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Sample records for early postoperative cognitive

  1. Serum proteomics of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Li, Shi-Zhong; Feng, Chun-Sheng; Qu, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xue-Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yun; Wu, An-Shi; Yue, Yun

    2012-07-01

    Studies on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) have attracted extensive attention and achieved significant progress. However, the diagnosis of POCD is not very satisfactory as no specific biomarkers have been classified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in serum protein composition between POCD and Non-POCD patients, identify potential biomarkers associated with early POCD, and study the mechanism underlying POCD. Sixty-eight elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) received isoflurane inhalation anesthesia for arthroplasty surgeries. One day before and seven days after the surgery, these patients were subjected to a neuropsychological test and venous blood sample collection. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was determined using Z test scores. Based on the results, the patients were divided into POCD and non-POCD groups. Twenty-five randomly chosen blood samples obtained seven days after the surgery from each group were analyzed on a Bruker ultraFlex(TM) time of flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectrophotometer. The resulting peptide fingerprints were compared with those from the pre-surgery samples to identify differences in serum protein composition. The model designed to distinguish between a non-POCD group and a POCD group were established and validated. Three proteins with the most significant changes were selected for further characterization. Thirty-three cases were diagnosed as POCD. Using the Clinprotools software, 58 polypeptides were found to display differential expression (P < 0.05). Using a support vector algorithm method, seven differential peaks were isolated to establish a diagnostic model to distinguish POCD patients from normal individuals. The prediction rate and recognition rate were 96.89% and 100%, respectively. Validation of this model showed that the accuracy rates were 100% and 85% using samples from the POCD and non-POCD groups, respectively. Protein analysis also led to the identification of fibrinopeptide A (FPA) as a

  2. Beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in pediatric patients with tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Han, Chuanlai; Fu, Rong; Lei, Weifu

    2018-07-01

    According to clinical investigations, early postoperative cognitive dysfunction is the most common adverse event in pediatric patients after tonsillectomy. A previous study has indicated that dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an efficient drug for the treatment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. However, the efficacy of DEX in alleviating early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in pediatric patients following tonsillectomy has remained elusive, which was therefore assessed in the present study. A total of 186 children presenting with cognitive dysfunction subsequent to tonsillectomy were recruited to analyze the efficacy of DEX. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and received intravenous treatment with DEX (n=112) or placebo (n=74). Duration of treatment, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DEX were evaluated in a preliminary experiment. The improvement of postoperative cognitive function in children with tonsillectomy was analyzed with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) following treatment with DEX. A 40-item quality of life (MONEX-40) questionnaire was used to assess the efficacy of DEX. The plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, superoxide dismutase (SOD), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol and melatonin were also analyzed. The preliminary experiment determined that the DLT was 10 mg/kg and the MTD was 15 mg/kg. In the major clinical trial, it was revealed that MMSE scores in the DEX treatment group were markedly improved, indicating that DEX had a beneficial effect in pediatric patients with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after tonsillectomy. In addition, IL-1and TNF-α were downregulated, while IL-6 and SOD were upregulated in patients with cognitive dysfunction after treatment with DEX compared with those in the placebo group. Furthermore, DEX treatment markedly decreased the serum levels of CRP, NSE cortisol and melatonin, which are

  3. [Postoperative cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Leposavić, Ljubica; Kocica, Mladen; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Vucetić, Cedomir; Paunović, Ivan; Slavković, Nemanja; Filimonović, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are relatively common in postoperative and critically ill patients. This complication not only compromises recovery after surgery, but, if persistent, it minimizes and compromises surgery itself. Risk factors of postoperative cognitive disorders can be divided into age and comorbidity dependent, and those related to anesthesia and surgery. Cardiovascular, orthopedic and urologic surgery carries high risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. It can also occur in other types of surgical treatment, especially in elderly. Among risk factors of cognitive disorders, associated with comorbidity, underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders, substance abuse and conditions with elevation of intracranial pressure are in the first place in postoperative patients. Preoperative and perioperative predisposing conditions for cognitive dysfunction and their incidence were described in our paper. These are: geriatric patients, patients with substance abuse, preexisting psychiatric or cognitive disorders, neurologic disease with high intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insufficiency, epilepsia, preeclampsia, acute intermittent porphyria, operation type, brain hypoxia, changes in blood glucose level, electrolyte imbalance, anesthetic agents, adjuvant medication and intraoperative awareness. For each of these factors, evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies were suggested, with special regard on anesthetic technique.

  4. Advances in the mechanisms and early warning indicators of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction after the extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Han, Jian-ge

    2015-02-01

    The high incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after extracorporeal circulation has seriously affected the prognosis and quality of life. Its mechanism may involve the inflammatory response and oxidative stress,the excessive phosphorylation of tau protein, the decreased blood volume and oxygen in the cerebral cortex. Appropriate early warning indicators of POCD after the extracorporeal circulation should be chosen to facilitate the cross validation of the results obtained different technical approaches and thus promote the early diagnosis and treatment of POCD.

  5. Parecoxib prevents early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang-Zi; Yao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Wang, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trial design neuroinflammation and postoperative pain after surgery are increasingly reported in association with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is used for postoperative analgesia for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to evaluate parecoxib's effects on POCD in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Around 134 elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into parecoxib (group P) and control (group C) groups, and treated with parecoxib sodium and saline, respectively, shortly after induction of general anesthesia and 12-h postsurgery, respectively. Perioperative plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 1evels were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed following surgery. Neuropsychological tests were performed before surgery, and 1 week and 3 months postoperation. Results: POCD incidence in group P was significantly lower compared with that of group C at 1 week after surgery (16.7% vs 33.9%; P < 0.05); no significant difference was found between groups C and P at 3-month follow-up (9.7% vs 6.7%). Compared with group C values, visual analog pain scale (VAS) scores at 3, 6, and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in group P(P < 0.05). Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were lower in group P than in group C after the operation (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the plasma CRP level was found between groups P and C. Conclusions: Parecoxib sodium decreases POCD incidence after total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients and may explain how this drug suppresses inflammation and acute postoperative pain caused by surgical trauma. PMID:27428192

  6. Effect of pre-emptive analgesia by continuous femoral nerve block on early postoperative cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Qin; Hou, Lei-Na; Song, Feng-Xiang; Zhu, Han-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Ying; Chen, Gang; Li, Jing-Jing

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the effect of pre-emptively blocking pain transmission on acute postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-emptive analgesia via a continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) on postoperative pain and early cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery in elderly patients. CFNB was performed prior to TKA surgery in the pre-emptive analgesia group (n=30) and following TKA surgery in the control group (n=30). POCD was defined as a two-point reduction in the postoperative score compared with the preoperative score in the mini-mental state examination. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the intensity of pain at rest and during exercise. The intraoperative dose of remifentanil in the pre-emptive analgesia group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.01). In the preemptive analgesia group, VAS scores at three days post-surgery were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The incidence of POCD on the third postoperative day was slightly lower in the pre-emptive analgesia group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that pre-emptive analgesia by CFNB may promote the recovery of early cognitive function following TKA in elderly patients. PMID:28413514

  7. Effect of pre-emptive analgesia by continuous femoral nerve block on early postoperative cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li-Qin; Hou, Lei-Na; Song, Feng-Xiang; Zhu, Han-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Ying; Chen, Gang; Li, Jing-Jing

    2017-04-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the effect of pre-emptively blocking pain transmission on acute postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-emptive analgesia via a continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) on postoperative pain and early cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery in elderly patients. CFNB was performed prior to TKA surgery in the pre-emptive analgesia group (n=30) and following TKA surgery in the control group (n=30). POCD was defined as a two-point reduction in the postoperative score compared with the preoperative score in the mini-mental state examination. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the intensity of pain at rest and during exercise. The intraoperative dose of remifentanil in the pre-emptive analgesia group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.01). In the preemptive analgesia group, VAS scores at three days post-surgery were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The incidence of POCD on the third postoperative day was slightly lower in the pre-emptive analgesia group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that pre-emptive analgesia by CFNB may promote the recovery of early cognitive function following TKA in elderly patients.

  8. Effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after shoulder arthroscopy: A randomized double blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Hongmei; Zhou, Qinghe; Zhu, Zhipeng; Wu, Cheng

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after shoulder arthroscopy. Randomized, double-blind study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. One hundred and fifty-two elderly patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy. At 15min before the induction of anesthesia, 152 patients received intravenously parecoxib sodium 40mg and dexmedetomidine at a dose of 0.5μg/kg over 15min, followed by a continuous infusion at a rate of 0.5μg/kg/h until the end of surgery. Then all patients who received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia were divided 2 groups: sufentanil(0.04μg/kg/h, S group), sufentanil (0.04μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine(0.06μg/kg/h) (SD group). The mini-mental status examination score in SD group was significantly higher than S group at 1, 2 and 7days after surgery. The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction during 7days after surgery in S and SD groups was respectively 17.1% and 6.7%. Compared with the S group, the visual analogue scale scores at rest and upon movement were significantly lower at 6, 14, 24, 36 and 48h after surgery in SD group; analgesia pump liquid amount during 24h after surgery and number of rescue analgesia during 48h after surgery were significantly lower in SD group. Jugular venous oxygen partial pressure and jugular venous oxygen saturation values in SD group were significantly higher than S group at postoperative 24h. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting within 48h after surgery in SD group were significantly lower than S group. We found no complications including respiratory depression and sinus bradycardia within 48h after surgery in all patients. Parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine could reduce the incidence of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients. This might be related to the improvement of postoperative analgesia effect and cerebral oxygen

  9. Can Valeriana officinalis root extract prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after CABG surgery? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Soghra; Alipour, Abbas; Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Ghafari, Rahman; Habibi, Wali-Allah; Tahmasebi, Homeyra; Alipour, Fatemeh; Ebrahim Zadeh, Pooneh

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesized that valerian root might prevent cognitive dysfunction in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients through stimulating serotonin receptors and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Valeriana officinalis root extract on prevention of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 61 patients, aged between 30 and 70 years, scheduled for elective CABG surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were recruited into the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups who received either one valerian capsule containing 530 mg of valerian root extract (1,060 mg/daily) or placebo capsule each 12 h for 8 weeks, respectively. For all patients, cognitive brain function was evaluated before the surgery and at 10-day and 2-month follow-up by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test. Mean MMSE score decreased from 27.03 ± 2.02 in the preoperative period to 26.52 ± 1.82 at the 10th day and then increased to 27.45 ± 1.36 at the 60th day in the valerian group. Conversely, its variation was reduced significantly after 60 days in the placebo group, 27.37 ± 1.87 at the baseline to 24 ± 1.91 at the 10th day, and consequently slightly increased to 24.83 ± 1.66 at the 60th day. Valerian prophylaxis reduced odds of cognitive dysfunction compared to placebo group (OR = 0.108, 95 % CI 0.022-0.545). We concluded that, based on this study, the cognitive state of patients in the valerian group was better than that in the placebo group after CABG; therefore, it seems that the use of V. officinalis root extract may prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery.

  10. Parecoxib prevents early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: A double-blind, randomized clinical consort study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang-Zi; Yao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Wang, Li-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Trial design neuroinflammation and postoperative pain after surgery are increasingly reported in association with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is used for postoperative analgesia for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to evaluate parecoxib's effects on POCD in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Around 134 elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into parecoxib (group P) and control (group C) groups, and treated with parecoxib sodium and saline, respectively, shortly after induction of general anesthesia and 12-h postsurgery, respectively. Perioperative plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 1evels were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed following surgery. Neuropsychological tests were performed before surgery, and 1 week and 3 months postoperation. POCD incidence in group P was significantly lower compared with that of group C at 1 week after surgery (16.7% vs 33.9%; P < 0.05); no significant difference was found between groups C and P at 3-month follow-up (9.7% vs 6.7%). Compared with group C values, visual analog pain scale (VAS) scores at 3, 6, and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in group P(P < 0.05). Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were lower in group P than in group C after the operation (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the plasma CRP level was found between groups P and C. Parecoxib sodium decreases POCD incidence after total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients and may explain how this drug suppresses inflammation and acute postoperative pain caused by surgical trauma.

  11. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Özcan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Altun, Deniz Utku; Çimencan, Murat; Özen, Banu; Aydın, Bengü Gülhan; Okyay, Rahşan Dilek; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S) or the Neostigmine group (Group N). The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After baseline assessment 12-24h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p>0.05). The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19min in Group S and 6.47min in Group N (p<0.0001). Recovery time was 8.26min in Group S and 16.93min in Group N (p<0.0001). We showed that the surgical procedure and/or accompanying anesthetic procedure may cause a temporary or permanent regression in cognitive function in the early postoperative period. However, better cognitive performance could not be proved in the Sugammadex compared to the Neostigmine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Early postoperative pulmonary complications after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Camkiran Firat, A; Komurcu, O; Zeyneloglu, P; Turker, M; Sezgin, A; Pirat, A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the types, incidence, and risk factors for early postoperative pulmonary complications in heart transplant recipients. We retrospectively collected data from the records of consecutive heart transplantations from January 2003 to December 2013. A total of 83 patients underwent heart transplantation. The data collected for each case were demographic features, duration of mechanical ventilation, respiratory problems that developed during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and early postoperative mortality (<30 d). Of the 72 patients considered, 52 (72.2%) were male. The overall mean age at the time of transplantation was 32.1 ± 16.6 years. Twenty-five patients (34.7%) developed early postoperative respiratory complications. The most frequent problem was pleural effusion (n = 19; 26.4%), followed by atelectasis (n = 6; 8.3%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 5; 6.9%), pulmonary edema (n = 4; 5.6%), and pneumonia (n = 3; 4.2%). Postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (44.2 ± 59.2 h vs 123.8 ± 190.8 h; P = .005) and the length of postoperative ICU stay (10.1 ± 5.8 h vs 19.8 ± 28.9 h; P = .03) were longer among patients who had respiratory problems. Postoperative length of stay in the hospital (22.3 ± 12.5 d vs 30.3 ± 38.3 d; P = .75) was similar in the 2 groups. The overall mortality rate was 12.5% (n = 9). The patients who had respiratory problems did not show higher mortality than those who did not have respiratory problems (16.0% vs 10.6%; P = .71). Respiratory complications were relatively common in our cohort of heart transplant recipients. However, these complications were mostly self-limiting and did not result in worse mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  14. Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Postoperative Delirium, and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Lam, Enoch W K; Chung, Frances; Wong, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in the general population and has been associated with cognitive impairment in older individuals. Delirium is an acute decline in cognitive function and attention that often occurs after surgery, especially in older individuals. Several recent studies suggest an association between SDB and postoperative delirium. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature on SDB, postoperative delirium, and cognitive impairment and to discuss the pathophysiology and perioperative considerations. A literature search was performed of Medline (1946-2016), Medline In-Process (June 2016), Embase (1947-2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (May 2016), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005 to June 2016). Inclusion criteria for studies were (1) polysomnography confirmed SDB; (2) postoperative delirium or cognitive impairment confirmed by a validated diagnostic tool; and (3) publications in the English language. All study designs including randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included. The literature search identified 2 studies on SDB and postoperative delirium, 15 studies on SDB and cognitive impairment, and 5 studies on the effect of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitive impairment and delirium in older individuals. SDB was associated with cognitive impairment, and this systematic review revealed that SDB may be a risk factor for postoperative delirium, especially in older individuals. Although the pathophysiology of SDB and postoperative delirium is unclear and effective treatments for SDB to reduce the incidence of delirium have not been studied extensively, preliminary evidence suggests that continuous positive airway pressure therapy may lower the risk of delirium. Health care professionals need to be aware that undiagnosed SDB may contribute to postoperative delirium. Preoperative screening for SDB and strategies to reduce the risk for

  15. Blood-brain Barrier Disruption Leads to Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Siyuan; Cao, Xipeng; Dou, Xinghui; Li, Jingzhu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Mingshan; Bi, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) has received considerable attention as one of the main postoperative complications. The underlying mechanism of POCD in elderly subjects has not been fully elucidated to date. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is isolated from the bloodstream by the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) that consists of endothelial cells, capillary blood vessels and tight junctions. The tight junctions carry out significant biological functions that are associated with the CNS and blood circulation. In this review, I present a hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption leads to postoperative cognitive dysfunction. A total of 81 healthy male Wistar rats were used for the present study. All the experimental animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control group, isoflurane group and splenectomy group. The control group was not subjected to any form of treatment. The rats in isoflurane group were given 1.5-2% isoflurane under intubation and mechanical ventilation. The rats in splenectomy group underwent splenectomy under the same anesthesia as the isoflurane group. The Morris water maze was used to examine the learning and memory ability of the animals. The expression of the Tight Junctions Proteins (TJPs) in the hippocampus was analyzed using Western blotting. The concentration of Evans Blue (EB) in the supernatant was analyzed using UV spectroscopy. Ultrastructure changes in the basal laminas, the Tight Junctions (TJs), mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the capillaries were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Following splenectomy, the rats displayed concomitant significant cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test. Taken together, the results indicate that the expression levels of occludin (65KD) following splenectomy were reduced on days one and three in aged rats. No significant difference was noted in the expression levels of claudin-5, except for a reduction after surgery on day one. The

  16. Intraoperative and early postoperative complications of manual sutureless cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Yasir; Zia, Sohail; Baig Mirza, Aneeq Ullah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the intraoperative and early postoperative complications of manual sutureless cataract extraction. Case series. Redo Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2010. Three hundred patients of cataract through purposive non-probability sampling were selected. The patients underwent manual sutureless cataract surgery (MSCS) by single experienced surgeon and intraoperative complications were documented. The surgical technique was modified to deal with any intraoperative complications accordingly. Patients were examined on the first postoperative day and on the first postoperative week for any postoperative complications. The data was entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and the results were calculated in frequencies. Among the 300 cases, 81.3% surgeries went uneventful whereas 18.6% had some complication. The common intraoperative complications were superior button-hole formation in 5%; posterior capsular rent in 5% and premature entry with iris prolapse in 3% cases. Postoperatively, the commonly encountered complications were striate keratopathy in 9.6% and hyphema 9%. At first week follow-up, 4% had striate keratopathy and 0.6% had hyphema. Striate keratopathy resolved with topical medication on subsequent follow-up. A total of 9 cases (3%) underwent second surgery: 2 cases for lens matter wash, 2 cases for hyphema and 5 cases needed suturing of wound for shallow anterior chamber due to wound leak. Superior button-hole formation, posterior capsular rent and premature entry were the common intraoperative complications of MSCS whereas the common early postoperative complications were striate keratopathy and hyphema.

  17. Postoperative cognitive changes after total knee arthroplasty under regional anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young-Tae; Kim, Byung-Gun; Park, Young Ho; Sohn, Hye-Min; Kim, Jungeun; Kim, Seung Chan; An, Seong Soo; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The type of postoperative cognitive decline after surgery under spinal anesthesia is unknown. We investigated the type of postoperative cognitive decline after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Neuropsychological testing was conducted and the changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers after surgery were evaluated. Methods: Fifteen patients who required bilateral TKA at a 1-week interval under spinal anesthesia were included. Neuropsychological tests were performed twice, once the day before the first operation and just before the second operation (usually 1 week after the first test) to determine cognitive decline. Validated neuropsychological tests were used to examine 4 types of cognitive decline: memory, frontal-executive, language-semantic, and others. Concentrations of CSF amyloid peptide, tau protein, and S100B were measured twice during spinal anesthesia at a 1-week interval. The patients showed poor performance in frontal-executive function (forward digit span, semantic fluency, letter-phonemic fluency, and Stroop color reading) at the second compared to the first neuropsychological assessment. Results: S100B concentration decreased significantly 1 week after the operation compared to the basal value (638 ± 178 vs 509 ± 167 pg/mL) (P = 0.019). Amyloid protein β1–42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau concentrations tended to decrease but the changes were not significant. Conclusion: Our results suggest that frontal-executive function declined 1 week after TKA under spinal anesthesia. The CSF biomarker analysis indicated that TKA under regional anesthesia might not cause neuronal damage. PMID:28033253

  18. MRI Markers of Neurodegenerative and Neurovascular Changes in Relation to Postoperative Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ilse M J; de Bresser, Jeroen; van Montfort, Simone J T; Slooter, Arjen J C; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) are common in elderly patients. The aim of the present review was to explore the association of neurodegenerative and neurovascular changes with the occurrence of POD and POCD. Fifteen MRI studies were identified by combining multiple search terms for POD, POCD, and brain imaging. These studies described a total of 1,422 patients and were all observational in design. Neurodegenerative changes (global and regional brain volumes) did not show a consistent association with the occurrence of POD (four studies) or POCD (two studies). In contrast, neurovascular changes (white matter hyperintensities and cerebral infarcts) were more consistently associated with the occurrence of POD (seven studies) and POCD (five studies). In conclusion, neurovascular changes appear to be consistently associated with the occurrence of POD and POCD, and may identify patients at increased risk of these conditions. Larger prospective studies are needed to study the consistency of these findings and to unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Postoperative Structural Brain Changes and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chiho; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawai, Masaaki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Tada, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Ishida, Takanori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the early response to surgery on brain structure and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer. It was hypothesized that the structure of the thalamus would change during the early response after surgery due to the effects of anesthesia and would represent one aspect of an intermediate phenotype of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). We examined 32 postmenopausal females with breast cancer and 20 age-matched controls. We assessed their cognitive function (attention, memory, and executive function), and performed brain structural MRI 1.5 ± 0.5 days before and 5.6 ± 1.2 days after surgery. We found a significant interaction between regional grey matter volume (rGMV) in the thalamus (P < 0.05, familywise error (FWE), small volume correction (SVC)) and one attention domain subtest (P = 0.001, Bonferroni correction) after surgery in the patient group compared with the control group. Furthermore, the changes in attention were significantly associated with sevoflurane anesthetic dose (r2 = 0.247, β = ‒0.471, P = 0.032) and marginally associated with rGMV changes in the thalamus (P = 0.07, FWE, SVC) in the Pt group. Our findings suggest that alterations in brain structure, particularly in the thalamus, may occur shortly after surgery and may be associated with attentional dysfunction. This early postoperative response to anesthesia may represent an intermediate phenotype of POCD. It was assumed that patients experiencing other risk factors of POCD, such as the severity of surgery, the occurrence of complications, and pre-existing cognitive impairments, would develop clinical POCD with broad and multiple types of cognitive dysfunction.

  20. Fragmented Sleep Enhances Postoperative Neuroinflammation but Not Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Susana; Degos, Vincent; Maze, Mervyn

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is integral to biologic function, and sleep disruption can result in both physiological and psychologic dysfunction including cognitive decline. Surgery activates the innate immune system, inducing neuroinflammatory changes that interfere with cognition. Because surgical patients with sleep disorders have an increased likelihood of exhibiting postoperative delirium, an acute form of cognitive decline, we investigated the contribution of perioperative sleep fragmentation (SF) to the neuroinflammatory and cognitive responses of surgery. The effects of 24-hour SF and surgery were explored in adult C57BL/6J male mice. The SF procedure started at 7 AM with cages being placed on a large platform orbital shaker that cycled every 120 seconds (30 seconds on/90 seconds off) for 24 hours. In separate cohorts, stabilized tibial fracture was performed either before or after the 24-hour SF procedure and assessed for systemic and hippocampal inflammation and cognition. SF-induced nonhippocampal memory dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation [SD] of the difference in time spent between novel and familiar object for control was 4.7 ± 1.4 seconds, n = 8 versus SF -0.5 ± 0.2 seconds, n = 11, yielding an estimated treatment effect of 5.2 seconds [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.6-7.7]; P < .001) and increased systemic interleukin-6 (median [25%-75% quartile] for control 0.0 [0.0-2.4] pg/mL versus 9.7 [6.3-12.9] pg/mL, n = 8/group, yielding an estimated treatment effect of 9.7 pg/mL [95% CI, 5.8-11.8]; P < .0001). SF reduced freezing time in hippocampal-dependent memory test (mean ± SD for control 49.3% ± 5.8% versus for SF 32.9% ± 5.8%, n = 10/group, estimated treatment effect = 16.4% [95% CI, 11.0-21.8]; P < .0001). Although surgery also reduced freezing time (mean ± SD for control 49.3% ± 5.8% versus for surgery 30.3% ± 3.3%, n = 10/group, estimated treatment effect = 19.0% [95% CI, 14.6-23.4]; P < .0001), memory impairment was not further exacerbated by combining SF

  1. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction and its relationship to cognitive reserve in elderly total joint replacement patients.

    PubMed

    Scott, J E; Mathias, J L; Kneebone, A C; Krishnan, J

    2017-06-01

    Whether total joint replacement (TJR) patients are susceptible to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear due to inconsistencies in research methodologies. Moreover, cognitive reserve may moderate the development of POCD after TJR, but has not been investigated in this context. The current study investigated POCD after TJR, and its relationship with cognitive reserve, using a more rigorous methodology than has previously been utilized. Fifty-three older adults (aged 50+) scheduled for TJR were assessed pre and post surgery (6 months). Forty-five healthy controls matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ were re-assessed after an equivalent interval. Cognition, cognitive reserve, and physical and mental health were all measured. Standardized regression-based methods were used to assess cognitive changes, while controlling for the confounding effect of repeated cognitive testing. TJR patients only demonstrated a significant decline in Trail Making Test Part B (TMT B) performance, compared to controls. Cognitive reserve only predicted change in TMT B scores among a subset of TJR patients. Specifically, patients who showed the most improvement pre to post surgery had significantly higher reserve than those who showed the greatest decline. The current study provides limited evidence of POCD after TJR when examined using a rigorous methodology, which controlled for practice effects. Cognitive reserve only predicted performance within a subset of the TJR sample. However, the role of reserve in more cognitively compromised patients remains to be determined.

  2. Early Postoperative Perils of Intraventricular Tumors: An Observational Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Schär, Ralph T; Schwarz, Christa; Söll, Nicole; Raabe, Andreas; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Beck, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Early postoperative patient surveillance after removal of intraventricular tumors is often hindered by delayed awakening and prolonged somnolence. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of early critical postoperative events after elective craniotomy for intraventricular tumors in adults compared with extraventricular lesions. An observational comparative study was conducted on adult patients who had undergone first-time elective craniotomy between November 2011 and August 2016. Patients were stratified into extraventricular lesions (group 1) and intraventricular tumors (group 2). The rates of late extubation, early postoperative seizures, emergency head computed tomography (CT) scans, and urgent surgical intervention within 48 hours and mortality within 30 days of surgery were analyzed from a prospective database. A total of 977 elective craniotomies were analyzed, including 951 (97.3%) in group 1 and 26 (2.7%) in group 2. Emergency CT scans were ordered significantly more frequently in group 2 (34.6% vs. 8.4%; odds ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.49-13.35; P = 0.0002), and the incidence of urgent surgical intervention was significantly higher in group 2 (11.5% vs. 0.8%; odds ratio, 15.38; 95% CI, 3.83-61.72; P = 0.002). The main reason for urgent surgical intervention in group 2 was acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Overall surgical mortality after 30 days was 0.3% (3 cases in group 1, no cases in group 2). Intraventricular tumors are at significantly higher risk for early emergency head CT and urgent surgical intervention. This patient cohort might benefit from routine intraoperative and early postoperative imaging, as well as intraoperative extraventricular drain placement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of Late Postoperative Hemorrhage after Whipple Procedure Using Computed Tomography Performed During Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Han, Ga Jin; Kim, Suk; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Seo, Hyeong Il; Kim, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Un

    2018-01-01

    Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is an uncommon but serious complication of Whipple surgery. To evaluate the radiologic features associated with late PPH at the first postoperative follow up CT, before bleeding. To evaluate the radiological features associated with late PPH at the first follow-up CT, two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the initial postoperative follow-up CT images of 151 patients, who had undergone Whipple surgery. Twenty patients showed PPH due to vascular problem or anastomotic ulcer. The research compared CT and clinical findings of 20 patients with late PPH and 131 patients without late PPH, including presence of suggestive feature of pancreatic fistula (presence of air at fluid along pancreaticojejunostomy [PJ]), abscess (fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas), fluid along hepaticojejunostomy or PJ, the density of ascites, and the size of visible gastroduodenal artery (GDA) stump. CT findings including pancreatic fistula, abscess, and large GDA stump were associated with PPH on univariate analysis ( p ≤ 0.009). On multivariate analysis, radiological features suggestive of a pancreatic fistula, abscess, and a GDA stump > 4.45 mm were associated with PPH ( p ≤ 0.031). Early postoperative CT findings including GDA stump size larger than 4.45 mm, fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas, and air at fluid along PJ, could predict late PPH.

