earlier interventions to potentiate cures in high-risk and oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Effects of Prenatal and Early-Postnatal Exposure to Mexico's "Oportunidades" on Long-Term Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that children's early life environments can have significant consequences on their long-term outcomes. Yet, there is still limited empirical evidence on the effects that being exposed during the prenatal and early postnatal periods to positive shocks, such as conditional cash transfers, has on long-term cognitive function.…

  3. Fetal Nicotine Exposure Increases Preference for Nicotine Odor in Early Postnatal and Adolescent, but Not Adult, Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Kent, Paul F.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies demonstrate a four-fold increased possibility of smoking in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Nicotine is the active addictive component in tobacco-related products, crossing the placenta and contaminating the amniotic fluid. It is known that chemosensory experience in the womb can influence postnatal odor-guided preference behaviors for an exposure stimulus. By means of behavioral and neurophysiologic approaches, we examined whether fetal nicotine exposure, using mini-osmotic pumps, altered the response to nicotine odor in early postnatal (P17), adolescent (P35) and adult (P90) progeny. Compared with controls, fetal exposed rats displayed an altered innate response to nicotine odor that was evident at P17, declined in magnitude by P35 and was absent at P90 - these effects were specific to nicotine odor. The behavioral effect in P17 rats occurred in conjunction with a tuned olfactory mucosal response to nicotine odor along with an untoward consequence on the epithelial response to other stimuli – these P17 neural effects were absent in P35 and P90 animals. The absence of an altered neural effect at P35 suggests that central mechanisms, such as nicotine-induced modifications of the olfactory bulb, bring about the altered behavioral response to nicotine odor. Together, these findings provide insights into how fetal nicotine exposure influences the behavioral preference and responsiveness to the drug later in life. Moreover, they add to a growing literature demonstrating chemosensory mechanisms by which patterns of maternal drug use can be conveyed to offspring, thereby enhancing postnatal vulnerability for subsequent use and abuse. PMID:24358374

  4. Effects of short-duration electromagnetic radiation on early postnatal neurogenesis in rats: Fos and NADPH-d histochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Orendáčová, Judita; Orendáč, Martin; Mojžiš, Miroslav; Labun, Ján; Martončíková, Marcela; Saganová, Kamila; Lievajová, Kamila; Blaško, Juraj; Abdiová, Henrieta; Gálik, Ján; Račeková, Eniko

    2011-11-01

    The immediate effects of whole body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) were used to study postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of Wistar rats of both sexes. Newborn postnatal day 7 (P7) and young adult rats (P28) were exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMF) at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm(2) for 2 h. Post-irradiation changes were studied using immunohistochemical localization of Fos and NADPH-d. We found that short-duration exposure induces increased Fos immunoreactivity selectively in cells of the SVZ of P7 and P28 rats. There were no Fos positive cells visible within the RMS of irradiated rats. These findings indicate that some differences exist in prerequisites of proliferating cells between the SVZ and RMS regardless of the age of the rats. Short-duration exposure also caused praecox maturation of NADPH-d positive cells within the RMS of P7 rats. The NADPH-d positive cells appeared several days earlier than in age-matched controls, and their number and morphology showed characteristics of adult rats. On the other hand, in the young adult P28 rats, EMR induced morphological signs typical of early postnatal age. These findings indicate that EMR causes age-related changes in the production of nitric oxide (NO), which may lead to different courses of the proliferation cascade in newborn and young adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  6. Early postnatal exposure to methylphenidate alters stress reactivity and increases hippocampal ectopic granule cells in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Gray, Jason D.; Melton, Jay T.; Punsoni, Michael; Tabori, Nora E.; Ward, Mary J.; Frys, Kelly; Iadecola, Costantino; Milner, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    To mimic clinical treatment with methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), rat pups were injected with MPH (5 mg/kg, I.P.) or placebo twice daily during their nocturnal active phase from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 35. Thirty-nine days after the last MPH administration (PND76), four litters of rats experienced stressful conditions during the 2003 New York City blackout. MPH-treated rats that endured the blackout lost more weight and regained it at a slower pace than controls (p<0.05; N=7–11/group). Furthermore, MPH-treated rats had elevated systolic arterial blood pressure (from 115.6 ± 1.2 to 126 ± 1.8 mmHg; p<0.05), assessed on PND130 by tail cuff plethysmography. Immunocytochemical studies of transmitter systems in the brain demonstrated rearrangements of catecholamine and neuropeptide Y fibers in select brain regions at PND135, which did not differ between blackout and control groups. However, MPH-treated rats that endured the blackout had more ectopic granule cells in the hilus of the dorsal hippocampal dentate gyrus compared to controls at PND 135 (p<0.05; N=6/group). These findings indicate that early postnatal exposure to high therapeutic doses of MPH can have long lasting effects on the plasticity of select brain regions and can induce changes in the reactivity to stress that persist into adulthood. PMID:19100815

  7. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  8. Lethal Ultra-Early Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of De Novo Aneurysm 5 Months After Primary Aneurysmatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Unterberg, Andreas W; Zweckberger, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 1% of all patients surviving rupture of a cerebral aneurysm suffer from a second aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage later in their lives, 61% of which are caused by rupture of a de novo aneurysm. Latency between bleedings is usually many years, and younger patients tend to achieve better outcomes from a second subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report an unusual case of lethal ultra-early rupture of a de novo aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery only 5 months after the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and complete coiling in a young, healthy male patient. Despite complete aneurysm obliteration, young age, and good recovery, patients may be subjected to secondary subarachnoid hemorrhages from de novo aneurysms after only a few months of the initial bleeding. Early-control magnetic resonance angiography might hence be advisable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I during the early postnatal period in intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Naho; Shoji, Hiromichi; Suganuma, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Natsuki; Kantake, Masato; Murano, Yayoi; Sakuraya, Koji; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for perinatal growth and development; low serum IGF-I has been observed during intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We investigated the effects of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I in IUGR rats during the early postnatal period. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation in pregnant rats. IUGR pups were divided into two groups injected daily with rhIGF-I (2 mg/kg; IUGR/IGF-I, n = 16) or saline (IUGR/physiologic saline solution (PSS), n = 16) from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 13. Maternal sham-operated pups injected with saline were used as controls (control, n = 16). Serum IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 3 and 5 were measured on PND25. The expression of Igf-i, IGF-I receptor (Igf-ir), Igfbp3, and 5 mRNA in the liver and brain was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction on PND25. Immunohistochemical staining of the liver for IGF expression was performed. Mean bodyweight on PND3 and PND25 in the IUGR pups (IUGR/IGF-I and IUGR/PSS) was significantly lower than that of the control pups. Serum IGF-I and hepatic Igf-ir mRNA in the IUGR pups were significantly lower than those in the control pups. In the IUGR/IGF-I group, hepatic Igfbp3 mRNA and liver immunohistochemical staining were increased. In the IUGR/PSS and control pups, there were no significant differences between these two groups in serum IGFBP3 and IGFBP5, hepatic Igf-i and Igfbp-5 mRNA, or brain Igf mRNA. No benefits on body and brain weight gain but an effective increase in hepatic IGFBP-3 was observed after treatment with 2 mg/kg rhIGF-I during the early postnatal period. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84–8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12–8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78–7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83–9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61–9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children. PMID:27495020

  11. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  12. Food, growth and time: Elsie Widdowson's and Robert McCance's research into prenatal and early postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2014-09-01

    Cambridge scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson are best known for their work on the British food tables and wartime food rations, but it is their research on prenatal and early postnatal growth that is today seen as a foundation of the fields studying the impact of environment upon prenatal development and, consequently, adult disease. In this essay I situate McCance's and Widdowson's 1940s human and 1950s experimental studies in the context of pre-war concerns with fetal growth and development, especially within biochemistry, physiology and agriculture; and the Second World War and post-war focus on the effects of undernutrition during pregnancy upon the fetus. I relate Widdowson's and McCance's research on the long-term effects of early undernutrition to the concern with recovery from early trauma so pertinent in post-war Europe and with sensitive (critical) periods, a concept of high importance across different fields. Finally I discuss how, following a hiatus in which fetal physiology engaged with different questions and stressed fetal autonomy, interest in the impact of environment upon prenatal growth and development revived towards the end of the twentieth century. The new field of "developmental origins of health and disease", I suggest, has provided a context in which Widdowson's and McCance's work has regained importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early postnatal exposure to isoflurane causes cognitive deficits and disrupts development of newborn hippocampal neurons via activation of the mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sanghee; Kwak, Minhye; Gray, Christy D.; Xu, Michael; Choi, Jun H.; Junn, Sue; Kim, Jieun; Xu, Jing; Schaefer, Michele; Johns, Roger A.; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Mintz, C. David

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure. Using an in vivo mouse model we demonstrate abnormal development of dendrite arbors and dendritic spines in newly generated dentate gyrus granule cell neurons of the hippocampus after a clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia exposure conducted at an early postnatal age. Furthermore, we find that isoflurane causes a sustained increase in activity in the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway, and that inhibition of this pathway with rapamycin not only reverses the observed changes in neuronal development, but also substantially improves performance on behavioral tasks of spatial learning and memory that are impaired by isoflurane exposure. We conclude that isoflurane disrupts the development of hippocampal neurons generated in the early postnatal period by activating a well-defined neurodevelopmental disease pathway and that this phenotype can be reversed by pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:28683067

  14. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Decreases BDNF/TrkB Signaling and Increases Abnormal Behaviors Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133

  15. Altered gene expression in early postnatal monoamine oxidase A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Kardys, Abbey; Chen, Yibu; Flink, Stephen; Tabakoff, Boris; Shih, Jean C

    2017-08-15

    We reported previously that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A knockout (KO) mice show increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels and autistic-like behaviors characterized by repetitive behaviors, and anti-social behaviors. We showed that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) from post-natal day 1 (P1) through 7 (P7) in MAO A KO mice reduced the serotonin level to normal and reverses the repetitive behavior. These results suggested that the altered gene expression at P1 and P7 may be important for the autistic-like behaviors seen in MAO A KO mice and was studied here. In this study, Affymetrix mRNA array data for P1 and P7 MAO A KO mice were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to identify genes differentially expressed versus wild-type and assess their functions and relationships. The number of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) varied with age: P1 (664) and P7 (3307) [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05, fold-change (FC) >1.5 for autism-linked genes and >2.0 for functionally categorized genes]. Eight autism-linked genes were differentially expressed in P1 (upregulated: NLGN3, SLC6A2; down-regulated: HTR2C, MET, ADSL, MECP2, ALDH5A1, GRIN3B) while four autism-linked genes were differentially expressed at P7 (upregulated: HTR2B; downregulated: GRIN2D, GRIN2B, CHRNA4). Many other genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, neurotransmission, and cognitive function were differentially expressed at P7 in MAO A KO mice. This result suggests that modulation of these genes by the increased serotonin may lead to neurodevelopmental alteration in MAO A KO mice and results in autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multimethod Approach to the Early Postnatal Growth of the Mandible in Mice from a Zone of Robertsonian Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; López-Fuster, María José; Cubo, Jorge; Ventura, Jacint

    2018-04-18

    The western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) shows high karyotypic diversity owing to Robertsonian translocations. Morphometric studies conducted with adult mice suggest that karyotype evolution due to these chromosomal reorganizations entails variation in the form and the patterns of morphological covariation of the mandible. However, information is much scarcer regarding the effect of these rearrangements on the growth pattern of the mouse mandible over early postnatal ontogeny. Here we compare mandible growth from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life between two ontogenetic series of mice from wild populations, with the standard karyotype and with Robertsonian translocations respectively, reared under the same conditions. A multi-method approach is used, including bone histology analyses of mandible surfaces and cross-sections, as well as geometric morphometric analyses of mandible form. The mandibles of both standard and Robertsonian mice display growth acceleration around weaning, anteroposterior direction of bone maturation, a predominance of bone deposition fields over ontogeny, and relatively greater expansion of the posterior mandible region correlated with the ontogenetic increase in mandible size. Nevertheless, differences exist between the two mouse groups regarding the timing of histological maturation of the mandible, the localization of certain bone remodeling fields, the temporospatial patterns of morphological variation, and the organization into two main modules. The dissimilarities in the process of mandible growth between the two groups of mice become more evident around sexual maturity, and could arise from alterations that Robertsonian translocations may exert on genes involved in the bone remodeling mechanism. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Lack of the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 causes tremors, seizures, and early postnatal death in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xinmin; Dumas, Theodore; Tang, Lamont; Brennan, Thomas; Reeder, Thadd; Thomas, Winston; Klein, Robert D; Flores, Judith; O'Hara, Bruce F; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul

    2005-08-09

    The Na(+)-independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (Asc-1) is exclusively expressed in neuronal structures throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Asc-1 transports small neutral amino acids with high affinity especially for D-serine and glycine (K(i): 8-12 microM), two endogenous glutamate co-agonists that activate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors through interacting with the strychnine-insensitive glycine binding-site. By regulating D-serine (and possibly glycine) levels in the synaptic cleft, Asc-1 may play an important role in controlling neuronal excitability. We generated asc-1 gene knockout (asc-1(-/-)) mice to test this hypothesis. Behavioral phenotyping combined with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings revealed that asc-1(-/-) mice developed tremors, ataxia, and seizures that resulted in early postnatal death. Both tremors and seizures were reduced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Extracellular recordings from asc-1(-/-) brain slices indicated that the spontaneous seizure activity did not originate in the hippocampus, although, in this region, a relative increase in evoked synaptic responses was observed under nominal Mg(2+)-free conditions. Taken together with the known neurochemistry and neuronal distribution of the Asc-1 transporter, these results indicate that the mechanism underlying the behavioral hyperexcitability in mutant mice is likely due to overactivation of NMDA receptors, presumably resulting from elevated extracellular D-serine. Our study provides the first evidence to support the notion that Asc-1 transporter plays a critical role in regulating neuronal excitability, and indicate that the transporter is vital for normal CNS function and essential to postnatal survival of mice.

  18. Early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats induces memory deficits in adult life that can be reversed by donepezil and galantamine.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Mello, Pâmela Billig; Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Monteiro, Siomara; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-02-01

    Early postnatal maternal deprivation is known to cause long-lasting neurobiological effects. Here, we investigated whether some of the cognitive aspects of these deficits might be related to a disruption of the cholinergic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were individually housed and maintained on a 12:12h light/dark cycle with food and water freely available. The mothers were separated from their pups for 3h per day from postnatal day 1 (PND-1) to PND-10. To do that, the dams were moved to a different cage and the pups maintained in the original home cage, which was transferred to a different room kept at 32 degrees C. After they reached 120-150 days of age, maternal-deprived and non-deprived animals were either sacrificed for brain acetylcholinesterase measurement, or trained and tested in an object recognition task and in a social recognition task as described by Rossato et al. (2007) [Rossato, J.I., Bevilaqua, L. R.M., Myskiw, J.C., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I., Cammarota, M. 2007. On the role hippocampal synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Learn. Mem. 14, 36-46] and Lévy et al. (2003) [Lévy, F., Melo. A.I., Galef. B.G. Jr., Madden, M., Fleming. A.S. 2003. Complete maternal deprivation affects social, but not spatial, learning in adult rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 43, 177-191], respectively. There was increased acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex of the deprived animals. In addition, they showed a clear impairment in memory of the two recognition tasks measured 24h after training. Oral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil or galantamine (1mg/kg) 30min before training reversed the memory impairments caused by maternal deprivation. The findings suggest that maternal deprivation affects memory processing at adulthood through a change in brain cholinergic systems.

  19. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O 2 , 6 h; postnatal day 7 , P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight ( P < 0.001) and length ( P < 0.04) compared with controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH ( P < 0.01) and IGF-1 ( P < 0.01). RhGH abrogated these hypoxia-induced changes of the GH/IGF-1 axis associated with normalization of weight and length gain until P14 compared with controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. S-adenosyl methionine prevents ASD like behaviors triggered by early postnatal valproic acid exposure in very young mice.

    PubMed

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi

    2018-01-16

    A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Anterograde Tracing Method using DiI to Label Vagal Innervation of the Embryonic and Early Postnatal Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michelle C.; Fox, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The mouse is an extremely valuable model for studying vagal development in relation to strain differences, genetic variation, gene manipulations, or pharmacological manipulations. Therefore, a method using 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was developed for labeling vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in embryonic and postnatal mice. DiI labeling was adapted and optimized for this purpose by varying several facets of the method. For example, insertion and crushing of DiI crystals into the nerve led to faster DiI diffusion along vagal axons and diffusion over longer distances as compared with piercing the nerve with a micropipette tip coated with dried DiI oil. Moreover, inclusion of EDTA in the fixative reduced leakage of DiI out of nerve fibers that occurred with long incubations. Also, mounting labeled tissue in PBS was superior to glycerol with n-propyl gallate, which resulted in reduced clarity of DiI labeling that may have been due to DiI leaking out of fibers. Optical sectioning of flattened wholemounts permitted examination of individual tissue layers of the GI tract wall. This procedure aided identification of nerve ending types because in most instances each type innervates a different tissue layer. Between embryonic day 12.5 and postnatal day 8, growth of axons into the GI tract, formation and patterning of fiber bundles in the myenteric plexus and early formation of putative afferent and efferent nerve terminals were observed. Thus, the DiI tracing method developed here has opened up a window for investigation during an important phase of vagal development. PMID:17418900

  2. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants: General Toxicity and Skeletal Variations.

    PubMed

    Tung, Emily W Y; Yan, Han; Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Kawata, Alice; Rigden, Marc; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F; Wade, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are stable environmental contaminants known to exert endocrine-disrupting effects. Developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is correlated with impaired thyroid hormone signaling, as well as estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects. As previous studies have focused on a single congener or technical mixture, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gestational and early postnatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFRs designed to reflect house dust levels of PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane on postnatal developmental outcomes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the PBDE mixture from preconception to weaning (PND 21) through the diet containing 0, 0.75, 250, and 750 mg mixture/kg diet. BFR exposure induced transient reductions in body weight at PND 35 in male and from PND 30-45 in female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). Liver weights (PND 21) and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities (PND 21 and 46) were increased in both male and female offspring exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. Furthermore, serum T4 levels were reduced at PND 21 in both,male and female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). At PND 21, Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was decreased in males exposed to 750 mg/kg dietat, and females exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. At PND 46 ALP was significantly elevated in males (250 and 750 mg/kg). Variations in the cervical vertebrae and phalanges were observed in pups at PND 4 (250 and 750 mg/kg). Therefore, BFR exposure during gestation through to weaning alters developmental programming in the offspring. The persistence of BFRs in the environment remains a cause for concern with regards to developmental toxicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Microalbuminuria and early renal response to lethal dose Shiga toxin type 2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Federico; Oltra, Gisela; Gerhardt, Elizabeth; Hermes, Ricardo; Cohen, Lilian; Damiano, Alicia E; Ibarra, Cristina; Lago, Nestor R; Zotta, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) constitutes the most frequent cause of acute renal failure in children. Approximately 2%-4% of patients die during the acute phase, and one-third of the 96% who survive are at risk of chronic renal sequelae. Little information is available about the direct effect of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) on the onset of proteinuria and the evolution of toxin-mediated glomerular or tubular injury. In this work, rats were injected intraperitoneally with recombinant Escherichia coli culture supernatant containing Stx2 (sStx2; 20 μg/kg body weight) to induce HUS. Functional, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry studies were carried out to determine alterations in slit diaphragm proteins and the proximal tubule endocytic system at 48 hours post-inoculation. We detected a significant increase in microalbuminuria, without changes in the proteinuria values compared to the control rats. In immunoperoxidase studies, the renal tubules and glomerular mesangium showed an increased expression of transforming growth factor β(1)(TGF-β(1)). The expression of megalin was decreased by immunoperoxidase and the cytoplasm showed a granular pattern of megalin expression by immunofluorescence techniques. Western blot analysis performed in the renal cortex from sStx2-treated and control rats using anti-nephrin and anti-podocalyxin antibodies showed a decreased expression of these proteins. We suggest that the alterations in slit diaphragm proteins and megalin expression could be related to the development of microalbuminuria in response to lethal doses of Stx2.

  4. Early treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion in a potentially lethal hydroxychloroquine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ten Broeke, R; Mestrom, E; Woo, L; Kreeftenberg, H

    2016-06-01

    This case report describes the possible benefit of intravenous lipid emulsion in two patients surviving a severe intoxication with hydroxychloroquine in a dose that was previously considered to be lethal. The first case involves a 25-year-old female who ingested 17.5 grams of hydroxychloroquine, approximately one hour before presentation. An ECG showed QRS widening and the lab results showed hypokalaemia. She became unconscious, and developed hypotension and eventually apnoea. After intubation, supportive care consisted of norepinephrine and supplementation of potassium. Moreover, sodium bicarbonate and intravenous lipid emulsion were started to prevent cardiac toxicity. After these interventions, haemodynamic stability was established within a few hours. Although cardiomyopathy was confirmed, the patient recovered after two weeks. The second case concerns a 25-year-old male who took 5 grams of hydroxychloroquine. At presentation, two hours after intake, he showed QTc prolongation and hypokalaemia. The patient was treated with the usual supportive care and, although presentation to hospital was later, with intravenous lipid emulsion. Also this patient recovered. In conclusion, these cases show the benefit of supplemental intravenous lipid emulsion to prevent cardiac toxicity after a severe intoxication with hydroxychloroquine.

  5. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep

    2002-09-24

    Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significancemore » or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.« less

  6. Transient Overexposure of Neuregulin 3 during Early Postnatal Development Impacts Selective Behaviors in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Clare; Law, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a specific ligand for ErbB4 and a neuronal-enriched neurotrophin is implicated in the genetic predisposition to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental, neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, autism and schizophrenia. Genetic studies in schizophrenia demonstrate that risk variants in NRG3 are associated with cognitive and psychotic symptom severity, accompanied by increased expression of prefrontal cortical NRG3. Despite our expanding knowledge of genetic involvement of NRG3 in neurological disorders, little is known about the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of risk. Here we exploited the fact that a paralog of NRG3, NRG1, readily penetrates the murine blood brain barrier (BBB). In this study we synthesized the bioactive epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain of NRG3, and using previously validated in-vivo peripheral injection methodologies in neonatal mice, demonstrate that NRG3 successfully crosses the BBB, where it activates its receptor ErbB4 and downstream Akt signaling at levels of bioactivity comparable to NRG1. To determine the impact of NRG3 overexpression during one critical developmental window, C57BL/6 male mice were subcutaneously injected daily with NRG1-EGF, NRG3-EGF or vehicle from postnatal days 2–10. Mice were tested in adulthood using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tasks relevant to neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders. In agreement with previous studies, developmental overexposure to NRG1 induced multiple non-CNS mediated peripheral effects as well as severely disrupting performance of prepulse inhibition of the startle response. In contrast, NRG3 had no effect on any peripheral measures investigated or sensorimotor gating. Specifically, developmental NRG3 overexposure produced an anxiogenic-like phenotype and deficits in social behavior in adulthood. These results provide primary data to support a role for NRG3 in brain development and function, which appears to be distinct

  7. An early-biomarker algorithm predicts lethal graft-versus-host disease and survival

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Matthew J.; Özbek, Umut; Holler, Ernst; Major-Monfried, Hannah; Reddy, Pavan; Aziz, Mina; Hogan, William J.; Ayuk, Francis; Efebera, Yvonne A.; Hexner, Elizabeth O.; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Qayed, Muna; Ordemann, Rainer; Wölfl, Matthias; Mielke, Stephan; Chen, Yi-Bin; Devine, Steven; Jagasia, Madan; Kitko, Carrie L.; Litzow, Mark R.; Kröger, Nicolaus; Locatelli, Franco; Morales, George; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Reshef, Ran; Rösler, Wolf; Weber, Daniela; Yanik, Gregory A.; Levine, John E.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. No laboratory test can predict the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) or severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT) prior to the onset of GVHD symptoms. METHODS. Patient blood samples on day 7 after HCT were obtained from a multicenter set of 1,287 patients, and 620 samples were assigned to a training set. We measured the concentrations of 4 GVHD biomarkers (ST2, REG3α, TNFR1, and IL-2Rα) and used them to model 6-month NRM using rigorous cross-validation strategies to identify the best algorithm that defined 2 distinct risk groups. We then applied the final algorithm in an independent test set (n = 309) and validation set (n = 358). RESULTS. A 2-biomarker model using ST2 and REG3α concentrations identified patients with a cumulative incidence of 6-month NRM of 28% in the high-risk group and 7% in the low-risk group (P < 0.001). The algorithm performed equally well in the test set (33% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and the multicenter validation set (26% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). Sixteen percent, 17%, and 20% of patients were at high risk in the training, test, and validation sets, respectively. GVHD-related mortality was greater in high-risk patients (18% vs. 4%, P < 0.001), as was severe gastrointestinal GVHD (17% vs. 8%, P < 0.001). The same algorithm can be successfully adapted to define 3 distinct risk groups at GVHD onset. CONCLUSION. A biomarker algorithm based on a blood sample taken 7 days after HCT can consistently identify a group of patients at high risk for lethal GVHD and NRM. FUNDING. The National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. PMID:28194439

  8. A model for early onset of protection against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Röhrs, Susanne; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin

    2014-05-07

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 sporadically cause severe disease in humans and involve the risk of inducing a pandemic by gaining the ability for human-to-human transmission. In naïve poultry, primarily gallinaceous birds, the virus induces fatal disease and the used inactivated vaccines occasionally are unable to provide efficient and early onset of protection. Therefore, optimized vaccines must be developed and evaluated in model systems. In our study, we tested a novel H5 neuraminidase-deleted influenza A virus variant to analyze the induction of a very early onset of immunity. Ferrets, mice and chickens were each immunized with a single vaccine dose seven, three and one day before lethal challenge infection, respectively. Sound protection was conferred in 100% of animals immunized seven days prior to challenge infection. In these animals, no clinical signs were observed, and no challenge virus RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR analyses of swabs, nasal washings, and organ samples. Moreover, the attenuated modified-live virus variant protected all chickens, mice, and ferrets as early as three days after vaccination against severe clinical signs. Chickens and ferrets developed hemagglutinin-specific antibodies after seven days, but no neuraminidase-specific antibodies, making this kind of neuraminidase-negative strain suitable for the DIVA ("differentiating vaccinated from infected animals") strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early postnatal diets affect the bioregional small intestine microbiome and ileal metabolome in neonatal piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet impacts the small intestinal microbiome, and how microbial shifts impact gut metabolic physiology...

  10. Reproductive Toxicity of T Cells in Early Life: Abnormal Immune Development and Postnatal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-Xiao; Jiang, Aifang; Chen, Ting; Qu, Wen; Yan, Hui-Yi; Ping, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Immunity is a balanced status with adequate biological defenses to recognize and fight "non-self", as well as adequate tolerance to recognize "self". To maintain this immune homeostasis, a well-organized T cell immune network is required, which in part depends on the well-controlled development of alternative effector T cells, with different cytokine repertoires. Recent researches have pointed that developing fetal T cells network is a remarkably sensitive toxicological target for adverse factors in early life. Epidemiological and experimental studies showed an inseparable relationship between T cell developmental toxicity and immune diseases in adults. Considering that the inflammatory and immune disorders have become a growing health problem worldwide, increasing attention is now being paid to the T cell developmental toxicity. We propose that adverse factors may have programming effects on the crucial functions of immune system during early life which is critical for fetal T cell development and the establishment of the distinct T cell repertoires balance. The permanently disturbed intrathymic or peripheral T cell development may in turn lead to the immune disorders in later life. In this manuscript, we reviewed how adverse factors affected T cell development in early-life with the consequence of the immune dysfunction and immune diseases, and further elucidate the mechanisms. These mechanisms will be helpful in prevention and treatment of the increased prevalence of immune diseases by interfering those pathways. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Low-intensity and moderate exercise training improves autonomic nervous system activity imbalanced by postnatal early overfeeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postnatal early overfeeding and physical inactivity are serious risk factors for obesity. Physical activity enhances energy expenditure and consumes fat stocks, thereby decreasing body weight (bw). This study aimed to examine whether low-intensity and moderate exercise training in different post-weaning stages of life is capable of modulating the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and inhibiting perinatal overfeeding-induced obesity in rats. Methods The obesity-promoting regimen was begun two days after birth when the litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (small litter, SL) or to 9 pups (normal litter, NL). The rats were organized into exercised groups as follows: from weaning until 90-day-old, from weaning until 50-day-old, or from 60- until 90-days-old. All experimental procedures were performed just one day after the exercise training protocol. Results The SL-no-exercised (SL-N-EXE) group exhibited excess weight and increased fat accumulation. We also observed fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in these rats. In addition, the SL-N-EXE group exhibited an increase in the vagus nerve firing rate, whereas the firing of the greater splanchnic nerve was not altered. Independent of the timing of exercise and the age of the rats, exercise training was able to significantly blocks obesity onset in the SL rats; even SL animals whose exercise training was stopped at the end of puberty, exhibited resistance to obesity progression. Fasting glycemia was maintained normal in all SL rats that underwent the exercise training, independent of the period. These results demonstrate that moderate exercise, regardless of the time of onset, is capable on improve the vagus nerves imbalanced tonus and blocks the onset of early overfeeding-induced obesity. Conclusions Low-intensity and moderate exercise training can promote the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, reduces the large fat pad stores associated to improvement of the ANS activity in adult rats that were

  12. Do early postnatal body weight changes contribute to neonatal morbidities in the extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Verma, R; Shibly, S; Fang, H; Pollack, S

    2015-01-01

    The implications of early postnatal body weight changes (Δbw) in the morbidities related to body fluid metabolism in sick preterm infants in not well investigated. The extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, birth weight <1000 g) have the highest incidence of such morbidities among all neonates. To determine the relationships between Δbw and neonatal morbidities associated with body fluid metabolism in the ELBW infants. In an observational study, the associations between daily weight changes from birth weight (DΔ bw) and oxygen dependence on postnatal day 28 (BPD28), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage (IVH), antenatal steroid (ANS) and gestational age (GA) were evaluated. Maximum weight loss (MΔ bw) was correlated with GA, BPD28 and BPD36 (oxygen dependence on postmenstrual 36 weeks). Pearson's correlation co-efficient and multivariate logistic regressions were performed for analysis. DΔ bw correlated inversely with GA on days 1-8 of life (p <  0.01 for all, 0.06 for DOL 2). DΔ bw was associated with a lower risk of BPD28 on days 6 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-1), 10 (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.98) and 11 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99); with PDA on days 8-11 (OR ranging between 0.89 to 0.92 for the 4 days, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.99) and with IVH on day 5 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1) after controlling for GA. DΔ bw was not identified as risk factor for the tested morbidities. ANS decreased DΔ bw on days 4 (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1) and 10 (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.84-1). MΔbw correlated directly with BPD28 (r = 0.3, p = 0.004), which declined after controlling for GA (r = 0.2, p = 0.2). DΔ bw is protective for PDA, BPD28 and IVH, independent of gestational age, whereas, the effects of MΔ bw on BPD are governed by maturation in ELBW infants. ANS decreases DΔbw, which correlates inversely with GA during the first week of life.

  13. Targeted deletion of p97 (VCP/CDC48) in mouse results in early embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Müller, J M M; Deinhardt, K; Rosewell, I; Warren, G; Shima, D T

    2007-03-09

    The highly conserved AAA ATPase p97 (VCP/CDC48) has well-established roles in cell cycle progression, proteasome degradation and membrane dynamics. Gene disruption in Saccromyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Trypanosoma brucei demonstrated that p97 is essential in unicellular and multicellular organisms. To explore the requirement for p97 in mammalian cell function and embryogenesis, we disrupted the p97 locus by gene targeting. Heterozygous p97+/- mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates, whereas homozygous mutants did not survive to birth and died at a peri-implantation stage. These results show that p97 is an essential gene for early mouse development.

  14. Prenatal and early postnatal dietary sodium restriction sensitizes the adult rat to amphetamines.

    PubMed

    McBride, Shawna M; Culver, Bruce; Flynn, Francis W

    2006-10-01

    Acute sodium deficiency sensitizes adult rats to psychomotor effects of amphetamine. This study determined whether prenatal and early life manipulation of dietary sodium sensitized adult offspring to psychomotor effects of amphetamine (1 or 3 mg/kg ip) in two strains of rats. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) dams were fed chow containing low NaCl (0.12%; LN), normal NaCl (1%; NN), or high NaCl (4%; HN) throughout breeding, gestation, and lactation. Male offspring were maintained on the test diet for an additional 3 wk postweaning and then fed standard chow thereafter until testing began. Overall, blood pressure (BP), total fluid intake, salt preference, and adrenal gland weight were greater in SHR than in WKY. WKY LN offspring had greater water intake and adrenal gland weight than did WKY NN and HN offspring, whereas WKY HN offspring had increased BP, salt intake, and salt preference compared with other WKY offspring. SHR HN offspring also had increased BP compared with other SHR offspring; all other measures were similar for SHR offspring. The low-dose amphetamine increased locomotor and stereotypical behavior compared with baseline and saline injection in both WKY and SHR offspring. Dietary sodium history affected the rats' psychomotor response to the higher dose of amphetamine. Injections of 3 mg/kg amphetamine in both strains produced significantly more behavioral activity in the LN offspring than in NN and HN offspring. These results show that early life experience with low-sodium diets produce long-term changes in adult rats' behavioral responses to amphetamine.

  15. Mild zinc deficiency in male and female rats: early postnatal alterations in renal nitric oxide system and morphology.

    PubMed

    Tomat, Analia Lorena; Veiras, Luciana Cecilia; Aguirre, Sofía; Fasoli, Héctor; Elesgaray, Rosana; Caniffi, Carolina; Costa, María Ángeles; Arranz, Cristina Teresa

    2013-03-01

    Fetal and postnatal zinc deficiencies induce an increase in arterial blood pressure and impair renal function in male adult rats. We therefore hypothesized that these renal alterations are present in early stages of life and that there are sexual differences in the adaptations to this nutritional injury. The aim was to study the effects of moderate zinc deficiency during fetal life and lactation on renal morphology, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the nitric oxide system in male and female rats at 21 d of life. Female Wistar rats received low (8 ppm) or control (30 ppm) zinc diets from the beginning of pregnancy to weaning. Glomerulus number, morphology, oxidative stress, apoptotic cells, nitric oxide synthase activity, and protein expression were evaluated in the kidneys of offspring at 21 d. Zinc deficiency decreased the nephron number, induced glomerular hypertrophy, increased oxidative damage, and decreased nitric oxide synthase activity in the male and female rat kidneys. Nitric oxide synthase activity was not affected by inhibitors of the neuronal or inducible isoforms, so nitric oxide was mainly generated by the endothelial isoenzyme. Gender differences were observed in glomerular areas and antioxidant enzyme activities. Zinc deficiency during fetal life and lactation induces an early decrease in renal functional units, associated with a decrease in nitric oxide activity and an increase in oxidative stress, which would contribute to increased arterial blood pressure and renal dysfunction in adulthood. The sexual differences observed in this model may explain the dissimilar development of hypertension and renal diseases in adult life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early postnatal soluble FGFR3 therapy prevents the atypical development of obesity in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazy, Vincent; Dumas, Karine; Authier, Florence; Sore, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Gennero, Isabelle; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Gouze, Elvire

    2018-01-01

    Background Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication. Methods and findings To achieve this, we have first fully characterized the metabolic deregulations in these patients by conducting a longitudinal retrospective study, in children with achondroplasia Anthropometric, densitometric measures as well as several blood parameters were recorded and compared between three age groups ranging from [0–3], [4–8] and [9–18] years old. Our results show unexpected results with the development of an atypical obesity with preferential fat deposition in the abdomen that is remarkably not associated with classical complications of obesity such as diabetes or hypercholosterolemia. Because it is not associated with diabetes, the atypical obesity has not been studied in the past even though it is recognized as a real problem in these patients. These results were validated in a murine model of achondroplasia (Fgfr3ach/+) where similar visceral adiposity was observed. Unexpected alterations in glucose metabolism were highlighted during high-fat diet. Glucose, insulin or lipid levels remained low, without the development of diabetes. Very interestingly, in achondroplasia mice treated with soluble FGFR3 during the growth period (from D3 to D22), the development of these metabolic deregulations was prevented in adult animals (between 4 and 14 weeks of age

  17. Early postnatal soluble FGFR3 therapy prevents the atypical development of obesity in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Saint-Laurent, Celine; Garcia, Stephanie; Sarrazy, Vincent; Dumas, Karine; Authier, Florence; Sore, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Gennero, Isabelle; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Gouze, Elvire

    2018-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication. To achieve this, we have first fully characterized the metabolic deregulations in these patients by conducting a longitudinal retrospective study, in children with achondroplasia Anthropometric, densitometric measures as well as several blood parameters were recorded and compared between three age groups ranging from [0-3], [4-8] and [9-18] years old. Our results show unexpected results with the development of an atypical obesity with preferential fat deposition in the abdomen that is remarkably not associated with classical complications of obesity such as diabetes or hypercholosterolemia. Because it is not associated with diabetes, the atypical obesity has not been studied in the past even though it is recognized as a real problem in these patients. These results were validated in a murine model of achondroplasia (Fgfr3ach/+) where similar visceral adiposity was observed. Unexpected alterations in glucose metabolism were highlighted during high-fat diet. Glucose, insulin or lipid levels remained low, without the development of diabetes. Very interestingly, in achondroplasia mice treated with soluble FGFR3 during the growth period (from D3 to D22), the development of these metabolic deregulations was prevented in adult animals (between 4 and 14 weeks of age). The lean-over-fat tissues ratio was

  18. Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shaowen; Chang, Edward F.; Teng, Ching-Ling; Heiser, Marc A.; Merzenich, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical sensory representations can be reorganized by sensory exposure in an epoch of early development. The adaptive role of this type of plasticity for natural sounds in sensory development is, however, unclear. We have reared rats in a naturalistic, complex acoustic environment and examined their auditory representations. We found that cortical neurons became more selective to spectrotemporal features in the experienced sounds. At the neuronal population level, more neurons were involved in representing the whole set of complex sounds, but fewer neurons actually responded to each individual sound, but with greater magnitudes. A comparison of population-temporal responses to the experienced complex sounds revealed that cortical responses to different renderings of the same song motif were more similar, indicating that the cortical neurons became less sensitive to natural acoustic variations associated with stimulus context and sound renderings. By contrast, cortical responses to sounds of different motifs became more distinctive, suggesting that cortical neurons were tuned to the defining features of the experienced sounds. These effects lead to emergent “categorical” representations of the experienced sounds, which presumably facilitate their recognition. PMID:23747304

  19. Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    de Gouw, Pieter; van de Ven, Lotte J F; Lourens, Sander; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry

    2017-06-01

    We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuntao; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Song, Juan; Mironova, Yevgeniya; Ming, Guo-li; Kolodkin, Alex L; Giger, Roman J

    2014-10-14

    Human SEMAPHORIN 5A (SEMA5A) is an autism susceptibility gene; however, its function in brain development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse Sema5A negatively regulates synaptogenesis in early, developmentally born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (GCs). Sema5A is strongly expressed by GCs and regulates dendritic spine density in a cell-autonomous manner. In the adult mouse brain, newly born Sema5A-/- GCs show an increase in dendritic spine density and increased AMPA-type synaptic responses. Sema5A signals through PlexinA2 co-expressed by GCs, and the PlexinA2-RasGAP activity is necessary to suppress spinogenesis. Like Sema5A-/- mutants, PlexinA2-/- mice show an increase in GC glutamatergic synapses, and we show that Sema5A and PlexinA2 genetically interact with respect to GC spine phenotypes. Sema5A-/- mice display deficits in social interaction, a hallmark of autism-spectrum-disorders. These experiments identify novel intra-dendritic Sema5A/PlexinA2 interactions that inhibit excitatory synapse formation in developmentally born and adult-born GCs, and they provide support for SEMA5A contributions to autism-spectrum-disorders.

