Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat
Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221
Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia
Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent
Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Gray, Jason D.; Melton, Jay T.; Punsoni, Michael; Tabori, Nora E.; Ward, Mary J.; Frys, Kelly; Iadecola, Costantino; Milner, Teresa A.
To mimic clinical treatment with methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), rat pups were injected with MPH (5 mg/kg, I.P.) or placebo twice daily during their nocturnal active phase from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 35. Thirty-nine days after the last MPH administration (PND76), four litters of rats experienced stressful conditions during the 2003 New York City blackout. MPH-treated rats that endured the blackout lost more weight and regained it at a slower pace than controls (p<0.05; N=7–11/group). Furthermore, MPH-treated rats had elevated systolic arterial blood pressure (from 115.6 ± 1.2 to 126 ± 1.8 mmHg; p<0.05), assessed on PND130 by tail cuff plethysmography. Immunocytochemical studies of transmitter systems in the brain demonstrated rearrangements of catecholamine and neuropeptide Y fibers in select brain regions at PND135, which did not differ between blackout and control groups. However, MPH-treated rats that endured the blackout had more ectopic granule cells in the hilus of the dorsal hippocampal dentate gyrus compared to controls at PND 135 (p<0.05; N=6/group). These findings indicate that early postnatal exposure to high therapeutic doses of MPH can have long lasting effects on the plasticity of select brain regions and can induce changes in the reactivity to stress that persist into adulthood. PMID:19100815
Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F
Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...
Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette
Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for
Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette
Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program . In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors
Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.
Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021
Balázsfi, Diána; Farkas, Lívia; Csikota, Péter; Fodor, Anna; Zsebők, Sándor; Haller, József; Zelena, Dóra
Stress and related disorders are in the focus of interest and glutamate is one of the most important neurotransmitters that can affect these processes. Glutamatergic neurons are characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) among which vGluT3 is unique contributing to the non-canonical, neuromodulatory effect of glutamate. We aimed to study the role of vGluT3 in stress axis regulation and related anxiety during the early postnatal period using knockout (KO) mice with special focus on sex differences. Anxiety was explored on postnatal day (PND) 7-8 by maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Stress-hormone levels were detected 60 min after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection 7 days later. Both genotypes gained weight, but on PND 14-15 KO mice pups had smaller body weight compared to wild type (WT). vGluT3 KO mice reacted to an immune stressor with enhanced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion compared to WT. Although there was a tendency for enhanced anxiety measured by more emitted USV, this did not reach the level of significance. The only sex-related effect was the enhanced corticosterone reactivity in male pups. For the HPA axis regulation in neonates vGluT3 expression seems to be dispensable under basal conditions, but is required for optimal response to immune stressors, most probably through an interaction with other neurotransmitters. Disturbance of the fine balance between these systems may result in a borderline enhanced anxiety-like behavior in vGluT3 KO pups.
Murphy, Margaret O; Herald, Joseph B; Wills, Caleb T; Unfried, Stanley G; Cohn, Dianne M; Loria, Analia S
Experimental studies in rodents have shown that females are more susceptible to exhibiting fat expansion and metabolic disease compared with males in several models of fetal programming. This study tested the hypothesis that female rat pups exposed to maternal separation (MatSep), a model of early-life stress, display an exacerbated response to diet-induced obesity compared with male rats. Also, we tested whether the postnatal treatment with metyrapone (MTP), a corticosterone synthase inhibitor, would attenuate this phenotype. MatSep was performed in WKY offspring by separation from the dam (3 h/day, postnatal days 2-14). Upon weaning, male and female rats were placed on a normal (ND; 18% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat). Nondisturbed littermates served as controls. In male rats, no diet-induced differences in body weight (BW), glucose tolerance, and fat tissue weight and morphology were found between MatSep and control male rats. However, female MatSep rats displayed increased BW gain, fat pad weights, and glucose intolerance compared with control rats (P < 0.05). Also, HFD increased plasma corticosterone (196 ± 51 vs. 79 ± 18 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and leptin levels (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 ng/ml, P < 0.05) in female MatSep compared with control rats, whereas insulin and adiponectin levels were similar between groups. Female control and MatSep offspring were treated with MTP (50 µg/g ip) 30 min before the daily separation. MTP treatment significantly attenuated diet-induced obesity risk factors, including elevated adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and glucose intolerance. These findings show that exposure to stress hormones during early life could be a key event to enhance diet-induced obesity and metabolic disease in female rats. Thus, pharmacological and/or behavioral inflection of the stress levels is a potential therapeutic approach for prevention of early life stress-enhanced obesity and metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological
Lee, Alison; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Rosa, Maria José; Jara, Calvin; Wright, Robert O.; Coull, Brent A.; Wright, Rosalind J.
BACKGROUND Temporal- and sex-specific effects of perinatal stress have not been examined for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVES We examined associations between pre- and/or postnatal stress and children's asthma (n=765) and effect modification by sex in a prospective cohort study. METHODS Maternal negative life events (NLEs) were ascertained prenatally and postpartum. NLEs scores were categorized as 0, 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 to assess exposure-response relationships. We examined effects of pre- and postnatal stress on children's asthma by age 6 years modeling each as independent predictors; mutually adjusting for prenatal and postnatal stress; and finally considering interactions between pre- and postnatal stress. Effect modification by sex was examined in stratified analyses and by fitting interaction terms. RESULTS When considering stress in each period independently, among boys a dose-response relationship was evident for each level increase on the ordinal scale prenatally (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.06, 1.79; p-for-trend=0.03) and postnatally (OR=1.53, 95% CI 1.16, 2.01; p-for-trend=0.001); among girls only the postnatal trend was significant (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.14, 2.22; p-for-trend=0.005). Higher stress in both the pre- and postnatal periods was associated with increased odds of being diagnosed with asthma in girls [OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.98, 1.91 (pinteraction=0.07)] but not boys [OR=1.08, 95% CI 0.82, 1.42 (pinteraction=0.61)]. CONCLUSIONS While boys were more vulnerable to stress during the prenatal period, girls were more impacted by postnatal stress and cumulative stress across both periods in relation to asthma. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to early life stress may provide unique insight into asthma etiology and natural history. PMID:26953156
Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl
Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.
World-wide, many fetuses and infants are exposed to methylxanthines via maternal consumption of coffee and other beverages containing these substances. Methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and aminophylline) are also commonly used as a medication for apnea of prematurity.The metabolism of methylxanthines is impaired in pregnant women, fetuses and neonates, leading to accumulating levels thereof. Methylxanthines readily passes the placenta barrier and enters all tissues and thus may affect the fetus/newborn at any time during pregnancy or postnatal life, given that the effector systems are mature.At clinically relevant doses, the major effector system for methylxanthines is adenosine receptors. Animal studies suggest that adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune system are developed at birth, but that cerebral adenosine receptors are not fully functional. Furthermore animal studies have shown protective positive effects of methylxanthines in situations of hypoxia/ischemia in neonates. Similarly, a positive long-term effect on lung function and CNS development was found in human preterm infants treated with high doses of caffeine for apneas. There is now evidence that the overall benefits from methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity outweigh potential short-term risks.On the other hand it is important to note that experimental studies have indicated that long-term effects of caffeine during pregnancy and postnatally may include altered behavior and altered respiratory control in the offspring, although there is currently no human data to support this.Some epidemiology studies have reported negative effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes related to maternal ingestion of high doses of caffeine, but the results are inconclusive. The evidence base for adverse effects of caffeine in first third of pregnancy are stronger than for later parts of pregnancy and there is currently insufficient evidence to advise women to restrict
Lee, Alison; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Rosa, Maria José; Jara, Calvin; Wright, Robert O; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J
Temporal- and sex-specific effects of perinatal stress have not been examined for childhood asthma. We examined associations between prenatal and/or postnatal stress and children's asthma (n = 765) and effect modification by sex in a prospective cohort study. Maternal negative life events were ascertained prenatally and postpartum. Negative life event scores were categorized as 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or 5 or greater to assess exposure-response relationships. We examined effects of prenatal and postnatal stress on children's asthma by age 6 years, modeling each as independent predictors, mutually adjusting for prenatal and postnatal stress, and finally considering interactions between prenatal and postnatal stress. Effect modification by sex was examined in stratified analyses and by fitting interaction terms. When considering stress in each period independently, among boys, a dose-response relationship was evident for each level increase on the ordinal scale prenatally (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.79; P value for trend = .03) and postnatally (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P value for trend = .001); among girls, only the postnatal trend was significant (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.14-2.22; P value for trend = .005). Higher stress in both the prenatal and postnatal periods was associated with increased odds of receiving a diagnosis of asthma in girls (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.98-1.91; Pinteraction = .07) but not boys (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82-1.42; Pinteraction = .61). Although boys were more vulnerable to stress during the prenatal period, girls were more affected by postnatal stress and cumulative stress across both periods in relation to asthma. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to early-life stress might provide unique insight into the cause and natural history of asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Carvalho, Ana Elisa Teófilo Saturi; Bassaneze, Vinícius; Forni, Maria Fernanda; Keusseyan, Aline Alfonso; Kowaltowski, Alicia Juliana; Krieger, José Eduardo
Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth. Cardiomyocyte extracellular flux analysis indicated that the decrease in oxidative metabolism between the first and seventh days after birth was mostly related to lower rates of ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that overall energetic demands decrease during this period. In parallel, the proliferation rate was higher for early cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, in vitro nonlethal chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration reduced the proliferative capacity of early cardiomyocytes, indicating a high energy demand to sustain cardiomyocyte proliferation. Altogether, we provide evidence that early postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity correlates with high oxidative energy metabolism. The energy requirement decreases as the proliferation ceases in the following days, and both oxidative-dependent metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis subside.
Ramos, Maria; Ikrar, Taruna; Kinoshita, Chisato; De Mei, Claudia; Tirotta, Emanuele; Xu, Xiangmin; Borrelli, Emiliana
Oligodendrocytes are the glial cells responsible for myelin formation. Myelination occurs during the first postnatal weeks and, in rodents, is completed during the third week after birth. Myelin ensures the fast conduction of the nerve impulse; in the adult, myelin proteins have an inhibitory role on axon growth and regeneration after injury. During brain development, oligodendrocytes precursors originating in multiple locations along the antero-posterior axis actively proliferate and migrate to colonize the whole brain. Whether the initial interactions between oligodendrocytes and neurons might play a functional role before the onset of myelination is still not completely elucidated. In this article, we addressed this question by transgenically targeted ablation of proliferating oligodendrocytes during cerebellum development. Interestingly, we show that depletion of oligodendrocytes at postnatal day 1 (P1) profoundly affects the establishment of cerebellar circuitries. We observed an impressive deregulation in the expression of molecules involved in axon growth, guidance and synaptic plasticity. These effects were accompanied by an outstanding increase of neurofilament staining observed 4 hours after the beginning of the ablation protocol, likely dependent from sprouting of cerebellar fibers. Oligodendrocyte ablation modifies localization and function of ionotropic glutamate receptors in Purkinje neurons. These results show a novel oligodendrocyte function expressed during early postnatal brain development, where these cells participate in the formation of cerebellar circuitries, and influence its development. PMID:21589880
Marasco, Valeria; Spencer, Karen A; Robinson, Jane; Herzyk, Pawel; Costantini, David
Across diverse vertebrate taxa, stressful environmental conditions during development can shape phenotypic trajectories of developing individuals, which, while adaptive in the short-term, may impair health and survival in adulthood. Regardless, the long-lasting benefits or costs of early life stress are likely to depend on the conditions experienced across differing stages of development. Here, we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to experimentally manipulate exposure to stress hormones in developing individuals. We tested the hypothesis that interactions occurring between pre- and post-natal developmental periods can induce long-term shifts on the adult oxidant phenotype in non-breeding sexually mature individuals. We showed that early life stress can induce long-term alterations in the basal antioxidant defences. The magnitude of these effects depended upon the timing of glucocorticoid exposure and upon interactions between the pre- and post-natal stressful stimuli. We also found differences among tissues with stronger effects in the erythrocytes than in the brain in which the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on antioxidant biomarkers appeared to be region-specific. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that early life exposure to stress hormones can markedly reduce adult survival (Monaghan et al., 2012). Our results suggest that long-term shifts in basal antioxidant defences might be one of the potential mechanisms driving such accelerated ageing processes and that post-natal interventions during development may be a potential tool to shape the effects induced by pre-natally glucococorticoid-exposed phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gapp, Katharina; Corcoba, Alberto; van Steenwyk, Gretchen; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Duarte, João Mn
Adverse environmental and social conditions early in life have a strong impact on health. They are major risk factors for mental diseases in adulthood and, in some cases, their effects can be transmitted across generations. The consequences of detrimental stress conditions on brain metabolism across generations are not well known. Using high-field (14.1 T) magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated the neurochemical profile of adult male mice exposed to traumatic stress in early postnatal life and of their offspring, and of undisturbed control mice. We found that, relative to controls, early life stress-exposed mice have metabolic alterations consistent with neuronal dysfunction, including reduced concentration of N-acetylaspartate, glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate, in the prefrontal cortex in basal conditions. Their offspring have normal neurochemical profiles in basal conditions. Remarkably, when challenged by an acute cold swim stress, the offspring has attenuated metabolic responses in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In particular, the expected stress-induced reduction in the concentration of N-acetylaspartate, a putative marker of neuronal health, was prevented in the cortex and hippocampus. These findings suggest that paternal trauma can confer beneficial brain metabolism adaptations to acute stress in the offspring.
Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz
Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.
Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...
Grisa, Leila; Leonel, Maria L.; Gonçalves, Maria I. R.; Pletsch, Francisco; Sade, Elis R.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zagonel, Ivete P. S.; Longui, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.
Background The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT) in childhood. Methods The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0), vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years) and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years) female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. Results Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89%) had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5%) at 8.16 years, and 1 (5%) at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months) was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19) of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz) and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. Conclusions Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors. PMID:23284635
Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Huang, Jun; Jia, Yinan; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Zhang, Jun
Maternal stress is associated with impairments in the neurodevelopment of offspring; however, the effects of the timing of exposure to maternal stress on a child's neurodevelopment are unclear. In 2010, we studied 225 mother-child pairs in Shanghai, recruiting mothers in mid-to-late pregnancy and monitoring offspring from birth until 30 months of age. Maternal stress was assessed prenatally (at 28-36 weeks of gestation) and postnatally (at 24-30 months postpartum) using the Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) and Life-Event-Stress Scale to evaluate mothers' emotional stress and life event stress levels, respectively. Children's cognition and temperament were assessed at 24-30 months of age using the Gesell Development Scale and Toddler Temperament Scale, respectively. Multi-variable linear regression models were used to associate prenatal and postnatal stress with child cognitive and temperamental development. Maternal prenatal and postnatal Global Severity Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R were moderately correlated (ICC r=0.30, P<0.001). After adjusting for relevant covariates, the increase in prenatal GSI was associated with decreases in toddlers' gross motor, fine motor, adaptive and social behavior development independently of postnatal GSI, while the increase in postnatal GSI was associated with changes in multiple temperament dimensions independently of prenatal GSI. The effects of prenatal and postnatal depression scores of SCL-90-R were similar to those of GSI. Relatively small sample size. Compared with postnatal exposure, children's cognitive development may be more susceptible to prenatal exposure to maternal emotional stress, whereas temperamental development may be more affected by postnatal exposure to maternal emotional stress compared with prenatal exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inomata, Kei; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yonemoto, Hiroki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawase, Akihiko; Kondo, Yuichi
Early postnatal hyperoxia is a major risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. To reduce the occurrence of ROP, we adopted a lower early postnatal oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) target range (85-92%) from April 2011. Lower SpO 2 target range, however, may lead to hypoxemia and an increase in the risk of ductus arteriosus (DA) closure failure. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether a lower SpO 2 target range, during the early postnatal stage, increases the risk of DA closure failure. Infants born at <28 weeks' gestation were enrolled in this study. Oxygen saturation target range during the first postnatal 72 h was 84-100% in study period 1 and 85-92% in period 2. Eighty-two infants were included in period 1, and 61 were included in period 2. The lower oxygen saturation target range increased the occurrence of hypoxemia during the first postnatal 72 h. Prevalence of DA closure failure in period 2 (21%) was significantly higher than that in period 1 (1%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lower oxygen saturation target range was an independent risk factor for DA closure failure. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target range increases the risk of DA closure failure. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Prenatal stress resulting from repeated transportation during gestation has been shown to increase postnatal adrenal responsiveness of calves to a stressor. The objective of the current experiment was to examine the relationship between prenatal stress and gestation length, calf birth weight, and su...
Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei
During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725
Milgrom, Jeannette; Holt, Charlene
postnatal depression group treatment programme. Primary outcome measures are the Parenting Stress Index (self-report measure) and the Parent-child Early Relational Assessment (observational measure coded by a blinded observer). Measurements are taken at baseline, after the postnatal depression programme, post-HUGS/Playtime, and at 6 months post-HUGS/Playtime. This research addresses the need for specific treatment for mother-infant interactional difficulties following postnatal depression. There is a need to investigate interventions in randomised trials to prevent detrimental effects on child development and make available evidence-based treatments. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12612001110875. Date Registered: 17 October 2012.
McKellar, Lois V; Pincombe, Jan I; Henderson, Ann M
to investigate the provision of parent education during the early postnatal period in order to gain insight that, through stakeholder collaboration, will contribute to the development of innovative strategies to enhance the provision of postnatal education in a contemporary health-care environment. the study comprises the first stage of an action-research project. The first stage of research sought to explore the experiences of mothers and fathers in the early postnatal period by conducting a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the birth of their baby. The data obtained from the questionnaire is to inform an action-research group for stage two of the project. The Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, a large city maternity hospital in South Australia, covering a range of socio-economic strata. 85 parents completed and returned the questionnaire, comprising 52 mothers and 33 fathers. an anonymous self-report questionnaire was purpose designed to provide each parent with an opportunity to reflect on their own experience, with particular emphasis given to the provision of education and support during the early postnatal period. a number of themes emerged, including a window of opportunity during the postnatal hospital stay to provide education and support, despite the reduction in the length of stay; the need for a family-centred approach to maternity services; and the significance of self and social network in the early transition to parenthood. The findings from this stage of the research, combined with a review of the literature, provide insight that will contribute to stage two of the study. At this stage, an action-research group will continue planning to develop specific actions to enhance the provision of education to parents in the early postnatal period. These actions will subsequently be implemented and assessed.
Chen, Xue-Yi; Zhang, Ai-Feng; Zhao, Wen; Gao, Yu-Dan; Duan, Hong-Mei; Hao, Peng; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang
The present study was aimed to investigate the electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal postnatal early development mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into postnatal 0.5-, 1-, 2- and 3-month groups (n = 12). Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) mediated by AMPA receptors were recorded to evaluate the changes in the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by using patch-clamp and MED64 planar microelectrode array technique respectively. The results showed that, during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months, some of the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, such as the membrane capacitance (Cm) and the resting membrane potential (RMP), showed no significant changes, while the membrane input resistance (Rin) and the time constant (τ) of the cells were decreased significantly. The amplitude, frequency and kinetics (both rise and decay times) of sEPSCs were significantly increased during the period of postnatal 0.5-1 month, but they were all decreased during the period of postnatal 1-3 months. In addition, the range of evoked fEPSPs in hippocamal CA1 region was significantly expanded, but the fEPSP amplitudes were decreased significantly during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months. Furthermore, the evoked fEPSPs could be significantly inhibited by extracellular application of the AMPA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). These results suggest that AMPA receptor may act as a major type of excitatory receptor to regulate synaptic transmission and connections during the early stage of hippocampal postnatal development, which promotes the development and functional maturation of hippocampus in rats.
Peña, Catherine J; Kronman, Hope G; Walker, Deena M; Cates, Hannah M; Bagot, Rosemary C; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Issler, Orna; Loh, Yong-Hwee Eddie; Leong, Tin; Kiraly, Drew D; Goodman, Emma; Neve, Rachael L; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J
Early life stress increases risk for depression. Here we establish a "two-hit" stress model in mice wherein stress at a specific postnatal period increases susceptibility to adult social defeat stress and causes long-lasting transcriptional alterations that prime the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-a brain reward region-to be in a depression-like state. We identify a role for the developmental transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 ( Otx2 ) as an upstream mediator of these enduring effects. Transient juvenile-but not adult-knockdown of Otx2 in VTA mimics early life stress by increasing stress susceptibility, whereas its overexpression reverses the effects of early life stress. This work establishes a mechanism by which early life stress encodes lifelong susceptibility to stress via long-lasting transcriptional programming in VTA mediated by Otx2 . Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
In utero heat stress (IUHS) negatively impacts postnatal development, but how it alters future body temperature parameters and energetic metabolism is not well-understood. Objectives were to characterize future temperature indices and bioenergetic markers in pigs originating from differing in utero...
Biddinger, Jessica E.; Fox, Edward A.
Early postnatal overnutrition results in a predisposition to develop obesity due in part to hypothalamic and sympathetic dysfunction. Potential involvement of another major regulatory system component - the vagus nerve - has not been examined. Moreover, feeding disturbances have rarely been investigated prior to development of obesity when confounds due to obesity are minimized. To examine these issues, litters were culled on the day of birth to create small litters (SL; overnutrition), or normal-size litters (NL; normal nutrition). Body weight, fat pad weight, meal patterns, and vagal sensory duodenal innervation were compared between SL and NL adult mice prior to development of obesity. Meal patterns were studied 18 hour/day for 3 weeks using a balanced diet. Then vagal mechanoreceptors were labeled using anterograde transport of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the nodose ganglion and their density and morphology were examined. Between postnatal day 1 and weaning, body weight of SL mice was greater than for NL mice. By young adulthood it was similar in both groups, whereas SL fat pad weight was greater in males, suggesting postnatal overnutrition produced a predisposition to obesity. SL mice exhibited increased food intake, decreased satiety ratio, and increased first meal rate (following mild food deprivation) compared to NL mice, suggesting postnatal overnutrition disrupted satiety. The density and structure of intestinal IGLEs appeared similar in SL and NL mice. Thus, although a vagal role cannot be excluded, our meal parameter and anatomical findings provided no evidence for significant postnatal overnutrition effects on vagal gastrointestinal afferents. PMID:20403369
Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed. PMID:24574961
Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lamata, Pablo; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Ohuma, Eric O; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Wopperer, Samuel; Packham, Alice; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul
Background Adults born very preterm have increased cardiac mass and reduced function. We investigated whether a hypertrophic phenomenon occurs in later preterm infants and when this occurs during early development. Methods Cardiac ultrasound was performed on 392 infants (33% preterm at mean gestation 34±2 weeks). Scans were performed during fetal development in 137, at birth and 3 months of postnatal age in 200, and during both fetal and postnatal development in 55. Cardiac morphology and function was quantified and computational models created to identify geometric changes. Results At birth, preterm offspring had reduced cardiac mass and volume relative to body size with a more globular heart. By 3 months, ventricular shape had normalized but both left and right ventricular mass relative to body size were significantly higher than expected for postmenstrual age (left 57.8±41.9 vs. 27.3±29.4%, P<0.001; right 39.3±38.1 vs. 16.6±40.8, P=0.002). Greater changes were associated with lower gestational age at birth (left P<0.001; right P=0.001). Conclusion Preterm offspring, including those born in late gestation, have a disproportionate increase in ventricular mass from birth up to 3 months of postnatal age. These differences were not present before birth. Early postnatal development may provide a window for interventions relevant to long-term cardiovascular health. PMID:28399117
Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Yang, Yao; Chen, Hanying; Wang, Fangjie; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Yuan; Chu, Jianhong; Yu, Jianhua; Shou, Weinian; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui
Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo a critical hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition at early postnatal age, which is important in establishing normal physiological function of postnatal hearts. In the current study, we intended to explore the role of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs in this transitional stage. We analyzed lncRNA expression profiles in mouse hearts at postnatal day (P) 1, P7 and P28 via microarray. We identified 1,146 differentially expressed lncRNAs with more than 2.0-fold change when compared the expression profiles of P1 to P7, P1 to P28, and P7 to P28. The neighboring genes of these differentially expressed lncRNAs were mainly involved in DNA replication-associated biological processes. We were particularly interested in one novel cardiac-enriched lncRNA, ENSMUST00000117266, whose expression was dramatically down-regulated from P1 to P28 and was also sensitive to hypoxia, paraquat, and myocardial infarction. Knockdown ENSMUST00000117266 led to a significant increase of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in G0/G1 phase and reduction in G2/M phase, suggesting that ENSMUST00000117266 is involved in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferative activity and is likely associated with hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. In conclusion, our data have identified a large group of lncRNAs presented in the early postnatal mouse heart. Some of these lncRNAs may have important functions in cardiac hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. PMID:28266538
Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lamata, Pablo; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Ohuma, Eric O; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Wopperer, Samuel; Packham, Alice; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul
BackgroundAdults born very preterm have increased cardiac mass and reduced function. We investigated whether a hypertrophic phenomenon occurs in later preterm infants and when this occurs during early development.MethodsCardiac ultrasound was performed on 392 infants (33% preterm at mean gestation 34±2 weeks). Scans were performed during fetal development in 137, at birth and 3 months of postnatal age in 200, and during both fetal and postnatal development in 55. Cardiac morphology and function was quantified and computational models created to identify geometric changes.ResultsAt birth, preterm offspring had reduced cardiac mass and volume relative to body size with a more globular heart. By 3 months, ventricular shape had normalized but both left and right ventricular mass relative to body size were significantly higher than expected for postmenstrual age (left 57.8±41.9 vs. 27.3±29.4%, P<0.001; right 39.3±38.1 vs. 16.6±40.8, P=0.002). Greater changes were associated with lower gestational age at birth (left P<0.001; right P=0.001).ConclusionPreterm offspring, including those born in late gestation, have a disproportionate increase in ventricular mass from birth up to 3 months of postnatal age. These differences were not present before birth. Early postnatal development may provide a window for interventions relevant to long-term cardiovascular health.
Håberg, Siri E.; Bentdal, Yngvild E.; London, Stephanie J.; Kværner, Kari J.; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per
Aim To explore associations between acute otitis media in early childhood and prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Subjects were 32,077 children born 2000 – 2005 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Study with questionnaire data on tobacco smoke exposure and acute otitis media up to 18 months of age. Multivariate regression models were used to obtain adjusted relative risks for acute otitis media. Results Acute otitis media was slightly more common in children exposed to parental smoking. The incidence from 0–6 months was 4.7% in unexposed children, and 6.0% in children exposed both pre-and postnatally. After adjusting for postnatal exposure and covariates, the relative risk for acute otitis media 0–6 months when exposed to maternal smoking in pregnancy was 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.69. Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with acute otitis media up to 12 months of age. Compared to non-exposed children, there was a slightly increased risk of recurrent acute otitis media for children exposed both pre- and postnatally with a relative risk of 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.52,. Conclusion Even in a cohort with relatively low exposure levels of parental smoking, maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of acute otitis media in early childhood. PMID:19764924
Jones, Eleanor; Taylor, Beck; MacArthur, Christine; Pritchett, Ruth; Cummins, Carole
The length of postnatal hospital stay has declined over the last 40 years. There is little evidence to support a policy of early discharge following birth, and there is some concern about whether early discharge of mothers and babies is safe. The Cochrane review on the effects of early discharge from hospital only included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which are problematic in this area, and a systematic review including other study designs is required. The aim of this broader systematic review is to determine possible effects of a policy of early postnatal discharge on important maternal and infant health-related outcomes. A systematic search of published literature will be conducted for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series studies (ITS) that report on the effect of a policy of early postnatal discharge from hospital. Databases including Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Science Citation Index will be searched for relevant material. Reference lists of articles will also be searched in addition to searches to identify grey literature. Screening of identified articles and data extraction will be conducted in duplicate and independently. Methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria for risk of bias tool. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or by consulting a third author. Meta-analysis using a random effects model will be used to combine data. Where significant heterogeneity is present, data will be combined in a narrative synthesis. The findings will be reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews (PRISMA) statement. Information on the effects of early postnatal discharge from hospital will be important for policy makers and clinicians providing maternity care. This review will also identify any gaps in the current
Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann
This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125
Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W
The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antiel, Ryan M; Adzick, N Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A; Burrows, Pamela K; Farmer, Diana L; Brock, John W; Howell, Lori J; Farrell, Jody A; Houtrow, Amy J
The Management of Myelomeningocele Study was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that compared prenatal repair with standard postnatal repair for fetal myelomeningocele. We sought to describe the long-term impact on the families of the women who participated and to evaluate how the timing of repair influenced the impact on families and parental stress. Randomized women completed the 24-item Impact on Family Scale and the 36-item Parenting Stress Index Short Form at 12 and 30 months after delivery. A revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale describing overall impact was also computed. Higher scores reflected more negative impacts or greater stress. In addition, we examined Family Support Scale and Family Resource Scale scores along with various neonatal outcomes. Repeated measures analysis was conducted for each scale and subscale. Of 183 women randomized, 171 women completed the Impact on Family Scale and 172 completed the Parenting Stress Index at both 12 and 30 months. The prenatal surgery group had significantly lower revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale scores as well as familial-social impact subscale scores compared to the postnatal surgery group (P = .02 and .004, respectively). There was no difference in total parental stress between the 2 groups (P = .89) or in any of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form subscales. In addition, walking independently at 30 months and family resources at 12 months were associated with both family impact and parental stress. The overall negative family impact of caring for a child with spina bifida, up to 30 months of age, was significantly lower in the prenatal surgery group compared to the postnatal surgery group. Ambulation status and family resources were predictive of impact on family and parental stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse
Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clout, Danielle; Brown, Rhonda
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate relationships between sociodemographic, pregnancy, obstetric, and postnatal variables and postpartum depression, anxiety and stress levels in new mothers. One-hundred-thirty-nine women completed the baseline questionnaire and 105 completed the follow-up questionnaire at 4-6 months postpartum. Sociodemographic and pregnancy factors were assessed at baseline, birth and postnatal factors were assessed at time 2, and depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at both time points. Caesarean delivery was associated with high postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Child sleep problems was related to depression, child health problems were related to anxiety, more SLE related to high stress, and maternal sleep problems were related to PPD. However, the results became non-significant after controlling for antenatal distress levels. Finally, women who underwent caesarean delivery had higher antenatal stress, anxiety, and depression levels, relative to women who did not undergo the procedure. Psychological stress and distress tended to persist in the women from the third-trimester of pregnancy to 4-6 months postpartum. It tended to occur in the context of caesarean delivery, maternal sleep problems, child's health and sleep problems, and stressful life-events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miller, Renée L; Pallant, Julie F; Negri, Lisa M
Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or overlooked in the absence of depression. Some researchers have identified the need to distinguish between postnatal depression and anxiety, and to discern cases where depression and anxiety co-exist. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of postnatal distress using the EPDS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). As part of a larger cross-sectional study, the EPDS and DASS-21 were administered to a convenience sample of 325 primiparous mothers, who ranged in age from 18 to 44 years (M = 32 years). Recruited through mother's groups and health centres in Melbourne Australia, inclusion was limited to mothers whose babies were aged between 6 weeks and 6 months. Analyses included comparisons between the classifications of women according to the EPDS and the DASS-21, and an exploration of the extent to which the EPDS identified anxious-depressed women. The EPDS identified 80 women (25%) as possibly depressed (using a cut-off of over 9), of which the DASS-21 corroborated 58%. In the total sample, 61 women (19%) were classified by the DASS-21 to be depressed. Using broader criteria for distress, it was revealed by the DASS-21 that a further 33 women (10%) showed symptoms of anxiety and stress without depression. A total of 41 women (13%) had symptoms of anxiety either in isolation or in combination with depression. The DASS-21 identified 7% of the sample as being both anxious and depressed. This at-risk sub-group had higher mean EPDS and DASS-depression scores than their depressed-only counterparts. The prevalence of anxiety and stress in
Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.
Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133
Biddinger, Jessica E; Fox, Edward A
Early postnatal overnutrition results in a predisposition to develop obesity due in part to hypothalamic and sympathetic dysfunction. Potential involvement of another major regulatory system component--the vagus nerve--has not been examined. Moreover, feeding disturbances have rarely been investigated prior to development of obesity when confounds due to obesity are minimized. To examine these issues, litters were culled on the day of birth to create small litters (SL; overnutrition), or normal size litters (NL; normal nutrition). Body weight, fat pad weight, meal patterns, and vagal sensory duodenal innervation were compared between SL and NL adult mice prior to development of obesity. Meal patterns were studied 18 h/day for 3 weeks using a balanced diet. Then vagal mechanoreceptors were labeled using anterograde transport of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the nodose ganglion and their density and morphology were examined. Between postnatal day 1 and weaning, body weight of SL mice was greater than for NL mice. By young adulthood it was similar in both groups, whereas SL fat pad weight was greater in males, suggesting postnatal overnutrition produced a predisposition to obesity. SL mice exhibited increased food intake, decreased satiety ratio, and increased first meal rate (following mild food deprivation) compared to NL mice, suggesting postnatal overnutrition disrupted satiety. The density and structure of intestinal IGLEs appeared similar in SL and NL mice. Thus, although a vagal role cannot be excluded, our meal parameter and anatomical findings provided no evidence for significant postnatal overnutrition effects on vagal gastrointestinal afferents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perucho, Juan; Gómez, Ana; Muñoz, María Paz; de Yébenes, Justo García; Mena, María Ángeles; Casarejos, María José
The pathological hallmark of Huntington disease (HD) is the intracellular aggregation of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) in striatal neurons and glia associated with the selective loss of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons. Up to the present, the role of glia in HD is poorly understood and has been classically considered secondary to neuronal disorder. Trehalose is a disaccharide known to possess many pharmacological properties, acting as an antioxidant, a chemical chaperone, and an inducer of autophagy. In this study, we analyzed at an early postnatal development stage the abnormalities observed in striatal glial cell cultures of postnatal R6/1 mice (HD glia), under baseline and stressing conditions and the protective effects of trehalose. Our data demonstrate that glial HD alterations already occur at early stages of postnatal development. After 20 postnatal days in vitro, striatal HD glia cultures showed more reactive astrocytes with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) but with less replication capacity, less A2B5(+) glial progenitors and more microglia than wild-type (WT) cultures. HD glia had lower levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and was more susceptible to H2O2 and epoxomicin insults. The amount of expressed GDNF and secreted mature-BDNF by HD astrocytes were much lower than by WT astrocytes. In addition, HD glial cultures showed a deregulation of the major proteolytic systems, the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS), and the autophagic pathway. This produces a defective protein quality control, indicated by the elevated levels of ubiquitination and p62 protein. Interestingly, we show that trehalose, through its capacity to induce autophagy, inhibited p62/SQSTM1 accumulation and facilitated the degradation of cytoplasmic aggregates from mHTT and α-synuclein proteins. Trehalose also reduced microglia activation and reversed the disrupted cytoskeleton of astrocytes accompanied with an increase in the replication capacity. In
Danchenko, O O; Kalytka, V V
The features of antioxidant protection of tissues of a liver and blood of the gooses in embriogenesis and early postnatal ontogenesis are found out. Maximal contents TBA active products both in a liver, and in a blood are observed in 28 diurnal embriones. Is shown, that in a liver the activity of basic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in a liver is developed already at early stages embriogenesis and is considerably enlarged in the end embriogenesis. The becoming of enzymatic system of a blood descends much more slower.
Porcelli, Peter J; Weaver, R Grey
Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) is the most common serious ophthalmic disease in preterm infants. Human milk may provide a protective effect for ROP; however, beneficial effects of human milk preclude randomized trials. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing early postnatal nutrition with ROP development. Evaluate relationship between early postnatal nutriture and ROP surgery. Nutrition data was collected for inborn AGA infants, BW 700-1000 g. ROP surgery was the primary outcome variable. A single pediatric ophthalmologist supervised examinations. All infants received triweekly IM vitamin A as chronic lung disease prophylaxis (Tyson: NEJM, 1999). BW and gestational age were 867+/-85 g and 26.3+/-1.2 weeks (n=77, mean+/-1SD). ROP surgery infants(n=11) received more parenteral nutrition, 1648 mL, and less human milk, 13.8 mL/kg-day, and vitamin E, 1.4 mg/kg-day, during the second postnatal week. Human milk was a negative predictor for ROP surgery, odds ratio=0.94. Both groups met vitamin A recommendations; however, 74% was administered via IM injections. Neither group met vitamin E recommendations. Human milk feeding, parenteral nutrition volume and vitamin E intake were predictors for ROP surgery. IM vitamin A injections provided the majority of vitamin A; vitamin E administration was insufficient. Improving human milk feeding rates and vitamin dosing options may affect ROP surgery rates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takehara, Kenji; Suto, Maiko; Kakee, Naoko; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Rintaro
We investigated the association of paternal depression in the prenatal and early postnatal period with child maltreatment tendency at two months postpartum among Japanese fathers. This population-based longitudinal study recruited Japanese perinatal women and their partners living in Nishio City, Aichi, Japan. Of the 270 fathers who participated, 196 were included in the analysis. All data were collected via self-administrated questionnaires at four time points: 20 weeks' gestation and in the first few days, one month, and two months postpartum. Paternal depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Three definitions of paternal depression were coded based on participants' scores on this measure: prenatal, prior, and current. Child maltreatment tendency was evaluated using the Child Maltreatment Scale at two months postpartum. The associations of the three definitions of paternal depression and child maltreatment tendency were separately analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of prenatal, prior, and current paternal depression was 9.7%, 10.2%, and 8.8%, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, current paternal depression was significantly associated with child maltreatment tendency at two months postpartum (adjusted odds ratio: 7.77, 95% CI: 1.83-33.02). The other two types of depression, however, were not related to child maltreatment tendency. Thus, current paternal depression increased the risk of child maltreatment tendency in the postnatal period, suggesting that early detection and treatment of paternal depression might be useful for the prevention of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe; Dalby, Nils Ole
A compromised γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and also diminished currents passed by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. The observed impairments in GABAergic function are compatible with the alteration of GABAergic markers as well as cognitive dysfunction observed in early postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Antiel, Ryan M.; Adzick, N. Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Farmer, Diana L.; Brock, John W.; Howell, Lori J.; Farrell, Jody A.; Houtrow, Amy J.
BACKGROUND The Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that compared prenatal repair with standard postnatal repair for fetal myelomeningocele. OBJECTIVE We sought to describe the long-term impact on the families of the women who participated and to evaluate how the timing of repair influenced the impact on families and parental stress. STUDY DESIGN Randomized women completed the 24-item Impact on Family Scale (IFS) and the 36-item Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF) at 12 and 30 months after delivery. A revised 15-item score of the IFS (RIFS) describing overall impact was also computed. Higher scores reflect more negative impacts or greater stress. In addition, we examined Family Support Scale (FSS) and Family Resource Scale (FRS) scores along with various neonatal outcomes. Repeated measures analysis was conducted for each scale and subscale. RESULTS Of 183 women randomized, 171 women completed the IFS and 172 completed the PSI at both 12 and 30 months. The prenatal surgery group had significantly lower RIFS scores as well as familial-social impact subscale scores compared to the postnatal surgery group (p=0.02 and 0.004, respectively). There was no difference in total parental stress between the two groups (p=0.89) or in any of the PSI-SF subscales. In addition, walking independently at 30 months and family resources at 12 months are associated with both family impact and parental stress. CONCLUSION The overall negative family impact of caring for a child with spina bifida, up to 30 months of age, was significantly lower in the prenatal surgery group compared to the postnatal surgery group. Ambulation status and family resources were predictive of impact on family and parental stress. PMID:27263997
Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda
Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuhn, Louise; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Kasonde, Prisca; Scott, Nancy; Mwiya, Mwiya; Vwalika, Cheswa; Walter, Jan; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Thea, Donald M
Empirical data showing the clear benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for HIV prevention are needed to encourage implementation of lactation support programs for HIV-infected women in low resource settings among whom replacement feeding is unsafe. We conducted a prospective, observational study in Lusaka, Zambia, to test the hypothesis that EBF is associated with a lower risk of postnatal HIV transmission than non-EBF. As part of a randomized trial of early weaning, 958 HIV-infected women and their infants were recruited and all were encouraged to breastfeed exclusively to 4 months. Single-dose nevirapine was provided to prevent transmission. Regular samples were collected from infants to 24 months of age and tested by PCR. Detailed measurements of actual feeding behaviors were collected to examine, in an observational analysis, associations between feeding practices and postnatal HIV transmission. Uptake of EBF was high with 84% of women reporting only EBF cumulatively to 4 months. Post-natal HIV transmission before 4 months was significantly lower (p = 0.004) among EBF (0.040 95% CI: 0.024-0.055) than non-EBF infants (0.102 95% CI: 0.047-0.157); time-dependent Relative Hazard (RH) of transmission due to non-EBF = 3.48 (95% CI: 1.71-7.08). There were no significant differences in the severity of disease between EBF and non-EBF mothers and the association remained significant (RH = 2.68 95% CI: 1.28-5.62) after adjusting for maternal CD4 count, plasma viral load, syphilis screening results and low birth weight. Non-EBF more than doubles the risk of early postnatal HIV transmission. Programs to support EBF should be expanded universally in low resource settings. EBF is an affordable, feasible, acceptable, safe and sustainable practice that also reduces HIV transmission providing HIV-infected women with a means to protect their children's lives. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00310726.
Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi
Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Alum, Alice C; Kizza, Irene B; Osingada, Charles P; Katende, Godfrey; Kaye, Dan K
Despite being a key component to be addressed during postnatal period, sexuality has long been a subject of secrecy and taboo in Africa. Resumption of sexual intercourse after giving birth has been shown to reduce extramarital affairs and consequently reduce risk of sexually transmitted infections like HIV/AIDS. Consequences of early resumption of sexual intercourse include unwanted pregnancy, genital trauma and puerperal infection. The objective of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with early resumption of sexual intercourse among postnatal mothers attending postnatal clinic at a National referral Hospital in Uganda. A cross-sectional study that employed an interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted among 374 women who delivered six months prior to conducting the study. The independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics of the participant, socio-demographic characteristics of the spouse, perceived cultural norms, medical history, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications. The dependent variable was timing of resumption of sexual intercourse after childbirth (before or after six weeks postpartum). Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. The study showed that 105 participants (21.6%) had resumed sexual intercourse before 6 weeks after childbirth. The participants' education level, occupation, and parity; education level of the spouse, age of baby and use of family planning were the factors associated with early resumption of sexual intercourse after child birth (before six weeks postpartum) (p < 0.05). Many women resumed sexual intercourse after six weeks. Women with high income, low parity, who ever-used contraception or had a spouse with high education level were more likely to have early resumption of sexual intercourse.