  4. Role of gastrografin challenge in early postoperative small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Ugarte, Maria L Martinez; Srvantstian, Boris; Dozois, Eric J; Bannon, Michael P; Zielinski, Martin D

    2014-02-01

    Early small bowel obstruction following abdominal surgery presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Abdominal imaging using Gastrografin has been shown to have diagnostic and therapeutic properties when used in the setting of small bowel obstruction outside the early postoperative period (>6 weeks). We hypothesize that a GG challenge will reduce need for re-exploration. Patients with early small bowel obstruction who underwent a Gastrografin challenge between 2010 and 2012 were case controlled, based on age ±5 years, sex, and operative approach to an equal number of patients that did not receive the challenge. One hundred sixteen patients received a Gastrografin challenge. There were 87 males in each group with an average age of 62 years. A laparoscopic approach in the index operation was done equally between groups (18 vs. 18 %). There was no difference between groups in operative re-exploration rates (14 vs. 10 %); however, hospital duration of stay was greater in patients who received Gastrografin challenge (17 vs. 13 days). Two in hospital deaths occurred, one in each group, both of infectious complications. Use of the Gastrografin challenge in the immediate postoperative period appeared to be safe. There was no difference, however, in the rate of re-exploration between groups.

  5. Adaptive and regulatory mechanisms in aged rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yanlin; Liu, Shuyun; Yu, Xinjuan; Wang, Mingshan; Wang, Yuelan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation may play a role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction. 5′ Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kappa B, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α are involved in inflammation. Therefore, these inflammatory mediators may be involved in postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Western immunoblot analysis revealed 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B in the hippocampus of aged rats were increased 1–7 days after splenectomy. Moreover, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were upregulated and gradually decreased. Therefore, these inflammatory mediators may participate in the splenectomy model of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. PMID:25206851

  6. Early extubation after cardiac surgery: emotional status in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Silbert, B S; Santamaria, J D; Kelly, W J; O'brien, J L; Blyth, C M; Wong, M Y; Allen, N B

    2001-08-01

    To compare the emotional state during the first 3 days after coronary artery surgery of patients who had undergone early versus conventional extubation. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. University hospital, single center. Eligible patients (n = 100) presenting for elective coronary artery surgery, randomized to an early extubation group or a conventional extubation group. Emotional status was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM), and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R). Tests were administered preoperatively and on the 1st and 3rd days postoperatively. Of patients in the conventional extubation group, 30% showed moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (HAD score >10) on day 3 postoperatively compared with 8% of patients in the early extubation group (p = 0.02). There was a clinically insignificant increase in MAACL-R depression score on the 1st postoperative day within both groups but no other differences within or between groups in SAM or MAACL-R scores. Early extubation results in fewer patients displaying depressive symptoms on the 3rd postoperative day but appears to have little effect on other measurements of emotional status. Anesthetic management during coronary artery bypass graft surgery may play an important role in the overall well-being of the patient by decreasing the incidence of postoperative depression. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  7. Assessment of early post-operative pain following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Szychta, P; Antoszewski, B

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate pain incidence and intensity in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty, and to assess analgesic treatment effectiveness, in the first 7 days after surgery. Prospective outcomes analysis using visual analogue scale assessment of pain intensity in the first 7 post-operative days. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 29 women and 28 men, aged 18 to 51 years. All were treated for post-traumatic deformity of the external nose and/or nasal septum, with either septorhinoplasty or septoplasty. In the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, patients' mean visual analogue scale pain score exceeded the range denoting 'analgesic success', and showed considerable exacerbation in the evening. Patients' pain decreased to a mean score of 15.4 one hour after administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (metamizole). Analgesia is recommended for all patients in the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, especially in the early evening.

  8. Early Transthoracic Echocardiography after Cardiac Surgery Predicts Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lacalzada, Juan; Jiménez, Juan José; Iribarren, José Luis; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Martín-Cabeza, Marta; Izquierdo, María Manuela; Marí-López, Belén; García-González, Martín Jesús; Jorge-Pérez, Pablo; Barragán, Antonio; Laynez, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is frequent after cardiac surgery. We aimed to establish a predictive model of POAF based on postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. This study included 147 patients (aged 67 ± 11 years; 109 men) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement. TTE and Doppler tissue imaging were performed on intensive care unit arrival after surgery. All patients were continuously monitored during hospitalization. The end point was the appearance of POAF. POAF appeared in 37 patients (25.2%). These patients were older (69 ± 16 vs. 65 ± 12 years; P < 0.001) and had increased long axis of the left atrium (LA) dimension (5.4 ± 1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 cm, P = 0.02), lower early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (e') (6.9 ± 2.1 vs. 8 ± 1.8 cm/sec; P < 0.01), and higher early diastolic pulsed Doppler mitral ratio (E)/e' (E/e') (17.4 ± 6.8 vs. 13.8 ± 6; P = 0.01). Left ventricle diastolic dysfunction grade (DFG) of 2 or 3 relative to grade 0 was significant: odds ratio (OR) 22.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.52-57.2; P < 0.001, and OR: 23.6, 95% CI: 3.57-60.1; P = 0.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of POAF were age (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18; P < 0.05), long-axis LA dimension (OR: 6.24, 95% CI: 1.97-8.23; P = 0.0017), DFG-2 (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.57-15.81; P < 0.001), and DFG-3 (OR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.11-25.37; P < 0.001). Apart from age, the simple determination by postoperative TTE of long-axis LA dimension and DFG after cardiac surgery proved to be powerful independent predictors of POAF and may be useful for risk stratification of these patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Variable lung protective mechanical ventilation decreases incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction during open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruichun; Chen, Junping; Wu, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of cognitive abilities and can manifest on different neuropsychological features in the early postoperative period. It has been proved that the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) increased the development of delirium and POCD. However, the impact of variable and conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation on the incidence of POCD still remains unknown, which was the aim of this study. 162 patients scheduled to undergo elective gastrointestinal tumor resection via laparotomy in Ningbo No. 2 hospital with expected duration >2 h from June, 2013 to June, 2015 were enrolled in this study. Patients included were divided into two groups according to the scheme of lung protective MV, variable ventilation group (VV group, n=79) and conventional ventilation group (CV group, n=83) by randomization performed by random block randomization. The plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, characteristics of the surgical procedure, incidence of delirium and POCD were collected and compared. Postoperative delirium was detected in 36 of 162 patients (22.2%) and 12 patients of these (16.5%) belonged to the VV group while 24 patients (28.9%) were in the CV group (P=0.036). POCD on the seventh postoperative day in CV group (26/83, 31.3%) was increased in comparison with the VV group (14/79, 17.7%) with significant statistical difference (P=0.045). The levels of inflammatory cytokines were all significantly higher in CV group than those in VV group on the 1st postoperative day (P<0.05). On 7th postoperative day, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in CV group remained much higher compared with VV group (P<0.05). Variable vs conventional lung protective MV decreased the incidence of postoperative delirium and POCD by reducing the systemic proinflammatory response.

  10. Postoperative Delirium in Severely Burned Patients Undergoing Early Escharotomy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenggang; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Jia; Wang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hui; Ma, Panpan; Su, Xiaojun; Li, Ping

    The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, related risk factors, and outcomes of postoperative delirium (POD) in severely burned patients undergoing early escharotomy. This study included 385 severely burned patients (injured <1 week; TBSA, 31-50% or 11-20%; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, II-IV) aged 18 to 65 years, who underwent early escharotomy between October 2014 and December 2015, and were selected by cluster sampling. The authors excluded patients with preoperative delirium or diagnosed dementia, depression, or cognitive dysfunction. Preoperative, perioperative, intraoperative, and postoperative information, such as demographic characteristics, vital signs, and health history were collected. The Confusion Assessment Method was used once daily for 5 days after surgery to identify POD. Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for POD, t-tests, and χ tests were performed to compare the outcomes of patients with and without the condition. Fifty-six (14.55%) of the patients in the sample were diagnosed with POD. Stepwise binary logistic regression showed that the significant risk factors for POD in severely burned patients undergoing early escharotomy were advanced age (>50 years old), a history of alcohol consumption (>3/week), high American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (III or IV), time between injury and surgery (>2 days), number of previous escharotomies (>2), combined intravenous and inhalation anesthesia, no bispectral index applied, long duration surgery (>180 min), and intraoperative hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 55 mm Hg). On the basis of the different odds ratios, the authors established a weighted model. When the score of a patient's weighted odds ratios is more than 6, the incidence of POD increased significantly (P < .05). When the score of a patient's weighted odds ratios is more than 6, the incidence of POD increased significantly (P < .05

  11. Preoperative Cognitive Impairment As a Predictor of Postoperative Outcomes in a Collaborative Care Model.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Kahli; McDonald, Shelley R; Sloane, Richard; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Lagoo-Deenadayalan, Sandhya; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2018-03-01

    To compare postoperative outcomes of individuals with and without cognitive impairment enrolled in the Perioperative Optimization of Senior Health (POSH) program at Duke University, a comanagement model involving surgery, anesthesia, and geriatrics. Retrospective analysis of individuals enrolled in a quality improvement program. Tertiary academic center. Older adults undergoing surgery and referred to POSH (N = 157). Cognitive impairment was defined as a score less than 25 out of 30 (adjusted for education) on the St. Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) Examination. Median length of stay (LOS), mean number of postoperative complications, rates of postoperative delirium (POD, %), 30-day readmissions (%), and discharge to home (%) were compared using bivariate analysis. Seventy percent of participants met criteria for cognitive impairment (mean SLUMS score 20.3 for those with cognitive impairment and 27.7 for those without). Participants with and without cognitive impairment did not significantly differ in demographic characteristics, number of medications (including anticholinergics and benzodiazepines), or burden of comorbidities. Participants with and without cognitive impairment had similar LOS (P = .99), cumulative number of complications (P = .70), and 30-day readmission (P = .20). POD was more common in those with cognitive impairment (31% vs 24%), but the difference was not significant (P = .34). Participants without cognitive impairment had higher rates of discharge to home (80.4% vs 65.1%, P = .05). Older adults with and without cognitive impairment referred to the POSH program fared similarly on most postoperative outcomes. Individuals with cognitive impairment may benefit from perioperative geriatric comanagement. Questions remain regarding the validity of available measures of cognition in the preoperative period. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS IN ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    STOLL, Aluisio; ROSIN, Leandro; DIAS, Mariana Fernandes; MARQUIOTTI, Bruna; GUGELMIN, Giovana; STOLL, Gabriela Fanezzi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most common bariatric surgery and leads to considerable weight loss in the first months. Aim: To quantify the main early postoperative complications in patients submitted to the gastric bypass. Method: Observational retrospective cohort. Data of 1051 patients with class II obesity associated with comorbidities or class III obesity submitted to the gastric bypass with 30 days of follow-up starting from the date of the surgery. Results: The age average was 36 years with a predominance of females (81.1%). The mean preoperative body mass index was 43 kg/m². The major complication was fistula (2.3%), followed by intestinal obstruction (0.5%) and pulmonary embolism (0.5%). Death occurred in 0.6% of the cases. Conclusion: In the period of 30 days after surgery the overall complication rate was 3.8%; reoperation was necessary in 2.6% and death occurred in 0.6%. Fistula was the main complication and the leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit, reoperation and death. PMID:27683781

  13. Thinking through postoperative cognitive dysfunction: How to bridge the gap between clinical and pre-clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hovens, Iris B; Schoemaker, Regien G; van der Zee, Eddy A; Heineman, Erik; Izaks, Gerbrand J; van Leeuwen, Barbara L

    2012-10-01

    Following surgery, patients may experience cognitive decline, which can seriously reduce quality of life. This postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is mainly seen in the elderly and is thought to be mediated by surgery-induced inflammatory reactions. Clinical studies tend to define POCD as a persisting, generalised decline in cognition, without specifying which cognitive functions are impaired. Pre-clinical research mainly describes early hippocampal dysfunction as a consequence of surgery-induced neuroinflammation. These different approaches to study POCD impede translation between clinical and pre-clinical research outcomes and may hamper the development of appropriate interventions. This article analyses which cognitive domains deteriorate after surgery and which brain areas might be involved. The most important outcomes are: (1) POCD encompasses a wide range of cognitive impairments; (2) POCD affects larger areas of the brain; and (3) individual variation in the vulnerability of neuronal networks to neuroinflammatory mechanisms may determine if and how POCD manifests itself. We argue that, for pre-clinical and clinical research of POCD to advance, the effects of surgery on various cognitive functions and brain areas should be studied. Moreover, in addition to general characteristics, research should take inter-relationships between cognitive complaints and physical and mental characteristics into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid function, Alzheimer's disease and postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a tale of dangerous liaisons?

    PubMed

    Mafrica, Federica; Fodale, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are commonly present conditions in adults, leading to neurological symptoms, affecting the central and peripheral nervous system, and to neurocognitive impairment. Several studies investigated a possible association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thyroid dysfunctions. Increasing evidence supports an extensive interrelationship between thyroid hormones and the cholinergic system, which is selectively and early affected in AD. Moreover, thyroid hormones negatively regulate expression of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP), which plays a key role in the development of AD. A condition, the so called euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), characterized by reduced serum T_{3} and T_{4} concentrations without increased serum thyroid stimulation hormone secretion, occurs within hours after major surgery. After surgery, elderly patients often exhibit a transient, reversible state of cognitive alterations. Delirium occurs in 10-26% of general medical patients over 65, and it is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Modifications in thyroid hormone functioning may take place as a consequence of psycho-physical stress caused by surgery, and probably as a consequence of reduced conversion of T4 into T3 by the liver engaged in metabolizing anesthetic drugs. Therefore, modifications of thyroid hormones post-surgery, might play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Clinical Features of Early and Late Postoperative Hypothyroidism After Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Eyun; Oh, Hye-Seon; Kim, Mijin; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Won Gu

    2017-04-01

    Lobectomy is preferred in thyroid cancer to decrease surgical complications and avoid lifelong thyroid-hormone replacement. However, postoperative hypothyroidism, requiring thyroid-hormone replacement, may occur. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of postoperative hypothyroidism to develop a surveillance strategy after lobectomy for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This historical cohort study involved 335 patients with PTMC treated by lobectomy. Postoperative thyroid functions were measured regularly, and patients were prescribed levothyroxine according to specific criteria. Patients not satisfying hormone-replacement criteria were closely followed up. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred in 215 patients (64.2%) including 5 (1.5%) with overt hypothyroidism and 210 (62.7%) with subclinical hypothyroidism. Forty patients (11.9%) were required thyroid hormone replacement. One hundred nineteen patients (33.5%) experienced temporary hypothyroidism and spontaneously recovered to euthyroid state. High preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was the most important factor predicting postoperative hypothyroidism and failure of recover from hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 2.82 and 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07 to 3.95 and 1.22 to 2.63; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Of the 215 patients eventually developing postoperative hypothyroidism, 70 (32.6%) developed hypothyroidism after the first postoperative year. Postoperative 1-year TSH levels were able to differentiate patients developing late hypothyroidism or euthyroidism (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.68 to 3.26; P < 0.001). Preoperative and postoperative TSH levels might be predictive for patients who develop postlobectomy hypothyroidism and identify those requiring long-term surveillance for hypothyroidism. Additionally, mild postoperative hypothyroidism cases should be followed up without immediate levothyroxine replacement with the expectation of spontaneous recovery. Copyright

  16. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  17. Cognitive function in early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aanchal; Hou, Jue; Liu, Lei; Gao, Yi; Kettering, Casey; Ragin, Ann B

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations. At the initial timepoint, the HIV group demonstrated significantly weaker performance on measures of verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, motor speed, and executive function. A similar pattern was found when cognitive function was examined at follow-up and across both timepoints. The HIV subjects had generally weaker performance on psychomotor speed, executive function, motor speed, visual memory, and verbal memory. The rate of decline in cognitive function across the 2-year follow-up period did not differ between groups. Correlations between clinical status markers and cognitive function at both timepoints showed weaker performance associated with increased disease burden. Neurocognitive difficulty in chronic HIV infection may have very early onset and reflect consequences of initial brain viral invasion and neuroinflammation during the intense, uncontrolled viremia of acute HIV infection. Further characterization of the changes occurring in initial stages of infection and the risk and protective factors for cognitive function could inform new strategies for neuroprotection.

  18. Biomarkers of Brain Damage and Postoperative Cognitive Disorders in Orthopedic Patients: An Update.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in orthopedic patients varies from 16% to 45%, although it can be as high as 72%. As a consequence, the hospitalization time of patients who developed POCD was longer, the outcome and quality of life were worsened, and prolonged medical and social assistance were necessary. In this review the short description of such biomarkers of brain damage as the S100B protein, NSE, GFAP, Tau protein, metalloproteinases, ubiquitin C terminal hydrolase, microtubule-associated protein, myelin basic protein, α-II spectrin breakdown products, and microRNA was made. The role of thromboembolic material in the development of cognitive decline was also discussed. Special attention was paid to optimization of surgical and anesthetic procedures in the prevention of postoperative cognitive decline.

  19. Effect of sugammadex versus neostigmine/atropine combination on postoperative cognitive dysfunction after elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Batistaki, C; Riga, M; Zafeiropoulou, F; Lyrakos, G; Kostopanagiotou, G; Matsota, P

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine/atropine on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in adult patients after elective surgery. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial was carried out on 160 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III patients who were >40 years. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation, clock-drawing test and the Isaacs Set test were used to assess cognitive function at three timepoints: 1) preoperatively, 2) one hour postoperatively, and 3) at discharge. The anaesthetic protocol was the same for all patients, except for the neuromuscular block reversal, which was administered by random allocation using either sugammadex or neostigmine/atropine after the reappearance of T2 in the train-of-four sequence. POCD was defined as a decline ≥1 standard deviation in ≥2 cognitive tests. The incidence of POCD was similar in both groups at one hour postoperatively and at discharge (28% and 10%, in the neostigmine group, 23% and 5.4% in the sugammadex group, P =0.55 and 0.27 respectively). In relation to individual tests, a significant decline of clock-drawing test in the neostigmine group was observed at one hour postoperatively and at discharge. For the Isaacs Set test, a greater decline was found in the sugammadex group. These findings suggest that there are no clinically important differences in the incidence of POCD after neostigmine or sugammadex administration.

  20. Patient Satisfaction With an Early Smartphone-Based Cosmetic Surgery Postoperative Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Edoardo Dalla; D'Souza, Gehaan F; DeLeonibus, Anthony; Fabiani, Brianna; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Zins, James E

    2017-12-13

    While prevalent in everyday life, smartphones are also finding increasing use as a medical care adjunct. The use of smartphone technology as a postoperative cosmetic surgery adjunct for care has received little attention in the literature. The purpose of this effort was to assess the potential efficacy of a smartphone-based cosmetic surgery early postoperative follow-up program. Specifically, could smartphone photography provided by the patient to the plastic surgeon in the first few days after surgery allay patient's concerns, improve the postoperative experience and, possibly, detect early complications? From August 2015 to March 2016 a smartphone-based postoperative protocol was established for patients undergoing cosmetic procedures. At the time of discharge, the plastic surgeon sent a text to the patient with instructions for the patient to forward a postoperative photograph of the operated area within 48 to 72 hours. The plastic surgeon then made a return call/text that same day to review the patient's progress. A postoperative questionnaire evaluated the patients' postoperative experience and satisfaction with the program. A total of 57 patients were included in the study. Fifty-two patients responded to the survey. A total of 50 (96.2%) patients reported that the process improved the quality of their postoperative experience. The protocol allowed to detect early complications in 3 cases. The physician was able to address and treat the complications the following day prior to the scheduled clinic follow up. The smartphone can be effectively utilized by the surgeon to both enhance the patient's postoperative experience and alert the surgeon to early postoperative problems. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Early post-operative cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia: Report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Suo, Shihuan; Zhao, Jinchuan; Li, Guichen

    2018-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a common neurosurgical condition, which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. At our institution, a substantial number of the reported cases of early post-operative CSF hypovolemia were identified to have unintentional or unrecognized post-operative continuous excessive CSF leakage. Cases who presented with post-operative CSF hypovolemia several days after uneventful intracranial surgeries without continuous CSF leakage were rarely reported. A retrospective review of the medical records of these patients was performed to identify those patients who developed early post-operative CSF hypovolemia without the presence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. A total of 7 patients, 5 of which were males, were identified in this retrospective study. They experienced CSF hypovolemia between days 1 and 7 after emergency or scheduled intracranial surgeries. Ventricular collapse, cisternal effacement and midline shift are the most common radiological observations. With early diagnosis and management, 4 of the patients achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, 1 achieved a GOS score of 4 and the remaining 2 had a GOS score of 3. No mortality was noted in this series. Although rare in incidence, early post-operative CSF hypovolemia may occur without the existence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. When the diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia is reached, factors that may exacerbate CSF compensation should be promptly terminated. Trendelenburg position and sufficient intravenous hydration are practical and effective managements, and CSF hypovolemia may thereby be reversed in a substantial number of patients.

  2. Breastfeeding, parenting, and early cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata

    2014-03-01

    To explain why breastfeeding is associated with children's cognitive development. By using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of early childhood (N = 7500), we examined how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods, and putting an infant to bed with a bottle were associated with cognitive development across early childhood. We also explored whether this link can be explained by parenting behaviors and maternal education. There is a positive relationship between predominant breastfeeding for 3 months or more and child reading skills, but this link is the result of cognitively supportive parenting behaviors and greater levels of education among women who predominantly breastfed. We found little-to-no relationship between infant feeding practices and the cognitive development of children with less-educated mothers. Instead, reading to a child every day and being sensitive to a child's development were significant predictors of math and reading readiness outcomes. Although breastfeeding has important benefits in other settings, the encouragement of breastfeeding to promote school readiness does not appear to be a key intervention point. Promoting parenting behaviors that improve child cognitive development may be a more effective and direct strategy for practitioners to adopt, especially for disadvantaged children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction: An exploration of the inflammatory hypothesis and novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Skvarc, David R; Berk, Michael; Byrne, Linda K; Dean, Olivia M; Dodd, Seetal; Lewis, Matthew; Marriott, Andrew; Moore, Eileen M; Morris, Gerwyn; Page, Richard S; Gray, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) is a highly prevalent condition with significant clinical, social and financial impacts for patients and their communities. The underlying pathophysiology is becoming increasingly understood, with the role of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress secondary to surgery and anaesthesia strongly implicated. This review aims to describe the putative mechanisms by which surgery-induced inflammation produces cognitive sequelae, with a focus on identifying potential novel therapies based upon their ability to modify these pathways. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction in older adults: a call for nursing involvement.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2014-11-01

    As the population continues to age and new medical developments make surgery at advanced ages increasingly possible, it is important to consider how older adults tolerate surgery and anesthesia. Considerable evidence shows that older adults have a higher risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), which leads to transient and sometimes long-term cognitive changes that may affect quality of life. Because little is known about how to prevent or treat POCD, it is important that nurses identify ways in which they can intervene to help patients who experience this disorder. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Dong, Yuanlin; Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The Aβ accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. γ-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated Aβ accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.

  6. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386

  7. Poor Performance on a Preoperative Cognitive Screening Test Predicts Postoperative Complications in Older Orthopedic Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Culley, Deborah J; Flaherty, Devon; Fahey, Margaret C; Rudolph, James L; Javedan, Houman; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Wright, John; Bader, Angela M; Hyman, Bradley T; Blacker, Deborah; Crosby, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The American College of Surgeons and the American Geriatrics Society have suggested that preoperative cognitive screening should be performed in older surgical patients. We hypothesized that unrecognized cognitive impairment in patients without a history of dementia is a risk factor for development of postoperative complications. We enrolled 211 patients 65 yr of age or older without a diagnosis of dementia who were scheduled for an elective hip or knee replacement. Patients were cognitively screened preoperatively using the Mini-Cog and demographic, medical, functional, and emotional/social data were gathered using standard instruments or review of the medical record. Outcomes included discharge to place other than home (primary outcome), delirium, in-hospital medical complications, hospital length-of-stay, 30-day emergency room visits, and mortality. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Fifty of 211 (24%) patients screened positive for probable cognitive impairment (Mini-Cog less than or equal to 2). On age-adjusted multivariate analysis, patients with a Mini-Cog score less than or equal to 2 were more likely to be discharged to a place other than home (67% vs. 34%; odds ratio = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.58 to 9.55), develop postoperative delirium (21% vs. 7%; odds ratio = 4.52, 95% CI = 1.30 to 15.68), and have a longer hospital length of stay (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.95) compared to those with a Mini-Cog score greater than 2. Many older elective orthopedic surgical patients have probable cognitive impairment preoperatively. Such impairment is associated with development of delirium postoperatively, a longer hospital stay, and lower likelihood of going home upon hospital discharge.

  8. Prediction of early postoperative infections in pediatric liver transplantation by logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova, Yordanka; Prodanova, Krasimira; Spassov, Lubomir

    2016-12-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of infections after OLT are usually associated with improved outcomes. This study's objective is to identify reliable factors that can predict postoperative infectious morbidity. 27 children were included in the analysis. They underwent liver transplantation in our department. The correlation between two parameters (the level of blood glucose at 5th postoperative day and the duration of the anhepatic phase) and postoperative infections was analyzed, using univariate analysis. In this analysis, an independent predictive factor was derived which adequately identifies patients at risk of infectious complications after a liver transplantation.

  9. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  10. Effects of oral preoperative carbohydrate on early postoperative outcome after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Lauwick, S M; Kaba, A; Maweja, S; Hamoir, E E; Joris, Jean L

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) reduces perioperative insulin resistance and improves preoperative patient comfort. We tested the hypotheses that preoperative CHO reduces the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and improves early postoperative patient comfort. Two hundred women scheduled for thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to drink 50 g CHO in 400 ml of water or 0.5 g aspartam in 100 ml of water 2 h before surgery. The incidence and the severity of PONV, pain scores, and analgesic consumption were recorded postoperatively. Intensity of thirst, hunger, anxiety, fatigue were recorded on 100-mm visual analog scales just before the induction of anesthesia, 2, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. The incidence and severity of PONV were similar in both groups. Patients from the CHO group reported significantly less thirst (P = 0.007), hunger (P = 0.04), and fatigue (P = 0.01) than patients from the control group. Postoperative pain scores did not differ significantly between both groups (P = 0.34). However patients from the CHO group requested less acetaminophen during the first 24 postoperative h: 3 g vs. 2 g (median, P = 0.002). Oral carbohydrate before thyroidectomy improves pre- and postoperative patient comfort, as well as postoperative analgesia, but has no effect on the PONV.