  1. Early postnatal motor experience shapes the motor properties of C57BL/6J adult mice.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Kinase-dead ATM protein causes genomic instability and early embryonic lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Yunyue; Jiang, Wenxia; Liu, Xiangyu; Dubois, Richard L; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Ludwig, Thomas; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Zha, Shan

    2012-08-06

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) kinase orchestrates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage responses by phosphorylating numerous substrates implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint activation. A-T patients and mouse models that express no ATM protein undergo normal embryonic development but exhibit pleiotropic DNA repair defects. In this paper, we report that mice carrying homozygous kinase-dead mutations in Atm (Atm(KD/KD)) died during early embryonic development. Atm(KD/-) cells exhibited proliferation defects and genomic instability, especially chromatid breaks, at levels higher than Atm(-/-) cells. Despite this increased genomic instability, Atm(KD/-) lymphocytes progressed through variable, diversity, and joining recombination and immunoglobulin class switch recombination, two events requiring nonhomologous end joining, at levels comparable to Atm(-/-) lymphocytes. Together, these results reveal an essential function of ATM during embryogenesis and an important function of catalytically inactive ATM protein in DNA repair.

  3. Functional role of ambient GABA in refining neuronal circuits early in postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Early in development, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain, depolarizes and excites targeted neurons by an outwardly directed flux of chloride, resulting from the peculiar balance between the cation-chloride importer NKCC1 and the extruder KCC2. The low expression of KCC2 at birth leads to accumulation of chloride inside the cell and to the equilibrium potential for chloride positive respect to the resting membrane potential. GABA exerts its action via synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. Here, recent data on the contribution of “ambient” GABA to the refinement of neuronal circuits in the immature brain have been reviewed. In particular, we focus on the hippocampus, where, prior to the formation of conventional synapses, GABA released from growth cones and astrocytes in a calcium- and SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor)-independent way, diffuses away to activate in a paracrine fashion extrasynaptic receptors localized on distal neurons. The transient increase in intracellular calcium following the depolarizing action of GABA leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Tonic GABA exerts also a chemotropic action on cell migration. Later on, when synapses are formed, GABA spilled out from neighboring synapses, acting mainly on extrasynaptic α5, β2, β3, and γ containing GABAA receptor subunits, provides the membrane depolarization necessary for principal cells to reach the window where intrinsic bursts are generated. These are instrumental in triggering calcium transients associated with network-driven giant depolarizing potentials which act as coincident detector signals to enhance synaptic efficacy at emerging GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. PMID:23964205

  4. Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and early postnatal growth in sheep differentially reset the control of energy metabolism in the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sebert, S P; Dellschaft, N S; Chan, L L Y; Street, H; Henry, M; Francois, C; Sharma, V; Fainberg, H P; Patel, N; Roda, J; Keisler, D; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

    2011-07-01

    Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.

  5. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    PubMed

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at p<0.05. The high sensitivity of the 7-day-old test organisms to both chemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  6. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Environmental Enrichment Reduce Acute Cell Death and Prevent Neurodevelopment and Memory Impairments in Rats Submitted to Neonatal Hypoxia Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Durán-Carabali, L E; Arcego, D M; Odorcyk, F K; Reichert, L; Cordeiro, J L; Sanches, E F; Freitas, L D; Dalmaz, C; Pagnussat, A; Netto, C A

    2018-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE. The offspring were euthanized at two different time points: 48 h after HIE for biochemical analyses or at PND 67 for histological analyses. Behavioral tests were performed at PND 7, 14, 21, and 60. Offspring from EE mothers had better performance in neurodevelopmental and spatial memory tests when compared to the SC groups. HIE animals showed a reduction of IGF-1 and VEGF in the parietal cortex, but no differences in BDNF and TrkB levels were found. EE-HIE animals showed reduction in cell death, lower astrocyte reactivity, and an increase in AKTp levels in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. In addition, the EE was also able to prevent the hippocampus tissue loss. Altogether, present findings point to the protective potential of the prenatal and early postnatal EE in attenuating molecular and histological damage, as well as the neurodevelopmental impairments and the cognitive deficit, caused by HIE insult at PND 3.

  7. Fuels, Hormones, and Liver Metabolism at Term and during the Early Postnatal Period in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Girard, J. R.; Cuendet, G. S.; Marliss, E. B.; Kervran, A.; Rieutort, M.; Assan, R.

    1973-01-01

    hepatic glycogen content and blood lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol levels but of stable or increasing amino acid concentrations. Hepatic gluconeogenesis in this phase of depleted glycogen stores was insufficient to maintain euglycemia. Substrates derived from fat showed early changes of smaller magnitude. The rise in free fatty acids which occurred was less than twofold the value at birth, though this rise persisted up to 6 h. Whereas glycerol rose transiently, acetoacetate did not change and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration fell. Both ketone bodies showed a marked rise at 16 h. at a time of diminished free fatty acid levels. Plasma growth hormone, though higher in the fetal than the maternal circulation, showed no consistent change during the period of observation. The changes in levels of the endocrine pancreatic hormones at birth were appropriate in time, magnitude, and direction to be implicated as prime regulators of the metabolic response during the neonatal period in the rat. PMID:4750449

  8. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of the Herbicide Atrazine in the Early Stages of Development of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Rutkoski, Camila F; Macagnan, Natani; Kolcenti, Cassiane; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Sturza, Paola F; Hartmann, Paulo A; Hartmann, Marilia T

    2018-05-01

    Water sources used as reproductive sites by crying frog, Physalaemus gracilis, are extensively associated with agroecosystems in which the herbicide atrazine is employed. To evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of atrazine commercial formulation, acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed in the embryonic phase and the beginning of the larval phase of P. gracilis. Tests were started on stage 19 of Gosner (Herpetologica 16:183-190, 1960) and performed in 24-well cell culture plates. Acute tests had a duration of 96 h with embryo mortality monitoring every 24 h. Chronic assays contemplated the transition from the embryonic to larval stages and lasted 168 h. Every 24 h the embryos/larvae were observed for mortality, mobility, and malformations. The LC50 of atrazine determined for P. gracilis embryos was 229.34 mg L -1 . The sublethal concentrations did not affect the development of the larvae but were observed effects on mobility and malformations, such as spasmodic contractions, reduced mobility, malformations in mouth and intestine, and edema arising. From 1 mg L -1 atrazine, the exposed larvae began to have changes in mobility and malformations. The atrazine commercial formulation has caused early life effects of P. gracilis that may compromise the survival of this species but at higher concentrations than recorded in the environment, so P. gracilis can be considered tolerant to this herbicide at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  9. Early postnatal growth and neurodevelopment in children born moderately preterm or small for gestational age at term: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Taine, Marion; Charles, Marie-Aline; Beltrand, Jacques; Rozé, Jean Christophe; Léger, Juliane; Botton, Jérémie; Heude, Barbara

    2018-04-25

    Clinicians' interest in the long-term effects of early postnatal growth (EPG) is growing. There is compelling evidence linking rapid EPG with later cardiovascular risk, but its neurodevelopmental benefits still remain hypothetical in individuals born moderately preterm (MP) or small for gestational at term (SGAT). The objective was to perform a systematic review of the relationship between EPG before age 3 years and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP (32-36 weeks' gestational age) or SGAT. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, 3 independent investigators searched for articles published on this topic in the Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed from database inception to July 1, 2017. A detailed quality scale was used to evaluate articles. We selected 19 articles relying on 12 distinct study populations; 7 articles from 3 study populations were considered at moderate or high quality. The lack of standardisation of growth analysis methods prevented performing a meta-analysis. Overall, EPG was positively associated with neurodevelopmental outcome, especially Intelligence Quotient (IQ) when available. In this relationship, the first 6 months of life might be a critical period. Analysis of the few articles investigating the shape of the relationships revealed a non-linear association, with a plateau for IQ with higher weight gain, which suggests a possible ceiling effect. A positive association was generally found between EPG and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP or SGAT. Strategies for future epidemiological studies are suggested to improve the characterisation of this relationship. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Trivalent pneumococcal protein recombinant vaccine protects against lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia and correlates with phagocytosis by neutrophils during early pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Surendran, Naveen; Verhoeven, David; Klapa, Jessica; Ochs, Martina; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-02-18

    Due to the fact that current polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines have limited serotype coverage, protein-based vaccine candidates have been sought for over a decade to replace or complement current vaccines. We previously reported that a trivalent Pneumococcal Protein recombinant Vaccine (PPrV), showed protection against pneumonia and sepsis in an infant murine model. Here we investigated immunological correlates of protection of PPrV in the same model. C57BL/6J infant mice were intramuscularly vaccinated at age 1-3 weeks with 3 doses of PPrV, containing pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), and detoxified pneumolysin mutant PlyD1. 3-4 weeks after last vaccination, serum and lung antibody levels to PPrV components were measured, and mice were intranasally challenged with a lethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) serotype 6A. Lung Spn bacterial burden, number of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, phagocytosed Spn by granulocytes, and levels of cytokines and chemokines were determined at 6, 12, 24, and 48h after challenge. PPrV vaccination conferred 83% protection against Spn challenge. Vaccinated mice had significantly elevated serum and lung antibody levels to three PPrV components. In the first stage of pathogenesis of Spn induced pneumonia (6-24h after challenge), vaccinated mice had lower Spn bacterial lung burdens and more phagocytosed Spn in the granulocytes. PPrV vaccination led to lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TFN-α, and other cytokines and chemokines (IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ, MIP-1b, MIP-2 and KC, and G-CSF), presumably due to a lower lung bacterial burden. Trivalent PPrV vaccination results in increased serum and lung antibody levels to the vaccine components, a reduction in Spn induced lethality, enhanced early clearance of Spn in lungs due to more rapid and thorough phagocytosis of Spn by neutrophils, and correspondingly a reduction in lung inflammation

  11. Massage therapy during early postnatal life promotes greater lean mass and bone growth, mineralization, and strength in juvenile and young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Miller, S; Shaw, J; Moyer-Mileur, L

    2009-01-01

    The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of massage therapy during early life on postnatal growth, body composition, and skeletal development in juvenile and young adult rats. Massage therapy was performed for 10 minutes daily from D6 to D10 of postnatal life in rat pups (MT, n=24). Body composition, bone area, mineral content, and bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); bone strength and intrinsic stiffness on femur shaft were tested by three-point bending; cortical and cancellous bone histomorphometric measurements were performed at D21 and D60. Results were compared to age- and gender-matched controls (C, n=24). D21 body weight, body length, lean mass, and bone area were significantly greater in the MT cohort. Greater bone mineral content was found in male MT rats; bone strength and intrinsic stiffness were greater in D60 MT groups. At D60 MT treatment promoted bone mineralization by increasing trabecular mineral apposition rate in male and endosteal mineral surface in females, and also improved micro-architecture by greater trabeculae width in males and decreasing trabecular separation in females. In summary, massage therapy during early life elicited immediate and prolonged anabolic effects on postnatal growth, lean mass and skeletal developmental in a gender-specific manner in juvenile and young adult rats.

  12. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of Dentate Granule Neurons in Mice Lacking PSD-95-Interacting Adhesion Molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 during the Early Postnatal Period.

    PubMed

    Roh, Junyeop D; Choi, Su-Yeon; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Tae-Yong; Park, Jong-Sil; Cutforth, Tyler; Chung, Woosuk; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Myeong-Heui; Lee, Yeunkum; Mo, Seojung; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Jaewon; Choi, Se-Young; Bae, Yong Chul; Shen, Kang; Kim, Eunjoon; Han, Kihoon

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3 ) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3. In contrast, however, it is unknown whether Neph2 also has any roles in the postsynaptic compartments of DG neurons. We here report that, through its C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif, Neph2 directly interacts with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Moreover, Neph2 protein is detected in the brain PSD fraction and interacts with PSD-95 in synaptosomal lysates. Functionally, loss of Neph2 in mice leads to age-specific defects in the synaptic connectivity of DG neurons. Specifically, Neph2 -/- mice show significantly increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic events in DG neurons at postnatal week 2 when the endogenous Neph2 protein expression peaks, but show normal excitatory synaptic transmission at postnatal week 3. The evoked excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of medial perforant pathway (MPP)-DG synapses are also normal in Neph2 -/- mice at postnatal week 3, further confirming the age-specific synaptic defects. Together, our results provide some evidence for the postsynaptic function of Neph2 in DG neurons during the early postnatal period, which might be implicated in neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders caused by NEPH2 mutations.

  14. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved bymore » separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.« less

  15. Early postnatal inhibition of serotonin synthesis results in long-term reductions of perseverative behaviors, but not aggression, in MAO A-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Tambaro, Simone; Li, Felix G.; Devoto, Paola; Coba, Marcelo P.; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, the major enzyme catalyzing the oxidative degradation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), plays a key role in emotional regulation. In humans and mice, MAO-A deficiency results in high 5-HT levels, antisocial, aggressive, and perseverative behaviors. We previously showed that the elevation in brain 5-HT levels in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice is particularly marked during the first two weeks of postnatal life. Building on this finding, we hypothesized that the reduction of 5-HT levels during these early stages may lead to enduring attenuations of the aggression and other behavioral aberrances observed in MAO-A KO mice. To test this possibility, MAO-A KO mice were treated with daily injections of a 5-HT synthesis blocker, the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chloro-phenylalanine (pCPA, 300 mg/kg/day, IP), from postnatal day 1 through 7. As expected, this regimen significantly reduced 5-HT forebrain levels in MAO-A KO pups. These neurochemical changes persisted throughout adulthood, and resulted in significant reductions in marble-burying behavior, as well as increases in spontaneous alternations within a T-maze. Conversely, pCPA-treated MAO-A KO mice did not exhibit significant changes in anxiety-like behaviors in a novel open-field and elevated plus-maze; furthermore, this regimen did not modify their social deficits, aggressive behaviors and impairments in tactile sensitivity. Treatment with pCPA from postnatal day 8 through 14 elicited similar, yet milder, behavioral effects on marble-burying behavior. These results suggest that early developmental enhancements in 5-HT levels have long-term effects on the modulation of behavioral flexibility associated with MAO-A deficiency. PMID:23871843

  16. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    PubMed

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life.

  17. Minocycline exacerbates apoptotic neurodegeneration induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in the early postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Inta, Ioana; Vogt, Miriam A; Vogel, Anne S; Bettendorf, Markus; Gass, Peter; Inta, Dragos

    2016-10-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists induce in perinatal rodent cortical apoptosis and protracted schizophrenia-like alterations ameliorated by antipsychotic treatment. The broad-spectrum antibiotic minocycline elicits antipsychotic and neuroprotective effects. Here we tested, if minocycline protects also against apoptosis triggered by the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at postnatal day 7. Surprisingly, minocycline induced widespread cortical apoptosis and exacerbated MK-801-triggered cell death. In some areas such as the subiculum, the pro-apoptotic effect of minocycline was even more pronounced than that elicited by MK-801. These data reveal among antipsychotics unique pro-apoptotic properties of minocycline, raising concerns regarding consequences for brain development and the use in children.

  18. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  19. Insulin and branched-chain amino acid depletion during mouse preimplantation embryo culture programmes body weight gain and raised blood pressure during early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Miguel A; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Smith, Stephanie J; Eckert, Judith J; Osmond, Clive; Fleming, Tom P

    2018-02-01

    Mouse maternal low protein diet exclusively during preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to programme altered growth and cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring. Here, we use an in vitro model comprising preimplantation culture in medium depleted in insulin and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), two proposed embryo programming inductive factors from Emb-LPD studies, to examine the consequences for blastocyst organisation and, after embryo transfer (ET), postnatal disease origin. Two-cell embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in defined KSOM medium supplemented with four combinations of insulin and BCAA concentrations. Control medium contained serum insulin and uterine luminal fluid amino acid concentrations (including BCAA) found in control mothers from the maternal diet model (N-insulin+N-bcaa). Experimental medium (three groups) contained 50% reduction in insulin and/or BCAA (L-insulin+N-bcaa, N-insulin+L-bcaa, and L-insulin+N-bcaa). Lineage-specific cell numbers of resultant blastocysts were not affected by treatment. Following ET, a combined depletion of insulin and BCAA during embryo culture induced a non sex-specific increase in birth weight and weight gain during early postnatal life. Furthermore, male offspring displayed relative hypertension and female offspring reduced heart/body weight, both characteristics of Emb-LPD offspring. Combined depletion of metabolites also resulted in a strong positive correlation between body weight and glucose metabolism that was absent in the control group. Our results support the notion that composition of preimplantation culture medium can programme development and associate with disease origin affecting postnatal growth and cardiovascular phenotypes and implicate two important nutritional mediators in the inductive mechanism. Our data also have implications for human assisted reproductive treatment (ART) practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects on Transcriptional Regulation and Lipid Droplet Characteristics in the Liver of Female Juvenile Pigs after Early Postnatal Feed Restriction and Refeeding Are Dependent on Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Hammon, Harald M.; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm2) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life. PMID:24260100

  1. Lifespan extension by dietary intervention in a mouse model of Cockayne syndrome uncouples early postnatal development from segmental progeria.

    PubMed

    Brace, Lear E; Vose, Sarah C; Vargas, Dorathy F; Zhao, Shuangyun; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Mitchell, James R

    2013-12-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeria characterized by growth failure, lipodystrophy, neurological abnormalities, and photosensitivity, but without skin cancer predisposition. Cockayne syndrome life expectancy ranges from 5 to 16 years for the two most severe forms (types II and I, respectively). Mouse models of CS have thus far been of limited value due to either very mild phenotypes, or premature death during postnatal development prior to weaning. The cause of death in severe CS models is unknown, but has been attributed to extremely rapid aging. Here, we found that providing mutant pups with soft food from as late as postnatal day 14 allowed survival past weaning with high penetrance independent of dietary macronutrient balance in a novel CS model (Csa(-/-) | Xpa(-/-)). Survival past weaning revealed a number of CS-like symptoms including small size, progressive loss of adiposity, and neurological symptoms, with a maximum lifespan of 19 weeks. Our results caution against interpretation of death before weaning as premature aging, and at the same time provide a valuable new tool for understanding mechanisms of progressive CS-related progeroid symptoms including lipodystrophy and neurodysfunction. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Update on Postnatal Steroids.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Henry L

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended. Early treatment with hydrocortisone may also improve survival without chronic lung disease, but concerns remain about possible adverse effects such as gastrointestinal perforation and sepsis, particularly in very preterm infants. Early inhaled budesonide also reduces the incidence of chronic lung disease but there are concerns that this may occur at the expense of increased risk of death. More studies of early low-dose steroids with adequate long-term follow-up are needed before they can be recommended for the prevention of chronic lung disease. Late (after the first week of life) postnatal steroids may have a better benefit-to-harm ratio than early steroids. A Cochrane Review shows that late steroid treatment reduces chronic lung disease, the combination of death and chronic lung disease at both 28 days and 36 weeks' corrected age, and the need for later rescue dexamethasone. Adverse effects include hyperglycemia, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and severe retinopathy of prematurity but without an increase in blindness. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects are not significantly increased by late postnatal steroid treatment. Current recommendations are that postnatal steroid treatment

  3. Cleft Palate, Moderate Lung Developmental Retardation and Early Postnatal Lethality in Mice Deficient in the Kir7.1 Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channel.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Sandra; Burgos, Johanna; López-Cayuqueo, Karen I; Lai, Ka-Man Venus; Valenzuela, David M; Cid, L Pablo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V

    2015-01-01

    Kir7.1 is an inwardly rectifying K+ channel of the Kir superfamily encoded by the kcnj13 gene. Kir7.1 is present in epithelial tissues where it colocalizes with the Na+/K+-pump probably serving to recycle K+ taken up by the pump. Human mutations affecting Kir7.1 are associated with retinal degeneration diseases. We generated a mouse lacking Kir7.1 by ablation of the Kcnj13 gene. Homozygous mutant null mice die hours after birth and show cleft palate and moderate retardation in lung development. Kir7.1 is expressed in the epithelium covering the palatal processes at the time at which palate sealing takes place and our results suggest it might play an essential role in late palatogenesis. Our work also reveals a second unexpected role in the development and the physiology of the respiratory system, where Kir7.1 is expressed in epithelial cells all along the respiratory tree.

  4. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Growth trajectories in early childhood, their relationship with antenatal and postnatal factors, and development of obesity by age 9 years: results from an Australian birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Davies, M J; Davies, C E; Rumbold, A R; Moore, V M

    2015-07-01

    In an era where around one in four children in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia are overweight or obese, the development of obesity in early life needs to be better understood. We aimed to identify groups of children with distinct trajectories of growth in infancy and early childhood, to examine any association between these trajectories and body size at age 9, and to assess the relative influence of antenatal and postnatal exposures on growth trajectories. Prospective Australian birth cohort study. In total, 557 children with serial height and weight measurements from birth to 9 years were included in the study. Latent class growth models were used to derive distinct groups of growth trajectories from birth to age 3½ years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore antenatal and postnatal predictors of growth trajectory groups, and multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between growth trajectory groups and body size at age 9 years. We identified four discrete growth trajectories from birth to age 3½ years, characterised as low, intermediate, high, or accelerating growth. Relative to the intermediate growth group, the low group had reduced z-body mass index (BMI) (-0.75 s.d.; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.02, -0.47), and the high and accelerating groups were associated with increased body size at age 9 years (high: z-BMI 0.70 s.d.; 95% CI 0.49, 0.62; accelerating: z-BMI 1.64 s.d.; 95% CI 1.16, 2.11). Of the antenatal and postnatal exposures considered, the most important differentiating factor was maternal obesity in early pregnancy, associated with a near quadrupling of risk of membership of the accelerating growth trajectory group compared with the intermediate growth group (odds ratio (OR) 3.72; 95% CI 1.15, 12.05). Efforts to prevent childhood obesity may need to be embedded within population-wide strategies that also pay attention to healthy weight for women in

  6. Birth weight and postnatal growth in preterm born children are associated with cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 years.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Charlotte A; van der Voorn, Bibian; Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-08-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity as well as cardiometabolic diseases and neurodevelopmental impairments later in life. We assessed cortisol from term age to age 8 y in children born preterm, to explore the development of HPA-axis activity in association with intrauterine and early-postnatal growth until 6 mo. corrected age. In 152 children born at a gestational age ≤32 wks. and/or with a birth weight ≤1,500g, random serum cortisol was assessed at term age (n=150), 3 mo. (n=145) and 6 mo. corrected age (n=144), and age 8 y (n=59). Salivary cortisol was assessed at age 8 y (n=75): prior to bedtime, at awakening, 15min after awakening, and before lunch. Cortisol was analyzed in association with birth weight-standard deviation score (SDS), being born small for gestational age (SGA), and combinations of intrauterine and postnatal growth: appropriate for gestational age (AGA) with or without growth restriction (AGA GR+ or AGA GR-) at 6 mo. corrected age, and SGA with or without catch-up growth (SGA CUG+ or SGA CUG-) at 6 mo. corrected age. Cross-sectional associations at all time points were analyzed using linear regression, and longitudinal associations were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Longitudinally, birth weight-SDS was associated with cortisol (β [95%CI]): lower cortisol over time was seen in infants with a birth weight ≤-2 SDS (-50.69 [-94.27; -7.11], p=0.02), infants born SGA (-29.70 [-60.58; 1.19], p=0.06), AGA GR+ infants (-55.10 [-106.02; -4.17], p=0.03) and SGA CUG- infants (-61.91 [-104.73; -19.10], p=0.01). In cross-sectional analyses at age 8 y, no associations were found between either serum or salivary cortisol and birth weight-SDS, SGA-status, or growth from birth to 6 mo. corrected age. In children born preterm, poor intrauterine and postnatal growth were associated with lower cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 y. Even though HPA-axis activity no longer

  7. Gonadotropin levels in urine during early postnatal period in small for gestational age preterm male infants with fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Nagai, S; Kawai, M; Myowa-Yamakoshi, M; Morimoto, T; Matsukura, T; Heike, T

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate gonadotropin concentrations in small for gestational age (SGA) male infants with the reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis during the first few months of life that is important for genital development. We prospectively examined 15 SGA and 15 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) preterm male infants between 2013 and 2014 at Kyoto University Hospital. Gonadotropin concentrations (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were measured in serial urine samples from the postnatal days 7 to 168 and compared between SGA and AGA infants using the Mann-Whitney test. A longitudinal analysis showed that SGA infants had higher LH and lower FSH concentrations (P=0.004 and P=0.006, respectively) than AGA infants. Male infants who are SGA at birth because of fetal growth restriction have gonadotropin secretion abnormalities in the first few months of life.

  8. Clinical presentation of postnatal and non-postnatal depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Carly; Jones, Lisa; Dunn, Emma; Forty, Liz; Haque, Sayeed; Oyebode, Femi; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian

    2007-09-01

    The relationship of postnatal (postpartum) depression (PND) to episodes of depression occurring at other times is not well understood. Despite a number of studies of clinical presentation, there is little consistency in the literature. We have undertaken within- and between-individual comparisons of the clinical presentation of postnatal (PN) and non-postnatal (NPN) depressive episodes in women with recurrent depression. In a sample of well-characterized, parous women meeting DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for recurrent major depressive disorder, the clinical presentation of episodes of major depression with onset within 4 weeks of giving birth (PND group, n=50) were compared with (i) the non-postnatal episodes of women with PND, and (ii) episodes of major depression in parous women who had not experienced episodes of mood disorder in relation to childbirth (NPND group, n=132). In addition, the non-postnatal episodes of the PND group of women were compared with the depressive episodes of the NPND group. The small number of differences found between PN and NPN depressive episodes, such as reduced early morning wakening in postnatal episodes, are likely to be explicable by the context of having a new baby rather than by any difference in the nature of the underlying depression. The results do not point to substantial differences in clinical presentation between episodes of major depression occurring in relation to childbirth and at other times. Other avenues of research are therefore required to demonstrate a specific relationship between childbirth and depression.

  9. Prevention of early postnatal hyperalimentation protects against activation of transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein and interleukin-6 signaling in rat lungs after intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Miguel Angel Alejandre; Dinger, Katharina; Rother, Eva; Östreicher, Iris; Vohlen, Christina; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is intimately linked with postnatal catch-up growth, leading to impaired lung structure and function. However, the impact of catch-up growth induced by early postnatal hyperalimentation (HA) on the lung has not been addressed to date. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prevention of HA subsequent to IUGR protects the lung from 1) deregulation of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway, 2) activation of interleukin (IL)-6 signaling, and 3) profibrotic processes. IUGR was induced in Wistar rats by isocaloric protein restriction during gestation by feeding a control (Co) or a low-protein diet with 17% or 8% casein, respectively. On postnatal day 1 (P1), litters from both groups were randomly reduced to 6 pups per dam to induce HA or adjusted to 10 pups and fed with standard diet: Co, Co with HA (Co-HA), IUGR, and IUGR with HA (IUGR-HA). Birth weights in rats after IUGR were lower than in Co rats (P < 0.05). HA during lactation led to accelerated body weight gain from P1 to P23 (Co vs. Co-HA, IUGR vs. IUGR-HA; P < 0.05). At P70, prevention of HA after IUGR protected against the following: 1) activation of both TGF-β [phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 2; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Pai1)] and BMP signaling [pSMAD1; inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)] compared with Co (P < 0.05) and Co or IUGR (P < 0.05) rats, respectively; 2) greater mRNA expression of interleukin (Il) 6 and Il13 (P < 0.05) as well as activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling (P < 0.05) after IUGR-HA; and 3) greater gene expression of collagen Iα1 and osteopontin (P < 0.05) and increased deposition of bronchial subepithelial connective tissue in IUGR-HA compared with Co and IUGR rats. Moreover, HA had a significant additive effect (P < 0.05) on the increased enhanced pause (indicator of airway resistance) in the IUGR group (P < 0.05) at P70. This study demonstrates

  10. Schizophrenia Risk Variation in the NRG1 gene Exerts Effects on NRG1-IV Splicing During Fetal and Early Postnatal Human Neocortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Clare; Wang, Yanhong; Kleinman, Joel E.; Law, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a multifunctional neurotrophin and a critical mediator of neurodevelopment and risk for schizophrenia. NRG1 undergoes extensive alternative splicing, and association of brain NRG1-IV isoform expression with the schizophrenia-risk polymorphism, rs6994992, is a potential molecular mechanism of risk. Novel splice variants of NRG1-IV (NRG1-IVNV), with predicted unique signaling capabilities, have been cloned in fetal brain. Because the developmental expression and genetic regulation of NRG1-IVNV in human brain and relationship to schizophrenia is unknown, the authors investigated the temporal dynamics of NRG1-IVNV transcription, compared to the major NRG1 isoforms (types I-IV), across human prenatal and postnatal prefrontal cortical development and examined the association of rs6994992 with NRG1-IVNV expression. METHOD NRG1, types I-IV and NRG1-IVNV isoform expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR in prefrontal cortex during human fetal brain development (14-39 weeks gestation: N=41) and postnatally through aging (age range 0-83 years: N=195). The association of rs6994992 genotype with NRG1-IVNV expression was determined. In-vitro assays were performed to determine the subcellular distribution and proteolytic processing of NRG1-IVNV isoforms. RESULTS Expression of NRG1, types I, II, III was temporally regulated during human prenatal and postnatal neocortical development and the trajectory of NRG1-IVNV was unique, being expressed from 16 weeks gestation until 3 years of age, after which it was undetectable. NRG1-IVNVs expression was associated with rs6994992 genotype, whereby homozygosity for the schizophrenia-risk allele (T) conferred lower cortical NRG1-IVNV levels. Finally, in-vitro cellular assays demonstrate that NRG1-IVNV is a novel nuclear enriched, truncated NRG1 protein that is resistant to proteolytic processing. CONCLUSION This study provides the first quantitative map of NRG1 isoform expression during human

  11. The Effects of Early Postnatal Diuretics Treatment on Kidney Development and Long-Term Kidney Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Maicas, Nuria; Florquin, Sandrine; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2016-01-01

    Diuretics are administered to neonates to control fluid balance. We studied whether clinical doses affected kidney development and function and whether extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) could be a modulator. Wistar rats were cross-fostered in normal food or food restricted litters at postnatal day (PND) 2 and treated daily with 0.9% NaCl, 5 mg/kg furosemide or 5 mg/kg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) up to PND 8. Kidneys were evaluated on proliferation, apoptosis and a set of mRNA target genes at PND 8, glomerular- and glomerular generation count at PND 35, clinical pathology parameters at 3- and 9 months, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at PND 8, 3 and 6 months, monthly blood pressure from 3 months onward and histopathology at study end. Treatment with furosemide or HCTZ did not have relevant effects on measured parameters. EUGR resulted in lower body weight from day 3 onwards (-29% at weaning; p < 0.001, -10% at necropsy; p < 0.001), less glomerular generations (4.4 ± 0.32 vs. 5.0 ± 0.423; p = 0.025, males only), decreased glomerular numbers (27,861 ± 3,468 vs. 30,527 ± 4,096; p = 0.026), higher creatinine clearance (0.84 ± 0.1 vs. 0.77 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; p = 0.047) at 3 months and lower plasma creatinine (25.7 ± 1.8 vs. 27.5 ± 2.8 µmol/l; p = 0.043) at 9 months. Furosemide and HCTZ did not influence kidney development or function when administered in a clinically relevant dose to rat pups at a stage of ongoing nephrogenesis. EUGR led to impaired kidney development but did not modify furosemide or HCTZ findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Early postnatal myelin content estimate of white matter via T1w/T2w ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin; Cherel, Marie; Budin, Francois; Gilmore, John; Zaldarriaga Consing, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Glasser, Matthew F.; Van Essen, David C.; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2015-03-01

    To develop and evaluate a novel processing framework for the relative quantification of myelin content in cerebral white matter (WM) regions from brain MRI data via a computed ratio of T1 to T2 weighted intensity values. We employed high resolution (1mm3 isotropic) T1 and T2 weighted MRI from 46 (28 male, 18 female) neonate subjects (typically developing controls) scanned on a Siemens Tim Trio 3T at UC Irvine. We developed a novel, yet relatively straightforward image processing framework for WM myelin content estimation based on earlier work by Glasser, et al. We first co-register the structural MRI data to correct for motion. Then, background areas are masked out via a joint T1w and T2 foreground mask computed. Raw T1w/T2w-ratios images are computed next. For purpose of calibration across subjects, we first coarsely segment the fat-rich facial regions via an atlas co-registration. Linear intensity rescaling based on median T1w/T2w-ratio values in those facial regions yields calibrated T1w/T2wratio images. Mean values in lobar regions are evaluated using standard statistical analysis to investigate their interaction with age at scan. Several lobes have strongly positive significant interactions of age at scan with the computed T1w/T2w-ratio. Most regions do not show sex effects. A few regions show no measurable effects of change in myelin content change within the first few weeks of postnatal development, such as cingulate and CC areas, which we attribute to sample size and measurement variability. We developed and evaluated a novel way to estimate white matter myelin content for use in studies of brain white matter development.

  13. Sex Differences in Early Postnatal Microglial Colonization of the Developing Rat Hippocampus Following a Single-Day Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, M J; Boschen, K E; Roth, T L; Klintsova, A Y

    2018-06-01

    Microglia are involved in various homeostatic processes in the brain, including phagocytosis, apoptosis, and synaptic pruning. Sex differences in microglia colonization of the developing brain have been reported, but have not been established following alcohol insult. Developmental alcohol exposure represents a neuroimmune challenge that may contribute to cognitive dysfunction prevalent in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. Most studies have investigated neuroimmune activation following adult alcohol exposure or following multiple exposures. The current study uses a single day binge alcohol exposure model (postnatal day [PD] 4) to examine sex differences in the neuroimmune response in the developing rat hippocampus on PD5 and 8. The neuroimmune response was evaluated through measurement of microglial number and cytokine gene expression at both time points. Male pups had higher microglial number compared to females in many hippocampal subregions on PD5, but this difference disappeared by PD8, unless exposed to alcohol. Expression of pro-inflammatory marker CD11b was higher on PD5 in alcohol-exposed (AE) females compared to AE males. After alcohol exposure, C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) was significantly increased in female AE pups on PD5 and PD8. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also upregulated by AE in males on PD8. The results demonstrate a clear difference between the male and female neuroimmune response to an AE challenge, which also occurs in a time-dependent manner. These findings are significant as they add to our knowledge of specific sex-dependent effects of alcohol exposure on microglia within the developing brain.

  14. Early Postnatal Lesion of the Medial Dorsal Nucleus Leads to Loss of Dendrites and Spines in Adult Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo, Naydu; Paez, Jesse; Levitt, Jonathan B.; Jones, Liesl B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that the medial dorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus influences pyramidal cell development in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in an activity-dependent manner. The MD is reciprocally connected to the PFC. Many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, affect the PFC, and one of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia is a decrease in volume and neuronal number in the MD. Therefore, understanding the role the MD plays in the development of the PFC is important and may help in understanding the progression of psychiatric disorders that have their root in development. Focusing on the interplay between the MD and the PFC, this study examined the hypothesis that the MD plays a role in the dendritic development of pyramidal cells in the PFC. Unilateral electrolytic lesions of the MD in Long-Evans rat pups were made on postnatal day 4 (P4), and the animals developed to P60. We then examined dendritic morphology by examining MAP2 immunostaining and by using Golgi techniques to determine basilar dendrite number and spine density. Additionally, we examined pyramidal cell density in cingulate area 1 (Cg1), prelimbic region, and dorsolateral anterior cortex, which receive afferents from the MD. Thalamic lesions caused a mean MD volume decrease of 12.4% which led to a significant decrease in MAP2 staining in both superficial and deep layers in all 3 cortical areas. The lesions also caused a significant decrease in spine density and in the number of primary and secondary basilar dendrites on superficial and deep layer pyramidal neurons in all 3 regions. No significant difference was observed in pyramidal cell density in any of the regions or layers, but a nonsignificant increase in cell density was observed in 2 regions. Our data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that the MD plays a role in the development of the PFC and, therefore, may be a good model to begin to examine neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. PMID:23406908

  15. Pyramidal tract stimulation restores normal corticospinal tract connections and visuomotor skill after early postnatal motor cortex activity blockade

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, I; Friel, KM; Martin, JH

    2008-01-01

    Motor development depends on forming specific connections between the corticospinal tract (CST) and the spinal cord. Blocking CST activity in kittens during the critical period for establishing connections with spinal motor circuits results in permanent impairments in connectivity and function. The changes in connections are consistent with the hypothesis that the inactive tract is less competitive in developing spinal connections than the active tract. In this study we tested the competition hypothesis by determining if activating CST axons, after prior silencing during the critical period, abrogated development of aberrant corticospinal connections and motor impairments. In kittens, we inactivated motor cortex by muscimol infusion between postnatal weeks 5-7. We next electrically stimulated CST axons in the medullary pyramid 2.5 hours daily, between weeks 7-10. In controls (n=3), CST terminations were densest within the contralateral deeper, premotor, spinal layers. After prior inactivation (n=3), CST terminations were densest within the dorsal, somatic sensory, layers. There were more ipsilateral terminations from the active tract. During visually guided locomotion, there was a movement endpoint impairment. Stimulation after inactivation (n=6) resulted in significantly fewer terminations in the sensory layers and more in the premotor layers, and fewer ipsilateral connections from active cortex. Chronic stimulation reduced the current threshold for evoking contralateral movements by pyramidal stimulation, suggesting strengthening of connections. Importantly, stimulation significantly improved stepping accuracy. These findings show the importance of activity-dependent processes in specifying CST connections. They also provide a strategy for harnessing activity to rescue CST axons at risk of developing aberrant connections after CNS injury. PMID:18632946

  16. Early postnatal exposure to ultrafine particulate matter air pollution: persistent ventriculomegaly, neurochemical disruption, and glial activation preferentially in male mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Xiufang; Pelkowski, Sean; Palmer, Brian; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Weston, Douglas; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution has been associated with adverse neurological and behavioral health effects in children and adults. Recent studies link air pollutant exposure to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including increased risk for autism, cognitive decline, ischemic stroke, schizophrenia, and depression. We sought to investigate the mechanism(s) by which exposure to ultrafine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) adversely influences central nervous system (CNS) development. We exposed C57BL6/J mice to ultrafine (< 100 nm) CAPs using the Harvard University Concentrated Ambient Particle System or to filtered air on postnatal days (PNDs) 4-7 and 10-13, and the animals were euthanized either 24 hr or 40 days after cessation of exposure. Another group of males was exposed at PND270, and lateral ventricle area, glial activation, CNS cytokines, and monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters were quantified. We observed ventriculomegaly (i.e., lateral ventricle dilation) preferentially in male mice exposed to CAPs, and it persisted through young adulthood. In addition, CAPs-exposed males generally showed decreases in developmentally important CNS cytokines, whereas in CAPs-exposed females, we observed a neuroinflammatory response as indicated by increases in CNS cytokines. We also saw changes in CNS neurotransmitters and glial activation across multiple brain regions in a sex-dependent manner and increased hippocampal glutamate in CAPs-exposed males. We observed brain region- and sex-dependent alterations in cytokines and neurotransmitters in both male and female CAPs-exposed mice. Lateral ventricle dilation (i.e., ventriculomegaly) was observed only in CAPs-exposed male mice. Ventriculomegaly is a neuropathology that has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, autism, and schizophrenia. Our findings suggest alteration of developmentally important neurochemicals and lateral ventricle dilation may be mechanistically related to observations linking ambient air

  17. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An Early Postnatal Oxytocin Treatment Prevents Social and Learning Deficits in Adult Mice Deficient for Magel2, a Gene Involved in Prader-Willi Syndrome and Autism.