Background Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze.Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base
Nagapan, Gowri; Meng Goh, Yong; Shameha Abdul Razak, Intan; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Ebrahimi, Mahdi
Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus
Eulenburg, Volker; Retiounskaia, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Gomeza, Jesús; Betz, Heinrich
The glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) is expressed in astrocytes and selected neurons of the mammalian CNS. In newborn mice, GlyT1 is crucial for efficient termination of glycine-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. Furthermore, GlyT1 has been implicated in the regulation of excitatory N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptors. To evaluate whether glial and neuronal GlyT1 have distinct roles at inhibitory synapses, we inactivated the GlyT1 gene cell type-specifically using mice carrying floxed GlyT1 alleles GlyT1((+)/+)). GlyT1((+)/(+)) mice expressing Cre recombinase in glial cells developed severe neuromotor deficits during the first postnatal week, which mimicked the phenotype of conventional GlyT1 knock-out mice and are consistent with glycinergic over-inhibition. In contrast, Cre-mediated inactivation of the GlyT1 gene in neuronal cells did not result in detectable motor impairment. Notably, some animals deficient for glial GlyT1 survived the first postnatal week and did not develop neuromotor deficits throughout adulthood, although GlyT1 expression was efficiently reduced. Thus, glial GlyT1 is critical for the regulation of glycine levels at inhibitory synapses only during early postnatal life. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Louise Bering; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Greisen, Gorm; Cour, Morten de la
To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national registers were searched, and data were linked through a unique civil registration number. The study sample consisted of 106 cases each matched with two comparison infants. Matching criteria were gestational age (GA) at birth, ROP not registered and born at the same neonatal intensive care unit. Potential 'new' risk factors were analysed in a multivariate logistic regression model, while adjusted for previously recognised risk factors (ie, GA at birth, small for gestational age, multiple birth and male sex). Hospital records of 310 preterm infants (106 treated; 204 comparison infants) were available. Nutrition in terms of energy (kcal/kg/week) and protein (g/kg/week) given to the preterm infants during the first postnatal week were statistically insignificant between the study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; p=0.165/p=0.163). Early postnatal weight gain between the two study groups was borderline significant (t-test; p=0.047). Hyperglycaemic events (indexed value) were statistically significantly different between the two study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; p<0.001). Hyperglycaemia was a statistically independent risk factor (OR: 1.022; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.042; p=0.031). An independent association was found between the occurrence of hyperglycaemic events during the first postnatal week and later development of treatment-demanding ROP, when adjusted for known risk factors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Collins, J; Borojevic, R; Verdu, E F; Huizinga, J D; Ratcliffe, E M
Normal gastrointestinal function depends on an intact and coordinated enteric nervous system (ENS). While the ENS is formed during fetal life, plasticity persists in the postnatal period during which the gastrointestinal tract is colonized by bacteria. We tested the hypothesis that colonization of the bowel by intestinal microbiota influences the postnatal development of the ENS. The development of the ENS was studied in whole mount preparations of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of specific pathogen-free (SPF), germ-free (GF), and altered Schaedler flora (ASF) NIH Swiss mice at postnatal day 3 (P3). The frequency and amplitude of circular muscle contractions were measured in intestinal segments using spatiotemporal mapping of video recorded spontaneous contractile activity with and without exposure to lidocaine and N-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA). Immunolabeling with antibodies to PGP9.5 revealed significant abnormalities in the myenteric plexi of GF jejunum and ileum, but not duodenum, characterized by a decrease in nerve density, a decrease in the number of neurons per ganglion, and an increase in the proportion of myenteric nitrergic neurons. Frequency of amplitude of muscle contractions were significantly decreased in the jejunum and ileum of GF mice and were unaffected by exposure to lidocaine, while NOLA enhanced contractile frequency in the GF jejunum and ileum. These findings suggest that early exposure to intestinal bacteria is essential for the postnatal development of the ENS in the mid to distal small intestine. Future studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms by which enteric microbiota interact with the developing ENS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zellner, Leor C.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Hunter, Dawn D.; Dey, Richard D.
Sensory neurons originating in nodose and jugular ganglia that innervate airway epithelium (airway neurons) play a role in inflammation observed following exposure to inhaled environmental irritants such as ozone (O3). Airway neurons can mediate airway inflammation through the release of the neuropeptide substance P (SP). While susceptibility to airway irritants is increased in early life, the developmental dynamics of afferent airway neurons are not well characterized. The hypothesis of this study was that airway neuron number might increase with increasing age, and that an acute, early postnatal O3 exposure might increase both the number of sensory airway neurons as well as the number SP-containing airway neurons. Studies using Fischer 344 rat pups were conducted to determine if age or acute O3 exposure might alter airway neuron number. Airway neurons in nodose and jugular ganglia were retrogradely labeled, removed, dissociated, and counted by means of a novel technique employing flow cytometry. In Study 1, neuron counts were conducted on postnatal days (PD) 6, 10, 15, 21, and 28. Numbers of total and airway neurons increased significantly between PD6 and PD10, then generally stabilized. In Study 2, animals were exposed to O3 (2 ppm) or filtered air (FA) on PD5 and neurons were counted on PD10, 15, 21, and 28. O3-exposed animals displayed significantly less total neurons on PD21 than FA controls. This study shows that age-related changes in neuron number occur, and that an acute, early postnatal O3 exposure significantly alters sensory neuron development. PMID:22140294
Ricard, Caroline A; Dammann, Christiane E L; Dammann, Olaf
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the preterm newborn characterized by neurovascular disruption in the immature retina that may cause visual impairment and blindness. To develop a clinical screening tool for early postnatal prediction of ROP in preterm newborns based on risk information available within the first 48 h of postnatal life. Using data submitted to the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) between 1995 and 2015, we created logistic regression models based on infants born <28 completed weeks gestational age. We developed a model with 60% of the data and identified birth weight, gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and multiple gestation as predictors of ROP. We tested the model in the remaining 40%, performed tenfold cross-validation, and tested the score in ELGAN study data. Of the 1,052 newborns in the VON database, 627 recorded an ROP status. Forty percent had no ROP, 40% had mild ROP (stages 1 and 2), and 20% had severe ROP (stages 3-5). We created a weighted score to predict any ROP based on the multivariable regression model. A cutoff score of 5 had the best sensitivity (95%, 95% CI 93-97), while maintaining a strong positive predictive value (63%, 95% CI 57-68). When applied to the ELGAN data, sensitivity was lower (72%, 95% CI 69-75), but PPV was higher (80%, 95% CI 77-83). STEP-ROP is a promising screening tool. It is easy to calculate, does not rely on extensive postnatal data collection, and can be calculated early after birth. Early ROP screening may help physicians limit patient exposure to additional risk factors, and may be useful for risk stratification in clinical trials aimed at reducing ROP. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A
Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Seibert, Jacob T.; Johnson, Jay S.; Pearce, Sarah C.; Selsby, Joshua T.; Gabler, Nicholas K.; Lucy, Matthew C.; Safranski, Timothy J.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Ross, Jason W.
The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that heat stress (HS) during gestational development alters postnatal growth, body composition, and biological response to HS conditions in pigs. To investigate this, 14 first parity crossbred gilts were exposed to one of four environmental treatments (TNTN, TNHS, HSTN, or HSHS) during gestation. TNTN and HSHS dams were exposed to thermal neutral (TN, cyclical 18–22°C) or HS conditions (cyclical 28–34°C) during the entire gestation, respectively. Dams assigned to HSTN and TNHS treatments were heat-stressed for the first or second half of gestation, respectively. Postnatal offspring were exposed to one of two thermal environments for an acute (24 h) or chronic (five weeks) duration in either constant TN (21°C) or HS (35°C) environment. Exposure to chronic HS during their growth phase resulted in decreased longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area (LDA) in offspring from HSHS and HSTN treated dams whereas LDA was larger in offspring from dams in TNTN and TNHS conditions. Irrespective of HS during prepubertal postnatal growth, pigs from dams that experienced HS during the first half of gestation (HSHS and HSTN) had increased (13.9%) subcutaneous fat thickness compared to pigs from dams exposed to TN conditions during the first half of gestation. This metabolic repartitioning towards increased fat deposition in pigs from dams heat-stressed during the first half of gestation was accompanied by elevated blood insulin concentrations (33%; P = 0.01). Together, these results demonstrate HS during the first half of gestation altered metabolic and body composition parameters during future development and in biological responses to a subsequent HS challenge. PMID:25383953
Phelan, A L; DiBenedetto, M R; Paul, I M; Zhu, J; Kjerulff, K H
To evaluate the impact of psychosocial stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first postnatal year. A sample of 3000 women completed a stress inventory (the Psychosocial Hassles Scale) during their third trimester before first childbirth. Infant health outcomes were measured via maternal report at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Poisson regression was used to model the effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first year, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, insurance coverage, marital status, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Women who were younger, minority, unmarried, publicly insured and without a college degree were more likely to report high levels of prenatal stress. High prenatal stress was a significant predictor of maternal reporting of gastrointestinal illness (p < 0.0001), respiratory illness (p = 0.025), and total illness in the first year (p < 0.0001). High prenatal stress was also a significant predictor of urgent care visits (p < 0.0001) and emergency department visits (p = 0.001). It was not a significant predictor of hospitalizations (p = 0.36). Maternal prenatal stress is associated with increased maternal reporting of infant illness, as well as increased frequency of both urgent care visits and emergency department visits.
Martin, J H; Donarummo, L; Hacking, A
This study examined the effects of blocking neural activity in sensory motor cortex during early postnatal development on prehension. We infused muscimol, either unilaterally or bilaterally, into the sensory motor cortex of cats to block activity continuously between postnatal weeks 3-7. After stopping infusion, we trained animals to reach and grasp a cube of meat and tested behavior thereafter. Animals that had not received muscimol infusion (unilateral saline infusion; age-matched) reached for the meat accurately with small end-point errors. They grasped the meat using coordinated digit flexion followed by forearm supination on 82.7% of trials. Performance using either limb did not differ significantly. In animals receiving unilateral muscimol infusion, reaching and grasping using the limb ipsilateral to the infusion were similar to controls. The limb contralateral to infusion showed significant increases in systematic and variable reaching end-point errors, often requiring subsequent corrective movements to contact the meat. Grasping occurred on only 14.8% of trials, replaced on most trials by raking without distal movements. Compensatory adjustments in reach length and angle, to maintain end-point accuracy as movements were started from a more lateral position, were less effective using the contralateral limb than ipsilateral limb. With bilateral inactivations, the form of reaching and grasping impairments was identical to that produced by unilateral inactivation, but the magnitude of the reaching impairments was less. We discuss these results in terms of the differential effects of unilateral and bilateral inactivation on corticospinal tract development. We also investigated the degree to which these prehension impairments after unilateral blockade reflect control by each hemisphere. In animals that had received unilateral blockade between postnatal weeks (PWs) 3 and 7, we silenced on-going activity (after PW 11) during task performance using continuous
Cambridge scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson are best known for their work on the British food tables and wartime food rations, but it is their research on prenatal and early postnatal growth that is today seen as a foundation of the fields studying the impact of environment upon prenatal development and, consequently, adult disease. In this essay I situate McCance's and Widdowson's 1940s human and 1950s experimental studies in the context of pre-war concerns with fetal growth and development, especially within biochemistry, physiology and agriculture; and the Second World War and post-war focus on the effects of undernutrition during pregnancy upon the fetus. I relate Widdowson's and McCance's research on the long-term effects of early undernutrition to the concern with recovery from early trauma so pertinent in post-war Europe and with sensitive (critical) periods, a concept of high importance across different fields. Finally I discuss how, following a hiatus in which fetal physiology engaged with different questions and stressed fetal autonomy, interest in the impact of environment upon prenatal growth and development revived towards the end of the twentieth century. The new field of "developmental origins of health and disease", I suggest, has provided a context in which Widdowson's and McCance's work has regained importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iles, Jane; Spiby, Helen; Slade, Pauline
Little is known about what constitutes key components of partner support during the childbirth experience. This study modified the five minute speech sample, a measure of expressed emotion (EE), for use with new parents in the immediate postpartum. A coding framework was developed to rate the speech samples on dimensions of couple support. Associations were explored between these codes and subsequent symptoms of postnatal depression and posttraumatic stress. 372 couples were recruited in the early postpartum and individually provided short speech samples. Posttraumatic stress and postnatal depression symptoms were assessed via questionnaire measures at six and thirteen weeks. Two hundred and twelve couples completed all time-points. Key elements of supportive interactions were identified and reliably categorised. Mothers' posttraumatic stress was associated with criticisms of the partner during childbirth, general relationship criticisms and men's perception of helplessness. Postnatal depression was associated with absence of partner empathy and any positive comments regarding the partner's support. The content of new parents' descriptions of labour and childbirth, their partner during labour and birth and their relationship within the immediate postpartum may have significant implications for later psychological functioning. Interventions to enhance specific supportive elements between couples during the antenatal period merit development and evaluation.
Biniwale, Manoj; Weiner, Angela; Sardesai, Smeeta; Cayabyab, Rowena; Barton, Lorayne; Ramanathan, Rangasamy
The objective of this study is to validate the reliability of early postnatal weight gain as an accurate predictor of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment in a large predominantly Hispanic US cohort with the use of an online tool called WINROP (weight, neonatal retinopathy of prematurity (IGF-1), neonatal retinopathy of prematurity). Retrospective cohort study consisted of preterm infants <32 weeks gestation and birth weight <1500 g. Weekly weights to 36 weeks post-menstrual age or discharge if earlier were entered into the WINROP tool. This tool generated alarm and risk indicator for developing ROP. The infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment as well as all stages of ROP were compared with the alarms and risks generated by WINROP tool. A total of 492 infants were entered into the WINROP tool. The infants who developed type 1 ROP requiring treatment, the WINROP tool detected 80/89 (90%) at less than 32 weeks gestation. Nine infants developed type 1 ROP were classified as low risk and did not alarm. Postnatal weight gain alone, in predominantly Hispanic US population, predicted type 1 ROP requiring treatment before 32 weeks of gestation in infants with a sensitivity of 90%. The tool appeared to identify majority of affected infants much earlier than the scheduled screening.
Cai, Yue-Ju; Song, Yan-Yan; Huang, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian; Qi, Jun-Ye; Xiao, Xu-Wen; Wang, Lan-Xiu
To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was significantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All five developmental quotients evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale (gross motor, fine motor, language, adaptability and individuality) in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 3 months. At the corrected gestational age of 6 months, the developmental quotients of fine motor and language in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group, however, there were no significant differences in the developmental quotients of gross motor, adaptability and individuality between the two groups. All five developmental quotients in IUGR infants with catch-up lag in weight were significantly lower than in IUGR and AGA infants who had caught up well. Growth retardation at early postnatal stages may adversely affect the early neurodevelopment in infants with IUGR.
Danbjørg, D B; Wagner, L; Kristensen, B R; Clemensen, J
a move towards earlier postnatal discharge raises the challenge of finding new ways to support families when they are discharged early after childbirth. to explore how postnatal parents experienced the use of telemedicine following early discharge from hospital (i.e. 24 hours after childbirth) by investigating if they consider that their postnatal needs are met, and whether or not they experience a sense of security and parental self-efficacy. intervention followed by a qualitative interview study. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1000 births a year. An app including chat, a knowledgebase and automated messages was trialled between postnatal parents at home and the hospital. Parents had access to the app for seven days after discharge. 42 new mothers were recruited from the postnatal ward in accordance with the inclusion criteria (i.e. discharged within 24 hours of childbirth). Both parents were invited for interview. 42 sets of parents participated in the trial, and 28 sets agreed to be interviewed. Interviews (n=28) were conducted with 27 mothers and 11 fathers. Parents were interviewed together in 10 cases, 17 mothers were interviewed alone, and one father was interviewed alone. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation based on Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological method. parents were confident in use of the app, and did not experience any barriers in contacting the nurses via asynchronous communication. Parents received timely information and guidance by communicating online, and felt that their follow-up support needs were met. parents viewed the app as a lifeline, and saw it as a means of informing and guiding them following early discharge from hospital after childbirth. As such, this app shows potential for enhancing self-efficacy and postnatal sense of security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Shashi P; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Pena-Philippides, Juan C; Langley, Raymond J; Mishra, Neerad C; Sopori, Mohan L
Annually, approximately two million babies are exposed to cigarette smoke in utero and postnatally through cigarette smoking of their mothers. Exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke is known to impair both innate and adaptive immunities, and it has been hypothesized that the effects of in utero exposure to cigarette smoke on children's health might primarily stem from the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system. To simulate the environment that babies from smoking mothers encounter, we examined the effects of prenatal mainstream and postnatal sidestream cigarette smoke on spleen cell responses. Results show that postnatal exposure of newborn Balb/c mouse pups to sidestream cigarette smoke through the first 6 weeks of life strongly suppresses the antibody response of spleen cells to the T-cell-dependent antigen, sheep red blood cells. The reduction in the antibody response seen within 6 weeks of postnatal smoke exposure is much quicker than the published data on the time 25 weeks) required to establish reproducible immunosuppression in adult rats and mice. Moreover, the immunosuppression is not associated with significant changes in T-cell numbers or subset distribution. While the postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke did not affect the mitogenic response of T and B cells, the exposure inhibited the T cell receptor-mediated rise in the intracellular calcium concentration. These results suggest that the early postnatal period is highly sensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of environmental tobacco smoke, and the effects are causally associated with impaired antigen-mediated signaling in T cells.
Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi
A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tomat, Analia Lorena; Veiras, Luciana Cecilia; Aguirre, Sofía; Fasoli, Héctor; Elesgaray, Rosana; Caniffi, Carolina; Costa, María Ángeles; Arranz, Cristina Teresa
Fetal and postnatal zinc deficiencies induce an increase in arterial blood pressure and impair renal function in male adult rats. We therefore hypothesized that these renal alterations are present in early stages of life and that there are sexual differences in the adaptations to this nutritional injury. The aim was to study the effects of moderate zinc deficiency during fetal life and lactation on renal morphology, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the nitric oxide system in male and female rats at 21 d of life. Female Wistar rats received low (8 ppm) or control (30 ppm) zinc diets from the beginning of pregnancy to weaning. Glomerulus number, morphology, oxidative stress, apoptotic cells, nitric oxide synthase activity, and protein expression were evaluated in the kidneys of offspring at 21 d. Zinc deficiency decreased the nephron number, induced glomerular hypertrophy, increased oxidative damage, and decreased nitric oxide synthase activity in the male and female rat kidneys. Nitric oxide synthase activity was not affected by inhibitors of the neuronal or inducible isoforms, so nitric oxide was mainly generated by the endothelial isoenzyme. Gender differences were observed in glomerular areas and antioxidant enzyme activities. Zinc deficiency during fetal life and lactation induces an early decrease in renal functional units, associated with a decrease in nitric oxide activity and an increase in oxidative stress, which would contribute to increased arterial blood pressure and renal dysfunction in adulthood. The sexual differences observed in this model may explain the dissimilar development of hypertension and renal diseases in adult life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: email@example.com
The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytesmore » and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.« less
Richardson, G P; Forge, A; Kros, C J; Marcotti, W; Becker, D; Williams, D S; Thorpe, J; Fleming, J; Brown, S D; Steel, K P
Myosin VIIA is expressed by sensory hair cells in the inner ear and proximal tubule cells in the kidney, the two primary targets of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Using cochlear cultures prepared from early postnatal Myo7a6J mice with a missense mutation in the head region of the myosin VIIA molecule we show that this myosin is required for aminoglycoside accumulation in cochlear hair cells. Hair cells in homozygous mutant Myo7a6J cochlear cultures have disorganized hair bundles, but are otherwise morphologically normal and transduce. However, and in contrast to hair cells from heterozygous Myo7a6J cultures, the homozygous Myo7a6J hair cells do not accumulate [3H]gentamicin and do not exhibit an ototoxic response on exposure to aminoglycoside. Possible roles for myosin VIIA in the process of aminoglycoside accumulation are discussed.
Lee, Theresa My; Bautista, Dianne; Chen, Helen Y
Postnatal depression is a major public health problem with clearly established adverse effects in child outcomes. This study examines the 4-year outcomes of a screening and early intervention programme, in relation to improvement in symptoms, functioning and health quality of life. Women were prospectively recruited up to 6 months postdelivery, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) as a screening tool. High-scorers (EPDS >13), were offered psychiatric consultation, and those with borderline scores (EPDS 10-12) were provided counselling, and offered follow-up phone counselling by the assigned case manager. Outcome measures were obtained at baseline, and at 6 months or discharge if earlier, for levels of symptoms, functioning, and health quality of life. From 2008 to 2012, 5245 women were screened, with 307 (5.9%) women with EPDS >13 receiving intervention. Of these, 70.0% had depression, 4.6% anxiety and 3.4% psychosis. In the depression subgroup, the net change was improvement of 93.4% EPDS symptom scores, 92.2% Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, and 88.3% visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) health quality of life scores. Outcome scores across diagnostic categories demonstrated median changes of 10 points on EPDS, 20 points on GAF, and 25 points on EQ VAS, reflecting 73.9%, 36.4% and 41.7% change from baseline scores. Women with psychosis showed the biggest (80.0%) relative change in GAF functioning scores from baseline to discharge but had the lowest median change in EPDS symptom scores. A screening and intervention programme rightly-sited within an obstetric setting can improve clinical outcomes because of early detection and intervention.
Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C
The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis. In this study, we examined NPCs from the early postnatal hippocampus and DG of Fragile X mice (Fmr1-KO). Immunocytochemistry on neurospheres showed increased Nestin expression and decreased Ki67 expression, which collectively indicated aberrant NPC biology. Intriguingly, flow cytometric analysis of the expression of the antigens CD15, CD24, CD133, GLAST, and PSA-NCAM showed a decreased proportion of neural stem cells (GLAST + CD15 + CD133 + ) and an increased proportion of neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM + CD15 + ) in the DG of P7 Fmr1-KO mice. This was mirrored by lower expression levels of Nestin and the mitotic marker phospho-histone H3 in vivo in the P9 hippocampus, as well as a decreased proportion of cells in the G 2 /M phases of the P7 DG. Thus, the absence of FMRP leads to fewer actively cycling NPCs, coinciding with a decrease in neural stem cells and an increase in neuroblasts. Together, these results show the importance of FMRP in the developing hippocampal formation and suggest abnormalities in cell cycle regulation in Fragile X. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Del Giudice, M
Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.
Serrano Mujica, Lady; Bridi, Alessandra; Della Méa, Ricardo; Rissi, Vitor Braga; Guarda, Naiara; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Premaor, Melissa Orlandin; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Quites; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos
Several studies have described an enhanced inflammatory status and oxidative stress balance disruption in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, there is scarce information about redox markers in the blood of androgenized animal models. Here, we evaluated the serum/plasma oxidative stress marker and metabolic parameter characteristics of prenatal (PreN) and postnatal (PostN) androgenized rat models of PCOS. For PreN androgenization (n=8), 2.5 mg of testosterone propionate was subcutaneously administered to dams at embryonic days 16, 17, and 18, whereas PostN androgenization (n=7) was accomplished by subcutaneously injecting 1.25 mg of testosterone propionate to animals at PostN day 5. A unique control group (n=8) was constituted for comparison. Our results indicate that PostN group rats exhibited particular modifications in the oxidative stress marker, an increased plasma ferric-reducing ability of plasma, and an increased antioxidant capacity reflected by higher albumin serum levels. PostN animals also presented increased total cholesterol and triglyceride-glucose levels, suggesting severe metabolic disarrangement. Study findings indicate that changes in oxidative stress could be promoted by testosterone propionate exposure after birth, which is likely associated with anovulation and/or lipid disarrangement.
Silva, Pamelli; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Prates, Kelly Valério; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Silveira, Sandra da Silva; Malta, Ananda; Lopes, Denise Alves; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Torrezan, Rosana; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas
The incidences of obesity and related diseases have reached epidemic proportions, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Soy isoflavones have been identified as an important dietary factor for preventing and treating metabolic dysfunction. This study examined the effects of high doses of isoflavone on glucose and fat metabolism in a model of programmed obesity and evaluated its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Litters of Wistar rats were standardized at nine pups per dam in normal litters (NL) or reduced to three pups per dam at the third day of life (P3) in small litters (SL) to induce postnatal overfeeding. Gavage with a soy bean isoflavone mixture (1 g/day) diluted in water was started at P60 and continued for 30 days. The control animals received vehicle gavage. At P90, biometric and metabolic parameters as well as direct autonomic nerve activity were measured. Increases in glycaemia and insulinaemia observed in SL rats were reduced by isoflavone treatment, which also caused lower glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Sympathetic activity in the major splanchnic nerve was increased, while vagus nerve activity was reduced by isoflavone treatment. The dyslipidaemia induced by overfeeding in SL rats was restored by isoflavone treatment. The present study shows that treatment with isoflavone reduces adiposity and improves glucose and lipid metabolism. Collectively, these effects may depend on autonomic changes.
Johnson, J S; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Seibert, J T; Ross, J W; Lucy, M C; Safranski, T J; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H
In utero heat stress (IUHS) negatively impacts postnatal development, but how it alters future body temperature parameters and energetic metabolism is not well understood. Future body temperature indices and bioenergetic markers were characterized in pigs from differing in utero thermal environments during postnatal thermoneutral (TN) and cyclical heat stress (HS) exposure. First-parity pregnant gilts ( = 13) were exposed to 1 of 4 ambient temperature (T) treatments (HS [cyclic 28°C to 34°C] or TN [cyclic 18°C to 22°C]) applied for the entire gestation (HSHS, TNTN), HS for the first half of gestation (HSTN), or HS for the second half of gestation (TNHS). Twenty-four offspring (23.1 ± 1.2 kg BW; = 6 HSHS, = 6 TNTN, = 6 HSTN, = 6 TNHS) were housed in TN (21.7°C ± 0.7°C) conditions and then exposed to 2 separate but similar HS periods (HS1 = 6 d; HS2 = 6 d; cycling 28°C to 36°C). Core body temperature (T) was assessed every 15 min with implanted temperature recorders. Regardless of in utero treatment, T increased during both HS periods ( = 0.01; 0.58°C). During TN, HS1, and HS2, all IUHS pigs combined had increased T ( = 0.01; 0.36°C, 0.20°C, and 0.16°C, respectively) compared to TNTN controls. Although unaffected by in utero environment, the total plasma thyroxine to triiodothyronine ratio was reduced ( = 0.01) during HS1 and HS2 (39% and 29%, respectively) compared with TN. In summary, pigs from IUHS maintained an increased T compared with TNTN controls regardless of external T, and this thermal differential may have practical implications to developmental biology and animal bioenergetics.
Schroeder, B; Dahl, M R; Breves, G
The role of calcitriol in stimulating intestinal active Ca2+ absorption during postnatal life was studied in newborn, suckling, and weaned control (Con) piglets and piglets suffering from inherited calcitriol deficiency (Def piglets). In addition, a group of Def piglets was treated with vitamin D3 (Def-D3 piglets), which normalized plasma calcitriol levels. Regardless of age, duodenal calbindin-D9k concentrations ranged between 1,839 and 2,846 microg/g mucosa in Con piglets, between 821 and 1,219 microg/g mucosa in Def piglets, and between 2,960 and 3,692 microg/g mucosa in Def-D3 animals. In weaned animals, active Ca2+ absorption as calculated from in vitro 45Ca2+ flux rate measurements in Ussing chambers could be related to calbindin-D9k levels. Thus active Ca2+ absorption was completely absent in Def animals but was reconstituted in Def-D3 animals. In contrast, in newborn Def piglets active Ca2+ absorption functioned normally despite the low plasma calcitriol and mucosal calbindin-D9k levels and could not be affected by treatment with vitamin D3. Similar results were obtained from suckling Def piglets. The microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine caused significant inhibition of transepithelial net Ca2+ absorption in duodenal epithelia from newborn piglets without exerting an effect in suckling and weaned animals. Colchicine had no effect on Ca2+ uptake across the brush border membrane of mucosal enterocytes or on glucose-dependent electrogenic net ion flux rates in duodenal preparations from newborn Con piglets. In conclusion, our findings reveal intestinal active Ca2+ absorption during early postnatal life of pigs that involves calcitriol-independent mechanisms and that may include intact microtubule actions.
Cheng, Aiwu; Scott, Anna L.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Chen, Kevin; Ouyang, Xin; Lathia, Justin D.; Mughal, Mohamed; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.; Shih, Jean C.
Monoamine neurotransmitters play major roles in regulating a range of brain functions in adults and increasing evidence suggests roles for monoamines in brain development. Here we show that mice lacking the monoamine metabolic enzymes MAO A and MAO B (MAO AB-deficient mice) exhibit diminished proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the developing telencephalon beginning in late gestation [embryonic day (E) 17.5], a deficit that persists in neonatal and adult mice. These mice showed significantly increased monoamine levels and anxiety-like behaviors as adults. Assessments of markers of intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) and mitosis showed that NSC in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but not in the ventricular zone, are reduced in MAO AB-deficient mice. A developmental time course of monoamines in frontal cortical tissues revealed increased serotonin levels as early as E14.5, and a further large increase was found between E17.5 and postnatal day 2. Administration of an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (parachlorophenylalanine) between E14.5 and E19.5 restored the IPC numbers and SVZ thickness, suggesting the role of serotonin in the suppression of IPC proliferation. Studies of neurosphere cultures prepared from the telencephalon at different embryonic and postnatal ages showed that serotonin stimulates proliferation in wild-type, but not in MAO AB-deficient, NSC. Together, these results suggest that a MAO-dependent long-lasting alteration in the proliferation capacity of NSC occurs late in embryonic development and is mediated by serotonin. Our findings reveal novel roles for MAOs and serotonin in the regulation of IPC proliferation in the developing brain. PMID:20702706
Navarrete, Erika; Ortega-Bernal, Juan Roberto; Trejo-Muñoz, Lucero; Díaz, Georgina; Montúfar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo; Caldelas, Ivette
Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits. From postnatal day 1 (P1), pups were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: intact pups (INT), intact pups fed by enteral gavage (INT+ENT), sham operated pups (SHAM), pups with unilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-UNI), and pups with bilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-BI). At the beginning of the experiment, from P1-8, the animals in all groups were fed at 11:00, from P9-13 the feeding schedule was delayed 6 h (17:00), and finally, from P14-15 the animals were subjected to fasting conditions. The rabbit pups of the INT, INT+ENT, SHAM and OBx-UNI groups exhibited a clear circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity, with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to the nursing or feeding schedule, which persisted even during fasting conditions. In addition, phase delays in the nursing or feeding schedule induced a clear phase shift in both parameters. In contrast, the OBx-BI group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters under entrained conditions that altered the anticipatory component, as well as deficient phase control of both rhythms. The present results demonstrate that the expression of circadian rhythmicity at behavioral and physiological levels during early stages of rabbit development largely depends on the integrity of the main olfactory bulb. PMID:27305041
Shvarev, Y N; Lagercrantz, H
Developmental changes in the respiratory activity and its modulation by substance P (SP) were studied in the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparation from the day of birth to day 3 (P0-P3). The respiratory network activity in the ventrolateral medulla was represented by two types of bursts: basic regular bursts with typical decrementing shape and biphasic bursts appearing after augmented biphasic discharges in inspiratory neurons. With advancing postnatal age the respiratory output was considerably modified; the basic rhythm became faster by 20%, whereas the biphasic burst rate, which was originally 15 times slower, declined further by 180% and the C4 burst duration significantly decreased by 20% due to reduced decay time without preceding changes in the central inspiratory drive. SP had an age-dependent excitatory effect on respiratory activity. In the basic rhythm, SP could induce transient rhythm cessations on P0-P2 but not on P3. For the biphasic burst frequency, the sensitivity to SP significantly decreased from P0 to P3, whereas the range of SP-induced changes increased. In both types of bursts, SP prolonged C4 burst duration due to increasing decay time. This effect was three times greater on P3 and did not depend on the central inspiratory drive. Our results suggest that the potency of SP to regulate the respiratory activity elevates during the early postnatal period. The developmental changes in the respiratory activity appear to represent the transient stage in the maturation of rhythm and pattern generation mechanisms facilitating adaptive behavior of a quickly growing organism.
Harford, Terri J.; Agrawal, Vandana; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Rezaee, Fariba; Piedimonte, Giovanni
Maternal viral infections can have pathological effects on the developing fetus which last long after birth. Recently, maternal-fetal transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to cause postnatal airway hyperreactivity (AHR) during primary early-life reinfection; however, the influence of prenatal exposure to RSV on offspring airway immunity and smooth muscle contractility during recurrent postnatal reinfections remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine whether maternal RSV infection impairs specific aspects of cell-mediated offspring immunity during early-life reinfections and the mechanisms leading to AHR. Red fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant RSV (rrRSV) was inoculated into pregnant rat dams at midterm, followed by primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV inoculations of their offspring at early-life time points. Pups and weanlings were tested for specific lower airway leukocyte populations by flow cytometry; serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations by multiplex ELISA and neurotrophins concentrations by standard ELISA; and ex vivo lower airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction by physiological tissue bath. Pups born to RSV-infected mothers displayed elevated total CD3+ T cells largely lacking CD4+ and CD8+ surface expression after both primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV infection. Cytokine/chemokine analyses revealed reduced IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-18, and TNF-α, as well as elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) expression. Prenatal exposure to RSV also increased ASM reactivity and contractility during early-life rrRSV infection compared to non-exposed controls. We conclude that maternal RSV infection can predispose offspring to postnatal lower airways dysfunction by altering immunity development, NGF signaling, and ASM contraction during early-life RSV reinfections. PMID:28178290
Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica
To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.
Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica
Abstract To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy. In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416
Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first seven days of life for preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. For the 2017 update, we used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); Embase (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 2013 to 21 February 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. For this review, we selected RCTs examining systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment within the first seven days of life (early) in high-risk preterm infants. Most studies evaluated the use of dexamethasone, but we also included studies that assessed hydrocortisone, even when used primarily for management of hypotension. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.We extracted and analysed data regarding clinical outcomes that included mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, failure to extubate, complications during primary hospitalisation, and long-term health outcomes. We included 32 RCTs enrolling a total of 4395 participants. The overall risk of bias of included studies was probably low, as all were RCTs, and most trials used rigorous methods. Investigators reported significant benefits for the following outcomes overall: lower rates of failure to extubate, decreased
Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; De Livera, Alysha M; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann
Objective To determine which antenatal and early-life factors were associated with infant postnatal growth in a resource-poor setting in Vietnam. Study design Prospective longitudinal study following infants (n=1046) born to women who had previously participated in a cluster randomised trial of micronutrient supplementation (ANZCTR:12610000944033), Ha Nam province, Vietnam. Antenatal and early infant factors were assessed for association with the primary outcome of infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age using multivariable linear regression and structural equation modelling. Results Mean length-for-age z score was −0.58 (SD 0.94) and stunting prevalence was 6.4%. Using structural equation modelling, we highlighted the role of infant birth weight as a predictor of infant growth in the first 6 months of life and demonstrated that maternal body mass index (estimated coefficient of 45.6 g/kg/m2; 95% CI 34.2 to 57.1), weight gain during pregnancy (21.4 g/kg; 95% CI 12.6 to 30.1) and maternal ferritin concentration at 32 weeks' gestation (−41.5 g per twofold increase in ferritin; 95% CI −78 to −5.0) were indirectly associated with infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age via birth weight. A direct association between 25-(OH) vitamin D concentration in late pregnancy and infant length-for-age z scores (estimated coefficient of −0.06 per 20 nmol/L; 95% CI −0.11 to −0.01) was observed. Conclusions Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of early infant growth. Elevated antenatal ferritin levels were associated with suboptimal infant growth in this setting, suggesting caution with iron supplementation in populations with low rates of iron deficiency. PMID:25246090
Shah, Shahid Ali; Amin, Faiz Ul; Khan, Mehtab; Abid, Muhammad Noman; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Min Woo; Kim, Myeong Ok
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation are believed to play an important role in the development of a number of CNS disorders. We recently reported that a high dose of glutamate could induce AMPK-mediated neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (PND7) rat brain. Yet, the mechanism of glutamate-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the postnatal brain is not well understood. Here, we report for the first time the mechanism of glutamate-induced oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection by polyphenolic anthocyanins in PND7. PND7 rat brains, SH-SY5Y, and BV2 cells treated either alone with glutamate or in combination with anthocyanins and compound C were examined with Western blot and immunofluorescence techniques. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and other ELISA kit assays were employed to know the therapeutic efficacy of anthocyanins against glutamate. A single injection of glutamate to developing rats significantly increased brain glutamate levels, activated and phosphorylated AMPK induction, and inhibited nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) after 2, 3, and 4 h in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, anthocyanin co-treatment significantly reduced glutamate-induced AMPK induction, ROS production, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain. Most importantly, anthocyanins increased glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels and stimulated the endogenous antioxidant system, including Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), against glutamate-induced oxidative stress. Interestingly, blocking AMPK with compound C in young rats abolished glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Similarly, all these experiments were replicated in SH-SY5Y cells by silencing AMPK with siRNA, which suggests that AMPK is the key mediator in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we report for the first time that anthocyanins can potentially decrease glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in young rats. Our work
Coleman, Leon G; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Moy, Sheryl S; Crews, Fulton T
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with higher cognitive functions including attention and working memory and has been implicated in the regulation of impulsivity as well as the pathology of complex mental illnesses. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist treatment with dizocilpine induces cell death which is greatest in the frontal cortex on post-natal day seven (P7), however the long-term structural and behavioral effects of this treatment are unknown. This study investigates both the acute neurotoxicity of P7 dizocilpine and the persistent effects of this treatment on pyramidal cells and parvalbumin interneurons in the adult PFC, a brain region involved in the regulation of impulsivity. Dizocilpine treatment on P7 increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity (IR) in the PFC on P8. In adult mice (P82), P7 dizocilpine treatment resulted in 50% fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons (p<0.01) and 42% fewer layer V pyramidal neurons (p<0.01) in the PFC. Double immunohistochemistry revealed cleaved caspase-3 IR in both GAD67 IR interneurons and GAD67 (-) neurons. Following dizocilpine treatment at P7, adults showed reduced time in the center of the open field suggesting increased anxiety-like behavior. These findings indicate that early brain insults affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission lead to persistent brain pathology that could contribute to impulsivity and cognitive dysfunction.
Beaudin, Stephane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R
Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1-21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230-237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258.
Beaudin, Stephane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R.
Background: Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. Objectives: To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Methods: Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1–21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Results: Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230–237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258 PMID:27384154
Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen
We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or
Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen
Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth
Sofronova, Svetlana I; Gaynullina, Dina K; Shvetsova, Anastasia A; Borzykh, Anna A; Selivanova, Ekaterina K; Kostyunina, Daria S; Sharova, Anna P; Martyanov, Andrey A; Tarasova, Olga S
The mechanisms of vascular alterations resulting from early thyroid hormones deficiency are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism would alter the activity of endothelial NO pathway and Rho-kinase pathway, which are specific for developing vasculature. Dams were treated with propylthiouracil (PTU, 7 ppm) in drinking water during gestation and 2 weeks after delivery, and their progeny had normal body weight but markedly reduced blood levels of thyroid hormones (ELISA). Small arteries from 2-week-old male pups were studied using wire myography, qPCR and Western blotting. Mesenteric arteries of PTU pups, compared to controls, demonstrated smaller maximum response to α 1 -adrenergic agonist methoxamine and reduced mRNA contents of smooth muscle differentiation markers α-actin and SERCA2A. Inhibition of basal NO synthesis by l-NNA led to tonic contraction of mesenteric arteries and augmented their contractile responses to methoxamine; both l-NNA effects were impaired in PTU pups. PTU pups demonstrated lower blood level of NO metabolites compared to control group (Griess reaction). Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 strongly reduced mesenteric arteries responses to methoxamine in PTU pups, that was accompanied by elevated Rho-kinase content in their arteries in comparison to control ones. Unlike mesenteric, saphenous arteries of PTU pups, compared to controls, had no changes in α-actin and SERCA2A contents and in responses to l-NNA and Y27632. In conclusion, thyroid hormones deficiency suppresses the anticontractile effect of NO and potentiates the procontractile Rho-kinase effects in mesenteric arteries of 2-week-old pups. Such alterations disturb perinatal cardiovascular homeostasis and might lead to cardiovascular pathologies in adulthood. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.
Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J
Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.
Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004
Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Ayuso, Miriam; Gonzalez, Jorge
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, both deficiency and excess, induces changes in the intrauterine environment and the metabolic status of the offspring, playing a key role in the growth, status of fitness/obesity and appearance of metabolic disorders during postnatal life. There is increasing evidence that these effects may not be only limited to the first generation of descendants, the offspring directly exposed to metabolic challenges, but to subsequent generations. This study evaluated, in a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance, the existence and extent of transgenerational developmental programming effects. Pre- and postnatal development, adiposity and metabolic features were assessed in the second generation of piglets, descendant of sows exposed to either undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy. The results indicated that these piglets exhibited early-postnatal increases in adiposity and disturbances in lipid profiles compatible with the early prodrome of metabolic syndrome, with liver tissue also displaying evidence of paediatric liver disease. These features indicative of early-life metabolic disorders were more evident in the males that were descended from overfed grandmothers and during the transition from milk to solid feeding. Thus, this study provides evidence supporting transgenerational developmental programming and supports the necessity for the development of strategies for avoiding the current epidemics of childhood overweight and obesity. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.
Lesse, Alexandra; Rether, Kathy; Gröger, Nicole; Braun, Katharina; Bock, Jörg
Chronic stress (CS) during early life represents a major risk factor for the development of mental disorders, including depression. According to the Two/Multiple-Hit hypothesis, the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders usually involves multiple stressors experienced subsequently during different phases of life. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms modulating neuronal and behavioral changes induced by multiple stress experiences are just poorly understood. Since the oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic systems are neuroendocrine modulators involved in environmentally driven adaptations of stress sensitivity we hypothesized that postnatal CS programs oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic receptor expression changes in response to a second stress exposure in young adulthood. First we investigated if postnatal CS (maternal separation + social isolation) induces depressive-like behavior and alters oxytocin receptor (OxtR) and arginine vasopressin receptor type 1a (AvpR1a) gene expression in the hippocampus (HC) of male mice and (2) if a second single stressor (forced swimming, FS) in young adulthood affects gene expression of OxtR and AvpR1a at adulthood dependent on CS pre-experience. We found that postnatal CS induced depressive-like behavior and enhanced AvpR1a expression in HC at young adulthood. Moreover, in line with our hypothesis, only combined stress exposure (CS + FS), but not CS or FS alone, resulted in increased gene expression of OxtR in HC at adulthood. In contrast, AvpR1a expression was decreased in both adult FS and CS + FS animals. Overall, our results provide evidence that CS programs neuroendocrine systems and thereby influences stress responses in later life periods.
Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; De Livera, Alysha M; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann
To determine which antenatal and early-life factors were associated with infant postnatal growth in a resource-poor setting in Vietnam. Prospective longitudinal study following infants (n=1046) born to women who had previously participated in a cluster randomised trial of micronutrient supplementation (ANZCTR:12610000944033), Ha Nam province, Vietnam. Antenatal and early infant factors were assessed for association with the primary outcome of infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age using multivariable linear regression and structural equation modelling. Mean length-for-age z score was -0.58 (SD 0.94) and stunting prevalence was 6.4%. Using structural equation modelling, we highlighted the role of infant birth weight as a predictor of infant growth in the first 6 months of life and demonstrated that maternal body mass index (estimated coefficient of 45.6 g/kg/m(2); 95% CI 34.2 to 57.1), weight gain during pregnancy (21.4 g/kg; 95% CI 12.6 to 30.1) and maternal ferritin concentration at 32 weeks' gestation (-41.5 g per twofold increase in ferritin; 95% CI -78 to -5.0) were indirectly associated with infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age via birth weight. A direct association between 25-(OH) vitamin D concentration in late pregnancy and infant length-for-age z scores (estimated coefficient of -0.06 per 20 nmol/L; 95% CI -0.11 to -0.01) was observed. Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of early infant growth. Elevated antenatal ferritin levels were associated with suboptimal infant growth in this setting, suggesting caution with iron supplementation in populations with low rates of iron deficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Li, Ling; Yang, Chen; Feng, Xiuliang; Du, Yongping; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yueping
This study aimed to study the effects of intratracheal instillation of budesonide on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits. The developmental pattern of pulmonary alveoli in rabbits is similar to that in humans. Fetal rabbits were taken out from female rabbits on the 28th day of pregnancy (full term = 31 days) by cesarean section (c-section). The fetal rabbits were divided into four groups: control (normal saline, NS), budesonide (budesonide, BUD), calf pulmonary surfactant for injection (pulmonary surfactant, PS), and calf pulmonary surfactant + budesonide for injection (pulmonary surfactant + budesonide, PS + BUD). All premature rabbits were kept warm after c-section. After 15-min autonomous respiration, a tracheal cannula was implemented for instilling NS, BUD, PS, and PS + BUD. The morphology of lung tissues of premature fetal rabbits was analyzed using optical and electron microscopes. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA and protein levels in lung tissues were determined using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Intratracheal instillation of BUD could increase the alveolar area of the fetal rabbits (P < 0.01), decrease the alveolar wall thickness (P < 0.01), and increase the mean density of lamellar bodies (P < 0.05) and SP-B protein levels in type II epithelial cells of pulmonary alveoli (P < 0.05). Intratracheal instillation of BUD during early postnatal life is effective in promoting alveolarization and increasing SP-B expression, the pro-pulmonary maturity of BUD combined with PS is superior to that of BUD or PS alone. However, the long-term effect of BUD on lung development needs further exploration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chabowska-Kita, Agnieszka; Trabczynska, Anna; Korytko, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Monika M.; Kozak, Leslie P.
The brown adipocyte phenotype (BAP) in white adipose tissue (WAT) is transiently induced in adult mammals in response to reduced ambient temperature. Since it is unknown whether a cold challenge can permanently induce brown adipocytes (BAs), we reared C57BL/6J (B6) and AxB8/PgJ (AxB8) mice at 17 or 29°C from birth to weaning, to assess the BAP in young and adult mice. Energy balance measurements showed that 17°C reduced fat mass in the preweaning mice by increasing energy expenditure and suppressed diet-induced obesity in adults. Microarray analysis of global gene expression of inguinal fat (ING) from 10-day-old (D) mice indicates that expression at 17°C vs. 29°C was not different. Between 10 and 21 days of age, the BAP was induced coincident with morphologic remodeling of ING and marked changes in expression of neural development genes (e.g., Akap 12 and Ngfr). Analyses of Ucp1 mRNA and protein showed that 17°C transiently increased the BAP in ING from 21D mice; however, BAs were unexpectedly present in mice reared at 29°C. The involution of the BAP in WAT occurred after weaning in mice reared at 23°C. Therefore, the capacity to stimulate thermogenically competent BAs in WAT is set by a temperature-independent, genetically controlled program between birth and weaning.—Chabowska-Kita, A., Trabczynska, A., Korytko, A., Kaczmarek, M. M., Kozak, L. P. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes. PMID:25896784
Ma, Shang; Kwon, Hyo Jun; Huang, Zhen
Astroglia are a major cell type in the brain and play a key role in many aspects of brain development and function. In the adult brain, astrocytes are known to intimately ensheath blood vessels and actively coordinate local neural activity and blood flow. During development of the neural retina, blood vessel growth follows a meshwork of astrocytic processes. Several genes have also been implicated in retinal astrocytes for regulating vessel development. This suggests a role of astrocytes in promoting angiogenesis throughout the central nervous system. To determine the roles that astrocytes may play during brain angiogenesis, we employ genetic approaches to inhibit astrogliogenesis during perinatal corticogenesis and examine its effects on brain vessel development. We find that conditional deletion from glial progenitors of orc3, a gene required for DNA replication, dramatically reduces glial progenitor cell number in the subventricular zone and astrocytes in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. This, in turn, results in severe reductions in both the density and branching frequency of cortical blood vessels. Consistent with a delayed growth but not regression of vessels, we find neither significant net decreases in vessel density between different stages after normalizing for cortical expansion nor obvious apoptosis of endothelial cells in these mutants. Furthermore, concomitant with loss of astroglial interactions, we find increased endothelial cell proliferation, enlarged vessel luminal size as well as enhanced cytoskeletal gene expression in pericytes, which suggests compensatory changes in vascular cells. Lastly, we find that blood vessel morphology in mutant cortices recovers substantially at later stages, following astrogliosis. These results thus implicate a functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel growth during brain development.
Baldwin, Mary K L; Kaskan, Peter M; Zhang, Bin; Chino, Yuzo M; Kaas, Jon H
Connections of primary (V1) and secondary (V2) visual areas were revealed in macaque monkeys ranging in age from 2 to 16 weeks by injecting small amounts of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Cortex was flattened and cut parallel to the surface to reveal injection sites, patterns of labeled cells, and patterns of cytochrome oxidase (CO) staining. Projections from the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar to V1 were present at 4 weeks of age, as were pulvinar projections to thin and thick CO stripes in V2. Injections into V1 in 4- and 8-week-old monkeys labeled neurons in V2, V3, middle temporal area (MT), and dorsolateral area (DL)/V4. Within V1 and V2, labeled neurons were densely distributed around the injection sites, but formed patches at distances away from injection sites. Injections into V2 labeled neurons in V1, V3, DL/V4, and MT of monkeys 2-, 4-, and 8-weeks of age. Injections in thin stripes of V2 preferentially labeled neurons in other V2 thin stripes and neurons in the CO blob regions of V1. A likely thick stripe injection in V2 at 4 weeks of age labeled neurons around blobs. Most labeled neurons in V1 were in superficial cortical layers after V2 injections, and in deep layers of other areas. Although these features of adult V1 and V2 connectivity were in place as early as 2 postnatal weeks, labeled cells in V1 and V2 became more restricted to preferred CO compartments after 2 weeks of age. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Eppolito, Amy K; Bachus, Susan E; McDonald, Craig G; Meador-Woodruff, James H; Smith, Robert F
Animal models of prenatal nicotine exposure clearly indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen. Some of the persisting effects of prenatal nicotine exposure include low birth weight, behavioral changes and deficits in cognitive function, although few studies have looked for neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects that might persist throughout the lifespan. Pregnant rats were given continuous infusions of nicotine (0.96mg/kg/day or 2.0mg/kg/day, freebase) continuing through the third trimester equivalent, a period of rapid brain development. Because the third trimester equivalent occurs postnatally in the rat (roughly the first week of life) nicotine administration to neonate pups continued via maternal milk until postnatal day (P) 10. Exposure to nicotine during pre- and early postnatal development had an anxiogenic effect on adult rats (P75) in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and blocked extinction learning in a fear conditioning paradigm, suggesting that pre- and postnatal nicotine exposure affect anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function well into adulthood. In contrast, nicotine exposure had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM in adolescent animals (P30). Analysis of mRNA for the alpha4, alpha7, and beta2 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors revealed lower expression of these subunits in the adult hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex following pre- and postnatal nicotine exposure, suggesting that nicotine altered the developmental trajectory of the brain. These long-term behavioral and neurochemical changes strengthen the case for discouraging cigarette smoking during pregnancy and clearly indicate that the use of the patch as a smoking cessation aid during pregnancy is not a safe alternative.
Bath, Kevin G; Pimentel, Tiare
Valproate has been used for over 30years as a first-line treatment for epilepsy. In recent years, prenatal exposure to valproate has been associated with teratogenic effects, limiting its use in women that are pregnant or of childbearing age. However, despite its potential detrimental effects on development, valproate continues to be prescribed at high rates in pediatric populations in some countries. Animal models allow us to test hypotheses regarding the potential effects of postnatal valproate exposure on neurobehavioral development, as well as identify potential mechanisms mediating observed effects. Here, we tested the effect of early postnatal (P4-P11) valproate exposure (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) on motor and affective development in two strains of mice, SVE129 and C57Bl/6N. We also assessed the effect of early valproate exposure on regional BDNF protein levels, a potential target of valproate, and mediator of neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that early life valproate exposure led to significant motor impairments in both SVE129 and C57Bl/6N mice. Both lines of mice showed significant delays in weight gain, as well as impairments in the righting reflex (P7-8), wire hang (P17), open field (P12 and P21), and rotarod (P25 and P45) tasks. Interestingly, some of the early locomotor effects were strain- and dose-dependent. We observed no effects of valproate on early markers of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, early life valproate exposure had significant effects on regional BDNF expression, leading to a near 50% decrease in BDNF levels in the cerebellum of both strains of mice, while not impacting hippocampal BDNF protein levels. These observations indicate that postnatal exposure to valproate may have significant, and region-specific effects, on neural and behavioral development, with specific consequences for cerebellar development and motor function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa; Elibol, Birsen; Dursun, Ilknur; Yürüker, Sinan
Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months. Ethanol was administered to the pregnant Wistar dams intragastrically, throughout gestation days (GD) 7-20, at a total dose of 6g/kg/day resulting in the mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 246.6±40.9mg/dl. Ten morphometric parameters of Golgi-stained hippocampal neurons (pyramidal and granule) from CA1, CA3, and DG areas were examined at critical postnatal days (PD): at birth (PD1), at the end of the brain growth spurt period (PD10), in juveniles (PD30), and in young adults (PD60). During postnatal development, the temporal pattern of morphometric changes was shown to be region-dependent with most significant alterations observed between PD1-30 in the CA region and between PD10-30 in the DG region. It was also parameter-dependent with the soma size (except for CA3 pyramids), number of primary dendrites, dendrite diameter, dendritic tortuosity and the branch angle demonstrating little changes, while the total dendritic field area, dendritic length, number of dendritic bifurcations, and spine density being highly increased in all hippocampal regions during the first postnatal month. Moderate ethanol intoxication and the maternal intubation stress during gestation, showed similar, transient effects on the neuron development manifested as a smaller soma size in granule cells, reduced dendritic parameters and lower spine density in pyramidal neurons
Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina
The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ellis, M; Manandhar, N; Shakya, U; Manandhar, D S; Fawdry, A; Costello, A M
To describe the pattern of hypothermia and cold stress after delivery among a normal neonatal population in Nepal; to provide practical advice for improving thermal care in a resource limited maternity hospital. The principal government funded maternity hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, with an annual delivery rate of 15,000 (constituting 40% of all Kathmandu Valley deliveries), severe resource limitations (annual budget Pounds 250,000), and a cold winter climate provided the setting. Thirty five healthy term neonates not requiring special care were enrolled for study within 90 minutes of birth. Continuous ambulatory temperature monitoring, using microthermistor skin probes for forehead and axilla, a flexible rectal probe, and a black ball probe placed next to the infant for ambient temperature, was carried out. All probes were connected to a compact battery powered Squirrel Memory Logger, giving a temperature reading to 0.2 degree C at five minute intervals for 24 hours. Severity and duration of hypothermia, using cutoff values of core temperature less than 36 degrees C, 34 degrees C, and 32 degrees C; and cold stress, using cutoff values of skin-core (forehead-axilla) temperature difference greater than 3 degrees C and 4 degrees C were the main outcome measures. Twenty four hour mean ambient temperatures were generally lower than the WHO recommended level of 25 degrees C (median 22.3 degrees C, range 15.1-27.5 degrees C). Postnatal hypothermia was prolonged, with axillary core temperatures only reaching 36 degrees C after a mean of 6.4 hours (range 0-21.1; SD 4.6). There was persistent and increasing cold stress over the first 24 hours with the core-skin (axillary-forehead) temperature gap exceeding 3 degrees C for more than half of the first 24 hours. Continuous ambulatory recording identifies weak links in the "warm chain" for neonates. The severity and duration of thermal problems was greater than expected even in a hospital setting where some of the WHO
Nakanishi, S T; Whelan, P J
During early postnatal development, between birth and postnatal days 8-11, mice start to achieve weight-bearing locomotion. In association with the progression of weight-bearing locomotion there are presumed developmental changes in the intrinsic electrical properties of spinal -motoneurons. However, these developmental changes in the properties of -motoneuron properties have not been systematically explored in mice. Here, data are presented documenting the developmental changes of selected intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties, including statistically significant changes in action potential half-width, intrinsic excitability and diversity (quantified as coefficient of variation) of rheobase current, afterhyperpolarization half-decay time, and input resistance. In various adult mammalian preparations, the maintenance of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties is dependent on activity and/or transmission-sensitive motoneuron-muscle interactions. In this study, we show that botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis led to statistically significant changes in the normal development of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties in the postnatal mouse. This suggests that muscle activity during early neonatal life contributes to the development of normal motoneuron electrical properties.
Iyer, Rajiv R; Carey, Carolyn M; Rottgers, S Alex; Tetreault, Lisa; Shimony, Nir; Katzenstein, Jennifer; Ruas, Ernesto; Tuite, Gerald F
OBJECTIVE Infants with severe hydrocephalus and extreme macrocephaly typically undergo CSF diversion early in life, which can result in significant cranial deformity due to CSF overdrainage. In this scenario, overlap of the cranial plates can precede the development of secondary synostosis and/or severe, permanent cranial deformity. As a result, extensive cranial vault remodeling is sometimes undertaken later in life, which is often challenging and has been associated with mortality and a high morbidity rate. The authors have previously described a technique for early postnatal cranial vault reduction and fixation (CVRF), in which the calvarial bones are stabilized using absorbable fixation plates in the neonatal period, in an attempt to facilitate patient positioning, simplify hydrocephalus management, and improve cosmesis. Here, the authors describe their institutional experience managing patients with extreme neonatal hydrocephalus with CSF diversion, with and without CVRF, over the past 12 years. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of infants with extreme hydrocephalus (head circumference > 49 cm) treated at their children's hospital with ventriculoperitoneal shunting, with or without CVRF, between 2005 and 2017. Data collected included age, sex, etiology of hydrocephalus, type of CVRF performed (anterior, posterior, or combined), follow-up duration, orbitofrontal circumference, craniometric measurements, intraoperative blood loss, operative duration, and postoperative complications. Developmental data were collected using the third edition of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Photographic imaging was used to demonstrate esthetic outcomes, and family questionnaires were used to evaluate satisfaction with the esthetic outcome. RESULTS Eleven patients with extreme neonatal hydrocephalus underwent CSF shunting; 5 underwent shunting alone and 6 patients underwent shunting and CVRF. For patients who underwent shunting and CVRF, the median age at
Piccolo, Brian D; Mercer, Kelly E; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bowlin, Anne K; Saraf, Manish K; Pack, Lindsay; Chintapalli, Sree V; Shankar, Kartik; Adams, Sean H; Badger, Thomas M; Yeruva, Laxmi
Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome. Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs. Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21. Bacterial ecology was assessed in the contents of the small intestine through the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. α-Diversity, β-diversity, and differential abundances of operational taxonomic units were assessed by ANOVA, permutational ANOVA, and negative binomial regression, respectively. Ileum tissue metabolomics were measured by LC-mass spectrometry and assessed by weighted correlation network analysis. Results: Greater α-diversity was observed in the duodena of sow-fed compared with formula-fed neonatal pigs ( P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the ilea. Firmicutes represented the most abundant phylum across all diets in duodena (78.8%, 80.1%, and 53.4% relative abundance in sow, dairy, and soy groups, respectively), followed by Proteobacteria in sow (12.2%) and dairy (12.4%) groups and Cyanobacteria in soy-fed (36.2%) pigs. In contrast to those in the duodenum, Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the ileum, with >60% relative abundance in all of the groups. In the duodenum, 77 genera were altered by diet, followed by 48 in the jejunum and 19 in the ileum. Metabolomics analyses revealed associations between ileum tissue metabolites (e.g., acylcarnitines, 3-aminoisobutyric acid) and diet-responsive microbial genera. Conclusions: These results indicate that the neonatal diet has regional effects on the small intestine
Holmes, Denise K; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Walkinshaw, Steve A; Alfirevic, Zarko; Johnston, Tracey A; Subhedar, Nimish V; Chittick, Rachel; Swindell, Richard; Wynn, Robert F
Haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) undergo a process of self renewal to constantly maintain blood cell turnover. However, it has become apparent that adult HSC lose their self-renewal ability with age. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood leukocytes has been seen to occur with age and it has been associated with loss of HSC proliferative capacity and cellular ageing. In contrast foetal HSC are known to have greater proliferative capacity than post-natal stem cells. However it is unknown whether they undergo a similar process of telomere shortening. In this study we show a more accentuated rate of telomere loss in leukocytes from pre term infants compared to human foetuses of comparable age followed longitudinally for 8-12 weeks in a longitudinal study. Our results point to a difference in HSC behaviour between foetal and early postnatal life which is independent of age but may be influenced by events at birth itself.
Martí, Joaquín; Molina, Vanesa; Santa-Cruz, M C; Hervás, José P
Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex was studied in rats administered with a single dose (2 mg/g) of the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) on postnatal day (P) 9 and collected at appropriate times ranging from 6 h to 45 days. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, BrdU-positive, and vimentin-stained cells revealed that HU compromises the survival of the external granular layer (EGL) cells. Moreover, vimentin immunocytochemistry revealed overexpression and thicker immunoreactive glial processes in HU-treated rats. On the other hand, we also show that HU leads to the activation of apoptotic cellular events, resulting in a substantial number of dying EGL cells, as revealed by TUNEL staining and at the electron microscope level. Additionally, we quantified several features of the cerebellar cortex of rats exposed to HU in early postnatal life and collected in adulthood. Data analysis indicated that the analyzed parameters were less pronounced in rats administered with this agent. Moreover, we observed several alterations in the cerebellar cortex cytoarchitecture of rats injected with HU. Anomalies included ectopic placement of Purkinje cells and abnormities in the dendritic arbor of these macroneurons. Ectopic granule cells were also found in the molecular layer. These findings provide a clue for investigating the mechanisms of HU-induced toxicity during the development of the central nervous system. Our results also suggest that it is essential to avoid underestimating the adverse effects of this hydroxylated analog of urea when administered during early postnatal life.
Bartolomé, Iris; Llidó, Anna; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc
Neuroactive steroids (NS) such as allopregnanolone are crucial for brain development and adult behaviour. Early post-natal alterations of NS by administering finasteride induce a decrease in the sensitivity to stimulant effects of low alcohol doses, an increase in alcohol consumption, and a decrease in ventrostriatal dopamine and serotonin levels. The aim of the present study is to observe if the effects of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron on initial alcohol consumption are modulated by post-natal NS manipulation. For this purpose, allopregnanolone, finasteride, or vehicle was injected from day 5 to 9. In adulthood, a novel object preference test was carried out in order to detect a possible novelty-seeking pattern in our animals, which has been related to vulnerability to drug abuse. The subjects then had access to two bottles (alcohol or control solutions) one hour daily for two consecutive weeks. Ondansetron (0.01 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg or vehicle) was administered before the hour of consumption in the initial phase (days 1, 2, 3) of the procedure, and after prolonged alcohol intake (days 11, 12, 13). Results indicated that finasteride animals showed a higher preference to explore the new object, as well as a higher alcohol consumption than the rest of the groups. Moreover, 0.1 mg/kg of ondansetron decreased alcohol consumption, but only in the post-natal finasteride group, suggesting a possible increase in 5HT3 receptor sensitivity in these animals. In conclusion, NS manipulation in crucial stages of development, such as early post-natal periods, seems to play an important role on the effects of ondansetron on alcohol intake and in the vulnerability to develop drug use or abuse. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Guo, Zhibao; Wang, Xijuan; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yihui; Lu, Hong; Teng, Junfang; Wang, Wei
Early postnatal GFAP-expressing cells are thought to be immature astrocytes. However, it is not clear if they possess multilineage capacity and if they can generate different lineages (astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes) in the brain of adult mice. In order to identify the fate of astroglial cells in the postnatal brain, hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2) transgenic mice were crossed with the R26R Cre reporter mouse strains which exhibit constitutive expression of β-galactosidase (β-gal). Mice carrying the hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)/R26R transgene were treated with Tamoxifen to induce Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal (P) day 6 and Cre recombinase-expressing cells were identified by X-gal staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the type(s) of these reporter-tagged cells. Sixty days after recombination, X-gal-positive cells in different cerebral regions of the adult mice expressed the astroglial markers Blbp and GFAP, the neuronal marker NeuN, the oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2 and the mature oligodendrocyte marker CC1. X-gal-positive cells in the cerebellum coexpressed the astroglial marker Blbp, but not the granule cell marker NeuN, Purkinje cell marker Calbindin or oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2. Our genetic fate mapping data demonstrated that early postnatal GFAP-positive cells possessed multilineage potential and eventually differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cerebrum and into astrocytes (including Bergmann glia) in the cerebellum of adult mice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abstract Early sensory experience shapes the anatomy and function of sensory circuits. In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), prenatal and early postnatal odorant exposure through odorized food (food/odorant pairing) not only increases the volume of activated glomeruli but also increases the number of mitral and tufted cells (M/TCs) connected to activated glomeruli. Given the importance of M/TCs in OB output and in mediating lateral inhibitory networks, increasing the number of M/TCs connected to a single glomerulus may significantly change odorant representation by increasing the total output of that glomerulus and/or by increasing the strength of lateral inhibition mediated by cells connected to the affected glomerulus. Here, we seek to understand the functional impact of this long-term odorant exposure paradigm on the population activity of mitral cells (MCs). We use viral expression of GCaMP6s to examine odor-evoked responses of MCs following prenatal and early postnatal odorant exposure to two dissimilar odorants, methyl salicylate (MS) and hexanal, which are both strong activators of glomeruli on the dorsal OB surface. Previous work suggests that odor familiarity may decrease odor-evoked MC response in rodents. However, we find that early food-based odorant exposure significantly changes MC responses in an unexpected way, resulting in broad increases in the amplitude, number, and reliability of excitatory MC responses across the dorsal OB. PMID:28955723
Hadi Mansouri, S; Siegford, Janice M; Ulibarri, Catherine
This study examined the response of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) and the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle, to testosterone in male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during the early postnatal period. Male gerbil pups were given testosterone propionate (TP) or vehicle for 2 days, then perfused on postnatal day (PND) 3, 5, 10 or 15. The BC and levator ani (LA) muscles were removed, weighed, and sectioned. Cross-sections of BC muscle fibers were measured and muscle fiber morphology examined. Spinal cords were removed and coronally sectioned in order to count and measure the SNB motoneurons. Following TP treatment, male pups of all ages had significantly heavier BC-LA muscles and larger fibers in the BC muscle compared to age-matched controls. The increase in muscle weight following TP treatment was greatest at PND10, while fiber size increased to a similar degree at all ages suggesting that hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy was responsible for the increase in muscle mass at this time. SNB motoneurons increased significantly in number and size with age and TP treatment. We hypothesize that the increase in SNB motoneuron number during normal ontogeny that can be augmented by TP treatment and represents an unusual means of establishing sexual dimorphism in the nervous system of a mammal through cell recruitment to the motor pool of a postnatal animal.
Clinton, Sarah M.; Glover, Matthew E.; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Mehi, Stephen J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; King, Gwendalyn D.
Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development. PMID:23838326
Pillai, Anup G; Arp, Marit; Velzing, Els; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Schmidt, Mathias V; Holsboer, Florian; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J
Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task. This effect was absent when animals were exposed to a single stressor before training. Early-life stress did not alter high-arousing context and auditory fear conditioning. Early-life stress-induced behavioral modifications were not associated with alterations in the dendritic architecture of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons or principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala. However, early-life stress reduced the ratio of NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and glutamate release probability specifically in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not in the basolateral amygdala. These ex vivo effects in the hippocampus were abolished by acute glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings support that early-life stress can hamper object-in-context learning via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms that affect hippocampal function but these effects are counteracted by acute stress or elevated glucocorticoid levels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Luecken, Linda J; Lemery, Kathryn S
Inadequate early caregiving has been associated with risks of stress-related psychological and physical illness over the life span. Dysregulated physiological stress responses may represent a mechanism linking early caregiving to health outcomes. This paper reviews evidence linking early caregiving to physiological responses that can increase vulnerability to stress-related illness. A number of high-risk family characteristics, including high conflict, divorce, abuse, and parental psychopathology, are considered in the development of stress vulnerability. Three theoretical pathways linking caregiving to physiological stress responses are outlined: genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive-affective. Exciting preliminary evidence suggests that early caregiving can impact long-term physiological stress responses. Directions for future research in this area are suggested.
Okumus, Nurullah; Atalay, Yildiz; Onal, Eray E; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Senel, Saliha; Gunaydin, Berrin; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Koc, Esin; Ergenekon, Ebru; Unal, Suna
To investigate the effects of delivery route and maternal anesthesia type and the roles of vasoactive hormones on early postnatal weight loss in term newborns. Ninety-four term infants delivered vaginally (group 1, n=31), cesarean section (C/S) with general anesthesia (GA) (group 2, n=29), and C/S with epidural anesthesia (EA) (group 3, n=34) were included in this study. All infants were weighed at birth and on the second day of life and intravenous (IV) fluid infused to the mothers for the last 6 h prior to delivery was recorded. Serum electrolytes, osmolality, N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aldosterone and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentrations were measured at cord blood and on the second day of life. Our research showed that postnatal weight loss of infants was higher in C/S than vaginal deliveries (5.7% vs. 1.3%) (p < 0.0001) and in EA group than GA group (6.8% vs. 4.3%) (p < 0.0001). Postnatal weight losses were correlated with IV fluid volume infused to the mothers for the last 6 h prior to delivery (R = 0.814, p = 0.000) and with serum NT-proANP (R = 0.418, p = 0.000), BNP (R = 0.454, p = 0.000), and ADH (R = 0.509, p = 0.000) but not with aldosterone concentrations (p > 0.05). Large amounts of IV fluid given to the mothers who were applied EA prior to the delivery affect their offsprings' postnatal weight loss via certain vasoactive hormones.
Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S
We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity.
Sexton, Timothy J; Bleckert, Adam; Turner, Maxwell H; Van Gelder, Russell N
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate circadian light entrainment and the pupillary light response in adult mice. In early development these cells mediate different processes, including negative phototaxis and the timing of retinal vascular development. To determine if ipRGC physiologic properties also change with development, we measured ipRGC cell density and light responses in wild-type mouse retinas at post-natal days 8, 15 and 30. Melanopsin-positive cell density decreases by 17% between post-natal days 8 and 15 and by 25% between days 8 and 30. This decrease is due specifically to a decrease in cells co-labeled with a SMI-32, a marker for alpha-on ganglion cells (corresponding to adult morphologic type M4 ipRGCs). On multi-electrode array recordings, post-natal day 8 (P8) ipRGC light responses show more robust firing, reduced adaptation and more rapid recovery from short and extended light pulses than do the light responses of P15 and P30 ipRGCs. Three ipRGC subtypes - Types I-III - have been defined in early development based on sensitivity and latency on multielectrode array recordings. We find that Type I cells largely account for the unique physiologic properties of P8 ipRGCs. Type I cells have previously been shown to have relatively short latencies and high sensitivity. We now show that Type I cells show have rapid and robust recovery from long and short bright light exposures compared with Type II and III cells, suggesting differential light adaptation mechanisms between cell types. By P15, Type I ipRGCs are no longer detectable. Loose patch recordings of P8 M4 ipRGCs demonstrate Type I physiology. Type I ipRGCs are found only in early development. In addition to their previously described high sensitivity and rapid kinetics, these cells are uniquely resistant to adaptation and recover quickly and fully to short and prolonged light exposure. Type I ipRGCs correspond to the SMI-32 positive, M4 subtype and largely lose
Nakagawa, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Satake, Eiichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Saegusa, Hirokazu; Kubota, Akira; Natsume, Hiromune; Shibata, Yukinobu; Fujisawa, Yasuko
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of early postnatal growth by birthweight and detect early predictive factors for pediatric obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and degree of obesity were examined in children in the fourth year of elementary school and second year of junior high school. Their BMI at birth and three years of age were also examined. Based on birthweight, participants were divided into three groups: low (< 2500 g), middle (2500–3500 g), and high (> 3500 g). Furthermore, according to the degree of obesity, they were divided into two groups: obese (20% ≤) and non-obese (20% >). The change of BMI from birth to three years of age (ΔBMI) showed a strong inverse relationship with birthweight and was significantly different among the three birthweight groups (low > middle > high). The ΔBMI and BMI at three years of age were higher in obese than in non-obese children and showed significant positive correlations with the degree of obesity. Early postnatal growth might be determined by birthweight and was higher in obese than in non-obese children. The ΔBMI from birth to three years of age and BMI at age of three years could be predictive factors for pediatric obesity. PMID:29403153
Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.
Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the “city-like” test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans. PMID:29352277
Wagner, Shannon L.; Forer, Barry; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Goelman, Hillel; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Wessel, Julie; Hertzman, Clyde; Grunau, Ruth E.
Background: Occupational stress for early childcare educators is an area of apparent understudy in the literature. The present study attempted to address this gap and provide some updated data regarding the experiences of this occupational group. Methods: Early childhood workers across a variety of early childhood education settings (N = 69)…
Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.
Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be
YANAI, Shogo; HIRANO, Tetsushi; OMOTEHARA, Takuya; TAKADA, Tadashi; YONEDA, Naoki; KUBOTA, Naoto; YAMAMOTO, Anzu; MANTANI, Youhei; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko
Neonicotinoids are pesticides used worldwide. They bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with high affinity. We previously reported that clothianidin (CTD), one of the latest neonicotinoids, reduced antioxidant expression and induced germ cell death in the adult testis of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the male reproductive toxicity of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to CTD, because it is likely that developmental exposure more severely affects the testis compared to adults due to the absence of the blood-testis barrier. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given water gel blended with CTD (0, 10 or 50 mg/kg/day; no-observed-adverse-effect-level [NOAEL for mice]: 47.2 mg/kg/day) between gestational day 1 and 14 days post-partum. We then examined the testes of male offspring at postnatal day 14. The testis weights and the numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule were decreased in the CTD-50 group, and abnormal tubules containing no germ cells appeared. Nevertheless, the apoptotic cell number and proliferative activity were not significantly different between the control and CTD-exposed groups. There were no significant differences in the androgen-related parameters, such as the Leydig cell volume per testis, the Sertoli cell number and the tubule diameter. The present study is the first demonstration that in utero and lactational exposures to CTD at around the NOAEL for mice reduce the germ cell number, but our findings suggest that these exposures do not affect steroidogenesis in Leydig cells during prenatal or early postnatal life. PMID:28579575
Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.
Nicotine exposure has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to E-cigarette nicotine vapors during late prenatal and early postnatal life altered behavior in adult mice. Methods Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Results Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Conclusion Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth. PMID:26372012
Pochettino, Aristides A; Bongiovanni, Bettina; Duffard, Ricardo O; Evangelista de Duffard, Ana María
The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been widely used in agriculture and forestry since the 1940s. 2,4-D has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects-from embryotoxicity and teratogenicity to neurotoxicity-on animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 2,4-D on oxidative stress in ventral prostate, ovary and breast. Pregnant rats were daily exposed to oral doses of 70 mg/kg/day of 2,4-D from 16 days of gestation up to 23 days after delivery. Then, the pups were sacrificed by decapitation at postnatal day (PND) 45, 60, or 90. Antioxidant enzyme activities and some parameters of the oxidative stress were assessed in ventral prostate, breast, and ovary. Results show that 2,4-D produced three different effects. First, it increased the concentration of some radical oxygen species and the rates of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in ventral prostate, thereby causing oxidative stress at all ages studied. Although an increase in the activity of some antioxidant enzymes was detected, this seemed to have been not enough to counteract the oxidative stress. Second, 2,4-D promoted the oxidative stress in the breasts, mainly during puberty and adulthood, probably because the developing gland is more sensitive to xenobiotics than the adult organ. Third, 2,4-D altered the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxide concentration in the ovary. This effect could reflect the variety of ovarian cell types and their different responses to endocrine changes during development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wahle, P; Meyer, G
The early postnatal development of neurons containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) has been analyzed in visual areas 17 and 18 of cats aged from postnatal day (P) 0 to adulthood. Neuronal types are established mainly by axonal criteria. Both peptides occur in the same neuronal types and display the same postnatal chronology of appearance. Several cell types are transient, which means that they are present in the cortex only for a limited period of development. According to their chronology of appearance the VIP/PHI-immunoreactive (ir) cell types are grouped into three neuronal populations. The first population comprises six cell types which appear early in postnatal life. The pseudohorsetail cells of layer I possess a vertically descending axon which initially gives rise to recurrent collaterals, then forms a bundle passing layers III to V, and finally, horizontal terminal fibers in layer VI. The neurons differentiate at P 4 and disappear by degeneration around P 30. The neurons with columnar dendritic fields of layers IV/V are characterized by a vertical arrangement of long dendrites ascending or descending parallel to each other, thus forming an up to 600 microns long dendritic column. Their axons always descend and terminate in broad fields in layer VI. The neurons appear at P 7 and are present until P 20. The multipolar neurons of layer VI occur in isolated positions and have broad axonal territories. The neurons differentiate at P 7 and persist into adulthood. Bitufted to multipolar neurons of layers II/III have axons descending as a single fiber to layer VI, where they terminate. The neurons appear at P 12 and persist into adulthood. The four cell types described above issue a vertically oriented fiber architecture in layers II-V and a horizontal terminal plexus in layer VI which is dense during the second, third and fourth week. Concurrent with the disappearance of the two transient types the number of
Frasch, Martin G; Baier, Carlos J; Antonelli, Marta C; Metz, Gerlinde A S
Prenatal stress (PS) impacts early behavioral, neuroimmune, and cognitive development. Pregnant rat models have been very valuable in examining the mechanisms of such fetal programming. A newer pregnant sheep model of maternal stress offers the unique advantages of chronic in utero monitoring and manipulation. This chapter presents the techniques used to model single and multigenerational stress exposures and their pleiotropic effects on the offspring.
It is well established that children's early life environments can have significant consequences on their long-term outcomes. Yet, there is still limited empirical evidence on the effects that being exposed during the prenatal and early postnatal periods to positive shocks, such as conditional cash transfers, has on long-term cognitive function.…
Mantella, Nicole M.; Kent, Paul F.; Youngentob, Steven L.
Human studies demonstrate a four-fold increased possibility of smoking in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Nicotine is the active addictive component in tobacco-related products, crossing the placenta and contaminating the amniotic fluid. It is known that chemosensory experience in the womb can influence postnatal odor-guided preference behaviors for an exposure stimulus. By means of behavioral and neurophysiologic approaches, we examined whether fetal nicotine exposure, using mini-osmotic pumps, altered the response to nicotine odor in early postnatal (P17), adolescent (P35) and adult (P90) progeny. Compared with controls, fetal exposed rats displayed an altered innate response to nicotine odor that was evident at P17, declined in magnitude by P35 and was absent at P90 - these effects were specific to nicotine odor. The behavioral effect in P17 rats occurred in conjunction with a tuned olfactory mucosal response to nicotine odor along with an untoward consequence on the epithelial response to other stimuli – these P17 neural effects were absent in P35 and P90 animals. The absence of an altered neural effect at P35 suggests that central mechanisms, such as nicotine-induced modifications of the olfactory bulb, bring about the altered behavioral response to nicotine odor. Together, these findings provide insights into how fetal nicotine exposure influences the behavioral preference and responsiveness to the drug later in life. Moreover, they add to a growing literature demonstrating chemosensory mechanisms by which patterns of maternal drug use can be conveyed to offspring, thereby enhancing postnatal vulnerability for subsequent use and abuse. PMID:24358374
Orendáčová, Judita; Orendáč, Martin; Mojžiš, Miroslav; Labun, Ján; Martončíková, Marcela; Saganová, Kamila; Lievajová, Kamila; Blaško, Juraj; Abdiová, Henrieta; Gálik, Ján; Račeková, Eniko
The immediate effects of whole body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) were used to study postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of Wistar rats of both sexes. Newborn postnatal day 7 (P7) and young adult rats (P28) were exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMF) at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm(2) for 2 h. Post-irradiation changes were studied using immunohistochemical localization of Fos and NADPH-d. We found that short-duration exposure induces increased Fos immunoreactivity selectively in cells of the SVZ of P7 and P28 rats. There were no Fos positive cells visible within the RMS of irradiated rats. These findings indicate that some differences exist in prerequisites of proliferating cells between the SVZ and RMS regardless of the age of the rats. Short-duration exposure also caused praecox maturation of NADPH-d positive cells within the RMS of P7 rats. The NADPH-d positive cells appeared several days earlier than in age-matched controls, and their number and morphology showed characteristics of adult rats. On the other hand, in the young adult P28 rats, EMR induced morphological signs typical of early postnatal age. These findings indicate that EMR causes age-related changes in the production of nitric oxide (NO), which may lead to different courses of the proliferation cascade in newborn and young adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.
A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.
Dandi, Εvgenia; Kalamari, Aikaterini; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Spandou, Evangelia; Tata, Despina A
Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration). At approximately three months of age, adult rats underwent behavioral testing to evaluate anxiety (Elevated Plus Maze), locomotion (Open Field Test), spatial learning and memory (Morris Water Maze) as well as non-spatial recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test). After completion of behavioral testing, blood samples were taken for evaluation of stress-induced plasma corticosterone using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while immunofluorescence was applied to evaluate hippocampal BDNF and synaptophysin expression in dorsal hippocampus. We found that environmental enrichment protected against the effects of maternal separation as indicated by the lower anxiety levels and the reversal of spatial memory deficits compared to animals housed in standard conditions. These changes were associated with increased BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Regarding the neuroendocrine response to stress, while exposure to an acute stressor potentiated corticosterone increases in maternally-separated rats, environmental enrichment of these rats prevented this effect. The current study aimed at investigating the compensatory role of enriched environment against the negative outcomes of adverse experiences early in life concurrently on emotional and cognitive
Maity-Kumar, Gandhari; Thal, Dietmar R; Baumann, Bernd; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wirth, Thomas
Redox imbalance is believed to contribute to the development and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. Our aim was to develop an animal model that exhibits neuron-specific oxidative stress in the CNS to study the consequences and eventually find clues regarding the pathomechanisms of oxidative insults in neuronal homeostasis. We therefore generated a novel neuron-specific superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)-deficient mouse by deleting exon 3 of the SOD2 gene using CamKIIα promoter-driven Cre expression. These neuron-specific SOD2 knockout (SOD2(nko)) mice, although born at normal frequencies, died at the age of 4 weeks with critical growth retardation, severe energy failure, and several neurologic phenotypes. In addition, SOD2(nko) mice exhibited severe neuronal alterations such as reactive astrogliosis, neuronal cell cycle inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. JNK activation and stabilization of p53, as a result of reactive oxygen species accumulation, are most likely the inducers of neuronal apoptosis in SOD2(nko) mice. It is remarkable that hypothalamic regulation of glucose metabolism was affected, which in turn induced necrotic brain lesions in SOD2(nko) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that exclusive deficiency of SOD2 in neurons results in an impaired central regulation of energy homeostasis that leads to persistent hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia-related neuropathology, and an early lethality of the mutant mice. © FASEB.
Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc
This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A
Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.
Seng, Julia S; Li, Yang; Yang, James J; King, Anthony P; Kane Low, Lisa M; Sperlich, Mickey; Rowe, Heather; Lee, Hyunhwa; Muzik, Maria; Ford, Julian D; Liberzon, Israel
To test the hypothesis that women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have greater salivary cortisol levels across the diurnal curve and throughout gestation, birth, and the postpartum period than women who do not have PTSD. Prospective, longitudinal, biobehavioral cohort study. Prenatal clinics at academic health centers in the Midwest region of the United States. Women expecting their first infants who fit with one of four cohorts: a nonexposed control group, a trauma-exposed control group, a group with PTSD, and a group with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. In the first half of pregnancy, 395 women provided three salivary cortisol specimens on a single day for diurnal data. A subsample of 111 women provided three salivary cortisol specimens per day, 12 times, from early pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum for longitudinal data. Trauma history, PTSD, and dissociative symptoms were measured via standardized telephone diagnostic interviews with the use of validated epidemiologic measures. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine group differences. Generalized estimating equations showed that women with the dissociative subtype of PTSD had the highest and flattest gestational cortisol level curves. The difference was greatest in early pregnancy, when participants in the dissociative subtype group had cortisol levels 8 times greater in the afternoon and 10 times greater at bedtime than those in the nonexposed control group. Women with the dissociative subtype of PTSD, a complex form associated with a history of childhood maltreatment, may have toxic levels of cortisol that contribute to intergenerational patterns of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ikeda, Naho; Shoji, Hiromichi; Suganuma, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Natsuki; Kantake, Masato; Murano, Yayoi; Sakuraya, Koji; Shimizu, Toshiaki
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for perinatal growth and development; low serum IGF-I has been observed during intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We investigated the effects of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I in IUGR rats during the early postnatal period. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation in pregnant rats. IUGR pups were divided into two groups injected daily with rhIGF-I (2 mg/kg; IUGR/IGF-I, n = 16) or saline (IUGR/physiologic saline solution (PSS), n = 16) from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 13. Maternal sham-operated pups injected with saline were used as controls (control, n = 16). Serum IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 3 and 5 were measured on PND25. The expression of Igf-i, IGF-I receptor (Igf-ir), Igfbp3, and 5 mRNA in the liver and brain was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction on PND25. Immunohistochemical staining of the liver for IGF expression was performed. Mean bodyweight on PND3 and PND25 in the IUGR pups (IUGR/IGF-I and IUGR/PSS) was significantly lower than that of the control pups. Serum IGF-I and hepatic Igf-ir mRNA in the IUGR pups were significantly lower than those in the control pups. In the IUGR/IGF-I group, hepatic Igfbp3 mRNA and liver immunohistochemical staining were increased. In the IUGR/PSS and control pups, there were no significant differences between these two groups in serum IGFBP3 and IGFBP5, hepatic Igf-i and Igfbp-5 mRNA, or brain Igf mRNA. No benefits on body and brain weight gain but an effective increase in hepatic IGFBP-3 was observed after treatment with 2 mg/kg rhIGF-I during the early postnatal period. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84–8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12–8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78–7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83–9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61–9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children. PMID:27495020
Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.