  11. Clinical multifactorial analysis of early postoperative seizures in elderly patients following meningioma resection

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, BO; WANG, DAN; GUO, YUNBAO; YU, JINLU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the major factors correlated with early postoperative seizures in elderly patients who had undergone a meningioma resection, and subsequently, to develop a logistic regression equation for assessing the seizures risk. Fourteen factors possibly correlated with early postoperative seizures in a cohort of 209 elderly patients who had undergone meningioma resection, as analyzed by multifactorial stepwise logistic regression. Phenobarbital sodium (0.1 g, intramuscularly) was administered to all 209 patients 30 min prior to undergoing surgery. All the patients had no previous history of seizures. The correlation of the 14 clinical factors (gender, tumor site, dyskinesia, peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), tumor diameter, pre- and postoperative prophylaxes, surgery time, tumor adhesion, circumscription, blood supply, intraoperative transfusion, original site of the tumor and dysphasia) was assessed in association with the risk for post-operative seizures. Tumor diameter, postoperative prophylactic antiepileptic drug (PPAD) administration, PTBE and tumor site were entered as risk factors into a mathematical regression model. The odds ratio (OR) of the tumor diameter was >1, and PPAD administration showed an OR >1, relative to a non-prophylactic group. A logistic regression equation was obtained and the sensitivity, specificity and misdiagnosis rates were 91.4, 74.3 and 25.7%, respectively. Tumor diameter, PPAD administration, PTBE and tumor site were closely correlated with early postoperative seizures; PTBE and PPAD administration were risk and protective factors, respectively. PMID:26137257

  12. Post-operative cognitive dysfunction after knee arthroplasty: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Kiryu K.; Joyner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common in the elderly, and significantly impacts their recovery. We present an unusual diagnostic challenge where a 65-year-old male presented 4-week post-total knee arthroplasty with acute cognitive dysfunction lasting 19 days. Curiously, there were no findings uncovering a specific cause, but during investigation underlying predisposing factors such as depression, mild memory deficits and generalized brain volume loss were identified. The impression after psychogeriatric review was that of an organic brain syndrome with overlay of depression, with a complex presentation as POCD. After escalation of behavioural disturbance, he was commenced on anti-psychotic/depressant, with immediate response. We emphasize the importance of pre-operative evaluation of cognitive function and risk factors in all geriatric patients undergoing elective surgery, and the need for further characterization of POCD, as well as experimental research elucidating the underlying mechanisms to better identify and treat this important post-surgical phenomenon. PMID:25988029

  13. Definition and application of neuropsychological test battery to evaluate postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Lívia Stocco Sanches; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Aguiar, Wagner; Rios, Ruth Pinto Camarão; Stahlberg, Mariane Galzerano; de Menezes, Iolanda Valois Galvão; Osternack-Pinto, Kátia; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the adequacy of the neuropsychological test battery proposed by the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction to evaluate this disorder in Brazilian elderly patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Methods A neuropsychological assessment was made in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia, aged over 65 years, literate, with no history of psychiatric or neurological problems and score on the Mini Mental State Examination at or above the cutoff point for the Brazilian population (>18 or >23) according to the schooling level of the subject. Eighty patients were evaluated by a trained team of neuropsychologists up to 24 hours before elective surgery. Results Among the patients evaluated, one was excluded due to score below the cutoff point in the Mini Mental State Examination and two did not complete the test battery, thus remaining 77 patients in the study. The mean age was 69±7.5 years, and 62.34% of the subjects had ±4 years of study. The subjects had significantly lower averages than expected (p<0.001) for normative tables on neuropsychological tests. Conclusion The study demonstrated the applicability of the instruments in the Brazilian elderly and low schooling level population, but suggested the need to determine cutoff points appropriate for these individuals, ensuring the correct interpretation of results. This battery is relevant to postoperative follow-up evaluations, favoring the diagnosis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing different types of surgery and anesthetic techniques. PMID:25993064

  14. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (<10 days) and late (>30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (p<.001, Fisher’s exact test). The average percent decrease in cavity volume from pre-operative MRI (tumor volume) to early post-operative imaging was 45% with decreases in all but 3 patients. There was no correlation between the size of the early cavity and the visual outcome. Conclusions Early high resolution volumetric MRI is valuable in determining the presence or absence of residual tumor. Cavity volume almost always decreases after surgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  15. Early and late postoperative seizure outcome in 97 patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Fu, Weiming; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jianmin

    2013-08-01

    We identified factors associated with early and late postoperative seizure control in patients with supratentorial meningioma plus preoperative seizures. In this retrospective study, univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis compared 24 clinical variables according to the occurrence of early (≤1 week) or late (>1 week) postoperative seizures. Sixty-two of 97 patients (63.9 %) were seizure free for the entire postoperative follow-up period (29.5 ± 11.8 months), while 13 patients (13.4 %) still had frequent seizures at the end of follow-up. Fourteen of 97 patients (14.4 %) experienced early postoperative seizures, and emergence of new postoperative neurological deficits was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio = 7.377). Thirty-three patients (34.0 %) experienced late postoperative seizures at some time during follow-up, including 12 of 14 patients with early postoperative seizures. Associated risk factors for late postoperative seizures included tumor progression (odds ratio = 7.012) and new permanent postoperative neurological deficits (odds ratio = 4.327). Occurrence of postoperative seizures in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizure was associated with new postoperative neurological deficits. Reduced cerebral or vascular injury during surgery may lead to fewer postoperative neurological deficits and better seizure outcome.

  16. Preoperative determinant of early postoperative renal function following radical cystectomy and intestinal urinary diversion.

    PubMed

    Gondo, Tatsuo; Ohno, Yoshio; Nakashima, Jun; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2017-02-01

    To identify preoperative factors correlated with postoperative early renal function in patients who had undergone radical cystectomy (RC) and intestinal urinary diversion. We retrospectively identified 201 consecutive bladder cancer patients without distant metastasis who had undergone RC at our institution between 2003 and 2012. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology equation before RC and 3 months following RC. Univariate and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were applied to estimate postoperative renal function and to identify significant preoperative predictors of postoperative renal function. Patients who had undergone intestinal urinary diversion and were available for the collection of follow-up data (n = 164) were eligible for the present study. Median preoperative and postoperative eGFRs were 69.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 56.3-78.0) and 70.7 (IQR 57.3-78.1), respectively. In univariate analyses, age, preoperative proteinuria, thickness of abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue (TSF), preoperative serum creatinine level, preoperative eGFR, and urinary diversion type were significantly associated with postoperative eGFR. In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, preoperative eGFR, age, and TSF were significant factors for predicting postoperative eGFR (p < 0.001, p = 0.02, and p = 0.046, respectively). The estimated postoperative eGFRs correlated well with the actual postoperative eGFRs (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). Preoperative eGFR, age, and TSF were independent preoperative factors for determining postoperative renal function in patients who had undergone RC and intestinal urinary diversion. These results may be used for patient counseling before surgery, including the planning of perioperative chemotherapy administration.

  17. [Circulating miR-152 helps early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Liao, Yu-Feng; Ma, Jian-Bo; Mao, Qi-Feng; Jia, Guang-Cheng; Dong, Xue-Jun

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the value of circulating miR-152 in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Sixty-six cases of prostate cancer were included in this study, 35 with and 31 without biochemical recurrence within two years postoperatively, and another 31 healthy individuals were enrolled as normal controls. The relative expression levels of circulating miR-152 in the serum of the subjects were detected by qRT-PCR, its value in the early diagnosis of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer was assessed by ROC curve analysis, and the correlation of its expression level with the clinicopathological parameters of the patients were analyzed. The expression of circulating miR-152 was significantly lower in the serum of the prostate cancer patients than in the normal controls (t = -5.212, P = 0.001), and so was it in the patients with than in those without postoperative biochemical recurrence (t = -5.727, P = 0.001). The ROC curve for the value of miR-152 in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer showed the area under the curve (AUC) to be 0.906 (95% CI: 0.809-0.964), with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 80.6%. The expression level of miR-152 was correlated with the Gleason score, clinical stage of prostate cancer, biochemical recurrence, and bone metastasis (P <0.05), decreasing with increased Gleason scores and elevated clinical stage of the malignancy. No correlation, however, was found between the miR-152 expression and the patients' age or preoperative PSA level (P >0.05). The expression level of circulating miR-152 is significantly reduced in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy and could be a biomarker in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of the malignancy.

  18. Assessment of cognition in early dementia

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Nina B.; Ryan, Laurie M.; Carrillo, Maria C.; Sperling, Reisa; Petersen, Ronald C.; Posner, Holly B.; Snyder, Peter J.; Hilsabeck, Robin; Gallagher, Michela; Raber, Jacob; Rizzo, Albert; Possin, Katherine; King, Jonathan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Ott, Brian R.; Albert, Marilyn S.; Wagster, Molly V.; Schinka, John A.; Cullum, C. Munro; Farias, Sarah T.; Balota, David; Rao, Stephen; Loewenstein, David; Budson, Andrew E.; Brandt, Jason; Manly, Jennifer J.; Barnes, Lisa; Strutt, Adriana; Gollan, Tamar H.; Ganguli, Mary; Babcock, Debra; Litvan, Irene; Kramer, Joel H.; Ferman, Tanis J.

    2012-01-01

    Better tools for assessing cognitive impairment in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are required to enable diagnosis of the disease before substantial neurodegeneration has taken place and to allow detection of subtle changes in the early stages of progression of the disease. The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association convened a meeting to discuss state of the art methods for cognitive assessment, including computerized batteries, as well as new approaches in the pipeline. Speakers described research using novel tests of object recognition, spatial navigation, attentional control, semantic memory, semantic interference, prospective memory, false memory and executive function as among the tools that could provide earlier identification of individuals with AD. In addition to early detection, there is a need for assessments that reflect real-world situations in order to better assess functional disability. It is especially important to develop assessment tools that are useful in ethnically, culturally and linguistically diverse populations as well as in individuals with neurodegenerative disease other than AD. PMID:23559893

  19. Impact of postoperative magnesium levels on early hypocalcemia and permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Garrahy, Aoife; Murphy, Matthew S; Sheahan, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is a common complication of thyroidectomy. Magnesium is known to modulate serum calcium levels and hypomagnesemia may impede correction of hypocalcemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hypomagnesemia after thyroidectomy has any impact on early hypocalcemia and/or permanent hypoparathyroidism. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively maintained databases. Inclusion criteria were total or completion total thyroidectomy with postoperative magnesium levels available. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia was correlated with postoperative hypomagnesemia and other risk factors. Two hundred one cases were included. Twenty-six patients (13%) developed postoperative hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia (p = .002), cancer diagnosis (p = .01), central neck dissection (p = .02), and inadvertent parathyroid resection (p = .02) were significantly associated with hypocalcemia. On multivariate analysis, only hypomagnesemia (p = .005) remained significant. Hypomagnesemia was also a significant predictor of permanent hypoparathyroidism (p = .0004). Hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with early hypocalcemia and permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy. Magnesium levels should be closely monitored in patients with postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interference of postoperative pain on women's daily life after early discharge from cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Leegaard, Marit; Rustøen, Tone; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2010-06-01

    Women report more postoperative pain and problems performing domestic activities than men in the first month of recovery after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to describe how women rate and describe pain interference with daily life after early discharge from cardiac surgery. A qualitative study was conducted in 2004-2005 with ten women recruited from a large Norwegian university hospital before discharge from their first elective cardiac surgery. Various aspects of the women's postoperative experiences were collected with qualitative interviews in the women's homes 8-14 days after discharge: a self-developed pain diary measuring pain intensity, types and amount of pain medication taken every day after returning home from hospital; and the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form immediately before the interview. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify recurring themes from the interviews. Data from the questionnaires provided more nuances to the experiences of pain, pain management, and interference of postoperative pain. Postoperative pain interfered most with sleep, general activity, and the ability to perform housework during the first 2 weeks after discharge. Despite being advised at the hospital to take pain medication regularly, few women consumed the maximum amount of analgesics. Early hospital discharge after open cardiac surgery implies increased patient participation in pain management. Women undergoing this surgery need more information in hospital on why postoperative pain management beyond simple pain relief is important. (c) 2010 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between baseline cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing surgery for adult spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Vuong, Victoria D; Fialkoff, Jared; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative delirium is common in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery and is associated with a longer and more costly hospital course, functional decline, postoperative institutionalization, and higher likelihood of death within 6 months of discharge. Preoperative cognitive impairment may be a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing surgery for degenerative scoliosis. METHODS Elderly patients 65 years and older undergoing a planned elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis were enrolled in this study. Preoperative cognition was assessed using the validated Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) examination. SLUMS comprises 11 questions, with a maximum score of 30 points. Mild cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score between 21 and 26 points, while severe cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score of ≤ 20 points. Normal cognition was defined as a SLUMS score of ≥ 27 points. Delirium was assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and rated as absent or present on the basis of CAM. The incidence of delirium was compared in patients with and without baseline cognitive impairment. RESULTS Twenty-two patients (18%) developed delirium postoperatively. Baseline demographics, including age, sex, comorbidities, and perioperative variables, were similar in patients with and without delirium. The length of in-hospital stay (mean 5.33 days vs 5.48 days) and 30-day hospital readmission rates (12.28% vs 12%) were similar between patients with and without delirium, respectively. Patients with preoperative cognitive impairment (i.e., a lower SLUMS score) had a higher incidence of postoperative delirium. One- and 2-year patient reported outcomes scores were similar in patients with and without delirium. CONCLUSIONS

  2. Early postoperative evaluation of groins after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of inguinal hernias.

    PubMed

    Shpitz, Baruch; Kuriansky, Josef; Werener, Miriam; Osadchi, Alexandra; Tiomkin, Vitaly; Bugayev, Nikolay; Klein, Ehud

    2004-12-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (LTEP) repair of bilateral and/or recurrent groin hernias has been popularized as one of the procedures of choice in the past decade. The early postoperative course is uneventful in most cases. A few patients, however, will develop temporary postoperative groin swelling. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and sonographic findings in the groin during the early postoperative period following LTEP. One hundred and five consecutive patients with primary bilateral (n = 90), recurrent unilateral (n = 12), and primary unilateral (n =3) groin hernias operated on during an 18-month period underwent clinical and sonographic examination two to three weeks after LTEP. On clinical examination, a localized groin swelling was found in 21 patients (20%). The most frequent sonographic findings were localized groin collections compatible with seroma or hematoma, found in 35 patients (33%). Hypoechoic diffuse tissue swelling around the mesh, lipomas, and residual hernias was found in four patients each (4%). None of the patients with hypoecoic mass had any clinical manifestations postoperatively. Extraperitoneal close suction drains were left for 8-12 hours in 46 patients. The average volume of fluid drained was 62 mL (range, 30-200 mL). There was no correlation between the use of suction drains and the frequency of fluid collections detected on sonography. Cord lipoma was detected postoperatively in four patients and was excised in one using an open anterior approach. Residual or recurrent hernia was detected postoperatively on sonography in four patients, but only one developed a symptomatic and clinically detectable hernia during eight months of follow-up. Overall, postoperative ultrasonographic findings following LTEP repair were found in 37% of patients. Clinical and sonographic findings such as localized fluid collections compatible with seroma or hematoma are common following LTEP. Postoperative suction drains

  3. Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Detecting Radicular Pain After Lumbar Decompression Surgery: Retrospective Study of the Relationship Between Dural Sac Cross-sectional Area and Postoperative Radicular Pain.

    PubMed

    Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Takahashi, Jun; Oba, Hiroki; Ikegami, Shota; Mogami, Yuji; Shibata, Syunichi; Ohji, Yoshihito; Tanikawa, Hirotaka; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    A retrospective analysis. To evaluate the association between early postoperative dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) and radicular pain. The correlation between postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and postoperative neurological symptoms after lumbar decompression surgery is controversial. This study included 115 patients who underwent lumbar decompression surgery followed by MRI within 7 days postoperatively. There were 46 patients with early postoperative radicular pain, regardless of whether the pain was mild or similar to that before surgery. The intervertebral level with the smallest DCSA was identified on MRI and compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Risk factors for postoperative radicular pain were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subanalysis according to absence/presence of a residual suction drain also was performed. Multivariate regression analysis showed that smaller postoperative DCSA was significantly associated with early postoperative radicular pain (per -10 mm; odds ratio, 1.26). The best cutoff value for radicular pain was early postoperative DCSA of 67.7 mm. Even with a cutoff value of <70 mm, sensitivity and specificity are 74.3% and 75.0%, respectively. Early postoperative DCSA was significantly larger before suction drain removal than after (119.7±10.1 vs. 93.9±5.4 mm). Smaller DCSA in the early postoperative period was associated with radicular pain after lumbar decompression surgery. The best cutoff value for postoperative radicular pain was 67.7 mm. Absence of a suction drain at the time of early postoperative MRI was related to smaller DCSA.

  4. [Usefulness of upper gastrointestinal series to detect leaks in the early postoperative period of bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Medina, Francisco J; Miranda-Merchak, Andrés; Martínez, Alonso; Sánchez, Felipe; Bravo, Sebastián; Contreras, Juan Eduardo; Alliende, Isabel; Canals, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative leaks are the most undesirable complication of bariatric surgery and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series are routinely ordered to rule them out. Despite the published literature recommending against its routine use, it is still being customarily used in Chile. To examine the usefulness of routine upper GI series using water-soluble iodinated contrast media for the detection of early postoperative leaks in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A cohort of 328 patients subjected to bariatric surgery was followed from October 2012 to October 2013. Most of them underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Upper GI series on the first postoperative day were ordered to 308 (94%) patients. Postoperative leaks were observed in two patients, with an incidence of 0.6%. The sensitivity for upper GI series detection of leak was 0% and the negative predictive value was 99%. Routine upper GI series after bariatric surgery is not useful for the diagnosis of postoperative leak, given the low incidence of this complication and the low sensitivity of the technique.

  5. Cognitive load effects on early visual perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Forte, Jason; Sewell, David; Carter, Olivia

    2018-05-01

    Contrast-based early visual processing has largely been considered to involve autonomous processes that do not need the support of cognitive resources. However, as spatial attention is known to modulate early visual perceptual processing, we explored whether cognitive load could similarly impact contrast-based perception. We used a dual-task paradigm to assess the impact of a concurrent working memory task on the performance of three different early visual tasks. The results from Experiment 1 suggest that cognitive load can modulate early visual processing. No effects of cognitive load were seen in Experiments 2 or 3. Together, the findings provide evidence that under some circumstances cognitive load effects can penetrate the early stages of visual processing and that higher cognitive function and early perceptual processing may not be as independent as was once thought.

  6. Preoperative Recipient Parameters Allow Early Estimation of Postoperative Outcome and Intraoperative Transfusion Requirements in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Carsten; Eismann, Hendrik; Sieg, Lion; Friedrich, Lars; Scheinichen, Dirk; Vondran, Florian W R; Johanning, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a complex intervention, and early anticipation of personnel and logistic requirements is of great importance. Early identification of high-risk patients could prove useful. We therefore evaluated prognostic values of recipient parameters commonly available in the early preoperative stage regarding postoperative 30- and 90-day outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements in liver transplantation. All adult patients undergoing first liver transplantation at Hannover Medical School between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data as well as clinical courses were recorded. Prognostic values regarding 30- and 90-day outcomes were evaluated by uni- and multivariate statistical tests. Identified risk parameters were used to calculate risk scores. There were 426 patients (40.4% female) included with a mean age of 48.6 (11.9) years. Absolute 30-day mortality rate was 9.9%, and absolute 90-day mortality rate was 13.4%. Preoperative leukocyte count >5200/μL, platelet count <91 000/μL, and creatinine values ≥77 μmol/L were relevant risk factors for both observation periods ( P < .05, respectively). A score based on these factors significantly differentiated between groups of varying postoperative outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements ( P < .05, respectively). A score based on preoperative creatinine, leukocyte, and platelet values allowed early estimation of postoperative 30- and 90-day outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements in liver transplantation. Results might help to improve timely logistic and personal strategies.

  7. Early rise in postoperative creatinine for identification of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Karkouti, Keyvan; Rao, Vivek; Chan, Christopher T; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially serious complication of cardiac surgery. Treatment strategies are unlikely to prove efficacious unless patients are identified and treated soon after the onset of injury. In this observational study, we determined and validated the ability of an early rise in postoperative serum creatinine to identify patients who suffer AKI during cardiac surgery. The relationship between an early rise in creatinine (immediate postoperative / preoperative creatinine) and AKI (> 50% increase in creatinine by postoperative calendar days 1or 2) was determined by logistic regression modelling. Existing databases were used for model development (n = 4,820; one institution) and validation (n = 6,553; 12 institutions). Acute kidney injury occurred in 9.1% (n = 437) and 9.8% (n = 645) of patients in the development and validation sets, respectively. An early rise in creatinine was related to AKI (P < 0.001), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.80) in the development set and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.79) in the validation set. Using a threshold ratio of > 1.30 (n = 127), the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for AKI in the development set were 20% (95% CI, 16 to 24), 99% (95% CI, 99 to 99), 68% (95% CI, 59 to 76), and 93% (95% CI, 92 to 93), respectively. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, an early rise in postoperative creatinine is a useful marker for the early identification of AKI patients. This could allow inclusion of such patients in clinical trials of promising therapeutic strategies that need to be initiated soon after the onset of injury.

  8. Low fat-containing elemental formula is effective for postoperative recovery and potentially useful for preventing chyle leak during postoperative early enteral nutrition after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Moro, Kazuki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Miura, Kohei; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Nakajima, Masato; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Junko; Toshikawa, Chie; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-12-01

    Transthoracic esophagectomy using 3-field lymphadenectomy (TTE-3FL) for esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal surgeries. Early enteral nutrition (EN) for TTE-3FL patients is useful and valid for early recovery; however, EN using a fat-containing formula risks inducing chyle leak. In the present study, we retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients treated byTTE-3FL and administered postoperative EN to elucidate the validity of lowering the fat levels in elemental formulas to prevent postoperative chyle leak and improve postoperative recovery. A total of 74 patients who received TTE-3FL for esophageal cancer were retrospectively examined. Patients were classified into two groups according to the type of postoperative EN: Group LF patients received a low-fat elemental formula, and Group F patients received a standard fat-containing polymeric formula. The following clinical factors were compared between the groups: EN start day, maximum EN calories administered, duration of respirator use, length of ICU stay, incidence of postoperative infectious complications, use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and incidence of postoperative chyle leak. Patients in Group LF were started on EN significantly earlier after surgery and they consumed significantly higher maximum EN calories compared to Group F patients (P < 0.01). Duration of respirator use and length of ICU stay were also significantly shorter, and TPN was used significantly less in Group LF compared to Group F (P < 0.05). Postoperative chyle leak was observed in six patients in total (8.1%); five patients in Group F and one patient in Group LF, although there was no significant difference in frequency of chyle leak per patient between Group LF and Group F. Early EN using low-fat elemental formula after esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy was safe and valid for postoperative recovery and potentially useful in preventing chyle leak. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published

  9. Impact of early postoperative enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Liu, H Y; Guo, S H; Sun, P; Gong, F M; Jia, B Q

    2015-06-29

    The impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients was investigated. Three hundred pa-tients undergoing gastric cancer surgery from July 2010 to May 2014 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 150/group). Experimental group patients received enteral nutrition in water during the early postoperative period. Control group patients received conventional perioperative treatment. Patients' clinical outcomes, post-operative immune function, and nutritional statuses were compared, which revealed that the postoperative fever duration (80.2 ± 6.0 vs 88.1 ± 8.1 h, P < 0.05), anal exhaust time (78.8 ± 9.3 vs 85.3 ± 8.4 h, P < 0.05), and length of hospitalization (7.73 ± 2.13 vs 9.77 ± 1.76 days, P < 0.01) differed significantly. Treatment costs in thousands of dol-lars were 31.24 ± 3.21 for the experimental group and 35.61 ± 2.32 for the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the experimental and control groups [14.0% (21/150) vs 17.3% (26/150), P > 0.05]. At postoperative days 3 and 7, the CD3(+), CD4(+), natural killer cell, albumin, and prealbumin levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ra-tio were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (all P < 0.05). CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). Postsurgical oral EEN can improve nutritional status and immune function and promote early recovery of intestinal function in patients with gastric cancer.

  10. Early postoperative endophthalmitis after pars plana Ahmed valve placement with persistent extraocular infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Susanna S; Rabowsky, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case of early postoperative endophthalmitis that occurred after vitrectomy and Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) placement and was treated with intravitreal antibiotics. Intravenous vancomycin was started after aqueous culture grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The endophthalmitis improved, but new purulent discharge around the peritomy was noted 10 days after presentation, requiring removal of the valve.

  11. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G.; Blaye, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842

  12. Early postoperative healing following buccal single flap approach to access intraosseous periodontal defects.

    PubMed

    Farina, Roberto; Simonelli, Anna; Rizzi, Alessandro; Pramstraller, Mattia; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the early postoperative healing of papillary incision wounds and its association with (1) patient/site-related factors and technical (surgical) aspects as well as with (2) 6-month clinical outcomes following buccal single flap approach (SFA) in the treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. Forty-three intraosseous defects in 35 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA alone or in combination with a reconstructive technology (graft, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), graft + EMD, or graft + membrane). Postoperative healing was evaluated at 2 weeks using the Early Wound-Healing Index (EHI). EHI ranged from score 1 (i.e., complete flap closure and optimal healing) to score 4 (i.e., loss of primary closure and partial tissue necrosis). SFA resulted in a complete wound closure at 2 weeks in the great majority of sites. A significantly more frequent presence of interdental contact point and interdental soft tissue crater, and narrower base of the interdental papilla were observed at sites with either EHI > 1 or EHI = 4 compared to sites with EHI = 1. No association between EHI and the 6-month clinical outcomes was observed. At 2 weeks, buccal SFA may result in highly predictable complete flap closure. Site-specific characteristics may influence the early postoperative healing of the papillary incision following SFA procedure. Two-week soft tissue healing, however, was not associated with the 6-month clinical outcomes.