    PubMed

    Meziane, Hamid; Schaller, Fabienne; Bauer, Sylvian; Villard, Claude; Matarazzo, Valery; Riet, Fabrice; Guillon, Gilles; Lafitte, Daniel; Desarmenien, Michel G; Tauber, Maithé; Muscatelli, Françoise

    2015-07-15

    Mutations of MAGEL2 have been reported in patients presenting with autism, and loss of MAGEL2 is also associated with Prader-Willi syndrome, a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder. This study aimed to determine the behavioral phenotype of Magel2-deficient adult mice, to characterize the central oxytocin (OT) system of these mutant mice, and to test the curative effect of a peripheral OT treatment just after birth. We assessed the social and cognitive behavior of Magel2-deficient mice, analyzed the OT system of mutant mice treated or not by a postnatal administration of OT, and determined the effect of this treatment on the brain. Magel2 inactivation induces a deficit in social recognition and social interaction and a reduced learning ability in adult male mice. In these mice, we reveal anatomical and functional modifications of the OT system and show that these defects change from birth to adulthood. Daily administration of OT in the first postnatal week was sufficient to prevent deficits in social behavior and learning abilities in adult mutant male mice. We show that this OT treatment partly restores a normal OT system. Thus, we report that an alteration of the OT system around birth has long-term consequences on behavior and on cognition. Importantly, an acute OT treatment of Magel2-deficient pups has a curative effect. Our study reveals that OT plays a crucial role in setting social behaviors during a period just after birth. An early OT treatment in this critical period could be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Prader-Willi syndrome and autism. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early postnatal virus inoculation into the scala media achieved extensive expression of exogenous green fluorescent protein in the inner ear and preserved auditory brainstem response thresholds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Yu; Chang, Qing; Ahmad, Shoeb; Zhou, Binfei; Kim, Yeunjung; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer into the inner ear is a promising approach for treating sensorineural hearing loss. The special electrochemical environment of the scala media raises a formidable challenge for effective gene delivery at the same time as keeping normal cochlear function intact. The present study aimed to define a suitable strategy for preserving hearing after viral inoculation directly into the scala media performed at various postnatal developmental stages. We assessed transgene expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by various types of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus (LV) in the mouse cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses were measured 30 days after inoculation to assess effects on hearing. Patterns of GFP expression confirmed extensive exogenous gene expression in various types of cells lining the endolymphatic space. The use of different viral vectors and promoters resulted in specific cellular GFP expression patterns. AAV2/1 with cytomegalovirus promoter apparently gave the best results for GFP expression in the supporting cells. Histological examination showed normal cochlear morphology and no hair cell loss after either AAV or LV injections. We found that hearing thresholds were not significantly changed when the injections were performed in mice younger than postnatal day 5, regardless of the type of virus tested. Viral inoculation and expression in the inner ear for the restoration of hearing must not damage cochlear function. Using normal hearing mice as a model, we have achieved this necessary step, which is required for the treatment of many types of congenital deafness that require early intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Methamidophos Exposure During the Early Postnatal Period of Mice: Immediate and Late-Emergent Effects on the Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure. PMID:23596261

  1. Methamidophos exposure during the early postnatal period of mice: immediate and late-emergent effects on the cholinergic and serotonergic systems and behavior.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carla S; Dutra-Tavares, Ana C; Nunes, Fernanda; Nunes-Freitas, André L; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C; Meyer, Armando; Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure.

  2. Sex-dependent role of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 in stress-regulation and related anxiety phenotype during the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Balázsfi, Diána; Farkas, Lívia; Csikota, Péter; Fodor, Anna; Zsebők, Sándor; Haller, József; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-07-01

    Stress and related disorders are in the focus of interest and glutamate is one of the most important neurotransmitters that can affect these processes. Glutamatergic neurons are characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) among which vGluT3 is unique contributing to the non-canonical, neuromodulatory effect of glutamate. We aimed to study the role of vGluT3 in stress axis regulation and related anxiety during the early postnatal period using knockout (KO) mice with special focus on sex differences. Anxiety was explored on postnatal day (PND) 7-8 by maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Stress-hormone levels were detected 60 min after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection 7 days later. Both genotypes gained weight, but on PND 14-15 KO mice pups had smaller body weight compared to wild type (WT). vGluT3 KO mice reacted to an immune stressor with enhanced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion compared to WT. Although there was a tendency for enhanced anxiety measured by more emitted USV, this did not reach the level of significance. The only sex-related effect was the enhanced corticosterone reactivity in male pups. For the HPA axis regulation in neonates vGluT3 expression seems to be dispensable under basal conditions, but is required for optimal response to immune stressors, most probably through an interaction with other neurotransmitters. Disturbance of the fine balance between these systems may result in a borderline enhanced anxiety-like behavior in vGluT3 KO pups.

  3. Postnatal treatment with metyrapone attenuates the effects of diet-induced obesity in female rats exposed to early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret O; Herald, Joseph B; Wills, Caleb T; Unfried, Stanley G; Cohn, Dianne M; Loria, Analia S

    2017-02-01

    Experimental studies in rodents have shown that females are more susceptible to exhibiting fat expansion and metabolic disease compared with males in several models of fetal programming. This study tested the hypothesis that female rat pups exposed to maternal separation (MatSep), a model of early-life stress, display an exacerbated response to diet-induced obesity compared with male rats. Also, we tested whether the postnatal treatment with metyrapone (MTP), a corticosterone synthase inhibitor, would attenuate this phenotype. MatSep was performed in WKY offspring by separation from the dam (3 h/day, postnatal days 2-14). Upon weaning, male and female rats were placed on a normal (ND; 18% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat). Nondisturbed littermates served as controls. In male rats, no diet-induced differences in body weight (BW), glucose tolerance, and fat tissue weight and morphology were found between MatSep and control male rats. However, female MatSep rats displayed increased BW gain, fat pad weights, and glucose intolerance compared with control rats (P < 0.05). Also, HFD increased plasma corticosterone (196 ± 51 vs. 79 ± 18 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and leptin levels (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 ng/ml, P < 0.05) in female MatSep compared with control rats, whereas insulin and adiponectin levels were similar between groups. Female control and MatSep offspring were treated with MTP (50 µg/g ip) 30 min before the daily separation. MTP treatment significantly attenuated diet-induced obesity risk factors, including elevated adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and glucose intolerance. These findings show that exposure to stress hormones during early life could be a key event to enhance diet-induced obesity and metabolic disease in female rats. Thus, pharmacological and/or behavioral inflection of the stress levels is a potential therapeutic approach for prevention of early life stress-enhanced obesity and metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  4. Early postnatal gentamicin and ceftazidime treatment in normal and food restricted neonatal wistar rats: Implications for kidney development.

    PubMed

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Brüggemann, Roger J M; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2017-09-01

    Up to two-thirds of premature born neonates are treated for infections with aminoglycosides such as gentamicin. Although acute toxicities are well described, there is uncertainty on developmental changes after treatment of premature born neonates. We studied the effect of gentamicin and ceftazidime on kidney development in the rat. Additionally, we evaluated the modulating effect of extrauterine growth restriction. On postnatal day (PND) 2, Wistar rats were cross-fostered into normal sized litters (12 pups) or large litters (20 pups) to create normal food (NF) or food restricted (FR) litters to simulate growth restriction and dosed daily intraperitoneally with placebo, 4 mg/kg of gentamicin or 50 mg/kg ceftazidime until PND 8. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics were studied in a separate group of animals. Kidneys were weighed. Renal expression of 18 developmental genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR on PND 8. On PND 35, glomerular number was assessed by stereology and glomerular generations were counted. Food restricted litters showed 22% less body weight compared with controls by day 35 (p < 0.001), 1.4- to 1.5-fold down regulation of Renin, Oat1, and Agtr1a (p < 0.05) expression and a 12% reduction in glomerular numbers (mean 30841 vs. 35187, p < 0.001), whereas glomerular generation count was unaffected. Gentamicin pharmacokinetic parameters were found to be in a human clinical range (mean maximum concentration in plasma of 4.88 mg/L and mean area under the plasma-concentration time curve up to the last measured concentration after 4 hr of 10.71 mg.h/L for sexes combined) and all endpoints were unaffected. Ceftazidime reduced Renin expression by 1.7-fold (p < 0.01). Our experiments showed that gentamicin at clinical levels did not disturb kidney development, ceftazidime can affect Renin expression, and extrauterine growth restriction impairs kidney development, but did not modulate potential drug toxicity. Birth Defects Research 109:1228-1235, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  5. Associations of infant milk feed type on early postnatal growth of offspring exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes in utero.

    PubMed

    Aris, Izzuddin M; Soh, Shu E; Tint, Mya Thway; Saw, Seang Mei; Rajadurai, Victor S; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap Seng; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-02-01

    Infants on prolonged breastfeeding are known to grow slower during the first year of life. It is still unclear if such effects are similar in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes (GDM) in utero. We examined the associations of infant milk feeding on postnatal growth from birth till 36 months of age in offspring exposed and unexposed to GDM. Pregnant mothers undertook 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests at 26-28 weeks of gestation for GDM diagnosis. Up to 9 measurements of offspring weight and length were collected from birth till 36 months, and interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain the duration of breastfeeding. There was a statistically significant interaction between GDM status and breastmilk intake by any (p interaction  = 0.038) or exclusive/predominant breastfeeding (p interaction  = 0.035) for the outcome of conditional weight gain. In offspring of non-GDM mothers (n = 835), greater breastmilk intake (BF ≥ 4 milk months) was associated with lower conditional gains in weight [B (95 % CI) -0.48 (-0.58, -0.28); p < 0.001] within the first year of life, as well as decreasing weight SDS velocity [-0.01 (-0.02, -0.005); p < 0.001] and BMI SDS velocity [-0.008 (0.01, -0.002); p = 0.008] across age in the first 36 months. In offspring of GDM mothers (n = 181), however, greater breastmilk intake was associated with increased conditional gains in weight [0.72 (0.23, 1.20); p = 0.029] and BMI SDS [0.49 (0.04, 0.95); p = 0.04] in the first 6 months and did not demonstrate the decreasing weight and BMI SDS velocity observed in offspring of non-GDM mothers. The reduced weight gain in the first year of life conferred by greater breastmilk intake in non-GDM children was not observed in GDM children. This study is registered under the Clinical Trials identifier NCT01174875; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01174875?term=GUSTO&rank=2 .

  6. Early life vitamin D depletion alters the postnatal response to skeletal loading in growing and mature bone

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Harriet; Owen, Robert; Marin, Ana Campos; Lu, Yongtau; Eyles, Darryl; Lacroix, Damien; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Skerry, Tim M.; Bishop, Nick J.

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of persistent effects of early life vitamin D exposure on later skeletal health; linking low levels in early life to smaller bone size in childhood as well as increased fracture risk later in adulthood, independently of later vitamin D status. A major determinant of bone mass acquisition across all ages is mechanical loading. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model system that early life vitamin D depletion results in abrogation of the response to mechanical loading, with consequent reduction in bone size, mass and strength during both childhood and adulthood. A murine model was created in which pregnant dams were either vitamin D deficient or replete, and their offspring moved to a vitamin D replete diet at weaning. Tibias of the offspring were mechanically loaded and bone structure, extrinsic strength and growth measured both during growth and after skeletal maturity. Offspring of vitamin D deplete mice demonstrated lower bone mass in the non loaded limb and reduced bone mass accrual in response to loading in both the growing skeleton and after skeletal maturity. Early life vitamin D depletion led to reduced bone strength and altered bone biomechanical properties. These findings suggest early life vitamin D status may, in part, determine the propensity to osteoporosis and fracture that blights later life in many individuals. PMID:29370213

  7. The Prodrome of Autism: Early Behavioral and Biological Signs, Regression, Peri- and Post-Natal Development and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirmiya, Nurit; Charman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Autism is one of the most heritable neurodevelopmental conditions and has an early onset, with symptoms being required to be present in the first 3 years of life in order to meet criteria for the "core" disorder in the classification systems. As such, the focus on identifying a prodrome over the past 20 years has been on pre-clinical…

  8. The Impact of Postnatal Depression and Associated Adversity on Early Mother-Infant Interactions and Later Infant Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the impact of maternal depression and adversity on mother-infant face-to-face interactions at 2 months, and on subsequent infant cognitive development and attachment. Disturbances in early mother-infant interactions were found to be predictive of poorer infant cognitive outcomes at 18 months. (MDM)

  9. The amyloid precursor protein and postnatal neurogenesis/neuroregeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yanan; Tang, Bor Luen

    2006-03-03

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is the source of amyloid-beta (A{beta}) peptide, produced via its sequential cleavage {beta}- and {gamma}-secretases. Various biophysical forms of A{beta} (and the mutations of APP which results in their elevated levels) have been implicated in the etiology and early onset of Alzheimer's disease. APP's evolutionary conservation and the existence of APP-like isoforms (APLP1 and APLP2) which lack the A{beta} sequence, however, suggest that these might have important physiological functions that are unrelated to A{beta} production. Soluble N-terminal fragments of APP have been known to be neuroprotective, and the interaction of its cytoplasmic C-terminus with amore » myriad of proteins associates it with diverse processes such as axonal transport and transcriptional regulation. The notion for an essential postnatal function of APP has been demonstrated genetically, as mice deficient in both APP and APLP2 or all three APP isoforms exhibit early postnatal lethality and neuroanatomical abnormalities. Recent findings have also brought to light two possible functions of the APP family in Brain-regulation of neural progenitor cell proliferation and axonal outgrowth after injury. Interestingly, these two apparently related neurogenic/neuroregenerative functions of APP involve two separate domains of the molecule.« less

  10. Determining the effects of early gestation in utero heat stress on postnatal fasting heat production and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...

  11. Uptake and predictors of early postnatal follow–up care amongst mother–baby pairs in South Africa: Results from three population–based surveys, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anna; Cheyip, Mireille; Aynalem, Getahun; Dinh, Thu–ha; Jackson, Debra; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Chirinda, Witness; Mogashoa, Mary; Kindra, Gupreet; Lombard, Carl; Goga, Ameena

    2017-01-01

    Background Achieving World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for postnatal care (PNC) within the first few weeks of life is vital to eliminating early mother–to–child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and improving infant health. Almost half of the annual global deaths among children under five occur during the first six weeks of life. This study aims to identify uptake of three PNC visits within the first six weeks of life as recommended by WHO among South African mother–infant pairs, and factors associated with uptake. Methods We analyzed data from three facility–based, nationally representative surveys (2010, 2011/12 and 2012/13) primarily designed to determine the effectiveness of the South African program to prevent MTCT. This analysis describes the proportion of infants achieving the WHO recommendation of at least 3 PNC visits. Interviews from 27 699 HIV–negative and HIV–positive mothers of infants aged 4–8 weeks receiving their six week immunization were included in analysis. Data were analyzed using STATA 13.0 and weighted for sample ascertainment and South African live births. We fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to estimate factors associated with early PNC uptake. Results Over half (59.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 59.0–60.3) of mother–infant pairs received the recommended three PNC visits during the first 6 weeks; uptake was 63.1% (95% CI = 61.9–64.3) amongst HIV exposed infants and 58.1% (95% CI = 57.3–58.9) amongst HIV unexposed infants. Uptake of early PNC improved significantly with each survey, but varied significantly by province. Multivariable analysis of the pooled data, controlling for survey year, demonstrated that number of antenatal visits (4+ vs <4 Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04–1.23), timing of initial antenatal visits (≤12 weeks vs >12 weeks, aOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04–1.23), place of delivery (clinic vs hospital aOR = 1.5, 1.3–1.6), and

  12. The C. elegans homolog of Drosophila Lethal giant larvae functions redundantly with PAR-2 to maintain polarity in the early embryo.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Alexander; Morton, Diane; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    Polarity is essential for generating cell diversity. The one-cell C. elegans embryo serves as a model for studying the establishment and maintenance of polarity. In the early embryo, a myosin II-dependent contraction of the cortical meshwork asymmetrically distributes the highly conserved PDZ proteins PAR-3 and PAR-6, as well as an atypical protein kinase C (PKC-3), to the anterior. The RING-finger protein PAR-2 becomes enriched on the posterior cortex and prevents these three proteins from returning to the posterior. In addition to the PAR proteins, other proteins are required for polarity in many metazoans. One example is the conserved Drosophila tumor-suppressor protein Lethal giant larvae (Lgl). In Drosophila and mammals, Lgl contributes to the maintenance of cell polarity and plays a role in asymmetric cell division. We have found that the C. elegans homolog of Lgl, LGL-1, has a role in polarity but is not essential. It localizes asymmetrically to the posterior of the early embryo in a PKC-3-dependent manner, and functions redundantly with PAR-2 to maintain polarity. Furthermore, overexpression of LGL-1 is sufficient to rescue loss of PAR-2 function. LGL-1 negatively regulates the accumulation of myosin (NMY-2) on the posterior cortex, representing a possible mechanism by which LGL-1 might contribute to polarity maintenance.

  13. [The administration of interleukin-1beta during early postnatal develop ment impairs FGF2, but not TIMP1, mRNA expression in brain structures of adult rats].

    PubMed

    Trofimov, A N; Zubareva, O E; Shvarts, A P; Ishchenko, A M; Klimenko, V M

    2014-09-01

    According to the Neurodevelopmental hypothesis, the long-lasting cognitive deficit in schizophrenia and other types of neuropathology may occur by injurious factors, such as hypoxia, traumas, infections that take place during pre- and postnatal development, at least at early stages. These pathological conditions are often associated with the high production of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B (IL-1B) by the cells of immune and nervous systems. We investigated the expression of genes involved in the neuroplastic regulation (Fgf2 and Timp2) in medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral regions of hippocampus of adult rats that were treated with IL-1beta between P15 and P21. The learning impairment in IL-1beta-treated rats is accompanied by lower FGF-2 mRNA levels in medial prefrontal cortex and ventral (not dorsal) hippocampus, but TIMP-1 was not affected. No differences in TIMP-1 and FGF-2 mRNA expressions were observed in untrained IL-1beta-treated when compared to control rats.

  14. Fetal and Early Post-Natal Mineralization of the Tympanic Bulla in Fin Whales May Reveal a Hitherto Undiscovered Evolutionary Trait

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Mazzariol, Sandro; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes), such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus) is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival. PMID:22615912

  15. Behavioral analysis of the consequences of chronic blockade of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the early postnatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Latysheva, N V; Raevskii, K S

    2003-02-01

    Considering data on the possible glutamatergic nature of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we attempted to model cognitive derangements in animals by chronic blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors. Wistar rats received daily s.c. injections of the non-competitive NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) from days 7 to day 49 of postnatal life. One day after the antagonist injections given on days 27 and 28 of life, animals of the experimental group showed decreased levels of spontaneous movement and orientational-investigative activity as compared with controls, where there was no change in the elevated locomotor reaction produced in response to the direct action of MK-801. These animals showed decreases in the level of anxiety (on day 40 of life) and derangement in spatial learning with food reinforcement (days 50-54 of life). It is suggested that early neonatal blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors leads to the development in animals of disturbances to situational perception and assessment of incoming sensory information.

  16. Immunosuppression in Early Postnatal Days Induces Persistent and Allergen-Specific Immune Tolerance to Asthma in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma. PMID:25860995

  17. Balance between early life tolerance and sensitization in allergy: dependence on the timing and intensity of prenatal and postnatal allergen exposure of the mother.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Ana Elisa; de Brito, Cyro Alves; Taniguchi, Eliana Futata; Muniz, Bruno Pacola; Victor, Jefferson Russo; Orii, Noemia Mie; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2009-09-01

    Allergens can be maternally transferred to the fetus or neonate, though it is uncertain how this initial allergen exposure may impact the development of allergy responses. To evaluate the roles of timing and level of maternal allergen exposure in the early life sensitization of progeny, female BALB/c mice were given ovalbumin (OVA) orally during pregnancy, lactation or weekly at each stage to investigate the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody production and cellular responsiveness of their offspring. Exposure to OVA during pregnancy was also evaluated in OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (DO11.10) mice. The effect of prenatal antigen exposure on offspring sensitization was dependent on antigen intake, with low-dose OVA inducing tolerance followed by neonatal immunization that was sustained even when pups were immunized when 3 weeks old. These offspring received high levels of transforming growth factor-beta via breastfeeding. High-dose exposure during the first week of pregnancy or perinatal period induced transient inhibition of IgE production following neonatal immunization; although for later immunization IgE production was enhanced in these offspring. Postnatal maternal antigen exposure provided OVA transference via breastfeeding, which consequently induced increased offspring susceptibility to IgE antibody production according to week post-birth. The effect of low-dose maternal exposure during pregnancy was further evaluated using OVA transgenic TCR dams as a model. These progeny presented pronounced entry of CD4(+) T cells into the S phase of the cell cycle with a skewed T helper type 2 response early in life, revealing the occurrence of allergen priming in utero. The balance between tolerance and sensitization depended on the amount and timing of maternal allergen intake during pregnancy.

  18. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A.; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E. H.; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2018-01-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities. PMID:27603537

  19. Ozone exposure during the early postnatal period alters the timing and pattern of alveolar growth and development in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Avdalovic, Mark V; Tyler, Nancy K; Putney, Lei; Nishio, Susie J; Quesenberry, Sherri; Singh, Parmjit J; Miller, Lisa A; Schelegle, Edward S; Plopper, Charles G; Vu, Thiennu; Hyde, Dallas M

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to oxidant air pollutants in early childhood, with ozone as the key oxidant, has been linked to significant decrements in pulmonary function in young adults and exacerbation of airway remodeling in asthma. Development of lung parenchyma in rhesus monkeys is rapid during the first 2 years of life (comparable to the first 6 years in humans). Our hypothesis is that ozone inhalation during infancy alters alveolar morphogenesis. We exposed infant rhesus monkeys biweekly to 5, 8 hr/day, cycles of 0.5 ppm ozone with or without house dust mite allergen from 1 to 3 or 1 to 6 months of age. Monkeys were necropsied at 3 and 6 months of age. A morphometric approach was used to quantify changes in alveolar volume and number, the distribution of alveolar size, and capillary surface density per alveolar septa. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the relative difference in gene expression over time. Monkeys exposed to ozone alone or ozone combined with allergen had statistically larger alveoli that were less in number at 3 months of age. Alveolar capillary surface density was also decreased in the ozone exposed groups at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, the alveolar number was similar between treatment groups and was associated with a significant rise in alveolar number from 3 to 6 months of age in the ozone exposed groups. This increase in alveolar number was not associated with any significant increase in microvascular growth as measured by morphometry or changes in angiogenic gene expression. Inhalation of ozone during infancy alters the appearance and timing of alveolar growth and maturation. Understanding the mechanism involved with this altered alveolar growth may provide insight into the parenchymal injury and repair process that is involved with chronic lung diseases such as severe asthma and COPD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. TopBP1 deficiency causes an early embryonic lethality and induces cellular senescence in primary cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon; Ko, Eun; Lee, Kyung Yong; Ko, Min Ji; Park, Seo Young; Kang, Jeeheon; Jeon, Chang Hwan; Lee, Ho; Hwang, Deog Su

    2011-02-18

    TopBP1 plays important roles in chromosome replication, DNA damage response, and other cellular regulatory functions in vertebrates. Although the roles of TopBP1 have been studied mostly in cancer cell lines, its physiological function remains unclear in mice and untransformed cells. We generated conditional knock-out mice in which exons 5 and 6 of the TopBP1 gene are flanked by loxP sequences. Although TopBP1-deficient embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, no homozygous mutant embryos were recovered at E8.5 or beyond, and completely resorbed embryos were frequent at E7.5, indicating that mutant embryos tend to die at the peri-implantation stage. This finding indicated that TopBP1 is essential for cell proliferation during early embryogenesis. Ablation of TopBP1 in TopBP1(flox/flox) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3 cells using Cre recombinase-expressing retrovirus arrests cell cycle progression at the G(1), S, and G(2)/M phases. The TopBP1-ablated mouse cells exhibit phosphorylation of H2AX and Chk2, indicating that the cells contain DNA breaks. The TopBP1-ablated mouse cells enter cellular senescence. Although RNA interference-mediated knockdown of TopBP1 induced cellular senescence in human primary cells, it induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, TopBP1 deficiency in untransformed mouse and human primary cells induces cellular senescence rather than apoptosis. These results indicate that TopBP1 is essential for cell proliferation and maintenance of chromosomal integrity.

  1. Disruption of NBS1 gene leads to early embryonic lethality in homozygous null mice and induces specific cancer in heterozygous mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Henrie, Melinda

    2002-04-15

    Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive chromosome instability syndrome characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition, with cellular features similar to that of ataxia telangiectasia (AT). NBS results from mutations in the mammalian gene Nbs1 that codes for a 95-kDa protein called nibrin, NBS1, or p95. To establish an animal model for NBS, we attempted to generate NBS1 knockout mice. However, NBS1 gene knockouts were lethal at an early embryonic stage. NBS1 homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured in vitro showed retarded growth and subsequently underwent growth arrest within 5 days of culture. Apoptosis, assayed by TUNELmore » staining, was observed in NBSI homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured for four days. NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice were normal, and exhibited no specific phenotype for at least one year. However, fibroblast cells from NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice displayed an enhanced frequency of spontaneous transformation to anchorage-independent growth as compared to NBS1 wild-type(+/+) cells. Furthermore, heterozygous(+/-) mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma after one year compared to wild-type mice, even though no significant differences in the incidence of other tumors such as lung adenocarcinoma and lymphoma were observed. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that NBS1 heterozygosity and reduced NBSI expression induces formation of specific tumors in mice.« less

  2. Importance of early postnatal weight gain for normal retinal angiogenesis in very preterm infants: a multicenter study analyzing weight velocity deviations for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carolyn; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; VanderVeen, Deborah K; Hellström, Ann

    2012-08-01

    To assess WINROP (https://winrop.com), an algorithm using postnatal weight measurements, as a tool for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a large geographically and racially diverse study population. WINROP analysis was performed retrospectively on conventionally at-risk infants from 10 neonatal intensive careunits.Weight measurements were entered into WINROP, which signals an alarm for an abnormal weight gain rate. Infants were classified into categories of no alarm (unlikely to develop type 1ROP)and alarm (at risk for developing type 1ROP).Use of WINROP requires that an infant has (1) gestational age less than 32 weeks at birth, (2) weekly weight measurements,(3) physiologic weight gain,and(4)absence of other pathologic retinal vascular disease. A total of 1706 infants with a median gestational age of 28 weeks (range, 22-31 weeks) and median birth weight of 1016 g (range, 378-2240 g) were included in the study analysis. An alarm occurred in 1101 infants (64.5%), with a median time from birth to alarm of 3 weeks (range, 0-12 weeks) and from alarm to treatment of 8 weeks (range, 1 day to 22 weeks). The sensitivity of WINROP was 98.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.7%. Two infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment after 40 weeks' postmenstrual age did not receive an alarm. The WINROP system is a useful adjunct for ROP screening that identifies high-risk infants early to optimize care and potentially reduce the overall number of diagnostic ROP examinations.

  3. Behavior and Monoamine Deficits in Prenatal and Perinatal Iron Deficiency Are Not Corrected by Early Postnatal Moderate-Iron or High-Iron Diets in Rats12

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Erica L.; Hurst, Amy R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Schallert, Tim; Rao, Raghavendra; Connor, James R.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy; Felt, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Developmental iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causes brain and behavioral deficits in rodent models, which cannot be reversed when treated at periods equivalent to later infancy in humans. This study sought to determine whether earlier iron treatment can normalize deficits of IDA in rats and what iron dose is optimal. The offspring of dams with IDA during gestation were cross-fostered at postnatal d (P) 8 to dams receiving diets with 1 of 3 iron concentrations until weaning (P21): 0.003–0.01 g/kg [totally iron deficient (TID)]; 0.04 g/kg [formerly iron deficient (FID-40)]; or 0.4 g/kg (FID-400). Always iron-sufficient control dams (CN-40) received a 0.04-g/kg iron diet. At P21, TID pups received a 0.01 g iron/kg diet; all others received a 0.04 g iron/kg diet. Hematocrit and brain iron and monoamine concentrations were assessed at P21 and P100. Pup growth, development, activity, object recognition, hesitancy, and watermaze performance were evaluated. Regional brain iron was restored by iron treatment. Regional monoamine and metabolite concentrations were elevated in FID-40 rats and reduced in FID-400 and TID rats compared with CN-40 rats. FID-40 offspring had motor delays similar to TID during lactation and FID-400 rats had elevated thigmotaxis similar to TID rats at P25 and P100 in the spatial watermaze. In conclusion, iron treatment at P8 in rats did not normalize all monoamine or behavioral measures after early IDA. Moderate iron treatment improved adult behavior, but higher iron treatment caused brain and behavioral patterns similar to TID in the short and long term. PMID:22990465

  4. Early identification of women at risk of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a sample of Lebanese women.

    PubMed

    El-Hachem, Charline; Rohayem, Jihane; Bou Khalil, Rami; Richa, Sami; Kesrouani, Assaad; Gemayel, Rima; Aouad, Norma; Hatab, Najat; Zaccak, Eliane; Yaghi, Nancy; Salameh, Salimé; Attieh, Elie

    2014-09-07

    During the postpartum period, women are vulnerable to depression affecting about 10 to 20% of mothers during the first year after delivery. However, only 50% of women with prominent symptoms are diagnosed with postpartum depression (PPD). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used screening instrument for PPD . The main objectives of this study are to assess whether an EPDS score of 9 or more on day 2 (D2) postpartum is predictive of a depressive episode between days 30 and 40 postpartum (D30-40), to determine the risk factors as well as the prevalence of PPD in a sample of Lebanese women and to determine a threshold score of EPDS predictive of PPD. A sample of 228 women were administered the EPDS on D2. An assessment for PPD was done on D30-40 during a telephone interview. On D2, the average score on EPDS was 7.1 (SD = 5.2) and 33.3% of women had an EPDS score ≥ 9. On D30-40 postpartum, the average score was 6.5 (SD = 4.7) and 19 women (12.8%) presented with PPD. A positive correlation was shown between scores on EPDS on D2 and D30-40 (r = 0.5091, p < 0.0001). A stepwise regression shows that an EPDS score ≥9 on D2 (p < 0.001) and a personal history of depression (p = 0.008) are significantly associated with the diagnosis of PPD on D30-40. The EPDS may be considered as a reliable screening tool on as early as D2 after delivery. Women with EPDS score ≥ 9 and/or a positive personal history of major depressive disorder should benefit from a closer follow-up during the rest of the post-partum period.

  5. Early postnatal development of electrophysiological and histological properties of sensory sural nerves in male rats that were maternally deprived and artificially reared: Role of tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zempoalteca, Rene; Porras, Mercedes G; Moreno-Pérez, Suelem; Ramirez-Funez, Gabriela; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; González Del Pliego, Margarita; Mariscal-Tovar, Silvia; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria E; Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Melo, Angel I

    2018-04-01

    Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group). At PND 7, 14, or 21, electrophysiological properties and histological characteristics of the SU nerves were assessed. At PND 7, the electrophysiological properties and most histological parameters of the SU nerve did not differ among MR, AR, and AR-Tactile groups. By contrast, at PND 14 and/or 21, the SU nerve of AR rats showed a lower CAP amplitude and area, and a significant reduction in myelin area and myelin thickness, which were accompanied by a reduction in axon area (day 21 only) compared to the nerves of MR rats. Tactile stimulation (AR-Tactile group) partially prevented most of these alterations. These results suggest that sensory cues from the mother and/or littermates during the first 7-14 PND are relevant for the proper development and function of the adult SU nerve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 351-362, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bilateral Olfactory Mucosa Damage Induces the Disappearance of Olfactory Glomerulus and Reduces the Expression of Extrasynaptic α5GABAARs in the Hippocampus in Early Postnatal Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaomin; Liang, Liang; Hei, Changchun; Yang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Tingyuan; Wu, Kai; Qin, Yi; Chang, Qing

    2018-04-17

    Chloroform-induced olfactory mucosal degeneration has been reported in adult rats following gavage. We used fixed-point chloroform infusions on different postnatal days (PNDs) to investigate the effects of early olfactory bilateral deprivation on the main olfactory bulbs in Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups included rats infused with chloroform (5 μl) or saline (sham, 5 μl) on PNDs 3 and 8, and rats not receiving infusions (control) (n = 6 in all groups). Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 showed significant hypoevolutism when compared to those in other groups (P < 0.05). There was a complete disappearance and a significant reduction in the size of olfactory glomeruli in the PND 3 and 8 groups, respectively, when compared to the respective sham groups. Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 had significant memory impairment (P < 0.01) and increased levels of learned helplessness (P < 0.05), as measured using the Morris water maze and tail suspension tests, respectively. GABA A receptor alpha5 subunit (α5GABA A R) expression in hippocampal neurons was significantly lower in rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 than in rats in other groups (P < 0.01), as measured using immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. There was thus a critical period for the preservation of regenerative ability in olfactory receptor neurons, during which damage and olfactory deprivation led to altered rhinencephalon structure and disappearance of olfactory glomeruli, which induced hypoevolutism. Olfactory deprivation after the critical period had no significant effect on olfactory receptor neuron regeneration, leading to reduced developmental and behavioral effects in Sprague Dawley rats.

  7. Temporary Depletion of Microglia during the Early Postnatal Period Induces Lasting Sex-Dependent and Sex-Independent Effects on Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain and function in multiple ways to facilitate proper brain development. However, our current understanding of how these cells influence the later expression of normal behaviors is lacking. Using the laboratory rat, we administered liposomal clodronate centrally to selectively deplete microglia in the developing postnatal brain. We then assessed a range of developmental, juvenile, and adult behaviors. Liposomal clodronate treatment on postnatal days 0, 2, and 4 depleted microglia with recovery by about 10 days of age and induced a hyperlocomotive phenotype, observable in the second postnatal week. Temporary microglia depletion also increased juvenile locomotion in the open field test and decreased anxiety-like behaviors in the open field and elevated plus maze. These same rats displayed reductions in predator odor–induced avoidance behavior, but increased their risk assessment behaviors compared with vehicle-treated controls. In adulthood, postnatal microglia depletion resulted in significant deficits in male-specific sex behaviors. Using factor analysis, we identified two underlying traits—behavioral disinhibition and locomotion—as being significantly altered by postnatal microglia depletion. These findings further implicate microglia as being critically important to the development of juvenile and adult behavior. PMID:27957532

  8. COGNITIVE FUNCTION OF 6-YEAR OLD CHILDREN EXPOSED TO MOLD-CONTAMINATED HOMES IN EARLY POSTNATAL PERIOD. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN POLAND

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Stigter, Laura; Jankowski, Jeffrey; Butscher, Maria; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Skarupa, Anita; Sowa, Agata

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the neurologic effects of various air pollutants have been the focus of increasing attention. The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of early childhood exposure to indoor molds on the subsequent cognitive function of 6-year old children. The results of this study are based on the six-year follow-up of 277 babies born at term to mothers participating in a prospective cohort study in Krakow, Poland. The study participants are all non-smoking pregnant women who were free of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The presence of visible mold patches on indoor walls was monitored at regular time intervals over gestation and after birth up to the age of five. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was administered to children at age 6. The exposure effect of living in mold-contaminated homes on the IQ scores of children was adjusted for major confounders, known to be important for the cognitive development of children such as maternal education, the child’s gender, breastfeeding practices in infancy, the presence of older siblings and the prenatal exposure to lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The adjusted IQ deficit attributed to longer exposures to indoor molds (> 2 years) was significantly lower on the IQ scale (beta coeff. = −9.16, 95%CI: −15.21, −3.10) and tripled the risk of low IQ scoring (OR= 3.53; 95%CI: 1.11 – 11.27) compared with references. While maternal education (beta coeff. = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.05, 1.17) and breastfeeding (beta coeff. = 4.0; 95%CI: 0.84, 7.17) showed a significant positive impact on cognitive function, prenatal ETS exposure (beta coeff. = −0.41; 95%CI: −0.79, −0.03) and the presence of older siblings (beta coefficient= −3.43; 95%CI: −5.67, −1.20) were associated with poorer cognitive function in children. In conclusion, the results of this study draw attention to the harmful effect of early postnatal exposure to indoor molds on children

  9. Understanding the information needs of women with rheumatoid arthritis concerning pregnancy, post-natal care and early parenting: A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Jordan, Joanne E; Van Doornum, Sharon; Ricardo, Margaret; Briggs, Andrew M

    2015-08-19

    Although women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) face a number of challenges in negotiating the journey to parenthood, no studies have explored the information needs of women with RA in relation to their childbearing years. This study aimed to determine the need for (and preferred mode/s of delivery of) information regarding pregnancy, post-natal care and early parenting among women with RA. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 27 women with RA who were pregnant in the last 5 years, currently pregnant or planning pregnancy. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Two validated instruments were used to quantify information needs and preferences: the Educational Needs Assessment Tool (ENAT, range 0-156, higher scores indicate higher educational needs) and the Autonomy Preference Index (API, range 0-100, higher scores indicate stronger preferences). Lack of information about medication safety, access to physical/emotional support services and practical strategies for coping with daily challenges related to parenting were the most prominent of the six key themes identified. Rheumatologists were the primary source for information regarding treatment decisions while arthritis consumer organisations were perceived as critical 'resource hubs'. There was strong preference for information delivered electronically, especially among rural participants. Quantitative outcomes supported the qualitative findings; on average, participants reported high educational needs (mean ENAT score 97.2, SD 30.8) and API scores indicated that desire for information (mean 89.8, SD 5.6) was greater than the need for involvement in treatment decision-making (mean 68.4, SD 8.2). Many women with RA struggle to find adequate information on pregnancy planning, pregnancy and early parenting in relation to their chronic condition, and there is a clear need to develop accessible information that is consumer-focused and evidence-based. Although most

  10. Melamine in prenatal and postnatal organs in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ching Yan; Chu, Kai On; Ho, Chung Shun; Kwok, Sung Shing; Chan, Ho Ming; Fung, Kwok Pui; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Melamine can be transferred to fetus in utero through placenta and to infant ex utero by breast feeding. In this study, we characterized the pharmacokinetics of melamine in prenatal and postnatal organs in rats. Single bolus of melamine was administered to pregnant rats at different gestational stages and to infants at different postnatal stages. Distribution of melamine in maternal serum was about 30% higher in late pregnancy than that in early pregnancy; and it was 2 folds higher in postnatal serum in early infants in young adulthood. Distribution of melamine in all postnatal organs was higher than that in prenatal organs. Postnatal kidneys in early infants had the highest maximum concentration and the lowest clearance of melamine than the other postnatal organs. It may relate to the high vulnerability to the toxicity of melamine in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Universal HIV Screening at Postnatal Points of Care: Which Public Health Approach for Early Infant Diagnosis in Côte d'Ivoire?