Farrell, M R; Holland, F H; Shansky, R M; Brenhouse, H C
Early life stress has been linked to depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in adolescence and adulthood. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in stress-related psychopathology, is a target for stress hormones, and mediates social behavior. The present study investigated sex differences in early-life stress effects on juvenile social interaction and adolescent mPFC dendritic morphology in rats using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm. Half of the rat pups of each sex were separated from their mother for 4h a day between postnatal days 2 and 21, while the other half remained with their mother in the animal facilities and were exposed to minimal handling. At postnatal day 25 (P25; juvenility), rats underwent a social interaction test with an age and sex matched conspecific. Distance from conspecific, approach and avoidance behaviors, nose-to-nose contacts, and general locomotion were measured. Rats were euthanized at postnatal day 40 (P40; adolescence), and randomly selected infralimbic pyramidal neurons were filled with Lucifer yellow using iontophoretic microinjections, imaged in 3D, and then analyzed for dendritic arborization, spine density, and spine morphology. Early-life stress increased the latency to make nose-to-nose contact at P25 in females but not males. At P40, early-life stress increased infralimbic apical dendritic branch number and length and decreased thin spine density in stressed female rats. These results indicate that MS during the postnatal period influenced juvenile social behavior and mPFC dendritic arborization in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andersson, Ewa; Hildingsson, Ingegerd
Higher levels of parental stress have long-term effects on children's health and could lead to dysfunction in the parent-child interaction. Different background factors can be predictors of high parental stress. The aim of this study was to examine parental stress among Swedish women and identify different factors linked to women's parental stress. About 702 women were recruited to a clinical study and followed up six months after birth. Data were collected by two questionnaires, and 279 women completed the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ). Less than very good mental health and depressive symptoms after birth were strongly associated with parental stress, and the strongest association was found between post-partum depressive symptoms and high levels of stress in the subscale Incompetence. Multiparity was associated with high stress in two subscales, and lower level of education was a protective factor for stress in nearly all subscales. Depressive symptoms and perceived poor mental health post-partum are the most important factors related to high parental stress. The results point to the importance of identifying and supporting mothers with depressive symptoms, since these women have both mental illness and increased stress. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Syed, Shariful A; Nemeroff, Charles B
Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective. Early life stress presents a complex dynamic featuring a wide spectrum of physiologic alterations: from epigenetic alterations, inflammatory changes, to dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis and has further added to the challenge of identifying biomarkers associated with psychiatric disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health's proposed Research Domain Criteria initiative incorporates a dimensional approach to assess discrete domains and constructs of behavioral function that are subserved by identifiable neural circuits. The current neurobiology of early life stress is reviewed in accordance with dimensional organization of Research Domain Criteria matrix and how the findings as a whole fit within the Research Domain Criteria frameworks.
Lim, Sanghee; Kwak, Minhye; Gray, Christy D.; Xu, Michael; Choi, Jun H.; Junn, Sue; Kim, Jieun; Xu, Jing; Schaefer, Michele; Johns, Roger A.; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Mintz, C. David
Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure. Using an in vivo mouse model we demonstrate abnormal development of dendrite arbors and dendritic spines in newly generated dentate gyrus granule cell neurons of the hippocampus after a clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia exposure conducted at an early postnatal age. Furthermore, we find that isoflurane causes a sustained increase in activity in the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway, and that inhibition of this pathway with rapamycin not only reverses the observed changes in neuronal development, but also substantially improves performance on behavioral tasks of spatial learning and memory that are impaired by isoflurane exposure. We conclude that isoflurane disrupts the development of hippocampal neurons generated in the early postnatal period by activating a well-defined neurodevelopmental disease pathway and that this phenotype can be reversed by pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:28683067
Chen, Kevin; Kardys, Abbey; Chen, Yibu; Flink, Stephen; Tabakoff, Boris; Shih, Jean C
We reported previously that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A knockout (KO) mice show increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels and autistic-like behaviors characterized by repetitive behaviors, and anti-social behaviors. We showed that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) from post-natal day 1 (P1) through 7 (P7) in MAO A KO mice reduced the serotonin level to normal and reverses the repetitive behavior. These results suggested that the altered gene expression at P1 and P7 may be important for the autistic-like behaviors seen in MAO A KO mice and was studied here. In this study, Affymetrix mRNA array data for P1 and P7 MAO A KO mice were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to identify genes differentially expressed versus wild-type and assess their functions and relationships. The number of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) varied with age: P1 (664) and P7 (3307) [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05, fold-change (FC) >1.5 for autism-linked genes and >2.0 for functionally categorized genes]. Eight autism-linked genes were differentially expressed in P1 (upregulated: NLGN3, SLC6A2; down-regulated: HTR2C, MET, ADSL, MECP2, ALDH5A1, GRIN3B) while four autism-linked genes were differentially expressed at P7 (upregulated: HTR2B; downregulated: GRIN2D, GRIN2B, CHRNA4). Many other genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, neurotransmission, and cognitive function were differentially expressed at P7 in MAO A KO mice. This result suggests that modulation of these genes by the increased serotonin may lead to neurodevelopmental alteration in MAO A KO mice and results in autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; López-Fuster, María José; Cubo, Jorge; Ventura, Jacint
The western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) shows high karyotypic diversity owing to Robertsonian translocations. Morphometric studies conducted with adult mice suggest that karyotype evolution due to these chromosomal reorganizations entails variation in the form and the patterns of morphological covariation of the mandible. However, information is much scarcer regarding the effect of these rearrangements on the growth pattern of the mouse mandible over early postnatal ontogeny. Here we compare mandible growth from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life between two ontogenetic series of mice from wild populations, with the standard karyotype and with Robertsonian translocations respectively, reared under the same conditions. A multi-method approach is used, including bone histology analyses of mandible surfaces and cross-sections, as well as geometric morphometric analyses of mandible form. The mandibles of both standard and Robertsonian mice display growth acceleration around weaning, anteroposterior direction of bone maturation, a predominance of bone deposition fields over ontogeny, and relatively greater expansion of the posterior mandible region correlated with the ontogenetic increase in mandible size. Nevertheless, differences exist between the two mouse groups regarding the timing of histological maturation of the mandible, the localization of certain bone remodeling fields, the temporospatial patterns of morphological variation, and the organization into two main modules. The dissimilarities in the process of mandible growth between the two groups of mice become more evident around sexual maturity, and could arise from alterations that Robertsonian translocations may exert on genes involved in the bone remodeling mechanism. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xie, Xinmin; Dumas, Theodore; Tang, Lamont; Brennan, Thomas; Reeder, Thadd; Thomas, Winston; Klein, Robert D; Flores, Judith; O'Hara, Bruce F; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul
The Na(+)-independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (Asc-1) is exclusively expressed in neuronal structures throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Asc-1 transports small neutral amino acids with high affinity especially for D-serine and glycine (K(i): 8-12 microM), two endogenous glutamate co-agonists that activate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors through interacting with the strychnine-insensitive glycine binding-site. By regulating D-serine (and possibly glycine) levels in the synaptic cleft, Asc-1 may play an important role in controlling neuronal excitability. We generated asc-1 gene knockout (asc-1(-/-)) mice to test this hypothesis. Behavioral phenotyping combined with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings revealed that asc-1(-/-) mice developed tremors, ataxia, and seizures that resulted in early postnatal death. Both tremors and seizures were reduced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Extracellular recordings from asc-1(-/-) brain slices indicated that the spontaneous seizure activity did not originate in the hippocampus, although, in this region, a relative increase in evoked synaptic responses was observed under nominal Mg(2+)-free conditions. Taken together with the known neurochemistry and neuronal distribution of the Asc-1 transporter, these results indicate that the mechanism underlying the behavioral hyperexcitability in mutant mice is likely due to overactivation of NMDA receptors, presumably resulting from elevated extracellular D-serine. Our study provides the first evidence to support the notion that Asc-1 transporter plays a critical role in regulating neuronal excitability, and indicate that the transporter is vital for normal CNS function and essential to postnatal survival of mice.
Benetti, Fernando; Mello, Pâmela Billig; Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Monteiro, Siomara; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván
Early postnatal maternal deprivation is known to cause long-lasting neurobiological effects. Here, we investigated whether some of the cognitive aspects of these deficits might be related to a disruption of the cholinergic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were individually housed and maintained on a 12:12h light/dark cycle with food and water freely available. The mothers were separated from their pups for 3h per day from postnatal day 1 (PND-1) to PND-10. To do that, the dams were moved to a different cage and the pups maintained in the original home cage, which was transferred to a different room kept at 32 degrees C. After they reached 120-150 days of age, maternal-deprived and non-deprived animals were either sacrificed for brain acetylcholinesterase measurement, or trained and tested in an object recognition task and in a social recognition task as described by Rossato et al. (2007) [Rossato, J.I., Bevilaqua, L. R.M., Myskiw, J.C., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I., Cammarota, M. 2007. On the role hippocampal synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Learn. Mem. 14, 36-46] and Lévy et al. (2003) [Lévy, F., Melo. A.I., Galef. B.G. Jr., Madden, M., Fleming. A.S. 2003. Complete maternal deprivation affects social, but not spatial, learning in adult rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 43, 177-191], respectively. There was increased acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex of the deprived animals. In addition, they showed a clear impairment in memory of the two recognition tasks measured 24h after training. Oral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil or galantamine (1mg/kg) 30min before training reversed the memory impairments caused by maternal deprivation. The findings suggest that maternal deprivation affects memory processing at adulthood through a change in brain cholinergic systems.
Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina
Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O 2 , 6 h; postnatal day 7 , P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight ( P < 0.001) and length ( P < 0.04) compared with controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH ( P < 0.01) and IGF-1 ( P < 0.01). RhGH abrogated these hypoxia-induced changes of the GH/IGF-1 axis associated with normalization of weight and length gain until P14 compared with controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Murphy, Michelle C.; Fox, Edward A.
The mouse is an extremely valuable model for studying vagal development in relation to strain differences, genetic variation, gene manipulations, or pharmacological manipulations. Therefore, a method using 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was developed for labeling vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in embryonic and postnatal mice. DiI labeling was adapted and optimized for this purpose by varying several facets of the method. For example, insertion and crushing of DiI crystals into the nerve led to faster DiI diffusion along vagal axons and diffusion over longer distances as compared with piercing the nerve with a micropipette tip coated with dried DiI oil. Moreover, inclusion of EDTA in the fixative reduced leakage of DiI out of nerve fibers that occurred with long incubations. Also, mounting labeled tissue in PBS was superior to glycerol with n-propyl gallate, which resulted in reduced clarity of DiI labeling that may have been due to DiI leaking out of fibers. Optical sectioning of flattened wholemounts permitted examination of individual tissue layers of the GI tract wall. This procedure aided identification of nerve ending types because in most instances each type innervates a different tissue layer. Between embryonic day 12.5 and postnatal day 8, growth of axons into the GI tract, formation and patterning of fiber bundles in the myenteric plexus and early formation of putative afferent and efferent nerve terminals were observed. Thus, the DiI tracing method developed here has opened up a window for investigation during an important phase of vagal development. PMID:17418900
Tung, Emily W Y; Yan, Han; Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Kawata, Alice; Rigden, Marc; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F; Wade, Michael G
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are stable environmental contaminants known to exert endocrine-disrupting effects. Developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is correlated with impaired thyroid hormone signaling, as well as estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects. As previous studies have focused on a single congener or technical mixture, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gestational and early postnatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFRs designed to reflect house dust levels of PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane on postnatal developmental outcomes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the PBDE mixture from preconception to weaning (PND 21) through the diet containing 0, 0.75, 250, and 750 mg mixture/kg diet. BFR exposure induced transient reductions in body weight at PND 35 in male and from PND 30-45 in female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). Liver weights (PND 21) and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities (PND 21 and 46) were increased in both male and female offspring exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. Furthermore, serum T4 levels were reduced at PND 21 in both,male and female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). At PND 21, Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was decreased in males exposed to 750 mg/kg dietat, and females exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. At PND 46 ALP was significantly elevated in males (250 and 750 mg/kg). Variations in the cervical vertebrae and phalanges were observed in pups at PND 4 (250 and 750 mg/kg). Therefore, BFR exposure during gestation through to weaning alters developmental programming in the offspring. The persistence of BFRs in the environment remains a cause for concern with regards to developmental toxicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vogt, Dominic; Waeldin, Sandra; Hellhammer, Dirk; Meinlschmidt, Gunther
Pre-, peri-, and postnatal stress have frequently been reported to be associated with negative health outcomes during adult life. However, it is unclear, if these factors independently predict mental health in adulthood. We estimated potential associations between reports of pre-, peri-, and postnatal stress and depression severity in outpatients (N = 473) diagnosed with depression, anxiety or somatoform disorders by their family physician. We retrospectively assessed pre-, peri-, and postnatal stress and measured depression severity as well as recent life stress using questionnaires. First, we estimated if depression severity was predicted by pre-, peri- and/or postnatal stress using multiple regression models. Second, we compared pre- and postnatal stress levels between patient subgroups of different degrees of depression severity, performing multilevel linear modeling. Third, we analyzed if an association between postnatal stress and current depression severity was mediated by recent life stress. We found no associations of pre-, or perinatal stress with depression severity (all p > 0.05). Higher postnatal stress was associated with higher depression severity (p < 0.001). Patients with moderately severe and severe depression reported higher levels of postnatal stress as compared to patients with none to minimal, or mild depression (all p < 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect effect via recent life stress of the association between postnatal stress and depression severity (p < 0.001). In patients diagnosed for depression, anxiety, and/or somatoform disorders, postnatal but neither pre- nor perinatal stress predicted depression severity in adult life. This association was mediated by recent life stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.
The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…
In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress parad...
Corrales, Andrea; Parisotto, Eduardo B; Vidal, Verónica; García-Cerro, Susana; Lantigua, Sara; Diego, Marian; Wilhem Filho, Danilo; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí
Melatonin administered during adulthood induces beneficial effects on cognition and neuroprotection in the Ts65Dn (TS) mouse model of Down syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of pre- and post-natal melatonin treatment on behavioral and cognitive abnormalities and on several neuromorphological alterations (hypocellularity, neurogenesis impairment and increased oxidative stress) that appear during the early developmental stages in TS mice. Pregnant TS females were orally treated with melatonin or vehicle from the time of conception until the weaning of the offspring, and the pups continued to receive the treatment from weaning until the age of 5 months. Melatonin administered during the pre- and post-natal periods did not improve the cognitive impairment of TS mice as measured by the Morris Water maze or fear conditioning tests. Histological alterations, such as decreased proliferation (Ki67+ cells) and hippocampal hypocellularity (DAPI+ cells), which are typical in TS mice, were not prevented by melatonin. However, melatonin partially regulated brain oxidative stress by modulating the activity of the primary antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase in the cortex and catalase in the cortex and hippocampus) and slightly decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus of TS mice. These results show the inability of melatonin to prevent cognitive impairment in TS mice when it is administered at pre- and post-natal stages. Additionally, our findings suggest that to induce pro-cognitive effects in TS mice during the early stages of development, in addition to attenuating oxidative stress, therapies should aim to improve other altered processes, such as hippocampal neurogenesis and/or hypocellularity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paterson, Clare; Law, Amanda J.
Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a specific ligand for ErbB4 and a neuronal-enriched neurotrophin is implicated in the genetic predisposition to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental, neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, autism and schizophrenia. Genetic studies in schizophrenia demonstrate that risk variants in NRG3 are associated with cognitive and psychotic symptom severity, accompanied by increased expression of prefrontal cortical NRG3. Despite our expanding knowledge of genetic involvement of NRG3 in neurological disorders, little is known about the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of risk. Here we exploited the fact that a paralog of NRG3, NRG1, readily penetrates the murine blood brain barrier (BBB). In this study we synthesized the bioactive epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain of NRG3, and using previously validated in-vivo peripheral injection methodologies in neonatal mice, demonstrate that NRG3 successfully crosses the BBB, where it activates its receptor ErbB4 and downstream Akt signaling at levels of bioactivity comparable to NRG1. To determine the impact of NRG3 overexpression during one critical developmental window, C57BL/6 male mice were subcutaneously injected daily with NRG1-EGF, NRG3-EGF or vehicle from postnatal days 2–10. Mice were tested in adulthood using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tasks relevant to neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders. In agreement with previous studies, developmental overexposure to NRG1 induced multiple non-CNS mediated peripheral effects as well as severely disrupting performance of prepulse inhibition of the startle response. In contrast, NRG3 had no effect on any peripheral measures investigated or sensorimotor gating. Specifically, developmental NRG3 overexposure produced an anxiogenic-like phenotype and deficits in social behavior in adulthood. These results provide primary data to support a role for NRG3 in brain development and function, which appears to be distinct
Schneider, M L
This prospective study investigated whether mild maternal stress during pregnancy could alter the behavioral and affective responses in rhesus monkey infants in a complex, novel environment. Twenty-four rhesus monkey infants were tested on three occasions at 6 months of age in a novel environment. Twelve infants were derived from mothers exposed to a daily 10-min mild stressor from Day 90 to Day 145 postconception, while 12 were derived from mothers undisturbed during pregnancy. Prenatally stressed infants demonstrated more disturbance behavior, and lower levels of gross motor/exploratory behavior. Moreover, half of the prenatally stressed infants showed an abnormal response, falling asleep, while none of the control infants displayed this behavior. Males exhibited more clinging to surrogates, while females spent more time in gross motor/exploratory behaviors, with prenatally stressed males tending to spend the least time in gross motor/exploratory activity.
Exclusive breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet impacts the small intestinal microbiome, and how microbial shifts impact gut metabolic physiology...
Liu, Han-Xiao; Jiang, Aifang; Chen, Ting; Qu, Wen; Yan, Hui-Yi; Ping, Jie
Immunity is a balanced status with adequate biological defenses to recognize and fight "non-self", as well as adequate tolerance to recognize "self". To maintain this immune homeostasis, a well-organized T cell immune network is required, which in part depends on the well-controlled development of alternative effector T cells, with different cytokine repertoires. Recent researches have pointed that developing fetal T cells network is a remarkably sensitive toxicological target for adverse factors in early life. Epidemiological and experimental studies showed an inseparable relationship between T cell developmental toxicity and immune diseases in adults. Considering that the inflammatory and immune disorders have become a growing health problem worldwide, increasing attention is now being paid to the T cell developmental toxicity. We propose that adverse factors may have programming effects on the crucial functions of immune system during early life which is critical for fetal T cell development and the establishment of the distinct T cell repertoires balance. The permanently disturbed intrathymic or peripheral T cell development may in turn lead to the immune disorders in later life. In this manuscript, we reviewed how adverse factors affected T cell development in early-life with the consequence of the immune dysfunction and immune diseases, and further elucidate the mechanisms. These mechanisms will be helpful in prevention and treatment of the increased prevalence of immune diseases by interfering those pathways. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Postnatal early overfeeding and physical inactivity are serious risk factors for obesity. Physical activity enhances energy expenditure and consumes fat stocks, thereby decreasing body weight (bw). This study aimed to examine whether low-intensity and moderate exercise training in different post-weaning stages of life is capable of modulating the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and inhibiting perinatal overfeeding-induced obesity in rats. Methods The obesity-promoting regimen was begun two days after birth when the litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (small litter, SL) or to 9 pups (normal litter, NL). The rats were organized into exercised groups as follows: from weaning until 90-day-old, from weaning until 50-day-old, or from 60- until 90-days-old. All experimental procedures were performed just one day after the exercise training protocol. Results The SL-no-exercised (SL-N-EXE) group exhibited excess weight and increased fat accumulation. We also observed fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in these rats. In addition, the SL-N-EXE group exhibited an increase in the vagus nerve firing rate, whereas the firing of the greater splanchnic nerve was not altered. Independent of the timing of exercise and the age of the rats, exercise training was able to significantly blocks obesity onset in the SL rats; even SL animals whose exercise training was stopped at the end of puberty, exhibited resistance to obesity progression. Fasting glycemia was maintained normal in all SL rats that underwent the exercise training, independent of the period. These results demonstrate that moderate exercise, regardless of the time of onset, is capable on improve the vagus nerves imbalanced tonus and blocks the onset of early overfeeding-induced obesity. Conclusions Low-intensity and moderate exercise training can promote the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, reduces the large fat pad stores associated to improvement of the ANS activity in adult rats that were
Page, Gayle G; Blakely, Wendy P; Kim, Miyong
The intensive care necessary for premature newborns is characterized by multiple procedures, many of which are painful. Given emerging evidence that such early pain during this time of high brain plasticity may affect long-term neurodevelopmental and social-emotional functioning, this study explored the impact of early repeated pain on emotionality and stress responsivity at maturity. From birth through postnatal day 7, Fischer 344 pups underwent either paw needle prick every day versus every other day or daily paw touch, or were left unperturbed. Each paw received the designated perturbation once per day. At maturity, some animals underwent emotionality testing: either a 4-day series of open field exposures or a single elevated plus-maze (EPM) exposure. The paw prick groups exhibited less open field habituation and occupied the EPM open arms more. Two weeks later, all animals were either subjected to forced swim or not. At 1h post-swim, animals underwent either blood withdrawal for plasma corticosterone (CS) levels and ex vivo natural killer cell activity (NKCA) or were injected intravenously with radiolabeled NK-sensitive syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells and assessed for lung tumor retention. Sex was a major factor in the manifestation of perturbation-related differences in the biologic outcomes. Whereas postnatal pain differentially affected baseline tumor retention between males and females, only males exhibited perturbation-related differences in swim stress-induced increases in tumor retention and CS. Finally, male-female differences were evident in CS, NKCA, and tumor responses to swim stress. These findings suggest that early pain affects neurodevelopmental function in the mature organism; however, these relationships are complicated by sex differences, the postnatal pain schedule, and the outcome measured.
Zimmer, Cédric; Larriva, Maria; Boogert, Neeltje J.; Spencer, Karen A.
An interesting aspect of developmental programming is the existence of transgenerational effects that influence offspring characteristics and performance later in life. These transgenerational effects have been hypothesized to allow individuals to cope better with predictable environmental fluctuations and thus facilitate adaptation to changing environments. Here, we test for the first time how early-life stress drives developmental programming and transgenerational effects of maternal exposure to early-life stress on several phenotypic traits in their offspring in a functionally relevant context using a fully factorial design. We manipulated pre- and/or post-natal stress in both Japanese quail mothers and offspring and examined the consequences for several stress-related traits in the offspring generation. We show that pre-natal stress experienced by the mother did not simply affect offspring phenotype but resulted in the inheritance of the same stress-coping traits in the offspring across all phenotypic levels that we investigated, shaping neuroendocrine, physiological and behavioural traits. This may serve mothers to better prepare their offspring to cope with later environments where the same stressors are experienced. PMID:28387355
Verma, R; Shibly, S; Fang, H; Pollack, S
The implications of early postnatal body weight changes (Δbw) in the morbidities related to body fluid metabolism in sick preterm infants in not well investigated. The extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, birth weight <1000 g) have the highest incidence of such morbidities among all neonates. To determine the relationships between Δbw and neonatal morbidities associated with body fluid metabolism in the ELBW infants. In an observational study, the associations between daily weight changes from birth weight (DΔ bw) and oxygen dependence on postnatal day 28 (BPD28), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage (IVH), antenatal steroid (ANS) and gestational age (GA) were evaluated. Maximum weight loss (MΔ bw) was correlated with GA, BPD28 and BPD36 (oxygen dependence on postmenstrual 36 weeks). Pearson's correlation co-efficient and multivariate logistic regressions were performed for analysis. DΔ bw correlated inversely with GA on days 1-8 of life (p < 0.01 for all, 0.06 for DOL 2). DΔ bw was associated with a lower risk of BPD28 on days 6 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-1), 10 (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.98) and 11 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99); with PDA on days 8-11 (OR ranging between 0.89 to 0.92 for the 4 days, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.99) and with IVH on day 5 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1) after controlling for GA. DΔ bw was not identified as risk factor for the tested morbidities. ANS decreased DΔ bw on days 4 (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1) and 10 (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.84-1). MΔbw correlated directly with BPD28 (r = 0.3, p = 0.004), which declined after controlling for GA (r = 0.2, p = 0.2). DΔ bw is protective for PDA, BPD28 and IVH, independent of gestational age, whereas, the effects of MΔ bw on BPD are governed by maturation in ELBW infants. ANS decreases DΔbw, which correlates inversely with GA during the first week of life.
McBride, Shawna M; Culver, Bruce; Flynn, Francis W
Acute sodium deficiency sensitizes adult rats to psychomotor effects of amphetamine. This study determined whether prenatal and early life manipulation of dietary sodium sensitized adult offspring to psychomotor effects of amphetamine (1 or 3 mg/kg ip) in two strains of rats. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) dams were fed chow containing low NaCl (0.12%; LN), normal NaCl (1%; NN), or high NaCl (4%; HN) throughout breeding, gestation, and lactation. Male offspring were maintained on the test diet for an additional 3 wk postweaning and then fed standard chow thereafter until testing began. Overall, blood pressure (BP), total fluid intake, salt preference, and adrenal gland weight were greater in SHR than in WKY. WKY LN offspring had greater water intake and adrenal gland weight than did WKY NN and HN offspring, whereas WKY HN offspring had increased BP, salt intake, and salt preference compared with other WKY offspring. SHR HN offspring also had increased BP compared with other SHR offspring; all other measures were similar for SHR offspring. The low-dose amphetamine increased locomotor and stereotypical behavior compared with baseline and saline injection in both WKY and SHR offspring. Dietary sodium history affected the rats' psychomotor response to the higher dose of amphetamine. Injections of 3 mg/kg amphetamine in both strains produced significantly more behavioral activity in the LN offspring than in NN and HN offspring. These results show that early life experience with low-sodium diets produce long-term changes in adult rats' behavioral responses to amphetamine.
Franck, Erik; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Goubert, Liesbet; Loeys, Tom; Temmerman, Marleen; De Raedt, Rudi
Understanding vulnerability factors involved in the development of postnatal depression has important implications for theory and practice. In this prospective study, we investigated whether self-esteem instability during pregnancy would better predict postnatal depressive symptomatology than level of self-esteem. In addition, going beyond former studies, we tested the possible origin of this instability, examining whether day-to-day fluctuations in self-esteem could be explained by fluctuations in mood state, and whether this day-to-day self-esteem reactivity would predict postnatal depressive symptoms. 114 healthy never-depressed women were tested during the late second or third trimester of their gestation (Time 1) and at 12 weeks after delivery (Time 2). Day-to-day levels of self-esteem and depressed mood state were assessed at Time 1. At Time 2, postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed. The results show that, after controlling for initial depressive symptomatology, age and socio-economic status, postnatal depressive symptomatology at 12 weeks after childbirth could be predicted by self-esteem instability and not level of self-esteem. In addition, multi-level analyses demonstrated that these changes in day-to-day levels of self-esteem are associated with changes in day-to-day levels of depressed mood state and that those subjects with greater prenatal self-esteem reactivity upon depressed mood report higher levels of depressive symptoms post-partum. We used paper and pencil day-to-day measures of state self-esteem, which can be subject to bias. These results provide evidence for a diathesis-stress account of postnatal depression, highlighting the importance of a multi-dimensional view of self-esteem and the predictive role of self-esteem instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sarrazy, Vincent; Dumas, Karine; Authier, Florence; Sore, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Gennero, Isabelle; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Gouze, Elvire
Background Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication. Methods and findings To achieve this, we have first fully characterized the metabolic deregulations in these patients by conducting a longitudinal retrospective study, in children with achondroplasia Anthropometric, densitometric measures as well as several blood parameters were recorded and compared between three age groups ranging from [0–3], [4–8] and [9–18] years old. Our results show unexpected results with the development of an atypical obesity with preferential fat deposition in the abdomen that is remarkably not associated with classical complications of obesity such as diabetes or hypercholosterolemia. Because it is not associated with diabetes, the atypical obesity has not been studied in the past even though it is recognized as a real problem in these patients. These results were validated in a murine model of achondroplasia (Fgfr3ach/+) where similar visceral adiposity was observed. Unexpected alterations in glucose metabolism were highlighted during high-fat diet. Glucose, insulin or lipid levels remained low, without the development of diabetes. Very interestingly, in achondroplasia mice treated with soluble FGFR3 during the growth period (from D3 to D22), the development of these metabolic deregulations was prevented in adult animals (between 4 and 14 weeks of age
Saint-Laurent, Celine; Garcia, Stephanie; Sarrazy, Vincent; Dumas, Karine; Authier, Florence; Sore, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Gennero, Isabelle; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Gouze, Elvire
Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication. To achieve this, we have first fully characterized the metabolic deregulations in these patients by conducting a longitudinal retrospective study, in children with achondroplasia Anthropometric, densitometric measures as well as several blood parameters were recorded and compared between three age groups ranging from [0-3], [4-8] and [9-18] years old. Our results show unexpected results with the development of an atypical obesity with preferential fat deposition in the abdomen that is remarkably not associated with classical complications of obesity such as diabetes or hypercholosterolemia. Because it is not associated with diabetes, the atypical obesity has not been studied in the past even though it is recognized as a real problem in these patients. These results were validated in a murine model of achondroplasia (Fgfr3ach/+) where similar visceral adiposity was observed. Unexpected alterations in glucose metabolism were highlighted during high-fat diet. Glucose, insulin or lipid levels remained low, without the development of diabetes. Very interestingly, in achondroplasia mice treated with soluble FGFR3 during the growth period (from D3 to D22), the development of these metabolic deregulations was prevented in adult animals (between 4 and 14 weeks of age). The lean-over-fat tissues ratio was
Bao, Shaowen; Chang, Edward F.; Teng, Ching-Ling; Heiser, Marc A.; Merzenich, Michael M.
Cortical sensory representations can be reorganized by sensory exposure in an epoch of early development. The adaptive role of this type of plasticity for natural sounds in sensory development is, however, unclear. We have reared rats in a naturalistic, complex acoustic environment and examined their auditory representations. We found that cortical neurons became more selective to spectrotemporal features in the experienced sounds. At the neuronal population level, more neurons were involved in representing the whole set of complex sounds, but fewer neurons actually responded to each individual sound, but with greater magnitudes. A comparison of population-temporal responses to the experienced complex sounds revealed that cortical responses to different renderings of the same song motif were more similar, indicating that the cortical neurons became less sensitive to natural acoustic variations associated with stimulus context and sound renderings. By contrast, cortical responses to sounds of different motifs became more distinctive, suggesting that cortical neurons were tuned to the defining features of the experienced sounds. These effects lead to emergent “categorical” representations of the experienced sounds, which presumably facilitate their recognition. PMID:23747304
de Gouw, Pieter; van de Ven, Lotte J F; Lourens, Sander; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry
We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duan, Yuntao; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Song, Juan; Mironova, Yevgeniya; Ming, Guo-li; Kolodkin, Alex L; Giger, Roman J
Human SEMAPHORIN 5A (SEMA5A) is an autism susceptibility gene; however, its function in brain development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse Sema5A negatively regulates synaptogenesis in early, developmentally born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (GCs). Sema5A is strongly expressed by GCs and regulates dendritic spine density in a cell-autonomous manner. In the adult mouse brain, newly born Sema5A-/- GCs show an increase in dendritic spine density and increased AMPA-type synaptic responses. Sema5A signals through PlexinA2 co-expressed by GCs, and the PlexinA2-RasGAP activity is necessary to suppress spinogenesis. Like Sema5A-/- mutants, PlexinA2-/- mice show an increase in GC glutamatergic synapses, and we show that Sema5A and PlexinA2 genetically interact with respect to GC spine phenotypes. Sema5A-/- mice display deficits in social interaction, a hallmark of autism-spectrum-disorders. These experiments identify novel intra-dendritic Sema5A/PlexinA2 interactions that inhibit excitatory synapse formation in developmentally born and adult-born GCs, and they provide support for SEMA5A contributions to autism-spectrum-disorders.
Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda
Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.
Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico
Early in development, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain, depolarizes and excites targeted neurons by an outwardly directed flux of chloride, resulting from the peculiar balance between the cation-chloride importer NKCC1 and the extruder KCC2. The low expression of KCC2 at birth leads to accumulation of chloride inside the cell and to the equilibrium potential for chloride positive respect to the resting membrane potential. GABA exerts its action via synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. Here, recent data on the contribution of “ambient” GABA to the refinement of neuronal circuits in the immature brain have been reviewed. In particular, we focus on the hippocampus, where, prior to the formation of conventional synapses, GABA released from growth cones and astrocytes in a calcium- and SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor)-independent way, diffuses away to activate in a paracrine fashion extrasynaptic receptors localized on distal neurons. The transient increase in intracellular calcium following the depolarizing action of GABA leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Tonic GABA exerts also a chemotropic action on cell migration. Later on, when synapses are formed, GABA spilled out from neighboring synapses, acting mainly on extrasynaptic α5, β2, β3, and γ containing GABAA receptor subunits, provides the membrane depolarization necessary for principal cells to reach the window where intrinsic bursts are generated. These are instrumental in triggering calcium transients associated with network-driven giant depolarizing potentials which act as coincident detector signals to enhance synaptic efficacy at emerging GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. PMID:23964205
Sebert, S P; Dellschaft, N S; Chan, L L Y; Street, H; Henry, M; Francois, C; Sharma, V; Fainberg, H P; Patel, N; Roda, J; Keisler, D; Budge, H; Symonds, M E
Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.
Durán-Carabali, L E; Arcego, D M; Odorcyk, F K; Reichert, L; Cordeiro, J L; Sanches, E F; Freitas, L D; Dalmaz, C; Pagnussat, A; Netto, C A
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE. The offspring were euthanized at two different time points: 48 h after HIE for biochemical analyses or at PND 67 for histological analyses. Behavioral tests were performed at PND 7, 14, 21, and 60. Offspring from EE mothers had better performance in neurodevelopmental and spatial memory tests when compared to the SC groups. HIE animals showed a reduction of IGF-1 and VEGF in the parietal cortex, but no differences in BDNF and TrkB levels were found. EE-HIE animals showed reduction in cell death, lower astrocyte reactivity, and an increase in AKTp levels in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. In addition, the EE was also able to prevent the hippocampus tissue loss. Altogether, present findings point to the protective potential of the prenatal and early postnatal EE in attenuating molecular and histological damage, as well as the neurodevelopmental impairments and the cognitive deficit, caused by HIE insult at PND 3.
Girard, J. R.; Cuendet, G. S.; Marliss, E. B.; Kervran, A.; Rieutort, M.; Assan, R.
hepatic glycogen content and blood lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol levels but of stable or increasing amino acid concentrations. Hepatic gluconeogenesis in this phase of depleted glycogen stores was insufficient to maintain euglycemia. Substrates derived from fat showed early changes of smaller magnitude. The rise in free fatty acids which occurred was less than twofold the value at birth, though this rise persisted up to 6 h. Whereas glycerol rose transiently, acetoacetate did not change and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration fell. Both ketone bodies showed a marked rise at 16 h. at a time of diminished free fatty acid levels. Plasma growth hormone, though higher in the fetal than the maternal circulation, showed no consistent change during the period of observation. The changes in levels of the endocrine pancreatic hormones at birth were appropriate in time, magnitude, and direction to be implicated as prime regulators of the metabolic response during the neonatal period in the rat. PMID:4750449
Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Loi, Manila; Joëls, Marian; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; van der Toorn, Annette
Adverse experiences early in life impair cognitive function both in rodents and humans. In humans this increases the vulnerability to develop mental illnesses while in the rodent brain early life stress (ELS) abnormalities are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity, excitability and microstructure. Detailed information on the effects of ELS on rodent brain structural integrity at large and connectivity within the brain is currently lacking; this information is highly relevant for understanding the mechanism by which early life stress predisposes to mental illnesses. Here, we exposed rats to 24 hours of maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day 3, a paradigm known to increase corticosterone levels and thereby activate glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined: i) volumetric changes and white/grey matter properties of the whole cerebrum and of specific brain areas; and ii) whether potential alterations could be normalized by blocking glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone during the critical developmental window of early adolescence, i.e. between postnatal days 26 and 28. The results show that MD caused a volumetric reduction of the prefrontal cortex, particularly the ventromedial part, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Within the whole cerebrum, white (relative to grey) matter volume was decreased and region-specifically in prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum following MD. A trend was found for the hippocampus. Grey matter fractions were not affected. Treatment with mifepristone did not normalize these changes. This study indicates that early life stress in rodents has long lasting consequences for the volume and structural integrity of the brain. However, changes were relatively modest and-unlike behavior- not mitigated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during a critical developmental period.
Taine, Marion; Charles, Marie-Aline; Beltrand, Jacques; Rozé, Jean Christophe; Léger, Juliane; Botton, Jérémie; Heude, Barbara
Clinicians' interest in the long-term effects of early postnatal growth (EPG) is growing. There is compelling evidence linking rapid EPG with later cardiovascular risk, but its neurodevelopmental benefits still remain hypothetical in individuals born moderately preterm (MP) or small for gestational at term (SGAT). The objective was to perform a systematic review of the relationship between EPG before age 3 years and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP (32-36 weeks' gestational age) or SGAT. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, 3 independent investigators searched for articles published on this topic in the Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed from database inception to July 1, 2017. A detailed quality scale was used to evaluate articles. We selected 19 articles relying on 12 distinct study populations; 7 articles from 3 study populations were considered at moderate or high quality. The lack of standardisation of growth analysis methods prevented performing a meta-analysis. Overall, EPG was positively associated with neurodevelopmental outcome, especially Intelligence Quotient (IQ) when available. In this relationship, the first 6 months of life might be a critical period. Analysis of the few articles investigating the shape of the relationships revealed a non-linear association, with a plateau for IQ with higher weight gain, which suggests a possible ceiling effect. A positive association was generally found between EPG and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP or SGAT. Strategies for future epidemiological studies are suggested to improve the characterisation of this relationship. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, H; Miller, S; Shaw, J; Moyer-Mileur, L
The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of massage therapy during early life on postnatal growth, body composition, and skeletal development in juvenile and young adult rats. Massage therapy was performed for 10 minutes daily from D6 to D10 of postnatal life in rat pups (MT, n=24). Body composition, bone area, mineral content, and bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); bone strength and intrinsic stiffness on femur shaft were tested by three-point bending; cortical and cancellous bone histomorphometric measurements were performed at D21 and D60. Results were compared to age- and gender-matched controls (C, n=24). D21 body weight, body length, lean mass, and bone area were significantly greater in the MT cohort. Greater bone mineral content was found in male MT rats; bone strength and intrinsic stiffness were greater in D60 MT groups. At D60 MT treatment promoted bone mineralization by increasing trabecular mineral apposition rate in male and endosteal mineral surface in females, and also improved micro-architecture by greater trabeculae width in males and decreasing trabecular separation in females. In summary, massage therapy during early life elicited immediate and prolonged anabolic effects on postnatal growth, lean mass and skeletal developmental in a gender-specific manner in juvenile and young adult rats.
Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne
Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2–14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way. PMID:23922857
Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E
Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P < 0.001). This was associated with greater inflammation (interleukin 6: 38% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05; tumor necrosis factor α: 64% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal, measured by ELISA: 0.30 ± 0.02 compared with 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/mL per μg protein; P < 0.05), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.05). CoQ10 supplementation increased (P < 0.01) hepatic CoQ10 concentrations and ameliorated liver fibrosis (P < 0.001), inflammation (P < 0.001), some measures of oxidative stress (P < 0.001), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Suboptimal in utero nutrition combined with accelerated postnatal catch-up growth caused more hepatic fibrosis in adulthood, which was
This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…
Papale, Ligia A.; Madrid, Andy; Li, Sisi; Alisch, Reid S.
ABSTRACT Environmental stress contributes to the development of psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. While even acute stress alters gene expression, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in the brain and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Here we examined behavioral and molecular alterations in adult mice that experienced an early-life stress before weaning (postnatal day 12 to 18) and found anxiety-like behaviors in adult female mice that were accompanied by correlated disruptions of hypothalamic 5hmC and gene expression in 118 genes, revealing potentially functional 5hmC (i.e., gene regulation). These genes are known and potentially novel stress-related targets, including Nr3c2, Nrxn1, Nfia, and Clip1, that have a significant enrichment for neuronal ontological functions, such as neuronal development and differentiation. Sequence motif predictions indicated that 5hmC may regulate gene expression by mediating transcription factor binding and alternative splicing of many of these transcripts. Together, these findings represent a critical step toward understanding the effects of early environment on the neuromolecular mechanisms that underlie the risk to develop anxiety disorders. PMID:28128679
Roh, Junyeop D; Choi, Su-Yeon; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Tae-Yong; Park, Jong-Sil; Cutforth, Tyler; Chung, Woosuk; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Myeong-Heui; Lee, Yeunkum; Mo, Seojung; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Jaewon; Choi, Se-Young; Bae, Yong Chul; Shen, Kang; Kim, Eunjoon; Han, Kihoon
Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3 ) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3. In contrast, however, it is unknown whether Neph2 also has any roles in the postsynaptic compartments of DG neurons. We here report that, through its C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif, Neph2 directly interacts with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Moreover, Neph2 protein is detected in the brain PSD fraction and interacts with PSD-95 in synaptosomal lysates. Functionally, loss of Neph2 in mice leads to age-specific defects in the synaptic connectivity of DG neurons. Specifically, Neph2 -/- mice show significantly increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic events in DG neurons at postnatal week 2 when the endogenous Neph2 protein expression peaks, but show normal excitatory synaptic transmission at postnatal week 3. The evoked excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of medial perforant pathway (MPP)-DG synapses are also normal in Neph2 -/- mice at postnatal week 3, further confirming the age-specific synaptic defects. Together, our results provide some evidence for the postsynaptic function of Neph2 in DG neurons during the early postnatal period, which might be implicated in neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders caused by NEPH2 mutations.
Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Chen, Jian Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E.; Ozanne, Susan E.
ABSTRACT ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’) in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging) as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb) and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb) in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1) in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria), and increased xanthine oxidase (XO), p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by
Neff, Lisa A; Broady, Elizabeth F
As all couples experience stressful life events, addressing how couples adapt to stress is imperative for understanding marital development. Drawing from theories of stress inoculation, which suggest that the successful adaptation to moderately stressful events may help individuals develop a resilience to future stress, the current studies examined whether experiences with manageable stressors early in the marriage may serve to make the relationship more resilient to future stress. In Study 1, 61 newlywed couples provided data regarding their stressful life events, relationship resources (i.e., observed problem-solving behaviors), and marital satisfaction at multiple points over 2½ years. Results revealed that among spouses displaying more effective problem-solving behaviors, those who experienced moderate stress during the early months of marriage exhibited fewer future stress spillover effects and reported greater increases in felt efficacy than did spouses who had less experience with early stress. Study 2 examined stress resilience following the transition to parenthood in a new sample of 50 newlywed couples. Again, spouses who experienced moderate stress during the early months of marriage and had good initial relationship resources (i.e., observed support behaviors) reported greater marital adjustment following the transition to parenthood than did spouses who had good initial resources but less prior experience coping with stress. Together, results indicate that entering marriage with better relationship resources may not be sufficient to shield marital satisfaction from the detrimental effects of stress; rather, couples may also need practice in using those resources to navigate manageable stressful events.
Miki, Takanori, E-mail: email@example.com; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi
Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved bymore » separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.« less
Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Tambaro, Simone; Li, Felix G.; Devoto, Paola; Coba, Marcelo P.; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, the major enzyme catalyzing the oxidative degradation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), plays a key role in emotional regulation. In humans and mice, MAO-A deficiency results in high 5-HT levels, antisocial, aggressive, and perseverative behaviors. We previously showed that the elevation in brain 5-HT levels in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice is particularly marked during the first two weeks of postnatal life. Building on this finding, we hypothesized that the reduction of 5-HT levels during these early stages may lead to enduring attenuations of the aggression and other behavioral aberrances observed in MAO-A KO mice. To test this possibility, MAO-A KO mice were treated with daily injections of a 5-HT synthesis blocker, the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chloro-phenylalanine (pCPA, 300 mg/kg/day, IP), from postnatal day 1 through 7. As expected, this regimen significantly reduced 5-HT forebrain levels in MAO-A KO pups. These neurochemical changes persisted throughout adulthood, and resulted in significant reductions in marble-burying behavior, as well as increases in spontaneous alternations within a T-maze. Conversely, pCPA-treated MAO-A KO mice did not exhibit significant changes in anxiety-like behaviors in a novel open-field and elevated plus-maze; furthermore, this regimen did not modify their social deficits, aggressive behaviors and impairments in tactile sensitivity. Treatment with pCPA from postnatal day 8 through 14 elicited similar, yet milder, behavioral effects on marble-burying behavior. These results suggest that early developmental enhancements in 5-HT levels have long-term effects on the modulation of behavioral flexibility associated with MAO-A deficiency. PMID:23871843
Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie
The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:27629365
Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life.
Inta, Ioana; Vogt, Miriam A; Vogel, Anne S; Bettendorf, Markus; Gass, Peter; Inta, Dragos
NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists induce in perinatal rodent cortical apoptosis and protracted schizophrenia-like alterations ameliorated by antipsychotic treatment. The broad-spectrum antibiotic minocycline elicits antipsychotic and neuroprotective effects. Here we tested, if minocycline protects also against apoptosis triggered by the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at postnatal day 7. Surprisingly, minocycline induced widespread cortical apoptosis and exacerbated MK-801-triggered cell death. In some areas such as the subiculum, the pro-apoptotic effect of minocycline was even more pronounced than that elicited by MK-801. These data reveal among antipsychotics unique pro-apoptotic properties of minocycline, raising concerns regarding consequences for brain development and the use in children.
Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf
We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993
Pinto, Bruno Araújo Serra; Melo, Thamys Marinho; Flister, Karla Frida Torres; França, Lucas Martins; Kajihara, Daniela; Tanaka, Leonardo Yuji; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael Martins; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade
Early-life environmental insults have been shown to promote long-term development of chronic non-communicable diseases, including metabolic disturbances and mental illnesses. As such, premature consumption of high-sugar foods has been associated to early onset of detrimental outcomes, whereas underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether early and sustained exposure to high-sucrose diet promotes metabolic disturbances that ultimately might anticipate neurological injuries. At postnatal day 21, weaned male rats started to be fed a standard chow (10 % sucrose, CTR) or a high-sucrose diet (25 % sucrose, HSD) for 9 weeks prior to euthanasia at postnatal day 90. HSD did not alter weight gain and feed efficiency between groups, but increased visceral, non-visceral and brown adipose tissue accumulation. HSD rats demonstrated elevated blood glucose levels in both fasting and fed states, which were associated to impaired glucose tolerance. Peripheral insulin sensitivity did not change, whereas hepatic insulin resistance was supported by increased serum triglyceride levels, as well as higher TyG index values. Assessment of hippocampal gene expression showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways were activated in HSD rats, as compared to CTR. HSD rats had overexpression of unfolded protein response sensors, PERK and ATF6; ER chaperone, PDIA2 and apoptosis-related genes, CHOP and Caspase 3; but decreased expression of chaperone GRP78. Finally, HSD rats demonstrated impaired neuromuscular function and anxious behavior, but preserved cognitive parameters. In conclusion, our data indicate that early exposure to HSD promote metabolic disturbances, which disrupt hippocampus homeostasis and might precociously affect its neurobehavioral functions.
Velazquez, Miguel A; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Smith, Stephanie J; Eckert, Judith J; Osmond, Clive; Fleming, Tom P
Mouse maternal low protein diet exclusively during preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to programme altered growth and cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring. Here, we use an in vitro model comprising preimplantation culture in medium depleted in insulin and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), two proposed embryo programming inductive factors from Emb-LPD studies, to examine the consequences for blastocyst organisation and, after embryo transfer (ET), postnatal disease origin. Two-cell embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in defined KSOM medium supplemented with four combinations of insulin and BCAA concentrations. Control medium contained serum insulin and uterine luminal fluid amino acid concentrations (including BCAA) found in control mothers from the maternal diet model (N-insulin+N-bcaa). Experimental medium (three groups) contained 50% reduction in insulin and/or BCAA (L-insulin+N-bcaa, N-insulin+L-bcaa, and L-insulin+N-bcaa). Lineage-specific cell numbers of resultant blastocysts were not affected by treatment. Following ET, a combined depletion of insulin and BCAA during embryo culture induced a non sex-specific increase in birth weight and weight gain during early postnatal life. Furthermore, male offspring displayed relative hypertension and female offspring reduced heart/body weight, both characteristics of Emb-LPD offspring. Combined depletion of metabolites also resulted in a strong positive correlation between body weight and glucose metabolism that was absent in the control group. Our results support the notion that composition of preimplantation culture medium can programme development and associate with disease origin affecting postnatal growth and cardiovascular phenotypes and implicate two important nutritional mediators in the inductive mechanism. Our data also have implications for human assisted reproductive treatment (ART) practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Hammon, Harald M.; Metges, Cornelia C.
Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm2) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life. PMID:24260100
Brace, Lear E; Vose, Sarah C; Vargas, Dorathy F; Zhao, Shuangyun; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Mitchell, James R
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeria characterized by growth failure, lipodystrophy, neurological abnormalities, and photosensitivity, but without skin cancer predisposition. Cockayne syndrome life expectancy ranges from 5 to 16 years for the two most severe forms (types II and I, respectively). Mouse models of CS have thus far been of limited value due to either very mild phenotypes, or premature death during postnatal development prior to weaning. The cause of death in severe CS models is unknown, but has been attributed to extremely rapid aging. Here, we found that providing mutant pups with soft food from as late as postnatal day 14 allowed survival past weaning with high penetrance independent of dietary macronutrient balance in a novel CS model (Csa(-/-) | Xpa(-/-)). Survival past weaning revealed a number of CS-like symptoms including small size, progressive loss of adiposity, and neurological symptoms, with a maximum lifespan of 19 weeks. Our results caution against interpretation of death before weaning as premature aging, and at the same time provide a valuable new tool for understanding mechanisms of progressive CS-related progeroid symptoms including lipodystrophy and neurodysfunction. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Halliday, Henry L
Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended. Early treatment with hydrocortisone may also improve survival without chronic lung disease, but concerns remain about possible adverse effects such as gastrointestinal perforation and sepsis, particularly in very preterm infants. Early inhaled budesonide also reduces the incidence of chronic lung disease but there are concerns that this may occur at the expense of increased risk of death. More studies of early low-dose steroids with adequate long-term follow-up are needed before they can be recommended for the prevention of chronic lung disease. Late (after the first week of life) postnatal steroids may have a better benefit-to-harm ratio than early steroids. A Cochrane Review shows that late steroid treatment reduces chronic lung disease, the combination of death and chronic lung disease at both 28 days and 36 weeks' corrected age, and the need for later rescue dexamethasone. Adverse effects include hyperglycemia, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and severe retinopathy of prematurity but without an increase in blindness. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects are not significantly increased by late postnatal steroid treatment. Current recommendations are that postnatal steroid treatment
Hancock, Hayley S; Pituch, Ken; Uzark, Karen; Bhat, Priya; Fifer, Carly; Silveira, Maria; Yu, Sunkyung; Welch, Suzanne; Donohue, Janet; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit
Children with single-ventricle disease experience high mortality and complex care. In other life-limiting childhood illnesses, paediatric palliative care may mitigate maternal stress. We hypothesised that early palliative care in the single-ventricle population may have the same benefit for mothers. In this pilot randomised trial of early palliative care, mothers of infants with prenatal single-ventricle diagnoses completed surveys measuring depression, anxiety, coping, and quality of life at a prenatal visit and neonatal discharge. Infants were randomised to receive early palliative care - structured evaluation, psychosocial/spiritual, and communication support before surgery - or standard care. Among 56 eligible mothers, 40 enrolled and completed baseline surveys; 38 neonates were randomised, 18 early palliative care and 20 standard care; and 34 postnatal surveys were completed. Baseline Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Index scores exceeded normal pregnant sample scores (mean 13.76±8.46 versus 7.0±5.0 and 46.34±12.59 versus 29.8±6.35, respectively; p=0.0001); there were no significant differences between study groups. The early palliative care group had a decrease in prenatal to postnatal State-Trait Anxiety Index scores (-7.6 versus 0.3 in standard care, p=0.02), higher postnatal Brief Cope Inventory positive reframing scores (p=0.03), and a positive change in PedsQL Family Impact Module communication and family relationships scores (effect size 0.46 and 0.41, respectively). In conclusion, these data show that mothers of infants with single-ventricle disease experience significant depression and anxiety prenatally. Early palliative care resulted in decreased maternal anxiety, improved maternal positive reframing, and improved communication and family relationships.
Toepfer, Philipp; Heim, Christine; Entringer, Sonja; Binder, Elisabeth; Wadhwa, Pathik; Buss, Claudia
Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has gained considerable attention for its role in modulating all of these assumed transmission pathways. Moreover, central and peripheral OT signaling pathways are highly sensitive to environmental exposures and may be compromised by ELS with implications for these putative transmission mechanisms. Together, these data suggest that OT pathways play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS in humans. By integrating recent studies on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic modifications in OT pathway genes, the present review aims to develop a conceptual framework of intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS that emphasizes the role of OT. PMID:28027955
Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M
Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Desgent, Sébastien; Duss, Sandra; Sanon, Nathalie T.; Lema, Pablo; Lévesque, Maxime; Hébert, David; Rébillard, Rose-Marie; Bibeau, Karine; Brochu, Michèle; Carmant, Lionel
During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1), and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS) at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to epileptogenesis in a
Lepeshko, Arina A.; Reshetnikov, Vasiliy V.
Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual's life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day) or handling (HD, 15 min once a day) on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling), which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior. PMID:29619126
Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Davies, M J; Davies, C E; Rumbold, A R; Moore, V M
In an era where around one in four children in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia are overweight or obese, the development of obesity in early life needs to be better understood. We aimed to identify groups of children with distinct trajectories of growth in infancy and early childhood, to examine any association between these trajectories and body size at age 9, and to assess the relative influence of antenatal and postnatal exposures on growth trajectories. Prospective Australian birth cohort study. In total, 557 children with serial height and weight measurements from birth to 9 years were included in the study. Latent class growth models were used to derive distinct groups of growth trajectories from birth to age 3½ years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore antenatal and postnatal predictors of growth trajectory groups, and multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between growth trajectory groups and body size at age 9 years. We identified four discrete growth trajectories from birth to age 3½ years, characterised as low, intermediate, high, or accelerating growth. Relative to the intermediate growth group, the low group had reduced z-body mass index (BMI) (-0.75 s.d.; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.02, -0.47), and the high and accelerating groups were associated with increased body size at age 9 years (high: z-BMI 0.70 s.d.; 95% CI 0.49, 0.62; accelerating: z-BMI 1.64 s.d.; 95% CI 1.16, 2.11). Of the antenatal and postnatal exposures considered, the most important differentiating factor was maternal obesity in early pregnancy, associated with a near quadrupling of risk of membership of the accelerating growth trajectory group compared with the intermediate growth group (odds ratio (OR) 3.72; 95% CI 1.15, 12.05). Efforts to prevent childhood obesity may need to be embedded within population-wide strategies that also pay attention to healthy weight for women in
Ruys, Charlotte A; van der Voorn, Bibian; Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Finken, Martijn J J
Preterm birth has been associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity as well as cardiometabolic diseases and neurodevelopmental impairments later in life. We assessed cortisol from term age to age 8 y in children born preterm, to explore the development of HPA-axis activity in association with intrauterine and early-postnatal growth until 6 mo. corrected age. In 152 children born at a gestational age ≤32 wks. and/or with a birth weight ≤1,500g, random serum cortisol was assessed at term age (n=150), 3 mo. (n=145) and 6 mo. corrected age (n=144), and age 8 y (n=59). Salivary cortisol was assessed at age 8 y (n=75): prior to bedtime, at awakening, 15min after awakening, and before lunch. Cortisol was analyzed in association with birth weight-standard deviation score (SDS), being born small for gestational age (SGA), and combinations of intrauterine and postnatal growth: appropriate for gestational age (AGA) with or without growth restriction (AGA GR+ or AGA GR-) at 6 mo. corrected age, and SGA with or without catch-up growth (SGA CUG+ or SGA CUG-) at 6 mo. corrected age. Cross-sectional associations at all time points were analyzed using linear regression, and longitudinal associations were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Longitudinally, birth weight-SDS was associated with cortisol (β [95%CI]): lower cortisol over time was seen in infants with a birth weight ≤-2 SDS (-50.69 [-94.27; -7.11], p=0.02), infants born SGA (-29.70 [-60.58; 1.19], p=0.06), AGA GR+ infants (-55.10 [-106.02; -4.17], p=0.03) and SGA CUG- infants (-61.91 [-104.73; -19.10], p=0.01). In cross-sectional analyses at age 8 y, no associations were found between either serum or salivary cortisol and birth weight-SDS, SGA-status, or growth from birth to 6 mo. corrected age. In children born preterm, poor intrauterine and postnatal growth were associated with lower cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 y. Even though HPA-axis activity no longer
Nagai, S; Kawai, M; Myowa-Yamakoshi, M; Morimoto, T; Matsukura, T; Heike, T
The objective of this study was to estimate gonadotropin concentrations in small for gestational age (SGA) male infants with the reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis during the first few months of life that is important for genital development. We prospectively examined 15 SGA and 15 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) preterm male infants between 2013 and 2014 at Kyoto University Hospital. Gonadotropin concentrations (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were measured in serial urine samples from the postnatal days 7 to 168 and compared between SGA and AGA infants using the Mann-Whitney test. A longitudinal analysis showed that SGA infants had higher LH and lower FSH concentrations (P=0.004 and P=0.006, respectively) than AGA infants. Male infants who are SGA at birth because of fetal growth restriction have gonadotropin secretion abnormalities in the first few months of life.
Lu, Yanxia; Liu, Meng; Shi, Shousen; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Lejin; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Fang
Although studies have shown that psychological stress has detrimental effects on bronchial asthma, there are few objective data on whether early-life stress, as early postnatal psychosocial environment, has a long-lasting effect on adult asthma and the potential pathophysiologic mechanism. This study aims to examine the effects on immune function and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses in adult asthmatic rats that experienced stress in early life and the potential ameliorative effects of music therapy on these parameters. Forty male Wistar rat pups were randomly assigned to the asthma group, the adulthood-stressed asthma group, the childhood-stressed asthma group, the music group, and the control group. Restraint stress and Mozart's Sonata K.448 were applied to ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic rats to establish psychological stress and music therapy models. The levels of serum corticosterone were examined in both childhood after stress and adulthood after OVA challenge. Immune indicators in blood, lung, and brain tissues were measured after the last OVA challenge. Stress in both childhood and adulthood resulted in increases in leukocyte and eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin (IL)-4 levels. The adulthood-stressed group demonstrated increased corticosterone levels after challenge, whereas the childhood-stressed group showed increased corticosterone concentration in childhood but decreased level in adulthood. Central IL-1beta exhibited a similar tendency. Music group rats showed reduced serum IL-4 and corticosterone. Stress in childhood and adulthood resulted in different HPA axis responsiveness in the exacerbation of markers of asthma. These data provide the first evidence of the long-term normalizing effects of music on asthmatic rats.
Su, Xiujuan; Liang, Hong; Yuan, Wei; Olsen, Jørn; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong
Females are more likely than males to develop eating disorders (EDs) in the adolescence and youth, and the etiology remains unclear. We aimed to estimate the effect of severe early life stress following bereavement, the death of a close relative, on the risk of EDs among females aged 10-26 years. This population-based cohort study included girls born in Denmark (from 1973 to 2000) or Sweden (from 1970 to 1997). Girls were categorized as exposed if they were born to mothers who lost a close relative 1 year prior to or during pregnancy or if the girl herself lost a parent or a sibling within the first 10 years of life. All other girls were included in unexposed group. An ED case was defined by a diagnosis of EDs at ages of 10-26 years, including broadly defined bulimia nervosa, broadly defined anorexia nervosa and mixed EDs. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between exposed group and unexposed group.A total of 64453 (3.05 %) girls were included in the exposed group. We identified 9477 girls with a diagnosis of EDs, of whom 307 (3.24 %) were from the exposed group. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure following bereavement by unexpected death was associated with an increased overall risk of EDs (IRR prenatal : 1.49, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.19 and IRR postnatal : 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.71). We observed similar results for subtypes of broadly defined bulimia nervosa (IRR: 2.47, 95 % CI: 1.67-3.65) and mixed EDs (IRR: 1.45, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.07).Our findings suggest that prenatal and early postnatal life stress due to unexpected death of a close relative is associated with an increased overall risk of eating disorders in adolescent girls and young women. The increased risk might be driven mainly by differences in broadly defined bulimia nervosa and mixed eating disorders, but not broadly defined anorexia nervosa.
Cooper, Carly; Jones, Lisa; Dunn, Emma; Forty, Liz; Haque, Sayeed; Oyebode, Femi; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian
The relationship of postnatal (postpartum) depression (PND) to episodes of depression occurring at other times is not well understood. Despite a number of studies of clinical presentation, there is little consistency in the literature. We have undertaken within- and between-individual comparisons of the clinical presentation of postnatal (PN) and non-postnatal (NPN) depressive episodes in women with recurrent depression. In a sample of well-characterized, parous women meeting DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for recurrent major depressive disorder, the clinical presentation of episodes of major depression with onset within 4 weeks of giving birth (PND group, n=50) were compared with (i) the non-postnatal episodes of women with PND, and (ii) episodes of major depression in parous women who had not experienced episodes of mood disorder in relation to childbirth (NPND group, n=132). In addition, the non-postnatal episodes of the PND group of women were compared with the depressive episodes of the NPND group. The small number of differences found between PN and NPN depressive episodes, such as reduced early morning wakening in postnatal episodes, are likely to be explicable by the context of having a new baby rather than by any difference in the nature of the underlying depression. The results do not point to substantial differences in clinical presentation between episodes of major depression occurring in relation to childbirth and at other times. Other avenues of research are therefore required to demonstrate a specific relationship between childbirth and depression.
Salari, Ali-Akbar; Bakhtiari, Amir; Homberg, Judith R
Disturbances of the gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) system during postnatal development can have long-lasting consequences for later life behavior, like the individual's response to stress. However, it is unclear which postnatal windows of sensitivity to GABA-ergic modulations are associated with what later-life behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether neonatal activation of the GABA-A receptor during two postnatal periods, an early window (postnatal day 3-5) and a late window (postnatal day 14-16), can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in male mice in later life. To this end, mice were treated with either saline or muscimol (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500μg/kg) during the early and late postnatal periods. An additional group of mice was treated with the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline+muscimol. When grown to adulthood male mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Baseline and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) levels were also measured. The results indicate that early postnatal and to a lesser extent later postnatal exposure to the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol increased anxiety-like behavior and stress-induced CORT levels in adults. Moreover, the early postnatal treatment with muscimol increased depression-like behavior with increasing baseline CORT levels. The anxiogenic and depression-like later-life consequences could be antagonized by bicuculline. Our findings suggest that GABA-A receptor signaling during early-life can influence anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in later life. Our findings help to increase insight in the developmental mechanisms contributing to stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Cramer, Tomer; Kisliouk, Tatiana; Yeshurun, Shlomo; Meiri, Noam
Determining whether a stressful event will lead to stress-resilience or vulnerability depends probably on an adjustable stress response set point, which is most likely effective during postnatal sensory development and involves the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression. During the critical period of thermal-control establishment in 3-day-old chicks, heat stress was found to render resilient or sensitized response, depending on the ambient temperature. These two different responses were correlated with the amount of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The expression of CRH mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was augmented during heat challenge a week after heat conditioning in chicks which were trained to be vulnerable to heat, while it declined in chicks that were trained to be resilient. To study the role of CRH in HPA-axis plasticity, CRH or Crh-antisense were intracranially injected into the third ventricle. CRH caused an elevation of both body temperature and plasma corticosterone level, while Crh-antisense caused an opposite response. Moreover, these effects had long term implications by reversing a week later, heat resilience into vulnerability and vice versa. Chicks that had been injected with CRH followed by exposure to mild heat stress, normally inducing resilience, demonstrated, a week later, an elevation in body temperature, and Crh mRNA level similar to heat vulnerability, while Crh-antisense injected chicks, which were exposed to harsh temperature, responded in heat resilience. These results demonstrate a potential role for CRH in determining the stress resilience/vulnerability balance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart
Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.
Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simcock, Gabrielle; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Kildea, Sue; Cobham, Vanessa; Stapleton, Helen; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne
This study examined the effects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress on infant temperament and whether the sex of the infant or the timing of the stressor in pregnancy would moderate the effects. Mothers' objective experiences of a sudden-onset flood in Queensland, Australia, their subjective emotional reactions, and cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed. At 6 months postpartum, 121 mothers reported their infant's temperament on the 5 dimensions of the Short Temperament Scale for Infants. When controlling for postnatal maternal factors, subjective prenatal maternal stress and cognitive appraisal of the disaster were associated with easier aspects of infant temperament. However, several interesting interactions emerged showing negative effects of the flood. With higher levels of objective hardship in pregnancy, boys (but not girls) received more irritable temperament ratings. When the flood occurred early in pregnancy, higher levels of objective hardship predicted more arrhythmic infant temperament. Finally, mothers whose emotional response to the flood exceeded the hardship they endured reported significantly more active-reactive infants. Prenatal maternal stress from a natural disaster predicted more difficult temperament ratings that were moderated by infant sex, timing of the flood in gestation, and mother's emotional response to the disaster.
Prevention of early postnatal hyperalimentation protects against activation of transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein and interleukin-6 signaling in rat lungs after intrauterine growth restriction.
Alcázar, Miguel Angel Alejandre; Dinger, Katharina; Rother, Eva; Östreicher, Iris; Vohlen, Christina; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is intimately linked with postnatal catch-up growth, leading to impaired lung structure and function. However, the impact of catch-up growth induced by early postnatal hyperalimentation (HA) on the lung has not been addressed to date. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prevention of HA subsequent to IUGR protects the lung from 1) deregulation of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway, 2) activation of interleukin (IL)-6 signaling, and 3) profibrotic processes. IUGR was induced in Wistar rats by isocaloric protein restriction during gestation by feeding a control (Co) or a low-protein diet with 17% or 8% casein, respectively. On postnatal day 1 (P1), litters from both groups were randomly reduced to 6 pups per dam to induce HA or adjusted to 10 pups and fed with standard diet: Co, Co with HA (Co-HA), IUGR, and IUGR with HA (IUGR-HA). Birth weights in rats after IUGR were lower than in Co rats (P < 0.05). HA during lactation led to accelerated body weight gain from P1 to P23 (Co vs. Co-HA, IUGR vs. IUGR-HA; P < 0.05). At P70, prevention of HA after IUGR protected against the following: 1) activation of both TGF-β [phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 2; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Pai1)] and BMP signaling [pSMAD1; inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)] compared with Co (P < 0.05) and Co or IUGR (P < 0.05) rats, respectively; 2) greater mRNA expression of interleukin (Il) 6 and Il13 (P < 0.05) as well as activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling (P < 0.05) after IUGR-HA; and 3) greater gene expression of collagen Iα1 and osteopontin (P < 0.05) and increased deposition of bronchial subepithelial connective tissue in IUGR-HA compared with Co and IUGR rats. Moreover, HA had a significant additive effect (P < 0.05) on the increased enhanced pause (indicator of airway resistance) in the IUGR group (P < 0.05) at P70. This study demonstrates
Paterson, Clare; Wang, Yanhong; Kleinman, Joel E.; Law, Amanda J.
OBJECTIVE Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a multifunctional neurotrophin and a critical mediator of neurodevelopment and risk for schizophrenia. NRG1 undergoes extensive alternative splicing, and association of brain NRG1-IV isoform expression with the schizophrenia-risk polymorphism, rs6994992, is a potential molecular mechanism of risk. Novel splice variants of NRG1-IV (NRG1-IVNV), with predicted unique signaling capabilities, have been cloned in fetal brain. Because the developmental expression and genetic regulation of NRG1-IVNV in human brain and relationship to schizophrenia is unknown, the authors investigated the temporal dynamics of NRG1-IVNV transcription, compared to the major NRG1 isoforms (types I-IV), across human prenatal and postnatal prefrontal cortical development and examined the association of rs6994992 with NRG1-IVNV expression. METHOD NRG1, types I-IV and NRG1-IVNV isoform expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR in prefrontal cortex during human fetal brain development (14-39 weeks gestation: N=41) and postnatally through aging (age range 0-83 years: N=195). The association of rs6994992 genotype with NRG1-IVNV expression was determined. In-vitro assays were performed to determine the subcellular distribution and proteolytic processing of NRG1-IVNV isoforms. RESULTS Expression of NRG1, types I, II, III was temporally regulated during human prenatal and postnatal neocortical development and the trajectory of NRG1-IVNV was unique, being expressed from 16 weeks gestation until 3 years of age, after which it was undetectable. NRG1-IVNVs expression was associated with rs6994992 genotype, whereby homozygosity for the schizophrenia-risk allele (T) conferred lower cortical NRG1-IVNV levels. Finally, in-vitro cellular assays demonstrate that NRG1-IVNV is a novel nuclear enriched, truncated NRG1 protein that is resistant to proteolytic processing. CONCLUSION This study provides the first quantitative map of NRG1 isoform expression during human
Ronald, Angelica; Pennell, Craig E.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.
Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioral development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is a risk factor for both autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2 years, mothers completed the child behavior checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviors in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p = 0.03) and females (p = 0.01). Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviors and confounding variables, in males only (p = 0.04). In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful life events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviors independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal, and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene–environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association. PMID:21833278
Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Maicas, Nuria; Florquin, Sandrine; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F
Diuretics are administered to neonates to control fluid balance. We studied whether clinical doses affected kidney development and function and whether extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) could be a modulator. Wistar rats were cross-fostered in normal food or food restricted litters at postnatal day (PND) 2 and treated daily with 0.9% NaCl, 5 mg/kg furosemide or 5 mg/kg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) up to PND 8. Kidneys were evaluated on proliferation, apoptosis and a set of mRNA target genes at PND 8, glomerular- and glomerular generation count at PND 35, clinical pathology parameters at 3- and 9 months, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at PND 8, 3 and 6 months, monthly blood pressure from 3 months onward and histopathology at study end. Treatment with furosemide or HCTZ did not have relevant effects on measured parameters. EUGR resulted in lower body weight from day 3 onwards (-29% at weaning; p < 0.001, -10% at necropsy; p < 0.001), less glomerular generations (4.4 ± 0.32 vs. 5.0 ± 0.423; p = 0.025, males only), decreased glomerular numbers (27,861 ± 3,468 vs. 30,527 ± 4,096; p = 0.026), higher creatinine clearance (0.84 ± 0.1 vs. 0.77 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; p = 0.047) at 3 months and lower plasma creatinine (25.7 ± 1.8 vs. 27.5 ± 2.8 µmol/l; p = 0.043) at 9 months. Furosemide and HCTZ did not influence kidney development or function when administered in a clinically relevant dose to rat pups at a stage of ongoing nephrogenesis. EUGR led to impaired kidney development but did not modify furosemide or HCTZ findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lee, Kevin; Cherel, Marie; Budin, Francois; Gilmore, John; Zaldarriaga Consing, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Glasser, Matthew F.; Van Essen, David C.; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin
To develop and evaluate a novel processing framework for the relative quantification of myelin content in cerebral white matter (WM) regions from brain MRI data via a computed ratio of T1 to T2 weighted intensity values. We employed high resolution (1mm3 isotropic) T1 and T2 weighted MRI from 46 (28 male, 18 female) neonate subjects (typically developing controls) scanned on a Siemens Tim Trio 3T at UC Irvine. We developed a novel, yet relatively straightforward image processing framework for WM myelin content estimation based on earlier work by Glasser, et al. We first co-register the structural MRI data to correct for motion. Then, background areas are masked out via a joint T1w and T2 foreground mask computed. Raw T1w/T2w-ratios images are computed next. For purpose of calibration across subjects, we first coarsely segment the fat-rich facial regions via an atlas co-registration. Linear intensity rescaling based on median T1w/T2w-ratio values in those facial regions yields calibrated T1w/T2wratio images. Mean values in lobar regions are evaluated using standard statistical analysis to investigate their interaction with age at scan. Several lobes have strongly positive significant interactions of age at scan with the computed T1w/T2w-ratio. Most regions do not show sex effects. A few regions show no measurable effects of change in myelin content change within the first few weeks of postnatal development, such as cingulate and CC areas, which we attribute to sample size and measurement variability. We developed and evaluated a novel way to estimate white matter myelin content for use in studies of brain white matter development.
Ruggiero, M J; Boschen, K E; Roth, T L; Klintsova, A Y
Microglia are involved in various homeostatic processes in the brain, including phagocytosis, apoptosis, and synaptic pruning. Sex differences in microglia colonization of the developing brain have been reported, but have not been established following alcohol insult. Developmental alcohol exposure represents a neuroimmune challenge that may contribute to cognitive dysfunction prevalent in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. Most studies have investigated neuroimmune activation following adult alcohol exposure or following multiple exposures. The current study uses a single day binge alcohol exposure model (postnatal day [PD] 4) to examine sex differences in the neuroimmune response in the developing rat hippocampus on PD5 and 8. The neuroimmune response was evaluated through measurement of microglial number and cytokine gene expression at both time points. Male pups had higher microglial number compared to females in many hippocampal subregions on PD5, but this difference disappeared by PD8, unless exposed to alcohol. Expression of pro-inflammatory marker CD11b was higher on PD5 in alcohol-exposed (AE) females compared to AE males. After alcohol exposure, C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) was significantly increased in female AE pups on PD5 and PD8. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also upregulated by AE in males on PD8. The results demonstrate a clear difference between the male and female neuroimmune response to an AE challenge, which also occurs in a time-dependent manner. These findings are significant as they add to our knowledge of specific sex-dependent effects of alcohol exposure on microglia within the developing brain.
Marmolejo, Naydu; Paez, Jesse; Levitt, Jonathan B.; Jones, Liesl B.
Research suggests that the medial dorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus influences pyramidal cell development in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in an activity-dependent manner. The MD is reciprocally connected to the PFC. Many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, affect the PFC, and one of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia is a decrease in volume and neuronal number in the MD. Therefore, understanding the role the MD plays in the development of the PFC is important and may help in understanding the progression of psychiatric disorders that have their root in development. Focusing on the interplay between the MD and the PFC, this study examined the hypothesis that the MD plays a role in the dendritic development of pyramidal cells in the PFC. Unilateral electrolytic lesions of the MD in Long-Evans rat pups were made on postnatal day 4 (P4), and the animals developed to P60. We then examined dendritic morphology by examining MAP2 immunostaining and by using Golgi techniques to determine basilar dendrite number and spine density. Additionally, we examined pyramidal cell density in cingulate area 1 (Cg1), prelimbic region, and dorsolateral anterior cortex, which receive afferents from the MD. Thalamic lesions caused a mean MD volume decrease of 12.4% which led to a significant decrease in MAP2 staining in both superficial and deep layers in all 3 cortical areas. The lesions also caused a significant decrease in spine density and in the number of primary and secondary basilar dendrites on superficial and deep layer pyramidal neurons in all 3 regions. No significant difference was observed in pyramidal cell density in any of the regions or layers, but a nonsignificant increase in cell density was observed in 2 regions. Our data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that the MD plays a role in the development of the PFC and, therefore, may be a good model to begin to examine neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. PMID:23406908
Salimi, I; Friel, KM; Martin, JH
Motor development depends on forming specific connections between the corticospinal tract (CST) and the spinal cord. Blocking CST activity in kittens during the critical period for establishing connections with spinal motor circuits results in permanent impairments in connectivity and function. The changes in connections are consistent with the hypothesis that the inactive tract is less competitive in developing spinal connections than the active tract. In this study we tested the competition hypothesis by determining if activating CST axons, after prior silencing during the critical period, abrogated development of aberrant corticospinal connections and motor impairments. In kittens, we inactivated motor cortex by muscimol infusion between postnatal weeks 5-7. We next electrically stimulated CST axons in the medullary pyramid 2.5 hours daily, between weeks 7-10. In controls (n=3), CST terminations were densest within the contralateral deeper, premotor, spinal layers. After prior inactivation (n=3), CST terminations were densest within the dorsal, somatic sensory, layers. There were more ipsilateral terminations from the active tract. During visually guided locomotion, there was a movement endpoint impairment. Stimulation after inactivation (n=6) resulted in significantly fewer terminations in the sensory layers and more in the premotor layers, and fewer ipsilateral connections from active cortex. Chronic stimulation reduced the current threshold for evoking contralateral movements by pyramidal stimulation, suggesting strengthening of connections. Importantly, stimulation significantly improved stepping accuracy. These findings show the importance of activity-dependent processes in specifying CST connections. They also provide a strategy for harnessing activity to rescue CST axons at risk of developing aberrant connections after CNS injury. PMID:18632946
Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Xiufang; Pelkowski, Sean; Palmer, Brian; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Weston, Douglas; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A
Air pollution has been associated with adverse neurological and behavioral health effects in children and adults. Recent studies link air pollutant exposure to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including increased risk for autism, cognitive decline, ischemic stroke, schizophrenia, and depression. We sought to investigate the mechanism(s) by which exposure to ultrafine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) adversely influences central nervous system (CNS) development. We exposed C57BL6/J mice to ultrafine (< 100 nm) CAPs using the Harvard University Concentrated Ambient Particle System or to filtered air on postnatal days (PNDs) 4-7 and 10-13, and the animals were euthanized either 24 hr or 40 days after cessation of exposure. Another group of males was exposed at PND270, and lateral ventricle area, glial activation, CNS cytokines, and monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters were quantified. We observed ventriculomegaly (i.e., lateral ventricle dilation) preferentially in male mice exposed to CAPs, and it persisted through young adulthood. In addition, CAPs-exposed males generally showed decreases in developmentally important CNS cytokines, whereas in CAPs-exposed females, we observed a neuroinflammatory response as indicated by increases in CNS cytokines. We also saw changes in CNS neurotransmitters and glial activation across multiple brain regions in a sex-dependent manner and increased hippocampal glutamate in CAPs-exposed males. We observed brain region- and sex-dependent alterations in cytokines and neurotransmitters in both male and female CAPs-exposed mice. Lateral ventricle dilation (i.e., ventriculomegaly) was observed only in CAPs-exposed male mice. Ventriculomegaly is a neuropathology that has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, autism, and schizophrenia. Our findings suggest alteration of developmentally important neurochemicals and lateral ventricle dilation may be mechanistically related to observations linking ambient air
Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H
In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meziane, Hamid; Schaller, Fabienne; Bauer, Sylvian; Villard, Claude; Matarazzo, Valery; Riet, Fabrice; Guillon, Gilles; Lafitte, Daniel; Desarmenien, Michel G; Tauber, Maithé; Muscatelli, Françoise
Mutations of MAGEL2 have been reported in patients presenting with autism, and loss of MAGEL2 is also associated with Prader-Willi syndrome, a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder. This study aimed to determine the behavioral phenotype of Magel2-deficient adult mice, to characterize the central oxytocin (OT) system of these mutant mice, and to test the curative effect of a peripheral OT treatment just after birth. We assessed the social and cognitive behavior of Magel2-deficient mice, analyzed the OT system of mutant mice treated or not by a postnatal administration of OT, and determined the effect of this treatment on the brain. Magel2 inactivation induces a deficit in social recognition and social interaction and a reduced learning ability in adult male mice. In these mice, we reveal anatomical and functional modifications of the OT system and show that these defects change from birth to adulthood. Daily administration of OT in the first postnatal week was sufficient to prevent deficits in social behavior and learning abilities in adult mutant male mice. We show that this OT treatment partly restores a normal OT system. Thus, we report that an alteration of the OT system around birth has long-term consequences on behavior and on cognition. Importantly, an acute OT treatment of Magel2-deficient pups has a curative effect. Our study reveals that OT plays a crucial role in setting social behaviors during a period just after birth. An early OT treatment in this critical period could be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Prader-Willi syndrome and autism. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Yu; Chang, Qing; Ahmad, Shoeb; Zhou, Binfei; Kim, Yeunjung; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi
Gene transfer into the inner ear is a promising approach for treating sensorineural hearing loss. The special electrochemical environment of the scala media raises a formidable challenge for effective gene delivery at the same time as keeping normal cochlear function intact. The present study aimed to define a suitable strategy for preserving hearing after viral inoculation directly into the scala media performed at various postnatal developmental stages. We assessed transgene expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by various types of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus (LV) in the mouse cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses were measured 30 days after inoculation to assess effects on hearing. Patterns of GFP expression confirmed extensive exogenous gene expression in various types of cells lining the endolymphatic space. The use of different viral vectors and promoters resulted in specific cellular GFP expression patterns. AAV2/1 with cytomegalovirus promoter apparently gave the best results for GFP expression in the supporting cells. Histological examination showed normal cochlear morphology and no hair cell loss after either AAV or LV injections. We found that hearing thresholds were not significantly changed when the injections were performed in mice younger than postnatal day 5, regardless of the type of virus tested. Viral inoculation and expression in the inner ear for the restoration of hearing must not damage cochlear function. Using normal hearing mice as a model, we have achieved this necessary step, which is required for the treatment of many types of congenital deafness that require early intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure. PMID:23596261
Lima, Carla S; Dutra-Tavares, Ana C; Nunes, Fernanda; Nunes-Freitas, André L; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C; Meyer, Armando; Abreu-Villaça, Yael
Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure.
Gross, Claus M; Flubacher, Armin; Tinnes, Stefanie; Heyer, Andrea; Scheller, Marie; Herpfer, Inga; Berger, Mathias; Frotscher, Michael; Lieb, Klaus; Haas, Carola A
Early life stress predisposes to the development of psychiatric disorders. In this context the hippocampal formation is of particular interest, because it is affected by stress on the structural and cognitive level. Since little is known how early life stress is translated on the molecular level, we mimicked early life stress in mouse models and analyzed the expression of the glycoprotein Reelin, a master molecule for development and differentiation of the hippocampus. From postnatal day 1 (P1) to P14, mouse pups were subjected to one of the following treatments: nonhandling (NH), handling (H), maternal separation (MS), and early deprivation (ED) followed by immediate (P15) or delayed (P70) real time RT-PCR analysis of reelin mRNA expression. We show that at P15, reelin mRNA levels were significantly increased in male H and ED groups when compared with the NH group. In contrast, no stress-induced alterations of reelin mRNA expression were found in female animals. This sex difference in stress-mediated stimulation of reelin expression was maintained into adulthood, since at P70 intergroup differences were still found in male, but not in female mice. On the cellular level, however, we did not find any significant differences in cell densities of Reelin-immunolabeled neurons between treatment groups or sexes, but an overall reduction of Reelin-expressing neurons in the adult hippocampus when compared to P15. To address the question whether corticosterone mediates the stress-induced up-regulation of reelin gene expression, we used age-matched hippocampal slice cultures derived from male and female mouse pups. Quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed that corticosterone treatment significantly up-regulated reelin mRNA expression in male, but not in female hippocampi. Taken together, these results show a sex-specific regulation of reelin gene expression by early life experience, most likely mediated by corticosterone. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xiang, Jianxing; Yan, Sen; Li, Shi-Hua; Li, Xiao-Jiang
Depression is a serious mental disorder that affects a person’s mood, thoughts, behavior, physical health, and life in general. Despite our continuous efforts to understand the disease, the etiology of depressive behavior remains perplexing. Recently, aberrant early life or postnatal neurogenesis has been linked to adult depressive behavior; however, genetic evidence for this is still lacking. Here we genetically depleted the expression of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1) in mice at various ages or in selective brain regions. Depletion of Hap1 in the early postnatal period, but not later life, led to a depressive-like phenotype when the mice reached adulthood. Deletion of Hap1 in adult mice rendered the mice more susceptible to stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, early Hap1 depletion impaired postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and reduced the level of c-kit, a protein expressed in neuroproliferative zones of the rodent brain and that is stabilized by Hap1. Importantly, stereotaxically injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) that directs the expression of c-kit in the hippocampus promoted postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorated the depressive-like phenotype in conditional Hap1 KO mice, indicating a link between postnatal-born hippocampal neurons and adult depression. Our results demonstrate critical roles for Hap1 and c-kit in postnatal neurogenesis and adult depressive behavior, and also suggest that genetic variations affecting postnatal neurogenesis may lead to adult depression. PMID:25875952
Xiang, Jianxing; Yan, Sen; Li, Shi-Hua; Li, Xiao-Jiang
Depression is a serious mental disorder that affects a person's mood, thoughts, behavior, physical health, and life in general. Despite our continuous efforts to understand the disease, the etiology of depressive behavior remains perplexing. Recently, aberrant early life or postnatal neurogenesis has been linked to adult depressive behavior; however, genetic evidence for this is still lacking. Here we genetically depleted the expression of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1) in mice at various ages or in selective brain regions. Depletion of Hap1 in the early postnatal period, but not later life, led to a depressive-like phenotype when the mice reached adulthood. Deletion of Hap1 in adult mice rendered the mice more susceptible to stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, early Hap1 depletion impaired postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and reduced the level of c-kit, a protein expressed in neuroproliferative zones of the rodent brain and that is stabilized by Hap1. Importantly, stereotaxically injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) that directs the expression of c-kit in the hippocampus promoted postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorated the depressive-like phenotype in conditional Hap1 KO mice, indicating a link between postnatal-born hippocampal neurons and adult depression. Our results demonstrate critical roles for Hap1 and c-kit in postnatal neurogenesis and adult depressive behavior, and also suggest that genetic variations affecting postnatal neurogenesis may lead to adult depression.