  13. Inefficacy of Kinesio-Taping(®) on early postoperative pain after ACL reconstruction: Prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Laborie, M; Klouche, S; Herman, S; Gerometta, A; Lefevre, N; Bohu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Kinesio-Taping(®) (K-Tape) is used in sports traumatology with the aim of reducing pain and improving blood and lymph circulation. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of K-Tape on early postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The study hypothesis was that K-Tape significantly decreases pain. A prospective non-randomized comparative study was conducted in 2013-2014 and included all patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction by hamstring graft. Analgesia was standardized. Two groups, "K-Tape" and "controls", were formed according to the days on which the study physiotherapist was present. The K-Tape compression/decompression assembly was applied immediately postoperatively and maintained for 3days. Patients filled out online questionnaires. The main assessment criterion was mean postoperative pain (D0-D3) on a 0-to-10 scale. Secondary criteria were analgesia intake on the three WHO levels, awakening during the night of D0 due to pain, signs of postoperative discomfort, and patient satisfaction. Sixty patients (30 per group) were included, 57 of whom could be assessed: 28 K-Tape, 29 controls; 44 male, 13 female; mean age, 30.9±8.9 years. At inclusion, the two groups were comparable. There was no significant difference in mean (D0-D3) knee pain intensity: 3.8±2.2 for K-Tape, and 3.9±2 for controls (P=0.93). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no significant intergroup difference in evolution of pain (P=0.34). There were no other significant differences on the other assessment criteria. K-Tape showed no efficacy on early postoperative pain following ACL reconstruction. III; prospective non-randomized comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin induces low expression of NMDA receptors and postoperative cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Cao, Longhui; Zhang, Tianhua; Li, Huiting; Lin, Wenqian

    2017-01-10

    Whether Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can affect patients' postoperative brain function is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of preoperative cisplatin treatment on postoperative cognitive function and its possible mechanism in rats. Moreover, we also tested whether the NMDAR inhibitor memantine could attenuate cisplatin-induced alterations. 12-month-oldSprague-Dawley rats randomly received an intraperitoneal injection of either cisplatin once a week at a dose of 3mg/kg for three consecutive weeks or an equivalent volume of normal saline. After the injections, the normal saline injection group was divided into 3 groups (n=5 each): a normal saline group (group S), normal saline+pentobarbital group (group SP), and normal saline+pentobarbital+operation group (group SPO).The cisplatin injection group was divided into 3 groups: a cisplatin group (group C), cisplatin+pentobarbital group (group CP), and cisplatin+pentobarbital+operation group (group CPO).Rats in the group SP, SPO,CP and CPO were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and then the SPO and CPO groups underwent a simple laparotomy operation. The effects of memantine were tested through two additional groups of rats (cisplatin+memantine group (group CM) and cisplatin+pentobarbital+operation+memantine group (group CPOM)). A Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability five days after anesthesia or operation. After the test, the hippocampi were removed for detection of the expression of NMDAR by western bloting. The relevant protein expression levels of PSD95 and ERK1/2 were detected by western blot analysis. Rats treated with cisplatin had a longer mean escape latency and spent a shorter amount of time in the target quadrant than did the normal saline injection rats. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of NMDA receptors, PSD95 and ERK1/2 were decreased in cisplatin group and memantine could up-regulate their expression. These results suggest

  15. Impact of Major Pulmonary Resections on Right Ventricular Function: Early Postoperative Changes.

    PubMed

    Elrakhawy, Hany M; Alassal, Mohamed A; Shaalan, Ayman M; Awad, Ahmed A; Sayed, Sameh; Saffan, Mohammad M

    2018-01-15

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after pulmonary resection in the early postoperative period is documented by reduced RV ejection fraction and increased RV end-diastolic volume index. Supraventricular arrhythmia, particularly atrial fibrillation, is common after pulmonary resection. RV assessment can be done by non-invasive methods and/or invasive approaches such as right cardiac catheterization. Incorporation of a rapid response thermistor to pulmonary artery catheter permits continuous measurements of cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume. It can also be used for right atrial and right ventricular pacing, and for measuring right-sided pressures, including pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. This study included 178 patients who underwent major pulmonary resections, 36 who underwent pneumonectomy assigned as group (I) and 142 who underwent lobectomy assigned as group (II). The study was conducted at the cardiothoracic surgery department of Benha University hospital in Egypt; patients enrolled were operated on from February 2012 to February 2016. A rapid response thermistor pulmonary artery catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Preoperatively the following was recorded: central venous pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction and volumes. The same parameters were collected in fixed time intervals after 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours postoperatively. For group (I): There were no statistically significant changes between the preoperative and postoperative records in the central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure; there were no statistically significant changes in the preoperative and 12, 24, and 48 hour postoperative records for cardiac index; 3 and 6 hours postoperative showed significant changes. There were statistically significant changes between the preoperative and

  16. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  17. Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Hepatectomy-Induced Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Old Mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yue; Guo, Shanbin; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Xiaochun

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of hydrogen-rich saline on the cognitive functions of elder mice with partial hepatectomy-induced postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Ninety-six old male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 24 each): control group (group C), hydrogen-rich saline group (group H), POCD group (group P), and POCD + hydrogen-rich saline group (group PH). Cognitive function was subsequently assessed using Morris water-maze (MWM) test. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, along with NF-κB activity determined by ELISA. The morphology of hippocampal tissues were further observed by HE staining. Learning and memory abilities of mice were significantly impaired at day 10 and day 14 post-surgery, as partial hepatectomy significantly prolonged the escape latency, decreased time at the original platform quadrant and frequency of crossing in group P when compared to group C (p < 0.05). The surgery also increased the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB activity at all time points after surgery (p < 0.05). The introduction of hydrogen-rich saline (group PH) partially rescued spatial memory and learning as it shortened escape latency and increased time and crossing frequency of original platform compared to group P (p < 0.05). Moreover, such treatment also decreased TNF-α and IL-1β levels and NF-κB activity (p < 0.05). In addition, cell necrosis in the hippocampus induced by hepatectomy was also rescued by hydrogen-rich saline. Hydrogen-rich saline can alleviate POCD via inhibiting NF-κB activity in the hippocampus and reducing inflammatory response.

  18. Berberine alleviates postoperative cognitive dysfunction by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Fayin; An, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant cause of morbidity after surgery, especially for the elderly. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of POCD. Thus, we hypothesized that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effects, could improve surgery-induced cognitive impairment. Twenty-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to mimic the clinical human abdominal surgery. For the interventional studies, mice received berberine (10mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally. For the in vitro study, we examined the effects of berberine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators by cultured BV2 cells. Behavioral tests, expressions of IBA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were performed at the indicated time points. In the present study, we showed that surgery impaired the contextual fear memory, as evidenced by the significantly decreased freezing time to the context. This behavioral change coincided with marked increases in IBA1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus only at 24h but not 7 d after surgery. In BV2 cells, LPS induced significantly increased TNF-α and IL-1β expressions. Notably, berberine treatment rescued surgery-induced cognitive impairment and inhibited the release of IBA1, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the hippocampus. In line with the in vivo study, berberine treatment suppressed LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-1β in BV2 cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that berberine could alleviate POCD by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Erin M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Baker, Wesley B.; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Xiao, Rui; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, A. G.; Gaynor, J. William; Licht, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The early postoperative period following neonatal cardiac surgery is a time of increased risk for brain injury, yet the mechanisms underlying this risk are unknown. To understand these risks more completely, we quantified changes in postoperative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) compared with preoperative levels by using noninvasive optical modalities. Methods Diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy were used concurrently to derive cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization postoperatively for 12 hours. Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were quantified with reference to preoperative data. A mixed-effect model was used to investigate the influence of total support time and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration on relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF. Results Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were assessed in 36 patients, 21 with single-ventricle defects and 15 with 2-ventricle defects. Among patients with single-ventricle lesions, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration did not affect relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, or OEF (P > .05). Among 2-ventricle patients, total support time was not a significant predictor of relative changes in CMRO2 or CBF (P > .05), although longer total support time was associated significantly with greater increases in relative change of postoperative OEF (P = .008). Conclusions Noninvasive diffuse optical techniques were used to quantify postoperative relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, and OEF for the first time in this observational pilot study. Pilot data suggest that surgical duration does not account for observed variability in the relative change in CMRO2, and that more comprehensive clinical studies using the new technology are feasible and warranted to elucidate these issues further. PMID:23111021

  20. The postoperative clinical outcomes and safety of early enteral nutrition in operated gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Liu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Shao-Hua; Sun, Peng; Gong, Fang-Ming; Jia, Bao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy. Four hundred gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy of any extend with D2 nodal dissection were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group with 200 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received postoperative parenteral nutrition (PN), while patients in the experimental group received postoperative EEN. After treatment, the clinical outcomes, postoperative immune function, and nutritional status of the two groups were evaluated. The postoperative fever time, intestinal function recovery time, anal exhaust time, and the length of hospital stay for patients in the experimental group were significantly shorter than those of the control group. We did not find significant differences in anastomotic leak, postoperative ileus and regurgitation between the two groups. The activities of multiple immune cell types, including CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and natural killer (NK) cells, were significantly lower in both groups on postoperative day 1 when compared with the preoperative levels (p<0.05). The level of CD8⁺ was not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). After treatment, levels of CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and NK cells in the experimental group patients were 35.6 ± 4.2, 42.2 ± 3.0, 1.7 ± 0.3, and 27.3 ± 5.3%, respectively, on postoperative day 7, which were similar to the preoperative levels. The immune cell levels from the control group patients remained significantly lower when compared with preoperative values; in addition, these values were also significantly lower when compared with the EEN patients (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: For gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy, the clinical outcome, immune function and nutritional status after EEN were significantly improved. These data suggest the widespread use of EEN in clinical practice.

  1. Spinal fusion for scoliosis in Rett syndrome with an emphasis on early postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Gabos, Peter G; Inan, Muharrem; Thacker, Mihir; Borkhu, Buttugs

    2012-01-15

    Retrospective case-control study. To examine the postoperative complications of posterior spinal fusion in a population of patients with Rett syndrome (RS). Scoliosis is a common feature of RS, a progressive neurologic disorder affecting almost exclusively females. Despite this, there is little published information regarding the surgical treatment of scoliosis in this disorder. Sixteen consecutive female patients with RS treated by posterior spinal fusion and unit rod instrumentation for progressive scoliosis between 1995 and 2003 were evaluated. Only patients with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were included. Preoperative medical conditions and postoperative complications were recorded. As a control group, we randomly selected 32 spastic quadriplegic patients who underwent the identical procedure during the same time period, selected from our database and matched according to age, level of neurologic impairment, and medical complexity. There was a high rate of early medical complications in the RS patients, with 28 major and 37 minor complications. Only 1 patient did not have a major medical complication, and every patient had at least 1 minor gastrointestinal and/or respiratory complication. Major respiratory complications occurred in 10 patients (63%) and comprised 61% of all major complications. Major gastrointestinal complications occurred in 6 patients (37%) and comprised 21% of all major complications. Other major complications included disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (1 patient), subacute bacterial endocarditis (1 patient), sacral decubiti requiring surgical debridement (2 patients), and extensive bilateral heterotopic ossification of the hips (1 patient). There were no cases of instrumentation failure, pseudarthrosis, deep infection, or need for rod revision. Postoperative complication scores were similar to those in patients with spastic quadriplegic pattern cerebral palsy. Spinal fusion for scoliosis in RS can give a satisfactory technical result

  2. Early Social Cognition in Three Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a…

  3. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2013-10-12

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register;The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of their wounds

  4. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (30th June 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of

  5. Extended Release Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection (Exparel) for Early Postoperative Pain Control Following Palatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristopher M; Nair, Narayanan M; Sargent, Larry A

    2018-05-14

    Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is a long-acting local anesthetic reported to decrease postoperative pain in adults. The authors demonstrate the safe use of LB in pediatric patients with improved pain control following palatoplasty. Retrospective patient series of all single-surgeon palatoplasty patients treated at a tertiary craniofacial center from August 2014 to December 2015 were included. All patients received 1.3% LB intraoperatively as greater palatal nerve and surgical field blocks in 2-flap V-Y pushback palatoplasty. Postoperative oral intake, opioids administered, duration of hospitalization, and FLACC (face, legs, activity, cry, consolability) pain scores were measured. Twenty-seven patients (16 males and 11 females, average age of 10.8 months, weight 8.8 kg) received 2.9 ± 0.9 mL (2.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg) 1.3% LB. Average FLACC scores were 2.4 ± 2.2/10 in the postanesthesia care unit and 3.8 ± 1.8/10 while inpatients. Oral intake was first tolerated 10.3 ± 11.5 hours postoperatively and tolerated 496.4 ± 354.2 mL orally in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Patients received 8.5 ± 8.4 mg hydrocodone equivalents (0.46 ± 0.45 mg/kg per d hydrocodone equivalents) and were discharged 2.1 ± 1.3 days postoperatively. Opioid-related adverse events included emesis in 7.4% and pruritis in 3.7% of patients. The LB may be used safely in pediatric patients. Intraoperative injection of LB during palatoplasty can yield low postoperative opioid use and an early and adequate volume of oral intake over an average hospital stay. Further cost-efficacy studies of LB are needed to assess its value in pediatric plastic surgery.

  6. [Correction of early cognitive disorders in school-age children operated under total intravenous anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Ovezov, A M; Lobov, M A; Panteleeva, M V; Lugovoĭ, A V; Miatchin, P S; Gus'kov, I E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possibility and effectiveness of hopaten acid use for early postoperative cognitive dysfunction correction in children of school age. In compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria, totally 40 children of school age (7-16 years old, ASA status I-II) with surgical pathology: (varicocele, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia) were included A comperative assessment of neuropsychic status during pre - and postoperative are period in children, operated under propofol-fentanyl total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was conducted All patients were randomized to the control (without cepebroprotection 1st group, 20 children) and experimental (using cepebroprotection with hopaten acid within 1 month after the operation, 2nd group, 20 children) groups. Dimension of the study: Harvard standard monitoring, respiratory gas composition, neuropsychic tests (Bourdon test, "10 words test", etc.). For full compatibility groups (age, ASA status and anthropometric data, equal operation duration and the equipotential drug dosage adjustment is revealed, that in group of propofol-fentanyl TIVA in the early postoperative period in school age children postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is developing, which in case of absence of the corresponding correction is maintained after 1 month after operation (at least) in 80% of cases. In the application of hopaten acid cerebroprotection (40 mg/kg per day) severity of POCD reliably is reduced or compensated by the time of discharge from the hospital (3-7-th day when non-traumatic interventions), and 1 month after the operation in 30% of patients experienced improvement of cognitive functions, which proves the effectiveness of hopaten acid for POCD treatment. In case of propofol-fentanyl TIVA anesthesia in children of school age is indicated preventive prescription of multimodal cerebroprotectors without age limitations (for example hopaten acid (40 mg/kg per day) for POCD treatment.

  7. [Influence of early kinesitherapy on rehabilitation postoperative recovery in case of low extremity operations].

    PubMed

    Tanović, Edina

    2009-01-01

    Arteriosclerosis is a disease effecting large elastic, elastic muscular and large muscular arteries. The primary pathological changes are found inside the arteries. Salient feature is atherosclerotic plaque. The main purpose of this paper is to determine whether early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization can give better rehabilitation results with patients after lower extremities operation, in comparison to patients which were not mobilized early in this stage. In this paper we have analyzed two groups of 40 patients that were operatively treated for circulation obstruction to lower extremities. The first, tested group was treated with early kinesiotherapy with early verticalization and mobilization. The second, controlled group was treated with kinesitherapy in bed. All the patients were analyzed according to their gender, age, primary diagnosis, postoperative complications, as well as capabilities for everyday activities. For the evaluation of the everyday life activities we used the Barthel index at hospital admission and discharge. Both groups of patients were equable in gender and age. The most common age group within the tested groups was between 61-70 for males and 51-60 for woman.The most common type of obstruction in both groups was occlusion of femoral artery. The complications which occurred among the tested patients were thrombosis, ileus and contracture in 7.5% of cases, while 85% of patients did not have any complications. Within the controlled group, decubitus occurred in 7.5% of cases, as well as gangrene and ileus. Ulcus occurred in 5% of patients, thrombosis in 10%, and contracture in 4% of cases. 40% of patients in this group were without complications. Based on the results stated above we can conclude that early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization of patients in postoperative phase after the treatment of lower extremities obstruction, have shown much better results in comparison to the patients which were only

  8. Association Between Early Postoperative Acetaminophen Exposure and Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Van Driest, Sara L; Jooste, Edmund H; Shi, Yaping; Choi, Leena; Darghosian, Leon; Hill, Kevin D; Smith, Andrew H; Kannankeril, Prince J; Roden, Dan M; Ware, Lorraine B

    2018-05-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication for pediatric cardiac surgery patients associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. Current strategies focus on risk reduction and early identification because there are no known preventive or therapeutic agents. Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass lyse erythrocytes, releasing free hemoglobin and contributing to oxidative injury. Acetaminophen may prevent AKI by reducing the oxidation state of free hemoglobin. To test the hypothesis that early postoperative acetaminophen exposure is associated with reduced risk of AKI in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this retrospective cohort study, the setting was 2 tertiary referral children's hospitals. The primary and validation cohorts included children older than 28 days admitted for cardiac surgery between July 1, 2008, and June 1, 2016. Exclusion criteria were postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and inadequate serum creatinine measurements to determine AKI status. Acetaminophen exposure in the first 48 postoperative hours. Acute kidney injury based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria (increase by ≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline or at least 1.5-fold more than the baseline [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4]) in the first postoperative week. The primary cohort (n = 666) had a median age of 6.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.9-44.7) months, and 341 (51.2%) had AKI. In unadjusted analyses, those with AKI had lower median acetaminophen doses than those without AKI (47 [IQR, 16-88] vs 78 [IQR, 43-104] mg/kg, P < .001). In logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, red blood cell distribution width, postoperative hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, acetaminophen exposure was protective against postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] per each

  9. Lidocaine dose-response effect on postoperative cognitive deficit: meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Valiollah; Habibi, Ali; Soleimani, Aria

    2018-04-01

    The true influence of the perioperative intravenous lidocaine on the development of postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains controversial. The principal aim is to undertake a meta-regression to determine whether moderator variables mediate the relationship between lidocaine and POCD. Areas covered: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed database, Scopus and the Cochrane Library database (up to June 2017) and systematically reviewed a list of retrieved articles. Our final review includes only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared infusion of lidocaine and placebo during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (MH RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to report the overall effect and meta-regression analysis. A total of 688 patients in five RCTs were included. POCD occurred in 34% of all cases. Perioperative lidocaine reduces POCD (MH RR 0.702 (95% CI: 0.541-0.909). Younger age, male gender, longer CPB and higher concentration of lidocaine significantly mediate the relationship between lidocaine and POCD in favour of the neuroprotective effect of lidocaine. Expert commentary: The neuroprotective effect of lidocaine on POCD is consistent in spite of longer CPB time. A higher concentration of lidocaine strengthened the neuroprotective effect of lidocaine.

  10. Early postoperative statin therapy is associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Frederic T.; Pretorius, Mias; Siew, Edward D.; Yu, Chang; Brown, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that perioperative statin use reduces acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from an ongoing clinical trial Setting Quaternary-care university hospital Participants Three hundred twenty-four elective adult cardiac surgery patients Interventions None Measurements and Main Results We assessed the association of preoperative statin use, early postoperative statin use, and acute statin withdrawal with the incidence of AKI. Early postoperative statin use was defined as statin treatment within the first postoperative day. Statin withdrawal was defined as discontinuation of preoperative statin treatment prior to surgery until at least postoperative day 2. Logistic regression and propensity score modeling were used to control for AKI risk factors. Sixty-eight of 324 patients (21.0%) developed AKI. AKI patients stayed in the hospital longer (P=0.03) and were more likely to develop pneumonia (P=0.002) or die (P=0.001). Higher body mass index (P=0.003), higher central venous pressure (P=0.03), and statin withdrawal (27.4 vs. 14.7%, P=0.046) were associated with a higher incidence of AKI, while early postoperative statin use was protective (12.5 vs. 23.8%, P=0.03). Preoperative statin use did not affect risk of AKI. In multivariate logistic regression, age (P=0.03), male gender (P=0.02), body mass index (P<0.001), and early postoperative statin use (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, P=0.006) independently predicted AKI. Propensity score-adjusted risk assessment confirmed the association between early postoperative statin use and reduced AKI (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13–0.70, P=0.005). Conclusions Early postoperative statin use is associated with a lower incidence of AKI among both chronic statin users and statin-naïve cardiac surgery patients. PMID:20599398

  11. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Tanino, Hiromasa; Sato, Tatsuya; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Matsuno, Takeo

    2014-07-11

    It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of < 20°, showing good joint congruency with the hip in abduction, pre- or early stage of osteoarthritis, and age younger than 60 years were included in this study. We evaluated 156 hips in 138 patients, with a mean age at the time of surgery of 30 years. Full weight-bearing with two crutches started 2 months postoperatively in 73 patients (80 hips) with the standard rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P < 0.001), indicating that the accelerated rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard rehabilitation protocol (1/80) (P = 0

  12. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Methods Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of < 20°, showing good joint congruency with the hip in abduction, pre- or early stage of osteoarthritis, and age younger than 60 years were included in this study. We evaluated 156 hips in 138 patients, with a mean age at the time of surgery of 30 years. Full weight-bearing with two crutches started 2 months postoperatively in 73 patients (80 hips) with the standard rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. Results The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P < 0.001), indicating that the accelerated rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard

  13. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  14. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is not associated with early postoperative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chino, Junzo; Schroeck, Florian R; Sun, Leon; Lee, W Robert; Albala, David M; Moul, Judd W; Koontz, Bridget F

    2009-11-01

    To compare open radical prostatectomy (RP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), and to determine whether RALP is associated with a higher risk of features that determine recommendations for postoperative radiation therapy (RT). Patients undergoing RP from 2003 to 2007 were stratified into two groups: open RP and RALP. Preoperative (PSA level, T stage and Gleason score), pathological factors (T stage, Gleason score, extracapsular extension [ECE] and the status of surgical margins and seminal vesicle invasion [SVI]) and early treatment with RT or referral for RT within 6 months were compared between the groups. Multivariate analysis was used to control for selection bias in the RALP group. In all, 904 patients were identified; 368 underwent RALP and 536 underwent open RP (retropubic or perineal). Patients undergoing open RP had a higher pathological stage with ECE present in 24.8% vs 19.3% in RALP (P = 0.05) and SVI in 10.3% vs 3.8% (P < 0.001). In the RALP vs open RP group, there were positive surgical margins in 31.5% vs 31.9% (P = 0.9) and there were postoperative PSA levels of (3) 0.2 ng/mL in 5.7% vs 6.3% (P = 0.7), respectively. On multivariate analysis to control for selection bias, RALP was not associated with indication for RT (odds ratio (OR) 1.10, P = 0.55), or referral for RT (OR 1.04, P = 0.86). RALP was not associated with an increase in either indication or referral for early postoperative RT.

  15. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: early post-operative parathyroid hormone assay as a risk stratification and management tool.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Al Maqbali, T; Howe, D; Campbell, J

    2014-03-01

    To develop a practical, efficient and predictive algorithm to manage potential or actual post-operative hypocalcaemia after complete thyroidectomy, using a single post-operative parathyroid hormone assay. This paper reports a prospective study of 59 patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy over a period of 24 months. Parathyroid hormone levels were checked post-operatively on the day of surgery, and all patients were evaluated for hypocalcaemia both clinically and biochemically with serial corrected calcium measurements. No patient with an early post-operative parathyroid hormone level of 23 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately twice the lower limit of the normal range) developed hypocalcaemia. All the patients who initially had post-operative hypocalcaemia but had an early parathyroid hormone level of 8 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately two-thirds of the lower limit of the normal range) had complete resolution of their hypocalcaemia within three months. Early post-operative parathyroid hormone measurement can reliably predict patients at risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia, and predict those patients expected to recover from temporary hypocalcaemia. A suggested post-operative management algorithm is presented.

  16. Importance of Early Postoperative Body Temperature Management for Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Eiichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Goto, Hisaharu; Oku, Takayuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Fujiyama, Yuichi; Shirao, Satoshi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-06-01

    The importance of acute-phase brain temperature management is widely accepted for prevention of exacerbation of brain damage by a high body temperature. In this study, we investigated the influence of body temperature in the early postoperative period on the outcomes of 62 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage who were admitted to our department. Body temperature was measured from day 4 to day 14 after onset. The patients were divided into those treated with surgical clipping (clip group) and coil embolization (coil group), those graded I-III (mild) and IV-V (severe) based on the Hunt & Hess classification on admission, those with and without development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and those with favorable and poor outcomes. Body temperatures throughout the hospital stay were compared in each group. There was no significant difference in body temperature between the clip and coil groups or between the mild and severe groups, but body temperature was significantly higher in patients with DCI compared to those without DCI, and in patients with a poor outcome compared to those with a favorable outcome. Fever in the early postoperative period of subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with development of DCI and a poor outcome. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  19. Predicting Reading Disability: Early Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Kenneth Mikael; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical trajectory. We…

  20. Cognitive Tests in Early Childhood: Psychometric and Cultural Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Sando, Lara; Soles, Tamara Glen

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessment of young children contributes to high-stakes decisions because results are often used to determine eligibility for early intervention and special education. Previous reviews of cognitive measures for young children highlighted concerns regarding adequacy of standardization samples, steep item gradients, and insufficient floors…

  1. Value of Early Postoperative Computed Tomography Assessment in Ankle Fractures Defining Joint Congruity and Criticizing the Need for Early Revision Surgery.

    PubMed

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron S; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir; Hetsroni, Iftach

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigators have questioned the reliability of plain radiographs in assessing the accuracy of ankle fracture reduction when these were compared with the computed tomography (CT) evaluation in the preoperative setting, in particular, in fractures with syndesmosis injuries or trimalleolar fragments. The role of CT assessment, however, has not been investigated in the early postoperative setting. In the early postoperative setting, reduction still relies most commonly on fluoroscopy and plain radiographs alone. In the present study, we hypothesized that early postoperative CT assessment of ankle fractures with syndesmosic injuries and posterior malleolar fragments can add valuable information about the joint congruity compared with plain radiographs alone and that this information could affect the decisions regarding the need for early revision surgery. A total of 352 consecutive operated ankle fractures were reviewed. Of these, 68 (19%) underwent early postoperative CT assessment and were studied further to identify the causes that prompted revision surgery. Of the 68 cases, despite acceptable reduction found on the plain radiographs, 20 (29%) underwent early (within 1 week) revision surgery after studying the CT scans, which revealed malreduction of the syndesmosis, malreduction of the posterior lip fragment, and intra-articular fragments. We concluded that in ankle fractures involving disruptions of the syndesmosis or posterior malleolar fragments, early postoperative CT assessment could be justified, because it will reveal malreduction and prompt early revision intervention for a substantial proportion of these patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood.

  3. Cognitive Remediation for the Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunction in the Early Course of Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E

    2016-01-01

    The development of cognitive remediation programs has been a key step toward the creation of a treatment approach to address the cognitive-symptom domain in psychosis. Studies support the efficacy of cognitive remediation in producing moderate effects on cognition at the group level in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation may harness neuroplasticity in relevant systems that underpin the cognitive functions being addressed. Since neuroplasticity may be greater in people who (1) are younger and (2) have not yet experienced the consequences of long-term psychosis, cognitive remediation may be particularly effective in people in the early course of illness or in the prodrome, prior to the onset of frank symptoms. The present article reviews the evidence for implementing cognitive remediation in patients with recent-onset psychosis and people identified as being at high risk for developing schizophrenia, and also the evidence for cognitive remediation to modify neural targets. Promising findings suggest that cognitive remediation may be useful in addressing cognitive deficits in early-course and prodromal participants. Additionally, a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques demonstrates the ability of cognitive remediation paradigms to engage neural targets.

  4. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  5. Early life influences on cognitive impairment among oldest old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on the risk of cognitive impairment among oldest old persons in China. We also examine whether adult socioeconomic status mediates the association between early life socioeconomic status and cognitive impairment in old age. Data derived from two waves (1998-2000) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. We estimated logistic and multinomial regression models of cognitive impairment for a nationwide sample of people aged 80 to 105 (N = 8,444). Among both men and women, urban residence in early life as well as education was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment at baseline. We found modest support for a protective effect of advantaged childhood background on the odds of cognitive impairment onset during the 2-year follow-up, especially among women. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic environment throughout the life course, early life in particular, can influence the risk of cognitive impairment in old age. Not only can public policy that targets illiteracy, hunger, and poverty improve the lives of tens of thousands of children, but ultimately such investments will pay significant dividends many decades later in enhancing the cognitive well-being of older persons.

  6. [Analgesic effect of TES therapy in the early postoperative period in patients who underwent tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Semënov, F V; Kade, A Kh; Banashek-Meshchiarkova, T V; Vartanian, M S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiarities of the analgesic action of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES therapy) in the early postoperative period in the patients who underwent tonsillectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for this surgery to the specialized otorhinolaryngological department were available for observation. They were divided into two groups depending on the pain relief strategy. The patients of the study group (n=30) underwent courses of transcranial electrical stimulation on a daily basis (from the onset of hospitalization) in addition to the administration of a standard analgetic. The standard dose of tramadol (2.0 ml) was given to the patients of the control group (n=30) who complained of strong pain. The results of the objective and subjective estimations indicate that the degree of pharyngeal pain in the patients treated with TES therapy and the standard analgetic was significantly different. The patients receiving TES therapy could sooner resume their habitual diet and required smaller amounts of the analgetic which makes this modality a cost-effective supplement to the standard postoperative treatment.

  7. Early social cognition in three cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a series of eight studies in which we systematically assessed the social-cognitive skills of 1- to 3-year-old children in three diverse cultural settings. One group of children was from a Western, middle-class cultural setting in rural Canada and the other two groups were from traditional, small-scale cultural settings in rural Peru and India.In a first group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's most basic social-cognitive skills for understanding the intentions and attention of others: imitation, helping, gaze following, and communicative pointing.Children's performance in these tasks was mostly similar across cultural settings. In a second group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's skills in participating in interactive episodes of collaboration and joint attention.Again in these studies the general finding was one of cross-cultural similarity. In a final pair of studies, we assessed 2- to 3-year-old children's skills within two symbolic systems (pretense and pictorial). Here we found that the Canadian children who had much more experience with such symbols showed skills at an earlier age.Our overall conclusion is that young children in all cultural settings get sufficient amounts of the right kinds of social experience to develop their most basic social-cognitive skills for interacting with others and participating in culture at around the same age. In contrast, children's acquisition of more culturally specific skills for use in practices involving artifacts and symbols is more dependent on specific learning experiences.