    PubMed Central

    Ndondoki, Camille; Brou, Hermann; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Oga, Maxime; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Menan, Hervé; Ekouévi, Didier; Leroy, Valériane

    2013-01-01

    Background Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC) is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID). We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6–26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected. Findings We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58%) accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI): [14%–16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61%) accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%–5.4%]). Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52%) had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%–21.7%]). Only 46 fathers (2%) came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3–10.6], p = 0.0001). Conclusions Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries

  12. Pre- and postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated urban PM2.5 decreases the number of alveoli and leads to altered lung function at an early stage of life.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mendes Lopes, Thais; Groth, Espen E; Veras, Mariana; Furuya, Tatiane K; de Souza Xavier Costa, Natalia; Ribeiro Júnior, Gabriel; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi; de Almeida, Francine M; Cardoso, Wellington V; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Chammas, Roger; Mauad, Thais

    2018-06-04

    Gestational exposure to air pollution is associated with negative outcomes in newborns and children. In a previous study, we demonstrated a synergistic negative effect of pre- and postnatal exposure to PM 2.5 on lung development in mice. However, the means by which air pollution affects development of the lung have not yet been identified. In this study, we exposed pregnant BALB/c mice and their offspring to concentrated urban PM 2.5 (from São Paulo, Brazil; target dose 600 μg/m 3 for 1 h daily). Exposure was started on embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5, time of placental implantation). Lung tissue of fetuses and offspring was submitted to stereological and transcriptomic analyses at E14.5 (pseudoglandular stage of lung development), E18.5 (saccular stage) and P40 (postnatal day 40, alveolarized lung). Additionally, lung function and cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in offspring animals at P40. Compared to control animals that were exposed to filtered air throughout gestation and postnatal life, PM-exposed mice exhibited higher lung elastance and a lower alveolar number at P40 whilst the total lung volume and cellularity of BAL fluid were not affected. Glandular and saccular structures of fetal lungs were not altered upon gestational exposure; transcriptomic signatures, however, showed changes related to DNA damage and its regulation, inflammation and regulation of cell proliferation. A differential expression was validated at E14.5 for the candidates Sox8, Angptl4 and Gas1. Our data substantiate the in utero biomolecular effect of gestational exposure to air pollution and provide first-time stereological evidence that pre- and early life-postnatal exposure compromise lung development, leading to a reduced number of alveoli and an impairment of lung function in the adult mouse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are High-Lethality Suicide Attempters With Bipolar Disorder a Distinct Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo, Maria A.; Carballo, Juan Jose; Rajouria, Namita; Currier, Dianne; Tin, Adrienne; Merville, Jessica; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Because Bipolar Disorder (BD) individuals making highly lethal suicide attempts have greater injury burden and risk for suicide, early identification is critical. BD patients were classified as high- or low-lethality attempters. High-lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. Mixed effects logistic regression models and permutation analyses examined correlations between lethality, number, and order of attempts. High-lethality attempters reported greater suicidal intent and more previous attempts. Multiple attempters showed no pattern of incremental lethality increase with subsequent attempts, but individuals with early high-lethality attempts more often made high-lethality attempts later. A subset of high-lethality attempters make only high-lethality attempts. However, presence of previous low-lethality attempts does not indicate that risk for more lethal, possibly successful, attempts is reduced. PMID:19590998

  14. Pre- and Early-Postnatal Nutrition Modify Gene and Protein Expressions of Muscle Energy Metabolism Markers and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in a Muscle Type Specific Manner in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Anna H.; Ghoreishi, Seyed M.; Takhtsabzy, Tasnim K.; Friedrichsen, Martin; Hellgren, Lars I.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Vaag, Allan; Nielsen, Mette O.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF)) and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC)) of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of their energy and protein requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty), twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) or a moderate-conventional (CONV) diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults). The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α (PGC1α) mRNA in BF, but increased PGC1α expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins) related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes, these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1½ years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced whole

  15. Reaching Mothers and Babies with Early Postnatal Home Visits: The Implementation Realities of Achieving High Coverage in Large-Scale Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sitrin, Deborah; Guenther, Tanya; Murray, John; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Rubayet, Sayed; Ligowe, Reuben; Pun, Bhim; Malla, Honey; Moran, Allisyn

    2013-01-01

    Background Nearly half of births in low-income countries occur without a skilled attendant, and even fewer mothers and babies have postnatal contact with providers who can deliver preventive or curative services that save lives. Community-based maternal and newborn care programs with postnatal home visits have been tested in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Nepal. This paper examines coverage and content of home visits in pilot areas and factors associated with receipt of postnatal visits. Methods Using data from cross-sectional surveys of women with live births (Bangladesh 398, Malawi: 900, Nepal: 615), generalized linear models were used to assess the strength of association between three factors - receipt of home visits during pregnancy, birth place, birth notification - and receipt of home visits within three days after birth. Meta-analytic techniques were used to generate pooled relative risks for each factor adjusting for other independent variables, maternal age, and education. Findings The proportion of mothers and newborns receiving home visits within three days after birth was 57% in Bangladesh, 11% in Malawi, and 50% in Nepal. Mothers and newborns were more likely to receive a postnatal home visit within three days if the mother received at least one home visit during pregnancy (OR2.18, CI1.46–3.25), the birth occurred outside a facility (OR1.48, CI1.28–1.73), and the mother reported a CHW was notified of the birth (OR2.66, CI1.40–5.08). Checking the cord was the most frequently reported action; most mothers reported at least one action for newborns. Conclusions Reaching mothers and babies with home visits during pregnancy and within three days after birth is achievable using existing community health systems if workers are available; linked to communities; and receive training, supplies, and supervision. In all settings, programs must evaluate what community delivery systems can handle and how to best utilize them to improve postnatal care access. PMID

  16. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  17. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-06-13

    Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 'ultra-brief' case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule-Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3-4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3-4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East-York Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/NE/0022). The study findings will be

  18. Germline Mutations in ATM and BRCA1/2 Distinguish Risk for Lethal and Indolent Prostate Cancer and are Associated with Early Age at Death

    PubMed Central

    Na, Rong; Zheng, S. Lilly; Han, Misop; Yu, Hongjie; Jiang, Deke; Shah, Sameep; Ewing, Charles M.; Zhang, Liti; Novakovic, Kristian; Petkewicz, Jacqueline; Gulukota, Kamalakar; Helseth, Donald L.; Quinn, Margo; Humphries, Elizabeth; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Wu, Yishuo; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Khandekar, Janardan; Hulick, Peter J.; Shevrin, Daniel H.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Shen, Zhoujun; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Carducci, Michael A.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Denmeade, Sam R.; McGuire, Michael; Walsh, Patrick C.; Helfand, Brian T.; Brendler, Charles B.; Ding, Qiang; Xu, Jianfeng; Isaacs, William B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Objective To directly assess whether germline mutations in these three genes distinguish lethal from indolent PCa and whether they confer any effect on age at death. Design, setting, and participants A retrospective case-case study of 313 patients who died of PCa and 486 patients with low-risk localized PCa of European, African, and Chinese descent. Germline DNA of each of the 799 patients was sequenced for these three genes. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Mutation carrier rates and their effect on lethal PCa were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact test and Cox regression analysis, respectively. Results and limitations The combined BRCA1/2 and ATM mutation carrier rate was significantly higher in lethal PCa patients (6.07%) than localized PCa patients (1.44%), p = 0.0007. The rate also differed significantly among lethal PCa patients as a function of age at death (10.00%, 9.08%, 8.33%, 4.94%, and 2.97% in patients who died ≤60 yr, 61–65 yr, 66–70 yr, 71–75 yr, and over 75 yr, respectively, p = 0.046) and time to death after diagnosis (12.26%, 4.76%, and 0.98% in patients who died ≤5 yr, 6–10 yr, and > 10 yr after a PCa diagnosis, respectively, p = 0.0006). Survival analysis in the entire cohort revealed mutation carriers remained an independent predictor of lethal PCa after adjusting for race and age, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–3.66, p = 0.004). A limitation of this study is that other DNA repair genes were not analyzed. Conclusions Mutation status of BRCA1/2 and ATM distinguishes risk for lethal and indolent PCa and is associated with earlier age at death and shorter survival time. Patient summary Prostate cancer patients with inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM are more likely to die of prostate cancer and do so at an earlier age. PMID

  19. Postnatal overfeeding promotes early onset and exaggeration of high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through disordered hepatic lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenlin; Dai, Yanyan; Jiang, Weiwei; Liu, Juan; Hou, Miao; Wang, Junle; Burén, Jonas; Li, Xiaonan

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to overnutrition in critical or sensitive developmental periods may increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, but the relationship among postnatal nutrition, lipid metabolism, and NAFLD progression during development remains poorly understood. Here we investigated in a rat model whether postnatal overfeeding increases susceptibility to NAFLD in response to a high-fat diet. Litters from Sprague-Dawley dams were culled to three (small litters) or ten (normal litters) pups and then weaned onto a standard or high-fat diet at postnatal day 21 to generate normal-litter, small-litter, normal-litter/high-fat, and small-litter/high-fat groups. At age 16 weeks, the small-litter and both high-fat groups showed obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Hepatic disorders appeared earlier in the small-litter/high-fat rats with greater liver mass gain and higher hepatic triglycerides and steatosis score versus normal-litter/high-fat rats. Hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and mRNA expression were increased in small-litter rats and aggravated in small-litter/high-fat rats but not in normal-litter/high-fat rats. The high expression in small-litter/high-fat rats coincided with high sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA and protein expression. However, mRNA expression of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) and output (microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) was decreased under a high-fat diet regardless of litter size. In conclusion, overfeeding related to small-litter rearing during lactation contributes to the NAFLD phenotype when combined with a high-fat diet, possibly through up-regulated hepatic lipogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-Lethal Weapons Program

    Science.gov Websites

    ), 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), practice non-lethal control techniques during a non-lethal Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Non-Lethal Weapons Program Search Search JNLWP: Search Search JNLWP: Search Non-Lethal Weapons Program U.S. Department of Defense Non-Lethal

  1. Early postnatal nutritional requirements of the very preterm infant based on a presentation at the NICHD-AAP workshop on research in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Hay, W W

    2006-07-01

    Normal fetal nutrition is a useful guide for understanding postnatal nutrition of infants born very preterm. Fetal lipid uptake gradually increases towards term and is primarily used to produce fat in adipose tissue, with essential fatty acid uptake providing necessary structural and functional elements in membranes of cells in the central nervous system. Fetal glucose uptake and utilization rates are nearly twice as high at 23-26 weeks gestation as they are at term, contributing primarily to energy production and glycogen formation. Amino-acid uptake by the fetus is two-to threefold greater at 23-26 weeks gestation than at term and is required to meet the very high fractional protein synthesis and growth rates at this gestational period; amino acids also contribute significantly to fetal energy production. In contrast, after birth most of the very preterm infants are fed more lipid and glucose and less amino acids and protein than they need. Not surprisingly, therefore, very preterm infants accumulate fat but remain relatively growth restricted at term gestational age compared to those infants who grew normally in utero, and this postnatal growth restriction has long-term adverse growth, development, and health consequences. More thorough understanding of the unique nutritional, metabolic, and growth requirements of the normally growing fetus and the very preterm infant, once born, are needed to determine optimal nutritional strategies to improve the outcome of preterm infants.

  2. Maternal lifetime history of depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal and early postnatal period do not predict infant-mother attachment quality in a large, population-based Dutch cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tharner, Anne; Luijk, Maartje P C M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of maternal history of depressive disorder and the effects of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the early postpartum period on attachment insecurity and disorganization. A total of 627 mother-infant dyads from the Generation R Study participated in a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. Maternal history of depression was assessed by diagnostic interviews during pregnancy; maternal peri- and postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed with questionnaires in 506 of these women at 20 weeks pregnancy and two months postpartum; and infant-mother attachment security was observed when infants were aged 14 months. A history of maternal depressive disorder, regardless of severity or psychiatric comorbidity, was not associated with an increased risk of infant attachment insecurity or disorganization. Likewise, maternal peri- and postnatal depressive symptoms were not related to attachment insecurity or disorganization at 14 months. These results are important because mothers from otherwise low risk backgrounds often have previously been depressed or are struggling with non-clinical depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after giving birth. Our findings are discussed in terms of protective factors that may limit the potentially negative effects of maternal depressive symptoms on the infant-mother attachment relationship in the general population. The role of selective attrition and lack of information about the mothers' attachment status for the current null-findings are also discussed.

  3. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite profiles of neonatal rat hippocampus and brainstem regions following early postnatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnall, Robert A.; Chen, Xi; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Sirieix, Chrystelle M.; Gimi, Barjor

    2017-03-01

    Most premature infants born at less than 30 weeks gestation are exposed to periods of mild intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea of prematurity and periodic breathing. In adults, IH associated with sleep apnea causes neurochemical and structural alterations in the brain. However, it is unknown whether IH in the premature infant leads to neurodevelopmental impairment. Quantification of biochemical markers that can precisely identify infants at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is essential. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) facilitates the quantification of metabolites from distinct regions of the developing brain. We report the changes in metabolite profiles in the brainstem and hippocampal regions of developing rat brains, resulting from exposure to IH. Rat pups were chosen for study because there is rapid postnatal hippocampal development that occurs during the first 4 weeks in the developing rat brain, which corresponds to the first 2-3 postnatal years of development in humans. The brainstem was examined because of our interest in respiratory control disorders in the newborn and because of brainstem gliosis described in infants who succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Metabolite profiles were compared between hypoxia treated rat pups (n = 9) and normoxic controls (n = 6). Metabolite profiles were acquired using the Point-RESolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence and were quantified using the TARQUIN software. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of creatine (p = 0.031), total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) (p = 0.028), and total choline (p = 0.001) in the brainstem, and glycine (p = 0.031) in the hippocampal region. The changes are consistent with altered cellular bioenergetics and metabolism associated with hypoxic insult.

  4. Severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes in the early post-natal period: a prospective cohort study from one English maternity unit.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has identified potential issues of establishing and maintaining breastfeeding among women who experience severe maternal morbidity associated with pregnancy and birth, but evidence in the UK maternity population was scarce. We explored the association between severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes (uptake and prevalence of partial and exclusive breastfeeding) at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum in a UK sample. Data on breastfeeding outcomes were obtained from a large cohort study of women who gave birth in one maternity unit in England to assess the impact of women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity (defined as major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorder or high dependency unit/intensive care unit admission) on their post-natal health and other important outcomes including infant feeding. Results indicated that among women who responded (n = 1824, response rate = 53%), there were no statistically significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes between women who did or did not experience severe morbidity, except for women with severe hypertensive disorder who were less likely to breastfeed either partially or exclusively at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum. Rather, breastfeeding outcomes were related to multi-dimensional factors including sociodemographic (age, ethnicity, living arrangement), other pregnancy outcomes (neonatal intensive care unit admission, mode of birth, women's perceived control during birth) and post-natal psychological factors (depressive symptoms). Women who experience severe maternal morbidity can be reassured that establishing successful breastfeeding can be achieved. More studies are required to understand what support is best for women who have complex health/social needs to establish breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Modeling synthetic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Le Meur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Synthetic lethality defines a genetic interaction where the combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. The implications of synthetic lethal screens have been discussed in the context of drug development as synthetic lethal pairs could be used to selectively kill cancer cells, but leave normal cells relatively unharmed. A challenge is to assess genome-wide experimental data and integrate the results to better understand the underlying biological processes. We propose statistical and computational tools that can be used to find relationships between synthetic lethality and cellular organizational units. Results In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified multi-protein complexes and pairs of multi-protein complexes that share an unusually high number of synthetic genetic interactions. As previously predicted, we found that synthetic lethality can arise from subunits of an essential multi-protein complex or between pairs of multi-protein complexes. Finally, using multi-protein complexes allowed us to take into account the pleiotropic nature of the gene products. Conclusions Modeling synthetic lethality using current estimates of the yeast interactome is an efficient approach to disentangle some of the complex molecular interactions that drive a cell. Our model in conjunction with applied statistical methods and computational methods provides new tools to better characterize synthetic genetic interactions. PMID:18789146

  6. Active retinitis in an infant with postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Piersigilli, F; Catena, G; De Gasperis, M R; Lozzi, S; Auriti, C

    2012-07-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently associated with active retinitis. In contrast, in the immunocompetent neonate with postnatally acquired CMV infection retinitis is rarely present and usually does not progress. We describe the case of an infant with postnatal CMV infection and active retinitis diagnosed at 20 days of life. Owing to the rapid progression of the retinitis, therapy with intravenous ganciclovir was performed, with prompt regression of the retinitis. Therapy was then continued with oral valganciclovir for one further week. Although very unusual, CMV retinitis has to be taken into consideration in neonates with early postnatally acquired CMV infection, as an early diagnosis and treatment may be crucial to avoid visual impairment.

  7. Wnt signaling activates Shh signaling in early postnatal intervertebral discs, and re-activates Shh signaling in old discs in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Tamara; Mahoney, Eric J; Sinner, Debora; Wylie, Christopher C; Dahia, Chitra Lekha

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are strong fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent vertebrae of the spine. As discs age they become prone to failure, with neurological consequences that are often severe. Surgical repair of discs treats the result of the disease, which affects as many as one in seven people, rather than its cause. An ideal solution would be to repair degenerating discs using the mechanisms of their normal differentiation. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse as a model, we previously showed that Shh signaling produced by nucleus pulposus cells activates the expression of differentiation markers, and cell proliferation, in the postnatal IVD. In the present study, we show that canonical Wnt signaling is required for the expression of Shh signaling targets in the IVD. We also show that Shh and canonical Wnt signaling pathways are down-regulated in adult IVDs. Furthermore, this down-regulation is reversible, since re-activation of the Wnt or Shh pathways in older discs can re-activate molecular markers of the IVD that are lost with age. These data suggest that biological treatments targeting Wnt and Shh signaling pathways may be feasible as a therapeutic for degenerative disc disease.

  8. Changes in Parenteral Nutrition During the First Week of Life Influence Early but Not Late Postnatal Growth in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Montserrat; Martínez-Monseny, Antonio Federico; Pociello, Neus; Gonzalez, Paloma; Del Rio, Ruth; Iriondo, Martin; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    Postnatal growth restriction remains a serious problem in very low-birth-weight infants. Enhanced parenteral supply of nutrients as soon as possible after birth is one of the strategies addressed to avoid extrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to analyze changes in growth patterns and in clinical outcomes in our unit after a change in our parenteral nutrition (PN) protocol. We collected data from 2 time periods, comprising the 2 years before (period I) and the 2 years after (period II) the change of protocol. We included 142 very low-birth-weight infants ≤32 weeks of gestation with a birth weight ≤1500 g. Data regarding nutrition intakes (parenteral and enteral) in the first week of life, growth during admission, and clinical outcomes were retrieved from clinical charts. Babies in period II received a higher nutrition supply during the first week of life, but no further differences were found after this period. Weight at 14 days of life was significantly higher in period II but not at day 28 of life or discharge. In our population, an enhanced PN regimen for very low-birth-weight infants led to a better growth at 14 days of life. However, this positive effect had disappeared at day 28 of life. Strategies to improve nutrient supply once the preterm baby is stable and on full enteral feeds should be implemented and analyzed. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: evidence based antenatal and postnatal management strategies.

    PubMed

    Winkelhorst, Dian; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a relatively rare but potentially lethal disease, leading to severe bleeding complications in 1 in 11.000 newborns. It is the leading cause of thrombocytopenia in healthy term-born neonates. Areas covered: This review summarizes the antenatal as well as postnatal treatment, thus creating a complete overview of all possible management strategies for FNAIT. Expert commentary: The optimal antenatal therapy in order to prevent bleeding complications in pregnancies complicated by FNAIT is non-invasive treatment with weekly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Based on risk stratification, weekly doses of IVIG of 0.5 or 1.0g/kg should be administered started early in the second in high risk cases or at the end of the second trimester in low risk cases. The optimal postnatal treatment depends on the platelet count and the clinical condition of the newborn. Prompt administration of compatible platelet transfusion is the first treatment of choice in case of severe thrombocytopenia or active bleeding. In case matched platelets are not directly available, random platelets can also be administered initially to gain time until matched platelets are available. In case of persistent thrombocytopenia despite transfusions, IVIG 1.0-2.0g/kg can be administered.

  10. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  11. Haploinsufficiency of E-selectin ligand-1 is Associated with Reduced Atherosclerotic Plaque Macrophage Content while Complete Deficiency Leads to Early Embryonic Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Hui; Guo, Chiao; Wang, Jintao; Kwak, Jeffrey; Bahrou, Kristina L; Eitzman, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    E-selectin-1 (ESL-1), also known as golgi complex-localized glycoprotein-1 (GLG1), homocysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor (CGR-1), and latent transforming growth factor-β complex protein 1 (LTCP-1), is a multifunctional protein with widespread tissue distribution. To determine the functional consequences of ESL-1 deficiency, mice were generated carrying an ESL-1 gene trap. After backcrossing to C57BL6/J for 6 generations, mice heterozygous for the gene trap (ESL-1+/-) were intercrossed to produce ESL-1-/- mice, however ESL-1-/- mice were not viable, even at embryonic day E10.5. To determine the effect of heterozygous ESL-1 deficiency on atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-), ESL-1+/- mice were generated and fed western diet. Compared to ApoE-/-, ESL-1++ mice, atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE-/-, ESL-1+/- contained more collagen and fewer macrophages, suggesting increased plaque stability. In conclusion, heterozygous deficiency of ESL-1 is associated with features of increased atherosclerotic plaque stability while complete deficiency of ESL-1 leads to embryonic lethality. PMID:22939356

  12. Mosaic analysis of gene function in postnatal mouse brain development by using virus-based Cre recombination.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel A; Ma, Le

    2011-08-01

    Normal brain function relies not only on embryonic development when major neuronal pathways are established, but also on postnatal development when neural circuits are matured and refined. Misregulation at this stage may lead to neurological and psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Many genes have been studied in the prenatal brain and found crucial to many developmental processes. However, their function in the postnatal brain is largely unknown, partly because their deletion in mice often leads to lethality during neonatal development, and partly because their requirement in early development hampers the postnatal analysis. To overcome these obstacles, floxed alleles of these genes are currently being generated in mice. When combined with transgenic alleles that express Cre recombinase in specific cell types, conditional deletion can be achieved to study gene function in the postnatal brain. However, this method requires additional alleles and extra time (3-6 months) to generate the mice with appropriate genotypes, thereby limiting the expansion of the genetic analysis to a large scale in the mouse brain. Here we demonstrate a complementary approach that uses virally-expressed Cre to study these floxed alleles rapidly and systematically in postnatal brain development. By injecting recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) encoding Cre into the neonatal brain, we are able to delete the gene of interest in different regions of the brain. By controlling the viral titer and coexpressing a fluorescent protein marker, we can simultaneously achieve mosaic gene inactivation and sparse neuronal labeling. This method bypasses the requirement of many genes in early development, and allows us to study their cell autonomous function in many critical processes in postnatal brain development, including axonal and dendritic growth, branching, and tiling, as well as synapse formation and refinement. This method has been used successfully in our own lab

  13. Endogenous Opioids as Substrates for Ethanol Intake in the Neonatal Rat: The impact of prenatal ethanol exposure on the opioid family in the early postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Kelly; Deak, Terrence

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite considerable knowledge that prenatal ethanol exposure can lead to devastating effects on the developing fetus, alcohol consumption by pregnant women remains strikingly prevalent. Both clinical and basic research has suggested that, in addition to possible physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, gestational exposure to alcohol may lead to an increased risk for the development of later alcohol-related use and abuse disorders. The current work sought to characterize alterations in endogenous opioid signaling peptides and gene expression produced by ethanol exposure during the last days of gestation. Methods Experimental subjects were 4-, 8-, and 12-day old infant rats obtained from pregnant females that were given daily intubations of 0, 1, or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last few days of gestation (GD17-20). Using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting analysis, and enzyme immunoassays, we examined mRNA and protein for three opioid receptors and ligands in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus. Results Three main trends emerged - (1) mRNA for the majority of factors were found to upregulate across each of the three postnatal ages assessed, indicative of escalating ontogenetic expression of opioid-related genes; (2) prenatal ethanol significantly reduced many opioid peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism by which prenatal exposure can affect future responsiveness towards ethanol; and (3) the nucleus accumbens emerged as a key site for ethanol-dependent effects, suggesting a potential target for additional assessment and intervention towards understanding the ethanol's ability to program the developing brain. Conclusion We provide a global assessment of relatively long-term changes in both opioid gene expression and protein following exposure to only moderate amounts of ethanol during a relatively short window in the prenatal period. These results suggest that, while continuing to undergo ontogenetic changes, the infant

  14. Endogenous opioids as substrates for ethanol intake in the neonatal rat: The impact of prenatal ethanol exposure on the opioid family in the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Kelly; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Despite considerable knowledge that prenatal ethanol exposure can lead to devastating effects on the developing fetus, alcohol consumption by pregnant women remains strikingly prevalent. Both clinical and basic research has suggested that, in addition to possible physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, gestational exposure to alcohol may lead to an increased risk for the development of later alcohol-related use and abuse disorders. The current work sought to characterize alterations in endogenous opioid signaling peptides and gene expression produced by ethanol exposure during the last days of gestation. Experimental subjects were 4-, 8-, and 12-day old infant rats obtained from pregnant females that were given daily intubations of 0, 1, or 2g/kg ethanol during the last few days of gestation (GDs 17-20). Using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting analysis, and enzyme immunoassays, we examined mRNA and protein for three opioid receptors and ligands in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus. Three main trends emerged - (1) mRNA for the majority of factors was found to upregulate across each of the three postnatal ages assessed, indicative of escalating ontogenetic expression of opioid-related genes; (2) prenatal ethanol significantly reduced many opioid peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism by which prenatal exposure can affect future responsiveness towards ethanol; and (3) the nucleus accumbens emerged as a key site for ethanol-dependent effects, suggesting a potential target for additional assessment and intervention towards understanding the ethanol's ability to program the developing brain. We provide a global assessment of relatively long-term changes in both opioid gene expression and protein following exposure to only moderate amounts of ethanol during a relatively short window in the prenatal period. These results suggest that, while continuing to undergo ontogenetic changes, the infant brain is sensitive to prenatal ethanol

  15. Properties of synaptic transmission from the reticular formation dorsal to the facial nucleus to trigeminal motoneurons during early postnatal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Gemba-Nishimura, A; Inoue, T; Nakamura, S; Nakayama, K; Mochizuki, A; Shintani, S; Yoshimura, S

    2010-03-31

    We previously reported that electrical stimulation of the reticular formation dorsal to the facial nucleus (RdVII) elicited excitatory masseter responses at short latencies and that RdVII neurons were antidromically activated by stimulation of the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV), suggesting that excitatory premotor neurons targeting the MoV are likely located in the RdVII. We thus examined the properties of synaptic transmission from the RdVII to jaw-closing and jaw-opening motoneurons in horizontal brainstem preparations from developing rats using voltage-sensitive dye, patch-clamp recordings and laser photostimulation. Electrical stimulation of the RdVII evoked optical responses in the MoV. Combined bath application of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (non-NMDA) receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), and the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) reduced these optical responses, and addition of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine and the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline further reduced the remaining responses. Electrical stimulation of the RdVII evoked postsynaptic currents (PSCs) in all 19 masseter motoneurons tested in postnatal day (P)1-4 rats, and application of CNQX and the NMDA receptor antagonist (+/-)-3(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) reduced the PSC amplitudes by more than 50%. In the presence of CNQX and CPP, the GABA(A) receptor antagonist SR95531 further reduced PSC amplitude, and addition of strychnine abolished the remaining PSCs. Photostimulation of the RdVII with caged glutamate also evoked PSCs in masseter motoneurons of P3-4 rats. In P8-11 rats, electrical stimulation of the RdVII also evoked PSCs in all 14 masseter motoneurons tested, and the effects of the antagonists on the PSCs were similar to those in P1-4 rats. On the other hand, RdVII stimulation evoked PSCs in only three of 16 digastric motoneurons tested. These results suggest that both neonatal and

  16. Phenotypic characterization of spontaneously mutated rats showing lethal dwarfism and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Takenaka, Motoo; Suzuki, Katsushi

    2007-08-01

    We have characterized the phenotype of spontaneously mutated rats, found during experimental inbreeding in a closed colony of Wistar Imamichi rats. Mutant rats showed severe dwarfism, short lifespan (early postnatal lethality), and high incidence of epileptic seizures. Mutant rats showed growth retardation after 3 d of age, and at 21 d their weight was about 56% that of normal rats. Most mutant rats died without reaching maturity, and 95% of the mutant rats had an ataxic gait. About 34% of the dwarf rats experienced epileptic seizures, most of which started as 'wild running' convulsions, progressing to generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. At age 28 d, the relative weight of the testes was significantly lower, and the relative weight of the brain was significantly higher, in mutant than in normal rats. Histologically, increased apoptotic germ cells, lack of spermatocytes, and immature Leydig cells were found in the mutant testes, and extracellular vacuoles of various sizes were present in the hippocampus and amygdala of the mutant brain. Mutant rats had significantly increased concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and inorganic phosphate, as well as decreased concentrations of plasma growth hormone. Hereditary analysis showed that the defects were inherited as a single recessive trait. We have named the hypothetically mutated gene as lde (lethal dwarfism with epilepsy).

  17. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Methods Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network’s Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. Result A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother’s chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to

  18. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Archana; Bucher, Sherri; Pusdekar, Yamini; Esamai, Fabian; Krebs, Nancy F; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Pasha, Omrana; Saleem, Sarah; Kodkany, Bhalachandra S; Liechty, Edward A; Kodkany, Bhala; Derman, Richard J; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K; Goldenberg, Robert L; Althabe, Fernando; Berrueta, Mabel; Moore, Janet L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother's chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to achieve exclusive breastfeeding

  19. Longitudinal regression analysis of spatial-temporal growth patterns of geometrical diffusion measures in early postnatal brain development with diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Armao, Diane; Shen, Dinggang; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili

    2011-01-01

    Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has provided substantial insights into early brain development, most DTI studies based on fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) may not capitalize on the information derived from the three principal diffusivities (e.g. eigenvalues). In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal evolution of white matter structures during early brain development using two geometrical diffusion measures, namely, linear (Cl) and planar (Cp) diffusion anisotropies, from 71 longitudinal datasets acquired from 29 healthy, full-term pediatric subjects. The growth trajectories were estimated with generalized estimating equations (GEE) using linear fitting with logarithm of age (days). The presence of the white matter structures in Cl and Cp was observed in neonates, suggesting that both the cylindrical and fanning or crossing structures in various white matter regions may already have been formed at birth. Moreover, we found that both Cl and Cp evolved in a temporally nonlinear and spatially inhomogeneous manner. The growth velocities of Cl in central white matter were significantly higher when compared to peripheral, or more laterally located, white matter: central growth velocity Cl = 0.0465±0.0273/log(days), versus peripheral growth velocity Cl=0.0198±0.0127/log(days), p<10−6. In contrast, the growth velocities of Cp in central white matter were significantly lower than that in peripheral white matter: central growth velocity Cp= 0.0014±0.0058/log(days), versus peripheral growth velocity Cp = 0.0289±0.0101/log(days), p<10−6. Depending on the underlying white matter site which is analyzed, our findings suggest that ongoing physiologic and microstructural changes in the developing brain may exert different effects on the temporal evolution of these two geometrical diffusion measures. Thus, future studies utilizing DTI with correlative histological analysis in the study of early brain development are warranted. PMID

  20. Prenatal hydronephrosis: postnatal evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2014-08-01

    Congenital hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies identified on antenatal ultrasound. The underlying etiology of congenital hydronephrosis is multifold, ranging from transient hydronephrosis in utero to clinically significant congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. While traditional management of hydronephrosis was aimed at relieving symptoms, the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound has led to a shift in the goal of treatment to prevention of renal injury in the asymptomatic patient. However, despite this focus on renal preservation, the diagnostic criteria for identification of children "at risk" for renal damage that can be alleviated by surgical treatment remain a subject of debate. Both antenatal and postnatal imaging studies have been evaluated as indicators for potential reversible renal damage and have been used as potential indicators of the need for surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature regarding the role of postnatal clinical and radiographic evaluation to identify children who may benefit from early surgical intervention.

  1. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  2. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  3. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T

    2015-07-22

    supplementation during pregnancy did not show increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage or early childhood infections. Overall, there is limited evidence to support maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation for reducing allergic disease in children. Few differences in childhood allergic disease were seen between women who were supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA and those who were not.

  4. Hepatic expression of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway, acute-phase response signalling and complement system are affected in mouse offspring by prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-12-01

    Effects of pre- and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diets are not well understood. Transcription profiling was performed in male mouse offspring exposed to maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation to identify affected hepatic molecular pathways. Dams were fed isoenergetic diets with control (20% w/w) or high protein levels (40%). The hepatic expression profiles were evaluated by differential microarray analysis 3 days (d3) and 3 weeks (d21) after birth. Offspring from three different high-protein dietary groups, HP (d3, high-protein diet during pregnancy), HPHP (d21, high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation) and CHP (d21, control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation), were compared with age-matched offspring from dams fed control diet. Offspring body and liver mass of all high-protein groups were decreased. Prenatal high-protein diet affected hepatic expression of genes mapping to the acute response/complement system and the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF signalling pathways. Maternal exposure to high-protein diet during lactation affected hepatic gene expression of the same pathways but additionally affected genes mapping to protein, fatty acid, hexose and pyruvate metabolism. (1) Genes of the acute response/complement system and GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathways were down-regulated in offspring of dams exposed to high-protein diets during pregnancy and/or lactation. (2) Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, however, were only affected when high-protein diet was administered during lactation. (3) Modulation of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway might be responsible for reduced body and liver masses by maternal high-protein diet.

  5. The Lethality Test System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, W. M.; Sims, J. R.; Parker, J. V.

    1986-11-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS) under construction at Los Alamos is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/sec. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage light gas gun capable of 7 km/sec. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92 percent of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1-1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  6. Suicide Lethality: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeBastiani, Summer; De Santis, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a significant health problem internationally. Those who complete suicide may have different behaviors and risk factors than those who attempt a non-fatal suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of suicide lethality and propose a clear definition of the concept through the identification of antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A literature search for articles published in the English language between 1970 and 2016 was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Psychlit, Ovid, PsycINFO, and Proquest. The bibliographies of all included studies were also reviewed to identify additional relevant citations. A concept analysis was conducted on the literature findings using six stages of Walker and Avant's method. The concept analysis differentiated between suicide, lethality, suicidal behavior, and suicide lethality. Presence of a suicide plan or a written suicide note was not found to be associated with the majority of completed suicides included in the definition of suicide lethality. There are a few scales that measure the lethality of a suicide attempt, but none that attempt to measure the concept of suicide lethality as described in this analysis. Clarifying the concept of suicide lethality encourages awareness of the possibility of different suicidal behaviors associated with different suicide outcomes and will inform the development of future nursing interventions. A clearer definition of the concept of suicide lethality will guide clinical practice, research, and policy development aimed at suicide prevention.

  7. [Postnatal diagnosis of gastric volvulus revealing congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    PubMed

    Aprahamian, A; Nouyrigat, V; Grévent, D; Hervieux, E; Chéron, G

    2017-05-01

    Postnatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) are rare and have a better prognosis than those diagnosed prenatally. Postnatal symptoms can be respiratory, digestive, or mixed. Gastric volvulus can reveal CDH. Symptoms are pain, abdominal distension, and/or vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography provides the diagnosis. Prognosis is related to early surgical management in complicated forms with intestinal occlusion or sub-occlusion. We report on an infant who presented with vomiting, which revealed gastric volvulus associated with a CDH. Progression was favorable after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Tiny moments of great importance: the Marte Meo method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Utilizing Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' in understanding empirical findings and developing a stringent Marte Meo methodology.

    PubMed

    Vik, Kari; Rohde, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of basic Marte Meo video interaction guidance concepts and describes the therapeutic performance of the method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Weight is put upon the importance of the therapeutic relationship. Further Marte Meo therapy is understood in the light of Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' and accompanied by clinical vignettes from therapy sessions. The empirical basis for the paper is a study of postnatal depression, mother-infant interaction and video guidance, carried out in Southern Norway. The study examined Marte Meo from a phenomenological perspective. Marte Meo was offered to mothers with either postnatal depression or depressive symptoms. In in-depth interviews the participants reported that the Marte Meo method, 'from the outside looking in', increased their reflections about their infants and their own mental states as well as their sensitive interaction with their newborn. Their mothering was improved and they reported feeling less depressed. We argue that Marte Meo methodology can guide new mothers with depressive symptoms, and contribute to the creation of new schemas of being together.

  9. PROLACTIN REGULATES LIVER GROWTH DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Bravo-Manríquez, Marco; Baez, Arelí; Ledesma-Colunga, María G; Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; Reyes-Ortega, Pamela; De Los Ríos, Ericka A; Macotela, Yazmín; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2018-02-21

    The liver grows during the early postnatal period first at slower and then at faster rates than the body to achieve the adult liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), a constant reflecting liver health. The hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates adult liver growth and regeneration and its levels are high in the circulation of newborn infants, but whether PRL plays a role on neonatal liver growth is unknown. Here, we show that the liver produces PRL and upregulates the PRL receptor in mice during the first 2 weeks after birth, when liver growth lags behind body growth. At postnatal week 4, the production of PRL by the liver ceases coinciding with the elevation of circulating PRL and the faster liver growth that catches up with body growth. PRL receptor null mice (Prlr-/-) show a significant decrease in the LBW at 1, 4, 6, and 10 postnatal weeks and reduced liver expression of proliferation (cyclin D1, Ccnd1) and angiogenesis (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, Pecam1) markers relative to Prlr+/+ mice. However, the LBW increases in Prlr-/- mice at postnatal week 2 concurring with the enhanced liver expression of Igf-1 and the liver upregulation and downregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2) and Socs3, respectively. These findings indicate that PRL acts locally and systemically to restrict and stimulate postnatal liver growth. PRL inhibits liver and body growth by attenuating growth hormone-induced Igf-1 liver expression via Socs2 and Socs3-related mechanisms.

  10. Major epigenetic development distinguishing neuronal and non-neuronal cells occurs postnatally in the murine hypothalamus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prenatal and early postnatal environment can persistently alter one's risk of obesity. Environmental effects on hypothalamic developmental epigenetics constitute a likely mechanism underlying such 'developmental programming' of energy balance regulation. To advance our understanding of these process...

  11. Intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium throughout postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Megan R

    2017-01-01

    Calcium is vital for many physiological functions including bone mineralization. Postnatal deposition of calcium into bone is greatest in infancy and continues through childhood and adolescence until peek mineral density is reached in early adulthood. Thereafter, bone mineral density remains static until it eventually declines in later life. A positive calcium balance, i.e. more calcium absorbed than excreted, is crucial to bone deposition during growth and thus to peek bone mineral density. Dietary calcium is absorbed from the intestine into the blood. It is then filtered by the renal glomerulus and either reabsorbed by the tubule or excreted in the urine. Calcium can be (re)absorbed across intestinal and renal epithelia via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. Current evidence suggests that significant intestinal and renal calcium transport changes occur throughout development. However, the molecular details of these alterations are incompletely delineated. Here we first briefly review the current model of calcium transport in the intestine and renal tubule in the adult. Then, we describe what is known with regard to calcium handling through postnatal development, and how alterations may aid in mediating a positive calcium balance. The role of transcellular and paracellular calcium transport pathways and the contribution of specific intestinal and tubular segments vary with age. However, the current literature highlights knowledge gaps in how specifically intestinal and renal calcium (re)absorption occurs early in postnatal development. Future research should clarify the specific changes in calcium transport throughout early postnatal development including mediators of these alterations enabling appropriate bone mineralization. Impact statement This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge pertaining to the molecules and mechanisms maintaining a positive calcium balance throughout postnatal development. This process is essential to achieving

  12. Theories of Lethal Mutagenesis: From Error Catastrophe to Lethal Defection.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Héctor; Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses get extinct in a process called lethal mutagenesis when subjected to an increase in their mutation rate, for instance, by the action of mutagenic drugs. Several approaches have been proposed to understand this phenomenon. The extinction of RNA viruses by increased mutational pressure was inspired by the concept of the error threshold. The now classic quasispecies model predicts the existence of a limit to the mutation rate beyond which the genetic information of the wild type could not be efficiently transmitted to the next generation. This limit was called the error threshold, and for mutation rates larger than this threshold, the quasispecies was said to enter into error catastrophe. This transition has been assumed to foster the extinction of the whole population. Alternative explanations of lethal mutagenesis have been proposed recently. In the first place, a distinction is made between the error threshold and the extinction threshold, the mutation rate beyond which a population gets extinct. Extinction is explained from the effect the mutation rate has, throughout the mutational load, on the reproductive ability of the whole population. Secondly, lethal defection takes also into account the effect of interactions within mutant spectra, which have been shown to be determinant for the understanding the extinction of RNA virus due to an augmented mutational pressure. Nonetheless, some relevant issues concerning lethal mutagenesis are not completely understood yet, as so survival of the flattest, i.e. the development of resistance to lethal mutagenesis by evolving towards mutationally more robust regions of sequence space, or sublethal mutagenesis, i.e., the increase of the mutation rate below the extinction threshold which may boost the adaptability of RNA virus, increasing their ability to develop resistance to drugs (including mutagens). A better design of antiviral therapies will still require an improvement of our knowledge about lethal

  13. Postnatal penile growth concurrent with mini-puberty predicts later sex-typed play behavior: Evidence for neurobehavioral effects of the postnatal androgen surge in typically developing boys.

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Thankamony, Ajay; Hines, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    The masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on human neurobehavioral development are well established. Also, the early postnatal surge of androgens in male infants, or mini-puberty, has been well documented and is known to influence physiological development, including penile growth. However, neurobehavioral effects of androgen exposure during mini-puberty are largely unknown. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate possible neurobehavioral consequences of mini-puberty by relating penile growth in the early postnatal period to subsequent behavior. Using multiple linear regression, we demonstrated that penile growth between birth and three months postnatal, concurrent with mini-puberty, significantly predicted increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior assessed using the Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI) in 81 healthy boys at 3 to 4years of age. When we controlled for other potential influences on masculine/feminine behavior and/or penile growth, including variance in androgen exposure prenatally and body growth postnally, the predictive value of penile growth in the early postnatal period persisted. More specifically, prenatal androgen exposure, reflected in the measurement of anogenital distance (AGD), and early postnatal androgen exposure, reflected in penile growth from birth to 3months, were significant predictors of increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior, with each accounting for unique variance. Our findings suggest that independent associations of PSAI with AGD at birth and with penile growth during mini-puberty reflect prenatal and early postnatal androgen exposures respectively. Thus, we provide a novel and readily available approach for assessing effects of early androgen exposures, as well as novel evidence that early postnatal aes human neurobehavioral development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Heterochromatin position effects on circularized sex chromosomes cause filicidal embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Patrick M; Gomez, Karina; Rominger, Peter; Howard, Dagnie; Kornfeld, Hannah; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-04-01

    Some circularized X-Y chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster are mitotically unstable and induce early embryonic lethality, but the genetic basis is unknown. Our experiments suggest that a large region of X-linked satellite DNA causes anaphase bridges and lethality when placed into a new heterochromatic environment within certain circularized X-Y chromosomes. These results reveal that repetitive sequences can be incompatible with one another in cis. The lethal phenotype also bears a remarkable resemblance to a case of interspecific hybrid lethality.