Kerstis, Birgitta; Nohlert, Eva; Öhrvik, John; Widarsson, Margareta
Aim To determine whether there is an association between depressive symptoms and parental stress among mothers and fathers during early parenthood in Sweden. Methods In this study, 401 mothers and 396 fathers (393 couples) were included; the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Sense of Coherence Scale were measured 3 months after childbirth, and the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale after 18 months. Complete data for multivariable analysis were available for 264 mothers and 252 fathers. Results The mothers estimated greater total depressive symptoms and parental stress than the fathers did. Both the mothers and the fathers had the greatest level of stress in the sub-area ‘Role restriction’. The mothers had the lowest level of stress in the sub-area ‘Social isolation’ and the fathers in the sub-area ‘Incompetence’. The mothers perceived greater levels of stress than the fathers did in all sub-areas except for ‘Social isolation’, where the fathers perceived higher stress. There was an association between the parents’ depressive symptoms and parental stress. The parents’ own depressive symptoms at 3 months and sense of coherence and the partners’ parental stress at 18 months were positively associated with the parental stress at 18 months in univariable and multivariable analyses. Conclusions Understanding the relationship between depressive symptoms and parental stress is important for health professionals so they can offer parents adequate support in early parenthood to optimize the conditions for raising a child. This knowledge should also be communicated to the parents. PMID:26947219
Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Brüggemann, Roger J M; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F
Up to two-thirds of premature born neonates are treated for infections with aminoglycosides such as gentamicin. Although acute toxicities are well described, there is uncertainty on developmental changes after treatment of premature born neonates. We studied the effect of gentamicin and ceftazidime on kidney development in the rat. Additionally, we evaluated the modulating effect of extrauterine growth restriction. On postnatal day (PND) 2, Wistar rats were cross-fostered into normal sized litters (12 pups) or large litters (20 pups) to create normal food (NF) or food restricted (FR) litters to simulate growth restriction and dosed daily intraperitoneally with placebo, 4 mg/kg of gentamicin or 50 mg/kg ceftazidime until PND 8. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics were studied in a separate group of animals. Kidneys were weighed. Renal expression of 18 developmental genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR on PND 8. On PND 35, glomerular number was assessed by stereology and glomerular generations were counted. Food restricted litters showed 22% less body weight compared with controls by day 35 (p < 0.001), 1.4- to 1.5-fold down regulation of Renin, Oat1, and Agtr1a (p < 0.05) expression and a 12% reduction in glomerular numbers (mean 30841 vs. 35187, p < 0.001), whereas glomerular generation count was unaffected. Gentamicin pharmacokinetic parameters were found to be in a human clinical range (mean maximum concentration in plasma of 4.88 mg/L and mean area under the plasma-concentration time curve up to the last measured concentration after 4 hr of 10.71 mg.h/L for sexes combined) and all endpoints were unaffected. Ceftazidime reduced Renin expression by 1.7-fold (p < 0.01). Our experiments showed that gentamicin at clinical levels did not disturb kidney development, ceftazidime can affect Renin expression, and extrauterine growth restriction impairs kidney development, but did not modulate potential drug toxicity. Birth Defects Research 109:1228-1235, 2017. © 2017 Wiley
Aris, Izzuddin M; Soh, Shu E; Tint, Mya Thway; Saw, Seang Mei; Rajadurai, Victor S; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap Seng; Lee, Yung Seng
Infants on prolonged breastfeeding are known to grow slower during the first year of life. It is still unclear if such effects are similar in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes (GDM) in utero. We examined the associations of infant milk feeding on postnatal growth from birth till 36 months of age in offspring exposed and unexposed to GDM. Pregnant mothers undertook 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests at 26-28 weeks of gestation for GDM diagnosis. Up to 9 measurements of offspring weight and length were collected from birth till 36 months, and interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain the duration of breastfeeding. There was a statistically significant interaction between GDM status and breastmilk intake by any (p interaction = 0.038) or exclusive/predominant breastfeeding (p interaction = 0.035) for the outcome of conditional weight gain. In offspring of non-GDM mothers (n = 835), greater breastmilk intake (BF ≥ 4 milk months) was associated with lower conditional gains in weight [B (95 % CI) -0.48 (-0.58, -0.28); p < 0.001] within the first year of life, as well as decreasing weight SDS velocity [-0.01 (-0.02, -0.005); p < 0.001] and BMI SDS velocity [-0.008 (0.01, -0.002); p = 0.008] across age in the first 36 months. In offspring of GDM mothers (n = 181), however, greater breastmilk intake was associated with increased conditional gains in weight [0.72 (0.23, 1.20); p = 0.029] and BMI SDS [0.49 (0.04, 0.95); p = 0.04] in the first 6 months and did not demonstrate the decreasing weight and BMI SDS velocity observed in offspring of non-GDM mothers. The reduced weight gain in the first year of life conferred by greater breastmilk intake in non-GDM children was not observed in GDM children. This study is registered under the Clinical Trials identifier NCT01174875; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01174875?term=GUSTO&rank=2 .
Bryant, Richard A
The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.
Buckley, Harriet; Owen, Robert; Marin, Ana Campos; Lu, Yongtau; Eyles, Darryl; Lacroix, Damien; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Skerry, Tim M.; Bishop, Nick J.
There is increasing evidence of persistent effects of early life vitamin D exposure on later skeletal health; linking low levels in early life to smaller bone size in childhood as well as increased fracture risk later in adulthood, independently of later vitamin D status. A major determinant of bone mass acquisition across all ages is mechanical loading. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model system that early life vitamin D depletion results in abrogation of the response to mechanical loading, with consequent reduction in bone size, mass and strength during both childhood and adulthood. A murine model was created in which pregnant dams were either vitamin D deficient or replete, and their offspring moved to a vitamin D replete diet at weaning. Tibias of the offspring were mechanically loaded and bone structure, extrinsic strength and growth measured both during growth and after skeletal maturity. Offspring of vitamin D deplete mice demonstrated lower bone mass in the non loaded limb and reduced bone mass accrual in response to loading in both the growing skeleton and after skeletal maturity. Early life vitamin D depletion led to reduced bone strength and altered bone biomechanical properties. These findings suggest early life vitamin D status may, in part, determine the propensity to osteoporosis and fracture that blights later life in many individuals. PMID:29370213
Fairbrother, Nichole; Woody, Sheila R
This prospective study examined psychological and obstetrical predictors of enduring postpartum symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Contrary to prediction, prenatal fear of childbirth did not significantly predict symptoms of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder at one month postpartum, but anxiety sensitivity was an unexpected predictor that merits further investigation. Several obstetrical and neonatal variables significantly predicted symptoms of post-traumatic disorder, but not depression.
Husain, Nusrat; Cruickshank, Kennedy; Husain, Meher; Khan, Sarah; Tomenson, Barbara; Rahman, Atif
Depressive disorders are common and disabling among perinatal women. The rates are high in ethnic minority groups. The causes are not known in British Pakistani women. The aim of this study was to estimate the rates, correlates and maintaining factors of perinatal depression in a Pakistani sample in UK. The design used was a cross-sectional two phase population based survey with a prospective cohort study. All women in 3rd trimester attending antenatal clinic were screened with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Women scoring 12 or more on EPDS and a random sample of low scorers were interviewed using the Schedules for Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and the Life Events and Difficulties schedule (LEDS). Social support was assessed with the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). They were reassessed 6 months after the delivery using the same measures. The weighted prevalence of depression was 16.8%. Depressed mothers had more marked non health difficulties (housing, financial and marital). They had less social support and were socially isolated. Marked social isolation and marked non-health related difficulties were independent predictors of depression. Analyses of all the possible risk factors, comparing 26 persistent depressed with 27 depression resolved group showed significant differences in the MSPSS subscales between the two groups. The study lacked inter-rater reliability testing between the individuals carrying out diagnostic interviews. The study sample did not accurately represent the general population and information about the origins of depression in this group of mothers was limited. Depression in British Pakistani mothers is associated with social isolation, poor social support and severe and persistent social difficulties. The findings will have implications in planning suitable services for this group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Husain, Nusrat; Cruickshank, Kennedy; Husain, Meher; Khan, Sarah; Tomenson, Barbara; Rahman, Atif
Background Depressive disorders are common and disabling among perinatal women. The rates are high in ethnic minority groups. The causes are not known in British Pakistani women. The aim of this study was to estimate the rates, correlates and maintaining factors of perinatal depression in a Pakistani sample in UK. The design used was a cross-sectional two phase population based survey with a prospective cohort study. Methods All women in 3rd trimester attending antenatal clinic were screened with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Women scoring 12 or more on EPDS and a random sample of low scorers were interviewed using the Schedules for Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and the Life Events and Difficulties schedule (LEDS). Social support was assessed with the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). They were reassessed 6 months after the delivery using the same measures. Results The weighted prevalence of depression was 16.8%. Depressed mothers had more marked non health difficulties (housing, financial and marital). They had less social support and were socially isolated. Marked social isolation and marked non-health related difficulties were independent predictors of depression. Analyses of all the possible risk factors, comparing 26 persistent depressed with 27 depression resolved group showed significant differences in the MSPSS subscales between the two groups. Limitations The study lacked inter-rater reliability testing between the individuals carrying out diagnostic interviews. The study sample did not accurately represent the general population and information about the origins of depression in this group of mothers was limited. Conclusion Depression in British Pakistani mothers is associated with social isolation, poor social support and severe and persistent social difficulties. The findings will have implications in planning suitable services for this group. PMID:22608713
Yirmiya, Nurit; Charman, Tony
Autism is one of the most heritable neurodevelopmental conditions and has an early onset, with symptoms being required to be present in the first 3 years of life in order to meet criteria for the "core" disorder in the classification systems. As such, the focus on identifying a prodrome over the past 20 years has been on pre-clinical…
Murray, Lynne; And Others
Examined the impact of maternal depression and adversity on mother-infant face-to-face interactions at 2 months, and on subsequent infant cognitive development and attachment. Disturbances in early mother-infant interactions were found to be predictive of poorer infant cognitive outcomes at 18 months. (MDM)
Brummelte, Susanne; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M
Post-partum stress and depression (PPD) have a significant effect on child development and behavior. Depression is associated with hypercortisolism in humans, and the fluctuating levels of hormones, including corticosterone, during pregnancy and the post-partum, may contribute to PPD. The present study was developed to investigate the effects of high-level corticosterone (CORT) post-partum in the mother on postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were treated with either CORT (40 mg/kg) or sesame oil injections daily for 26 days beginning the day after giving birth. Dams were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and in the open field test (OFT) on days 24-26 post-partum. Results showed that the dams exposed to CORT expressed "depressive-like" behavior compared to controls, with decreased struggling behavior and increased immobility in the FST. To investigate the effects of treatment on hippocampal postnatal cell proliferation and survival in the offspring, males and females from treated dams were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg) on postnatal day 21 and perfused either 24 h (cell proliferation) or 21 days (cell survival) later. Furthermore, male and female offspring from each litter were tested in adulthood on various behavioral tests, including the forced swim test, open field test, resistance to capture test and elevated plus maze. Intriguingly, male, but not female, offspring of CORT-treated dams exhibited decreased postnatal cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Both male and female offspring of CORT-treated dams showed higher resistance to capture and greater locomotor activity as assessed in the open field test. As high levels of CORT may be a characteristic of stress and/or depression, these findings support a model of 'CORT-induced' post-partum stress and possibly depression and demonstrate that the offspring of affected dams can exhibit changes in postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in adulthood.
Larsen, Anna; Cheyip, Mireille; Aynalem, Getahun; Dinh, Thu–ha; Jackson, Debra; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Chirinda, Witness; Mogashoa, Mary; Kindra, Gupreet; Lombard, Carl; Goga, Ameena
Background Achieving World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for postnatal care (PNC) within the first few weeks of life is vital to eliminating early mother–to–child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and improving infant health. Almost half of the annual global deaths among children under five occur during the first six weeks of life. This study aims to identify uptake of three PNC visits within the first six weeks of life as recommended by WHO among South African mother–infant pairs, and factors associated with uptake. Methods We analyzed data from three facility–based, nationally representative surveys (2010, 2011/12 and 2012/13) primarily designed to determine the effectiveness of the South African program to prevent MTCT. This analysis describes the proportion of infants achieving the WHO recommendation of at least 3 PNC visits. Interviews from 27 699 HIV–negative and HIV–positive mothers of infants aged 4–8 weeks receiving their six week immunization were included in analysis. Data were analyzed using STATA 13.0 and weighted for sample ascertainment and South African live births. We fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to estimate factors associated with early PNC uptake. Results Over half (59.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 59.0–60.3) of mother–infant pairs received the recommended three PNC visits during the first 6 weeks; uptake was 63.1% (95% CI = 61.9–64.3) amongst HIV exposed infants and 58.1% (95% CI = 57.3–58.9) amongst HIV unexposed infants. Uptake of early PNC improved significantly with each survey, but varied significantly by province. Multivariable analysis of the pooled data, controlling for survey year, demonstrated that number of antenatal visits (4+ vs <4 Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04–1.23), timing of initial antenatal visits (≤12 weeks vs >12 weeks, aOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04–1.23), place of delivery (clinic vs hospital aOR = 1.5, 1.3–1.6), and
Trofimov, A N; Zubareva, O E; Shvarts, A P; Ishchenko, A M; Klimenko, V M
According to the Neurodevelopmental hypothesis, the long-lasting cognitive deficit in schizophrenia and other types of neuropathology may occur by injurious factors, such as hypoxia, traumas, infections that take place during pre- and postnatal development, at least at early stages. These pathological conditions are often associated with the high production of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B (IL-1B) by the cells of immune and nervous systems. We investigated the expression of genes involved in the neuroplastic regulation (Fgf2 and Timp2) in medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral regions of hippocampus of adult rats that were treated with IL-1beta between P15 and P21. The learning impairment in IL-1beta-treated rats is accompanied by lower FGF-2 mRNA levels in medial prefrontal cortex and ventral (not dorsal) hippocampus, but TIMP-1 was not affected. No differences in TIMP-1 and FGF-2 mRNA expressions were observed in untrained IL-1beta-treated when compared to control rats.
Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Mazzariol, Sandro; Zotti, Alessandro
The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago , and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla , , . Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes), such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity  are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus) is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution , this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival. PMID:22615912
Latysheva, N V; Raevskii, K S
Considering data on the possible glutamatergic nature of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we attempted to model cognitive derangements in animals by chronic blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors. Wistar rats received daily s.c. injections of the non-competitive NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) from days 7 to day 49 of postnatal life. One day after the antagonist injections given on days 27 and 28 of life, animals of the experimental group showed decreased levels of spontaneous movement and orientational-investigative activity as compared with controls, where there was no change in the elevated locomotor reaction produced in response to the direct action of MK-801. These animals showed decreases in the level of anxiety (on day 40 of life) and derangement in spatial learning with food reinforcement (days 50-54 of life). It is suggested that early neonatal blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors leads to the development in animals of disturbances to situational perception and assessment of incoming sensory information.
Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo
Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma. PMID:25860995
Schiavone, Stefania; Colaianna, Marilena; Curtis, Logos
Stress is an inevitable part of human life and it is experienced even before birth. Stress to some extent could be considered normal and even necessary for the survival and the regular psychological development during childhood or adolescence. However, exposure to prolonged stress could become harmful and strongly impact mental health increasing the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have attempted to clarify how the human central nervous system (CNS) reacts to early life stress, focusing mainly on neurobiological modifications. Oxidative stress, defined as a disequilibrium between the oxidant generation and the antioxidant response, has been recently described as a candidate for most of the observed modifications. In this review, we will discuss how prolonged stressful events during childhood or adolescence (such as early maternal separation, parental divorce, physical violence, sexual or psychological abuses, or exposure to war events) can lead to increased oxidative stress in the CNS and enhance the risk to develop psychiatric diseases such as anxiety, depression, drug abuse or psychosis. Defining the sources of oxidative stress following exposure to early life stress might open new beneficial insights in therapeutic approaches to these mental disorders.
Fusaro, Ana Elisa; de Brito, Cyro Alves; Taniguchi, Eliana Futata; Muniz, Bruno Pacola; Victor, Jefferson Russo; Orii, Noemia Mie; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi
Allergens can be maternally transferred to the fetus or neonate, though it is uncertain how this initial allergen exposure may impact the development of allergy responses. To evaluate the roles of timing and level of maternal allergen exposure in the early life sensitization of progeny, female BALB/c mice were given ovalbumin (OVA) orally during pregnancy, lactation or weekly at each stage to investigate the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody production and cellular responsiveness of their offspring. Exposure to OVA during pregnancy was also evaluated in OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (DO11.10) mice. The effect of prenatal antigen exposure on offspring sensitization was dependent on antigen intake, with low-dose OVA inducing tolerance followed by neonatal immunization that was sustained even when pups were immunized when 3 weeks old. These offspring received high levels of transforming growth factor-beta via breastfeeding. High-dose exposure during the first week of pregnancy or perinatal period induced transient inhibition of IgE production following neonatal immunization; although for later immunization IgE production was enhanced in these offspring. Postnatal maternal antigen exposure provided OVA transference via breastfeeding, which consequently induced increased offspring susceptibility to IgE antibody production according to week post-birth. The effect of low-dose maternal exposure during pregnancy was further evaluated using OVA transgenic TCR dams as a model. These progeny presented pronounced entry of CD4(+) T cells into the S phase of the cell cycle with a skewed T helper type 2 response early in life, revealing the occurrence of allergen priming in utero. The balance between tolerance and sensitization depended on the amount and timing of maternal allergen intake during pregnancy.
Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario
This article examines the complex role of early stressful experiences in producing both vulnerability and resilience to later stress-related psychopathology in a variety of primate models of human development. Two types of models are reviewed: Parental Separation Models (e.g., isolate-rearing, peer-rearing, parental separations, and stress inoculation) and Maternal Behavior Models (e.g., foraging demands, variation in maternal style, and maternal abuse). Based on empirical evidence, it is argued that early life stress exposure does not increase adult vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as a linear function, as is generally believed, but instead reflects a quadratic function. Features of early stress exposure including the type, duration, frequency, ecological validity, sensory modality, and developmental timing, within and between species, are identified to better understand how early stressful experiences alter neurobiological systems to produce such diverse developmental outcomes. This article concludes by identifying gaps in our current knowledge, providing directions for future research, and discussing the translational implications of these primate models for human development and psychopathology. PMID:20851145
Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P
Stress exposure is highly prevalent in the general population; however, the experience of stress during vulnerable periods of development has substantial and permanent effects on brain structure and function and physical health in adulthood. Stress, the state of threatened homeostasis, is generally associated with a time-limited activation of the stress system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous system, tailored to the stressful stimulus also known as the stressor. On the other hand, chronic stress may be associated with lingering hyper- or hyposecretion of mediators of the stress system. This chronic condition is called dyshomeostasis, allostasis, or cacostasis and is associated with increased mental and physical morbidity in the long term. Stressful or traumatic experiences during fetal life, early childhood, and adolescence have been related to persistent neuroendocrine and epigenetic changes. Further, brain structures involved in the stress response, such as those of the stress system, the hippocampus, and the amygdala, may be programmed early on for a life of adversity. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A.; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E. H.; Hård, Anna-Lena
The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities. PMID:27603537
Avdalovic, Mark V; Tyler, Nancy K; Putney, Lei; Nishio, Susie J; Quesenberry, Sherri; Singh, Parmjit J; Miller, Lisa A; Schelegle, Edward S; Plopper, Charles G; Vu, Thiennu; Hyde, Dallas M
Exposure to oxidant air pollutants in early childhood, with ozone as the key oxidant, has been linked to significant decrements in pulmonary function in young adults and exacerbation of airway remodeling in asthma. Development of lung parenchyma in rhesus monkeys is rapid during the first 2 years of life (comparable to the first 6 years in humans). Our hypothesis is that ozone inhalation during infancy alters alveolar morphogenesis. We exposed infant rhesus monkeys biweekly to 5, 8 hr/day, cycles of 0.5 ppm ozone with or without house dust mite allergen from 1 to 3 or 1 to 6 months of age. Monkeys were necropsied at 3 and 6 months of age. A morphometric approach was used to quantify changes in alveolar volume and number, the distribution of alveolar size, and capillary surface density per alveolar septa. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the relative difference in gene expression over time. Monkeys exposed to ozone alone or ozone combined with allergen had statistically larger alveoli that were less in number at 3 months of age. Alveolar capillary surface density was also decreased in the ozone exposed groups at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, the alveolar number was similar between treatment groups and was associated with a significant rise in alveolar number from 3 to 6 months of age in the ozone exposed groups. This increase in alveolar number was not associated with any significant increase in microvascular growth as measured by morphometry or changes in angiogenic gene expression. Inhalation of ozone during infancy alters the appearance and timing of alveolar growth and maturation. Understanding the mechanism involved with this altered alveolar growth may provide insight into the parenchymal injury and repair process that is involved with chronic lung diseases such as severe asthma and COPD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alkozei, Anna; McMahon, Erin; Lahav, Amir
This study examined whether particular maternal and infant factors can identify mothers at risk for increased stress upon admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eighty-five mothers of preterm infants (25-34 weeks gestation) were assessed using the Parental Stressor Scale (PSS:NICU) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) within 3.24 ± 1.58 d postpartum. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which maternal stress is influenced by individual factors. Fifty-two percent of mothers experienced increased stress (PSS:NICU score ≥3) and 38% had significant depressive symptoms (EPDS score ≥10). Stress related to alterations in parental role was the most significant source of stress among NICU mothers. Distance from the hospital and married marital status were significant predictors for stress related to alterations in parental role (p = 0.003) and NICU sights and sounds (p = 0.01), respectively. Higher stress levels were associated with higher depressive scores (p = 0.001). Maternal mental health factors, demographic factors, pregnancy factors and infant characteristics were not associated with increased stress. Elevated stress levels and depressive symptoms are already present in mothers of preterm infants upon NICU admission. Being married or living long distance from the hospital is associated with higher stress. Future work is needed to develop effective interventions for alleviating stress in NICU mothers and preventing its potential development into postnatal depression.
Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M
It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.
Dreiling, Michelle; Schiffner, Rene; Bischoff, Sabine; Rupprecht, Sven; Kroegel, Nasim; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development. Six pregnant ewes underwent repeated isolation stress (CMS) between 30 and 100 days of gestation (dGA, term: 150 dGA) and seven pregnant ewes served as controls. At 110 dGA, ewes were chronically instrumented and underwent acute isolation stress. The acute stress decreased UBF by 19% in both the CMS and control groups (p < .05), but this was prolonged in CMS versus control ewes (74 vs. 30 min, p < .05). CMS increased fetal circulating baseline and stress-induced cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations indicating a hyperactive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Increased fetal norepinephrine is endogenous as maternal catecholamines do not cross the placenta. Cortisol in the control but not in the CMS fetuses was correlated with maternal cortisol blood concentrations; these findings indicate: (1) no increased maternal-fetal cortisol transfer with CMS, (2) cortisol production in CMS fetuses when the HPA-axis is normally inactive, due to early maturation of the fetal HPA-axis. CMS fetuses were better oxygenated, without shift towards acidosis compared to the controls, potentially reflecting adaptation to repeated stress. Hence, CMS enhances maternal-fetal stress transfer by prolonged reduction in UBF and increased fetal HPA responsiveness.
LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.
Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803
Moya-Pérez, A; Perez-Villalba, A; Benítez-Páez, A; Campillo, I; Sanz, Y
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B. pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 until postnatal period (P) 21 and followed-up until P41. Behavioral tests were performed and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed including corticosterone, cytokine/chemokine concentrations and neurotransmitters. Microbiota was also analyzed in stools by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 administration attenuated some aspects of the excessive MS-induced stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, particularly corticosterone production at baseline and in response to subsequent acute stress in adulthood. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 also down-regulated MS-induced intestinal inflammation (reducing interferon gamma [IFN-γ]) and intestinal hypercatecholaminergic activity (reducing dopamine [DA] and adrenaline [A] concentrations) at P21. These effects have a long-term impact on the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mice since MS mice fed B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 showed lower anxiety levels than placebo-fed MS mice, as well as normal neurotransmitter levels in the hypothalamus. The anti-inflammatory effect of B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 seemed to be related to an improvement in glucocorticoid sensitivity in mesenteric lymph node immunocompetent cells at P21. The administration of B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 to MS animals also reversed intestinal dysbiosis affecting the proportions of ten Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at P21, which
Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M
Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.
Importance of early postnatal weight gain for normal retinal angiogenesis in very preterm infants: a multicenter study analyzing weight velocity deviations for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity.
Wu, Carolyn; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; VanderVeen, Deborah K; Hellström, Ann
To assess WINROP (https://winrop.com), an algorithm using postnatal weight measurements, as a tool for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a large geographically and racially diverse study population. WINROP analysis was performed retrospectively on conventionally at-risk infants from 10 neonatal intensive careunits.Weight measurements were entered into WINROP, which signals an alarm for an abnormal weight gain rate. Infants were classified into categories of no alarm (unlikely to develop type 1ROP)and alarm (at risk for developing type 1ROP).Use of WINROP requires that an infant has (1) gestational age less than 32 weeks at birth, (2) weekly weight measurements,(3) physiologic weight gain,and(4)absence of other pathologic retinal vascular disease. A total of 1706 infants with a median gestational age of 28 weeks (range, 22-31 weeks) and median birth weight of 1016 g (range, 378-2240 g) were included in the study analysis. An alarm occurred in 1101 infants (64.5%), with a median time from birth to alarm of 3 weeks (range, 0-12 weeks) and from alarm to treatment of 8 weeks (range, 1 day to 22 weeks). The sensitivity of WINROP was 98.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.7%. Two infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment after 40 weeks' postmenstrual age did not receive an alarm. The WINROP system is a useful adjunct for ROP screening that identifies high-risk infants early to optimize care and potentially reduce the overall number of diagnostic ROP examinations.
Unger, Erica L.; Hurst, Amy R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Schallert, Tim; Rao, Raghavendra; Connor, James R.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy; Felt, Barbara
Developmental iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causes brain and behavioral deficits in rodent models, which cannot be reversed when treated at periods equivalent to later infancy in humans. This study sought to determine whether earlier iron treatment can normalize deficits of IDA in rats and what iron dose is optimal. The offspring of dams with IDA during gestation were cross-fostered at postnatal d (P) 8 to dams receiving diets with 1 of 3 iron concentrations until weaning (P21): 0.003–0.01 g/kg [totally iron deficient (TID)]; 0.04 g/kg [formerly iron deficient (FID-40)]; or 0.4 g/kg (FID-400). Always iron-sufficient control dams (CN-40) received a 0.04-g/kg iron diet. At P21, TID pups received a 0.01 g iron/kg diet; all others received a 0.04 g iron/kg diet. Hematocrit and brain iron and monoamine concentrations were assessed at P21 and P100. Pup growth, development, activity, object recognition, hesitancy, and watermaze performance were evaluated. Regional brain iron was restored by iron treatment. Regional monoamine and metabolite concentrations were elevated in FID-40 rats and reduced in FID-400 and TID rats compared with CN-40 rats. FID-40 offspring had motor delays similar to TID during lactation and FID-400 rats had elevated thigmotaxis similar to TID rats at P25 and P100 in the spatial watermaze. In conclusion, iron treatment at P8 in rats did not normalize all monoamine or behavioral measures after early IDA. Moderate iron treatment improved adult behavior, but higher iron treatment caused brain and behavioral patterns similar to TID in the short and long term. PMID:22990465
El-Hachem, Charline; Rohayem, Jihane; Bou Khalil, Rami; Richa, Sami; Kesrouani, Assaad; Gemayel, Rima; Aouad, Norma; Hatab, Najat; Zaccak, Eliane; Yaghi, Nancy; Salameh, Salimé; Attieh, Elie
During the postpartum period, women are vulnerable to depression affecting about 10 to 20% of mothers during the first year after delivery. However, only 50% of women with prominent symptoms are diagnosed with postpartum depression (PPD). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used screening instrument for PPD . The main objectives of this study are to assess whether an EPDS score of 9 or more on day 2 (D2) postpartum is predictive of a depressive episode between days 30 and 40 postpartum (D30-40), to determine the risk factors as well as the prevalence of PPD in a sample of Lebanese women and to determine a threshold score of EPDS predictive of PPD. A sample of 228 women were administered the EPDS on D2. An assessment for PPD was done on D30-40 during a telephone interview. On D2, the average score on EPDS was 7.1 (SD = 5.2) and 33.3% of women had an EPDS score ≥ 9. On D30-40 postpartum, the average score was 6.5 (SD = 4.7) and 19 women (12.8%) presented with PPD. A positive correlation was shown between scores on EPDS on D2 and D30-40 (r = 0.5091, p < 0.0001). A stepwise regression shows that an EPDS score ≥9 on D2 (p < 0.001) and a personal history of depression (p = 0.008) are significantly associated with the diagnosis of PPD on D30-40. The EPDS may be considered as a reliable screening tool on as early as D2 after delivery. Women with EPDS score ≥ 9 and/or a positive personal history of major depressive disorder should benefit from a closer follow-up during the rest of the post-partum period.
Early postnatal development of electrophysiological and histological properties of sensory sural nerves in male rats that were maternally deprived and artificially reared: Role of tactile stimulation.
Zempoalteca, Rene; Porras, Mercedes G; Moreno-Pérez, Suelem; Ramirez-Funez, Gabriela; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; González Del Pliego, Margarita; Mariscal-Tovar, Silvia; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria E; Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Melo, Angel I
Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group). At PND 7, 14, or 21, electrophysiological properties and histological characteristics of the SU nerves were assessed. At PND 7, the electrophysiological properties and most histological parameters of the SU nerve did not differ among MR, AR, and AR-Tactile groups. By contrast, at PND 14 and/or 21, the SU nerve of AR rats showed a lower CAP amplitude and area, and a significant reduction in myelin area and myelin thickness, which were accompanied by a reduction in axon area (day 21 only) compared to the nerves of MR rats. Tactile stimulation (AR-Tactile group) partially prevented most of these alterations. These results suggest that sensory cues from the mother and/or littermates during the first 7-14 PND are relevant for the proper development and function of the adult SU nerve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 351-362, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zheng, Xiaomin; Liang, Liang; Hei, Changchun; Yang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Tingyuan; Wu, Kai; Qin, Yi; Chang, Qing
Chloroform-induced olfactory mucosal degeneration has been reported in adult rats following gavage. We used fixed-point chloroform infusions on different postnatal days (PNDs) to investigate the effects of early olfactory bilateral deprivation on the main olfactory bulbs in Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups included rats infused with chloroform (5 μl) or saline (sham, 5 μl) on PNDs 3 and 8, and rats not receiving infusions (control) (n = 6 in all groups). Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 showed significant hypoevolutism when compared to those in other groups (P < 0.05). There was a complete disappearance and a significant reduction in the size of olfactory glomeruli in the PND 3 and 8 groups, respectively, when compared to the respective sham groups. Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 had significant memory impairment (P < 0.01) and increased levels of learned helplessness (P < 0.05), as measured using the Morris water maze and tail suspension tests, respectively. GABA A receptor alpha5 subunit (α5GABA A R) expression in hippocampal neurons was significantly lower in rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 than in rats in other groups (P < 0.01), as measured using immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. There was thus a critical period for the preservation of regenerative ability in olfactory receptor neurons, during which damage and olfactory deprivation led to altered rhinencephalon structure and disappearance of olfactory glomeruli, which induced hypoevolutism. Olfactory deprivation after the critical period had no significant effect on olfactory receptor neuron regeneration, leading to reduced developmental and behavioral effects in Sprague Dawley rats.
Bellés, María; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Llorens, José Vicente; Bueno-Fernández, Clara; Ripoll-Martínez, Beatriz; Curto, Yasmina; Sebastiá-Ortega, Noelia; Sanjuan, Julio
Abstract The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions. Transgenic mice displaying fluorescent excitatory and inhibitory neurons, received a single injection of MK801 (NMDAR antagonist) or vehicle solution at postnatal day 7 and/or were socially isolated from the age of weaning until adulthood (3 months old). We found that anxiety-related behavior, brain volume, neuronal structure, and the expression of molecules related to plasticity and E/I neurotransmission in adult mice were importantly affected by early-life stress. Interestingly, many of these effects were potentiated when the stress paradigm was applied to mice perinatally injected with MK801 ("double-hit" model). These results clearly show the impact of early-life stress on the adult brain, especially on the structure and plasticity of inhibitory networks, and highlight the double-hit model as a valuable tool to study the contribution of early-life stress in the emergence of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:28466069
Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Pérez-Rando, Marta; Bellés, María; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Llorens, José Vicente; Carceller, Héctor; Bueno-Fernández, Clara; García-Mompó, Clara; Ripoll-Martínez, Beatriz; Curto, Yasmina; Sebastiá-Ortega, Noelia; Moltó, María Dolores; Sanjuan, Julio; Nacher, Juan
The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions. Transgenic mice displaying fluorescent excitatory and inhibitory neurons, received a single injection of MK801 (NMDAR antagonist) or vehicle solution at postnatal day 7 and/or were socially isolated from the age of weaning until adulthood (3 months old). We found that anxiety-related behavior, brain volume, neuronal structure, and the expression of molecules related to plasticity and E/I neurotransmission in adult mice were importantly affected by early-life stress. Interestingly, many of these effects were potentiated when the stress paradigm was applied to mice perinatally injected with MK801 ("double-hit" model). These results clearly show the impact of early-life stress on the adult brain, especially on the structure and plasticity of inhibitory networks, and highlight the double-hit model as a valuable tool to study the contribution of early-life stress in the emergence of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Skibiel, Amy L; Fabris, Thiago F; Corrá, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, James D; Kirk, David J; Dahl, Geoffrey E; Laporta, Jimena
Heat stress during late gestation negatively affects the physiology, health, and productivity of dairy cows as well as the calves developing in utero. Providing cows with active cooling devices, such as fans and soakers, and supplementing cows with an immunomodulating feed additive, OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corporation), improves immune function and milk yield of cows. It is unknown if maternal supplementation of OG combined with active cooling during late gestation might benefit the developing calf as well. Herein we evaluated markers of innate immune function, including immune cell counts, acute phase proteins, and neutrophil function, of calves born to multiparous dams in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Dams were supplemented with OG or a bentonite control (NO) beginning at 60 d before dry off and exposed to heat stress with cooling (CL) or without active cooling (HT) during the dry period (∼46 d). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and fed 6.6 L of their dams' colostrum in 2 meals. Calf body weight and rectal temperature were recorded, and blood samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding) and at 10, 28, and 49 d of age. Calves born to either CL dams or OG dams were heavier at birth than calves born to HT or NO dams, respectively. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were higher in the blood of calves born to OG dams relative to NO and for HT calves relative to CL calves. In addition, calves born to cooled OG dams had greater concentrations of plasma haptoglobin than calves born to cooled control dams. Neutrophil function at 10 d of age was enhanced in calves born to cooled OG dams and lymphocyte counts were higher in calves born to OG dams. Together these results suggest that adding OG to maternal feed in combination with active cooling of cows during late gestation is effective in mitigating the negative effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal calf growth and immune competence. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science
Abstract Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain and function in multiple ways to facilitate proper brain development. However, our current understanding of how these cells influence the later expression of normal behaviors is lacking. Using the laboratory rat, we administered liposomal clodronate centrally to selectively deplete microglia in the developing postnatal brain. We then assessed a range of developmental, juvenile, and adult behaviors. Liposomal clodronate treatment on postnatal days 0, 2, and 4 depleted microglia with recovery by about 10 days of age and induced a hyperlocomotive phenotype, observable in the second postnatal week. Temporary microglia depletion also increased juvenile locomotion in the open field test and decreased anxiety-like behaviors in the open field and elevated plus maze. These same rats displayed reductions in predator odor–induced avoidance behavior, but increased their risk assessment behaviors compared with vehicle-treated controls. In adulthood, postnatal microglia depletion resulted in significant deficits in male-specific sex behaviors. Using factor analysis, we identified two underlying traits—behavioral disinhibition and locomotion—as being significantly altered by postnatal microglia depletion. These findings further implicate microglia as being critically important to the development of juvenile and adult behavior. PMID:27957532
Marco, Eva M; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Giné, Elena; Peñasco, Sara; Viveros, Maria Paz
The endocannabinoid system is involved in several physiological and pathological states including anxiety, depression, addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence from human and rodent studies suggests that exposure to early life stress may increase the risk of psychopathology later in life. Indeed, maternal deprivation (MD) (24 h at postnatal day 9) in rats induces behavioural alterations associated with depressive-like and psychotic-like symptoms, as well as important changes in the endocannabinoid system. As most neuropsychiatric disorders first appear at adolescence, and show remarkable sexual dimorphisms in their prevalence and severity, in the present study, we analysed the gene expression of the main components of the brain cannabinoid system in adolescent (postnatal day 46) Wistar male and female rats reared under standard conditions or exposed to MD. For this, we analysed, by real-time quantitative PCR, the expression of genes encoding for CB1 and CB2 receptors, TRPV1 and GPR55 (Cnr1, Cnr2a, Cnr2b, Trpv1, and Gpr55), for the major enzymes of synthesis, N-acyl phosphatidyl-ethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) (Nape-pld, Dagla and Daglb), and degradation, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) (Faah, Magl and Cox-2), in specific brain regions, that is, the frontal cortex, ventral and dorsal striatum, dorsal hippocampus and amygdala. In males, MD increased the genetic expression of all the genes studied within the frontal cortex, whereas in females such an increase was observed only in the hippocampus. In conclusion, the endocannabinoid system is sensitive to early life stress at the gene expression level in a sex-dependent and region-dependent manner, and these changes are already evident in the adolescent brain.
Shorey, Shefaly; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bridge, Shiho; Chong, Yap Seng; Holroyd, Eleanor; He, Hong-Gu
To explore first-time fathers' postnatal experiences and support needs in the early postpartum period. The postnatal period is a stressful transition period for new fathers. It is imperative to understand their needs and experiences to provide appropriate support for them. The majority of previous studies were based in Western countries and explored fathers' needs during pregnancy and childbirth, with few studies conducted in the postnatal period. In Singapore, a multiracial society with differing paternal cultural values from its Western counterparts, there is considerable need to examine the experiences and needs of first-time fathers. A descriptive qualitative design was used. Data were collected from November 2015-January 2016. Fifteen first-time fathers were recruited from two postnatal wards of a public hospital, using a purposive sampling method. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct face-to-face interviews. A thematic analysis was conducted and ethics approval was sought for this study. Four overarching themes and seventeen subthemes were generated. The four overarching themes were: (1) No sense of reality to sense of responsibility; (2) Unprepared and challenged; (3) Support: needs, sources, experience and attitude; and (4) Future help for fathers. Fathers undergo a transition phase where they have unmet support needs during the early postnatal period. Understanding and addressing these needs may facilitate smooth transition to fatherhood. This study's findings can be used to involve fathers and design future supportive educational programs to promote positive parenting experiences and family dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Stigter, Laura; Jankowski, Jeffrey; Butscher, Maria; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Skarupa, Anita; Sowa, Agata
In the last decade, the neurologic effects of various air pollutants have been the focus of increasing attention. The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of early childhood exposure to indoor molds on the subsequent cognitive function of 6-year old children. The results of this study are based on the six-year follow-up of 277 babies born at term to mothers participating in a prospective cohort study in Krakow, Poland. The study participants are all non-smoking pregnant women who were free of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The presence of visible mold patches on indoor walls was monitored at regular time intervals over gestation and after birth up to the age of five. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was administered to children at age 6. The exposure effect of living in mold-contaminated homes on the IQ scores of children was adjusted for major confounders, known to be important for the cognitive development of children such as maternal education, the child’s gender, breastfeeding practices in infancy, the presence of older siblings and the prenatal exposure to lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The adjusted IQ deficit attributed to longer exposures to indoor molds (> 2 years) was significantly lower on the IQ scale (beta coeff. = −9.16, 95%CI: −15.21, −3.10) and tripled the risk of low IQ scoring (OR= 3.53; 95%CI: 1.11 – 11.27) compared with references. While maternal education (beta coeff. = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.05, 1.17) and breastfeeding (beta coeff. = 4.0; 95%CI: 0.84, 7.17) showed a significant positive impact on cognitive function, prenatal ETS exposure (beta coeff. = −0.41; 95%CI: −0.79, −0.03) and the presence of older siblings (beta coefficient= −3.43; 95%CI: −5.67, −1.20) were associated with poorer cognitive function in children. In conclusion, the results of this study draw attention to the harmful effect of early postnatal exposure to indoor molds on children
Ackerman, Ilana N; Jordan, Joanne E; Van Doornum, Sharon; Ricardo, Margaret; Briggs, Andrew M
Although women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) face a number of challenges in negotiating the journey to parenthood, no studies have explored the information needs of women with RA in relation to their childbearing years. This study aimed to determine the need for (and preferred mode/s of delivery of) information regarding pregnancy, post-natal care and early parenting among women with RA. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 27 women with RA who were pregnant in the last 5 years, currently pregnant or planning pregnancy. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Two validated instruments were used to quantify information needs and preferences: the Educational Needs Assessment Tool (ENAT, range 0-156, higher scores indicate higher educational needs) and the Autonomy Preference Index (API, range 0-100, higher scores indicate stronger preferences). Lack of information about medication safety, access to physical/emotional support services and practical strategies for coping with daily challenges related to parenting were the most prominent of the six key themes identified. Rheumatologists were the primary source for information regarding treatment decisions while arthritis consumer organisations were perceived as critical 'resource hubs'. There was strong preference for information delivered electronically, especially among rural participants. Quantitative outcomes supported the qualitative findings; on average, participants reported high educational needs (mean ENAT score 97.2, SD 30.8) and API scores indicated that desire for information (mean 89.8, SD 5.6) was greater than the need for involvement in treatment decision-making (mean 68.4, SD 8.2). Many women with RA struggle to find adequate information on pregnancy planning, pregnancy and early parenting in relation to their chronic condition, and there is a clear need to develop accessible information that is consumer-focused and evidence-based. Although most
Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone
Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.
Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru
Some physiological functions display weak responses to stress in the early neonatal period; i.e., they exhibit stress hyporesponse periods. In this study, we evaluated whether gonadotropin regulatory factors exhibit stress hyporesponsive periods in male and female rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (100μg/kg) (LPS group) or saline (control group) on postnatal day (PND) 5, 10, 15, or 25. Then, their serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hypothalamic mRNA levels of gonadotropin regulatory factors; i.e., kisspeptin (Kiss1), the kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), were measured at 2h after the injection. The hypothalamic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured because they suppress gonadotropin secretion. The serum LH concentration of the LPS group was lower than that of the control group at PND25 in both sexes, but no such difference was seen at PND5, 10, or 15 in either sex. In both sexes, the hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression levels of the LPS group were higher than those of the control group at PND25, but not at PND5 or 10. The hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA expression level of the LPS group was higher than that of the control group at all time points. The hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r, and GnRH mRNA expression levels of the LPS and control groups did not differ at any time point in either sex. These findings suggest that gonadotropin regulatory factors exhibit stress hyporesponse periods. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) might become responsive to immune stress between PND15 and 25, which could be related to enhanced hypothalamic cytokine expression. The avoidance of infectious stress during the early neonatal period might be important for normal development of the HPG axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chu, Ching Yan; Chu, Kai On; Ho, Chung Shun; Kwok, Sung Shing; Chan, Ho Ming; Fung, Kwok Pui; Wang, Chi Chiu
Melamine can be transferred to fetus in utero through placenta and to infant ex utero by breast feeding. In this study, we characterized the pharmacokinetics of melamine in prenatal and postnatal organs in rats. Single bolus of melamine was administered to pregnant rats at different gestational stages and to infants at different postnatal stages. Distribution of melamine in maternal serum was about 30% higher in late pregnancy than that in early pregnancy; and it was 2 folds higher in postnatal serum in early infants in young adulthood. Distribution of melamine in all postnatal organs was higher than that in prenatal organs. Postnatal kidneys in early infants had the highest maximum concentration and the lowest clearance of melamine than the other postnatal organs. It may relate to the high vulnerability to the toxicity of melamine in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Shaowei; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J; Wilson, Ander; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Braun, Joseph M; Svensson, Katherine; Zhong, Jia; Brennan, Kasey J M; Dereix, Alexandra; Cantoral, Alejandra; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A
Maternal stress during pregnancy may influence childhood growth and adiposity, possibly through immune/inflammatory programming. We investigated whether exposure to prenatal stress and methylation in inflammation-related genes were associated with childhood adiposity in 424 mother-child pairs in Mexico City, Mexico. A stress index was created based on four prenatally administered stress-related scales (Exposure to Violence, Crisis in Family Systems, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). We measured weight, height, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and waist circumference in early childhood (age range, 4-6 years). Body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. DNA methylation in gene promoters of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 6 (IL6) in umbilical cord blood were determined by pyrosequencing. An interquartile range increase in stress index (27.3) was associated with decreases of 0.14 unit in BMI z score (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to -0.005), 5.6% in BFM (95% CI = -9.7 to -1.4), 3.5% in PBF (95% CI = -6.3 to -0.5), and 1.2% in waist circumference (95% CI = -2.4 to -0.04) in multivariable-adjusted models. An interquartile range increase in IL6 methylation (3.9%) was associated with increases of 0.23 unit in BMI z score (95% CI = 0.06-0.40), 8.1% (95% CI = 2.3-14.3) in BFM, 5.5% (95% CI = 1.7-9.5) in PBF, and 1.7% (95% CI = 0.2-3.3) in waist circumference. Prenatal stress was associated with decreased childhood adiposity, whereas cord blood IL6 methylation was associated with increased childhood adiposity in Mexican children.
al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon
We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.
Birmes, P; Carreras, D; Ducassé, J L; Charlet, J P; Warner, B A; Lauque, D; Schmitt, L
To compare the relation between peritraumatic dissociation and acute stress and the early development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in victims of general crime. A total of 48 subjects were assessed within 24 hours of the trauma, using the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire Self-Report Version (PDEQ-SRV). They were followed longitudinally to assess acute stress (2 weeks after the assault,) using the Standford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ), and posttraumatic stress (at 5 weeks), using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Among PTSD subjects mean PDEQ scores were significantly higher (mean 3, SD 0.9) than in those without PTSD (mean 2.3, SD 0.7) (t = 2.78, df 46, P = 0.007). Among PTSD subjects, mean SASRQ scores were significantly higher (mean 97.9, SD 29.2) than in those without PTSD (mean 54.8, SD 28.2) (t = 4.9, df 46, P = 0.00007). High levels of peritraumatic dissociation and acute stress following violent assault are risk factors for early PTSD. Identifying acute reexperiencing can help the clinician identify subjects at highest risk.
Ndondoki, Camille; Brou, Hermann; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Oga, Maxime; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Menan, Hervé; Ekouévi, Didier; Leroy, Valériane
Background Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC) is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID). We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6–26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected. Findings We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58%) accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI): [14%–16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61%) accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%–5.4%]). Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52%) had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%–21.7%]). Only 46 fathers (2%) came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3–10.6], p = 0.0001). Conclusions Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries
Noguera, José Carlos; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Kim, Sin-Yeon; Morales, Judith; Velando, Alberto
Conditions experienced during early life can influence the development of an organism and several physiological traits, even in adulthood. An important factor is the level of oxidative stress experienced during early life. In birds, extra-genomic egg substances, such as the testosterone hormone, may exert a widespread influence over the offspring phenotype. Interestingly, testosterone can also upregulate the bioavailability of certain antioxidants but simultaneously increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress in adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of maternally derived yolk testosterone on oxidative stress in developing birds. Here, we investigated the role of yolk testosterone on oxidative stress of yellow-legged gull chicks during their early development by experimentally increasing yolk testosterone levels. Levels of antioxidants, reactive oxygen species and lipid oxidative damage were determined in plasma during nestlings' growth. Our results revealed that, contrary to control chicks, birds hatched from testosterone-treated eggs did not show an increase in the levels of oxidative damage during postnatal development. Moreover, the same birds showed a transient increase in plasma antioxidant levels. Our results suggest that yolk testosterone may shape the oxidative stress-resistance phenotype of the chicks during early development owing to an increase in antioxidant defences and repair processes. PMID:20659922
Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Morris, Margaret J
Early-life stress affects metabolic outcomes and choice of diet influences the development of metabolic disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic sugar intake exacerbates metabolic deficits induced by early-life stress. Early-life stress was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using limited nesting material in early lactation (LN, postnatal days 2-9), and siblings were given chow alone or with additional sucrose post weaning (n = 9-17 per group). Female control and LN siblings had unlimited access to either chow plus water, or chow and water plus 25% sucrose solution (Sucrose), from 3-15 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and food intake were measured. Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested at 13 and 14 weeks of age, respectively. Rats were killed at 15 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride and markers of lipid synthesis - fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and oxidation - and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc-1α) were examined. Mediators of hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism, specifically 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11βHSD-1), 5-α reductase, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNAs were also measured. Sucrose increased caloric intake in both groups, but overall energy intake was not altered by LN exposure. LN exposure had no further impact on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance and increased plasma and liver triglycerides. Hepatic markers of fat synthesis and oxidation were concomitantly activated and 11βHSD-1 mRNA expression was increased by 53% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Adiposity was increased by 26% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Thus, LN exposure had minimal adverse metabolic effects despite high-sugar diet postweaning.
de Barros Mendes Lopes, Thais; Groth, Espen E; Veras, Mariana; Furuya, Tatiane K; de Souza Xavier Costa, Natalia; Ribeiro Júnior, Gabriel; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi; de Almeida, Francine M; Cardoso, Wellington V; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Chammas, Roger; Mauad, Thais
Gestational exposure to air pollution is associated with negative outcomes in newborns and children. In a previous study, we demonstrated a synergistic negative effect of pre- and postnatal exposure to PM 2.5 on lung development in mice. However, the means by which air pollution affects development of the lung have not yet been identified. In this study, we exposed pregnant BALB/c mice and their offspring to concentrated urban PM 2.5 (from São Paulo, Brazil; target dose 600 μg/m 3 for 1 h daily). Exposure was started on embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5, time of placental implantation). Lung tissue of fetuses and offspring was submitted to stereological and transcriptomic analyses at E14.5 (pseudoglandular stage of lung development), E18.5 (saccular stage) and P40 (postnatal day 40, alveolarized lung). Additionally, lung function and cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in offspring animals at P40. Compared to control animals that were exposed to filtered air throughout gestation and postnatal life, PM-exposed mice exhibited higher lung elastance and a lower alveolar number at P40 whilst the total lung volume and cellularity of BAL fluid were not affected. Glandular and saccular structures of fetal lungs were not altered upon gestational exposure; transcriptomic signatures, however, showed changes related to DNA damage and its regulation, inflammation and regulation of cell proliferation. A differential expression was validated at E14.5 for the candidates Sox8, Angptl4 and Gas1. Our data substantiate the in utero biomolecular effect of gestational exposure to air pollution and provide first-time stereological evidence that pre- and early life-postnatal exposure compromise lung development, leading to a reduced number of alveoli and an impairment of lung function in the adult mouse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Nithy, Thamizh K; Arosh, Joe A; Hoyer, Patricia B; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K
Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1
Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Nithy, Thamizh K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.
Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1
Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Anna H.; Ghoreishi, Seyed M.; Takhtsabzy, Tasnim K.; Friedrichsen, Martin; Hellgren, Lars I.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Vaag, Allan; Nielsen, Mette O.
We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF)) and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC)) of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of their energy and protein requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty), twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) or a moderate-conventional (CONV) diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults). The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α (PGC1α) mRNA in BF, but increased PGC1α expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins) related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes, these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1½ years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced whole
Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan
Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zito, J Bayley; Hanna, Angy; Kadoo, Nora; Tomaszycki, Michelle L
Early life stress has enduring effects on behavior and physiology. However, the effects on hormones and stress physiology remain poorly understood. In the present study, parents of zebra finches of both sexes were exposed to an increased foraging paradigm from 3 to 33days post hatching. Plasma and brains were collected from chicks at 3 developmental time points: post hatching days 25, 60 and adulthood. Plasma was assayed for testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and corticosterone (CORT). The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was assessed for corticotrophin releasing factor (CRH) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. As expected, body mass was lower in nutritionally stressed animals compared to controls at multiple ages. Nutritionally stressed animals overall had higher levels of CORT than did control and this was particularly apparent in females at post hatching day 25. Nutritionally stressed animals also had a higher number of cells expressing CRH and GR in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than did controls. There was an interaction, such that both measures were higher in control animals at PHD 25, but higher in NS animals by adulthood. Females, regardless of treatment, had higher circulating CORT and a higher number of cells expressing CRH than did males. Nutritionally stressed animals also had higher levels of T than did control animals, and this difference was greatest for males at post hatching day 60. There were no effects of nutritional stress on E2. These findings suggest that nutritional stress during development has long-lasting effects on testosterone and stress physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cirulli, Francesca; Berry, Alessandra; Bonsignore, Luca Tommaso; Capone, Francesca; D'Andrea, Ivana; Aloe, Luigi; Branchi, Igor; Alleva, Enrico
During the early post-natal phases the brain is experience-seeking and provided by a considerable plasticity which allows a fine tuning between the external environment and the developing organism. Since the early work of Seymour Levine, an impressive amount of research has clearly shown that stressful experiences exert powerful effects on the brain and body development. These effects can last throughout the entire life span influencing brain function and increasing the risk for depression and anxiety disorders. The mechanisms underlying the effects of early stress on the developing organism have been widely studied in rodents through experimental manipulations of the post-natal environment, such as handling, which have been shown to exert important effects on the emotional phenotype and the response to stress. In the present paper we review the relevant literature and present some original data indicating that, compared to handling, which imposes an external manipulation on the mother-infant relationship, social enrichment, in the form of communal rearing, in mice has very profound effects on animal's emotionality and the response to stress. These effects are also accompanied by important changes in central levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The present data indicate that communal rearing has more pervasive effects than handling, strengthening previous data suggesting that it is a good animal model of reduced susceptibility to depression-like behavior. Overall, the availability of ever more sophisticated animal models represents a fundamental tool to translate basic research data into appropriate interventions for humans raised under traumatic or impoverished situations. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dallé, Ernest; Mabandla, Musa V
This review aims to shed light on the relationship that involves exposure to early life stress, depression and Parkinson's disease (PD). A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed, MEDLINE, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar and relevant data were submitted to a meta-analysis . Early life stress may contribute to the development of depression and patients with depression are at risk of developing PD later in life. Depression is a common non-motor symptom preceding motor symptoms in PD. Stimulation of regions contiguous to the substantia nigra as well as dopamine (DA) agonists have been shown to be able to attenuate depression. Therefore, since PD causes depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, depression, rather than being just a simple mood disorder, may be part of the pathophysiological process that leads to PD. It is plausible that the mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways that mediate mood, emotion, and/or cognitive function may also play a key role in depression associated with PD. Here, we propose that a medication designed to address a deficiency in serotonin is more likely to influence motor symptoms of PD associated with depression. This review highlights the effects of an antidepressant, Fluvoxamine maleate, in an animal model that combines depressive-like symptoms and Parkinsonism.
Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H
Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.
Réus, Gislaine Z; Fernandes, Gabrielly C; de Moura, Airam B; Silva, Ritele H; Darabas, Ana Caroline; de Souza, Thays G; Abelaira, Helena M; Carneiro, Celso; Wendhausen, Diogo; Michels, Monique; Pescador, Bruna; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Macêdo, Danielle S; Quevedo, João
This study used an animal model of depression induced by maternal care deprivation (MCD) to investigate whether depressive behaviour, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were underlying factors in developmental programming after early life stress. At postnatal days (PND) 20, 30, 40, and 60, individual subsets of animals were evaluated in behavioural tests and then euthanized to assess cytokine levels and oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and serum. The results showed that MCD did not induce behavioural changes at PND 30 and 40. However, at PND 20 and 60, the rats displayed a depressive-like behaviour in the forced swimming test, without changes in locomotor spontaneous activity. In the brain and serum, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) were increased, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10) level was reduced throughout developmental programming (PND 20, 30, 40 and 60). Protein carbonyl levels increased in the brain at PND 30, 40 and 60. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased during all developmental programming phases evaluated in the brain. Catalase (CAT) activity was decreased at PND 20, 40 and 60 in the brain. Our results revealed that "critical episodes" in early life stressful events are able to induce behavioural alterations that persist into adulthood and can stimulate inflammation and oxidative damage in both central and peripheral systems, which are required for distinct patterns of resilience against psychiatric disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sitrin, Deborah; Guenther, Tanya; Murray, John; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Rubayet, Sayed; Ligowe, Reuben; Pun, Bhim; Malla, Honey; Moran, Allisyn
Background Nearly half of births in low-income countries occur without a skilled attendant, and even fewer mothers and babies have postnatal contact with providers who can deliver preventive or curative services that save lives. Community-based maternal and newborn care programs with postnatal home visits have been tested in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Nepal. This paper examines coverage and content of home visits in pilot areas and factors associated with receipt of postnatal visits. Methods Using data from cross-sectional surveys of women with live births (Bangladesh 398, Malawi: 900, Nepal: 615), generalized linear models were used to assess the strength of association between three factors - receipt of home visits during pregnancy, birth place, birth notification - and receipt of home visits within three days after birth. Meta-analytic techniques were used to generate pooled relative risks for each factor adjusting for other independent variables, maternal age, and education. Findings The proportion of mothers and newborns receiving home visits within three days after birth was 57% in Bangladesh, 11% in Malawi, and 50% in Nepal. Mothers and newborns were more likely to receive a postnatal home visit within three days if the mother received at least one home visit during pregnancy (OR2.18, CI1.46–3.25), the birth occurred outside a facility (OR1.48, CI1.28–1.73), and the mother reported a CHW was notified of the birth (OR2.66, CI1.40–5.08). Checking the cord was the most frequently reported action; most mothers reported at least one action for newborns. Conclusions Reaching mothers and babies with home visits during pregnancy and within three days after birth is achievable using existing community health systems if workers are available; linked to communities; and receive training, supplies, and supervision. In all settings, programs must evaluate what community delivery systems can handle and how to best utilize them to improve postnatal care access. PMID
Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.
Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.
Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim
Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149
Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim
Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Erin J; Mitchell, Caitlin S; Adams, Cameron D; Yeoh, Jiann Wei; Hodgson, Deborah M; Graham, Brett A; Dayas, Christopher V
Altered motivated behaviour is a cardinal feature of several neuropsychiatric conditions including mood disorders. One well-characterized antecedent to the development of mood disorders is exposure to early life stress (ELS). A key brain substrate controlling motivated behaviour is the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Here, we examined the effect of ELS on LH activation and the motivation to self-administer sucrose. We tested whether chemogenetic activation of LH circuits could modify sucrose responding in ELS rats and examined the impact on LH cell populations. Male rat pups were maternally separated for 0 or 3 h on postnatal days 2-14. During adolescence, rats received bilateral injections of hM3D(Gq), the excitatory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, into LH. In adulthood, rats were trained to self-administer sucrose and tested under a progressive ratio schedule to determine their motivation for reward following injection with either vehicle or 5 mg/kg clozapine-N-oxide. Brains were processed for Fos-protein immunohistochemistry. ELS significantly suppressed lever responding for sucrose, indicating a long-lasting impact of ELS on motivation circuits. hM3D(Gq) activation of LH increased responding, normalizing deficits in ELS rats, and increased Fos-positive orexin and MCH cell numbers within LH. Our findings indicate that despite being susceptible to environmental stressors, LH circuits retain the capacity to overcome ELS-induced deficits in motivated behaviour. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study.
Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon
Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 'ultra-brief' case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule-Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3-4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3-4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East-York Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/NE/0022). The study findings will be
Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Le Brocque, Robyne
Objective: Broadening the concept of stress generation beyond acute life events, the current study explores predictors of the creation of stressful environments--specifically, selection into early childrearing by age 20. It was predicted that youth with early onset depressive disorders would be at higher risk for early childrearing accompanied by…
Houwing, Danielle J.; Buwalda, Bauke; van der Zee, Eddy A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.
The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/−) show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (mal)adaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1) stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2) effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3) few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not exclude the
Stewart, Tyrus; Ascani, Jeannine; Craver, Randall D; Vehaskari, V Matti
In this study we examined the short- and long-term impact of early life dietary sodium (Na) on prenatally programmed hypertension. Hypertension was induced in rat offspring by a maternal low protein (LP) diet. Control and LP offspring were randomized to a high (HS), standard (SS), or low (LS) Na diet after weaning. On the SS diet, the LP pups developed hypertension by 6 weeks of age. The development of hypertension was prevented by the LS diet and exacerbated by the HS diet. Kidney nitrotyrosine content, a measure of oxidative stress, was reduced by the LS diet compared with the HS diet. The modified diets had no effect on control pups. A group of animals on the SS diet was followed up to 51 weeks of age after an early life 3-week exposure to the HS or LS diet. This brief early exposure of LP animals to the LS diet prevented the later development of hypertension and ameliorated the nephrosclerosis observed after early exposure to the HS diet. The LP offspring with early exposure to LS diet had lost their salt-sensitivity when challenged with the HS diet at the age of 43-49 weeks. No effect of early life dietary Na was observed in control animals. These results show that hypertension in this model is salt sensitive and may, in part, be mediated by salt-induced renal oxidative stress and that there may exist a developmental window which allows postnatal "reprogramming" of the hypertension.
Ji, Chenlin; Dai, Yanyan; Jiang, Weiwei; Liu, Juan; Hou, Miao; Wang, Junle; Burén, Jonas; Li, Xiaonan
Exposure to overnutrition in critical or sensitive developmental periods may increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, but the relationship among postnatal nutrition, lipid metabolism, and NAFLD progression during development remains poorly understood. Here we investigated in a rat model whether postnatal overfeeding increases susceptibility to NAFLD in response to a high-fat diet. Litters from Sprague-Dawley dams were culled to three (small litters) or ten (normal litters) pups and then weaned onto a standard or high-fat diet at postnatal day 21 to generate normal-litter, small-litter, normal-litter/high-fat, and small-litter/high-fat groups. At age 16 weeks, the small-litter and both high-fat groups showed obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Hepatic disorders appeared earlier in the small-litter/high-fat rats with greater liver mass gain and higher hepatic triglycerides and steatosis score versus normal-litter/high-fat rats. Hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and mRNA expression were increased in small-litter rats and aggravated in small-litter/high-fat rats but not in normal-litter/high-fat rats. The high expression in small-litter/high-fat rats coincided with high sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA and protein expression. However, mRNA expression of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) and output (microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) was decreased under a high-fat diet regardless of litter size. In conclusion, overfeeding related to small-litter rearing during lactation contributes to the NAFLD phenotype when combined with a high-fat diet, possibly through up-regulated hepatic lipogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crews, Sarah M.; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane
Background Heat shocks applied at the onset of gastrulation in early Drosophila embryos frequently lead to phenocopies of U-shaped mutants – having characteristic failures in the late morphogenetic processes of germband retraction and dorsal closure. The pathway from non-specific heat stress to phenocopied abnormalities is unknown. Results Drosophila embryos subjected to 30-min, 38-°C heat shocks at gastrulation appear to recover and restart morphogenesis. Post-heat-shock development appears normal, albeit slower, until a large fraction of embryos develop amnioserosa holes (diameters > 100 μm). These holes are positively correlated with terminal U-shaped phenocopies. They initiate between amnioserosa cells and open over tens of minutes by evading normal wound healing responses. They are not caused by tissue-wide increases in mechanical stress or decreases in cell-cell adhesion, but instead appear to initiate from isolated apoptosis of amnioserosa cells. Conclusions The pathway from heat shock to U-shaped phenocopies involves the opening of one or more large holes in the amnioserosa that compromise its structural integrity and lead to failures in morphogenetic processes that rely on amnioserosa-generated tensile forces. The proposed mechanism by which heat shock leads to hole initiation and expansion is heterochonicity – i.e., disruption of morphogenetic coordination between embryonic and extra-embryonic cell types. PMID:26498920
Hay, W W
Normal fetal nutrition is a useful guide for understanding postnatal nutrition of infants born very preterm. Fetal lipid uptake gradually increases towards term and is primarily used to produce fat in adipose tissue, with essential fatty acid uptake providing necessary structural and functional elements in membranes of cells in the central nervous system. Fetal glucose uptake and utilization rates are nearly twice as high at 23-26 weeks gestation as they are at term, contributing primarily to energy production and glycogen formation. Amino-acid uptake by the fetus is two-to threefold greater at 23-26 weeks gestation than at term and is required to meet the very high fractional protein synthesis and growth rates at this gestational period; amino acids also contribute significantly to fetal energy production. In contrast, after birth most of the very preterm infants are fed more lipid and glucose and less amino acids and protein than they need. Not surprisingly, therefore, very preterm infants accumulate fat but remain relatively growth restricted at term gestational age compared to those infants who grew normally in utero, and this postnatal growth restriction has long-term adverse growth, development, and health consequences. More thorough understanding of the unique nutritional, metabolic, and growth requirements of the normally growing fetus and the very preterm infant, once born, are needed to determine optimal nutritional strategies to improve the outcome of preterm infants.
Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Oitzl, Melly S; Schächinger, Hartmut; Champagne, Danielle L; de Kloet, E Ronald
In the present study, we tested both the cumulative stress and the mismatch hypothesis of psychopathology. For this purpose the combined effects of early-life adversity and later-life stress exposure on behavioral markers of psychosis susceptibility were studied in male Wistar rats. Experiment I: rat pups divided on the basis of the levels of their maternal care experience in low, medium or high maternal care groups, were reared post-weaning in groups (Exp. IA) or in social isolation (Exp. IB) and tested at adulthood under basal conditions or after an acute corticosterone (CORT) administration. Maternal care levels were assessed by measuring the dam's licking and grooming (LG) the first postnatal week of life. Experiment II: rat pups exposed as neonates to daily sessions of 8h of maternal separation (MS) on postnatal days 3, 4 and 5 either altogether in their home cage (HOME SEP) or alone in a novel environment (NOVEL SEP), were reared post-weaning in groups and tested at adulthood under basal conditions. Adult testing included behaviors marking psychosis susceptibility: apomorphine-induced gnawing (APO-gnawing), acoustic startle response and its modulation by a prepulse stimulus (PPI). The behavior of the Medium LG offspring was used as baseline reference for all the three experiments. Experiment I: Low maternal LG history alone had limited effects on the behavior of Wistar offspring, although increased acoustic startle and increased PPI, at high prepulse intensity levels, were observed. When low maternal LG history was combined with post-weaning social isolation, basal APO-gnawing was decreased and PPI increased, compared to High LG and Med LG offspring. This reflects attenuated psychosis susceptibility. High LG offspring reared in isolation displayed, however, the highest APO-gnawing and the lowest PPI levels among rats reared in social isolation, which is indicative for increased psychosis susceptibility. These findings support the mismatch hypothesis. For
Maternal lifetime history of depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal and early postnatal period do not predict infant-mother attachment quality in a large, population-based Dutch cohort study.
Tharner, Anne; Luijk, Maartje P C M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
We examined the effects of maternal history of depressive disorder and the effects of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the early postpartum period on attachment insecurity and disorganization. A total of 627 mother-infant dyads from the Generation R Study participated in a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. Maternal history of depression was assessed by diagnostic interviews during pregnancy; maternal peri- and postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed with questionnaires in 506 of these women at 20 weeks pregnancy and two months postpartum; and infant-mother attachment security was observed when infants were aged 14 months. A history of maternal depressive disorder, regardless of severity or psychiatric comorbidity, was not associated with an increased risk of infant attachment insecurity or disorganization. Likewise, maternal peri- and postnatal depressive symptoms were not related to attachment insecurity or disorganization at 14 months. These results are important because mothers from otherwise low risk backgrounds often have previously been depressed or are struggling with non-clinical depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after giving birth. Our findings are discussed in terms of protective factors that may limit the potentially negative effects of maternal depressive symptoms on the infant-mother attachment relationship in the general population. The role of selective attrition and lack of information about the mothers' attachment status for the current null-findings are also discussed.
Study objectives were to evaluate the impact of early life thermal stress (ELTS) on thermoregulation, stress, and intestinal health of piglets subjected to a future heat stress (HS) challenge during simulated transport. Approximately 7 d after farrowing, 12 first parity gilts and their litters were ...
Campbell, Joannalee C; Szumlinski, Karen K; Kippin, Tod E
The most problematic aspects of alcohol abuse disorder are excessive alcohol consumption and the inability to refrain from alcohol consumption during attempted abstinence. The root causes that predispose certain individuals to these problems are poorly understood but are believed to be produced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Early environmental trauma alters neurodevelopmental trajectories that can predispose an individual to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including substance abuse. Prenatal stress (PNS) is a well-established protocol that produces perturbations in nervous system development, resulting in behavioral alterations that include hyperresponsiveness to stress, novelty, and psychomotor stimulant drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine). Moreover, PNS animals exhibit enduring alterations in basal and cocaine-induced changes in dopamine and glutamate transmission within limbic structures, which exhibit pathology in drug addiction and alcoholism, suggesting that these alterations may contribute to an increased propensity to self-administer large amounts of drugs of abuse or to relapse after periods of drug withdrawal. Given that cocaine and alcohol have actions on common limbic neural substrates (albeit by different mechanisms), we hypothesized that PNS would elevate the motivation for, and consumption of, alcohol. Accordingly, we have found that male C57BL/6J mice subject to PNS exhibit higher operant responding and consume more alcohol during alcohol reinforcement as adults. Alterations in glutamate and dopamine neurotransmission within the forebrain structures appear to contribute to the PNS-induced predisposition to high alcohol intake and are induced by excessive alcohol intake. Accordingly, we are exploring the interactions between neurochemical changes produced by PNS and changes induced by consumption of alcohol in adulthood to model the biological bases of high vulnerability to alcohol abuse.
Campbell, Joannalee C.; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Kippin, Tod E.
The most problematic aspects of alcohol abuse disorder are excessive alcohol consumption and the inability to refrain from alcohol consumption during attempted abstinence. The root causes that predispose certain individuals to these problems are poorly understood but are believed to be produced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Early environmental trauma alters neurodevelopmental trajectories that can predispose an individual to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including substance abuse. Prenatal stress (PNS) is a well-established protocol that produces perturbations in nervous system development, resulting in behavioral alterations that include hyperresponsiveness to stress, novelty, and psychomotor stimulant drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine). Moreover, PNS animals exhibit enduring alterations in basal and cocaine-induced changes in dopamine and glutamate transmission within limbic structures, which exhibit pathology in drug addiction and alcoholism, suggesting that these alterations may contribute to an increased propensity to self-administer large amounts of drugs of abuse or to relapse after periods of drug withdrawal. Given that cocaine and alcohol have actions on common limbic neural substrates (albeit by different mechanisms), we hypothesized that PNS would elevate the motivation for, and consumption of, alcohol. Accordingly, we have found that male C57BL/6J mice subject to PNS exhibit higher operant responding and consume more alcohol during alcohol reinforcement as adults. Alterations in glutamate and dopamine neurotransmission within the forebrain structures appear to contribute to the PNS-induced predisposition to high alcohol intake and are induced by excessive alcohol intake. Accordingly, we are exploring the interactions between neurochemical changes produced by PNS and changes induced by consumption of alcohol in adulthood to model the biological bases of high vulnerability to alcohol abuse. PMID:19913199
Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.
Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10–18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. PMID:26210872
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H
Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Redshaw, Maggie; Henderson, Jane
Postnatal depression has a serious impact on new mothers and their children and families. Risk factors identified include a history of depression, multiparity, and young age. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with experiencing antenatal depression and developing subsequent postnatal depression. The study utilized survey data from 5332 women about their experience and well-being during pregnancy, in labor, and postnatally up to 3 months. Prespecified sociodemographic and clinical variables were tabulated against the incidence of antenatal depression and postnatal depression. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of the principal underlying variables. Risk factors for antenatal depression were multiparity, black and minority ethnic (BME) status, physical or mental health problems, living in a deprived area, and unplanned pregnancy. Different factors for postnatal depression were evident among women who had experienced antenatal depression: multiparity and BME status were protective, whereas being left alone in labor and experiencing poor postnatal health increased the risk of postnatal depression. This study confirms previous research on risk factors for antenatal depression and stresses the importance of continuous support in labor and vigilance in the postnatal period regarding the potential ill effects of continuing postnatal health problems.
Hylin, Michael J; Holden, Ryan C; Smith, Aidan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Qaiser, Rabia; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P
The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly delineated. We investigated this important topic using a juvenile rat controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. We proposed that ER stress would be significantly increased in juvenile rats following TBI and that this would correlate with behavioral deficits using a juvenile rat model. A juvenile rat (postnatal day 28) CCI model was used. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were measured at 4 h in the ipsilateral pericontusion cortex. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was measured at 48 h and tau kinase measured at 1 week and 30 days. At 4 h following injury, BiP and CHOP (markers of ER stress) were significantly elevated in rats exposed to TBI. We also found that HIF-1α was significantly upregulated 48 h following TBI showing delayed hypoxia. The early ER stress activation was additionally asso-ciated with the activation of a known tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), by 1 week. Tau oligomers measured by R23 were significantly increased by 30 days following TBI. The biochemical changes following TBI were associated with increased impulsive-like or anti-anxiety behavior measured with the elevated plus maze, deficits in short-term memory measured with novel object recognition, and deficits in spatial memory measured with the Morris water maze in juvenile rats exposed to TBI. These results show that ER stress was increased early in juvenile rats exposed to TBI, that these rats developed tau oligomers over the
Darnall, Robert A.; Chen, Xi; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Sirieix, Chrystelle M.; Gimi, Barjor
Most premature infants born at less than 30 weeks gestation are exposed to periods of mild intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea of prematurity and periodic breathing. In adults, IH associated with sleep apnea causes neurochemical and structural alterations in the brain. However, it is unknown whether IH in the premature infant leads to neurodevelopmental impairment. Quantification of biochemical markers that can precisely identify infants at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is essential. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) facilitates the quantification of metabolites from distinct regions of the developing brain. We report the changes in metabolite profiles in the brainstem and hippocampal regions of developing rat brains, resulting from exposure to IH. Rat pups were chosen for study because there is rapid postnatal hippocampal development that occurs during the first 4 weeks in the developing rat brain, which corresponds to the first 2-3 postnatal years of development in humans. The brainstem was examined because of our interest in respiratory control disorders in the newborn and because of brainstem gliosis described in infants who succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Metabolite profiles were compared between hypoxia treated rat pups (n = 9) and normoxic controls (n = 6). Metabolite profiles were acquired using the Point-RESolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence and were quantified using the TARQUIN software. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of creatine (p = 0.031), total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) (p = 0.028), and total choline (p = 0.001) in the brainstem, and glycine (p = 0.031) in the hippocampal region. The changes are consistent with altered cellular bioenergetics and metabolism associated with hypoxic insult.
Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra
Previous research has identified potential issues of establishing and maintaining breastfeeding among women who experience severe maternal morbidity associated with pregnancy and birth, but evidence in the UK maternity population was scarce. We explored the association between severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes (uptake and prevalence of partial and exclusive breastfeeding) at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum in a UK sample. Data on breastfeeding outcomes were obtained from a large cohort study of women who gave birth in one maternity unit in England to assess the impact of women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity (defined as major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorder or high dependency unit/intensive care unit admission) on their post-natal health and other important outcomes including infant feeding. Results indicated that among women who responded (n = 1824, response rate = 53%), there were no statistically significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes between women who did or did not experience severe morbidity, except for women with severe hypertensive disorder who were less likely to breastfeed either partially or exclusively at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum. Rather, breastfeeding outcomes were related to multi-dimensional factors including sociodemographic (age, ethnicity, living arrangement), other pregnancy outcomes (neonatal intensive care unit admission, mode of birth, women's perceived control during birth) and post-natal psychological factors (depressive symptoms). Women who experience severe maternal morbidity can be reassured that establishing successful breastfeeding can be achieved. More studies are required to understand what support is best for women who have complex health/social needs to establish breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Choi, Woorak; Seo, Eunseok; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon
Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic force has strong influence on the outbreak of the disease. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) is associated with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Many researchers have investigated relationships between WSS and the occurrence of atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo models. However, these models possess technological limitations in mimicking real biophysiological conditions and monitoring the temporal progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model was established as a novel model to resolve these technical limitations. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro PIV technique, and the spatial distribution of lipids inside blood vessels was quantitatively visualized using a confocal microscopy. As a result, lipids are mainly deposited in the regions of low WSS. The oscillating WSS is not induced by blood flows in the zebrafish disease model. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model would be useful for understanding the effect of WSS on the early stage of atherosclerosis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under a Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).
Honig, Alice Sterling
Research shows that stress in the crucial early years of a child's life can pose dramatic, lasting challenges to development, learning, and behavior. This is the practical book early childhood professionals need to recognize stress in young children--and intervene with proven relief strategies before pressures turn into big problems. Developed by…
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between job stress and coping strategies in early childhood teachers in Central Taiwan. A quantitative approach was utilized, and data were collected from 314 participants. The results of the present study suggest that (1) early childhood teachers believed that their job stress was due to a…
Magalhães, Ana; Tavares, Maria Amélia; de Sousa, Liliana
Exposure to cocaine in early periods of postnatal life has adverse effects on behavior, namely, it induces the display of anxiety and fear-like behaviors that are associated with stress and depression. This study examined the effects of early developmental cocaine exposure in several categories of behavior observed in forced swim test. Male and female Wistar rats were given 15 mg/kg of cocaine hydrochloride/body weight/day, subcutaneously, in two daily doses, from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND27. Controls were saline injected in the same protocol. In PND26-PND27, rats were placed in a swimming pool during 5 min in two sessions. The categories of behavior studied in this work included horizontal and vertical rotation, vibrissae clean, head clean, fast and slow swim, struggling, floating, sliding, diving, head-diving, and wagging head. Results showed differences in the frequencies of several behavioral categories that allowed the discrimination of the behaviors that may constitute "behavioral despair" indicators, as well as which behaviors are most affected by cocaine exposure. Cocaine groups were less active and more immobile than controls. These results suggest that postnatal exposure to cocaine can produce depression-like effects and affect the ability of these animals to cope with stress situations.
Piersigilli, F; Catena, G; De Gasperis, M R; Lozzi, S; Auriti, C
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently associated with active retinitis. In contrast, in the immunocompetent neonate with postnatally acquired CMV infection retinitis is rarely present and usually does not progress. We describe the case of an infant with postnatal CMV infection and active retinitis diagnosed at 20 days of life. Owing to the rapid progression of the retinitis, therapy with intravenous ganciclovir was performed, with prompt regression of the retinitis. Therapy was then continued with oral valganciclovir for one further week. Although very unusual, CMV retinitis has to be taken into consideration in neonates with early postnatally acquired CMV infection, as an early diagnosis and treatment may be crucial to avoid visual impairment.
Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A
Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.
Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…
Victoria, Nicole C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J; Murphy, Anne Z
Inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth (postnatal day 0: PD0) significantly dampens behavioral responses to stress- and anxiety-provoking stimuli in adult rats. However, to date, the mechanisms by which early life pain permanently alters adult stress responses remain unknown. The present studies examined the impact of inflammatory pain, experienced on the day of birth, on adult expression of receptors or proteins implicated in the activation and termination of the stress response, including corticotrophin releasing factor receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Using competitive receptor autoradiography, we show that Sprague Dawley male and female rat pups administered 1% carrageenan into the intraplantar surface of the hindpaw on the day of birth have significantly decreased CRFR1 binding in the basolateral amygdala and midbrain periaqueductal gray in adulthood. In contrast, CRFR2 binding, which is associated with stress termination, was significantly increased in the lateral septum and cortical amygdala. GR expression, measured with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, was significantly increased in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and significantly decreased in the hippocampus of neonatally injured adults. In parallel, acute stress-induced corticosterone release was significantly attenuated and returned to baseline more rapidly in adults injured on PD0 in comparison to controls. Collectively, these data show that early life pain alters neural circuits that regulate responses to and neuroendocrine recovery from stress, and suggest that pain experienced by infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit may permanently alter future responses to anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Reichardt, Wilfried; Clark, Kristin; Geiger, Julia; Gross, Claus M.; Heyer, Andrea; Neagu, Valentin; Bhatia, Harsharan; Atas, Hasan C.; Fiebich, Bernd L.; Bischofberger, Josef; Haas, Carola A.; Normann, Claus
Background Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. Conclusion Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood. PMID:23071534
Kido, Tatsuo; Sun, Zhaoyu; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris
Sexual dimorphisms are prevalent in development, physiology and diseases in humans. Currently, the contributions of the genes on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in these processes are uncertain. Using a transgene activation system, the human sex-determining gene hSRY is activated in the single-cell embryos of the mouse. Pups with hSRY activated (hSRY ON ) are born of similar sizes as those of non-activated controls. However, they retard significantly in postnatal growth and development and all die of multi-organ failure before two weeks of age. Pathological and molecular analyses indicate that hSRY ON pups lack innate suckling activities, and develop fatty liver disease, arrested alveologenesis in the lung, impaired neurogenesis in the brain and occasional myocardial fibrosis and minimized thymus development. Transcriptome analysis shows that, in addition to those unique to the respective organs, various cell growth and survival pathways and functions are differentially affected in the transgenic mice. These observations suggest that ectopic activation of a Y-located SRY gene could exert male-specific effects in development and physiology of multiple organs, thereby contributing to sexual dimorphisms in normal biological functions and disease processes in affected individuals.
Winkler, Tamara; Mahoney, Eric J; Sinner, Debora; Wylie, Christopher C; Dahia, Chitra Lekha
Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are strong fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent vertebrae of the spine. As discs age they become prone to failure, with neurological consequences that are often severe. Surgical repair of discs treats the result of the disease, which affects as many as one in seven people, rather than its cause. An ideal solution would be to repair degenerating discs using the mechanisms of their normal differentiation. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse as a model, we previously showed that Shh signaling produced by nucleus pulposus cells activates the expression of differentiation markers, and cell proliferation, in the postnatal IVD. In the present study, we show that canonical Wnt signaling is required for the expression of Shh signaling targets in the IVD. We also show that Shh and canonical Wnt signaling pathways are down-regulated in adult IVDs. Furthermore, this down-regulation is reversible, since re-activation of the Wnt or Shh pathways in older discs can re-activate molecular markers of the IVD that are lost with age. These data suggest that biological treatments targeting Wnt and Shh signaling pathways may be feasible as a therapeutic for degenerative disc disease.