  8. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  9. [Laser in the prevention of early postoperative complications in the surgical treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Dotsenko, S A; Chuev, P N; Basenko, I L; Salamekh, A

    1994-01-01

    The results of conduction of operative interventions in 37 patients with alimentary-costitutional obesity are adduced. In 22 of them having the obesity of III-IV stages the small stomach 100-150 ml in volume was constructed puuling in it too tight with a synthetic ribbon. In 1-1.5 years after the operation patient loses 70-80% of excessive body mass, and severe metabolic disturbances never occur. In 15 patients cutaneo-subcutaneous aprons on the abdomen were excised. Intravascular blood irradiation with the help of helium-neon laser for the prophylaxis of early postoperative complications occurrence was conducted. The stimulating action of laserotherapy on the cell and humoral immunity groups, alike central and peripheral hemodynamics improvement, moderate hypocoagulating and analgetic effect, lowering of the purulent-septical and thromboembolic complications in 1.5-2 times was noted.

  10. Cognitive assessments for the early diagnosis of dementia after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Shabiul

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of poststroke dementia (PSD) is important for medical practitioners to customize patient treatment programs based on cognitive consequences and disease severity progression. The aim is to diagnose and detect brain degenerative disorders as early as possible to help stroke survivors obtain early treatment benefits before significant mental impairment occurs. Neuropsychological assessments are widely used to assess cognitive decline following a stroke diagnosis. This study reviews the function of the available neuropsychological assessments in the early detection of PSD, particularly vascular dementia (VaD). The review starts from cognitive impairment and dementia prevalence, followed by PSD types and the cognitive spectrum. Finally, the most usable neuropsychological assessments to detect VaD were identified. This study was performed through a PubMed and ScienceDirect database search spanning the last 10 years with the following keywords: “post-stroke”; “dementia”; “neuro-psychological”; and “assessments”. This study focuses on assessing VaD patients on the basis of their stroke risk factors and cognitive function within the first 3 months after stroke onset. The search strategy yielded 535 articles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, only five articles were considered. A manual search was performed and yielded 14 articles. Twelve articles were included in the study design and seven articles were associated with early dementia detection. This review may provide a means to identify the role of neuropsychological assessments as early PSD detection tests. PMID:25246795

  11. Cerebral oximetry during infant cardiac surgery: evaluation and relationship to early postoperative outcome.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Barry D; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A; Newburger, Jane W; Mayer, John E; del Nido, Pedro J; Bacha, Emile A; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C

    2009-04-01

    We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% vs 35%. Before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO(2) values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow, and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO(2) values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO(2) and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with > or =5 min of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), there was no correlation between the rSO(2) (91% +/- 6%) or hematocrit (29.2% +/- 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO(2) during arrest. Intraoperative rSO(2) varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of DHCA.

  12. Clinical evaluation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of postoperative complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. Aim To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. Material and methods The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1st and 2nd postoperative day (POD). Results Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1st and 2nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2nd POD compared to the remainder. Conclusions The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG. PMID:28694902

  13. Clinical evaluation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of postoperative complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1 st and 2 nd postoperative day (POD). Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1 st and 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG.

  14. Does the obesity paradox apply to early postoperative complications after hip surgery? A retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Shaparin, Naum; Widyn, James; Nair, Singh; Kho, Irene; Geller, David; Delphin, Ellise

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that very obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m(2)) undergoing hip replacement have longer average hospital stays, as well as higher rates of complications and readmission compared with patients with normal BMI. However, there are sparse data describing how overweight and obese patients fare in the period immediately after hip replacement surgery compared with patients with low or normal BMI. In this study, we sought to explore the association of BMI with the rate of early postoperative complications in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. A proprietary hospital software program, Clinical Looking Glass was used to query the Montefiore Medical Center database and create a list of patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 81.51 (hip replacement) from the period of January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. The medical records of patients with length of stay 5 or more days were reviewed to evaluate the reason for the extended stay. The primary outcome studied was the association between BMI and occurrence of early complications in patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association of BMI and early postoperative complications. Of the 802 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery within our time frame, 142 patient medical records were reviewed due to their length of stay of ≥5 days. Overall complication rate in the analyzed patients demonstrated a J-curve distribution pattern, with the highest morbidity being 23.5% in the underweight group, the second highest in the normal-weight group (17.3%), and decreasing to nadir in the overweight (8.0%) and obese class I (10.0%) and then higher again in classes II (14.3%) and III (16.7%). Adjusted ORs demonstrated the same J distribution pattern similar to the pattern observed in the univariate analysis. Of the variables studied

  15. Long term effects of early adversity on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Richards, M; Wadsworth, M E J

    2004-10-01

    To investigate long term effects of early adverse circumstances on cognitive function. Associations between early material home circumstances, parental divorce, maternal management and understanding, and cognitive function in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for sex, parental SES, and birth order in 1339 males and females from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Early adverse circumstances were strongly associated with lower cognitive ability in childhood and adolescence, and were detectable on measures of verbal ability, memory, and speed and concentration in midlife. However, these long term effects were mostly explained by the effects of adversity on childhood or adolescent cognitive ability or by differences in educational attainment and adult social class. An exception was the effect of poor material home conditions on visual search speed at 53 years, which was maintained after controlling for adolescent ability, as well as further control for educational attainment, adult social class, physical growth, cigarette smoking, and affective state. There was no evidence of more rapid decline in memory and psychomotor function across middle age in those exposed to early adversity. The effect of early adversity on cognitive function tracks across the life course at least as far as middle age, although there was little evidence from this study of effect amplification over this interval. Nevertheless, in view of the persistence of child poverty in the industrialised world, these findings give cause for concern.

  16. Can preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels predict survival and early recurrence in patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ke; Hu, Hai-Jie; Shrestha, Anuj; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Liu, Fei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2017-07-11

    To investigate the predictive values of preoperative and postoperative serum CA19-9 levels on survival and other prognostic factors including early recurrence in patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. In univariate analysis, increased preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels in the light of different cut-off points (37, 100, 150, 200, 400, 1000 U/ml) were significantly associated with poor survival outcomes, of which the cut-off point of 150 U/ml showed the strongest predictive value (both P < 0.001). Preoperative to postoperative increase in CA19-9 level was also correlated with poor survival outcome (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, preoperative CA19-9 level > 150 U/ml was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.471, 95% CI 1.216-9.905; P = 0.020) and early recurrence (OR = 8.280, 95% CI 2.391-28.674; P = 0.001). Meanwhile, postoperative CA19-9 level > 150 U/ml was also correlated with early recurrence (OR = 4.006, 95% CI 1.107-14.459; P = 0.034). Ninety-eight patients who had undergone curative surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995 and 2014 in our institution were selected for the study. The correlations of preoperative and postoperative serum CA19-9 levels on the basis of different cut-off points with survival and various tumor factors were retrospectively analyzed with univariate and multivariate methods. In patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma, serum CA19-9 predict survival and early recurrence. Patients with increased preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels have poor survival outcomes and higher tendency of early recurrence.

  17. Early water intake restriction to prevent inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following transsphenoidal surgery: low BMI predicts postoperative SIADH.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Junko; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Koh; Ohashi, Genichiro; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the incidence of and risk factors for the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in patients following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and to validate the effectiveness of early prophylactic restriction of water intake. Retrospective analysis was performed for 207 patients who had undergone TSS, including 156 patients not placed on early prophylactic water restriction. Sixty-four patients received treatment for SIADH. We compared the incidence of SIADH between patients with and without early water intake restriction, and analyzed various risk factors for SIADH using statistical analyses. BMI was significantly lower for patients with SIADH than for those patients without SIADH. Statistical analysis revealed that the threshold BMI predicting SIADH was 26. Serum sodium levels on postoperative days 5-10 and daily urine volumes on postoperative days 5-10 were significantly lower in patients with SIADH than in those without SIADH. Postoperative body weight loss on days 6, 8, 10, and 11 was significantly higher in patients with SIADH. The incidence of SIADH after starting prophylactic water intake restriction (14%) was significantly lower than the rate before early water restriction (38%; P<0.05). SIADH is relatively common after TSS, and serum sodium concentrations and daily urine volumes should be carefully monitored. Patients with low preoperative BMI should be closely observed, as this represented a significant preoperative risk factor for SIADH. Early prophylactic water intake restriction appears effective at preventing postoperative SIADH. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Influence of yoga on postoperative outcomes and wound healing in early operable breast cancer patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Raghavendra M; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Vinay, C; Chandrashekara, S; Gopinath, K S; Srinath, B S

    2008-01-01

    Pre- and postoperative distress in breast cancer patients can cause complications and delay recovery from surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of yoga intervention on postoperative outcomes and wound healing in early operable breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Ninety-eight recently diagnosed stage II and III breast cancer patients were recruited in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a yoga program with supportive therapy and exercise rehabilitation on postoperative outcomes and wound healing following surgery. Subjects were assessed at the baseline prior to surgery and four weeks later. Sociodemographic, clinical and investigative notes were ascertained in the beginning of the study. Blood samples were collected for estimation of plasma cytokines-soluble Interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (IL-2R), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Postoperative outcomes such as the duration of hospital stay and drain retention, time of suture removal and postoperative complications were ascertained. We used independent samples t test and nonparametric Mann Whitney U tests to compare groups for postoperative outcomes and plasma cytokines. Regression analysis was done to determine predictors for postoperative outcomes. Sixty-nine patients contributed data to the current analysis (yoga: n = 33, control: n = 36). The results suggest a significant decrease in the duration of hospital stay (P = 0.003), days of drain retention (P = 0.001) and days for suture removal (P = 0.03) in the yoga group as compared to the controls. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TNF alpha levels following surgery in the yoga group (P < 0.001), as compared to the controls. Regression analysis on postoperative outcomes showed that the yoga intervention affected the duration of drain retention and hospital stay as well as TNF alpha levels. The results suggest possible benefits of yoga in reducing postoperative complications in

  19. Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery.

    PubMed

    Mokart, D; Merlin, M; Sannini, A; Brun, J P; Delpero, J R; Houvenaeghel, G; Moutardier, V; Blache, J L

    2005-06-01

    Patients who undergo major surgery for cancer are at high risk of postoperative sepsis. Early markers of septic complications would be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with postoperative sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early (first postoperative day) changes in interleukin 6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum concentrations and the occurrence of subsequent septic complications after major surgery. Serial blood samples were collected from 50 consecutive patients for determination of IL-6, PCT and CRP serum levels. Blood samples were obtained on the morning of surgery and on the morning of the first postoperative day. Sixteen patients developed septic complications during the first five postoperative days (group 1), and 34 patients developed no septic complications (group 2). On day 1, PCT and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in group 1 (P-values of 0.003 and 0.006, respectively) but CRP levels were similar. An IL-6 cut-off point set at 310 pg ml(-1) yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 58% to differentiate group 1 patients from group 2 patients. When associated with the occurrence of SIRS on day 1 these values reached 100% and 79%, respectively. A PCT cut-off point set at 1.1 ng ml(-1) yielded a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 72%. When associated with the occurrence of SIRS on day 1, these values reached 100% and 86%, respectively. PCT and IL-6 appear to be early markers of subsequent postoperative sepsis in patients undergoing major surgery for cancer. These findings could allow identification of postoperative septic complications.

  20. Effect of phrenic nerve palsy on early postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Gregor J; Mauss, Karl; Carboni, Giovanni L; Hoksch, Beatrix; Kuster, Roland; Ott, Sebastian R; Schmid, Ralph A

    2013-12-01

    The issue of phrenic nerve preservation during pneumonectomy is still an unanswered question. So far, its direct effect on immediate postoperative pulmonary lung function has never been evaluated in a prospective trial. We conducted a prospective crossover study including 10 patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between July 2011 and July 2012. After written informed consent, all consecutive patients who agreed to take part in the study and in whom preservation of the phrenic nerve during operation was possible, were included in the study. Upon completion of lung resection, a catheter was placed in the proximal paraphrenic tissue on the pericardial surface. After an initial phase of recovery of 5 days all patients underwent ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragmatic motion followed by lung function testing with and without induced phrenic nerve palsy. The controlled, temporary paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm was achieved by local administration of lidocaine 1% at a rate of 3 mL/h (30 mg/h) via the above-mentioned catheter. Temporary phrenic nerve palsy was accomplished in all but 1 patient with suspected catheter dislocation. Spirometry showed a significant decrease in dynamic lung volumes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity; p < 0.05) with the paralyzed hemidiaphragm. Blood oxygen saturation levels did not change significantly. Our results show that phrenic nerve palsy causes a significant impairment of dynamic lung volumes during the early postoperative period after pneumonectomy. Therefore, in these already compromised patients, intraoperative phrenic nerve injury should be avoided whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early laparoscopic management of acute postoperative hemorrhage after initial laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Edward M; Zorn, Kevin C; Gofrit, Ofer N; Lucioni, Alvaro; Orvieto, Marcelo A; Zagaja, Gregory P; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2007-08-01

    The use of laparoscopic surgery has been well established for the management of abdominal emergencies. However, the value of this technique for postoperative hemorrhage in urology has not been characterized. We present our favorable experience with laparoscopic exploration after urologic surgery and suggest guidelines for laparoscopic management of post-laparoscopy bleeding. Three patients who developed hemorrhage shortly after laparoscopic urologic surgery and were managed by laparoscopic exploration were identified from a series of 910 laparoscopic urologic procedures performed at our institution from October 2002 to June 2006. Three patients, who were hemodynamically stable (two after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, one after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy), required prompt surgical exploration for postoperative hemorrhage not stabilized by blood transfusion (mean 2.7 units) at a mean of 19.4 hours after initial surgery. Clots were evacuated with a 10-mm suction-irrigator. Two patients were found to have abdominal-wall arterial bleeding and were managed with suture ligation. The third patient demonstrated diffuse bleeding from the prostatic bed, which was controlled with Surgicel and FloSeal. Bleeding was efficiently controlled in all patients, and none required post-exploration transfusion. The mean post-exploration hospital stay was 2.3 days. Significant hemorrhage after urologic laparoscopy is a rare event. We found laparoscopic exploration to be an excellent way to diagnose and correct such hemorrhage in certain patients. Early diagnosis with clinical and hematologic studies, a lowered threshold for surgical exploration, and specific operative equipment may decrease patient morbidity and the need for open surgical exploration.

  2. Cognitive penetration of early vision in face perception.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Ariel S

    2018-06-13

    Cognitive and affective penetration of perception refers to the influence that higher mental states such as beliefs and emotions have on perceptual systems. Psychological and neuroscientific studies appear to show that these states modulate the visual system at the visuomotor, attentional, and late levels of processing. However, empirical evidence showing that similar consequences occur in early stages of visual processing seems to be scarce. In this paper, I argue that psychological evidence does not seem to be either sufficient or necessary to argue in favour of or against the cognitive penetration of perception in either late or early vision. In order to do that we need to have recourse to brain imaging techniques. Thus, I introduce a neuroscientific study and argue that it seems to provide well-grounded evidence for the cognitive penetration of early vision in face perception. I also examine and reject alternative explanations to my conclusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Orthopedic Surgery and Post-Operative Cognitive Decline in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease: Considerations from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Price, Catherine C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Tanner, Jared; Garvan, Cyndi; Ward, Jade; Akbar, Farheen; Bowers, Dawn; Rice, Mark; Okun, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) demarks cognitive decline after major surgery but has been studied to date in “healthy” adults. Although individuals with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) commonly undergo elective surgery, these individuals have yet to be prospectively followed despite hypotheses of increased POCD risk. OBJECTIVE To conduct a pilot study examining cognitive change pre-post elective orthopedic surgery for PD relative to surgery and non-surgery peers. METHODS A prospective one-year longitudinal design. No-dementia idiopathic PD individuals were actively recruited along with non-PD “healthy” controls (HC) undergoing knee replacement surgery. Non-surgical PD and HC controls were also recruited. Attention/processing speed, inhibitory function, memory recall, animal (semantic) fluency, and motor speed were assessed at baseline (pre-surgery), three-weeks, three-months, and one-year post- orthopedic surgery. Reliable change methods examined individual changes for PD individuals relative to control surgery and control non-surgery peers. RESULTS Over two years we screened 152 older adult surgery or non-surgery candidates with 19 of these individuals having a diagnosis of PD. Final participants included 8 PD (5 surgery, 3 non-surgery), 47 Control Surgery, and 21 Control Non-Surgery. Eighty percent (4 of the 5) PD surgery declined greater than 1.645 standard deviations from their baseline performance on measures assessing processing speed and inhibitory function. This was not observed for the non-surgery PD individuals. CONCLUSION This prospective pilot study demonstrated rationale and feasibility for examining cognitive decline in at-risk neurodegenerative populations. We discuss recruitment and design challenges for examining post-operative cognitive decline in neurodegenerative samples. PMID:26683785

  4. Dissociable early attentional control mechanisms underlying cognitive and affective conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Taolin; Kendrick, Keith M.; Feng, Chunliang; Sun, Shiyue; Yang, Xun; Wang, Xiaogang; Luo, Wenbo; Yang, Suyong; Huang, Xiaoqi; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A.; Gong, Qiyong; Fan, Jin; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that cognitive conflict is sensitive to the relative proportion of congruent and incongruent trials. However, few studies have examined whether affective conflict processing is modulated as a function of proportion congruency (PC). To address this question we recorded event-related potentials (ERP) while subjects performed both cognitive and affective face-word Stroop tasks. By varying the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials in each block, we examined the extent to which PC impacts both cognitive and affective conflict control at different temporal stages. Results showed that in the cognitive task an anteriorly localized early N2 component occurred predominantly in the low proportion congruency context, whereas in the affective task it was found to occur in the high proportion congruency one. The N2 effects across the two tasks were localized to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, where responses were increased in the cognitive task but decreased in the affective one. Furthermore, high proportions of congruent items produced both larger amplitude of a posteriorly localized sustained potential component and a larger behavioral Stroop effect in cognitive and affective tasks. Our findings suggest that cognitive and affective conflicts engage early dissociable attentional control mechanisms and a later common conflict response system. PMID:27892513

  5. The effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® after total knee replacement in early postoperative rehabilitation period. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Donec, V; Kriščiūnas, A

    2014-08-01

    The number of total knee replacements performed each year is increasing. Among the main impediments to functional recovery after these surgeries include postoperative edema, pain, lower limb muscle strength deficits, all of which point to a need to identify safe, effective postoperative rehabilitation modalities. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® (KT) method in reducing postoperative pain, edema, and improved knee range of motion recovery after total knee replacement (TKR) operation in early postoperative rehabilitation period. Randomized clinical trial. Inpatient rehabilitation facility. Ninety-four patients, who underwent primary TKR surgery. Using simple randomization, participants were divided into KT group and control group. Both groups received same rehabilitation program and procedures after surgery, except KT group also received KT applications throughout all rehabilitation period. Postoperative pain, edema, restoration of the operated knee flexion and extension were evaluated. The chosen level of significance was P<0.05; in evaluation power of the test β ≤ 0.2. Groups were homogenous to sex, age, BMI, comorbidities, preoperative knee flexion/extension impairment, preoperative pain intensity, anaesthesia, prosthesis implanted (P>0.05). In both groups postoperative pain decreased significantly during rehabilitation period, however less pain was found in KT group from the second postoperative week till the end of inpatient rehabilitation (28th postoperative day) (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). Postoperative edema was less intense and subsided more quickly in KT group as well (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). No difference was found in improvement of knee flexion (P>0.05). Operated knee extension was found better in KT group then in control at the end of in-patient rehabilitation (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). KT was well tolerated by patients. KT technique appeared to be beneficial for reducing postoperative pain, edema, improving knee extension

  6. Cerebral Oximetry During Infant Cardiac Surgery: Evaluation of and Relationship to Early Postoperative Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kussman, Barry D.; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A.; Newburger, Jane W.; Mayer, John E.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Bacha, Emile A.; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome Methods Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% versus 35%. Results Prior to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO2 values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO2 values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO2 and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with ≥5 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, there was no correlation between the rSO2 (91 ± 6%) or hematocrit (29.2 ± 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO2 during arrest. Conclusions Intraoperative rSO2 varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. PMID:19299774

  7. Novel approach to repair of acute achilles tendon rupture: early recovery without postoperative fixation or orthosis.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Tadahiko; Miyamoto, Wataru; Uchio, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    Immobilization or orthosis is required after conventional Achilles tendon surgery. Hypothesis This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early rehabilitation without any postoperative immobilization or orthosis. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty consecutive patients (14 men and 6 women; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 16-70 years) who had acute subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture were treated by the new method, with an average follow-up of 2.9 years (range, 2-4.8 years). Among them, 15 injuries were sports-related and 5 were work-related. The authors applied a side-locking loop technique of their own design for the core suture, using braided polyblend suture thread, with peripheral cross-stitches added. The patients started active and passive ankle mobilization from the next day, partial weightbearing walking from 1 week, full-load walking from 4 weeks, and double-legged heel raises from 6 weeks after surgery. The range of motion recovery equal to the intact side averaged 3.2 weeks. Double-legged heel raises and 20 continuous single-legged heel raise exercises were possible at an average of 6.3 weeks and 9.9 weeks, respectively. T2-weighted magnetic resonance signal intensity recovered to equal that of the intact portion of the same tendon at 12 weeks. The patients resumed sports activities or heavy labor at an average of 14.4 weeks. The Achilles tendon rupture score averaged 98.3 at 24 weeks. There were no complications. This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early mobilization exercise without costly specialized orthosis or immobilization and allows an early return to normal life and sports activities, reducing the physical and economic burden on patients.

  8. Cognition, social cognition and functional disability in early-stage schizophrenia: A study from southern India.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Gopal, Subhashini; John, Sujit; Thara, R

    2018-04-24

    In high-income countries a wealth of studies has revealed cognitive and social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and a close relationship of these deficits to psychosocial functioning. Studies examining these illness features in middle and low-income countries are rare, particularly in early-stage samples. Sixty adult participants within 5 years of diagnosis with schizophrenia and 53 matched, healthy control were assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and the PEAT emotion identification task at study entry, and the WHODAS functioning scale one year later. Deficits on cognitive instruments ranged from d = 0.64-1.04 and were consistent with those reported in Western samples. Negative symptoms were linked to function longitudinally. Deficits in social cognitive skills and longitudinal links between cognition and functioning were not evident. These findings suggest a highly consistent magnitude of neurocognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia across widely varying cultures, but with limited evidence of social cognitive skill deficits using Western-based instruments. There was little evidence of a relationship between cognition and psychosocial disability in people with early-stage schizophrenia in this sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Urine Metabonomics Reveals Early Biomarkers in Diabetic Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lin, Mengya; Kang, Mingqin; Liu, Hongyue; Zhang, Yuping; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Yunlong; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to diabetic encephalopathy, which is a frequent diabetic complication and affects nearly 30% of diabetics. Because cognitive dysfunction from diabetic encephalopathy might develop into irreversible dementia, early diagnosis and detection of this disease is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. This study is to investigate the early specific metabolites biomarkers in urine prior to the onset of diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD) by using metabolomics technology. An ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) platform was used to analyze the urine samples from diabetic mice that were associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and nonassociated with MCI in the stage of diabetes (prior to the onset of DCD). We then screened and validated the early biomarkers using OPLS-DA model and support vector machine (SVM) method. Following multivariate statistical and integration analysis, we found that seven metabolites could be accepted as early biomarkers of DCD, and the SVM results showed that the prediction accuracy is as high as 91.66%. The identities of four biomarkers were determined by mass spectrometry. The identified biomarkers were largely involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glutathione metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. The present study first revealed reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis of DCD. It provides new insight and strategy for the early diagnosis and treatment of DCD.

  10. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Background Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca2+) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. Results We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca2+ < 1.1 mmol/L) developed in 38 of 149 (25.7%) patients 24 hours after thyroidectomy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic. PMID:25078927

  11. Early Postoperative Results of Percutaneous Needle Fasciotomy in 451 Patients with Dupuytren Disease.

    PubMed

    Molenkamp, Sanne; Schouten, Tanneke A M; Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Werker, Paul M N; Moolenburgh, J Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Percutaneous needle fasciotomy is a minimally invasive treatment modality for Dupuytren disease. In this study, the authors analyzed the efficacy and complication rate of percutaneous needle fasciotomy using a statistical method that takes the multilevel structure of data, regarding multiple measurements from the same patient, into account. The data of 470 treated rays from 451 patients with Dupuytren disease that underwent percutaneous needle fasciotomy were analyzed retrospectively. The authors described the early postoperative results of percutaneous needle fasciotomy and applied linear mixed models to compare mean correction of passive extension deficit between joints and efficacy of primary versus secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Mean preoperative passive extension deficits at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints were 37, 40, and 31 degrees, respectively. Mean preoperative total passive extension deficit was 54 degrees. Results were excellent, with a mean total passive extension deficit correction of 85 percent. Percutaneous needle fasciotomy was most effective for metacarpophalangeal joints and less effective for proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. Secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy was as effective as primary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Complications were rare and mostly minor. The results of this study confirm that percutaneous needle fasciotomy is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate disease who prefer a minimally invasive procedure. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-08-01

    Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca(2+) < 1.1 mmol/L) developed in 38 of 149 (25.7%) patients 24 hours after thyroidectomy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic.

  13. The Effects of Patient Obesity on Early Postoperative Complications After Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sing, David C; Ding, David Y; Aguilar, Thomas U; Luan, Tammy; Ma, C Benjamin; Feeley, Brian T; Zhang, Alan L

    2016-11-01

    To report the prevalence of obesity in shoulder arthroscopy, determine a body mass index (BMI) threshold most predictive of complication within 30 days, and evaluate obesity as an independent risk factor for medical and surgical complications. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we reviewed all patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy during 2011 to 2013. Receiver operating characteristic and Youden coefficient were calculated to find an optimal BMI cutoff to predict complications within 30 days of surgery. A case-control matched analysis was then performed by stratifying patient BMI by this cutoff and matching patients one to one according to age, sex, type of shoulder arthroscopy, American Society of Anesthesiology rating, surgical setting, and 8 comorbidities. Operating time, complications, and readmissions were also compared. Of the 15,589 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy, 6,684 (43%) were classified as obese when using the optimal cutoff point of BMI = 30 according to the Youden coefficient. Obese patients had a higher risk of superficial site infection than nonobese patients (0.3% vs 0.0%; odds ratio [OR]: 6.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 26.8; P = .015). Obese patients did not have significantly increased risk for overall early postoperative complication (1.2% compared with nonobese 0.8%; OR: 1.54; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.4), readmissions (OR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.5), or increased operating time (P = .068). Up to 43% of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy can be classified as obese, but early perioperative complications are uncommon. Higher patient BMI is associated with increased risk of superficial site infection but not an overall risk for complication, readmission, or increased operating time. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage cervical cancer: utility of intraoperative versus postoperative assessment.