  16. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    effects include stupor, confusion, and confabulation with concrete and panoramic illusions and hallucinations , and regression to automatic “phantom...scientifically feasible.” (Federation of American Scientists Article, 2) Opponents of non-lethal weapons contend that because certain individuals...3000.3) According to the Federation of American Scientists , these weapons can be placed into two main categories: incapacitants (including military

  17. EVALUATING THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF SUICIDAL INTENT AND MEDICAL LETHALITY IN YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (Mage at hospitalization = 14.83; 51% female; 80% Caucasian) were characterized using the Subjective Intent Rating Scale and Lethality of Attempt Rating Scale. Anderson-Gill recurrent events survival models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess predictive validity. Generalized linear models were used to examine stability of characteristics across attempts. Results Neither intent nor lethality from the most recent attempt predicted future attempts. The highest level of intent and most severe lethality of attempts during the follow-up predicted subsequent attempts, but the degree to which highest intent and most severe lethality contributed to prediction after considering methods of suicide attempts, past number of attempts, or psychiatric diagnoses was mixed. Across successive attempts, there was little consistency in reported characteristics. Intent and lethality were related to each other only for attempts occurring in early adulthood. Conclusions Highest intent and lethality were better predictors of future attempts than intent and lethality of the most recent attempt. However, these characteristics should only be considered as predictors within the context of other factors. For youth, clinicians should not infer true intent from the lethality of attempts, nor assume that characteristics of future suicide attempts will be similar to previous attempts. PMID:22250854

  18. The Effects of Maternal Postnatal Depression and Child Sex on Academic Performance at Age 16 Years: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Croudace, Tim; Cooper, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with poor cognitive functioning in infancy and the early school years; long-term effects on academic outcome are not known. Method: Children of postnatally depressed (N = 50) and non-depressed mothers (N = 39), studied from infancy, were followed up at 16 years. We examined the effects on…

  19. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of spinosad on bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson).

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Winston, Mark L; Franklin, Michelle T; Abbott, Virginia A

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments of new families of pesticides and growing awareness of the importance of wild pollinators for crop pollination have stimulated interest in potential effects of novel pesticides on wild bees. Yet pesticide toxicity studies on wild bees remain rare, and few studies have included long-term monitoring of bumble bee colonies or testing of foraging ability after pesticide exposure. Larval bees feeding on exogenous pollen and exposed to pesticides during development may result in lethal or sub-lethal effects during the adult stage. We tested the effects of a naturally derived biopesticide, spinosad, on bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony health, including adult mortality, brood development, weights of emerging bees and foraging efficiency of adults that underwent larval development during exposure to spinosad. We monitored colonies from an early stage, over a 10-week period, and fed spinosad to colonies in pollen at four levels: control, 0.2, 0.8 and 8.0 mg kg(-1), during weeks 2 through 5 of the experiment. At concentrations that bees would likely encounter in pollen in the wild (0.2-0.8 mg kg(-1)) we detected minimal negative effects to bumble bee colonies. Brood and adult mortality was high at 8.0 mg kg(-1) spinosad, about twice the level that bees would be exposed to in a 'worst case' field scenario, resulting in colony death two to four weeks after initial pesticide exposure. At more realistic concentrations there were potentially important sub-lethal effects. Adult worker bees exposed to spinosad during larval development at 0.8 mg kg(-1) were slower foragers on artificial complex flower arrays than bees from low or no spinosad treated colonies. Inclusion of similar sub-lethal assays to detect effects of pesticides on pollinators would aid in development of environmentally responsible pest management strategies. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry

  20. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    PubMed

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  1. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    PubMed Central

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  2. Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Galas, Ludovic; Bénard, Magalie; Lebon, Alexis; Komuro, Yutaro; Schapman, Damien; Vaudry, Hubert; Vaudry, David; Komuro, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer). During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location. In addition, cortical-layer specific regulatory factors such as neuropeptides (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin) or proteins (tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) have been shown to inhibit or stimulate the migratory process of interneurons. These factors show further complexity because somatostatin, PACAP, or tPA have opposite or no effect on interneuron migration depending on which layer or cell type they act upon. External factors originating from environmental conditions (light stimuli, pollutants), nutrients or drug of abuse (alcohol) also alter normal cell migration, leading to cerebellar disorders. PMID:28587295

  3. Ablation of RIC8A function in mouse neurons leads to a severe neuromuscular phenotype and postnatal death.

    PubMed

    Ruisu, Katrin; Kask, Keiu; Meier, Riho; Saare, Merly; Raid, Raivo; Veraksitš, Alar; Karis, Alar; Tõnissoo, Tambet; Pooga, Margus

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor required for the intracellular regulation of G protein signalling. RIC8 activates different Gα subunits via non-canonical pathway, thereby amplifying and prolonging the G protein mediated signal. In order to circumvent the embryonic lethality associated with the absence of RIC8A and to study its role in the nervous system, we constructed Ric8a conditional knockout mice using Cre/loxP technology. Introduction of a synapsin I promoter driven Cre transgenic mouse strain (SynCre) into the floxed Ric8a (Ric8a (F/F) ) background ablated RIC8A function in most differentiated neuron populations. Mutant SynCre (+/-) Ric8 (lacZ/F) mice were born at expected Mendelian ratio, but they died in early postnatal age (P4-P6). The mutants exhibited major developmental defects, like growth retardation and muscular weakness, impaired coordination and balance, muscular spasms and abnormal heart beat. Histological analysis revealed that the deficiency of RIC8A in neurons caused skeletal muscle atrophy and heart muscle hypoplasia, in addition, the sinoatrial node was misplaced and its size reduced. However, we did not observe gross morphological changes in brains of SynCre (+/-) Ric8a (lacZ/F) mutants. Our results demonstrate that in mice the activity of RIC8A in neurons is essential for survival and its deficiency causes a severe neuromuscular phenotype.

  4. Ablation of RIC8A Function in Mouse Neurons Leads to a Severe Neuromuscular Phenotype and Postnatal Death

    PubMed Central

    Ruisu, Katrin; Kask, Keiu; Meier, Riho; Saare, Merly; Raid, Raivo; Veraksitš, Alar; Karis, Alar; Tõnissoo, Tambet; Pooga, Margus

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor required for the intracellular regulation of G protein signalling. RIC8 activates different Gα subunits via non-canonical pathway, thereby amplifying and prolonging the G protein mediated signal. In order to circumvent the embryonic lethality associated with the absence of RIC8A and to study its role in the nervous system, we constructed Ric8a conditional knockout mice using Cre/loxP technology. Introduction of a synapsin I promoter driven Cre transgenic mouse strain (SynCre) into the floxed Ric8a (Ric8a F/F) background ablated RIC8A function in most differentiated neuron populations. Mutant SynCre +/- Ric8 lacZ/F mice were born at expected Mendelian ratio, but they died in early postnatal age (P4-P6). The mutants exhibited major developmental defects, like growth retardation and muscular weakness, impaired coordination and balance, muscular spasms and abnormal heart beat. Histological analysis revealed that the deficiency of RIC8A in neurons caused skeletal muscle atrophy and heart muscle hypoplasia, in addition, the sinoatrial node was misplaced and its size reduced. However, we did not observe gross morphological changes in brains of SynCre +/- Ric8a lacZ/F mutants. Our results demonstrate that in mice the activity of RIC8A in neurons is essential for survival and its deficiency causes a severe neuromuscular phenotype. PMID:23977396

  5. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  6. Proteinuria and Perinatal Lethality in Mice Lacking NEPH1, a Novel Protein with Homology to NEPHRIN

    PubMed Central

    Donoviel, Dorit B.; Freed, Deon D.; Vogel, Hannes; Potter, David G.; Hawkins, Edith; Barrish, James P.; Mathur, Brian N.; Turner, C. Alexander; Geske, Robert; Montgomery, Charles A.; Starbuck, Michael; Brandt, Mary; Gupta, Anupma; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Zambrowicz, Brian P.; Powell, David R.

    2001-01-01

    A high-throughput, retrovirus-mediated mutagenesis method based on gene trapping in embryonic stem cells was used to identify a novel mouse gene. The human ortholog encodes a transmembrane protein containing five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains that is structurally related to human NEPHRIN, a protein associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Northern analysis revealed wide expression in humans and mice, with highest expression in kidney. Based on similarity to NEPHRIN and abundant expression in kidney, this protein was designated NEPH1 and embryonic stem cells containing the retroviral insertion in the Neph1 locus were used to generate mutant mice. Analysis of kidney RNA from Neph1−/− mice showed that the retroviral insertion disrupted expression of Neph1 transcripts. Neph1−/− pups were represented at the expected normal Mendelian ratios at 1 to 3 days of age but at only 10% of the expected frequency at 10 to 12 days after birth, suggesting an early postnatal lethality. The Neph1−/− animals that survived beyond the first week of life were sickly and small but without edema, and all died between 3 and 8 weeks of age. Proteinuria ranging from 300 to 2,000 mg/dl was present in all Neph1−/− mice. Electron microscopy demonstrated NEPH1 expression in glomerular podocytes and revealed effacement of podocyte foot processes in Neph1−/− mice. These findings suggest that NEPH1, like NEPHRIN, may play an important role in maintaining the structure of the filtration barrier that prevents proteins from freely entering the glomerular urinary space. PMID:11416156

  7. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  8. Genetic control of postnatal human brain growth

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Laura I.; Morrow, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. Recent findings Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, postmortem analysis, and animal model studies. Recent neuroimaging and molecular biological studies on postnatal brain growth disorders have broadened our view of both typical and pathological postnatal neurodevelopment. Correlating gene and protein function with brain growth trajectories uncovers postnatal biological mechanisms, including neuronal arborization, synaptogenesis and pruning, and gliogenesis and myelination. Recent investigations of childhood neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders highlight the underlying genetic programming and experience-dependent remodeling of neural circuitry. Summary In order to understand typical and abnormal postnatal brain development, clinicians and researchers should characterize brain growth trajectories in the context of neurogenetic syndromes. Understanding mechanisms and trajectories of postnatal brain growth will aid in differentiating, diagnosing, and potentially treating neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27898583

  9. Postnatal Loss of Hap1 Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Causes Adult Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jianxing; Yan, Sen; Li, Shi-Hua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental disorder that affects a person’s mood, thoughts, behavior, physical health, and life in general. Despite our continuous efforts to understand the disease, the etiology of depressive behavior remains perplexing. Recently, aberrant early life or postnatal neurogenesis has been linked to adult depressive behavior; however, genetic evidence for this is still lacking. Here we genetically depleted the expression of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1) in mice at various ages or in selective brain regions. Depletion of Hap1 in the early postnatal period, but not later life, led to a depressive-like phenotype when the mice reached adulthood. Deletion of Hap1 in adult mice rendered the mice more susceptible to stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, early Hap1 depletion impaired postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and reduced the level of c-kit, a protein expressed in neuroproliferative zones of the rodent brain and that is stabilized by Hap1. Importantly, stereotaxically injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) that directs the expression of c-kit in the hippocampus promoted postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorated the depressive-like phenotype in conditional Hap1 KO mice, indicating a link between postnatal-born hippocampal neurons and adult depression. Our results demonstrate critical roles for Hap1 and c-kit in postnatal neurogenesis and adult depressive behavior, and also suggest that genetic variations affecting postnatal neurogenesis may lead to adult depression. PMID:25875952

  10. Postnatal loss of hap1 reduces hippocampal neurogenesis and causes adult depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianxing; Yan, Sen; Li, Shi-Hua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a serious mental disorder that affects a person's mood, thoughts, behavior, physical health, and life in general. Despite our continuous efforts to understand the disease, the etiology of depressive behavior remains perplexing. Recently, aberrant early life or postnatal neurogenesis has been linked to adult depressive behavior; however, genetic evidence for this is still lacking. Here we genetically depleted the expression of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1) in mice at various ages or in selective brain regions. Depletion of Hap1 in the early postnatal period, but not later life, led to a depressive-like phenotype when the mice reached adulthood. Deletion of Hap1 in adult mice rendered the mice more susceptible to stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, early Hap1 depletion impaired postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and reduced the level of c-kit, a protein expressed in neuroproliferative zones of the rodent brain and that is stabilized by Hap1. Importantly, stereotaxically injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) that directs the expression of c-kit in the hippocampus promoted postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorated the depressive-like phenotype in conditional Hap1 KO mice, indicating a link between postnatal-born hippocampal neurons and adult depression. Our results demonstrate critical roles for Hap1 and c-kit in postnatal neurogenesis and adult depressive behavior, and also suggest that genetic variations affecting postnatal neurogenesis may lead to adult depression.

  11. Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jorn; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-12-05

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be at the greatest risk if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated associations between cell phone exposures and headaches in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. When their children reached age seven years, mothers completed a questionnaire regarding the child's health, behaviors, and exposures. We used multivariable adjusted models to relate prenatal only, postnatal only, or both prenatal and postnatal cell phone exposure to whether the child had migraines and headache-related symptoms. Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. Children with cell phone exposure had higher odds of migraines and headache-related symptoms than children with no exposure. The odds ratio for migraines was 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.68) and for headache-related symptoms was 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.40) for children with both prenatal and postnatal exposure. In this study, cell phone exposures were associated with headaches in children, but the associations may not be causal given the potential for uncontrolled confounding and misclassification in observational studies such as this. However, given the widespread use of cell phones, if a causal effect exists it would have great public health impact.

  12. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Postnatal depression, eating, exercise, and vomiting before and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Taylor, A; Conti, J

    2001-05-01

    To examine the postnatal distress and the eating, exercise, and weight losing behavior of women before and during pregnancy. The subjects were healthy women who had given birth to a singleton healthy baby in the week before the study. They were drawn from two consecutive series of mothers of babies whose birth weights were either < or =2,500 g or >2,500 g. A total of 181 women were interviewed using a standardized interview modified for pregnancy and related behaviors. They also completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Distress Questionnaire. Regression analysis produced a final model containing variables that made a unique contribution to predicting the level of distress of women in the week following childbirth. The model accounted for 25% of the variance and included four variables that were associated with greater distress: fear of weight gain before and during pregnancy, being distracted by thoughts of food during pregnancy, being afraid of gaining more weight than the pregnancy would explain, and vomiting more frequently during the first 3-4 months of pregnancy. A fifth variable accounted for less distress, that is, participating in low-intensity exercise for reasons of shape and weight during months 3-4 of pregnancy. Other variables associated with distress only in the preliminary analysis were maternal age, binge eating, and vomiting before pregnancy. The most distressed mothers were suffering from an eating disorder at the time of pregnancy. The binge and/or purge type of eating disorder was associated with more distress than a food restriction type. Postnatal distress is associated with body weight and shape concerns, with disordered eating before and during pregnancy, and with vomiting during pregnancy. The protective role of low-intensity exercise during early pregnancy needs to be explored. Women with eating disorders should be considered at risk for postnatal problems. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender.

    PubMed

    de Tychey, Claude; Briançon, Serge; Lighezzolo, Joëlle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Kabuth, Bernard; de Luigi, Valerie; Messembourg, Catherine; Girvan, Françoise; Rosati, Aurore; Thockler, Audrey; Vincent, Stephanie

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of postnatal depression on the quality of life of young French mothers and to evaluate if the gender of their child influences this. Postnatal depression (PND) constitutes a major public health problem considering its high prevalence and consequences upon quality of life and parental skills. This research is a cross-sectional study during the postnatal period. This study was carried out during a two-month period. Data were collected by interview and questionnaires. The authors compared the prevalence rate of PND and life quality in a cohort of 181 women and measured the short-term impact of the child's birth. Postnatal depression strongly negatively influences all dimensions of life quality explored through the SF36, e.g. physical functioning (PF), physical Role (RP), bodily pain (BP), mental health (MH), emotional role (RE), social functioning (SF), vitality (VT), general health (GH), standardized physical component (PCS) and standardized mental component (MCS). The baby's gender (having a boy) also significantly reduces quality of life, irrespective of depressive state. There is a relationship between baby gender and PND. This research is the first to show that the birth of a boy reduces several dimensions of the mothers' quality of life. The importance of the impairment of quality of life in case of PND, as well as its effects on mother-child interaction, could justify prevention programs and early psychotherapeutic care. Further research needs to explore the effectiveness of programmes targeting the construction of parenting skills as a preventative measure against PND, especially for parents of boys.

  15. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered.

  16. Targeted surveillance for postnatal hearing loss: a program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beswick, Rachael; Driscoll, Carlie; Kei, Joseph; Glennon, Shirley

    2012-07-01

    The importance of monitoring hearing throughout early childhood cannot be understated. However, there is a lack of evidence available regarding the most effective method of monitoring hearing following the newborn screen. The goal of this study was to describe a targeted surveillance program using a risk factor registry to identify children with a postnatal hearing loss. All children who were born in Queensland, Australia between September 2004 and December 2009, received a bilateral 'pass' on newborn hearing screening, and had at least one risk factor, were referred for targeted surveillance and were included in this study. The cohort was assessed throughout early childhood in accordance with Queensland's diagnostic assessment protocols. During the study period, 7320 (2.8% of 261,328) children were referred for targeted surveillance, of which 56 were identified with a postnatal hearing loss (0.77%). Of these, half (50.0%) were identified with a mild hearing loss, and 64.3% were identified with a sensorineural hearing loss. In regards to risk factors, syndrome, craniofacial anomalies, and severe asphyxia had the highest yield of positive cases of postnatal hearing loss for children referred for targeted surveillance, whereas, low birth weight, bacterial meningitis, and professional concern had a particularly low yield. Limitations of the targeted surveillance program were noted and include: (1) a lost contact rate of 32.4%; (2) delays in first surveillance assessment; (3) a large number of children who required on-going monitoring; and (4) extensive diagnostic assessments were completed on children with normal hearing. Examination of the lost contact rate revealed indigenous children were more likely to be documented as lost contact. In addition, children with one risk factor only were significantly more likely to not attend a surveillance appointment. Positive cases of postnatal hearing loss were detected through the targeted surveillance program. However, the

  17. Command and Control for Distributed Lethality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    based systems engineering (MBSE) approach to C2 within the distributed lethality environment requires development of methodologies to provide...lethality environment requires development of methodologies to provide definition and structure for existing operational concepts while providing...2  D.  SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY ............................................................2  E.  STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  18. Pre- and postnatal stress and asthma in children: Temporal- and sex-specific associations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Rosa, Maria José; Jara, Calvin; Wright, Robert O.; Coull, Brent A.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Temporal- and sex-specific effects of perinatal stress have not been examined for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVES We examined associations between pre- and/or postnatal stress and children's asthma (n=765) and effect modification by sex in a prospective cohort study. METHODS Maternal negative life events (NLEs) were ascertained prenatally and postpartum. NLEs scores were categorized as 0, 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 to assess exposure-response relationships. We examined effects of pre- and postnatal stress on children's asthma by age 6 years modeling each as independent predictors; mutually adjusting for prenatal and postnatal stress; and finally considering interactions between pre- and postnatal stress. Effect modification by sex was examined in stratified analyses and by fitting interaction terms. RESULTS When considering stress in each period independently, among boys a dose-response relationship was evident for each level increase on the ordinal scale prenatally (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.06, 1.79; p-for-trend=0.03) and postnatally (OR=1.53, 95% CI 1.16, 2.01; p-for-trend=0.001); among girls only the postnatal trend was significant (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.14, 2.22; p-for-trend=0.005). Higher stress in both the pre- and postnatal periods was associated with increased odds of being diagnosed with asthma in girls [OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.98, 1.91 (pinteraction=0.07)] but not boys [OR=1.08, 95% CI 0.82, 1.42 (pinteraction=0.61)]. CONCLUSIONS While boys were more vulnerable to stress during the prenatal period, girls were more impacted by postnatal stress and cumulative stress across both periods in relation to asthma. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to early life stress may provide unique insight into asthma etiology and natural history. PMID:26953156

  19. Fish consumption in pregnancy and omega-3 status after birth are not associated with postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Browne, Joanna C; Scott, Kate M; Silvers, Karen M

    2006-02-01

    Research to date suggests a relationship between fish consumption, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and depression. However, interpretation of this research is difficult due to methodological limitations. Postpartum women provide an excellent opportunity to examine these relationships because omega-3s are transferred from mother to fetus during pregnancy and from mother to child after birth through breast milk. Hence new mothers are more likely to be depleted in omega-3s. Our aim was to determine whether prenatal fish consumption and omega-3 status after birth were associated with postnatal depression. Eighty first-time mothers were recruited; 41 who scored on or over the cut-off on one of two depression-screening instruments, and 39 in the control group. Depression was diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Fish consumption was measured during pregnancy, and depression and omega-3 status were determined postnatally. Logistic regression and t-tests were used to examine relationships between fish consumption, omega-3 status, and postnatal depression, while controlling for known covariates. Prenatal fish consumption was not predictive of postnatal depression, and postnatal omega-3 status was not associated with postnatal depression. However, prenatal fish consumption did predict omega-3 status after birth. Prenatal fish consumption was measured using only a food frequency questionnaire, and no participants consumed oily fish (rich in omega-3s) regularly. There was no association between postnatal depression and either fish consumption in early pregnancy, or omega-3 status after birth. Our findings make it difficult to justify trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of postnatal depression.

  20. Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection via breast milk: effects on hearing and development in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Brigitte; Seibold-Weiger, Karin; Schmitz-Salue, Christine; Hamprecht, Klaus; Goelz, Rangmar; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Speer, Christian P

    2004-04-01

    In preterm infants there is a high risk of transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) via breast milk from seropositive mothers with reactivation of the virus during lactation. There is little information about the long term sequel of early postnatally acquired CMV infection in pre-term infants. This study aimed to investigate whether there was an increased frequency of impaired neurodevelopmental outcome and sensorineural hearing loss in preterm infants with postnatally acquired CMV infection through transmission by CMV-positive breast milk. Twenty-two preterm infants [median birth weight, 1020 g (range, 600 to 1870 g); median gestational age, 27.6 weeks (range, 23.6 to 32 weeks] with early postnatally acquired CMV infection by breast-feeding (onset of viruria between Days 23 and 190 postnatally) were compared with 22 CMV-negative preterm infants individually matched for gestational age, birth weight, gender, intracranial hemorrhage and duration of ventilation. At 2 to 4.5 years of age, follow-up assessments were conducted consisting of neurologic examination, neurodevelopmental assessment and detailed audiologic tests. None of the children had sensorineural hearing loss. There was no difference between the groups with regard to neurologic, speech and language or motor development. The results of this study suggest that early postnatally acquired CMV infection via CMV-positive breast milk does not have a negative effect on neurodevelopment and hearing in this group of patients. Because we studied a small number of infants, further follow-up studies are warranted in preterm infants with early postnatally acquired CMV infection.

  1. Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

  2. First-time fathers' postnatal experiences and support needs: A descriptive qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Shefaly; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bridge, Shiho; Chong, Yap Seng; Holroyd, Eleanor; He, Hong-Gu

    2017-12-01

    To explore first-time fathers' postnatal experiences and support needs in the early postpartum period. The postnatal period is a stressful transition period for new fathers. It is imperative to understand their needs and experiences to provide appropriate support for them. The majority of previous studies were based in Western countries and explored fathers' needs during pregnancy and childbirth, with few studies conducted in the postnatal period. In Singapore, a multiracial society with differing paternal cultural values from its Western counterparts, there is considerable need to examine the experiences and needs of first-time fathers. A descriptive qualitative design was used. Data were collected from November 2015-January 2016. Fifteen first-time fathers were recruited from two postnatal wards of a public hospital, using a purposive sampling method. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct face-to-face interviews. A thematic analysis was conducted and ethics approval was sought for this study. Four overarching themes and seventeen subthemes were generated. The four overarching themes were: (1) No sense of reality to sense of responsibility; (2) Unprepared and challenged; (3) Support: needs, sources, experience and attitude; and (4) Future help for fathers. Fathers undergo a transition phase where they have unmet support needs during the early postnatal period. Understanding and addressing these needs may facilitate smooth transition to fatherhood. This study's findings can be used to involve fathers and design future supportive educational programs to promote positive parenting experiences and family dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pre- and Postnatal Influences on Preschool Mental Health: A Large-Scale Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Monique; Oddy, Wendy H.; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth E.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Silburn, Sven R.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Newnham, John P.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Mattes, Eugen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Methodological challenges such as confounding have made the study of the early determinants of mental health morbidity problematic. This study aims to address these challenges in investigating antenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for the development of mental health problems in pre-school children in a cohort of Western…

  4. Postnatal care in the community: report of an evaluation of birthing women's assessments of a postnatal home-care programme.

    PubMed

    Zadoroznyj, Maria

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, there has been a strong trend in many Western countries to decrease the length of time that women spend in hospital following childbirth. The research evidence regarding the consequences of early discharge for mothers and babies is mixed. Recent evidence has suggested that early discharge may not be randomly distributed across all sociodemographic groups of birthing women, and that the structures of home care have an important influence on maternal and child outcomes. In the context of decreasing lengths of hospital stay, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a new postnatal home support worker introduced into a geographically defined catchment area of a metropolitan hospital in South Australia. The evaluation included a formative process component to monitor recruitment strategies into the programme, as well as summative evaluation of a number of projected programme outcomes. The research methods used included interviews with antenatal women (n = 20) about their knowledge of and attitudes to the programme, and interviews with postnatal women (n = 63) about their transition home experience and assessment of the programme. Secondary analysis of client satisfaction surveys (n = 163) and aggregate breast-feeding data was also conducted. The results concur with previous research findings regarding the importance of rest and practical, home-based support in the postnatal period to maternal well-being, successful bonding and transition to motherhood. The results demonstrate the importance of well-structured home support services to maternal satisfaction and maternal well-being through the provision of physical, social and emotional care and support in the home.

  5. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  6. Three-dimensional microCT imaging of murine embryonic development from immediate post-implantation to organogenesis: application for phenotyping analysis of early embryonic lethality in mutant animals.

    PubMed

    Ermakova, Olga; Orsini, Tiziana; Gambadoro, Alessia; Chiani, Francesco; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we applied three-dimensional microCT imaging to study murine embryogenesis in the range from immediate post-implantation period (embryonic day 5.5) to mid-gestation (embryonic day 12.5) with the resolution up to 1.4 µm/voxel. Also, we introduce an imaging procedure for non-invasive volumetric estimation of an entire litter of embryos within the maternal uterine structures. This method allows for an accurate, detailed and systematic morphometric analysis of both embryonic and extra-embryonic components during embryogenesis. Three-dimensional imaging of unperturbed embryos was performed to visualize the egg cylinder, primitive streak, gastrulation and early organogenesis stages of murine development in the C57Bl6/N mouse reference strain. Further, we applied our microCT imaging protocol to determine the earliest point when embryonic development is arrested in a mouse line with knockout for tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit Tsen54 gene. Our analysis determined that the embryonic development in Tsen54 null embryos does not proceed beyond implantation. We demonstrated that application of microCT imaging to entire litter of non-perturbed embryos greatly facilitate studies to unravel gene function during early embryogenesis and to determine the precise point at which embryonic development is arrested in mutant animals. The described method is inexpensive, does not require lengthy embryos dissection and can be applicable for detailed analysis of mutant mice at laboratory scale as well as for high-throughput projects.

  7. Lethality of First Contact Dysentery Epidemics on Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases depopulated many isolated Pacific islands when they were first exposed to global pathogen circulation from the 18th century. Although the mortality was great, the lack of medical observers makes determination of what happened during these historical epidemics largely speculative. Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella is the most likely infection causing some of the most lethal island epidemics. The fragmentary historical record is reviewed to gain insight into the possible causes of the extreme lethality that was observed during first-contact epidemics in the Pacific. Immune aspects of the early dysentery epidemics and postmeasles infection resulting in subacute inflammatory enteric disease suggest that epidemiologic isolation was the major lethality risk factor on Pacific islands in the 19th century. Other possible risk factors include human leukocyte antigen homogeneity from a founder effect and pathogen-induced derangement of immune tolerance to gut flora. If this analysis is correct, then Pacific islands are currently at no greater risk of emerging disease epidemics than other developing countries despite their dark history. PMID:27185765

  8. Lethality of First Contact Dysentery Epidemics on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Infectious diseases depopulated many isolated Pacific islands when they were first exposed to global pathogen circulation from the 18th century. Although the mortality was great, the lack of medical observers makes determination of what happened during these historical epidemics largely speculative. Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella is the most likely infection causing some of the most lethal island epidemics. The fragmentary historical record is reviewed to gain insight into the possible causes of the extreme lethality that was observed during first-contact epidemics in the Pacific. Immune aspects of the early dysentery epidemics and postmeasles infection resulting in subacute inflammatory enteric disease suggest that epidemiologic isolation was the major lethality risk factor on Pacific islands in the 19th century. Other possible risk factors include human leukocyte antigen homogeneity from a founder effect and pathogen-induced derangement of immune tolerance to gut flora. If this analysis is correct, then Pacific islands are currently at no greater risk of emerging disease epidemics than other developing countries despite their dark history. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    PubMed

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Understanding exercise self-efficacy and barriers to leisure-time physical activity among postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Cramp, Anita G; Bray, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that postnatal women are at high risk for physical inactivity and generally show lower levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) compared to prepregnancy. The overall purpose of the current study was to investigate social cognitive correlates of LTPA among postnatal women during a 6-month period following childbirth. A total of 230 women (mean age = 30.9) provided descriptive data regarding barriers to LTPA and completed measures of LTPA and self-efficacy (exercise and barrier) for at least one of the study data collection periods. A total of 1,520 barriers were content analyzed. Both exercise and barrier self-efficacy were positively associated with subsequent LTPA. Exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 12 predicted LTPA from postnatal weeks 12 to 18 (β = .40, R (2) = .18) and exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 24 predicted LTPA during weeks 24-30 (β = .49, R (2) = .30). Barrier self-efficacy at week 18 predicted LTPA from weeks 18 to 24 (β = .33, R (2) = .13). The results of the study identify a number of barriers to LTPA at multiple time points closely following childbirth which may hinder initiation, resumption or maintenance of LTPA. The results also suggest that higher levels of exercise and barrier self-efficacy are prospectively associated with higher levels of LTPA in the early postnatal period. Future interventions should be designed to investigate causal effects of developing participants' exercise and barrier self-efficacy for promoting and maintaining LTPA during the postnatal period.

  11. Postnatal Brain Growth Assessed by Sequential Cranial Ultrasonography in Infants Born <30 Weeks' Gestational Age.

    PubMed

    Cuzzilla, R; Spittle, A J; Lee, K J; Rogerson, S; Cowan, F M; Doyle, L W; Cheong, J L Y

    2018-06-01

    Brain growth in the early postnatal period following preterm birth has not been well described. This study of infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age and without major brain injury aimed to accomplish the following: 1) assess the reproducibility of linear measures made from cranial ultrasonography, 2) evaluate brain growth using sequential cranial ultrasonography linear measures from birth to term-equivalent age, and 3) explore perinatal predictors of postnatal brain growth. Participants comprised 144 infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age at a single center between January 2011 and December 2013. Infants with major brain injury seen on cranial ultrasonography or congenital or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. Brain tissue and fluid spaces were measured from cranial ultrasonography performed as part of routine clinical care. Brain growth was assessed in 3 time intervals: <7, 7-27, and >27 days' postnatal age. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients and mixed-effects regression. A total of 429 scans were assessed for 144 infants. Several linear measures showed excellent reproducibility. All measures of brain tissue increased with postnatal age, except for the biparietal diameter, which decreased within the first postnatal week and increased thereafter. Gestational age of ≥28 weeks at birth was associated with slower growth of the biparietal diameter and ventricular width compared with gestational age of <28 weeks. Postnatal corticosteroid administration was associated with slower growth of the corpus callosum length, transcerebellar diameter, and vermis height. Sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with slower growth of the transcerebellar diameter. Postnatal brain growth in infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age can be evaluated using sequential linear measures made from routine cranial ultrasonography and is associated with perinatal predictors of long-term development. © 2018 by American Journal of

  12. Morphogenesis and maturation of the embryonic and postnatal intestine.

    PubMed

    Chin, Alana M; Hill, David R; Aurora, Megan; Spence, Jason R

    2017-06-01

    The intestine is a vital organ responsible for nutrient absorption, bile and waste excretion, and a major site of host immunity. In order to keep up with daily demands, the intestine has evolved a mechanism to expand the absorptive surface area by undergoing a morphogenetic process to generate finger-like units called villi. These villi house specialized cell types critical for both absorbing nutrients from food, and for protecting the host from commensal and pathogenic microbes present in the adult gut. In this review, we will discuss mechanisms that coordinate intestinal development, growth, and maturation of the small intestine, starting from the formation of the early gut tube, through villus morphogenesis and into early postnatal life when the intestine must adapt to the acquisition of nutrients through food intake, and to interactions with microbes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Postnatal Development of Spinal Sensory Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Maria; Jennings, Ernest

    1999-07-01

    The mechanisms by which infants and children process pain should be viewed within the context of a developing sensory nervous system. The study of the neurophysiological properties and connectivity of sensory neurons in the developing spinal cord dorsal horn of the intact postnatal rat has shed light on the way in which the newborn central nervous system analyzes cutaneous innocuous and noxious stimuli. The receptive field properties and evoked activity of newborn dorsal horn cells to single repetitive and persistent innocuous and noxious inputs are developmentally regulated and reflect the maturation of excitatory transmission within the spinal cord. These changes will have an important influence on pain processing in the postnatal period.

  14. Sub-lethal and lethal toxicities of elevated CO2 on embryonic, juvenile, and adult stages of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changkeun; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Hong, Seongjin; Noh, Junsung; Lee, Junghyun; Ryu, Jongseong; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2018-06-06

    The potential leakage from marine CO 2 storage sites is of increasing concern, but few studies have evaluated the probable adverse effects on marine organisms. Fish, one of the top predators in marine environments, should be an essential representative species used for water column toxicity testing in response to waterborne CO 2 exposure. In the present study, we conducted fish life cycle toxicity tests to fully elucidate CO 2 toxicity mechanism effects. We tested sub-lethal and lethal toxicities of elevated CO 2 concentrations on marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) at different developmental stages. At each developmental stage, the test species was exposed to varying concentrations of gaseous CO 2 (control air, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%), with 96 h of exposure at 0-4 d (early stage), 4-8 d (middle stage), and 8-12 d (late stage). Sub-lethal and lethal effects, including early developmental delays, cardiac edema, tail abnormalities, abnormal pigmentation, and mortality were monitored daily during the 14 d exposure period. At the embryonic stage, significant sub-lethal and lethal effects were observed at pH < 6.30. Hypercapnia can cause long-term and/or delayed developmental embryonic problems, even after transfer back to clean seawater. At fish juvenile and adult stages, significant mortality was observed at pH < 5.70, indicating elevated CO 2 exposure might cause various adverse effects, even during short-term exposure periods. It should be noted the early embryonic stage was found more sensitive to CO 2 exposure than other developmental stages of the fish life cycle. Overall, the present study provided baseline information for potential adverse effects of high CO 2 concentration exposure on fish developmental processes at different life cycle stages in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reelin, an extracellular matrix protein linked to early onset psychiatric diseases, drives postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex via GluN2B-NMDARs and the mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Iafrati, J; Orejarena, M J; Lassalle, O; Bouamrane, L; Chavis, P

    2014-01-01

    Defective brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is a factor of vulnerability in various psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and autism. The glycoprotein reelin is an essential building block of the brain ECM that modulates neuronal development and participates to the functions of adult central synapses. The reelin gene (RELN) is a strong candidate in psychiatric diseases of early onset, but its synaptic and behavioral functions in juvenile brain circuits remain unresolved. Here, we found that in juvenile reelin-haploinsufficient heterozygous reeler mice (HRM), abnormal fear memory erasure is concomitant to reduced dendritic spine density and anomalous long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex. In juvenile HRM, a single in vivo injection with ketamine or Ro25-6981 to inhibit GluN2B-N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) restored normal spine density, synaptic plasticity and converted fear memory to an erasure-resilient state typical of adult rodents. The functional and behavioral rescue by ketamine was prevented by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Finally, we show that fear memory erasure persists until adolescence in HRM and that a single exposure to ketamine during the juvenile period reinstates normal fear memory in adolescent mice. Our results show that reelin is essential for successful structural, functional and behavioral development of juvenile prefrontal circuits and that this developmental period provides a critical window for therapeutic rehabilitation with GluN2B-NMDAR antagonists. PMID:23752244

  16. Role of postnatal dietary sodium in prenatally programmed hypertension.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tyrus; Ascani, Jeannine; Craver, Randall D; Vehaskari, V Matti

    2009-09-01

    In this study we examined the short- and long-term impact of early life dietary sodium (Na) on prenatally programmed hypertension. Hypertension was induced in rat offspring by a maternal low protein (LP) diet. Control and LP offspring were randomized to a high (HS), standard (SS), or low (LS) Na diet after weaning. On the SS diet, the LP pups developed hypertension by 6 weeks of age. The development of hypertension was prevented by the LS diet and exacerbated by the HS diet. Kidney nitrotyrosine content, a measure of oxidative stress, was reduced by the LS diet compared with the HS diet. The modified diets had no effect on control pups. A group of animals on the SS diet was followed up to 51 weeks of age after an early life 3-week exposure to the HS or LS diet. This brief early exposure of LP animals to the LS diet prevented the later development of hypertension and ameliorated the nephrosclerosis observed after early exposure to the HS diet. The LP offspring with early exposure to LS diet had lost their salt-sensitivity when challenged with the HS diet at the age of 43-49 weeks. No effect of early life dietary Na was observed in control animals. These results show that hypertension in this model is salt sensitive and may, in part, be mediated by salt-induced renal oxidative stress and that there may exist a developmental window which allows postnatal "reprogramming" of the hypertension.

  17. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  18. Maternal postnatal depression and child growth: a European cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported postpartum depression to be associated with both positive and negative effects on early infant growth. This study examined the hypothesis that maternal postnatal depression may be a risk factor for later child growth faltering or overweight. Methods A total of 929 women and their children participating in a European multicenter study were included at a median age of 14 days. Mothers completed the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) at 2, 3 and 6 months after delivery. EPDS scores of 13 and above at any time were defined as maternal depression. Weight, length, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured, and body mass index (BMI) were calculated when the children were two years old and converted to standard deviation scores based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS). Results Z-scores for weight-for-length at inclusion of infants of mothers with high EPDS scores (-0.55, SD 0.74) were lower than of those with normal scores (-0.36, SD 0.74; p = 0.013). BMI at age 24 months did not differ in the high (16.3 kg/m2, SD 1.3) and in the normal EPDS groups (16.2 kg/m2, SD 1.3; p = 0.48). All other anthropometric indices also did not differ between groups, with no change by multivariate adjustment. Conclusions We conclude that a high maternal postnatal depression score does not have any major effects on offspring growth in high income countries. PMID:20226021

  19. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  20. Pseudotemporal Ordering of Single Cells Reveals Metabolic Control of Postnatal β Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chun; Mulas, Francesca; Sui, Yinghui; Guan, Tiffany; Miller, Nathanael; Tan, Yuliang; Liu, Fenfen; Jin, Wen; Carrano, Andrea C; Huising, Mark O; Shirihai, Orian S; Yeo, Gene W; Sander, Maike

    2017-05-02

    Pancreatic β cell mass for appropriate blood glucose control is established during early postnatal life. β cell proliferative capacity declines postnatally, but the extrinsic cues and intracellular signals that cause this decline remain unknown. To obtain a high-resolution map of β cell transcriptome dynamics after birth, we generated single-cell RNA-seq data of β cells from multiple postnatal time points and ordered cells based on transcriptional similarity using a new analytical tool. This analysis captured signatures of immature, proliferative β cells and established high expression of amino acid metabolic, mitochondrial, and Srf/Jun/Fos transcription factor genes as their hallmark feature. Experimental validation revealed high metabolic activity in immature β cells and a role for reactive oxygen species and Srf/Jun/Fos transcription factors in driving postnatal β cell proliferation and mass expansion. Our work provides the first high-resolution molecular characterization of state changes in postnatal β cells and paves the way for the identification of novel therapeutic targets to stimulate β cell regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Postnatal Weight Gain Modifies Severity and Functional Outcome of Oxygen-Induced Proliferative Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R.; Krah, Nathan M.; Dennison, Roberta J.; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D.; Smith, Lois E.H.