Izquierdo, Montserrat; Martínez-Monseny, Antonio Federico; Pociello, Neus; Gonzalez, Paloma; Del Rio, Ruth; Iriondo, Martin; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel
Postnatal growth restriction remains a serious problem in very low-birth-weight infants. Enhanced parenteral supply of nutrients as soon as possible after birth is one of the strategies addressed to avoid extrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to analyze changes in growth patterns and in clinical outcomes in our unit after a change in our parenteral nutrition (PN) protocol. We collected data from 2 time periods, comprising the 2 years before (period I) and the 2 years after (period II) the change of protocol. We included 142 very low-birth-weight infants ≤32 weeks of gestation with a birth weight ≤1500 g. Data regarding nutrition intakes (parenteral and enteral) in the first week of life, growth during admission, and clinical outcomes were retrieved from clinical charts. Babies in period II received a higher nutrition supply during the first week of life, but no further differences were found after this period. Weight at 14 days of life was significantly higher in period II but not at day 28 of life or discharge. In our population, an enhanced PN regimen for very low-birth-weight infants led to a better growth at 14 days of life. However, this positive effect had disappeared at day 28 of life. Strategies to improve nutrient supply once the preterm baby is stable and on full enteral feeds should be implemented and analyzed. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Suarez, Anna; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri
Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to influence health later in life. Functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, regulated partly by FKBP5 gene, may moderate these effects. We examined whether FKBP5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interact with ELS on Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and quantitative glycemic traits. A total of 1728 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants born from 1934 to 1944 were genotyped for FKBP5 SNPs (rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080) and were administered a 2-hour (75 g) oral glucose tolerance test and a questionnaire on physician-diagnosed and medication use for chronic diseases at a mean age of 61.5 years. Of the participants, 273 had been exposed to ELS, operationalized as separation from their parents, at a mean age of 4.7 years due to evacuations during World War II. ELS interacted with FKBP5 SNPs in the analyses of fasting (rs1360780, p = .015), 30-minute (rs1360780, p = .031; rs9394309, p = .041) and incremental insulin (rs1360780, p = .032; rs9394309, p = .028; rs9470080, p = .043), insulin area under the curve (rs1360780, p = .044), and impaired fasting glucose (rs9470080, p = .049); among carriers of at least one copy of minor allele, but not among major allele homozygotes, insulin values were higher, as were the odds for impaired fasting glucose if they had been separated compared with if they had not. Corresponding associations were found with a haplotype formed by minor alleles in all three SNPs for fasting, 30-minute, and incremental insulin (p < .05). FKBP5 polymorphisms in combination with ELS exposure predict higher insulin and glucose values in midlife. Our findings support the role for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in health-related metabolic outcomes.
Herbison, Carly E; Allen, Karina; Robinson, Monique; Newnham, John; Pennell, Craig
There is debate about the relative importance of timing of stressful events prenatally and over the life course and risk for subsequent depressive/anxious illness. The aim of this study was to examine the relative roles of prenatal stress and postnatal stress trajectories in predicting depression and anxiety in early adulthood in males and females. Exposure to life stress events was examined in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study during pregnancy and ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years. At age 20, offspring completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Prenatal stress and trajectories of stress events from age 1 to 17 were analyzed in linear regression analyses. Five postnatal stress trajectories were identified. In females, medium to high chronic stress exposure or exposure during puberty/adolescence predicted depression and anxiety symptoms while low or reduced stress exposure over the life course did not, after adjustment for relevant confounders. High stress early in pregnancy contributed to male depression/anxiety symptoms independent of postnatal stress trajectory. In females, postnatal stress trajectory was more important than prenatal stress in predicting depression/anxiety symptoms. Interventions focused on reducing and managing stress events around conception/pregnancy and exposure to chronic stress are likely to have beneficial outcomes on rates of depression and anxiety in adults.
Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J; Lousberg, Richel
Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0-11 years) and adolescence (12-17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability.Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies.
Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J.; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J.; Lousberg, Richel
Abstract Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0–11 years) and adolescence (12–17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability. Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies. PMID:27684800
Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Yao, Zhuxi; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui
Exposure to long-term stress can lead to a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Although widely investigated, the neural basis of how long-term stress impacts emotional processing in humans remains largely elusive. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effects of long-term stress on the neural dynamics of emotionally facial expression processing. Thirty-nine male college students undergoing preparation for a major examination and twenty-one matched controls performed a gender discrimination task for faces displaying angry, happy, and neutral expressions. The results of the Perceived Stress Scale showed that participants in the stress group perceived higher levels of long-term stress relative to the control group. ERP analyses revealed differential effects of long-term stress on two early stages of facial expression processing: 1) long-term stress generally augmented posterior P1 amplitudes to facial stimuli irrespective of expression valence, suggesting that stress can increase sensitization to visual inputs in general, and 2) long-term stress selectively augmented fronto-central P2 amplitudes for angry but not for neutral or positive facial expressions, suggesting that stress may lead to increased attentional prioritization to processing negative emotional stimuli. Together, our findings suggest that long-term stress has profound impacts on the early stages of facial expression processing, with an increase at the very early stage of general information inputs and a subsequent attentional bias toward processing emotionally negative stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A
Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.
Wright, Rosalind J.
Exposure to environmental toxins during critical periods of prenatal and/or postnatal development may alter the normal course of lung morphogenesis and maturation, potentially resulting in changes that affect both structure and function of the respiratory system. Moreover, these early effects may persist into adult life magnifying the potential public health impact. Aberrant or excessive pro-inflammatory immune responses, occurring both locally and systemically, that result in inflammatory damage to the airway are a central determinant of lung structure-function changes throughout life. Disruption of neuroendocrine function in early development, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, may alter functional status of the immune system. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function (sympathovagal imbalance) is another integral component of airway function and immunity in childhood. This overview discusses the evidence linking psychological factors to alterations in these interrelated physiological processes that may, in turn, influence childhood lung function and identifies gaps in our understanding. PMID:20080145
Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom
A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413
Lucassen, Paul J.; Oomen, Charlotte A.; Naninck, Eva F.G.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; van Dam, Anne-Marie; Czeh, Boldizsár; Korosi, Aniko
Exposure to stress is one of the best-known negative regulators of adult neurogenesis (AN). We discuss changes in neurogenesis in relation to exposure to stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and inflammation, with a particular focus on early development and on lasting effects of stress. Although the effects of acute and mild stress on AN are generally brief and can be quickly overcome, chronic exposure or more severe forms of stress can induce longer lasting reductions in neurogenesis that can, however, in part, be overcome by subsequent exposure to exercise, drugs targeting the stress system, and some antidepressants. Exposure to stress, particularly during the sensitive period of early life, may (re)program brain plasticity, in particular, in the hippocampus. This may increase the risk to develop cognitive or anxiety symptoms, common to brain diseases like dementia and depression in which plasticity changes occur, and a normalization of neurogenesis may be required for a successful treatment response and recovery. PMID:26330520
Réus, Gislaine Z; Simões, Lutiana R; Colpo, Gabriela D; Scaini, Giselli; Oses, Jean P; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Prossin, Alan R; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Quevedo, João; Barichello, Tatiana
Immune activation (IA) during the early neonatal period is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected in neonates lead to behavioral and brain changes that persist to adult life. We investigated oxidative stress, levels of cytokines, and the locomotor activity of IA in a schizophrenia animal model in which neonatal male Wistar rats were administered with an injection of LPS (50μg/kg) on postnatal day 3 and different doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25mg/kg) for 7days during adulthood. Rats LPS-induced did not have locomotor activity alterations. Locomotor activity was elevated in neonatally saline-injected in the higher dose ketamine-treated animals. Carbonyl protein in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and striatum were increased in the LPS- and saline-induced in the ketamine (25mg/kg)-treated animals. Lipid damage occurred in the PFC, striatum and hippocampus in the LPS- and saline-induced in the ketamine (15 and 25mg/kg) -treated animals. In the hippocampus the superoxide dismutase (SOD) was decreased in the LPS- and saline-induced in the ketamine-treated with the dose of 25mg/kg. In the PFC SOD was reduced in the LPS-induced in the ketamine (25mg/kg)-treated animals. Catalase in the PFC and hippocampus was reduced in the LPS- and saline-induced in the ketamine (25mg/kg)-treated animals. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were lower in the brains of LPS-induced in the higher dose ketamine-treated rats. IA influences the locomotor activity and cytokine levels induced by ketamine, and it has a negative effect in potentiating the oxidative stress by higher doses of ketamine in the brain. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bordner, Kelly; Deak, Terrence
Background Despite considerable knowledge that prenatal ethanol exposure can lead to devastating effects on the developing fetus, alcohol consumption by pregnant women remains strikingly prevalent. Both clinical and basic research has suggested that, in addition to possible physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, gestational exposure to alcohol may lead to an increased risk for the development of later alcohol-related use and abuse disorders. The current work sought to characterize alterations in endogenous opioid signaling peptides and gene expression produced by ethanol exposure during the last days of gestation. Methods Experimental subjects were 4-, 8-, and 12-day old infant rats obtained from pregnant females that were given daily intubations of 0, 1, or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last few days of gestation (GD17-20). Using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting analysis, and enzyme immunoassays, we examined mRNA and protein for three opioid receptors and ligands in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus. Results Three main trends emerged - (1) mRNA for the majority of factors were found to upregulate across each of the three postnatal ages assessed, indicative of escalating ontogenetic expression of opioid-related genes; (2) prenatal ethanol significantly reduced many opioid peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism by which prenatal exposure can affect future responsiveness towards ethanol; and (3) the nucleus accumbens emerged as a key site for ethanol-dependent effects, suggesting a potential target for additional assessment and intervention towards understanding the ethanol's ability to program the developing brain. Conclusion We provide a global assessment of relatively long-term changes in both opioid gene expression and protein following exposure to only moderate amounts of ethanol during a relatively short window in the prenatal period. These results suggest that, while continuing to undergo ontogenetic changes, the infant
Bordner, Kelly; Deak, Terrence
Despite considerable knowledge that prenatal ethanol exposure can lead to devastating effects on the developing fetus, alcohol consumption by pregnant women remains strikingly prevalent. Both clinical and basic research has suggested that, in addition to possible physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, gestational exposure to alcohol may lead to an increased risk for the development of later alcohol-related use and abuse disorders. The current work sought to characterize alterations in endogenous opioid signaling peptides and gene expression produced by ethanol exposure during the last days of gestation. Experimental subjects were 4-, 8-, and 12-day old infant rats obtained from pregnant females that were given daily intubations of 0, 1, or 2g/kg ethanol during the last few days of gestation (GDs 17-20). Using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting analysis, and enzyme immunoassays, we examined mRNA and protein for three opioid receptors and ligands in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus. Three main trends emerged - (1) mRNA for the majority of factors was found to upregulate across each of the three postnatal ages assessed, indicative of escalating ontogenetic expression of opioid-related genes; (2) prenatal ethanol significantly reduced many opioid peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism by which prenatal exposure can affect future responsiveness towards ethanol; and (3) the nucleus accumbens emerged as a key site for ethanol-dependent effects, suggesting a potential target for additional assessment and intervention towards understanding the ethanol's ability to program the developing brain. We provide a global assessment of relatively long-term changes in both opioid gene expression and protein following exposure to only moderate amounts of ethanol during a relatively short window in the prenatal period. These results suggest that, while continuing to undergo ontogenetic changes, the infant brain is sensitive to prenatal ethanol
Gemba-Nishimura, A; Inoue, T; Nakamura, S; Nakayama, K; Mochizuki, A; Shintani, S; Yoshimura, S
We previously reported that electrical stimulation of the reticular formation dorsal to the facial nucleus (RdVII) elicited excitatory masseter responses at short latencies and that RdVII neurons were antidromically activated by stimulation of the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV), suggesting that excitatory premotor neurons targeting the MoV are likely located in the RdVII. We thus examined the properties of synaptic transmission from the RdVII to jaw-closing and jaw-opening motoneurons in horizontal brainstem preparations from developing rats using voltage-sensitive dye, patch-clamp recordings and laser photostimulation. Electrical stimulation of the RdVII evoked optical responses in the MoV. Combined bath application of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (non-NMDA) receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), and the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) reduced these optical responses, and addition of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine and the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline further reduced the remaining responses. Electrical stimulation of the RdVII evoked postsynaptic currents (PSCs) in all 19 masseter motoneurons tested in postnatal day (P)1-4 rats, and application of CNQX and the NMDA receptor antagonist (+/-)-3(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) reduced the PSC amplitudes by more than 50%. In the presence of CNQX and CPP, the GABA(A) receptor antagonist SR95531 further reduced PSC amplitude, and addition of strychnine abolished the remaining PSCs. Photostimulation of the RdVII with caged glutamate also evoked PSCs in masseter motoneurons of P3-4 rats. In P8-11 rats, electrical stimulation of the RdVII also evoked PSCs in all 14 masseter motoneurons tested, and the effects of the antagonists on the PSCs were similar to those in P1-4 rats. On the other hand, RdVII stimulation evoked PSCs in only three of 16 digastric motoneurons tested. These results suggest that both neonatal and
Background Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Methods Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network’s Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. Result A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother’s chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to
Patel, Archana; Bucher, Sherri; Pusdekar, Yamini; Esamai, Fabian; Krebs, Nancy F; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Pasha, Omrana; Saleem, Sarah; Kodkany, Bhalachandra S; Liechty, Edward A; Kodkany, Bhala; Derman, Richard J; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K; Goldenberg, Robert L; Althabe, Fernando; Berrueta, Mabel; Moore, Janet L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Hibberd, Patricia L
Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother's chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to achieve exclusive breastfeeding
Hupa, Katharina Luise; Schmiedl, Andreas; Pabst, Reinhard; Von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael
Intensive medical care at premature born infants is often associated with separation of neonates from their mothers. Here, early artificial prolonged separation of rat pups from their dams (Maternal Deprivation, MD) was used to study potential impact on morphological lung maturation. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of an endogenous deficiency of the neuropeptide-cleaving dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), since the effects of MD are known to be partly mediated via neuropeptidergic effects, hypothesizing that MD will lead to a retardation of postnatal lung development, DPP4-dependendly. We used wild type and CD26/DPP4 deficient rats. For MD, the dam was placed each day into a separate cage for 2 h, while the pups remained in the nest on their own. Morphological lung maturation and cell proliferation at the postnatal days 7, 10, 14, and 21 were determined morphometrically. Maternally deprived wild types showed a retarded postnatal lung development compared with untreated controls in both substrains. During alveolarization, an increased thickness of alveolar septa and a decreased surface of septa about 50% were found. At the end of the morphological lung maturation, the surface of the alveolar septa was decreased at about 25% and the septal thickness remained increased about 20%. The proliferation rate was also decreased about 50% on day 14. However, the MD induced effects were less pronounced in DPP4-deficient rats, due to a significant deceleration already induced by DPP4-deficiency. Thus, MD as a model for postnatal stress experience influences remarkably postnatal development of rats, which is significantly modulated by the DPP4-system. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stange, Jonathan P.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858
Alteba, Shirley; Korem, Nachshon; Akirav, Irit
Early life stress (ES) significantly increases predisposition to psychopathologies. Cannabinoids may cause cognitive deficits and exacerbate the effects of ES. Nevertheless, the endocannabinoid system has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Here we examined whether cannabinoids…
Yarcheski, Thomas J.; Mahon, Noreen E.; Yarcheski, Adela; Hanks, Michele M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived stress and wellness in early adolescents and to test primary appraisal as a mediator of this relationship using the Neuman Systems Model as the primary framework. The sample consisted of 144 adolescents, ages 12-14, who responded to instruments measuring perceived stress,…
Baxter, Abigail; Kahn, James V.
This study investigated the needs, supports, and stresses of 37 families of children enrolled in an urban early intervention program at program start and 12 months later. At both assessment points, caregivers reported food, shelter, transportation, medical, information, personal time needs, and feelings of stress. Significant differences in scores…
Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.
This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…
Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.
This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…
Berlin, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Boyd, Misty L.; Constantino, John N.; Hallam, Rena A.; Han, Myae; Hustedt, Jason; Harden, Brenda Jones; Raver, C. Cybele; Sarche, Michelle; Vu, Jennifer A.; Watamura, Sarah Enos; Meyer, Aleta; Fortunato, Christine
The Buffering Toxic Stress Consortium was created by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation within the Administration for Children and Families to test preventive interventions for Early Head Start families facing toxic stress, as conceptualized by Shonkoff, Boyce, and McEwen in their influential 2009 article. Because relationships…
Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…
Kinney, Dennis K.; Munir, Kerim M.; Crowley, David J.; Miller, Andrea M.
This paper reviews several converging lines of research that suggest that prenatal exposure to environmental stress may increase risk for Autistic Disorder (AD). We first discuss studies finding that prenatal exposure to stressful life events is associated with significantly increased risk of AD, as well as other disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. We then review evidence from animal and human studies that prenatal stress can produce both (a) abnormal postnatal behaviors that resemble the defining symptoms of AD, and (b) other abnormalities that have elevated rates in AD, such as learning deficits, seizure disorders, perinatal complications, immunologic and neuroinflammatory anomalies, and low postnatal tolerance for stress. We explain why an etiologic role for prenatal stress is compatible with genetic factors in AD, and describe how stress can disrupt fetal brain development. Finally, we discuss implications for understanding underlying processes in AD, including potential gene-environment interactions, and developing new therapies and early prevention programs. PMID:18598714
This article reports a study that investigated preservice and inservice early childhood teachers' perceived levels of preparedness to handle stress in early childhood and elementary education students. A survey that included vignettes was used to collect data. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and statistically, using one-way ANOVA, "t"-test,…
Erdiller, Z. B.; Dogan, Ö.
The purpose of this study is to examine the level of teacher stress experienced by Turkish early childhood education teachers working in public and private preschools serving children from three to six years of age. The participants of the study include 1119 early childhood education teachers gathered through simple random sampling. The data are…
Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.
Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…
Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
The current study investigated the impact of diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) in children on parenting stress. While there is increasing pressure to provide early diagnosis of ASC, there is a lack of evidence relating to the impact of early diagnosis on the parents. The parents of 85 children with ASC completed measures of their…
Saeki, Elina; Segool, Natasha; Pendergast, Laura; von der Embse, Nathaniel
This study examined the potential influence of test-based accountability policies on school environment and teacher stress among early elementary teachers. Structural equation modeling of data from 541 kindergarten through second grade teachers across three states found that use of student performance on high-stakes tests to evaluate teachers…
Buchanan, Christy M.; Hughes, Johna L.
This study examines whether mothers' or adolescents' expectations concerning "storm and stress" behaviors at adolescence predict subsequent real or perceived adolescent behavior and attributes during the early years of adolescence. The study used a short-term longitudinal design. Participants were 6th- and 7th-grade adolescents and their mothers…
Liu, X M; Li, S; Zhang, Q Y; Wang, C; Ji, Y Q; Wang, J; Shi, J
Objective: To investigate occupational stress in migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise and the association between occupational stress and early health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia. Methods: In August 2015, stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 1 097 migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The Job Demand-Autonomy Questionnaire and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire were used to investigate occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance, and Burnout Inventory, depression scale, and self-management sleep questionnaire were used to investigate the early health effects of occupational stress. Results: In these migrant workers, the detection rates of occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance were 69.8%(766/1 097) and 11.9%(131/1 097). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the workers who had occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance had significantly higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who did not have these two types of occupational stress ( P <0.01). The workers who had occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance had a significantly higher ability to predict the risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who had occupational stress with the type of high workload ( P <0.01) , as well as a significantly higher risk of insomnia than those who did not have this type of occupational stress ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Occupational stress is the major influencing factor for early health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia, in the migrant workers in this electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The workers who have occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance have higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who have
Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won
This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms.
Tesarz, J; Gerhardt, A; Eich, W
Adult pain perception is influenced substantially by interactions between mind, body, and social environment during early life. Early stress exposure and traumatic life events induce powerful psychophysical stress reactions that exert multiple neurofunctional processes. This has significant implications for pain perception and pain processing. As part of this review, the complex relationships between traumatic stress experiences and associated psychobiological mechanisms of chronic pain will be discussed. Based on selected studies, psychophysiological findings are presented and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications for treatment.
Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Armao, Diane; Shen, Dinggang; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili
Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has provided substantial insights into early brain development, most DTI studies based on fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) may not capitalize on the information derived from the three principal diffusivities (e.g. eigenvalues). In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal evolution of white matter structures during early brain development using two geometrical diffusion measures, namely, linear (Cl) and planar (Cp) diffusion anisotropies, from 71 longitudinal datasets acquired from 29 healthy, full-term pediatric subjects. The growth trajectories were estimated with generalized estimating equations (GEE) using linear fitting with logarithm of age (days). The presence of the white matter structures in Cl and Cp was observed in neonates, suggesting that both the cylindrical and fanning or crossing structures in various white matter regions may already have been formed at birth. Moreover, we found that both Cl and Cp evolved in a temporally nonlinear and spatially inhomogeneous manner. The growth velocities of Cl in central white matter were significantly higher when compared to peripheral, or more laterally located, white matter: central growth velocity Cl = 0.0465±0.0273/log(days), versus peripheral growth velocity Cl=0.0198±0.0127/log(days), p<10−6. In contrast, the growth velocities of Cp in central white matter were significantly lower than that in peripheral white matter: central growth velocity Cp= 0.0014±0.0058/log(days), versus peripheral growth velocity Cp = 0.0289±0.0101/log(days), p<10−6. Depending on the underlying white matter site which is analyzed, our findings suggest that ongoing physiologic and microstructural changes in the developing brain may exert different effects on the temporal evolution of these two geometrical diffusion measures. Thus, future studies utilizing DTI with correlative histological analysis in the study of early brain development are warranted. PMID
Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D
Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Furuta, Marie; Spain, Debbie; Bick, Debra; Ng, Edmond S W; Sin, Jacqueline
Maternal mental health has been largely neglected in the literature. Women, however, may be vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress symptoms or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), following traumatic birth. In turn, this may affect their capacity for child rearing and ability to form a secure bond with their baby and impact on the wider family. Trauma-focused psychological therapies (TFPT) are widely regarded as effective and acceptable interventions for PTSD in general and clinical populations. Relatively little is known about the effectiveness of TFPT for women postpartum who have post-traumatic stress symptoms. We will conduct a review to assess the effectiveness of TFPT, compared with usual postpartum care, as a treatment for post-traumatic stress symptoms or PTSD for women following traumatic birth. Using a priori search criteria, we will search for randomised controlled trials (RCT) in four databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO and OpenGrey. We will use search terms that relate to the population, TFPT and comparators. Screening of search results and data extraction will be undertaken by two reviewers, independently. Risk of bias will be assessed in RCTs which meet the review criteria. Data will be analysed using the following methods, as appropriate: narrative synthesis; meta-analysis; subgroup analysis and meta-regression. As this work comprises a synthesis of existing studies, ethical approvals are not required. Results will be disseminated at conferences and in publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burkholder, Amanda R; Koss, Kalsea J; Hostinar, Camelia E; Johnson, Anna E; Gunnar, Megan R
This study examined children's ( N = 79; 9-10 years) and adolescents' ( N = 82; 15-16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care ( N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers ( N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non-adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self-reports of stress during the TSST-C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful.
Burkholder, Amanda R; Koss, Kalsea J.; Hostinar, Camelia E; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R
This study examined children’s (N = 79; 9–10 years) and adolescents’ (N = 82; 15–16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care (N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers (N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non-adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self-reports of stress during the TSST-C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful. PMID:28584408
Guion, Susan G.
Given early acquisition of prosodic knowledge as demonstrated by infants' sensitivity to native language accentual patterns, the question of whether learners can acquire new prosodic patterns across the life span arises. Acquisition of English stress by early and late Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals was investigated. In a production task, two-syllable nonwords were produced in noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords was indicated. Also, real words that were phonologically similar to the nonwords were collected. Logistic regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of three factors (syllable structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words) on the production and perception responses. In all three groups, stress patterns of phonologically similar real words predicted stress on nonwords. For the two other factors, early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native-English participants. Late Spanish-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on syllabic structure, and late Korean-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on lexical class than native-English speakers. Thus, compared to native speakers, late bilinguals' ability to abstract stress patterns is reduced and affected by the first language. [Work supported by NIH.
Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George A
Using a sample of 219 families of children with (n=94) and without (n=125) developmental disabilities, this study examined the longitudinal perspectives of maternal stress in early (ages 3-5) and middle childhood (ages 6-13) and its relationship to mothers' and children's characteristics. Multivariate latent curve models indicated that maternal stress remained high and stable with minimal individual variation in early childhood, but declined with significant individual variation in middle childhood. Maternal stress at the beginning of middle childhood was associated with earlier maternal stress, as well as children's behavioral problems and social skills. The trajectory of maternal stress across middle childhood was related to children's behavioral problems. Implications for interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z
Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10-18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henry, J P; Wang, S
The recently evolved mammalian species preservative behavior as opposed to the ancient self preservative behavior involves parental care, nursing, social interaction, pair bonding and mutual defense. Gonadal steroids together with oxytocin are critical for this affiliative, attachment behavior. When there is stressful loss of control, gonadotrophins are diminished, and the self preservative, fight-flight catecholamine coping response takes priority. It is suggested that self preservation is associated with left hemispheric brain function and that species preservation is associated with right hemispheric function. Stress during infancy that is severe enough to create insecure attachment has a dissociative effect, disrupting right hemispheric emotional functioning and species preservative behavior, and a permanent bias towards self preservation can become an adult trait. In such a person with impaired affiliation, corticoid responses may be deficient. The coronary type A behavior pattern common in our society exhibits some of this deficiency in species preservative activity.
Malta, Lise A; McDonald, Sheila W; Hegadoren, Kathy M; Weller, Carol A; Tough, Suzanne C
Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319) completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34-36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p < 0.05) and multivariable logistic regression. Approximately 30% of women reported one or more experience of interpersonal violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale, screening and treatment
Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan T
Congenital hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies identified on antenatal ultrasound. The underlying etiology of congenital hydronephrosis is multifold, ranging from transient hydronephrosis in utero to clinically significant congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. While traditional management of hydronephrosis was aimed at relieving symptoms, the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound has led to a shift in the goal of treatment to prevention of renal injury in the asymptomatic patient. However, despite this focus on renal preservation, the diagnostic criteria for identification of children "at risk" for renal damage that can be alleviated by surgical treatment remain a subject of debate. Both antenatal and postnatal imaging studies have been evaluated as indicators for potential reversible renal damage and have been used as potential indicators of the need for surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature regarding the role of postnatal clinical and radiographic evaluation to identify children who may benefit from early surgical intervention.
Glynn, Ryan M; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Wolf, Marina E; Caccamise, Aaron; Shroff, Freya; Smith, Alyssa B; Loweth, Jessica A
A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1. Rats were then subjected to repeated restraint stress or control conditions (seven sessions held between WD6 and WD14). All rats were tested again for cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD15, 1 day after the last stress or control session. Although controls showed a time-dependent increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking (incubation), rats exposed to repeated stress in early withdrawal exhibited a more robust increase in seeking behavior between WD1 and WD15. In separate stressed and control rats, equivalent cocaine seeking was observed on WD48. These results indicate that repeated stress in early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cocaine craving, although craving plateaus at the same level were observed in controls. However, 1 month after the WD48 test, rats subjected to repeated stress in early withdrawal showed enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking following acute (24 hours) food deprivation stress. Together, these data indicate that chronic stress exposure enhances the initial rate of incubation of craving during early withdrawal, resulting in increased vulnerability to cue-induced relapse during this period, and may lead to a persistent increase in vulnerability to the relapse-promoting effects of stress. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin
Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.
McIlwrick, Silja; Pohl, Tobias; Chen, Alon; Touma, Chadi
Early-life stress (ELS) has been associated with lasting cognitive impairments and with an increased risk for affective disorders. A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the body’s main stress response system, is critically involved in mediating these long-term consequences of adverse early-life experience. It remains unclear to what extent an inherited predisposition for HPA axis sensitivity or resilience influences the relationship between ELS and cognitive impairments, and which neuroendocrine and molecular mechanisms may be involved. To investigate this, we exposed animals of the stress reactivity mouse model, consisting of three independent lines selectively bred for high (HR), intermediate (IR), or low (LR) HPA axis reactivity to a stressor, to ELS and assessed their cognitive performance, neuroendocrine function and hippocampal gene expression in early and in late adulthood. Our results show that HR animals that were exposed to ELS exhibited an HPA axis hyper-reactivity in early and late adulthood, associated with cognitive impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks, as well as molecular changes in transcript levels involved in the regulation of HPA axis activity (Crh) and in neurotrophic action (Bdnf). In contrast, LR animals showed intact cognitive function across adulthood, with no change in stress reactivity. Intriguingly, LR animals that were exposed to ELS even showed significant signs of enhanced cognitive performance in late adulthood, which may be related to late-onset changes observed in the expression of Crh and Crhr1 in the dorsal hippocampus of these animals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the lasting consequences of ELS at the level of cognition differ as a function of inherited predispositions and suggest that an innate tendency for low stress reactivity may be protective against late-onset cognitive impairments after ELS. PMID:28261058
Vig, Rattanjeet; Gordon, John R; Thébaud, Bernard; Befus, A Dean; Vliagoftis, Harissios
Neonatal stress induces permanent physiological changes that may influence the immune system. Early-life stress increases asthma disease severity in children. We investigated the effects of early-life stress on allergic airway inflammation using a murine model of asthma coupled to maternal separation as an early-life stress stimulus. Maternally separated (MS) and unseparated control (CON) mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) beginning at day 31 after birth. Challenging mice with OVA increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the number of inflammatory cells recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), compared to saline-challenged mice. Challenging MS mice with OVA resulted in less total inflammatory cells, eosinophils, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 in BAL compared to CON mice. However, MS mice challenged with OVA exhibited AHR similar to CON mice challenged with OVA. In contrast, an enhanced stress protocol (MS+) involving removal of pups from their home cages following the removal of the dam resulted in inflammatory cell accumulation and cytokine levels in the BAL similar to CON mice and higher than MS mice. These findings indicate that the effect of early-life psychological factors on the development of airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma is very complex and depends on the quality of the psychological stress stimulus.
Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H
Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z
Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes 'normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational
threat (M 6.5, SD 20.0) than during safety (M 19.3, SD 11.6), t(31) 6.7, p 0.001. They also expressed more intense negative emotion on their...threats increase risk assessment (Kava- liers and Choleris, 2001), and fearful facial expressions enhance sensory intake (Susskind et al., 2008). These...visual analog scales to rate the intensity of their emotional experience (anxious, happy, safe, or stressed) during safety and threat blocks. To minimize
Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body’s stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on a) parenting in young children and b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M = 11.00 years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths’ diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents’ cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers’ stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths’ diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. PMID:26859701
Kacira, M; Ling, P P; Short, T H
A methodology was established for early, non-contact, and quantitative detection of plant water stress with machine vision extracted plant features. Top-projected canopy area (TPCA) of the plants was extracted from plant images using image-processing techniques. Water stress induced plant movement was decoupled from plant diurnal movement and plant growth using coefficient of relative variation of TPCA (CRV[TPCA)] and was found to be an effective marker for water stress detection. Threshold value of CRV(TPCA) as an indicator of water stress was determined by a parametric approach. The effectiveness of the sensing technique was evaluated against the timing of stress detection by an operator. Results of this study suggested that plant water stress detection using projected canopy area based features of the plants was feasible.
Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison G; Wright, Rosalind J
The objective of this review is to provide an update on our evolving understanding of the effects of stress in pregnancy and during early development on the onset of asthma-related phenotypes across childhood, adolescence, and into early adulthood. Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades has established that prenatal and early-life psychological stress and stress correlates (e.g., maternal anxiety or depression) increase the risk for childhood respiratory disorders. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses including numerous prospective epidemiological and case-control studies substantiate a significant effect of prenatal stress and stress in early childhood on the development of wheeze, asthma, and other atopic-related disorders (eczema and allergic rhinitis), with many studies showing an exposure-response relationship. Offspring of both sexes are susceptible to perinatal stress, but effects differ. The impact of stress on child wheeze/asthma can also be modified by exposure timing. Moreover, coexposure to prenatal stress can enhance the effect of chemical stressors, such as prenatal traffic-related air pollution, on childhood respiratory disease risk. Understanding complex interactions among exposure dose, timing, child sex, and concurrent environmental exposures promises to more fully characterize stress effects and identify susceptible subgroups. Although the link between perinatal stress and childhood asthma-related phenotypes is now well established, pathways by which stress predisposes children to chronic respiratory disorders are not as well delineated. Mechanisms central to the pathophysiology of wheeze/asthma and lung growth and development overlap and involve a cascade of events that include disrupted immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function as well as oxidative stress. Altered homeostatic functioning of these integrated systems during development can enhance vulnerability to asthma and altered lung development. Mechanistic studies that
Osborne, Lisa A; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
This community-based study examined the influence of early teaching interventions on children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and the dynamics between the time intensity of the interventions and parenting stress, on child outcomes. Intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavior and social functioning were all measured. Sixty-five children were divided into four groups, based on the levels of time intensity of their intervention, and on their parents' stress levels. There were gains in intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavioral and social skills, and there was a positive relationship between the time intensity of the early teaching interventions and child outcome gains. More importantly, however, high levels of parenting stress counteracted the effectiveness of the early teaching interventions.
Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Rod, Naja Hulvej
Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether the experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Observational data were used in the present study. Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63 years). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Participants were 5309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB). SEC included socioeconomic and family factors. The AL index was based on nine cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress.
Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T
supplementation during pregnancy did not show increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage or early childhood infections. Overall, there is limited evidence to support maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation for reducing allergic disease in children. Few differences in childhood allergic disease were seen between women who were supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA and those who were not.
McLean, John; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; McLean, Jennifer S; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N; Packard, Chris J; Condon, Barrie R; Hadley, Donald M; Cavanagh, Jonathan
Early life socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with cognitive and behavioural changes that persist through towards adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether early life socioeconomic status is associated with changes in the hippocampus N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), using the non-invasive technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the hippocampus at 3T in 30 adult males, selected from the PSOBID cohort. We conducted multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between early socioeconomic status (SES) and concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate in the hippocampus. We also examined whether the relationship between these variables was mediated by markers of chronic physiological stress. Greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower hippocampal NAA concentrations bilaterally. The relationship between early life SES and hippocampal NAA concentrations was mediated by allostatic load index - a marker of chronic physiological stress. Greater early life socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower concentrations of NAA reflecting lesser neuronal integrity. This relationship was mediated by greater physiological stress. Further work, to better understand the biological processes underlying the effects of poverty, physiological stress on hippocampal metabolites is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J
The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.
Harris, Mathew A.; Cox, Simon R.; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.
Abstract The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood – as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability – upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies. PMID:28140738
Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne
Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997
Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne
Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.
Hepatic expression of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway, acute-phase response signalling and complement system are affected in mouse offspring by prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diet.
Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C
Effects of pre- and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diets are not well understood. Transcription profiling was performed in male mouse offspring exposed to maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation to identify affected hepatic molecular pathways. Dams were fed isoenergetic diets with control (20% w/w) or high protein levels (40%). The hepatic expression profiles were evaluated by differential microarray analysis 3 days (d3) and 3 weeks (d21) after birth. Offspring from three different high-protein dietary groups, HP (d3, high-protein diet during pregnancy), HPHP (d21, high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation) and CHP (d21, control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation), were compared with age-matched offspring from dams fed control diet. Offspring body and liver mass of all high-protein groups were decreased. Prenatal high-protein diet affected hepatic expression of genes mapping to the acute response/complement system and the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF signalling pathways. Maternal exposure to high-protein diet during lactation affected hepatic gene expression of the same pathways but additionally affected genes mapping to protein, fatty acid, hexose and pyruvate metabolism. (1) Genes of the acute response/complement system and GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathways were down-regulated in offspring of dams exposed to high-protein diets during pregnancy and/or lactation. (2) Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, however, were only affected when high-protein diet was administered during lactation. (3) Modulation of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway might be responsible for reduced body and liver masses by maternal high-protein diet.
Berry, Daniel; Willoughby, Michael T.; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Granger, Douglas A.
Intervention studies indicate that children's childcare experiences can be leveraged to support the development of executive functioning (EF). The role of more normative childcare experiences is less clear. Increasingly, theory and empirical work suggest that individual differences in children's physiological stress systems may be associated with…
Kern, Simone; Rohleder, Nicolas; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lange, Jan; Ziemssen, Tjalf
Psychosocial stress has frequently been associated with disease activity and acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this well established finding, strikingly little is known about the acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) stress response in MS. Twenty-six early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (CS) took part in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a well validated psycho-social laboratory stress protocol. Repeated blood samples were analyzed for stress-related cortisol and catecholamine levels as well as for glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS) of target immune cells. Chronic and acute stress appraisals were assessed by self-report measures. RRMS patients and CS did not differ in stress-related cortisol/catecholamine levels, GCS or stress appraisal in response to the TSST. However, cortisol release as well as GCS was strongly correlated with time since diagnosis but not with neurological disability. Patients with shorter disease duration (2-12 months) expressed a significantly higher cortisol stress response while MS patients with longer disease duration (14-36 months) showed a significantly diminished HPA response as well as lower post-stress GCS. There is evidence for a time-dependent variability in the HPA stress system with an increased cortisol stress response in the first year after diagnosis along with a more blunted HPA stress response and a diminished GCS in subsequent disease stages. Data underscore the highly dynamic nature of HPA axis regulation in the MS disease process, which could possibly relate to compensatory mechanisms within a cytokine-HPA axis feedback circuit model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shalev, Idan; Belsky, Jay
Two seemingly independent bodies of research suggest a two-hit model of accelerated aging, one highlighting early-life stress and the other reproduction. The first, informed by developmental models of early-life stress, highlights reduced longevity effects of early adversity on telomere erosion, whereas the second, informed by evolutionary theories of aging, highlights such effects with regard to reproductive cost (in females). The fact that both early-life adversity and reproductive effort are associated with shorter telomeres and increased oxidative stress raises the prospect, consistent with life-history theory, that these two theoretical frameworks currently informing much research are tapping into the same evolutionary-developmental process of increased senescence and reduced longevity. Here we propose a mechanistic view of a two-hit model of accelerated aging in human females through (a) early-life adversity and (b) early reproduction, via a process of telomere erosion, while highlighting mediating biological embedding mechanisms that might link these two developmental aging processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seah, Cheryl K F; Morawska, Alina
The primary aim of this study was to examine predictors of paternal stress within the first 6 months of having a baby in a normative Australian sample, and to compare paternal and maternal stress. In total, 54 fathers and 71 mothers completed self-report measures of postnatal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, efficacy, responsiveness, attachment, and family and social support. Paired sample t test revealed a significant relationship within couples in their level of parenting stress. Fathers reported lower levels of postnatal depression, responsiveness, and attachment than did mothers. Fathers rated their level of social support to be higher than did mothers. Regression analyses indicated that responsiveness and efficacy significantly predicted paternal stress whereas responsiveness and attachment predicted maternal stress when history of psychological diagnosis and financial stability were controlled for. Results have implications for early preventive parenting programs. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.
Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive function (EF) deficits to depression during early adolescence (sixth grade). Youth (267 girls, 227 boys; X̄age at Wave 1 = 7.95, SD = .37) completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to assess peer stress and depression, respectively; teachers completed the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function to assess everyday performance in several EF domains. As anticipated, exposure to peer stress in childhood predicted heightened sixth-grade depression in girls but not boys with higher levels of EF deficits. This study extends theory and research on individual differences in vulnerability to adolescent depression, in turn elucidating potential intervention targets. PMID:28936024
Agoston, Anna M; Rudolph, Karen D
Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive function (EF) deficits to depression during early adolescence (sixth grade). Youth (267 girls, 227 boys; X̄ age at Wave 1 = 7.95, SD = .37) completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to assess peer stress and depression, respectively; teachers completed the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function to assess everyday performance in several EF domains. As anticipated, exposure to peer stress in childhood predicted heightened sixth-grade depression in girls but not boys with higher levels of EF deficits. This study extends theory and research on individual differences in vulnerability to adolescent depression, in turn elucidating potential intervention targets.
Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J
Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Murgatroyd, C; Quinn, J P; Sharp, H M; Pickles, A; Hill, J
In animal models, prenatal and postnatal stress is associated with elevated hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) reactivity mediated via altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression. Postnatal tactile stimulation is associated with reduced HPA reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. In this first study in humans to examine the joint effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, we report that GR gene (NR3C1) 1-F promoter methylation in infants is elevated in the presence of increased maternal postnatal depression following low prenatal depression, and that this effect is reversed by self-reported stroking of the infants by their mothers over the first weeks of life.
Blossom, Sarah J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.
Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers ofmore » oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced
Lopez, Marcelo F; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Becker, Howard C
Experience with stress situations during early development can have long-lasting effects on stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Importantly, this can also favor drug self-administration. These studies examined the effects of chronic social isolation and/or variable stress experiences during early development on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. The experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 1), chronic isolation during adulthood (Experiment 2), and chronic variable stress (CVS) alone or in combination with chronic social isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 3) on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake. Mice were born in our facility and were separated into two housing conditions: isolate housed (one mouse/cage) or group housed (four mice/cage) according to sex. Separate groups were isolated for 40 days starting either at time of weaning postnatal day 21 (PD 21) (early isolation, Experiments 1 and 3) or at adulthood (PD 60: late isolation, Experiment 2). The effects of housing condition on subsequent ethanol intake were assessed starting at around PD 65 in Experiments 1 and 3 or PD 105 days in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, starting at PD 32, isolate-housed and group-housed mice were either subjected to CVS or left undisturbed. CVS groups experienced random presentations of mild stressors for 14 days, including exposure to an unfamiliar open field, restraint, physical shaking, and forced swim, among others. All mice were tested for ethanol intake for 14 days using a two-bottle choice (ethanol 15% vol/vol vs. water) for a 2-h limited access procedure. Early social isolation resulted in greater ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 1). In contrast, social isolation during adulthood (late isolation) did not increase subsequent ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 2
Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan
Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer J.; Willett, Marjorie; Ruminski, Christine; Spring, Molly
The positive impact of healthy relationships on child development is widely accepted. A healthy relationship between mother and child is at risk when a mother experiences symptoms of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mothers of children with special needs are at high risk for this disorder and early intervention (EI)…
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas
This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…
To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic…
Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
This community-based study examined the influence of early teaching interventions on children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and the dynamics between the time intensity of the interventions and parenting stress, on child outcomes. Intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavior and social functioning were all measured. Sixty-five…
Daglar, Korkut; Biberoglu, Ebru; Kirbas, Ayse; Dirican, Aylin Onder; Genc, Metin; Avci, Aslihan; Biberoglu, Kutay
We investigated whether changes in cellular immunity and oxidative stress in pregnancy have any association with spontaneous miscarriage. Circulating adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a marker of cellular immunity and malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as markers of T lymphocyte activation and parameters of oxidat