    PubMed

    Fader, A Nickles; Edwards, R P; Cost, M; Kanbour-Shakir, A; Kelley, J L; Schwartz, B; Sukumvanich, P; Comerci, J; Sumkin, J; Elishaev, E; Rohan, L Cencia

    2008-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection using lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative blue dye, and radiocolloid in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Intra-cervical injection of technetium-99 sulfur colloid and lymphoscintigraphy were performed preoperatively. Isosulfan blue was injected intra-cervically immediately prior to surgery. SLNs were excised and examined intraoperatively (imprint cytology and frozen section) and postoperatively (H and E histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for cytokeratin). Thirty eight patients were evaluable. Laparoscopy and laparotomy were performed in 28.9% and 71.1%, respectively. Subjects had squamous cell carcinoma (n=26), adenocarcinoma (n=10) or adenosquamous (n=2) histologies. 55.3% had cervical tumors <2 cm. The overall SLN detection rate was 92.1%. The external iliac region just distal to the common iliac bifurcation was the most common SLN location. A mean of 2.1 SLNs were detected per patient with bilateral SLNs observed in 47.4%. On final pathology, metastatic nodal disease was identified in 15.7% of patients. Of these, 83.3% were detected in the SLNs. Sensitivity of SLN detection of metastasis was 100% for patients with cervical tumors <2 cm. However intraoperative evaluation by imprint cytology and frozen section correctly identified lymph node metastasis in only 33.3%. SLN detection is feasible and accurately reflects pelvic nodal basin status when performed in early-stage cervical cancer patients. However, while current intraoperative pathology techniques for assessing nodal metastases reliably detect metastases larger than 2 mm, they lack sufficient sensitivity to detect micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells.

  15. [Personalized cell therapy for early postoperative bullous keratopathy (experimental proof and clinical results)].

    PubMed

    Kasparov, A A; Kasparova, Evg A; Fadeeva, L L; Subbot, A M; Borodina, N V; Kasparova, E A; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M; Pavliuk, A S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term research on development and clinical application of personalized cell therapy (PCT) for treatment of early postoperative (manifesting within the first 3 months after surgery) bullous keratopathy (BK). The method of intracameral PCT implies in vitro incubation of the patient's blood sample with poly(A:U) stimulator, separation of the serum with activated leukocytes, and injection of the final cell preparation into the anterior chamber. The fundamental part of the research was aimed at a detailed description of the cell preparation and investigation of its possible mechanisms of action. Cytokine and growth factor level in the cell preparation suggested that its high clinical efficacy might be due to its ability to improve regeneration of damaged corneal endothelium. The clinical study was conducted on a group of 52 patients with early BK. A significant effect (smoothing of the Descement's membrane folds, complete resorption of corneal edema, improvement of corneal transparency, reduction of corneal thickness and increase of visual acuity by 0.49 +/- 0.27) was achieved in 44.2% of patients, while partial effect was seen in 21.1% of patients. There was no clinical effect in 34.6% of patients. In those patients who developed significant or partial clinical effect after the PCT, many endotheliocytes appeared to have multiple nuclei (2 and more). In some patients polyploid nuclei persisted for 3-5 years after the treatment. Polyploidy results from incomplete mitosis which might be due to regenerative processes in the endothelium stimulated by the PCT. Obviously, high efficacy and relative simplicity of the method should promote its further clinical introduction.

  16. Early Supplementary Feeding and Cognition: A Retrospective Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies on the effects of infant food supplementation on the children's later cognitive development. Suggests that the study by Pollitt et al. reported in this monograph presents evidence that correcting early malnutrition provides large benefits to children when they become adolescents and young adults. (BC)

  17. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  18. Personalized risk prediction of postoperative cognitive impairment - rationale for the EU-funded BioCog project.

    PubMed

    Winterer, G; Androsova, G; Bender, O; Boraschi, D; Borchers, F; Dschietzig, T B; Feinkohl, I; Fletcher, P; Gallinat, J; Hadzidiakos, D; Haynes, J D; Heppner, F; Hetzer, S; Hendrikse, J; Ittermann, B; Kant, I M J; Kraft, A; Krannich, A; Krause, R; Kühn, S; Lachmann, G; van Montfort, S J T; Müller, A; Nürnberg, P; Ofosu, K; Pietsch, M; Pischon, T; Preller, J; Renzulli, E; Scheurer, K; Schneider, R; Slooter, A J C; Spies, C; Stamatakis, E; Volk, H D; Weber, S; Wolf, A; Yürek, F; Zacharias, N

    2018-04-01

    Postoperative cognitive impairment is among the most common medical complications associated with surgical interventions - particularly in elderly patients. In our aging society, it is an urgent medical need to determine preoperative individual risk prediction to allow more accurate cost-benefit decisions prior to elective surgeries. So far, risk prediction is mainly based on clinical parameters. However, these parameters only give a rough estimate of the individual risk. At present, there are no molecular or neuroimaging biomarkers available to improve risk prediction and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology of this clinical condition. In this short review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and briefly present the recently started BioCog project (Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly), which is funded by the European Union. It is the goal of this research and development (R&D) project, which involves academic and industry partners throughout Europe, to deliver a multivariate algorithm based on clinical assessments as well as molecular and neuroimaging biomarkers to overcome the currently unsatisfying situation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, John J.; Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry

    Purpose: To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results: Median dose delivered wasmore » 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n=28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01-3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%-30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%-5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0-65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03-3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions: Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and

  20. Surgeon Annual and Cumulative Volumes Predict Early Postoperative Outcomes After Brain Tumor Resection.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Rohan; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Mao, Jialin; Sedrakyan, Art

    2018-06-01

    Surgeon volume has been previously shown to affect patient outcomes. However, data related to neuro-oncologic surgery are limited and do not include neurologic morbidities as an outcomes measure. In this study, we aimed to determine if 5-year surgeon cumulative and annual volumes predict early postoperative outcomes in patients after brain tumor surgery. A population-based cohort of patients (n = 10,258) undergoing brain tumor resection between 2005 and 2014 were included for study using the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperation System. Surgeons were categorized by their cumulative and annual surgical volume. Patients treated by high cumulative/high annual (HC/HA) volume surgeons had shorter length of stay (median, 5 days vs. 8 days vs. 8 days vs. 6 days, respectively; P < 0.01), lower charges (median, 70,025 vs. $77,043 vs. $93,715 vs. $77,018 respectively; P < 0.01) and less nonroutine discharge (41% vs. 48% vs. 50.9% vs. 43.9% respectively; P < 0.01) compared with patients treated by surgeons from the low cumulative/low annual (LC/LA), LC/HA, HC/LA groups. Similarly, HC/HA volume surgeons also had lower rate of hydrocephalus (9.9% vs. 10.4% vs. 13.7% respectively; P = 0.02), medical complications (6.9% vs. 11.2% vs. 11.5% respectively; P < 0.01), neurologic complications (44.1% vs. 46.8% vs. 48.1% respectively; P = 0.03), 30-day reoperation (5.1% vs. 6.9% vs. 7.1% respectively; P < 0.01) and 30-day death (3.3% vs. 5.4% vs. 5.2%; P < 0.01) compared with LC/LA and LC/HA volume surgeons. There is some evidence for improved postoperative outcomes when surgery is performed by HC and HA volume surgeons. This finding suggests that subspecialization in surgical neuro-oncology should be considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new early cognitive screening measure to detect cognitive side-effects of electroconvulsive therapy?

    PubMed

    Martin, Donel M; Katalinic, Natalie; Ingram, Anna; Schweitzer, Isaac; Smith, Deidre J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Loo, Colleen K

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive side-effects from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be distressing for patients and early detection may have an important role in guiding treatment decisions over the ECT course. This prospective study examined the utility of an early cognitive screening battery for predicting cognitive side-effects which develop later in the ECT course. The screening battery, together with the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), was administered to 123 patients at baseline and after 3 ECT treatments. A more detailed cognitive battery was administered at baseline, after six treatments (post ECT 6) and after the last ECT treatment (post treatment) to assess cognitive side-effects across several domains: global cognition, anterograde memory, executive function, speed and concentration, and retrograde memory. Multivariate analyses examined the predictive utility of change on items from the screening battery for later cognitive changes at post ECT 6 and post treatment. Results showed that changes on a combination of items from the screening battery were predictive of later cognitive changes at post treatment, particularly for anterograde memory (p < 0.01), after controlling for patient and treatment factors. Change on the MMSE predicted cognitive changes at post ECT 6 but not at post treatment. A scoring method for the new screening battery was tested for discriminative ability in a sub-sample of patients. This study provides preliminary evidence that a simple and easy-to-administer measure may potentially be used to help guide clinical treatment decisions to optimise efficacy and cognitive outcomes. Further development of this measure and validation in a more representative ECT clinical population is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Postoperative Nutritional Effects of Early Enteral Feeding Compared with Total Parental Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodectomy Patients: A Prosepective, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD. PMID:22379336

  3. Prospective randomized study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an early versus delayed postoperative physical therapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated patient outcomes and rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a postoperative physical therapy protocol with early passive motion compared with a delayed protocol that limited early passive motion. The study enrolled 68 patients (average age, 63.2 years) who met inclusion criteria. All patients had a full-thickness crescent-shaped tear of the supraspinatus that was repaired using a transosseous equivalent suture-bridge technique along with subacromial decompression. In the early group, 33 patients were randomized to passive elevation and rotation that began at postoperative day 2. In the delayed group, 35 patients began the same protocol at 6 weeks. Patients were monitored clinically for a minimum of 12 months, and rotator cuff healing was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Both groups had similar improvements in preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (early group: 43.9 to 91.9, P < .0001; delayed group: 41.0 to 92.8, P < .0001) and Simple Shoulder Test scores (early group: 5.5 to 11.1, P < .0001; delayed group: 5.1 to 11.1, P < .0001). There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction, rotator cuff healing, or range of motion between the early and delayed groups. Patients in the early group and delayed group both demonstrated very similar outcomes and range of motion at 1 year. There was a slightly higher rotator cuff healing rate in the delayed passive range of motion group compared with the early passive range of motion group (91% vs 85%). Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Subjective cognitive impairment: Towards early identification of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ptacek, S; Eriksdotter, M; Jelic, V; Porta-Etessam, J; Kåreholt, I; Manzano Palomo, S

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) begins decades before dementia and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate significant lesion loads. Lack of information about the early pathophysiology in AD complicates the search for therapeutic strategies.Subjective cognitive impairment is the description given to subjects who have memory-related complaints without pathological results on neuropsychological tests. There is no consensus regarding this heterogeneous syndrome, but at least some of these patients may represent the earliest stage in AD. We reviewed available literature in order to summarise current knowledge on subjective cognitive impairment. Although they may not present detectable signs of disease, SCI patients as a group score lower on neuropsychological tests than the general population does, and they also have a higher incidence of future cognitive decline. Depression and psychiatric co-morbidity play a role but cannot account for all cognitive complaints. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in these patients reveal a pattern of hippocampal atrophy similar to that of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional MRI shows increased activation during cognitive tasks which might indicate compensation for loss of function. Prevalence of an AD-like pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid is higher in SCI patients than in the general population. Memory complaints are relevant symptoms and may predict AD. Interpatient variability and methodological differences between clinical studies make it difficult to assign a definition to this syndrome. In the future, having a standard definition and longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up times and an emphasis on quantifiable variables may clarify aspects of early AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Poststroke QEEG informs early prognostication of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Schleiger, Emma; Wong, Andrew; Read, Stephen; Rowland, Tennille; Finnigan, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common consequence of stroke, but remains difficult to predict. We investigate the ability of early QEEG assessment to inform such prediction, using binary logistic regression. Thirty-five patients (12 female, ages 18-87) suffering middle cerebral artery, ischemic stroke were studied. Resting-state EEG was recorded 48-239 h after symptom onset. Relative power for delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands, delta:alpha ratio, and peak alpha frequency were analyzed. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was administered, where possible, on day of EEG and at median 99 days (range 69-138) poststroke. Eight patients could not complete the baseline MoCA, and four the follow-up MoCA, for varying reasons (most commonly, stroke symptoms). Fifteen patients (48%) had cognitive impairment (MoCA score ≤25) at follow-up. One QEEG index was able to correctly predict presence/absence of cognitive impairment in 24/31 patients (77.4%), whereas predischarge MoCA did so in 23 patients. This index, relative theta frequency (4-7.5 Hz) power, was computed from only three posterior electrodes over the stroke-affected hemisphere. Its predictive accuracy (three electrodes) was higher than that of any "global" QEEG measure (averaged over 19 electrodes). These results may signify association between poststroke alpha slowing and cognitive impairment, which may be mediated by attentional (dys)function, which warrants further investigation. Pending further studies, QEEG measure(s)-from a few electrodes-could inform early prognostication of poststroke cognitive outcomes (and clinical decisions), particularly when cognitive function cannot be adequately assessed (due to symptoms, language, or other issues) or when assessment is equivocal. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. [Effects of Early Enteral Immunonutrition on Postoperative Immune Function and Rehabilitation of Patients with Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Risk].

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang-Bing; Li, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Rui; Zhuang, Wen

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of early enteral immunonutrition on postoperative immune function and rehabilitation of gastric cancer patients with nutritional risk. New hospitalized patients with gastric cancer were evaluated the nutrient status based on NRS 2002. The patients who scored between 3 to 5 points were randomized into two groups(30 cases for each group), and those in experimental group were given 7-d early postoperative enteral immune nutrition, those in control group were given normal nutrition. The immune indexes (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + /CD8 + ) and nutritional indexes(transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin) were measured before operation and at the 3 rd and 7 th day postoperatively. In addition, the first flatus time, gastrointestinal adverse reactions and complications, length of hospital stays were compared between the two groups. The level of CD4 + /CD8 + and transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin in experimental group were significantly higher than those in control group at the third and seventh day postoperatively ( P <0.05).Compared with the control group, the experimental group had shorter first flatus time after surgery, which were (63.5±7.3) h vs. (72.8±8.6 ) h respectively ( P <0.05).There were no statistically difference on pneumonia, anastomosis leakage, severe abdominal distension, inflammatory bowel obstruction and total postoperative hospitalization time between the two groups ( P >0.05). Early enteral immunonutrition can effectively promote the recovery of nutritional status and immune function in gastric cancer patients with nutrition risk.

  7. Very Early Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage within 5 Post-operative Days: a More Severe Subtype Needs Relaparatomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Wei; Lian, Peng; Huang, Ben; Zheng, Hong-Tu; Wang, Ming-He; Gu, Wei-Lie; Li, Xin-Xiang; Xu, Ye; Cai, San-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Early anastomotic leakage (AL), usually defined as leakage within 30 post-operative days, represents a severe entity. However, mounting evidence has indicated that majorities of leakage occur within one week after surgery, making late AL rarity. Here we analyzed 101 consecutive colorectal AL, all of which occurred within 30 post-operative days, during Jan 2013 and Dec 2015 in cancer hospital of Fudan University. AL occurring within 5 post-operative days was defined as very early AL (vE-AL). We evaluated risk factors of vE-AL compared with non-vEAL and correlated with post-leakage peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. We found that AL occurred at median time of 7 days after surgery. 23 cases were vE-AL. Reconstruction of post-peritoneum for mid-low rectal carcinoma significantly reduced incidence of vE-AL compared with non-vE-AL (p = 0.042). Patients with vE-AL was associated with presence of peritonitis (p = 0.031), the latter significantly correlated with increased re-operation rate (p = 6.8E-13). Besides, patients with vE-AL trended to correlate with increased re-operation rate after leakage (p = 0.088). In concludsion, vE-AL occurring within 5 post-operative days represents a severe subtype associated with general peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. PMID:28084305

  8. Influence of pre- or intraoperational use of tramadol (preemptive or preventive analgesia) on tramadol requirement in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Wordliczek, Jerzy; Banach, Marcin; Garlicki, Jarosław; Jakowicka-Wordliczek, Joanna; Dobrogowski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of iv tramadol on opioid requirement in the early postoperative period. The subjects were 90 patients scheduled for colon surgery (hemicolectomy) who received general anesthesia using the (N2O/O2) isoflurane technique. Thirty patients (group I) were administered 100 mg of tramadol iv before induction of general anesthesia (preemptive analgesia). Group II (30 patients) was administered 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after peritoneal closure (preventive analgesia) and control group (30 patients) received 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after operation. Following the operation, all patients were administered tramadol in the PCA-iv mode in order to treat postoperative pain. In the postoperative period, the following parameters were measured: pain intensity (using VAS), total consumption of tramadol, time until the first PCA activation, and frequency of side effects (drowsiness, nausea, vomiting). In patients of groups I and II who had received preemptive or preventive analgesia, a significantly lower total consumption of tramadol, as compared with control group, was observed in the early postoperative period. However, the time until the first PCA activation was significantly shorter in group I as compared to the other two groups. No significant differences between the groups were found regarding pain intensity and frequency of side effects.

  9. [Laboratory evaluation of endogenous intoxication in patients with stomach cancer during early postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, A N; Evtushenko, V A

    2004-01-01

    The total and effective concentrations of albumin, albumin-binding reserve in blood and toxicity index were determined in 25 patients with gastric cancer pre- and postoperatively as well as in 30 minutes and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 after surgery. The albumin concentration was shown to be decreasing postoperatively with its effective concentration tresspassing the norm values. As for the albumin-binding reserve, it was found to be decreased by 20-30% during the whole follow-up. The studied parameters ensure an effective monitoring of the postoperative period with their significance being more important in a worsening condition of patients.

  10. Intraoperative Inducibility of Atrial Fibrillation Does Not Predict Early Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; Yaksh, Ameeta; Kik, Charles; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Knops, Paul; van Groningen, Nicole J; Hokken, Thijmen; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-03-10

    Early postoperative atrial fibrillation (EPoAF) is associated with thromboembolic events, prolonged hospitalization, and development of late PoAF (LPoAF). It is, however, unknown if EPoAF can be predicted by intraoperative AF inducibility. The aims of this study are therefore to explore (1) the value of intraoperative inducibility of AF for development of both EPoAF and LPoAF and (2) the predictive value of de novo EPoAF for recurrence of LPoAF. Patients (N=496, 75% male) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery for coronary and/or valvular heart disease were included. AF induction was attempted by atrial pacing, before extracorporeal circulation. All patients were on continuous rhythm monitoring until discharge to detect EPoAF. During a follow-up period of 2 years, LPoAF was detected by ECGs and Holter recordings. Sustained AF was inducible in 56% of patients. There was no difference in patients with or without AF before surgery ( P =0.159), or between different types of surgery ( P =0.687). In patients without a history of AF, incidence of EPoAF and LPoAF was 37% and 2%, respectively. EPoAF recurred in 58% patients with preoperative AF, 53% developed LPoAF. There were no correlations between intraoperative inducibility and EPoAF or LPoAF ( P >0.05). EPoAF was not correlated with LPoAF in patients without a history of AF ( P =0.116), in contrast to patients with AF before surgery ( P <0.001). Intraoperative AF inducibility does not predict development of either EPoAF or LPoAF. In patients with AF before surgery, EPoAF is correlated with LPoAF recurrences. This correlation is absent in patients without AF before surgery. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Intraoperative Infusion of Dexmedetomidine for Prevention of Postoperative Delirium and Cognitive Dysfunction in Elderly Patients Undergoing Major Elective Noncardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Deiner, Stacie; Luo, Xiaodong; Lin, Hung-Mo; Sessler, Daniel I; Saager, Leif; Sieber, Frederick E; Lee, Hochang B; Sano, Mary; Jankowski, Christopher; Bergese, Sergio D; Candiotti, Keith; Flaherty, Joseph H; Arora, Harendra; Shander, Aryeh; Rock, Peter

    2017-08-16

    Postoperative delirium occurs in 10% to 60% of elderly patients having major surgery and is associated with longer hospital stays, increased hospital costs, and 1-year mortality. Emerging literature suggests that dexmedetomidine sedation in critical care units is associated with reduced incidence of delirium. However, intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine for prevention of delirium has not been well studied. To evaluate whether an intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduces postoperative delirium. This study was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that randomly assigned patients to dexmedetomidine or saline placebo infused during surgery and for 2 hours in the recovery room. Patients were assessed daily for postoperative delirium (primary outcome) and secondarily for postoperative cognitive decline. Participants were elderly (>68 years) patients undergoing major elective noncardiac surgery. The study dates were February 2008 to May 2014. Dexmedetomidine infusion (0.5 µg/kg/h) during surgery and up to 2 hours in the recovery room. The primary hypothesis tested was that intraoperative dexmedetomidine administration would reduce postoperative delirium. Secondarily, the study examined the correlation between dexmedetomidine use and postoperative cognitive change. In total, 404 patients were randomized; 390 completed in-hospital delirium assessments (median [interquartile range] age, 74.0 [71.0-78.0] years; 51.3% [200 of 390] female). There was no difference in postoperative delirium between the dexmedetomidine and placebo groups (12.2% [23 of 189] vs 11.4% [23 of 201], P = .94). After adjustment for age and educational level, there was no difference in the postoperative cognitive performance between treatment groups at 3 months and 6 months. Adverse events were comparably distributed in the treatment groups. Intraoperative dexmedetomidine does not prevent postoperative delirium. The reduction in delirium previously demonstrated

  12. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  13. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  14. Acceptance of Illness after Surgery in Patients with Breast Cancer in the Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Andrzej; Krzemkowska, Elżbieta; Rhone, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, both in Poland and in the world. Consequences entail a disruption in the physical, psychological and social functioning. The aim of the study was to assess the acceptance of illness by patients treated for breast cancer in the early postoperative period. The research was conducted on the group of 100 consecutive patients aged 32-80 years (median 56 years) who underwent surgery for breast cancer in the Centre of Oncology in Bydgoszcz w 2014 roku. 68 of women had mastectomy, 32 of women had conservative surgery. Polling was conducted in the early period after surgery. The original questionnaire containing closed questions the scale of acceptance of the disease (AIS) as well as mental adaptation to cancer (Mini-Mac) was used in the study. 38% of patients had high acceptance of the disease, 48% average and 14% had low acceptance. Patients after conservative surgery had a higher average values for the mental strategies to cope with the disease, for the fighting spirit (23.1), helplessness and hopelessness (13.5), positive revaluation (23), the patients had a lower average (16.5) in the strategy to absorb anxiety. Patients after conservative surgery had a higher average for constructive style (2.6) but lower for destructive style (1.5). High level of mental coping with the disease was observed in 53%of patients with constructive style and 4% of patients with destructive style. While, a low level of mental coping with the dosease was observed in 5% of patients with constructive style and 46% of patients with destructive style. Almost half of women after mastectomy or conservative surgery had an average acceptance of the disease. The disease was accepted best by educated women living in the cities, white-collar workers with a good economic situation. The following factors were affected the better management of the disease, in order: age, education, current occupation and economic situation, while the type of surgery did

  15. Aspartic acid in the hippocampus: a biomarker for postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Huang, Dong; Tong, Jianbin; Liao, Qin; Hu, Zhonghua; Ouyang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    This study established an aged rat model of cognitive dysfunction using anesthesia with 2% isoflurane and 80% oxygen for 2 hours. Twenty-four hours later, Y-maze test results showed that isoflurane significantly impaired cognitive function in aged rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that isoflurane also significantly increased the levels of N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide, aspartic acid, malic acid and arabinonic acid in the hippocampus of isoflurane-treated rats. Moreover, aspartic acid, N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide and malic acid concentration was positively correlated with the degree of cognitive dysfunction in the isoflurane-treated rats. It is evident that hippocampal metabolite changes are involved in the formation of cognitive dysfunction after isoflurane anesthesia. To further verify these results, this study cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, which were then treated with aspartic acid (100 μmol/L). Results suggested that aspartic acid concentration in the hippocampus may be a biomarker for predicting the occurrence and disease progress of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25206795

  16. Aspartic acid in the hippocampus: a biomarker for postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Huang, Dong; Tong, Jianbin; Liao, Qin; Hu, Zhonghua; Ouyang, Wen

    2014-01-15

    This study established an aged rat model of cognitive dysfunction using anesthesia with 2% isoflurane and 80% oxygen for 2 hours. Twenty-four hours later, Y-maze test results showed that isoflurane significantly impaired cognitive function in aged rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that isoflurane also significantly increased the levels of N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide, aspartic acid, malic acid and arabinonic acid in the hippocampus of isoflurane-treated rats. Moreover, aspartic acid, N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide and malic acid concentration was positively correlated with the degree of cognitive dysfunction in the isoflurane-treated rats. It is evident that hippocampal metabolite changes are involved in the formation of cognitive dysfunction after isoflurane anesthesia. To further verify these results, this study cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, which were then treated with aspartic acid (100 μmol/L). Results suggested that aspartic acid concentration in the hippocampus may be a biomarker for predicting the occurrence and disease progress of cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Early treatment is associated with improved cognition in Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poe, Michele D; Chagnon, Sarah L; Escolar, Maria L

    2014-11-01

    Hurler syndrome is the most clinically severe form of an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterized by the deficiency of α-L-iduronidase. The resulting accumulation of glycosaminoglycans causes progressive multisystem deterioration, resulting in death in childhood. Umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors has been previously shown to improve neurological outcomes of children <2 years of age and prolong life. The purpose of this article is to determine whether age at transplantation can predict cognitive outcomes. Between June 1997 and February 2013, 31 patients with Hurler syndrome underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation and were evaluated at baseline and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. All 31 patients underwent complete neurodevelopmental evaluation (median follow-up = 7.3 years, range = 2-21.7) and a median of 7.0 evaluations (range = 3-18). Younger age at transplantation was associated with improved cognitive function (p = 0.001), receptive and expressive language (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01), and adaptive behavior (p = 0.03). Early age at transplantation is a strong predictor of cognitive, language, and adaptive behavior outcomes. Children younger than 9 months at the time of transplant showed normal cognitive development. Our results demonstrate that early diagnosis is necessary for optimal outcomes and support the need for newborn screening, because most patients are not identified at this young age. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  18. Impact of early and concurrent stunting on cognition.

    PubMed

    Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Alder, Stephen C; Porucznik, Christina A; Stanford, Joseph B; Merrill, Ray M; Dickerson, Ty T; Penny, Mary E

    2011-10-01

    Undernutrition is associated with poor cognitive development, late entry into school, decreased years of schooling, reduced productivity and smaller adult stature. We use longitudinal data from 1674 Peruvian children participating in the Young Lives study to assess the relative impact of early stunting (stunted at 6-18 months of age) and concurrent stunting (stunted at 4.5-6 years of age) on cognitive ability. Anthropometric data were longitudinally collected for children at 6-18 months of age and 4.5-6 years of age at which time verbal and quantitative ability were also assessed. We estimate that an increase in concurrent height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) by one standard deviation was associated with an increase in a child's score on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) by 2.35 points [confidence interval (CI): 1.55-3.15] and a 0.16 point increase on the cognitive development assessment (CDA) (CI: 0.05-0.27). Furthermore, we report that the estimate for concurrent HAZ and PPVT is significantly higher than the estimate for early stunting and PPVT. We found no significant difference between early and concurrent estimates for HAZ and CDA. Children from older mothers, children whose mothers had higher education levels, children living in urban areas, children who attended pre-school, children with fewer siblings and children from wealthier backgrounds scored higher on both assessments. Cognitive skills of children entering school were associated with early stunting but the strongest association was found with concurrent stunting suggesting that interventions preventing linear growth faltering should not only focus on the under 2s but include children up to 5 years of age. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

  20. The correlation of the depth of anesthesia and postoperative cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Jin, Xin; Yang, Suwei; Xia, Yanfei

    2018-03-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the associations between the depth of anesthesia and postoperative delirium (POD) or postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Using the Cochrane evaluation system, the included studies were conducted with quality assessment. We searched Cochrane library, Embase and PubMed databases without language restriction. The retrieval time is up to August 2017. According to the PRISMA guideline, the results associated with POCD and POD separately were compared between low and high bispectral index (BIS) groups under fixed effects model or random effects model. Besides, the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were utilized as the effect sizes for merging the results. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the results. Using Egger's test, publication bias was assessed for the included studies. Totally, 4 studies with high qualities were selected for this meta-analysis. The merged results of POCD showed no significant difference between low and high BIS groups (RR (95% CI)=0.84 (0.21, 3.45), P>0.05). Sensitivity analysis showed that the merged results of POCD were not stable (RR (95%CI)=0.41 (0.17, 0.99)-1.88 (1.09, 3.22), P=0.046). Additionally, no significant publication bias for POCD was found (P=0.385). There was no significant correlation between the depth of anesthesia and POCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics on the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-hua; Chen, Yuan-han; Liang, Xin-ling; Li, Rui-zhao; Li, Zhi-lian; Jiang, Fen; Shi, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influence of early postoperative use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) or diuretics on acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery in elderly patients. Data from elderly patients (age≥60 years old) who underwent cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in Guangdong General Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010 were analyzed in this retrospective research. The primary endpoint was AKI as diagnosed according to the serum creatinine criteria of RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage renal disease). The baseline serum creatinine was defined as the latest serum creatinine level before cardiac surgery. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to obtain the independent risk factors for AKI. Among 618 elderly patients, 76 (12.3%) patients received ACEI/ARB during early postoperative period, 491 (79.4%) patients were given diuretics during early postoperative period, and postoperative AKI occurred in 394 (63.8%) patients. The incidence of AKI was 46.1% in patients who received early postoperative ACEI/ARB, and 66.2% in patients who did not (P<0.001). Patients who received diuretics postoperatively were less likely to suffer from AKI compared with patients who did not (57.0% vs. 89.8%, P<0.001). After adjustment of other potential factors of postoperative AKI, logistic regression analysis showed that early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB [odds ratio (OR)=0.131, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.033-0.517, P=0.004], and early postoperative use of diuretics (OR=0.149, 95%CI 0.076-0.291, P<0.001) independently predicted the occurrence of AKI. Early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics is associated with a lower incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in elderly patients.