    2010-01-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r2 = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome. PMID:21056995

  2. Postnatal weight gain modifies severity and functional outcome of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R; Krah, Nathan M; Dennison, Roberta J; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D; Smith, Lois E H

    2010-12-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r(2) = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome.

  3. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for postnatal depression in Sabah, Malaysia: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Yusuff, Aza Sherin; Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    Postnatal depression can have serious consequences for both the mother and infant. However, epidemiological data required to implement appropriate early prevention are still lacking in Malaysia. To investigate the prevalence of postnatal depression within six months postpartum and associated risk factors among women in Sabah, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study of 2072 women was conducted in Sabah during 2009-2010. Participants were recruited at 36-38 weeks of gestation and followed up at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. The presence of depressive symptoms was assessed using the validated Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain risk factors associated with postnatal depression. Overall, 14.3% of mothers (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.5-16.2%) had experienced depression within the first six months postpartum. Women depressed during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.71, 95% CI 2.46-5.60) and those with consistent worries about the newborn (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.42) were more likely to suffer from depression after childbirth. Women whose husband assisted with infant care (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) and mothers who were satisfied with their marital relationship (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.81) appeared to incur a reduced risk of postnatal depression. A substantial proportion of mothers suffered from postnatal depression in Sabah, Malaysia. Screening and intervention programmes targeting vulnerable subgroups of women during antenatal and early postpartum periods are recommended to deal with the problem. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RIPK3 Mediates Necroptosis during Embryonic Development and Postnatal Inflammation in Fadd-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Yu, XianJun; Zhang, HaiWei; Liu, YongBo; Zhang, XiXi; Wu, XiaoXia; Xie, Qun; Li, Ming; Ying, Hao; Zhang, Haibing

    2017-04-25

    RIPK3 mediates cell death and regulates inflammatory responses. Although genetic studies have suggested that RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis leads to embryonic lethality in Fadd or Caspase-8-deficient mice, the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we generated Ripk3 mutant mice by altering the RIPK3 kinase domain (Ripk3 Δ/Δ mice), thus abolishing its kinase activity. Ripk3 Δ/Δ cells were resistant to necroptosis stimulation in vitro, and Ripk3 Δ/Δ mice were protected from necroptotic diseases. Although the Ripk3 Δ/Δ mutation rescued embryonic lethality in Fadd -/- embryos, Fadd -/- Ripk3 Δ/Δ mice died within 1 day after birth due to massive inflammation. These results indicate that Ripk3 ablation rescues embryonic lethality in Fadd-deficient mice by suppressing two RIPK3-mediating processes: necroptosis during embryogenesis and inflammation during postnatal development in Fadd -/- mice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Germline deletion of FAK-related non-kinase delays post-natal cardiomyocyte mitotic arrest

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Thomas J.; Mack, Christopher P.; Taylor, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    The cardiomyocyte phenotypic switch from a proliferative to terminally differentiated state impacts normal heart development and pathologic myocardial remodeling, yet the signaling mechanisms that regulate this vital process are incompletely understood. Studies from our lab and others indicate that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and remodeling and we found that expression of the endogenous FAK inhibitor, FAK-related non kinase (FRNK) coincided with postnatal cardiomyocyte arrest. Mis-expression of FRNK in the embryonic heart led to pre-term lethality associated with reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and led us to speculate that the postnatal FRNK surge might be required to promote quiescence in this growth promoting environment. Herein, we provide strong evidence that endogenous FRNK contributes to post-mitotic arrest. Depletion of FRNK promoted DNA synthesis in post-natal day (P) 10 hearts accompanied by a transient increase in DNA content and multi-nucleation by P14, indicative of DNA replication without cell division. Interestingly, a reduction in tri- and tetra-nucleated cardiomyocytes, concomitant with an increase in bi-nucleated cells by P21, indicated the possibility that FRNK-depleted cardiomyocytes underwent eventual cytokinesis. In support of this conclusion, Aurora B-labeled central spindles (a hallmark of cytokinesis) were observed in tetra-nucleated P20 FRNK−/− but not wt cardiomyocytes, while no evidence of apoptosis was observed. Moreover, hearts from FRNK null mice developed ventricular enlargement that persisted until young adulthood which resulted from myocyte expansion rather than myocyte hypertrophy or interstitial growth. These data indicate that endogenous FRNK serves an important role in limiting DNA synthesis and regulating the un-coupling between DNA synthesis and cytokinesis in the post-natal myocardium. PMID:22555221

  7. Is the organisation and structure of hospital postnatal care a barrier to quality care? Findings from a state-wide review in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Yelland, Jane; Rayner, Joanne; Lumley, Judith

    2008-09-01

    to describe the structure and organisation of hospital postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. postal survey sent to all public hospitals in Victoria (n=71) and key-informant interviews with midwives and medical practitioners (n=38). Victoria, Australia. providers of postnatal care in Victorian public hospitals. there is significant diversity across Victoria in the way postnatal units are structured and organised and in the way care is provided. There are differences in numerous practices, including maternal and neonatal observations and the length of time women spend in hospital after giving birth. Although the benefits of continuity of care are recognised by health care providers, continuity is difficult to provide in the postnatal period. Postnatal care is provided in busy, sometimes chaotic environments, with many barriers to providing effective care and few opportunities for women to rest and recover after childbirth. The findings in this study can, in part, be explained by the lack of evidence that has been available to guide early postnatal care. current structures such as standard postnatal documentation (clinical pathways) and fixed length of stay, may inhibit rather than support individualised care for women after childbirth. There is a need to move towards greater flexibility in providing of early postnatal care, including alternative models of service delivery; choice and flexibility in the length of stay after birth; a focus on the individual with far less emphasis on care being structured around organisational requirements; and building an evidence base to guide care.

  8. Postnatal airway growth in cystic fibrosis piglets.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ryan J; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Bouzek, Drake C; Cook, Daniel P; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Taft, Peter J; Powers, Linda S; Stroik, Mallory R; Hoegger, Mark J; McMenimen, James D; Hoffman, Eric A; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J; Meyerholz, David K; Stoltz, David A

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel cause CF. The leading cause of death in the CF population is lung disease. Increasing evidence suggests that in utero airway development is CFTR-dependent and that developmental abnormalities may contribute to CF lung disease. However, relatively little is known about postnatal CF airway growth, largely because such studies are limited in humans. Therefore, we examined airway growth and lung volume in a porcine model of CF. We hypothesized that CF pigs would have abnormal postnatal airway growth. To test this hypothesis, we performed CT-based airway and lung volume measurements in 3-wk-old non-CF and CF pigs. We found that 3-wk-old CF pigs had tracheas of reduced caliber and irregular shape. Their bronchial lumens were reduced in size proximally but not distally, were irregularly shaped, and had reduced distensibility. Our data suggest that lack of CFTR results in aberrant postnatal airway growth and development, which could contribute to CF lung disease pathogenesis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This CT scan-based study of airway morphometry in the cystic fibrosis (CF) postnatal period is unique, as analogous studies in humans are greatly limited for ethical and technical reasons. Findings such as reduced airway lumen area and irregular caliber suggest that airway growth and development are CF transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent and that airway growth defects may contribute to CF lung disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Ablation of Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Causes Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuzhi; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Schipma, Matthew J; Liu, Jing; Shete, Varsha; Liu, Ning; Sato, Tatsuya; Thorp, Edward B; Barger, Philip M; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Viswakarma, Navin; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Ardehali, Hossein; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K

    2016-01-01

    Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex consisting of about 30 subunits, is a key component of the polymerase II mediated gene transcription. Germline deletion of the Mediator subunit 1 (Med1) of the Mediator in mice results in mid-gestational embryonic lethality with developmental impairment of multiple organs including heart. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med1 in mice (csMed1-/-) during late gestational and early postnatal development by intercrossing Med1fl/fl mice to α-MyHC-Cre transgenic mice results in lethality within 10 days after weaning due to dilated cardiomyopathy-related ventricular dilation and heart failure. The csMed1-/- mouse heart manifests mitochondrial damage, increased apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Global gene expression analysis revealed that loss of Med1 in heart down-regulates more than 200 genes including Acadm, Cacna1s, Atp2a2, Ryr2, Pde1c, Pln, PGC1α, and PGC1β that are critical for calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor regulated energy metabolism. Many genes essential for oxidative phosphorylation and proper mitochondrial function such as genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits of the mitochondrial complex II are also down-regulated in csMed1-/- heart contributing to myocardial injury. Data also showed up-regulation of about 180 genes including Tgfb2, Ace, Atf3, Ctgf, Angpt14, Col9a2, Wisp2, Nppa, Nppb, and Actn1 that are linked to cardiac muscle contraction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and myocardial injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cardiac specific deletion of Med1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-inducible Cre approach (TmcsMed1-/-), results in rapid development of cardiomyopathy and death within 4 weeks. We found that the key findings of the csMed1-/- studies described above are highly reproducible in TmcsMed1-/- mouse heart

  10. Mouse models for the study of postnatal cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo-Turrubiarte, A; Calzada-Torres, A; Díaz-Rosas, G; Palma-Lara, I; Sánchez-Urbina, R; Balderrábano-Saucedo, N A; González-Márquez, H; Garcia-Alonso, P; Contreras-Ramos, A

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to create a postnatal model for cardiac hypertrophy (CH), in order to explain the mechanisms that are present in childhood cardiac hypertrophy. Five days after implantation, intraperitoneal (IP) isoproterenol (ISO) was injected for 7 days to pregnant female mice. The fetuses were obtained at 15, 17 and 19 dpc from both groups, also newborns (NB), neonates (7-15 days) and young adults (6 weeks of age). Histopathological exams were done on the hearts. Immunohistochemistry and western blot demonstrated GATA4 and PCNA protein expression, qPCR real time the mRNA of adrenergic receptors (α-AR and β-AR), alpha and beta myosins (α-MHC, β-MHC) and GATA4. After the administration of ISO, there was no change in the number of offsprings. We observed significant structural changes in the size of the offspring hearts. Morphometric analysis revealed an increase in the size of the left ventricular wall and interventricular septum (IVS). Histopathological analysis demonstrated loss of cellular compaction and presence of left ventricular small fibrous foci after birth. Adrenergic receptors might be responsible for changing a physiological into a pathological hypertrophy. However GATA4 seemed to be the determining factor in the pathology. A new animal model was established for the study of pathologic CH in early postnatal stages.

  11. Activation of GABA-A receptors during postnatal brain development increases anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Bakhtiari, Amir; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-08-01

    Disturbances of the gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) system during postnatal development can have long-lasting consequences for later life behavior, like the individual's response to stress. However, it is unclear which postnatal windows of sensitivity to GABA-ergic modulations are associated with what later-life behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether neonatal activation of the GABA-A receptor during two postnatal periods, an early window (postnatal day 3-5) and a late window (postnatal day 14-16), can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in male mice in later life. To this end, mice were treated with either saline or muscimol (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500μg/kg) during the early and late postnatal periods. An additional group of mice was treated with the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline+muscimol. When grown to adulthood male mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Baseline and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) levels were also measured. The results indicate that early postnatal and to a lesser extent later postnatal exposure to the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol increased anxiety-like behavior and stress-induced CORT levels in adults. Moreover, the early postnatal treatment with muscimol increased depression-like behavior with increasing baseline CORT levels. The anxiogenic and depression-like later-life consequences could be antagonized by bicuculline. Our findings suggest that GABA-A receptor signaling during early-life can influence anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in later life. Our findings help to increase insight in the developmental mechanisms contributing to stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Conditional ablation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β in postnatal mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan; Si, Jin; Tian, Li; Zhuang, Shougang; Dworkin, Lance D; Gong, Rujun

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase existing in two isoforms, namely GSK3α and GSK3β. Aside from the long-recognized role in insulin signal transduction and glycogen biosynthesis, GSK3β has been recently coined as a master control molecule in nuclear factor-κB activation and inflammatory kidney injury. Nevertheless, previous studies are less conclusive because they relied greatly on small molecule inhibitors, which lack selectivity and barely distinguish between the GSK3 isoforms. In addition, early embryonic lethality after global knockout of GSK3β precludes interrogation of the biological role of GSK3β in the adult kidney. To circumvent these issues, the Cre/loxP system was used to generate a conditional knockout mouse model in which the GSK3β gene was specifically deleted in kidney cortical tubules at postnatal mature stage. Kidney-specific ablation of GSK3β resulted in a phenotype no different from control littermates. Knockout mice (KO) were viable and exhibited normal development and normal kidney physiology in terms of kidney function, urine albumin excretion, and urine-concentrating ability. It is noteworthy that apart from normal glomerular and tubulointerstitial morphology, the kidneys from KO demonstrated more glycogen accumulation in the renal cortical tubules as assessed by both periodic acid-Schiff staining for light microscopy and direct biochemical assay, consistent with an elevated glycogen synthetic activity as evidenced by diminished inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase that occurred subsequent to GSK3β ablation. This finding was further validated by electron microscopic observations of increased deposition of glycogen particles in the renal tubules of KO, suggesting that GSK3α could not fully compensate for the loss of GSK3β in regulating glycogen metabolism in the kidney. Collectively, our study suggests that kidney-specific ablation of GSK3β barely affects kidney function

  13. An essential role for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in postnatal development and control of quantal size.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, S M; Rhee, J S; Herzog, E; Sigler, A; Jahn, R; Takamori, S; Brose, N; Rosenmund, C

    2004-05-04

    Quantal neurotransmitter release at excitatory synapses depends on glutamate import into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Of the three known transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are expressed prominently in the adult brain, but during the first two weeks of postnatal development, VGLUT2 expression predominates. Targeted deletion of VGLUT1 in mice causes lethality in the third postnatal week. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is drastically reduced in neurons from VGLUT1-deficient mice, with a specific reduction in quantal size. The remaining activity correlates with the expression of VGLUT2. This reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission can be rescued and enhanced with overexpression of VGLUT1. These results show that the expression level of VGLUTs determines the amount of glutamate that is loaded into vesicles and released and thereby regulates the efficacy of neurotransmission.

  14. Postnatal development of echolocation abilities in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): temporal organization.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gnone, Guido; Pessani, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In spite of all the information available on adult bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) biosonar, the ontogeny of its echolocation abilities has been investigated very little. Earlier studies have reported that neonatal dolphins can produce both whistles and burst-pulsed sounds just after birth and that early-pulsed sounds are probably a precursor of echolocation click trains. The aim of this research is to investigate the development of echolocation signals in a captive calf, born in the facilities of the Acquario di Genova. A set of 81 impulsive sounds were collected from birth to the seventh postnatal week and six additional echolocation click trains were recorded when the dolphin was 1 year old. Moreover, behavioral observations, concurring with sound production, were carried out by means of a video camera. For each sound we measured five acoustic parameters: click train duration (CTD), number of clicks per train, minimum, maximum, and mean click repetition rate (CRR). CTD and number of clicks per train were found to increase with age. Maximum and mean CRR followed a decreasing trend with dolphin growth starting from the second postnatal week. The calf's first head scanning movement was recorded 21 days after birth. Our data suggest that in the bottlenose dolphin the early postnatal weeks are essential for the development of echolocation abilities and that the temporal features of the echolocation click trains remain relatively stable from the seventh postnatal week up to the first year of life. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lethal violence and psychosis: a clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Nestor, P G; Haycock, J; Doiron, S; Kelly, J; Kelly, D

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between lethal violence and psychosis, the authors examined symptomatology, neuropsychological functioning, and the nature of perpetrator-victim relationships of patients with psychotic disorders who were committed to a forensic psychiatric hospital following violent, primarily criminal behavior. A severely violent group, composed primarily of psychotic patients charged with murder, was compared with a less severely violent group that was composed primarily of psychotic patients involved with property crimes. As compared with the less violent group, the severely violent group was more likely to have delusional beliefs about specific personal targets and to have delusions about significant others being replaced by impostors. These beliefs were accompanied by higher scores on neuropsychological tests of intellectual and academic abilities. A high number of their blood relatives were victims of psychotic murder. These results indicated that a higher incidence of lethal or near lethal acts of violence may characterize intellectually intact but psychotic individuals with organize delusions involving personal, accessible targets.

  16. Lethal Injection for Execution: Chemical Asphyxiation?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmers, Teresa A; Sheldon, Jonathan; Lubarsky, David A; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Waterman, Linda; Weisman, Richard; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2007-01-01

    Background Lethal injection for execution was conceived as a comparatively humane alternative to electrocution or cyanide gas. The current protocols are based on one improvised by a medical examiner and an anesthesiologist in Oklahoma and are practiced on an ad hoc basis at the discretion of prison personnel. Each drug used, the ultrashort-acting barbiturate thiopental, the neuromuscular blocker pancuronium bromide, and the electrolyte potassium chloride, was expected to be lethal alone, while the combination was intended to produce anesthesia then death due to respiratory and cardiac arrest. We sought to determine whether the current drug regimen results in death in the manner intended. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from two US states that release information on executions, North Carolina and California, as well as the published clinical, laboratory, and veterinary animal experience. Execution outcomes from North Carolina and California together with interspecies dosage scaling of thiopental effects suggest that in the current practice of lethal injection, thiopental might not be fatal and might be insufficient to induce surgical anesthesia for the duration of the execution. Furthermore, evidence from North Carolina, California, and Virginia indicates that potassium chloride in lethal injection does not reliably induce cardiac arrest. Conclusions We were able to analyze only a limited number of executions. However, our findings suggest that current lethal injection protocols may not reliably effect death through the mechanisms intended, indicating a failure of design and implementation. If thiopental and potassium chloride fail to cause anesthesia and cardiac arrest, potentially aware inmates could die through pancuronium-induced asphyxiation. Thus the conventional view of lethal injection leading to an invariably peaceful and painless death is questionable. PMID:17455994

  17. Lethality In Mice Following Localized Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Angela; Gomer, Charles J.; Murphree, A. L.

    1989-06-01

    Porphyrin photodynamic therapy directed specifically to the hind leg of various strains of mice was found to induce a high percentage of lethality at dosages which would be required to achieve cures in tumor bearing mice. Toxicity was observed in both pigmented and albino mouse strains. An inverse relationship between light dose rate and lethality was documented. Anti-coagulant drugs and anti-inflammatory agents which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase had protective effects. The response induced by localized PDT appears to mimic that of a classical traumatic shock syndrome and may be limited to PDT in small animals such as mice.

  18. Crying babies, tired mothers - challenges of the postnatal hospital stay: an interpretive phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to an old Swiss proverb, "a new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing to her family". Today mothers rarely enjoy restful days after birth, but enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and self-care. They often face a combination of infant crying and personal tiredness. Yet, routine postnatal care often lacks effective strategies to alleviate these challenges which can adversely affect family health. We explored how new mothers experience and handle postnatal infant crying and their own tiredness in the context of changing hospital care practices in Switzerland. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to enroll 15 mothers of diverse parity and educational backgrounds, all of who had given birth to a full term healthy neonate. Using interpretive phenomenology, we analyzed interview and participant observation data collected during the postnatal hospital stay and at 6 and 12 weeks post birth. This paper reports on the postnatal hospital experience. Results Women's personal beliefs about beneficial childcare practices shaped how they cared for their newborn's and their own needs during the early postnatal period in the hospital. These beliefs ranged from an infant-centered approach focused on the infant's development of a basic sense of trust to an approach that balanced the infants' demands with the mother's personal needs. Getting adequate rest was particularly difficult for mothers striving to provide infant-centered care for an unsettled neonate. These mothers suffered from sleep deprivation and severe tiredness unless they were able to leave the baby with health professionals for several hours during the night. Conclusion New mothers often need permission to attend to their own needs, as well as practical support with childcare to recover from birth especially when neonates are fussy. To strengthen family health from the earliest stage, postnatal care should establish conditions which enable new mothers to balance the care of their

  19. Postnatal epigenetic modification of glucocorticoid receptor gene in preterm infants: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kantake, Masato; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Araki, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the environmental effects on cytosine methylation of preterm infant's DNA, because early life experiences are considered to influence the physiological and mental health of an individual through epigenetic modification of DNA. Design A prospective cohort study, comparison of epigenetic differences in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene between healthy term and preterm infants. Setting Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in a Japanese University Hospital. Participants A cohort of 40 (20 term and 20 preterm) infants was recruited on the day of birth, and peripheral blood was obtained from each infant at birth and on postnatal day 4. Main outcome measures The methylation rates in the 1-F promoter region of the GR gene using the Mquant method. Results The methylation rate increased significantly between postnatal days 0 and 4 in preterm infants but remained stable in term infants. Thus, the methylation rate was significantly higher in preterm than in term infants at postnatal day 4. Several perinatal parameters were significantly correlated with this change in the methylation rate. Logistic regression analysis revealed that methylation rates at postnatal day 4 predicted the occurrence of later complications that required glucocorticoid administration during the neonatal period. No gene polymorphism was detected within the GR promoter region analysed. Conclusions Although further large-scale studies are needed to detect the environmental factors that explain the difference in epigenetic modification among infants after birth, our data show that the postnatal environment influences epigenetic programming of GR expression through methylation of the GR gene promoter in premature infants, which may result in relative glucocorticoid insufficiency during the postnatal period. PMID:25023132

  20. Yolk testosterone reduces oxidative damages during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, José Carlos; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Kim, Sin-Yeon; Morales, Judith; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can influence the development of an organism and several physiological traits, even in adulthood. An important factor is the level of oxidative stress experienced during early life. In birds, extra-genomic egg substances, such as the testosterone hormone, may exert a widespread influence over the offspring phenotype. Interestingly, testosterone can also upregulate the bioavailability of certain antioxidants but simultaneously increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress in adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of maternally derived yolk testosterone on oxidative stress in developing birds. Here, we investigated the role of yolk testosterone on oxidative stress of yellow-legged gull chicks during their early development by experimentally increasing yolk testosterone levels. Levels of antioxidants, reactive oxygen species and lipid oxidative damage were determined in plasma during nestlings' growth. Our results revealed that, contrary to control chicks, birds hatched from testosterone-treated eggs did not show an increase in the levels of oxidative damage during postnatal development. Moreover, the same birds showed a transient increase in plasma antioxidant levels. Our results suggest that yolk testosterone may shape the oxidative stress-resistance phenotype of the chicks during early development owing to an increase in antioxidant defences and repair processes. PMID:20659922

  1. Factors associated with lack of postnatal care among Palestinian women: A cross-sectional study of three clinics in the West Bank

    PubMed Central

    Dhaher, Enas; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Maxwell, Annette E; Krämer, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Background Only about one-third of women in Palestine (West Bank and Gaza) obtain postpartum care. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess factors associated with lack of postnatal care, women's reasons for not obtaining postnatal care, and their attitudes towards its importance. Methods In early 2006, a cross-sectional survey was conducted at three clinics run by the Ministry of Health providing Mother and Child Health Care in West Bank, Palestine. A total of 264 postpartum women attending the clinics were interviewed face-to-face, using a structured questionnaire. Results Although the majority of women considered postnatal care necessary (66.1%), only 36.6% of women obtained postnatal care. The most frequent reason for not obtaining postnatal care was that women did not feel sick and therefore did not need postnatal care (85%), followed by not having been told by their doctor to come back for postnatal care (15.5%). Based on a multivariable analysis, use of postnatal care was higher among women who had experienced problems during their delivery, had a cesarean section, or had an instrumental vaginal delivery than among women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery. Use of postnatal care was also higher among women who delivered in a private hospital as compared to those who delivered in a public hospital. In addition, we found regional differences. Conclusion The higher use of postnatal care among high-risk women is appropriate, but some clinically dangerous conditions can also occur in low-risk women. Future efforts should therefore focus on providing postnatal care to a larger number of low-risk women. PMID:18638395

  2. Prenatal and Postnatal Management of Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pravin K.; Palmer, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of pregnant women in the U.S. undergo prenatal ultrasonography and approximately 0.5% of these examinations will detect fetal malformations. Up to one-half of these abnormalities include the genitourinary system and the most common urological finding is hydronephrosis. Some conditions associated with prenatal hydronephrosis portend a poor prognosis, while others can follow a fairly benign course. This review focuses on the definition and prenatal assessment of hydronephrosis, fetal intervention, and postnatal management. PMID:19618087

  3. Lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism: a severe lethal condition resembling Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Merrer, M L; Briard, M L; Girard, S; Mulliez, N; Moraine, C; Imbert, M C

    1988-01-01

    We report eight cases of a lethal association of failure to thrive, facial dysmorphism, ambiguous genitalia, syndactyly, postaxial polydactyly, and internal developmental anomalies (Hirschsprung's disease, cardiac and renal malformation). This syndrome is likely to be autosomal recessive and resembles Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. However, the lethality, the common occurrence of polydactyly, and the sexual ambiguity distinguishes this condition from SLO syndrome. A review of published reports supports the separate classification of this syndrome for which we propose the name lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism. Images PMID:2831368

  4. Influence of prenatal and postnatal growth on intellectual functioning in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Ramakrishnan, Usha; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Flores, Rafael; Singkhornard, Jintana; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-05-01

    To assess the relative influence of size at birth, infant growth, and late postnatal growth on intellectual functioning at 9 years of age. A follow-up, cross-sectional study. Three districts in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand. A total of 560 children, or 92% of former participants of a trial of iron and/or zinc supplementation during infancy. Prenatal (size at birth), early infancy (birth to 4 months), late infancy (4 months to 1 year), and late postnatal (1 to 9 years) growth. Multiple-stage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth. Intellectual functioning was measured at 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (Pearson). Analyses included adjustment for maternal, household, and school characteristics. Significant relationships were found between growth and IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, third edition, Thai version), but only up to 1 year of age; overall, growth was not related to the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The strongest and most consistent relationships were with length (birth, early infancy, and late infancy); for weight, only early infancy gain was consistently related to IQ. Head circumference at birth was not collected routinely; head circumference at 4 months (but not head circumference growth thereafter) was related to IQ. Late postnatal growth was not associated with any outcome. Physical growth in early infancy (and, to a lesser extent, physical growth in late infancy and at birth) is associated with IQ at 9 years of age. Early infancy may be a critical window for human development.

  5. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale…

  6. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry. PMID:16129826

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Amish lethal microcephaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs in approximately 1 in 500 newborns in the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania. It has not been found outside this population. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why ... in the SLC25A19 gene cause Amish lethal microcephaly . The SLC25A19 ...

  8. The phylogenetic roots of human lethal violence.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José María; Verdú, Miguel; González-Megías, Adela; Méndez, Marcos

    2016-10-13

    The psychological, sociological and evolutionary roots of conspecific violence in humans are still debated, despite attracting the attention of intellectuals for over two millennia. Here we propose a conceptual approach towards understanding these roots based on the assumption that aggression in mammals, including humans, has a significant phylogenetic component. By compiling sources of mortality from a comprehensive sample of mammals, we assessed the percentage of deaths due to conspecifics and, using phylogenetic comparative tools, predicted this value for humans. The proportion of human deaths phylogenetically predicted to be caused by interpersonal violence stood at 2%. This value was similar to the one phylogenetically inferred for the evolutionary ancestor of primates and apes, indicating that a certain level of lethal violence arises owing to our position within the phylogeny of mammals. It was also similar to the percentage seen in prehistoric bands and tribes, indicating that we were as lethally violent then as common mammalian evolutionary history would predict. However, the level of lethal violence has changed through human history and can be associated with changes in the socio-political organization of human populations. Our study provides a detailed phylogenetic and historical context against which to compare levels of lethal violence observed throughout our history.

  9. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  10. Prenatal and postnatal stress and asthma in children: Temporal- and sex-specific associations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Rosa, Maria José; Jara, Calvin; Wright, Robert O; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-09-01

    Temporal- and sex-specific effects of perinatal stress have not been examined for childhood asthma. We examined associations between prenatal and/or postnatal stress and children's asthma (n = 765) and effect modification by sex in a prospective cohort study. Maternal negative life events were ascertained prenatally and postpartum. Negative life event scores were categorized as 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or 5 or greater to assess exposure-response relationships. We examined effects of prenatal and postnatal stress on children's asthma by age 6 years, modeling each as independent predictors, mutually adjusting for prenatal and postnatal stress, and finally considering interactions between prenatal and postnatal stress. Effect modification by sex was examined in stratified analyses and by fitting interaction terms. When considering stress in each period independently, among boys, a dose-response relationship was evident for each level increase on the ordinal scale prenatally (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.79; P value for trend = .03) and postnatally (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P value for trend = .001); among girls, only the postnatal trend was significant (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.14-2.22; P value for trend = .005). Higher stress in both the prenatal and postnatal periods was associated with increased odds of receiving a diagnosis of asthma in girls (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.98-1.91; Pinteraction = .07) but not boys (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82-1.42; Pinteraction = .61). Although boys were more vulnerable to stress during the prenatal period, girls were more affected by postnatal stress and cumulative stress across both periods in relation to asthma. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to early-life stress might provide unique insight into the cause and natural history of asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Postnatal Psychosocial Assessment and Clinical Decision-Making, a Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Sims, Deborah; Fowler, Cathrine

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study is to describe experienced child and family health nurses' clinical decision-making during a postnatal psychosocial assessment. Maternal emotional wellbeing in the postnatal year optimises parenting and promotes infant development. Psychosocial assessment potentially enables early intervention and reduces the risk of a mental disorder occurring during this time of change. Assessment accuracy, and the interventions used are determined by the standard of nursing decision-making. A qualitative methodology was employed to explore decision-making behaviour when conducting a postnatal psychosocial assessment. This study was conducted in an Australian early parenting organisation. Twelve experienced child and family health nurses were interviewed. A detailed description of a postnatal psychosocial assessment process was obtained using a critical incident technique. Template analysis was used to determine the information domains the nurses accessed, and content analysis was used to determine the nurses' thinking strategies, to make clinical decisions from this assessment. The nurses described 24 domains of information and used 17 thinking strategies, in a variety of combinations. The four information domains most commonly used were parenting, assessment tools, women-determined issues and sleep. The seven thinking strategies most commonly used were searching for information, forming relationships between the information, recognising a pattern, drawing a conclusion, setting priorities, providing explanations for the information and judging the value of the information. The variety and complexity of the clinical decision-making involved in postnatal psychosocial assessment confirms that the nurses use information appropriately and within their scope of nursing practice. The standard of clinical decision-making determines the results of the assessment and the optimal access to care. Knowledge of the information domains and the decision-making strategies

  12. Dietary supplements for preventing postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brendan J; Murray, Linda; Beckmann, Michael M; Kent, Terrence; Macfarlane, Bonnie

    2013-10-24

    Postnatal depression is a medical condition that affects many women and the development of their infants. There is a lack of evidence for treatment and prevention strategies that are safe for mothers and infants. Certain dietary deficiencies in a pregnant or postnatal woman's diet may cause postnatal depression. By correcting these deficiencies postnatal depression could be prevented in some women. Specific examples of dietary supplements aimed at preventing postnatal depression include: omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folate, s-adenosyl-L-methionine, cobalamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin, vitamin D and calcium. To assess the benefits of dietary supplements for preventing postnatal depression either in the antenatal period, postnatal period, or both. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013). Randomised controlled trials, involving women who were pregnant or who had given birth in the previous six weeks, who were not depressed or taking antidepressants at the commencement of the trials. The trials could use as intervention any dietary supplementation alone or in combination with another treatment compared with any other preventive treatment, or placebo, or standard clinical care. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias for the two included studies. Two review authors extracted data and the data were checked for accuracy. We included two randomised controlled trials.One trial compared oral 100 microgram (µg) selenium yeast tablets with placebo, taken from the first trimester until birth. The trial randomised 179 women but outcome data were only provided for 85 women. Eighty-three women were randomised to each arm of the trial. Sixty-one women completed the selenium arm, 44 of whom completed an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). In the placebo arm, 64 women completed the trial, 41 of whom completed an EPDS. This included study (n = 85) found selenium had an effect

  13. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Clarkson, Edward D; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-01

    Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc) route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  14. Diagnosis of neonatal ovarian torsion: Emphasis on prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Su; Yoo, So-Young; Cha, Min Jae; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Wee Kyoung

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively review the imaging findings of patients with neonatal ovarian torsion, emphasizing prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings. Eleven patients who had had neonatal ovarian torsion diagnosed surgically (n = 9) or clinicoradiologically (n = 2) were enrolled. Prenatal and postnatal sonographic features, including sequential postnatal change, were reviewed. Clinical and pathologic features were also investigated. All patients except one had a fetal ovarian cyst (mean, 5.3 cm) detected on third-trimester sonography, either simple (n = 6) or complex (n = 4). In all 11 patients, initial postnatal sonography had revealed a complex cyst (mean, 4.7 cm) with intracystic clot or debris, the double-wall sign, a fluid-fluid level, and multiple septation. None of the patients had had symptoms or signs related to the ovarian torsion. Follow-up sonography in seven patients had revealed increased echogenicity of the cyst wall with frequent calcification and a decrease in size of the cyst. In two patients, the interval of the change in cyst position was noted, and autoamputation of the torsed ovary had been surgically confirmed. Serous cystadenoma had been identified in one patient. Neonatal ovarian torsion most commonly manifests as an asymptomatic complex cyst on sonography due to torsion of a fetal ovarian cyst. Serial monitoring of a fetal ovarian cyst for its resolution or changes in its appearance is mandatory for making an early diagnosis of torsion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:290-297, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson's Disease in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life.

  16. Connective tissue growth factor is required for skeletal development and postnatal skeletal homeostasis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Beamer, Wesley G; Economides, Aris N; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna

    2010-08-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr 61), CTGF, nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) (CCN) family of proteins, is synthesized by osteoblasts, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. The global inactivation of Ctgf leads to defective endochondral bone formation and perinatal lethality; therefore, the consequences of Ctgf inactivation on the postnatal skeleton are not known. To study the function of CTGF, we generated Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous null mice and tissue-specific null Ctgf mice by mating Ctgf conditional mice, where Ctgf is flanked by lox sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the paired-related homeobox gene 1 (Prx1) enhancer (Prx1-Cre) or the osteocalcin promoter (Oc-Cre). Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous mice exhibited transient osteopenia at 1 month of age secondary to decreased trabecular number. A similar osteopenic phenotype was observed in 1-month-old Ctgf conditional null male mice generated with Prx1-Cre, suggesting that the decreased trabecular number was secondary to impaired endochondral bone formation. In contrast, when the conditional deletion of Ctgf was achieved by Oc-Cre, an osteopenic phenotype was observed only in 6-month-old male mice. Osteoblast and osteoclast number, bone formation, and eroded surface were not affected in Ctgf heterozygous or conditional null mice. In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis.

  17. Notch Signaling in Postnatal Pituitary Expansion: Proliferation, Progenitors, and Cell Specification

    PubMed Central

    Nantie, Leah B.; Himes, Ashley D.; Getz, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PROP1 account for up to half of the cases of combined pituitary hormone deficiency that result from known causes. Despite this, few signaling molecules and pathways that influence PROP1 expression have been identified. Notch signaling has been linked to Prop1 expression, but the developmental periods during which Notch signaling influences Prop1 and overall pituitary development remain unclear. To test the requirement for Notch signaling in establishing the normal pituitary hormone milieu, we generated mice with early embryonic conditional loss of Notch2 (conditional knockout) and examined the consequences of chemical Notch inhibition during early postnatal pituitary maturation. We show that loss of Notch2 has little influence on early embryonic pituitary proliferation but is crucial for postnatal progenitor maintenance and proliferation. In addition, we show that Notch signaling is necessary embryonically and postnatally for Prop1 expression and robust Pit1 lineage hormone cell expansion, as well as repression of the corticotrope lineage. Taken together, our studies identify temporal and cell type–specific roles for Notch signaling and highlight the importance of this pathway throughout pituitary development. PMID:24673559

  18. Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Demontigny, Francine; Girard, Marie-Eve; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane; Devault, Annie

    2013-08-15

    While maternal postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon, paternal postnatal depression has been less studied. It is known that paternal postnatal depression impacts on children's and families' development, affects marital satisfaction and affects the economic health of industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted with a sample of fathers of infants (average age: 11 months) who were breastfed exclusively or predominantly for at least 6 months, comparing psychosocial factors in fathers with (n: 17, 8.2%) and without a positive score for depression on the EPDS scale (n: 188). Psychosocial factors were assessed through questionnaires. Depression in fathers of breastfed infants is associated with the experience of perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, parenting distress, infant temperament (difficult child), dysfunctional interactions with the child, decreased marital adjustment and perceived low parenting efficacy. Multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of psychosocial factors such as parenting distress, quality of the marital relationship and perceived parenting efficacy on paternal depression. The sample focused on fathers of breastfed infant, since breastfeeding has become the feeding norm, and this should be taken into account when considering the generalization of findings. These findings emphasize the need to consider a set of psychosocial factors when examining fathers' mental health in the first year of a child's birth. Health professionals can enhance parenting efficacy and alleviate parenting distress by supporting fathers' unique experiences and addressing their needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transporting Patients with Lethal Contagious Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    will be analyzed. If the patient requires a BSL-4 patient care room, he or she must be transported to the US Army Medical Research Institute of...consists of a physician, a registered nurse, and 4 to 6 medics who can manage one patient (Figure 2). The team can provide emer- gency care, such as airway...CLINICAL DECISIONS Section Editor: Colleen Swartz, RN, MSN, CCRN Transporting Patients with Lethal Contagious Infections Q If a trauma patient is

  20. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) Reference Book

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Array (DSLA) 7 Navy Anti- Swimmer Grenade 7 CP DEVELOPMENTAL NLW Improved Flash Bang Grenade (IFBG) 8 Airburst Non-Lethal Munitions (ANLM) 8...to take all feasible precautions to avoid the incidence of permanent blindness to unenhanced vision training . Frequently Asked Questions iv v...deliver an electro-muscular disruption charge out to 35 feet to disable resistant individuals. This device enhances force protection and mission

  2. Lack of evidence for intergenerational reproductive effects due to prenatal and postnatal undernutrition in the female CD-1 mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of adverse environments during the prenatal and/or early postnatal periods may be manifested as functional deficits that occur later in life. Epidemiological studies have shown an association of sub-optimal pregnancy outcomes in one generation with similar events in t...

  3. Complement component 5 promotes lethal thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Yoshioka, Kengo; Mizuno, Masashi; Shimizu, Mie; Nagano, Fumihiko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Imai, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular histones promote platelet aggregation and thrombosis; this is followed by induction of coagulation disorder, which results in exhaustion of coagulation factors. Complement component 5 (C5) is known to be associated with platelet aggregation and coagulation system activation. To date, the pathological mechanism underlying liver injury has remained unclear. Here, we investigated whether C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. C5-sufficient and C5-deficient mice received single tail vein injections of purified, unfractionated histones obtained from calf thymus (45–75 μg/g). Subsequently, the mice were monitored for survival for up to 72 h. Based on the survival data, the 45 μg/g dose was used for analysis of blood cell count, liver function, blood coagulation ability, and promotion of platelet aggregation and platelet/leukocyte aggregate (PLA) production by extracellular histones. C5-deficient mice were protected from lethal thrombosis and had milder thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy, and liver injury with embolism and lower PLA production than C5-sufficient mice. These results indicate that C5 is associated with coagulation disorders, PLA production, and embolism-induced liver injury. In conclusion, C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. PMID:28205538

  4. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin. PMID:26018668

  5. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  6. From antenatal to postnatal depression: associated factors and mitigating influences.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Maggie; Henderson, Jane

    2013-06-01

    Postnatal depression has a serious impact on new mothers and their children and families. Risk factors identified include a history of depression, multiparity, and young age. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with experiencing antenatal depression and developing subsequent postnatal depression. The study utilized survey data from 5332 women about their experience and well-being during pregnancy, in labor, and postnatally up to 3 months. Prespecified sociodemographic and clinical variables were tabulated against the incidence of antenatal depression and postnatal depression. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of the principal underlying variables. Risk factors for antenatal depression were multiparity, black and minority ethnic (BME) status, physical or mental health problems, living in a deprived area, and unplanned pregnancy. Different factors for postnatal depression were evident among women who had experienced antenatal depression: multiparity and BME status were protective, whereas being left alone in labor and experiencing poor postnatal health increased the risk of postnatal depression. This study confirms previous research on risk factors for antenatal depression and stresses the importance of continuous support in labor and vigilance in the postnatal period regarding the potential ill effects of continuing postnatal health problems.

  7. Embryonic lethality is not sufficient to explain hourglass-like conservation of vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yui; Uesaka, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Irie, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the general trends in developmental changes during animal evolution, which are often associated with morphological diversification, has long been a central issue in evolutionary developmental biology. Recent comparative transcriptomic studies revealed that gene expression profiles of mid-embryonic period tend to be more evolutionarily conserved than those in earlier or later periods. While the hourglass-like divergence of developmental processes has been demonstrated in a variety of animal groups such as vertebrates, arthropods, and nematodes, the exact mechanism leading to this mid-embryonic conservation remains to be clarified. One possibility is that the mid-embryonic period (pharyngula period in vertebrates) is highly prone to embryonic lethality, and the resulting negative selections lead to evolutionary conservation of this phase. Here, we tested this "mid-embryonic lethality hypothesis" by measuring the rate of lethal phenotypes of three different species of vertebrate embryos subjected to two kinds of perturbations: transient perturbations and genetic mutations. By subjecting zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ), and chicken ( Gallus gallus ) embryos to transient perturbations, namely heat shock and inhibitor treatments during three developmental periods [early (represented by blastula and gastrula), pharyngula, and late], we found that the early stages showed the highest rate of lethal phenotypes in all three species. This result was corroborated by perturbation with genetic mutations. By tracking the survival rate of wild-type embryos and embryos with genetic mutations induced by UV irradiation in zebrafish and African clawed frogs, we found that the highest decrease in survival rate was at the early stages particularly around gastrulation in both these species. In opposition to the "mid-embryonic lethality hypothesis," our results consistently showed that the stage with the highest lethality was not around the

  8. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Methods Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Results Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Conclusion Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development. PMID:25996151

  9. Deletion of neurturin impairs development of cholinergic nerves and heart rate control in postnatal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Downs, Anthony M; Jalloh, Hawa B; Prater, Kayla J; Fregoso, Santiago P; Bond, Cherie E; Hampton, Thomas G; Hoover, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    The neurotrophic factor neurturin is required for normal cholinergic innervation of adult mouse heart and bradycardic responses to vagal stimulation. Our goals were to determine effects of neurturin deletion on development of cardiac chronotropic and dromotropic functions, vagal baroreflex response, and cholinergic nerve density in nodal regions of postnatal mice. Experiments were performed on postnatal C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and neurturin knockout (KO) mice. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded noninvasively from conscious pups using an ECGenie apparatus. Mice were treated with atenolol to evaluate and block sympathetic effects on heart rate (HR) and phenylephrine (PE) to stimulate the baroreflex. Immunohistochemistry was used to label cholinergic nerves in paraffin sections. WT and KO mice showed similar age-dependent increases in HR and decreases in PR interval between postnatal days (P) 2.5 and 21. Treatment with atenolol reduced HR significantly in WT and KO pups at P7.5. PE caused a reflex bradycardia that was significantly smaller in KO pups. Cholinergic nerve density was significantly less in nodal regions of P7.5 KO mice. We conclude that cholinergic nerves have minimal influence on developmental changes in HR and PR, QRS, and QTc intervals in mouse pups. However, cholinergic nerves mediate reflex bradycardia by 1 week postnatally. Deletion of neurturin impairs cholinergic innervation of the heart and the vagal efferent component of the baroreflex early during postnatal development. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Maternal deprivation decelerates postnatal morphological lung development of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Hupa, Katharina Luise; Schmiedl, Andreas; Pabst, Reinhard; Von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Intensive medical care at premature born infants is often associated with separation of neonates from their mothers. Here, early artificial prolonged separation of rat pups from their dams (Maternal Deprivation, MD) was used to study potential impact on morphological lung maturation. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of an endogenous deficiency of the neuropeptide-cleaving dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), since the effects of MD are known to be partly mediated via neuropeptidergic effects, hypothesizing that MD will lead to a retardation of postnatal lung development, DPP4-dependendly. We used wild type and CD26/DPP4 deficient rats. For MD, the dam was placed each day into a separate cage for 2 h, while the pups remained in the nest on their own. Morphological lung maturation and cell proliferation at the postnatal days 7, 10, 14, and 21 were determined morphometrically. Maternally deprived wild types showed a retarded postnatal lung development compared with untreated controls in both substrains. During alveolarization, an increased thickness of alveolar septa and a decreased surface of septa about 50% were found. At the end of the morphological lung maturation, the surface of the alveolar septa was decreased at about 25% and the septal thickness remained increased about 20%. The proliferation rate was also decreased about 50% on day 14. However, the MD induced effects were less pronounced in DPP4-deficient rats, due to a significant deceleration already induced by DPP4-deficiency. Thus, MD as a model for postnatal stress experience influences remarkably postnatal development of rats, which is significantly modulated by the DPP4-system. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Multi-locus phylogeny of lethal amanitas: Implications for species diversity and historical biogeography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lethal amanitas (Amanita section Phalloideae) are a group of wild, fatal mushrooms causing many poisoning cases worldwide. However, the diversity and evolutionary history of these lethal mushrooms remain poorly known due to the limited sampling and insufficient gene fragments employed for phylogenetic analyses. In this study, five gene loci (nrLSU, ITS, rpb2, ef1-α and β-tubulin) with a widely geographic sampling from East and South Asia, Europe, North and Central America, South Africa and Australia were analysed with maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Biochemical analyses were also conducted with intention to detect amatoxins and phalloidin in 14 representative samples. Result Lethal amanitas were robustly supported to be a monophyletic group after excluding five species that were provisionally defined as lethal amanitas based on morphological studies. In lethal amanitas, 28 phylogenetic species were recognised by integrating molecular phylogenetic analyses with morphological studies, and 14 of them represented putatively new species. The biochemical analyses indicated a single origin of cyclic peptide toxins (amatoxins and phalloidin) within Amanita and suggested that this kind of toxins seemed to be a synapomorphy of lethal amanitas. Molecular dating through BEAST and biogeographic analyses with LAGRANGE and RASP indicated that lethal amanitas most likely originated in the Palaeotropics with the present crown group dated around 64.92 Mya in the early Paleocene, and the East Asia–eastern North America or Eurasia–North America–Central America disjunct distribution patterns were primarily established during the middle Oligocene to Miocene. Conclusion The cryptic diversity found in this study indicates that the species diversity of lethal amanitas is strongly underestimated under the current taxonomy. The intercontinental sister species or sister groups relationships among East Asia and eastern North America or

  12. Congenital malformations, palliative care and postnatal redirection to more intensive treatment - a review at a Swiss tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Ulrich; Gubler, Deborah; Bergstraesser, Eva; Bassler, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    The so-called lethal malformations pose ethical challenges. Most affected fetuses die before or at birth. Live-born neonates commonly receive palliative care. If the postnatal course is better than expected, redirection towards more treatment may occur. We aimed to analyze this in a Swiss patient cohort. Over 6 years, fetal malformation was suspected in 1113 cases. We identified patients prenatally assigned to palliative care, assessed pre- and postnatal diagnoses, and outcomes. Fourteen neonates received palliative care. Eleven patients received palliative care following late termination of pregnancy, for three, palliative care was planned and the fetus died during delivery, for two, the outcome was unknown (incomplete documentation). Genetic testing was performed in 50%. The predominant diagnostic group was central nervous system malformations (33%), followed by chromosomal aberrations (20%) and renal anomalies (17%). One child assigned to palliative care was resuscitated. Antenatal findings were anhydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia. Postnatally, respiration was better than expected. The neonate was admitted to intensive care, died on day one. Nervous system malformations seem to be a major criterion for foregoing life-sustaining interventions. Redirection towards more treatment is rare. This may reflect precise prenatal prognostication; a degree of self-fulfilling prophecy cannot be excluded.

  13. Synthetic Lethal Networks for Precision Oncology: Promises and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shen, John Paul; Ideker, Trey

    2018-06-19

    Synthetic lethal interactions, in which the simultaneous loss-of-function of two genes produces a lethal phenotype, are being explored as a means to therapeutically exploit cancer-specific vulnerabilities and expand the scope of precision oncology. Currently, three FDA approved drugs work by targeting the synthetic lethal interaction between BRCA1/2 and PARP. This review examines additional efforts to discover networks of synthetic lethal interactions and discusses both challenges and opportunities regarding the translation of new synthetic lethal interactions into the clinic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Postnatal Innate Immune Development: From Birth to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Georgountzou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that adaptive immune responses are deficient in early life, contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. The developmental trajectories of different components of innate immunity are only recently being explored. Individual molecules, cells, or pathways of innate recognition and signaling, within different compartments/anatomical sites, demonstrate variable maturation patterns. Despite some discrepancies among published data, valuable information is emerging, showing that the developmental pattern of cytokine responses during early life is age and toll-like receptor specific, and may be modified by genetic and environmental factors. Interestingly, specific environmental exposures have been linked both to innate function modifications and the occurrence of chronic inflammatory disorders, such as respiratory allergies. As these conditions are on the rise, our knowledge on innate immune development and its modulating factors needs to be expanded. Improved understanding of the sequence of events associated with disease onset and persistence will lead toward meaningful interventions. This review describes the state-of-the-art on normal postnatal innate immune ontogeny and highlights research areas that are currently explored or should be further addressed. PMID:28848557

  15. Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Low Dose Glufosinate Ammonium Induces Autism-Like Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laugeray, Anthony; Herzine, Ameziane; Perche, Olivier; Hébert, Betty; Aguillon-Naury, Marine; Richard, Olivier; Menuet, Arnaud; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Lesné, Laurianne; Briault, Sylvain; Jegou, Bernard; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Mortaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. As is the case for most pesticides, potential adverse effects of GLA have not been studied from the perspective of developmental neurotoxicity. Early pesticides exposure may weaken the basic structure of the developing brain and cause permanent changes leading to a wide range of lifelong effects on health and/or behavior. Here, we addressed the developmental impact of GLA by exposing female mice to low dose GLA during both pre- and postnatal periods and analyzed potential developmental and behavioral changes of the offspring during infancy and adulthood. A neurobehavioral test battery revealed significant effects of GLA maternal exposure on early reflex development, pup communication, affiliative behaviors, and preference for social olfactory cues, but emotional reactivity and emotional memory remained unaltered. These behavioral alterations showed a striking resemblance to changes seen in animal models of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. At the brain level, GLA maternal exposure caused some increase in relative brain weight of the offspring. In addition, reduced expression of Pten and Peg3 – two genes implicated in autism-like deficits – was observed in the brain of GLA-exposed pups at postnatal day 15. Our work thus provides new data on the link between pre- and postnatal exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of autism-like symptoms later in life. It also raises fundamental concerns about the ability of current safety testing to assess risks of pesticide exposure during critical developmental periods. PMID:25477793

  16. Macrophage-Mediated Glial Cell Elimination in the Postnatal Mouse Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, LaShardai N.; Xing, Yazhi; Noble, Kenyaria V.; Barth, Jeremy L.; Panganiban, Clarisse H.; Smythe, Nancy M.; Bridges, Mary C.; Zhu, Juhong; Lang, Hainan

    2017-01-01

    Hearing relies on the transmission of auditory information from sensory hair cells (HCs) to the brain through the auditory nerve. This relay of information requires HCs to be innervated by spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in an exclusive manner and SGNs to be ensheathed by myelinating and non-myelinating glial cells. In the developing auditory nerve, mistargeted SGN axons are retracted or pruned and excessive cells are cleared in a process referred to as nerve refinement. Whether auditory glial cells are eliminated during auditory nerve refinement is unknown. Using early postnatal mice of either sex, we show that glial cell numbers decrease after the first postnatal week, corresponding temporally with nerve refinement in the developing auditory nerve. Additionally, expression of immune-related genes was upregulated and macrophage numbers increase in a manner coinciding with the reduction of glial cell numbers. Transient depletion of macrophages during early auditory nerve development, using transgenic CD11bDTR/EGFP mice, resulted in the appearance of excessive glial cells. Macrophage depletion caused abnormalities in myelin formation and transient edema of the stria vascularis. Macrophage-depleted mice also showed auditory function impairment that partially recovered in adulthood. These findings demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and that glial cells play a critical role in hearing onset and auditory nerve maturation. PMID:29375297

  17. Postnatal cocaine exposure: effects on behavior of rats in forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana; Tavares, Maria Amélia; de Sousa, Liliana

    2002-06-01

    Exposure to cocaine in early periods of postnatal life has adverse effects on behavior, namely, it induces the display of anxiety and fear-like behaviors that are associated with stress and depression. This study examined the effects of early developmental cocaine exposure in several categories of behavior observed in forced swim test. Male and female Wistar rats were given 15 mg/kg of cocaine hydrochloride/body weight/day, subcutaneously, in two daily doses, from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND27. Controls were saline injected in the same protocol. In PND26-PND27, rats were placed in a swimming pool during 5 min in two sessions. The categories of behavior studied in this work included horizontal and vertical rotation, vibrissae clean, head clean, fast and slow swim, struggling, floating, sliding, diving, head-diving, and wagging head. Results showed differences in the frequencies of several behavioral categories that allowed the discrimination of the behaviors that may constitute "behavioral despair" indicators, as well as which behaviors are most affected by cocaine exposure. Cocaine groups were less active and more immobile than controls. These results suggest that postnatal exposure to cocaine can produce depression-like effects and affect the ability of these animals to cope with stress situations.

  18. Lethal Forethought: Delayed Reward Discounting Differentiates High- and Low-Lethality Suicide Attempts in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Szanto, Katalin; Siegle, Greg J.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Forman, Steven D.; Sahakian, Barbara; Reynolds, Charles F.; Clark, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Background The decision to commit suicide may be impulsive, but lethal suicidal acts often involve planning and forethought. People who attempt suicide make disadvantageous decisions in other contexts, but nothing is known about the way they decide about the future. Can the willingness to postpone future gratification differentiate between individuals prone to serious, premeditated and less serious, unplanned suicidal acts? Methods Four groups of depressed participants aged 60+ made choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed monetary rewards: 15 who made high-lethality suicide attempts, 14 who made low-lethality suicide attempts, 12 who seriously contemplated suicide, and 42 people with depression but no history of suicidal thoughts. The reference group was 31 psychiatrically healthy elders. Results Individuals who had made low-lethality attempts displayed an exaggerated preference for immediate rewards compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy controls. Those who had carried out high-lethality suicide attempts were more willing to delay future rewards, compared to low-lethality attempters. Better planned suicide attempts were also associated with willingness to wait for larger rewards. These effects were unchanged after accounting for education, global cognitive function, substance use disorders, psychotropic medications, and possible brain injury from attempts. Discount rates were correlated with having debt but were not significantly associated with income, hopelessness, depressive severity, premorbid IQ, age at first attempt, or choice of violent means. Conclusions While clinicians often focus on impulsivity in patients at risk for suicide, these data suggest that identifying biological characteristics and treatments for non-impulsive suicidal older people may be even more important. PMID:21329911

  19. Postnatal proteasome inhibition induces neurodegeneration and cognitive deficiencies in adult mice: a new model of neurodevelopment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero-Granados, Rocío; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Aguilar-Montilla, Francisco Javier; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been related to aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease, although the effects of deficient proteasome activity during early postnatal development are poorly understood. Accordingly, we have assessed how proteasome dysfunction during early postnatal development, induced by administering proteasome inhibitors daily during the first 10 days of life, affects the behaviour of adult mice. We found that this regime of exposure to the proteasome inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin did not produce significant behavioural or morphological changes in the first 15 days of life. However, towards the end of the treatment with proteasome inhibitors, there was a loss of mitochondrial markers and activity, and an increase in DNA oxidation. On reaching adulthood, the memory of mice that were injected with proteasome inhibitors postnatally was impaired in hippocampal and amygdala-dependent tasks, and they suffered motor dysfunction and imbalance. These behavioural deficiencies were correlated with neuronal loss in the hippocampus, amygdala and brainstem, and with diminished adult neurogenesis. Accordingly, impairing proteasome activity at early postnatal ages appears to cause morphological and behavioural alterations in adult mice that resemble those associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or syndromes of mental retardation.

  20. [Current Practice of Pre- and Postnatal Screening and Future Developments for Evidence Based Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Hamelmann, E; Hartmann, A; Holtmann, M; Jöckel, K-H; Kremer, U; Legenbauer, T; Lücke, T; Radkowski, K; Reinehr, T; Wand, K; Mühlig, Y; Föcker, M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In this selective review we provide an overview of the current pre- and postnatal screenings up to 18 years established in Germany to inform physicians of different medical fields (gynecologists, pediatricians, general practitioners, other medical specialists who treat children, adolescents or pregnant females). Current State: Research on screening for different types of cancer has frequently failed to show any benefit. Thus, there is a need to broaden the evidence basis related to medical screenings especially for children and adolescents. Outlook: Potential future developments of pre- and postnatal screenings are illustrated including their social impact. The lack of an early detection of mental health problems is pointed out. An interdisciplinary collaboration and research is required to accumulate evidence with regard to medical screenings and to consider health economic and ethical aspects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Infant frontal EEG asymmetry in relation with postnatal maternal depression and parenting behavior.

    PubMed

    Wen, D J; Soe, N N; Sim, L W; Sanmugam, S; Kwek, K; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Meaney, M J; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Qiu, A

    2017-03-14

    Right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry associates with negative affect and depressed mood, which, among children, are predicted by maternal depression and poor parenting. This study examined associations of maternal depression and maternal sensitivity with infant frontal EEG asymmetry based on 111 mother-6-month-infant dyads. There were no significant effects of postnatal maternal depression or maternal sensitivity, or their interaction, on infant EEG frontal asymmetry. However, in a subsample for which the infant spent at least 50% of his/her day time hours with his/her mother, both lower maternal sensitivity and higher maternal depression predicted greater relative right frontal EEG asymmetry. Our study further showed that greater relative right frontal EEG asymmetry of 6-month-old infants predicted their greater negative emotionality at 12 months of age. Our study suggested that among infants with sufficient postnatal maternal exposure, both maternal sensitivity and mental health are important influences on early brain development.

  2. Modified prenatal sensory stimulation influences postnatal behavioral and perceptual responsiveness in bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Greg D; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Asynchronous bimodal stimulation during prenatal development elicits higher levels of behavioral and physiological arousal in precocial avian embryos than does unimodal sensory stimulation. To investigate whether the increased arousal associated with prenatal bimodal stimulation has enduring effects into postnatal development, bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos received no supplemental stimulation, unimodal auditory stimulation, or bimodal (audiovisual) stimulation prior to hatching. Embryos exposed to concurrent bimodal stimulation demonstrated greater levels of behavioral activity and failed to use maternal visual cues to successfully direct species-specific perceptual preferences following hatching. These results provide initial evidence that asynchronous bimodal sensory stimulation during prenatal development can have enduring effects on early postnatal behavioral arousal and perceptual responsiveness and suggest that developmental limitations on prenatal sensory stimulation play an important role in the emergence of species-typical behavior.

  3. Influence of socio-economic factors on emotional changes during the postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Wszołek, Katarzyna; Żak, Ewa; Żurawska, Joanna; Olszewska, Jolanta; Pięta, Beata; Bojar, Iwona

    2018-03-14

    The aim of the study was to identify socio-economic factors that may influence the emotional changes which occur among new mothers in the first days postpartum. A group of 541 women completed a questionnaire consisting of 30 multiple-choice questions, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Statistical calculations were performed with the use of Statistica v.10 and Cytel Studio v. 9.0.0. The findings revealed the presence of factors which might increase the risk of mood disorders during the postpartum period. Women who demonstrate warning symptoms should be screened for postnatal emotional changes and mood swings during their hospitalization after delivery. EPDS seems to be a suitable tool for early detection of emotional disturbances.

  4. Anger in the context of postnatal depression: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Ou, Christine H; Hall, Wendy A

    2018-05-20

    Contrary to social constructions of new motherhood as a joyous time, mothers may experience postnatal depression and anger. Although postnatal depression has been thoroughly studied, the expression of maternal anger in the context of postnatal depression is conceptually unclear. This integrative review investigated the framing of anger in the context of postnatal depression. After undertaking a search of CINAHL, Ovid-Medline, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, we identified qualitative (n = 7) and quantitative (n = 17) papers that addressed maternal anger and postnatal depression. We analyzed the data by developing themes. Our review indicated that anger was a salient mood disturbance for some postnatally depressed women with themes integrated as: (i) anger accompanying depression, (ii) powerlessness as a component of depression and anger, and (iii) anger occurring as a result of expectations being violated. Our findings indicate that anger can coexist with women's postnatal depression. Anger can be expressed toward the self and toward children and family members with negative relationship effects. We recommend that health care providers and researchers consider anger in the context of postnatal mood disturbances. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cognitive style, personality and vulnerability to postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lisa; Scott, Jan; Cooper, Caroline; Forty, Liz; Smith, Katherine Gordon; Sham, Pak; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Only some women with recurrent major depressive disorder experience postnatal episodes. Personality and/or cognitive styles might increase the likelihood of experiencing postnatal depression. To establish whether personality and cognitive style predicts vulnerability to postnatal episodes over and above their known relationship to depression in general. We compared personality and cognitive style in women with recurrent major depressive disorder who had experienced one or more postnatal episodes (postnatal depression (PND) group, n=143) with healthy female controls (control group, n=173). We also examined parous women with recurrent major depressive disorder who experienced no perinatal episodes (non-postnatal depression (NPND) group, n=131). The PND group had higher levels of neuroticism and dysfunctional beliefs, and lower self-esteem than the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the PND and NPND groups. Established personality and cognitive vulnerabilities for depression were reported by women with a history of postnatal depression, but there was no evidence that any of these traits or styles confer a specific risk for the postnatal onset of episodes.

  6. Defeat mutant KRAS with synthetic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiufeng; Liu, Mingyao

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ras proteins are considered as the founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that control fundamental cellular functions. Mutationally activated RAS genes were discovered in human cancer cells more than 3 decades ago, but intensive efforts on Ras structure, biochemistry, function and signaling continue even now. Because mutant Ras proteins are inherently difficult to inhibit and have yet been therapeutically conquered, it was designated as “the Everest of oncogenes” in the cancer genome landscape, further promoting a “renaissance” in RAS research. Different paths to directly or indirectly targeting mutant Ras signaling are currently under investigation in the hope of finding an efficacious regimen. Inhibitors directly binding to KRASG12C to block its downstream signaling have been revealed, supporting the notion of Ras' druggability. An alternative indirect approach by targeting synthetic lethal interactors of mutant RAS is underway. We recently employed a synthetic lethal drug screen plus a combinatorial strategy using a panel of clinical agents and discovered that KRAS-mutant cancers were fragile to the combined inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK). The combined regimen of BI-2536 (a Plk1 inhibitor) and fasudil (a ROCK inhibitor) promoted a significant inhibition of patient-derived lung cancer xenografts and prolonged the survival of LSL-KRASG12D mice. In this commentary, we will summarize the state-of-the art for the direction of synthetic lethality, and also speculate on the future development of this approach. PMID:27463838

  7. Lethal mobilization of DDT by cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Velzen, A.C.; Stiles, W.B.; Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an experimental demonstration of lethal mobilization of DDT by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and the effects of food deprivation on the distribution and loss of DDT, DDD, and DDE. The principal experimental group consisted of 20 birds fed a dietary dosage of 100 ppm of DDT for 13 days. After 2 days of full rations of untreated food, they were subjected to food restriction. Food was reduced to 43 percent of normal. Seven of the 20 birds died within 4 days. No birds died in the three control groups, treated as follows: ( 1 ) 20 birds fed 100 ppm DDT for 13 days and full rations of untreated food thereafter, (2) 20 birds fed only untreated food but subjected to food restriction, and (3) 20 birds fed full rations of untreated food throughout. In a pilot study, birds were fed 100, 200, or 300 ppm of DDT and subjected to two periods of food restriction, the first of these immediately after dosage ceased and the second 4 months later. DDT-dosed birds from all dosage levels died in each period of food restriction. Before the weight loss that accompanied food restriction, the brains of DDT-dosed birds had concentrations of DDT and DDD that were far below the lethal range. Concentrations increased rapidly to lethal levels. In these birds, DDT in carcasses decreased while DDD increased. DDT-dosed birds that died during food restriction lost 16 percent of their total body burden of DDT + DDD + DDE, 21 percent of their weight, and 81 percent of their fat. The DDT-dosed birds that were subjected to food restriction but survived lost a significantly greater proportion of their body burden of residues than similarly dosed birds not subjected to weight loss. Brain levels of DDT and DDD in birds that died during food restriction soon after dosage did not differ significantly from brain levels of birds that died in a period of food restriction 4 months after dosage. Concentrations of DDE were significantly higher in the latter group, although they were lower

  8. Home-based versus hospital-based postnatal care: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Boulvain, Michel; Perneger, Thomas V; Othenin-Girard, Véronique; Petrou, Stavros; Berner, Michel; Irion, Olivier

    2004-08-01

    To compare a shortened hospital stay with midwife visits at home to usual hospital care after delivery. Randomised controlled trial. Maternity unit of a Swiss teaching hospital. Four hundred and fifty-nine women with a single uncomplicated pregnancy at low risk of caesarean section. Women were randomised to either home-based (n= 228) or hospital-based postnatal care (n= 231). Home-based postnatal care consisted of early discharge from hospital (24 to 48 hours after delivery) and home visits by a midwife; women in the hospital-based care group were hospitalised for four to five days. Breastfeeding 28 days postpartum, women's views of their care and readmission to hospital. Women in the home-based care group had shorter hospital stays (65 vs 106 hours, P < 0.001) and more midwife visits (4.8 vs 1.7, P < 0.001) than women in the hospital-based care group. Prevalence of breastfeeding at 28 days was similar between the groups (90%vs 87%, P= 0.30), but women in the home-based care group reported fewer problems with breastfeeding and greater satisfaction with the help received. There were no differences in satisfaction with care, women's hospital readmissions, postnatal depression scores and health status scores. A higher percentage of neonates in the home-based care group were readmitted to hospital during the first six months (12%vs 4.8%, P= 0.004). In low risk pregnancies, early discharge from hospital and midwife visits at home after delivery is an acceptable alternative to a longer duration of care in hospital. Mothers' preferences and economic considerations should be taken into account when choosing a policy of postnatal care.

  9. Exploratory behavior in rats postnatally exposed to cocaine and housed in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana; Melo, Pedro; Alves, Cecília Juliana; Tavares, Maria Amélia; de Sousa, Liliana; Summavielle, Teresa

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to cocaine in early periods of postnatal life is usually associated with changes in development of neurotransmitter systems and structure of the central nervous system. Such changes are most likely correlated with behavioral alterations. Environmental enrichment conditions (EC) in early stages is a factor that affects structural and behavioral development. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of EC on rats postnatally exposed to cocaine on exploratory behavior. Wistar rats were assigned to four groups-Group 1: pups exposed to cocaine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg body weight/day) s.c., in two daily doses, from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 28 and reared in EC; Group 2: pups exposed to cocaine as previously described and reared in a standard environmental conditions (SC); Group 3: pups saline-injected and reared in EC; and Group 4: pups saline-injected and reared in SC. On PND 21, 24, and 28, groups of four rats (to reduce anxiety) were placed for 10 minutes into an arena with several objects. The following exploratory behavioral categories were examined: object interaction, exploration, manipulation, approximation, and total time of object contact. Animals from Group 2 showed decreased object interaction and total contact on PND 21. Control offspring reared in EE showed decreases in exploratory behavior at all ages analyzed compared with the control SE group, while cocaine-exposed animals reared in EC showed decreased object interaction, object approximation, and total exploratory behavior. The results in this group suggest that EC improved information acquisition and memory processes in animals postnatally exposed to cocaine.

  10. Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

    2008-12-01

    Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures.

  11. A post-weaning fish oil dietary intervention reverses adverse metabolic outcomes and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in postnatal overfed rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Nan; Sha, Lijun; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Junle; Li, Xiaonan

    2016-11-01

    Early life is considered a critical period for determining long-term metabolic health. Postnatal over-nutrition may alter glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism and increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the effects of the dose and timing of a fish oil diet on obesity and the expression of GC-activated enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) in postnatal overfed rats. Litter sizes were adjusted to three (small litter (SL)) or ten (normal litter) rats on postnatal day 3 to induce overfeeding or normal feeding. The SL rats were divided into three groups after weaning: high-dose fish oil (HFO), low-dose fish oil (LFO) and standard-diet groups. After 10 weeks, the HFO diet reduced body weight gain (16 %, P0·05). In conclusion, the post-weaning HFO diet could reverse adverse outcomes and decrease tissue GC activity in postnatal overfed rats.

  12. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a large prospective study.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Jeannette; Gemmill, Alan W; Bilszta, Justin L; Hayes, Barbara; Barnett, Bryanne; Brooks, Janette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Ellwood, David; Buist, Anne

    2008-05-01

    This study measured antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression in the Australian population, both singly and in combination. Risk factor data were gathered antenatally and depressive symptoms measured via the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program, a large prospective cohort study into perinatal mental health, conducted in all six states of Australia, and in the Australian Capital Territory, between 2002 and 2005. Pregnant women were screened for symptoms of postnatal depression at antenatal clinics in maternity services around Australia using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a psychosocial risk factor questionnaire that covered key demographic and psychosocial information. From a total of 40,333 participants, we collected antenatal EPDS data from 35,374 women and 3144 of these had a score >12 (8.9%). Subsequently, efforts were made to follow-up 22,968 women with a postnatal EPDS. Of 12,361 women who completed postnatal EPDS forms, 925 (7.5%) had an EPDS score >12. Antenatal depression together with a prior history of depression and a low level of partner support were the strongest independent antenatal predictors of a postnatal EPDS score >12. The two main limitations of the study were the use of the EPDS (a self-report screening tool) as the measure of depressive symptoms rather than a clinical diagnosis, and the rate of attrition between antenatal screening and the collection of postnatal follow-up data. Antenatal depressive symptoms appear to be as common as postnatal depressive symptoms. Previous depression, current depression/anxiety, and low partner support are found to be key antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression in this large prospective cohort, consistent with existing meta-analytic surveys. Current depression/anxiety (and to some extent social support) may be amenable to change and can therefore be targeted for intervention.

  13. Pain as a confounding factor in postnatal depression screening.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Maron, Michel; Delion, Pierre; Thomas, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is one of the most serious complications following delivery in developed countries today. Thus, early screening strategies by first-line healthcare workers are of primary importance. Pain following childbirth has been proposed as a possible risk-marker for later depressive disorder. We tested this assumption and explored the possible link between pain and overestimation of PND risk in routine clinical screenings. We assessed 320 women between the third and fifth day after delivery as well as at 8 weeks post-partum (PP). Midwives were asked to evaluate the risk of later PND upon discharge from the maternity unit; additionally, pain measurements were obtained using the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) over the same time period. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk markers linked to a positive depressive disorder diagnosis (according to the MINI-DSM-IV) at 8 weeks PP. Multivariate risk analysis showed no statistical link between physical pain shortly after childbirth and subsequent PND diagnosis at 8 weeks PP. However, VAS measurements for pain were significantly higher for women that the midwives estimated to be at risk for PND (|Z| = 2.78, p = 0.005), suggesting the routine clinical screening for PND is susceptible for false-positives. Psychiatrists should encourage midwives to have an empathetic approach, to increase the detection as well as treatment of mental and physical suffering in early postpartum. At the same time, adequate education programmes for early PND screening should be proposed to non-psychiatric staffs to demonstrate that women at risk of PND often show minimal physical symptoms.

  14. Primary Sex Determination in Drosophila melanogaster Does Not Rely on the Male-Specific Lethal Complex.

    PubMed

    Erickson, James W

    2016-02-01

    It has been proposed that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is active in Drosophila melanogaster embryos of both sexes prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Elevated gene expression from the two X chromosomes of female embryos is proposed to facilitate the stable establishment of Sex-lethal (Sxl) expression, which determines sex and represses further activity of the MSL complex, leaving it active only in males. Important supporting data included female-lethal genetic interactions between the seven msl genes and either Sxl or scute and sisterlessA, two of the X-signal elements (XSE) that regulate early Sxl expression. Here I report contrary findings that there are no female-lethal genetic interactions between the msl genes and Sxl or its XSE regulators. Fly stocks containing the msl3(1) allele were found to exhibit a maternal-effect interaction with Sxl, scute, and sisterlessA mutations, but genetic complementation experiments showed that msl3 is neither necessary nor sufficient for the female-lethal interactions, which appear to be due to an unidentified maternal regulator of Sxl. Published data cited as evidence for an early function of the MSL complex in females, including a maternal effect of msl2, have been reevaluated and found not to support a maternal, or other effect, of the MSL complex in sex determination. These findings suggest that the MSL complex is not involved in primary sex determination or in X chromosome dosage compensation prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. A qualitative study of the acceptability of routine screening of postnatal women using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, Judy; Blake, Fiona; Garcia, Jo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for postnatal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been widely recommended and implemented in primary care, although little is known about how acceptable it is to women. AIM: To explore the acceptability to women of postnatal screening by health visitors with the EPDS. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Postnatal patients from 22 general practices within the area of Oxford City Primary Care Group. METHOD: Thirty-nine postnatal women from a purposive sample were interviewed, chosen on the basis of different general practices, EPDS results at eight weeks and eight months postnatal, and whether 'listening visits' were received. The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method. RESULTS: Just over half of the women interviewed found screening with the EPDS less than acceptable, whatever their postnatal emotional health. The main themes identified were problems with the process of screening and, in particular, the venue, the personal intrusion of screening and stigma. The women interviewed had a clear preference for talking about how they felt, rather than filling out a questionnaire. CONCLUSION: For this sample, routine screening with the EPDS was less than acceptable for the majority of women. This is of concern, as universal screening with the EPDS for the detection of postnatal depression is already recommended and widespread in primary care. PMID:14601337

  16. Lysosome and Phagosome Stability in Lethal Cell Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Hal K.; Ericsson, Jan L. E.; Biberfeld, Peter; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1972-01-01

    In two types of cell injury in a tissue culture system, the possibility was tested that lysosome rupture may be a lethal cellular reaction to injury, and thus an important general cause of irreversibility of damage in injured tissue. Prior labeling of secondary lysosomes with the fluorochrome acridine orange, or with ferritin, was used to trace changes in lysosomes after applying an injury. The metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate and cyanide were used together to block the cell's energy supply, or attachment of antiserum and subsequent complement attack were used to damage the surface membrane, producing rapid loss of cell volume control. Living cells were studied by time-lapse phase-contrast cinemicrography and fluorescence microscopy, and samples were fixed at intervals for electron microscopy. The cytolytic action of complement was lethal to sensitized cells within 2 hours, but results showed that lysosomes did not rupture for approximately 4 hours and in fact did not release the fluorescent dye until after reaching the postmortem necrotic phase of injury. Cells treated with metabolic inhibitors also showed irreversible alterations, while lysosomes remained intact and retained the ferritin marker. The fluorochrome marker, acridine orange, escaped from lysosomes early after metabolic injury, but the significance of this observation is not clear. The results are interpreted as evidence against the concept that lysosome rupture threatens the survival of injured cells. The original suicide bag mechanism of cell damage thus is apparently not operative in the systems studied. Lysosomes appear to be relatively stable organelles which, following injury of the types studied, burst only after cell death, acting then as scavengers which help to clear cellular debris. ImagesFigs 5-7Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Figs 21-23Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Figs 24-27Fig 12Figs 13 and 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17 PMID:4340333

  17. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  18. Lethal Progressive Thoracic Insufficiency in a Neonate Due to Jarcho Levin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhutia, Euden; Maria, Arti; Verma, Arushi; Sethi, Sidharth Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A rare case of Jarcho Levin syndrome (JLS) presenting as a lethal progressive respiratory insufficiency in early neonatal period is reported. The neonate had classical features of this syndrome including vertebral segmentation defects, typical costo-vertebral fusion defects and scoliosis resulting in small thoracic volume and limited chest expansion; all consistent with a clinical diagnosis of JLS with thoracic insufficiency. In addition, our case had a rare association of dextrocardia and acyanotic congenital heart disease. PMID:24741543

  19. The lethal injection quandary: how medicine has dismantled the death penalty.

    PubMed

    Denno, Deborah W

    2007-10-01

    On February 20, 2006, Michael Morales was hours away from execution in California when two anesthesiologists declined to participate in his lethal injection procedure, thereby halting all state executions. The events brought to the surface the long-running schism between law and medicine, raising the question of whether any beneficial connection between the professions ever existed in the execution context. History shows it seldom did. Decades of botched executions prove it. This Article examines how states ended up with such constitutionally vulnerable lethal injection procedures, suggesting that physician participation in executions, though looked upon with disdain, is more prevalent--and perhaps more necessary--than many would like to believe. The Article also reports the results of this author's unique nationwide study of lethal injection protocols and medical participation. The study demonstrates that states have continued to produce grossly inadequate protocols that severely restrict sufficient understanding of how executions are performed and heighten the likelihood of unconstitutionality. The analysis emphasizes in particular the utter lack of medical or scientific testing of lethal injection despite the early and continuous involvement of doctors but ongoing detachment of medical societies. Lastly, the Article discusses the legal developments that led up to the current rush of lethal injection lawsuits as well as the strong and rapid reverberations that followed, particularly with respect to medical involvement. This Article concludes with two recommendations. First, much like what occurred in this country when the first state switched to electrocution, there should be a nationwide study of proper lethal injection protocols. An independent commission consisting of a diverse group of qualified individuals, including medical personnel, should conduct a thorough assessment of lethal injection, especially the extent of physician participation. Second, this

  20. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  1. Accelerated onset of the vesicovesical reflex in postnatal NGF-OE mice and the role of neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Beatrice; Peterson, Abbey; Malley, Susan; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of micturition from a somatovesical to a vesicovesical reflex are not known but may involve neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract. A transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression (OE) of NGF exhibited increased voiding frequency, increased number of non-voiding contractions, altered morphology and hyperinnervation of the urinary bladder by peptidergic (e.g., Sub P and CGRP) nerve fibers in the adult. In early postnatal and adult NGF-OE mice we have now examined: (1) micturition onset using filter paper void assays and open-outlet, continuous fill, conscious cystometry; (2) innervation and neurochemical coding of the suburothelial plexus of the urinary bladder using immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative image analyses; (3) neuropeptide protein and transcript expression in urinary bladder of postnatal and adult NGF-OE mice using Q-PCR and ELISAs and (4) the effects of intravesical instillation of a neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonist on bladder function in postnatal and adult NGF-OE mice using conscious cystometry. Postnatal NGF-OE mice exhibit age-dependent (R2= 0.996–0.998; p ≤ 0.01) increases in Sub and CGRP expression in the urothelium and significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased peptidergic hyperinnervation of the suburothelial nerve plexus. By as early as P7, NGF-OE mice exhibit a vesicovesical reflex in response to intravesical instillation of saline whereas littermate WT mice require perigenital stimulation to elicit a micturition reflex until P13 when vesicovesical reflexes are first observed. Intravesical instillation of a NK-1 receptor antagonist, netupitant (0.1 μg/ml), significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased void volume and the interval between micturition events with no effects on bladder pressure (baseline, threshold, peak) in postnatal NGF-OE mice; effects on WT mice were few. NGF-induced pleiotropic effects on neuropeptide (e.g., Sub P) expression in the urinary bladder

  2. Innovative look at dairy heifer rearing: Effect of prenatal and post-natal environment on later performance.

    PubMed

    Van Eetvelde, M; Opsomer, G

    2017-08-01

    As heifer rearing is a costly investment, dairy farmers have been stimulated to maximize early growth of their calves, mainly by enhanced liquid feeding. However, the long-term effects of this "accelerated growth" are largely unknown. Studies recently performed at Ghent University indicate that in dairy cattle, certain maternal factors (such as young age and high milk yield) and environmental factors (such as high ambient temperatures) create a suboptimal environment for the developing foetus, altering the phenotype of the newborn calf. According to the "thrifty phenotype hypothesis," these metabolic alterations prepare the newborn for similar ("matching") conditions after birth, enhancing its survival during periods of limited feeding. Yet, when an abundance of nutrients is available in post-natal life (e.g., during periods of enhanced feeding), the "mismatch" between pre- and post-natal environment results in an early catch-up growth, with potential negative consequences. The aim of the article was to discuss this mismatch between pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. Previous studies, especially in human medicine, have shown catch-up growth to be associated with obesity, fertility problems, metabolic diseases and a reduced lifespan. Hence, we hypothesize that, by applying programs of accelerated growth, our current management system accentuates the mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. We can conclude that, although more research is necessary, the current findings point towards a more individual approach when rearing dairy heifers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Slower postnatal motor development in infants of mothers with latent toxoplasmosis during the first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Kaňková, Sárka; Sulc, Jan; Křivohlavá, Romana; Kuběna, Aleš; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a zoonosis caused by a protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, is probably the most widespread human parasitosis in developed countries. Pregnant women with latent toxoplasmosis have seemingly younger fetuses especially in the 16th week of gestation, which suggests that fetuses of Toxoplasma-infected mothers have slower rates of development in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the present retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data on postnatal motor development of infants from 331 questionnaire respondents including 53 Toxoplasma-infected mothers to search for signs of early postnatal development disorders. During the first year of life, a slower postnatal motor development was observed in infants of mothers with latent toxoplasmosis. These infants significantly later developed the ability to control the head position (p=0.039), to roll from supine to prone position (p=0.022) and were slightly later to begin crawling (p=0.059). Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that the difference in the rates of prenatal and early postnatal development between children of Toxoplasma-negative and Toxoplasma-positive mothers might be caused by a decreased stringency of embryo quality control in partly immunosuppressed Toxoplasma-positive mothers resulting in a higher proportion of infants with genetic or developmental disorders in offspring. However, because of relatively low return rate of questionnaires and an associated risk of a sieve effect, our results should be considered as preliminary and performing a large scale prospective study in the future is critically needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal postnatal mental health and later emotional-behavioural development of children: the mediating role of parenting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Wade, C; D'Esposito, F; Nicholson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Maternal postnatal mental health difficulties have been associated with poor outcomes for children. One mechanism by which parent mental health can impact on children's outcomes is via its effects on parenting behaviour. The longitudinal relationships between maternal postnatal distress, parenting warmth, hostility and child well-being at age seven were examined for 2200 families participating in a population-based longitudinal study of Australian children. The relationship between postnatal distress and children's later emotional-behavioural development was mediated by parenting hostility, but not parenting warmth, even after accounting for concurrent maternal mental health. Postnatal distress was more strongly associated with lower parenting warmth for mothers without a past history of depression compared with mothers with a past history of depression. These findings underscore the contribution of early maternal well-being to later parenting and child outcomes, highlighting the importance of mental health and parenting support in the early parenting years. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    PubMed

    Albertoni Borghese, María F; Ortiz, María C; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth.