  2. Left atrial volume index as a predictor for persistent left ventricular dysfunction after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: the role of early postoperative echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Heo, Ran; Sung, Ji Min; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore whether echocardiographic measurements during the early postoperative period can predict persistent left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). We prospectively recruited 54 patients (59 ± 12 years) with isolated chronic severe AR who subsequently underwent aortic valve surgery. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed before the operation, during the early postoperative period (≤2 weeks), and then 1 year after the surgery. Twelve patients with preoperative LVSD demonstrated LVSD at early after the surgery. Of the 42 patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography, 15 patients (36%) developed early postoperative LVSD after surgical correction. All 27 patients without LVSD at early postoperative echocardiography maintained LV function at 1 year after surgery. In the other 27 patients with postoperative LVSD, 17 patients recovered from LVSD and 10 patients did not at 1 year after surgery. Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that postoperative left atrial volume index (LAVI) was the only independent predictor for persistent LVSD at 1 year after surgery in patients with postoperative LVSD (OR 1.180, 95% CI, 1.003-1.390, P = 0.046). The optimal LAVI cutoff value (>34.9 mL/m(2) ) had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 88% for the prediction of persistent LVSD. Prevalence of early postoperative LVSD was relatively high, even in the patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography. Postoperative LAVI could be useful to predict persistent LVSD after aortic valve surgery in patients with early postoperative LVSD. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Early Postoperative Measures Predict 1- and 2-Year Outcomes After Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Importance of Contralateral Limb Strength

    PubMed Central

    Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to be an effective surgical intervention for people with end-stage knee osteoarthritis. However, recovery of function is variable, and not all people have successful outcomes. Objective The aim of this study was to discern which early postoperative functional measures could predict functional ability at 1 year and 2 years after surgery. Design and Methods One hundred fifty-five people who underwent unilateral TKA participated in the prospective longitudinal study. Functional evaluations were performed at the initial outpatient physical therapy appointment and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Evaluations consisted of measurements of height, weight, quadriceps muscle strength (force-generating capacity), and knee range of motion; the Timed “Up & Go” Test (TUG); the stair-climbing task (SCT); and the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS) questionnaire. The ability to predict 1- and 2-year outcomes on the basis of early postoperative measures was analyzed with a hierarchical regression. Differences in functional scores were evaluated with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results The TUG, SCT, and KOS scores at 1 and 2 years showed significant improvements over the scores at the initial evaluation (P<.001). A weaker quadriceps muscle in the limb that did not undergo surgery (“nonoperated limb”) was related to poorer 1- and 2-year outcomes even after the influence of the other early postoperative measures was accounted for in the regression. Older participants with higher body masses also had poorer outcomes at 1 and 2 years. Postoperative measures were better predictors of TUG and SCT times than of KOS scores. Conclusions Rehabilitation regimens after TKA should include exercises to improve the strength of the nonoperated limb as well as to treat the deficits imposed by the surgery. Emphasis on treating age-related impairments and reducing body mass also might improve long-term outcomes. PMID:19959653

  4. Gait Rather Than Cognition Predicts Decline in Specific Cognitive Domains in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rosie; Lord, Sue; Lawson, Rachael A; Coleman, Shirley; Galna, Brook; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Yarnall, Alison J; Burn, David J; Rochester, Lynn

    2017-11-09

    Dementia is significant in Parkinson's disease (PD) with personal and socioeconomic impact. Early identification of risk is of upmost importance to optimize management. Gait precedes and predicts cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. We aimed to evaluate gait characteristics as predictors of cognitive decline in newly diagnosed PD. One hundred and nineteen participants recruited at diagnosis were assessed at baseline, 18 and 36 months. Baseline gait was characterized by variables that mapped to five domains: pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry, and postural control. Cognitive assessment included attention, fluctuating attention, executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function. Mixed-effects models tested independent gait predictors of cognitive decline. Gait characteristics of pace, variability, and postural control predicted decline in fluctuating attention and visual memory, whereas baseline neuropsychological assessment performance did not predict decline. This provides novel evidence for gait as a clinical biomarker for PD cognitive decline in early disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  5. S100A8 contributes to postoperative cognitive dysfunction in mice undergoing tibial fracture surgery by activating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun-Mei; Yu, Chan-Juan; Liu, Ya-Hua; Dong, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Su-Su; Hu, Liu-Qing; Zhang, Feng; Qian, Yan-Ning; Gui, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Neuro-inflammation plays a key role in the occurrence and development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Although S100A8 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been increasingly recognized to contribute to neuro-inflammation, little is known about the interaction between S100A8 and TLR4/MyD88 signaling in the process of systemic inflammation that leads to neuro-inflammation. Firstly, we demonstrated that C57BL/6 wide-type mice exhibit cognitive deficit 24h after the tibial fracture surgery. Subsequently, increased S100A8 and S100A9 expression was found in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), spleen, and hippocampus of C57BL/6 wide-type mice within 48h after the surgery. Pre-operative administration of S100A8 antibody significantly inhibited hippocampal microgliosis and improved cognitive function 24h after the surgery. Secondly, we also observed TLR4/MyD88 activation in the PBMCs, spleen, and hippocampus after the surgery. Compared with those in their corresponding wide-type mice, TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice showed lower immunoreactive area of microglia in the hippocampal CA3 region after operation. TLR4 deficiency also led to reduction of CD45(hi)CD11b(+) cells in the brain and better performance in both Y maze and open field test after surgery, suggesting a new regulatory mechanism of TLR4-dependent POCD. At last, the co-location of S100A8 and TLR4 expression in spleen after operation suggested a close relationship between them. On the one hand, S100A8 could induce TLR4 activation of CD11b(+) cells in the blood and hippocampus via intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection. On the other hand, TLR4 deficiency conversely alleviated S100A8 protein-induced hippocampal microgliosis. Furthermore, the increased expression of S100A8 protein in the hippocampus induced by surgery sharply decreased in both TLR4 and MyD88 genetically deficient mice. Taken together, these data suggest that S100A8 exerts pro-inflammatory effect on the

  6. Exercise Prevents Enhanced Postoperative Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Decline and Rectifies the Gut Microbiome in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomei; Uchida, Yosuke; Koch, Lauren; Britton, Steve; Hu, Jun; Lutrin, David; Maze, Mervyn

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) can affect in excess of 10% of surgical patients and can be considerably higher with risk factors including advanced age, perioperative infection, and metabolic conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. To define underlying pathophysiologic processes, we used animal models including a rat model of metabolic syndrome generated by breeding for a trait of low aerobic exercise tolerance. After 35 generations, the low capacity runner (LCR) rats differ 10-fold in their aerobic exercise capacity from high capacity runner (HCR) rats. The LCR rats respond to surgical procedure with an abnormal phenotype consisting of exaggerated and persistent PCD and failure to resolve neuroinflammation. We determined whether preoperative exercise can rectify the abnormal surgical phenotype. Following institutional approval of the protocol each of male LCR and male HCR rats were randomly assigned to four groups and subjected to isoflurane anesthesia and tibia fracture with internal fixation (surgery) or anesthesia alone (sham surgery) and to a preoperative exercise regimen that involved walking for 10 km on a treadmill over 6 weeks (exercise) or being placed on a stationary treadmill (no exercise). Feces were collected before and after exercise for assessment of gut microbiome. Three days following surgery or sham surgery the rats were tested for ability to recall a contextual aversive stimulus in a trace fear conditioning paradigm. Thereafter some rats were euthanized and the hippocampus harvested for analysis of inflammatory mediators. At 3 months, the remainder of the rats were tested for memory recall by the probe test in a Morris Water Maze. Postoperatively, LCR rats exhibited exaggerated cognitive decline both at 3 days and at 3 months that was prevented by preoperative exercise. Similarly, LCR rats had excessive postoperative neuroinflammation that was normalized by preoperative exercise. Diversity of the gut microbiome in the

  7. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  8. C-reactive protein level as a possible predictor for early postoperative ileus following elective surgery for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Sutoh, Toshinaga; Kigure, Wakako; Morita, Hiroki; Katoh, Toshihide; Yajima, Reina; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions are par- tially responsible for postoperative ileus (POI). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acknowledged marker of inflammation. In this study the CRP response with respect to POI in elective colorectal surgery was exam- ined to define the role of serum CRP as an early predic- tor of POI. Three hundred eighty-three patients who underwent elective colorectal resection were identified for inclusion in this study. We defined early POI as that occurring within 30 days following the surgery. Thirty-five patients with POI were com- pared to a subgroup of 348 patients with an unevent- ful postoperative course, and the correlation between postoperative serum CRP levels and POI in colorectal surgery was investigated. In the univariate analysis, length of operation, surgical blood loss, and serum CRP were factors significantly associated with POI following colorectal surgery; however, these fac- tors lost their significance on multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that an increase in CRP levels alone is not a predictor for POI following surgery for colorectal surgery. Although inflammatory responses are known to contribute to the ileus, ad- ditional study is required to identify risk factors that would be more useful for prediction of POI.

  9. Meta-analysis: effect of preoperative infliximab use on early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wu, Q; Wang, F; Wu, K; Fan, D

    2012-11-01

    Infliximab is widely used in severe and refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). The results of clinical studies are inconsistent on whether preoperative infliximab use increases early postoperative complications in UC patients. To determine the clinical safety and efficacy of preoperative infliximab treatment in UC patients with regard to short-term outcomes following abdominal surgery. PubMed, Embase databases were searched for controlled observational studies comparing postsurgical morbidity in UC patients receiving infliximab preoperatively with those not on infliximab. The primary endpoint was total complication rate. Secondary endpoints included the rate of infectious and non-infectious complications. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as summary measures. A total of 13 studies involving 2933 patients were included in our meta-analysis. There was no significant association between infliximab therapy preoperatively and total (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.87-1.37, P = 0.47), infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.51-2.38, P = 0.81) and non-infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59, P = 0.61) postoperative complications respectively. Infliximab might be a protective factor against infection for the use within 12 weeks prior to surgery (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.83, P = 0.01). No publication bias was found. Preoperative infliximab use does not increase the risk of early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. [Role of the small intestinal decompression tube and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Zhixia; An, Dali; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the small intestinal decompression tube (SIDT) and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction (EPISBO). Twelve patients presented EPISBO after abdominal surgery in our department from April 2011 to July 2012. Initially, nasogastric tube decompression and other conventional conservative treatment were administrated. After 14 days, obstruction symptom improvement was not obvious, then the SIDT was used. At the same time, Gastrografin was injected into the small bowel through the SIDT in order to demonstrate the site of obstruction of small bowel and its efficacy. In 11 patients after this management, obstruction symptoms disappeared, bowel function recovered within 3 weeks, and oral feeding occurred gradually. Another patient did not pass flatus after 4 weeks and was reoperated. After postoperative follow-up of 6 months, no case relapsed with intestinal obstruction. For severe and long course of early postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction, intestinal decompression tube plus Gastrografin is safe and effective, and can avoid unnecessary reoperation.

  11. Early postoperative and late metabolic morbidity after pancreatic resections: An old and new challenge for surgeons - A review.

    PubMed

    Beger, Hans G; Mayer, Benjamin

    2018-02-16

    The metrics for measuring early postoperative morbidity after resection of pancreatic neoplastic tumors are overall morbidity, severe surgery-related morbidity, frequency of reoperation and reintervention, in-hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Thirty-day readmission after discharge is additionally an indispensable criterion to assess quality of surgery. The metrics for surgery-associated long-term results after pancreatic resections are survival times, new onset of diabetes (DM), impaired glucose tolerance, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, body mass index and GI motility dysfunctions. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) performed on pancreatic normo-glycemic patients for malignant and benign tumors, 4-30% develop postoperative new onset of diabetes. Long-term persistence of diabetes mellitus is observed after surgery for benign tumors in 14% and in 15.5% of patients after cancer resection. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after PD is observed in the early postoperative period in 23-80% of patients. Persistence of exocrine dysfunctions exists in 25% and 49% of patients. Following left-sided pancreatic resection, new onset DM is observed in 14% of cases; an exocrine insufficiency persisting in the long-term outcome is observed in 16-28% of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence, predictors and early post-operative course of diabetes insipidus in paediatric craniopharygioma: a comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Pratheesh, Ravindran; Swallow, Diane Margaret A; Rajaratnam, Simon; Jacob, K S; Chacko, Geeta; Joseph, Mathew; Chacko, Ari G

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to determine the incidence, predictors, early post-operative course of diabetes insipidus (DI) in paediatric craniopharyngiomas(CP) and compare the findings with adults. Retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, radiological and operative data for 102 consecutive CP surgeries (45 paediatric and 57 adult cases) was done. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to determine the predictors of DI. The incidence of the triphasic response and electrolyte abnormalities in the first post-operative week was compared between children and adults. Children had larger tumours and higher incidence of cystic tumours and hydrocephalus. Preoperative DI was close to 15 % in both the age groups. Radical/subtotal excision was achieved in 58 % of children and 53 % of adults. The incidence of post-operative DI was 80 % and 63 % in children and adults, respectively. Children had significantly higher incidence of permanent DI (55.6 %). Radical excision in children (p = 0.000); previous tumour surgery (p = 0.014) and new onset hypopituitarism (p = 0.019) in adults were associated with permanent DI. The triphasic response (23 %), wide intra-day serum sodium fluctuations and hyponatraemia were more common in children. Post-operative DI is a frequent and significant cause of morbidity in children undergoing surgery for CP. Children have a higher incidence of permanent DI. Radical excision is a predictor of permanent DI in children, whereas previous tumour excision and new onset hypopituitarism were predictors of permanent DI among adults. The management of post-operative DI is more difficult in children and the treating physician needs to be alert to detect the triphasic response.

  13. Systematic Occlusion of Shunts: Control of Early Postoperative IOP and Hypotony-related Complications Following Glaucoma Shunt Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharkawi, Eamon; Artes, Paul H; Oleszczuk, Justyna D; Bela, Cyrielle; Achache, Farid; Barton, Keith; Bergin, Ciara

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of a protocol of total intraluminal occlusion of Baerveldt shunts and its effects on early postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) control and hypotony-related complications. This was a noncomparative, prospective, and interventional study. Glaucoma patients were recruited to undergo Baerveldt shunt surgery. A total of 116 eyes of 112 patients were enrolled. During shunt implantation, aqueous outflow was restricted using an intraluminal occluding stent inserted through the entire tube length, with and without external ligation, to halt aqueous flow. Postoperatively, eyes underwent ligature laser suture lysis and partial or complete stent removals, at predetermined time intervals. Loss of postoperative IOP control was categorized as transient or persistent hypotony (IOP≤5 mm Hg) or hypertony (IOP>21 mm Hg). Patients were followed up for 1 year. Preoperatively median IOP was 23 mm Hg (mean 26 mm Hg, SD 12 mm Hg), median number of glaucoma medications was 3.0 (mean 3.0, SD 1.2). During year 1, laser suture lysis was performed in 30 eyes (26%) and stent removal in 93 eyes (80%) (23 partial; 70 complete). There was 1 case of transient hypotony, no cases of persistent hypotony, 10 of transient hypertony, and 3 of persistent hypertony. Nine eyes had IOP≤5 mm Hg at ≥1 time points and hypotony-related complications occurred in 8 eyes (7%). At 1 year, median IOP was 12 mm Hg (mean 13 mm Hg, SD 4 mm Hg) with a median of 1.0 glaucoma medications (mean 1.1, SD 1.3). The cumulative probability of failure during the first 12 months follow-up was 6% (n=7). Overall postoperative complications occurred in 11 eyes (9%). The surgical and postoperative protocol resulted in controlled, step-wise reductions of IOP with low rates of hypotony and related complications.

  14. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    the fracture stable while the bone heals. Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during...effect of treatment of post-op wound infection in bones after fracture fixation or joint fusion and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and PO

  15. The impact of obesity on early postoperative outcomes in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Ali N; Bauer, John A; Michalsky, Marc P; Olshove, Vincent; Boettner, Bethany; Phillips, Alistair; Cook, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to increase, it now includes the growing number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This particular obese patient population may pose additional intraoperative as well as postoperative challenges that may contribute to poor outcomes. Our aims were to determine the influence of obesity on morbidity and mortality in adults with CHD undergoing surgical repair at a free standing children's hospital. A retrospective analysis of adult (≥18 years) CHD surgery cases from 2002 to 2008 was performed. Congenital heart lesions were defined as mild, moderate, or complex. Patients were categorized by body mass index (BMI): underweight (BMI < 20 kg/m(2)), normal (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Demographics, incidence of mortality, or specific morbidities were statistically compared using Fisher's exact test and analyses of variance (anovas). In this population (n = 165), overweight (29%) and obese (22%) patients were prevalent. Hypertension (HTN) and pre-HTN were more prevalent in obese and overweight patients. Postoperative renal dysfunction was observed in obese patients with complex CHD (P = .04). Mortality was not different among groups. Obesity is becoming increasingly common among adults with CHD. Despite marginal evidence of postoperative renal complications in obese patients with CHD of severe complexity, the overall presence of obesity did not influence mortality or short term postoperative morbidities. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Congenital Heart Disease © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Early functional outcome after lateral UKA is sensitive to postoperative lower limb alignment.

    PubMed

    van der List, J P; Chawla, H; Villa, J C; Zuiderbaan, H A; Pearle, A D

    2017-03-01

    The predictive role of patient-specific characteristics and radiographic parameters on medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) outcomes is well known, but knowledge of these predictors is lacking in lateral UKA. Therefore, purpose of this study was to assess the predictive role of these parameters on short-term functional outcomes of lateral UKA. In this retrospective cohort study, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index scores were collected at 2-year follow-up (median 2.2 years, range 2.0-4.0 years) in 39 patients who underwent lateral UKA. Patient-specific characteristics included age, BMI and gender, while radiographic parameters included osteoarthritis severity of all three compartments and both preoperative and postoperative hip-knee-ankle alignment. BMI, gender, age and preoperative valgus alignment were not correlated with functional outcomes, while postoperative valgus alignment was correlated with functional outcomes (0.561; p = 0.001). Postoperative valgus of 3°-7° was correlated with better outcomes than more neutral (-2° to 3° valgus) alignment (96.7 vs. 85.6; p = 0.011). Postoperative alignment was a predictor when corrected for patient-specific characteristics (regression coefficient 4.1; p < 0.001) and radiological parameters (regression coefficient 3.8; p = 0.002). Postoperative valgus alignment of 3°-7° was correlated with the best short-term functional outcomes in lateral UKA surgery, while patient-specific parameters and preoperative alignment were not correlated with functional outcomes. Based on these findings, a surgeon should aim for valgus alignment of 3°-7° when performing lateral UKA surgery for optimal functional outcomes. Prognostic study, Level II.

  17. The 2013 Frank Stinchfield Award: Diagnosis of infection in the early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yi, Paul H; Cross, Michael B; Moric, Mario; Sporer, Scott M; Berger, Richard A; Della Valle, Craig J

    2014-02-01

    Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be difficult in the early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty (THA) because normal cues from the physical examination often are unreliable, and serological markers commonly used for diagnosis are elevated from the recent surgery. The purposes of this study were to determine the optimal cutoff values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count, and differential for diagnosing PJI in the early postoperative period after primary THA. We reviewed 6033 consecutive primary THAs and identified 73 patients (1.2%) who underwent reoperation for any reason within the first 6 weeks postoperatively. Thirty-six of these patients were infected according to modified Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Mean values for the diagnostic tests were compared between groups and receiver operating characteristic curves generated along with an area under the curve (AUC) to determine test performance and optimal cutoff values to diagnose infection. The best test for the diagnosis of PJI was the synovial fluid WBC count (AUC = 98%; optimal cutoff value 12,800 cells/μL) followed by the CRP (AUC = 93%; optimal cutoff value 93 mg/L), and synovial fluid differential (AUC = 91%; optimal cutoff value 89% PMN). The mean ESR (infected = 69 mm/hr, not infected = 46 mm/hr), CRP (infected = 192 mg/L, not infected = 30 mg/L), synovial fluid WBC count (infected = 84,954 cells/μL, not infected = 2391 cells/μL), and differential (infected = 91% polymorphonuclear cells [PMN], not infected = 63% PMN) all were significantly higher in the infected group. Optimal cutoff values for the diagnosis of PJI in the acute postoperative period were higher than those traditionally used for the diagnosis of chronic PJI. The serum CRP is an excellent screening test, whereas the synovial fluid WBC count is more specific.

  18. Psychological factors as predictors of early postoperative pain after open nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mimic, Ana; Bantel, Carsten; Jovicic, Jelena; Mimic, Branko; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Durutovic, Otas; Ladjevic, Nebojsa

    2018-01-01

    Purpose There is an increasing interest in the identification of predictors for individual responses to analgesics and surgical pain. In this study, we aimed to determine psychological factors that might contribute to this response. We hence investigated patients undergoing a standardized surgical intervention (open nephrectomy). Patients and methods Between May 2014 and April 2015, we conducted a prospective observational cohort study. The following psychological tests were administered preoperatively: Mini-Mental State Examination, Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. The primary outcome, postoperative pain intensity (11-point numerical rating scale, [NRS]), was assessed in the “immediate early” (first 8 hours), “early” (12 and 24 hours), and “late early” periods (48 and 72 hours). Results A total of 196 patients were assessed, and 150 were finally included in the study. NRS scores improved from 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–5.1) in the “immediate early” to 3.1 (95% CI: 2.9–3.3) in the “early” and 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1–2.5) in the “late early” postoperative period. Most (87%) patients received intravenous opioids, while 13% received analgesics epidurally. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated better pain management with epidural analgesia in the first two postoperative periods (F=15.01, p<0.00). Postoperative pain correlated strongly with analgesic strategy and preoperative psychological assessment. Multiple linear regression analysis showed “expected pain” was the only predictor in the “immediate early” phase, and “anxiety” was most important in the “early” postoperative period. In the “late early” phase, catastrophizing was the predominant predictor, alongside “preoperative analgesic usage” and “APAIS anxiety”. Conclusion After open nephrectomy, epidural analgesia

  19. [Recent advances of monitoring and glycaemia control during early postoperative period in patients after pancreas surgery].

    PubMed

    Lishova, E A; Nikoda, V V; Bondarenko, A V; Ragozin, A K; Skipenko, O G

    2013-01-01

    Recently new technologies of diagnostics and correction of carbohydrates metabolism disturbances are introduced in the ICU to improve the safety for patients during intensive care. 33 patients after pancreas surgery were included into the study 13 patients (39%) had underlying diabetes mellitus. Glucose level changes in the interstitial liquid of the subcutaneous fat during postoperative period were monitored by system of CGM Medtronic MiniMed Guardian RT, MiniMed Paradigm Real-time. Valid values of glucose were from 4.1 to 10.1 mmol/L. Episodes of glucose level increasing occurred in 94% of patients in postoperative period after pancreas surgery. Average level of glucose was within the limits of valid values. However in 64% of cases patients needed insulin therapy Used systems of continuous glucose monitoring in the ICU allow improving the safety for patients receiving artificial nutrition and intravenous insulin therapy.

  20. Renal excretion of ingested gastrografin: clinical relevance in early postoperative treatment of patients who have undergone gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kyung-Myung; Lee, Sung-Yong; Kwon, Oh-Han

    2002-05-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the clinical relevance of renal excretion of ingested Gastrografin (methylglucamine diatrizoate) revealed on CT in the early treatment of patients who have undergone gastric surgery. Unenhanced abdominal CT was performed before and then 1 hr to 1 hr 30 min after Gastrografin ingestion in 30 patients 7 days after gastric surgery and in 19 healthy adults who served as the control group. CT scans were reviewed for the opacification of the renal collecting system or urinary bladder after Gastrografin ingestion, a finding that represents renal excretion of the ingested contrast medium. In the control group, four (21 %) of the 19 healthy adults showed renal excretion of ingested Gastrografin visualized as opacification of the urinary tract on CT scans obtained 1 hr to 1 hr 30 min after ingestion of the substance. Renal excretion of the ingested Gastrografin was seen in 19 (63%) of the 30 patients, a significantly larger percentage than in the control group (z score, p < 0.01). No patient showed either radiologic or clinical evidence of leakage from the anastomotic site. Renal excretion of ingested Gastrografin is frequently visualized on CT in patients without anastomotic leakage during the early postoperative period after gastric surgery, and this phenomenon is not rare, even in healthy adults. Therefore, renal excretion seen on CT should not be regarded as a sign of anastomotic leakage in early postoperative patients.