  6. Evaluation of gene expression profiles and pathways underlying postnatal development in mouse sclera.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wan'E; Kwan, Jia Lin; Goh, Liang Kee; Beuerman, Roger W; Barathi, Veluchamy A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the genes and pathways underlying the growth of the mouse sclera during postnatal development. Total RNA was isolated from each of 30 single mouse sclera (n=30, 6 sclera each from 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, and 8-week-old mice) and reverse-transcribed into cDNA using a T7-N(6) primer. The resulting cDNA was fragmented, labeled with biotin, and hybridized to a Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. ANOVA analysis was then performed using Partek Genomic Suite 6.5 beta and differentially expressed transcript clusters were filtered based on a selection criterion of ≥ 2 relative fold change at a false discovery rate of ≤ 5%. Genes identified as involved in the main biologic processes during postnatal scleral development were further confirmed using qPCR. A possible pathway that contributes to the postnatal development of the sclera was investigated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. The hierarchical clustering of all time points showed that they did not cluster according to age. The highest number of differentially expressed transcript clusters was found when week 1 and week 2 old scleral tissues were compared. The peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Ppargc1a) gene was found to be involved in the networks generated using Ingenuity Pathway Studio (IPA) from the differentially expressed transcript cluster lists of week 2 versus 1, week 3 versus 2, week 6 versus 3, and week 8 versus 6. The gene expression of Ppargc1a varied during scleral growth from week 1 to 2, week 2 to 3, week 3 to 6, and week 6 to 8 and was found to interact with a different set of genes at different scleral growth stages. Therefore, this indicated that Ppargc1a might play a role in scleral growth during postnatal weeks 1 to 8. Gene expression of eye diseases should be studied as early as postnatal weeks 1-2 to ensure that any changes in gene expression pattern during disease development are detected. In addition, we propose that Ppargc1a

  7. Evaluation of gene expression profiles and pathways underlying postnatal development in mouse sclera

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wan’E.; Kwan, Jia Lin; Goh, Liang Kee; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify the genes and pathways underlying the growth of the mouse sclera during postnatal development. Methods Total RNA was isolated from each of 30 single mouse sclera (n=30, 6 sclera each from 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, and 8-week-old mice) and reverse-transcribed into cDNA using a T7-N6 primer. The resulting cDNA was fragmented, labeled with biotin, and hybridized to a Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. ANOVA analysis was then performed using Partek Genomic Suite 6.5 beta and differentially expressed transcript clusters were filtered based on a selection criterion of ≥2 relative fold change at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Genes identified as involved in the main biologic processes during postnatal scleral development were further confirmed using qPCR. A possible pathway that contributes to the postnatal development of the sclera was investigated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Results The hierarchical clustering of all time points showed that they did not cluster according to age. The highest number of differentially expressed transcript clusters was found when week 1 and week 2 old scleral tissues were compared. The peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Ppargc1a) gene was found to be involved in the networks generated using Ingenuity Pathway Studio (IPA) from the differentially expressed transcript cluster lists of week 2 versus 1, week 3 versus 2, week 6 versus 3, and week 8 versus 6. The gene expression of Ppargc1a varied during scleral growth from week 1 to 2, week 2 to 3, week 3 to 6, and week 6 to 8 and was found to interact with a different set of genes at different scleral growth stages. Therefore, this indicated that Ppargc1a might play a role in scleral growth during postnatal weeks 1 to 8. Conclusions Gene expression of eye diseases should be studied as early as postnatal weeks 1–2 to ensure that any changes in gene expression pattern during disease development are detected. In

  8. Dietary zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy protects against fetal dysmorphology and improves postnatal survival after prenatal ethanol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Summers, Brooke L; Rofe, Allan M; Coyle, Peter

    2009-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ethanol teratogenicity is associated with metallothionein-induced fetal zinc (Zn) deficiency, and that maternal subcutaneous Zn treatment given with ethanol in early pregnancy prevents fetal abnormalities and spatial memory impairments in mice. Here we investigated whether dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy can also prevent ethanol-related dysmorphology. Pregnant mice were injected with saline or 25% ethanol (0.015 ml/g intraperitoneally at 0 and 4 hours) on gestational day (GD) 8 and fed either a control (35 mg Zn/kg) or a Zn-supplemented diet (200 mg Zn/kg) from GD 0 to 18. Fetuses from the saline, saline + Zn, ethanol and ethanol + Zn groups were assessed for external birth abnormalities on GD 18. In a separate cohort of mice, postnatal growth and survival of offspring from these treatment groups were examined from birth until postnatal day 60. Fetuses from dams treated with ethanol alone in early pregnancy had a significantly greater incidence of physical abnormalities (26%) compared to those from the saline (10%), saline + Zn (9%), or ethanol + Zn (12%) groups. The incidence of abnormalities in ethanol + Zn-supplemented fetuses was not different from saline-treated fetuses. While ethanol exposure did not affect the number of fetal resorptions or pre- or postnatal weight, there were more stillbirths with ethanol alone, and cumulative postnatal mortality was significantly higher in offspring exposed to ethanol alone (35% deaths) compared to all other treatment groups (13.5 to 20.5% deaths). Mice supplemented with Zn throughout pregnancy had higher plasma Zn concentrations than those in un-supplemented groups. These findings demonstrate that dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy ameliorates dysmorphology and postnatal mortality caused by ethanol exposure in early pregnancy.

  9. Beneficial effects of postnatal choline supplementation on long-Term neurocognitive deficit resulting from fetal-Neonatal iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bruce C; Tran, Phu V; Kohli, Maulika; Maertens, Jamie J; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Georgieff, Michael K

    2018-01-15

    Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient condition worldwide and can result in cognitive impairment in adulthood despite iron treatment. In rodents, prenatal choline supplementation can diminish long-term hippocampal gene dysregulation and neurocognitive deficits caused by iron deficiency. Since fetal iron status is generally unknown in humans, we determined whether postnatal choline supplementation exerts similar beneficial effects. Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (3-6ppm Fe) from gestational day (G) 3 through postnatal day (P) 7, and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200ppm Fe) thereafter. Control pups were provided IS diet throughout. Choline (5ppm) was given to half the nursing dams and weanlings in each group from P11-P30. P65 rat cognitive performance was assessed by novel object recognition (NOR). Real-time PCR was performed to validate expression levels of synaptic plasticity genes known to be dysregulated by early-life iron deficiency. Postnatal choline supplementation prevented impairment of NOR memory in formerly iron-deficient (FID) adult rats but impaired NOR memory in IS controls. Gene expression analysis revealed a recovery of 4 out of 10 dysregulated genes compared to 8 of the same 10 genes that we previously demonstrated to recover following prenatal choline supplementation. Recognition memory deficits induced by early-life iron deficiency can be prevented by postnatal choline supplementation and disrupted expression of a subset of synaptic plasticity genes can be ameliorated. The positive response to postnatal choline represents a potential adjunctive therapeutic supplement to treat iron-deficient anemic children in order to spare long-term neurodevelopmental deficits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Maturation of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Population Activity during Postnatal Refinement of Climbing Fiber Network.

    PubMed

    Good, Jean-Marc; Mahoney, Michael; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Tanaka, Kenji F; Sakimura, Kenji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kano, Masanobu

    2017-11-21

    Neural circuits undergo massive refinements during postnatal development. In the developing cerebellum, the climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell (PC) network is drastically reshaped by eliminating early-formed redundant CF to PC synapses. To investigate the impact of CF network refinement on PC population activity during postnatal development, we monitored spontaneous CF responses in neighboring PCs and the activity of populations of nearby CF terminals using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging. Population activity is highly synchronized in newborn mice, and the degree of synchrony gradually declines during the first postnatal week in PCs and, to a lesser extent, in CF terminals. Knockout mice lacking P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel or glutamate receptor δ2, in which CF network refinement is severely impaired, exhibit an abnormally high level of synchrony in PC population activity. These results suggest that CF network refinement is a structural basis for developmental desynchronization and maturation of PC population activity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of postnatal home visits on maternal/infant outcomes in Syria: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bashour, Hyam N; Kharouf, Mayada H; Abdulsalam, Asma A; El Asmar, Khalil; Tabbaa, Mohammed A; Cheikha, Salah A

    2008-01-01

    Early postpartum home visiting is universal in many Western countries. Studies from developing countries on the effects of home visits are rare. In Syria, where the postpartum period is rather ignored, this study aimed to assess whether a community-based intervention of postnatal home visits has an effect on maternal postpartum morbidities; infant morbidity; uptake of postpartum care; use of contraceptive methods; and on selected neonatal health practices. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in Damascus. Three groups of new mothers were randomly allocated to receive either 4 postnatal home visits (A), one visit (B), or no visit (C). A total of 876 women were allocated and followed up. Registered midwives with special training made a one or a series of home visits providing information, educating, and supporting women. A significantly higher proportion of mothers in Groups A and B reported exclusively breastfeeding their infants (28.5% and 30%, respectively) as compared with Group C (20%), who received no visits. There were no reported differences between groups in other outcomes. While postpartum home visits significantly increased exclusive breastfeeding, other outcomes did not change. Further studies framed in a nonbiomedical context are needed. Other innovative approaches to improve postnatal care in Syria are needed.

  12. Postnatal Development of Intrinsic Horizontal Axons in Macaque Inferior Temporal and Primary Visual Cortices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxin; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Fujita, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Two distinct areas along the ventral visual stream of monkeys, the primary visual (V1) and inferior temporal (TE) cortices, exhibit different projection patterns of intrinsic horizontal axons with patchy terminal fields in adult animals. The differences between the patches in these 2 areas may reflect differences in cortical representation and processing of visual information. We studied the postnatal development of patches by injecting an anterograde tracer into TE and V1 in monkeys of various ages. At 1 week of age, labeled patches with distribution patterns reminiscent of those in adults were already present in both areas. The labeling intensity of patches decayed exponentially with projection distance in monkeys of all ages in both areas, but this trend was far less evident in TE. The number and extent of patches gradually decreased with age in V1, but not in TE. In V1, axonal and bouton densities increased postnatally only in patches with short projection distances, whereas in TE this density change occurred in patches with various projection distances. Thus, patches with area-specific distribution patterns are formed early in life, and area-specific postnatal developmental processes shape the connectivity of patches into adulthood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  14. Nervous glucose sensing regulates postnatal β cell proliferation and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tarussio, David; Metref, Salima; Seyer, Pascal; Mounien, Lourdes; Vallois, David; Magnan, Christophe; Foretz, Marc; Thorens, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    How glucose sensing by the nervous system impacts the regulation of β cell mass and function during postnatal development and throughout adulthood is incompletely understood. Here, we studied mice with inactivation of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) in the nervous system (NG2KO mice). These mice displayed normal energy homeostasis but developed late-onset glucose intolerance due to reduced insulin secretion, which was precipitated by high-fat diet feeding. The β cell mass of adult NG2KO mice was reduced compared with that of WT mice due to lower β cell proliferation rates in NG2KO mice during the early postnatal period. The difference in proliferation between NG2KO and control islets was abolished by ganglionic blockade or by weaning the mice on a carbohydrate-free diet. In adult NG2KO mice, first-phase insulin secretion was lost, and these glucose-intolerant mice developed impaired glucagon secretion when fed a high-fat diet. Electrophysiological recordings showed reduced parasympathetic nerve activity in the basal state and no stimulation by glucose. Furthermore, sympathetic activity was also insensitive to glucose. Collectively, our data show that GLUT2-dependent control of parasympathetic activity defines a nervous system/endocrine pancreas axis that is critical for β cell mass establishment in the postnatal period and for long-term maintenance of β cell function. PMID:24334455

  15. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-07-09

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs.

  16. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hajek, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  17. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  18. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    PubMed

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Postnatal dietary fatty acid composition permanently affects the structure of hypothalamic pathways controlling energy balance in mice.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Lidewij; Bouyer, Karine; Oosting, Annemarie; Simerly, Richard B; van der Beek, Eline M

    2013-12-01

    We previously reported that dietary lipid quality during early life can have long-lasting effects on metabolic health and adiposity. Exposure to a postnatal diet with low dietary omega-6 (n-6) or high omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) content resulted in reduced body fat accumulation when challenged with a moderate Western-style diet (WSD) beginning in adolescence. We determined whether this programming effect is accompanied by changes in hypothalamic neural projections or modifications in the postnatal leptin surge, which would indicate the altered development of hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. Neonatal mice were subjected to a control diet (CTR) or experimental diet with altered relative n-6 and n-3 FA contents [ie, a diet with a relative reduction in n-6 fatty acid (LOW n-6) or a diet with a relative increase in n-3 fatty acid (HIGH n-3) compared with the CTR from postnatal day (PN) 2 to 42]. Compared with CTR mice, mice fed a LOW n-6 or HIGH n-3 during postnatal life showed significant reductions in the density of both orexigenic and anorexigenic neural projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus at PN 28. These impairments persisted into adulthood and were still apparent after the WSD challenge between PNs 42 and 98. However, the neuroanatomical changes were not associated with changes in the postnatal leptin surge. Although the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated, our data indicate that the quality of dietary FA during postnatal life affects the development of the central regulatory circuits that control energy balance and may do so through a leptin-independent mechanism.

  20. Variation in elemental intensities among teeth and between pre- and postnatal regions of enamel.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Alexis E; Goodman, Alan H; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri D

    2005-12-01

    Microspatial analyses of the trace element composition of dental enamel are made possible using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Fine spatial resolution, multielement capabilities, and minimal sample destruction make this technique particularly well-suited for documenting the distribution of elements in sequentially calcifying layers of enamel. Because deciduous enamel forms from week 13 in utero up to 9 months postnatally (thereafter essentially becoming inert), the application of LA-ICP-MS allows for the retrospective measurement of prenatal and early postnatal trace-element uptake during a critical period of child development. In this study, we compared intra- and intertooth intensities of 25Mg, 57Fe, 66Zn, 68Zn, 88Sr, 138Ba, and 208Pb via LA-ICP-MS of 38 exfoliated deciduous incisors and canines donated by 36 participants in the Solís Valley Mexico Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program (NCRSP). Pre- and postnatal comparisons within teeth showed significant increases (P < 0.001) and greater variation in the abundance of all isotopes in postnatal enamel, with the exception of a decrease in 25Mg (P < 0.001) and constant values for 88Sr (P = 0.681). Conversely, comparisons by tooth type and mouth quadrant revealed few significant differences between teeth of the same individual. We argue that more variation in the trace element composition of teeth occurs across developmental areas within a tooth than among different teeth of the same person. This study further demonstrates that sequentially calcifying areas of enamel have different chemical concentrations. The results support the use of microspatial analyses of enamel for understanding changes in nutrition, pollution, and residence. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  2. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  3. PARP inhibition as a prototype for synthetic lethal screens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    Although DNA damaging chemotherapy and radiation therapy remain the main stay of current treatments for cancer patient, these therapies usually have toxic side effect and narrow therapeutic window. One of the challenges in cancer drug discovery is how to identify drugs that selectively kill cancer cells while leaving the normal cell intact. Recently, synthetic lethality has been applied to cancer drug discovery in various settings, and has become a promising approach for identifying novel agents for the treatment of cancer. A prototypical example is the synthetic lethal interaction between PARP inhibition and BRCA deficiency. PARP inhibitors represent the most advanced clinical agents targeting specifically DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. In this chapter, I will review the molecular mechanism for this synthetic lethality and the clinical applications for PARP inhibitors. I will also discuss the formats of synthetic lethal screens, current progress on the utilization of these screens, and some of the advantages and challenges of synthetic lethal screens in cancer drug discovery.

  4. Paternal postnatal depression in Ireland: Prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Lloyd Frank; Corcoran, Paul

    2018-01-01

    it is well established that fatherhood has a long term positive and protective effect on men's health. However, there is also evidence that the transition to fatherhood can be complex and demanding and can lead to distress, anxiety and increased risk of depression. this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of paternal postnatal depression, and to examine associations with a range of demographic and clinical factors. a cross-sectional study design was used to collect primary data from 100 fathers, whose partner gave birth to an infant in the previous 12 months. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. the prevalence of paternal postnatal depression was 12% using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale cut off score of 12 or above, when the cut off score was reduced to 9 or above the prevalence was 28%. The factors found to increase the risk of paternal postnatal depression included having an infant with sleep problems, a previous history of depression, a lack of social support, poor economic circumstances, not having paternity leave and not being married. the results add to the growing body of evidence that paternal postnatal mental health is a significant public health issue, and indicates a need for assessment and support for fathers during this life stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two familial cases with a lethal gracile bone dysplasia and intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Korniszewski, Lech; Arbuckle, Susan; Kozlowski, Kazimierz

    2003-05-01

    A number of more or less distinct entities with low birth weight and abnormal radiographic appearances have been identified. We studied two sisters who were unusual because of severe intrauterine growth restriction, absence of growth after birth, decrease of pre- and postnatal spontaneous mobility, and early fatal outcome. The chondro-osseous morphology documented a distinctive osteochondrodysplasia. The radiographic examination was superficially similar to gracile bone dysplasias but was inconsistent with any known types of this group. These two patients appear to have a unique gracile bone dysplasia. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Current Topics in Postnatal Behavioral Testing.

    PubMed

    Henck, Judith W; Elayan, Ikram; Vorhees, Charles; Fisher, J Edward; Morford, LaRonda L

    2016-09-01

    The study of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) continues to be an important component of safety evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents and of industrial and environmental chemicals. Developmental neurotoxicity is considered to be an adverse change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system during development of an organism and has been primarily evaluated by studying functional outcomes, such as changes in behavior, neuropathology, neurochemistry, and/or neurophysiology. Neurobehavioral evaluations are a component of a wide range of toxicology studies in laboratory animal models, whereas neurochemistry and neurophysiology are less commonly employed. Although the primary focus of this article is on neurobehavioral evaluation in pre- and postnatal development and juvenile toxicology studies used in pharmaceutical development, concepts may also apply to adult nonclinical safety studies and Environmental Protection Agency/chemical assessments. This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held during the 2015 American College of Toxicology annual meeting and includes a discussion of the current status of DNT testing as well as potential issues and recommendations. Topics include the regulatory context for DNT testing; study design and interpretation; behavioral test selection, including a comparison of core learning and memory systems; age of testing; repeated testing of the same animals; use of alternative animal models; impact of findings; and extrapolation of animal results to humans. Integration of the regulatory experience and scientific concepts presented during this symposium, as well as from subsequent discussion and input, provides a synopsis of the current state of DNT testing in safety assessment, as well as a potential roadmap for future advancement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Rancher-reported efficacy of lethal and non-lethal livestock predation mitigation strategies for a suite of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Scasta, J D; Stam, B; Windh, J L

    2017-10-26

    Pastoralists have dealt with livestock losses from predators for millennia, yet effective mitigation strategies that balance wildlife conservation and sustainable agriculture are still needed today. In Wyoming, USA, 274 ranchers responded to a retrospective survey, and rated the efficacy of predation mitigation strategies for foxes, dogs, coyotes, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions, bears, and birds (buzzards, eagles, hawks, ravens). Rancher reported efficacy of mitigation varied by predator species, mitigation strategy, and lethality of strategies, but not livestock type. Ranchers perceive they were most effective at mitigating predation by foxes and coyotes, moderately effective at mitigating large carnivores, and the least effective at mitigating birds. Ranchers also reported that avian predators seem to be the most challenging predator type. The general perception was lethal mitigation strategies were more effective than non-lethal strategies, with guard animals showing the most potential among the non-lethal options. In general, ranchers did not perceive non-lethal strategies as a proxy for lethal strategies. However, a few ranchers reported being successful with non-lethal options such as herding, fencing, and stalling at night but more details about such successful applications are needed. Innovation in current or novel non-lethal mitigation strategies, and examples of efficacy, are needed to justify producer adoption.

  8. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Non-Lethal Endotoxin Injection: A Rat Model of Hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Marjory B; Turk, James R; Guerrero, Abraham; Narayanan, Padma K; Nolan, John P; Besteman, Elizabeth G; Wilson, Dennis W; Thomas, Roberta A; Fishman, Cindy E; Thompson, Karol L; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Pierson, Jennifer B; Paulman, April; Chiang, Alan Y; Schultze, Albert E

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation co-activates coagulation, which unchecked culminates in a lethal syndrome of multi-organ microvascular thrombosis known as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We studied an endotoxin-induced inflammatory state in rats to identify biomarkers of hemostatic imbalance favoring hypercoagulability. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS at 15 mg/kg body weight resulted in peripheral leukopenia and widespread neutrophilic sequestration characteristic of an acute systemic inflammatory response. Early indicators of hemostatic pathway activation developed within 4 hours, including increased circulating concentrations of procoagulant extracellular vesicles (EVs), EVs expressing endothelial cell and platelet membrane markers, and high concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and D-dimers. Inflammation persisted throughout the 48-hour observation period; however, increases were found in a subset of serum microRNA (miRNA) that coincided with gradual resolution of hemostatic protein abnormalities and reduction in EV counts. Dose-adjusted LPS treatment in rats provides a time-course model to develop biomarker profiles reflecting procoagulant imbalance and rebalance under inflammatory conditions.

  10. Effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptoms on adopted child HPA regulation: independent and moderated influences.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Reiss, David

    2013-05-01

    This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory in a sample of 192 families as part of the Early Growth and Development adoption Study. Child morning/evening cortisol levels and child symptoms of internalizing disorders (according to mother/father report on the Child Behavior Checklist) were assessed at 54 months, and birth mother diurnal cortisol was measured at 48 months postnatal. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test main effects and interactions of parents' symptoms predicting child cortisol, controlling for birth mother cortisol. Prenatal exposure to birth mother symptoms predicted lower child cortisol (main effect), as did postnatal exposure to adoptive parent symptoms (interaction effects). Adoptive mother 9-month symptoms exacerbated cortisol-lowering effects of both concurrent paternal symptoms and later (27-month) maternal symptoms, and the effect of birth mother cortisol. Lower child cortisol, in turn, was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms. Implications are discussed with respect to the intergenerational transmission of depression risk.

  11. Mild prenatal protein malnutrition increases alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the rat cerebral cortex during postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter; Hernández, Alejandro; Valladares, Luis; Pérez, Hernán; Mondaca, Mauricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén

    2006-05-15

    Mild reduction in the protein content in the diet of pregnant rats from 25 to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, does not alter body and brain weights of rat pups at birth, but results in significant changes of the concentration and release of cortical noradrenaline during postnatal life, together with impaired long-term potentiation and memory formation. Since some central noradrenergic receptors are critically involved in neuroplasticity, the present study evaluated, by utilizing immunohistochemical methods, the effect of mild prenatal protein malnutrition on the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the frontal and occipital cortices of 8- and 60-day-old rats. At day 8 of postnatal age, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a three-fold increase of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in both the frontal and the occipital cortices, as compared to well-nourished controls. At 60 days of age, prenatally malnourished rats showed normal expression levels scores of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor in the neocortex. Results suggest that overexpression of neocortical alpha 2C-adrenoceptors during early postnatal life, subsequent to mild prenatal protein malnutrition, could in part be responsible for neural and behavioral disturbances showing prenatally malnourished animals during the postnatal life.

  12. Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Child HPA Regulation: Independent and Moderated Influences

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory in a sample of 192 families as part of the Early Growth and Development adoption Study. Child morning/evening cortisol levels and child symptoms of internalizing disorders (according to mother/father report on the Child Behavior Checklist) were assessed at 54 months, and birth mother diurnal cortisol was measured at 48 months postnatal. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test main effects and interactions of parents’ symptoms predicting child cortisol, controlling for birth mother cortisol. Prenatal exposure to birth mother symptoms predicted lower child cortisol (main effect), as did postnatal exposure to adoptive parent symptoms (interaction effects). Adoptive mother 9-month symptoms exacerbated cortisol-lowering effects of both concurrent paternal symptoms and later (27-month) maternal symptoms, and the effect of birth mother cortisol. Lower child cortisol, in turn, was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms. Implications are discussed with respect to the intergenerational transmission of depression risk. PMID:22686176

  13. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity is more strongly associated than perinatal depressive symptoms with postnatal mother-infant interaction quality.

    PubMed

    Raine, Karen; Cockshaw, Wendell; Boyce, Philip; Thorpe, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Maternal mental health has enduring effects on children's life chances and is a substantial cost driver for child health, education and social services. A key linking mechanism is the quality of mother-infant interaction. A body of work associates maternal depressive symptoms across the antenatal and postnatal (perinatal) period with less-than-optimal mother-infant interaction. Our study aims to build on previous research in the field through exploring the association of a maternal personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, with subsequent mother-infant interaction quality. We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine the association between antenatal interpersonal sensitivity and postnatal mother-infant interaction quality in the context of perinatal depressive symptoms. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured during early pregnancy and depressive symptoms in the antenatal year and across the first 21 months of the postnatal period. In a subsample of the ALSPAC, mother-infant interaction was measured at 12 months postnatal through a standard observation. For the subsample that had complete data at all time points (n = 706), hierarchical regression examined the contribution of interpersonal sensitivity to variance in mother-infant interaction quality. Perinatal depressive symptoms predicted little variance in mother-infant interaction. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity explained a greater proportion of variance in mother-infant interaction quality. The personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, is a more robust indicator of subsequent mother-infant-interaction quality than perinatal depressive symptoms, thus affording enhanced opportunity to identify vulnerable mother-infant relationships for targeted early intervention.

  14. Metabolic synthetic lethality in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zecchini, Vincent; Frezza, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Our understanding of cancer has recently seen a major paradigm shift resulting in it being viewed as a metabolic disorder, and altered cellular metabolism being recognised as a hallmark of cancer. This concept was spurred by the findings that the oncogenic mutations driving tumorigenesis induce a reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism that is required for unrestrained growth and proliferation. The recent discovery that mutations in key mitochondrial enzymes play a causal role in tumorigenesis suggested that dysregulation of metabolism could also be a driver of tumorigenesis. These mutations induce profound adaptive metabolic alterations that are a prerequisite for the survival of the mutated cells. Because these metabolic events are specific to cancer cells, they offer an opportunity to develop new therapies that specifically target tumour cells without affecting healthy tissue. Here, we will describe recent developments in metabolism-based cancer therapy, in particular focusing on the concept of metabolic synthetic lethality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    PubMed

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

  16. Human cooperation by lethal group competition

    PubMed Central

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival (“looting”). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as “all-out war” (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together. PMID:23459158

  17. Lethal endomyocarditis caused by chronic "Krokodil" intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Antonella; Trotta, Silvia; Colucci, Anna Pia; Aventaggiato, Lucia; Marzullo, Andrea; Solarino, Biagio

    2018-03-19

    "Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive necrotic ulcerative lesions on the forearms, and autopsy showed a hypertrophic heart with ample endocardial vegetation on the aortic valve and patency of the foramen ovale. Histopathological examination of the heart showed ulcero-vegetative lesions of the aortic valve with an abscess on the annulus and extension to the periaortic adipose tissue, as well as diffuse myocardial interstitial inflammatory neutrophilic infiltrates. Toxicological analysis demonstrated a desomorphine metabolite in urine. On the basis of all these findings the cause of death was ruled to be congestive heart failure caused by endocarditis and myocarditis, correlated with chronic abuse of krokodil.

  18. Pre-treatment with low-dose endotoxin prolongs survival from experimental lethal endotoxic shock: Benefit for lethal peritonitis by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kopanakis, Konstantinos; Tzepi, Ira-Maria; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Netea, Mihai G; Georgitsi, Marianna; Lymperi, Maria; Droggiti, Dionyssia-Irini; Liakakos, Theodoros; Machairas, Anastasios; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2013-06-01

    Although LPS tolerance is well-characterized, it remains unknown if it is achieved even with single doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and if it offers protection against lethal bacterial infections. To this end, C57B6 mice were assigned to groups A (sham); B (saline i.p followed after 24h by i.p 30mg/kg LPS); and C (3mg/kg LPS i.p followed after 24h by i.p 30mg/kg LPS). Survival was monitored and animals were sacrificed early after lethal challenge for measurement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in serum; isolation of splenocytes and cytokine stimulation; and flow-cytometry for apoptosis and TREM-1. Experiments were repeated with mice infected i.p by Escherichia coli after challenging with saline or LPS. Mortality of group B was 72.2% compared with 38.9% of group C (p: 0.020). Serum TNFα of group C was lower than group B. Expression of TREM-1 of group C on monocytes/neutrophils was greater than group B. Release of TNFα, of IFNγ and of IL-17 from splenocytes of group C was lower than group B and the opposite happened for IL-10 showing evidence of cellular reprogramming. In parallel, apoptosis of circulating lymphocytes and of splenocytes of group C was greater compared with group B. Pre-treatment of mice challenged by E. coli with low dose LPS led to 0% mortality compared with 90% of saline pre-treated mice; in these mice, splenocytes improved over-time their capacity for release of IFNγ. It is concluded that single low doses of LPS lead to early reprogramming of the innate immune response and prolong survival after lethal E. coli challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ambient temperature affects postnatal litter size reduction in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A; Monclús, Raquel; Rödel, Heiko G; Valencak, Teresa G

    2016-01-01

    To better understand how different ambient temperatures during lactation affect survival of young, we studied patterns of losses of pups in golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) at different ambient temperatures in the laboratory, mimicking temperature conditions in natural habitats. Golden hamsters produce large litters of more than 10 young but are also known to wean fewer pups at the end of lactation than they give birth to. We wanted to know whether temperature affects litter size reductions and whether the underlying causes of pup loss were related to maternal food (gross energy) intake and reproductive performance, such as litter growth. For that, we exposed lactating females to three different ambient temperatures and investigated associations with losses of offspring between birth and weaning. Overall, around one third of pups per litter disappeared, obviously consumed by the mother. Such litter size reductions were greatest at 30 °C, in particular during the intermediate postnatal period around peak lactation. Furthermore, litter size reductions were generally higher in larger litters. Maternal gross energy intake was highest at 5 °C suggesting that mothers were not limited by milk production and might have been able to raise a higher number of pups until weaning. This was further supported by the fact that the daily increases in litter mass as well as in the individual pup body masses, a proxy of mother's lactational performance, were lower at higher ambient temperatures. We suggest that ambient temperatures around the thermoneutral zone and beyond are preventing golden hamster females from producing milk at sufficient rates. Around two thirds of the pups per litter disappeared at high temperature conditions, and their early growth rates were significantly lower than at lower ambient temperatures. It is possible that these losses are due to an intrinsic physiological limitation (imposed by heat dissipation) compromising maternal energy intake and

  20. Postnatal development of leukocyte subset composition and activity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Toman, M; Faldyna, M; Knotigova, P; Pokorova, D; Sinkora, J

    2002-09-10

    The aim of the presentation is to summarise our data on the counts and activity of circulating canine leukocytes at birth and on their changes in the first 3 months of life. On day 1, neutrophil counts were almost three times higher than lymphocyte counts. During the first week of life, a decrease of neutrophil and an increase of lymphocyte counts, resulting in a predominance of lymphocytes, were observed. Neutrophil counts reached values comparable with those in adults in 1 month. Lymphocyte counts were higher than those in adults during the first 3 months. From birth to the age of 3 months, the phagocytic activity of neutrophils was nonsignificantly higher than in young adults. When compared with adults, the peripheral blood of new-born pups contained a lower proportion of T lymphocytes (detected by CD3 and CD5 markers), with a very low percentage of CD8(+) cells and a higher proportion of CD21(+) B lymphocytes. The counts of individual subsets levelled out during the first 3 months of life, although the proportion of CD21(+) B cells remained higher all the time. Lymphocytes of new-born pups were able to respond to nonspecific mitogen stimulation. Spontaneous proliferation in vitro was higher during the first week of life. Although in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes with Concanavalin A in some pups was comparable with that of adult dogs, mean activity was weaker. Pups with zero or very low levels of maternal antibodies were able to develop specific immune responses to a parvovirus antigen as early as at 2 weeks of age. On the basis of these data, we assume that pups are born with an immune system that can respond to external stimuli. Nevertheless its development continues in the postnatal period and some parameters differ from adult values for at least 3 months after birth.

  1. Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is "non-lethal"?

    PubMed

    David, Siddarth

    2017-01-01

    The use of pellet guns during the recent unrest in Kashmir as a method of crowd control has been questioned because of several deaths and numerous injuries. Across the world, these rubber pellets have been shown to inflict serious injuries, permanent disability, and death. The volatility of mob violence, inaccuracies in aim of the pellets, over-use of the pellet guns, and the perception of their harmlessness enhances the destructive potential of these so-called non-lethal weapons. There is also the larger ethical question whether any form of pain, however minimal, could be inflicted to control violent crowds.

  2. Maternal Pre- and Postnatal Mental Health Trajectories and Child Mental Health and Development: Prospective Study in a Normative and Formerly Infertile Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanska, Mervi; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Lindblom, Jallu; Flykt, Marjo; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tiitinen, Aila; Repokari, Leena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Tulppala, Maija

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy and early motherhood involve uncertainty and change, which can evoke mental health problems. We identified maternal mental health trajectories in pre- and postnatal period, and examined their association with later child mental health and development. Finnish mothers reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire [GHQ-36])…

  3. Lethal and sub-lethal responses of native freshwater mussels exposed to granular Bayluscide®, a sea lamprey larvicide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa; Boogaard, Michael A.; Gray, Brian R.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Schloesser, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) poses a substantial threat to fish communities in the Great Lakes. Efforts to control sea lamprey populations typically involve treating tributary streams with lampricides on a recurring cycle. The presence of a substantial population of larval sea lampreys in the aquatic corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie prompted managers to propose a treatment using the granular formulation of Bayluscide® that targets larval sea lampreys that reside in sediments. However, these treatments could cause adverse effects on native freshwater mussels—imperiled animals that also reside in sediments. We estimated the risk of mortality and sub-lethal effects among eight species of adult and sub-adult mussels exposed to Bayluscide® for durations up to 8 h to mimic field applications. Mortality was appreciable in some species, especially in sub-adults (range, 23–51%). The lethal and sub-lethal effects were positively associated with the duration of exposure in most species and life stage combinations. Estimates of the median time of exposure that resulted in lethal and sub-lethal effects suggest that sub-adults were often affected by Bayluscide® earlier than adults. Siphoning activity and burrowing position of mussels during exposure may have moderated the uptake of Bayluscide® and may have influenced lethal and sub-lethal responses. Given that the various species and life stages were differentially affected, it will be difficult to predict the effects of Bayluscide® treatments on mussels.

  4. Chronic postnatal ornithine administration to rats provokes learning deficit in the open field task.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carolina Maso; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Grings, Mateus; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Ritter, Luciana; Zanatta, Angela; Knebel, Lisiane Aurélio; Lobato, Vannessa Araujo; Pettenuzzo, Letícia Ferreira; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Wajner, Moacir

    2012-12-01

    Hyperornithinemia is the biochemical hallmark of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome, an inherited metabolic disease clinically characterized by mental retardation whose pathogenesis is still poorly known. In the present work, we produced a chemical animal model of hyperornithinemia induced by a subcutaneous injection of saline-buffered Orn (2-5 μmol/g body weight) to rats. High brain Orn concentrations were achieved, indicating that Orn is permeable to the blood brain barrier. We then investigated the effect of early chronic postnatal administration of Orn on physical development and on the performance of adult rats in the open field, the Morris water maze and in the step down inhibitory avoidance tasks. Chronic Orn treatment had no effect on the appearance of coat, eye opening or upper incisor eruption, nor on the free-fall righting reflex and on the adult rat performance in the Morris water maze and in the inhibitory avoidance tasks, suggesting that physical development, aversive and spatial localization were not changed by Orn. However, Orn-treated rats did not habituate to the open field apparatus, implying a deficit of learning/memory. Motor activity was the same for Orn- and saline- injected animals. We also verified that Orn subcutaneous injections provoked lipid peroxidation in the brain, as determined by a significant increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. Our results indicate that chronic early postnatal hyperornithinemia may impair the central nervous system, causing minor disabilities which result in specific learning deficiencies.

  5. A Subtype-Specific Critical Period for Neurogenesis in the Postnatal Development of Mouse Olfactory Glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Keishi; Arakawa, Sousuke; Murakami, Shingo; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2012-01-01

    Sensory input is essential for the normal development of sensory centers in the brain, such as the somatosensory, visual, auditory, and olfactory systems. Visual deprivation during a specific developmental stage, called the critical period, results in severe and irreversible functional impairments in the primary visual cortex. Olfactory deprivation in the early postnatal period also causes significant developmental defects in the olfactory bulb, the primary center for olfaction. Olfactory bulb interneurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone, suggesting that the olfactory system has plasticity even in adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of transient neonatal olfactory deprivation on the addition of interneurons to the glomerular layer of the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We found that the addition of one subtype of interneurons was persistently inhibited even after reopening the naris. BrdU pulse-chase experiments revealed that the neonatal olfactory deprivation predominantly affected an early phase in the maturation of this neuronal subtype in the olfactory bulb. Subjecting the mice to odor stimulation for 6 weeks after naris reopening resulted in significant recovery from the histological and functional defects caused by the olfactory deprivation. These results suggest that a subtype-specific critical period exists for olfactory bulb neurogenesis, but that this period is less strict and more plastic compared with the critical periods for other systems. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of postnatal neurogenesis and a biological ba