  1. Early Post-Operative Outcomes and Blood Product Utilization in Adult Cardiac Surgery- The Post Aprotinin Era

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia; Toole, J. Matthew; Kratz, John M.; Uber, Walter E.; Wheat, Margaret J.; Stroud, Martha R.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aprotinin was a commonly utilized pharmacological agent for homeostasis in cardiac surgery but was discontinued resulting in the extensive use of lysine analogues. This study tested the hypothesis that early post-operative adverse events and blood product utilization would affected in this post-aprotinin era. Methods/Results Adult patients (n=781) undergoing coronary artery bypass (CABG), valve replacement, or both from November 1, 2005-October 31, 2008 at a single institution were included. Multiple logistic regression modeling and propensity scoring were performed on 29 pre-operative and intra-operative variables in patients receiving aprotinin (n=325) or lysine analogues (n=456). The propensity adjusted relative risk (RR;95% confidence interval;CI) for the intra-operative use of packed red blood cells (RR:0.75;CI:0.57–0.99), fresh frozen plasma (RR:0.37;0.21–0.64), and cryoprecipitate (RR:0.06;CI:0.02–0.22) were lower in the aprotinin versus lysine analogue group (all p<0.05). The risk for mortality (RR:0.53;CI:0.16–1.79) and neurological events (RR:0.87;CI:0.35–2.18) remained similar between groups, whereas a trend for reduced risk for renal dysfunction was observed in the aprotinin group. Conclusions In the post-aprotinin era with the exclusive use of lysine analogues, the relative risk of early post-operative outcomes such as mortality and renal dysfunction have not improved, but the risk for the intra-operative use of blood products has increased. Thus, improvements in early post-operative outcomes have not been realized with the discontinued use of aprotinin, but rather increased blood product utilization has occurred with the attendant costs and risks inherent with this strategy. PMID:21911820

  2. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem, E-mail: ucaradem@yahoo.com; Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: aghakishi@yahoo.com; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: drhuseyin@yahoo.com

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  3. Associations Between Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Biomarkers of Brain Injury and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Elderly Patients After Major Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Nicolai; Burkhart, Christoph S; Rossi, Ariane; Cabella, Brenno C T; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U; Czosnyka, Marek; Steiner, Luzius A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence links postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) to surgery and anesthesia. POCD is recognized as an important neuropsychological adverse outcome in surgical patients, particularly the elderly. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether POCD is associated with impaired intraoperative cerebral autoregulation and oxygenation, and increased levels of biomarkers of brain injury. Study subjects were patients ≥65 years of age scheduled for major noncardiac surgery. Cognitive function was assessed before and 1 week after surgery. POCD was diagnosed if a decline of >1 standard deviation of z-scores was present in ≥2 variables of the test battery. The incidence of POCD 1 week after surgery was modeled as a multivariable function of the index of autoregulation (MxA) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI), adjusting for baseline neuropsychological assessment battery (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery [CERAD-NAB]) total score and the maximum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. The biomarkers of brain injury neuron-specific enolase and S100β protein, age, and level of education were included in secondary multivariable logistic regression analyses. Of the 82 patients who completed the study, 38 (46%) presented with POCD 1 week after surgery. In the multivariable regression analysis, higher intraoperative MxA (odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.39 [1.01-1.90] for an increase of 0.1 units, P = .08 after Bonferroni adjustment), signifying less effective autoregulation, was not associated with higher odds of POCD. The univariable logistic regression model for MxA yielded an association with POCD (OR [95% CI], 1.44 [1.06-1.95], P = .020). Tissue oxygenation index (1.12 [0.41-3.01] for an increase of 10%, P = 1.0 after Bonferroni adjustment) and baseline CERAD-NAB total score (0.80 [0.45-1.42] for an increase of 10 points, P = .45) did not affect the odds of POCD. POCD

  4. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy: extent of tissue excision and clinical implications in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Behboo, R; Zanella, S; Ruffolo, C; Vafai, M; Marino, F; Scarpa, M

    2011-06-01

    This study quantified prospectively the amount of rectal wall removed during stapled haemorrhoidopexy and assessed its effect on ano-rectal function and health-related quality of life. Thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent stapled haemorrhoidopexy for second- or third- degree haemorrhoids, or for failed medical treatment, in the Department of Surgery and Gastroenterological Sciences at the University of Padova were included. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using a structured questionnaire to determine the number of defecations per week, incomplete defecations, time taken to defecate any difficulty in defecating, soiling, the use of drugs and continence. All patients were reassessed at 1 and 2 weeks and at 30 days after the procedure using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) questionnaire. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative ano-rectal manometry at least 30 days after stapled haemorrhoidopexy. The median surface area of the resected rectal wall was 10.5 (range, 9-15) mm(2) and the median thickness was 3 (range, 2-4) mm. Muscle tissue was included in all specimens. The median thickness of the resected rectal wall correlated inversely with the rectal volume when the recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) was initiated during postoperative manometry (ρ = -0.50, P = 0.07). A significant, direct correlation was found between the surface area of the resected rectal wall and the rectal volume during postoperative manometry (ρ = 0.53, P = 0.08) and the use of analgesic drugs after 2 weeks (ρ = 0.63, P = 0.04). Significant correlations were found between being female and postoperative resting pressure (ρ = -0.74, P < 0.01), squeeze pressure (ρ = -0.64, P = 0.01) and maximum tolerated volume (ρ = -0.78, P < 0.01). Stapled haemorrhoidopexy is safe and effective. The thicker the resected rectal wall, the lower the volume of initiation of the RAIR. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association

  5. Ultrasound-guided bilateral rectus sheath block reduces early postoperative pain after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sooyoung; Kim, Youn Jin; Jeong, Kyungah; Moon, Hye-Sung

    2018-04-01

    Rectus sheath block (RSB) is an anterior abdominal wall block that reduces postoperative pain associated with midline incisions. This study aims to investigate the effect of ultrasound-guided bilateral RSB (US-BRSB) on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Sixty patients who underwent laparoscopic gynecologic surgery were allocated to RSB (n = 30) or control (n = 30) group. A bilateral US-BRSB procedure (30 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine) was performed after induction of general anesthesia in the RSB group. The control group proceeded the surgery without sham block. All patients received fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia and rescue analgesics upon demand. Pain was scored by a blinded observer using a verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) at rest while coughing at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after postanesthesia care unit (PACU) admission. The primary outcome was the total number of rescue analgesics used in the 48-h postoperative period. At 0 h, VNRS were lower in the RSB group than in the control, both at rest (median VNRS 4.5 vs. 5, p = 0.02) and while coughing (median VNRS 6 vs. 7, p = 0.004). At 6 h, VNRS scores were lower in the RSB group than in the control while coughing (median VNRS 3 vs. 5, p = 0.01). Fentanyl use as rescue analgesics in the PACU was significantly lower in the RSB group than in the control (27.7 ± 32.1 vs. 53.3 ± 33.7 µg, respectively; p = 0.004). At 48 h postoperatively, the total number of rescue analgesics administered were significantly fewer in the RSB group than in the control (2.5 ± 2.5 vs. 3.9 ± 2.6, respectively; p = 0.04). US-BRSB reduces the immediate postoperative pain and opioid consumption during the early postoperative period. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02476799, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02476799 .

  6. Alertness and cognitive control: Testing the early onset hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darryl W

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has revealed a peculiar interaction between alertness and cognitive control in selective-attention tasks: Congruency effects are larger on alert trials (on which an alerting cue is presented briefly in advance of the imperative stimulus) than on no-alert trials, despite shorter response times (RTs) on alert trials. One explanation for this finding is the early onset hypothesis, which is based on the assumptions that increased alertness shortens stimulus-encoding time and that cognitive control involves gradually focusing attention during a trial. The author tested the hypothesis in 3 experiments by manipulating alertness and stimulus quality (which were intended to shorten and lengthen stimulus-encoding time, respectively) in an arrow-based flanker task involving congruent and incongruent stimuli. Replicating past findings, the alerting manipulation led to shorter RTs but larger congruency effects on alert trials than on no-alert trials. The stimulus-quality manipulation led to longer RTs and larger congruency effects for degraded stimuli than for intact stimuli. These results provide mixed support for the early onset hypothesis, but the author discusses how data and theory might be reconciled if stimulus quality affects stimulus-encoding time and the rate of evidence accumulation in the decision process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Differential hippocampal protein expression between normal aged rats and aged rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction: A proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Saiying; Ran, Ke; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Zhaoqian; Duan, Kaiming

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in the expression of hippocampal proteins between normal control aged rats and aged rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). A total of 24 aged rats were randomly divided into a surgery group (n=12) and a control group (n=12). The rats in the surgery group were treated with 2 h isoflurane anesthesia and splenectomy, while the rats in the control group received 40% oxygen for 2 h without surgery. The cognitive functions of the two groups were examined using a Y-maze test. The protein expression profiles of the hippocampus of six aged rats (three rats with POCD and three from the normal control group) were assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. A total of three differential proteins were further confirmed between the POCD rats and normal rats using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression levels of 21 proteins in the rats with POCD were significantly different compared with the normal control rats. These proteins were functionally clustered to synaptic plasticity (three proteins), oxidative stress (four proteins), energy production (six proteins), neuroinflammation (three proteins) and glutamate metabolism (two proteins). In addition, three proteins (fatty acid binding protein 7, brain, glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and glutamine synthetase), associated with astrocytic function, were significantly different in the rats with POCD compared with those in the normal control (P<0.05). Similar changes in the mRNA expression levels of the three proteins in the hippocampi of POCD rats were also detected using RT-qPCR. Neuroinflammation, glutamate toxicity and oxidative stress were possibly involved in the pathological mechanism underlying POCD in aged rats. In addition, astrocytes may also be important in POCD in aged rats.

  8. Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment and early stage dementia with an audio-recorded cognitive scale

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Margaret C.; Luo, Xiaodong; Neugroschl, Judith; Sano, Mary

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physicians often miss a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or early dementia and screening measures can be insensitive to very mild impairments. Other cognitive assessments may take too much time or be frustrating to seniors. This study examined the ability of an audio-recorded scale, developed in Australia, to detect MCI or mild Alzheimer’s disease and compared cognitive domain specific performance on the audio-recorded scale to in-person battery and common cognitive screens. METHOD Seventy-six subjects from the Mount Sinai Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center were recruited. Subjects were 75 years or older, with clinical diagnosis of AD or MCI (n=51) or normal control (n=25). Participants underwent in-person neuropsychological testing followed by testing with the Audio-recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS). RESULTS ARCS provided better discrimination between normal and impaired elders than either the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) or the clock drawing test. The in-person battery and ARCS analogous variables were significantly correlated, most in the .4 to .7 range, including verbal memory, executive function/attention, naming, and verbal fluency. The area under the curve generated from ROC curves indicated high and equivalent discrimination for ARCS and the in-person battery (0.972 vs. 0.988; p=0.23). CONCLUSION The ARCS demonstrated better discrimination between normal controls and those with mild deficits than typical screening measures. Performance on cognitive domains within the ARCS was well correlated with the in-person battery. Completion of the ARCS was accomplished despite mild difficulty hearing the instructions even in very elderly subjects, indicating that it may be a useful measure in primary care settings. PMID:23635663

  9. Experimental Insights into the Cognitive Significance of Early Stone Tools

    PubMed Central

    Perston, Yinika

    2016-01-01

    Stone-flaking technology is the most enduring evidence for the evolving cognitive abilities of our early ancestors. Flake-making was mastered by African hominins ~3.3 ma, followed by the appearance of handaxes ~1.75 ma and complex stone reduction strategies by ~1.6 ma. Handaxes are stones flaked on two opposed faces (‘bifacially’), creating a robust, sharp-edged tool, and complex reduction strategies are reflected in strategic prior flaking to prepare or ‘predetermine’ the nature of a later flake removal that served as a tool blank. These technologies are interpreted as major milestones in hominin evolution that reflect the development of higher-order cognitive abilities, and the presence and nature of these technologies are used to track movements of early hominin species or ‘cultures’ in the archaeological record. However, the warranting argument that certain variations in stone tool morphologies are caused by differences in cognitive abilities relies on analogy with technical replications by skilled modern stoneworkers, and this raises the possibility that researchers are projecting modern approaches to technical problems onto our non-modern hominin ancestors. Here we present the results of novel experiments that randomise flake removal and disrupt the modern stoneworker’s inclination to use higher-order reasoning to guide the stone reduction process. Although our protocols prevented goal-directed replication of stone tool types, the experimental assemblage is morphologically standardised and includes handaxe-like ‘protobifaces’ and cores with apparently ‘predetermined’ flake removals. This shows that the geometrical constraints of fracture mechanics can give rise to what appear to be highly-designed stoneworking products and techniques when multiple flakes are removed randomly from a stone core. PMID:27392022

  10. Telemedicine with mobile devices and augmented reality for early postoperative care.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Brent A; Brabston, Eugene W; Shin Zu; Watson, Shawna L; Baker, Dustin; Winn, Dennis; Guthrie, Barton L; Shenai, Mahesh B

    2016-08-01

    Advanced features are being added to telemedicine paradigms to enhance usability and usefulness. Virtual Interactive Presence (VIP) is a technology that allows a surgeon and patient to interact in a "merged reality" space, to facilitate both verbal, visual, and manual interaction. In this clinical study, a mobile VIP iOS application was introduced into routine post-operative orthopedic and neurosurgical care. Survey responses endorse the usefulness of this tool, as it relates to The virtual interaction provides needed virtual follow-up in instances where in-person follow-up may be limited, and enhances the subjective patient experience.

  11. Occlusive ligature and standardized fenestration of a Baerveldt tube with and without antimetabolites for early postoperative intraocular pressure control.

    PubMed

    Trible, J R; Brown, D B

    1998-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a surgical modification for a nonvalved aqueous tube shunt in controlling intraocular pressure (IOP) in the early postoperative period. The effect of antimetabolite use on IOP also was studied. A retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent modified Baerveldt 350-mm2 implant with varied, nonrandomized, exposure to antimetabolites. Fifty-one eyes of 46 patients with uncontrolled glaucoma were examined. Identical surgical modification of a Baerveldt 350-mm2 tube was performed in all cases and consisted of placement of an occlusive 7-0 polyglactin suture just anterior to the plate followed by a through-and-through penetration of the tube just anterior to the occlusive ligature with a standardized 15 degrees blade. Seventeen eyes were not exposed to antimetabolite, while 2 groups of 17 eyes had 3 minutes' episcleral exposure to either 5-fluorouracil 50 mg/ml or mitomycin C 0.4 mg/ml at the location corresponding to the fenestration. The Tenon's layer and conjunctiva were not exposed because of concerns regarding conjunctival erosion over the device. Intraocular pressure and number of antiglaucoma medications required were analyzed. For the group, mean IOP before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 4, 10, 21, 42, 63, 84, and 112 was (in millimeters of mercury) 34.6, 20.1, 17.0, 17.2, 22.0, 17.3, 18.7, 17.4, and 15.6, respectively. There was an elevation of IOP at day 21 relative to fibrotic blockage of the fenestration before suture autolysis. This was temporized with antiglaucoma medication until suture autolysis occurred or treated with laser suture lysis (8 eyes). On day 1, hypotony occurred in 3 (6%) eyes whereas IOP greater than 30 mmHg was observed in 13 (26%) eyes. By day 10, the frequency had decreased to one (2.1 %) eye and three (6.4%) eyes, respectively. The use of antimetabolites did not result in lower IOP or less medication needed for any group at any interval (analysis of variance). This modification of a

  12. The origins of cognitive vulnerability in early childhood: mechanisms linking early attachment to later depression.

    PubMed

    Morley, Tara E; Moran, Greg

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines the theory and research linking attachment relationships to cognitive vulnerability to depression and assesses evidence that early attachment experiences contribute to the development of these cognitive processes. Most research in this area has involved adult participants using self-report measures of both attachment and depressive vulnerabilities and thus cannot convincingly speak to the existence of such a developmental pathway. Several studies, however, have followed individuals from infancy and examined the emergence of self-esteem and responses to failure throughout childhood and adolescence. These studies suggest that early experiences in non-secure attachment relationships place an individual at-risk for developing a cognitive framework that increases their vulnerability to depression following stressful life events. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research might best explore specific mechanisms through which distinct attachment relationships may lead to divergent developmental pathways sharing the common outcome of cognitive processes that place individuals at risk for depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toward Shorter Hospitalization After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery: Day-by-Day Analysis of Early Postoperative Complications and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Shimanskaya, Viktoria E; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Bartels, Ronald H M A; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Grotenhuis, J André; Hermus, Ad R M M; van de Ven, Annenienke C; van Lindert, Erik J

    2018-03-01

    It is unclear which patients have the greatest risk of developing complications in the first days after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (ETS) and how long patients should stay hospitalized after surgery. The objective of this study is to identify which patients are at risk for early postoperative medical and surgical reinterventions to optimize the length of hospitalization. The medical records of 146 patients who underwent ETS for a pituitary adenoma between January 2013 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected on baseline patient-related characteristics, characteristics of the pituitary adenoma, perioperative complications and interventions, and postoperative outcomes. Patients who underwent additional interventions on days 2, 3, and 4 after ETS were identified as cases, and patients who did not have any interventions after day 1 postoperatively were identified as controls. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 4.279; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.149-15.933; P = 0.03), incomplete adenoma resection (OR, 2.840; 95% CI, 1.228-6.568; P = 0.02) and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery (OR, 5.211; 95% CI, 2.158-12.579; P <0.001) were associated with reinterventions. Patients without interventions on day 1 or 2 had only an 18.6% chance of a reintervention (OR, 0.201; 95% CI, 0.095-0.424). Patients with diabetes mellitus, incomplete adenoma resection, and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery have an increased chance on reinterventions. In addition, patients without any interventions on day 1 and 2 are at low risk for later reinterventions. These patients could be suitable candidates for early hospital discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can early postoperative intraocular pressure predict success following mitomycin-C augmented trabeculectomy in primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rong, S S; Feng, M Y; Wang, N; Meng, H; Thomas, R; Fan, S; Wang, R; Wang, X; Tang, X; Liang, Y B

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the association between early and late postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and determine if early postoperative IOP can predict the surgical outcome. A total of 165 consecutive patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) undergoing primary mitomycin-C-augmented trabeculectomy underwent a comprehensive eye examination before surgery and were followed-up on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, and months 3, 6, 12, and 18. IOPs on days 1, 7, 14, and 30 were stratified into groups A (<10 mm Hg), B (≥10 and <15 mm Hg), C (≥15 and <20 mm Hg), and D (≥20 mm Hg). Differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Multivariable regression was used to exam the predictive ability of early IOP for final outcome. The mean age was 62.5±7.9 years and 41.21% (n=68) were males. Stratified by IOP on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, respectively, mean IOPs at month 18 were different among groups A, B, C, and D (ANOVA, P=0.047, P=0.033, P=0.008, and P<0.001, respectively). Once the IOPs were settled with interventions on day 7 a higher IOP level was associated with decreasing success rate under different outcome definitions, final IOP <15 mm Hg (Fisher's exact P=0.001) and <20 mm Hg (P=0.039) without medication. Multiple regression showed early IOP predicted final IOP independently from baseline variables. A cutoff value of 13.5 mm Hg on day 7 achieved an accuracy of 80.0 and 57.1% in predicting IOP<15 mm Hg without medication and failure after surgery, respectively. The IOP at 18 months following primary antifibrotic-augmented trabeculectomy in PACG patients is associated with and predicted by the postoperative IOPs at 1 month. Control of early IOP to 13.5 or less may provide better outcomes.

  15. Implementation of a novel postoperative monitoring system using automated Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) incorporating end-tidal capnography.

    PubMed

    Blankush, Joseph M; Freeman, Robbie; McIlvaine, Joy; Tran, Trung; Nassani, Stephen; Leitman, I Michael

    2017-10-01

    Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO 2 ), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload. This study investigates whether the implementation of automated devices that utilize ongoing vital signs monitoring and MEWS calculations, inclusive of a score for end-tidal CO 2 (EtCO 2 ), can be feasibly implemented on the general care hospital floor and effectively identify derangements in a post-operative patient's condition while limiting the amount of false alarms that would serve to increase provider workload. From July to November 2014, post-operative patients meeting the inclusion criteria (BMI > 30 kg/m 2 , history of obstructive sleep apnea, or the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or epidural narcotics) were monitored using automated devices that record minute-by-minute VS included in classic MEWS calculations as well as EtCO 2 . Automated messages via pagers were sent to providers for instances when the device measured elevated MEWS, abnormal EtCO 2 , and oxygen desaturations below 85 %. Data, including alarm and message details from the first 133 patients, were recorded and analyzed. Overall, 3.3 alarms and pages sounded per hour of monitoring. Device-only alarms sounded 2.7 times per hour-21 % were technical alarms. The remaining device-only alarms for concerning VS sounded 2.0/h, 70 % for falsely recorded VS. Pages for abnormal EtCO 2 sounded 0.4/h (82 % false recordings) while pages for low blood oxygen saturation sounded 0.1/h (55 % false alarms). 143 times (0.1 pages/h) the devices calculated

  16. Early postoperative enteral nutrition is useful for recovering gastrointestinal motility and maintaining the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.

  17. Early postoperative magnet application combined with hydrocolloid dressing for the treatment of earlobe keloids.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hwan; Chang, Choong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    To prevent the recurrence of earlobe keloids after surgical removal, a reliable and safe postoperative treatment method is critical. To the authors' knowledge, no studies have elucidated the most effective postoperative dressing method for preventing the recurrence of earlobe keloids. This study aimed to compare keloid recurrence rates in patients whose keloids were dressed using conventional methods (plain gauze or a polyvinyl alcohol sponge) with those of a matched cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using magnets combined with hydrocolloid materials. This observational case-control study compared a retrospective cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using conventional methods with a matched prospective cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using magnets combined with hydrocolloid materials. The study included patients with pathologically confirmed earlobe keloids that were surgically excised with primary closure. Patients 8 years of age or older underwent adjuvant pressure therapy with magnets at the study hospital. Patients were excluded from the study if they were unavailable for follow-up evaluation, if they had received additional adjuvant therapy during treatment, or if histologic confirmation of a keloid was not obtained. Matched-pair analysis was performed using the McNemar test. Treatment outcome was evaluated as recurrence or nonrecurrence. Overall, 9 (11.2%) of the 80 study patients experienced recurrence. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in the matched case group (2 of 40, 5%) than in the matched control group (7 of 40, 17.5%) during the follow-up period of 18 months (p=0.0253). The authors' novel dressing of magnets and hydrocolloid materials appears to be effective in reducing earlobe keloid recurrence. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to

  18. Commentary: On the Importance of Early Life Cognitive Abilities in Shaping Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Clouston, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Early life cognitive ability is likely to be dynamically related to life course factors including educational attainment, occupational outcomes, health behaviors, activities, health, and subsequent cognitive health. Disentangling the selective and causal processes contributing to cognitive functioning across the lifespan is challenging and requires long-term investments in longitudinal data. We discuss results from several analyses using data from the Individual Development and Adaptation longitudinal research program (Bergman, 2000; Magnusson, 1988) that provide fresh insights into the relation of early life cognition, particularly high levels of cognitive capabilities, to educational achievement, emotional adjustment, and career success. These papers and the longitudinal data provide a remarkable window into the development and impacts of cognition, and high cognitive functioning, on a variety of important life outcomes that we hope will continue to inform us about additional outcomes in middle life, transition to retirement, and cognition and health in later years and to robustly examine how the early years matter across the whole lifespan.

  19. Gender Attitudes in Early Childhood: Behavioral Consequences and Cognitive Antecedents.

    PubMed

    Halim, May Ling D; Ruble, Diane N; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Shrout, Patrick E; Amodio, David M

    2017-05-01

    This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency). Other-gender attitudes predicted gender-biased behavior. These patterns were observed in all ethnic groups. These findings suggest that early learning about gender categories shape young children's gender attitudes and that these gender attitudes already have consequences for children's intergroup behavior at age 5. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Gender Attitudes in Early Childhood: Behavioral Consequences and Cognitive Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Halim, May Ling D.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Amodio, David M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors that predicted children’s gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically-diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N=246, Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African-American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency). Other-gender attitudes predicted gender-biased behavior. These patterns were observed in all ethnic groups. These findings suggest that early learning about gender categories shape young children’s gender attitudes, and that these gender attitudes already have consequences for children’s intergroup behavior at age 5. PMID:27759886

  1. Sex-specific cognitive abnormalities in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Moreno-Granados, Josefa; Salcedo-Marin, Maria D; Barrigon, Maria L; Blanco-Morales, Maria J; Igunza, Evelio; Cañabate, Anselmo; Garcia, Maria D; Guijarro, Teresa; Diaz-Atienza, Francisco; Ferrin, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls. We compared a group of 80 boys and girls with first-episode psychosis to a group of controls. We found interactions between group and sex in verbal working memory (p = 0.04) and auditory attention (p = 0.01). The female controls showed better working memory (p = 0.01) and auditory attention (p = 0.001) than males. However, we did not find any sex differences in working memory (p = 0.91) or auditory attention (p = 0.93) in the psychosis group. These results are consistent with the presence of sex-modulated cognitive profiles at first presentation of early-onset psychosis.

  2. The Beneficial Effects of Cognitive Training With Simple Calculation and Reading Aloud (SCRA) in the Elderly Postoperative Population: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kulason, Kay; Nouchi, Rui; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Noda, Masafumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2018-01-01

    Background: There has been little research conducted regarding cognitive treatments for the elderly postsurgical population. Patients aged ≥60 years have an increased risk of postoperative cognitive decline, a condition in which cognitive functions are negatively affected. This cognitive decline can lead to a decline in quality of life. In order to maintain a high quality of life, the elderly postsurgical population may benefit from treatment to maintain and/or improve their cognitive functions. This pilot study investigates the effect of simple calculation and reading aloud (SCRA) cognitive training in elderly Japanese postsurgical patients. Methods: Elderly patients undergoing non-cardiovascular thoracic surgery under general anesthesia were recruited ( n = 12). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups-one that receives 12 weeks of SCRA intervention, and a waitlisted control group. Before and after the intervention, we measured cognitive function [Mini-Mental Status Exam-Japanese (MMSE-J), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), computerized Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB)] and emotional state [General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Quality of Life Scale-5 (QOL-5)]. Results: Group difference analyses using ANCOVA with permutation test showed that the intervention SCRA group had a significant improvement in FAB motor programming sub-score, GDS, and QOL-5 compared to the control group. Within-group analyses using Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare baseline and follow-up showed that the SCRA intervention group total FAB scores, FAB motor programming sub-scores, and QOL-5 scores were significantly improved. Discussion: This pilot study showed that there are important implications for the beneficial effects of SCRA intervention on cognitive function and emotional state in the postoperative elderly population; however, further investigations are necessary to reach any conclusions. Trial registration: This study was registered with

  3. The Beneficial Effects of Cognitive Training With Simple Calculation and Reading Aloud (SCRA) in the Elderly Postoperative Population: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kulason, Kay; Nouchi, Rui; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Noda, Masafumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2018-01-01

    Background: There has been little research conducted regarding cognitive treatments for the elderly postsurgical population. Patients aged ≥60 years have an increased risk of postoperative cognitive decline, a condition in which cognitive functions are negatively affected. This cognitive decline can lead to a decline in quality of life. In order to maintain a high quality of life, the elderly postsurgical population may benefit from treatment to maintain and/or improve their cognitive functions. This pilot study investigates the effect of simple calculation and reading aloud (SCRA) cognitive training in elderly Japanese postsurgical patients. Methods: Elderly patients undergoing non-cardiovascular thoracic surgery under general anesthesia were recruited (n = 12). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups—one that receives 12 weeks of SCRA intervention, and a waitlisted control group. Before and after the intervention, we measured cognitive function [Mini-Mental Status Exam-Japanese (MMSE-J), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), computerized Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB)] and emotional state [General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Quality of Life Scale-5 (QOL-5)]. Results: Group difference analyses using ANCOVA with permutation test showed that the intervention SCRA group had a significant improvement in FAB motor programming sub-score, GDS, and QOL-5 compared to the control group. Within-group analyses using Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare baseline and follow-up showed that the SCRA intervention group total FAB scores, FAB motor programming sub-scores, and QOL-5 scores were significantly improved. Discussion: This pilot study showed that there are important implications for the beneficial effects of SCRA intervention on cognitive function and emotional state in the postoperative elderly population; however, further investigations are necessary to reach any conclusions. Trial registration: This study was registered with

  4. Double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with and without remnant preservation - Comparison of early postoperative outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kambara, Syunichiro; Iseki, Tomoya; Kanto, Ryo; Kurosaka, Kenji; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    To compare the early postoperative outcomes and complications of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with and without remnant preservation. The study population comprised 125 consecutive knees that underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft. Among the 125 knees, remnant preservation was indicated for 50 knees, while standard double-bundle reconstruction was performed in the remaining 75 knees. Postoperative evaluations included heel-height difference (HHD) at periodical follow-ups, number of knees requiring arthroscopic debridement due to problematic extension loss within six months, re-injury within one year, graft status upon second-look arthroscopy, and clinical examinations by Lysholm score and KT measurement at one year. All patients could be followed up for a minimum of one year after surgery. When the results obtained from both groups were compared, HHD values were significantly larger in the preservation group at three and six months, and the rate of knees requiring arthroscopic debridement was also higher in this group (12% versus 4.0%). Graft status on second-look arthroscopy was considered to be good for 92% of the knees in the preservation group versus 59% in the non-preservation group. Re-injury rates within one year were 2.0% in the preservation group and 5.3% in the non-preservation group. No significant differences in clinical examinations were found between the groups at one year. Remnant preservation in double-bundle hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction may enhance tissue healing; however, retention of the remnant with its full volume resulted in an increased incidence of postoperative problematic extension loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interobserver agreement on the echocardiographic parameters that estimate right ventricular systolic function in the early postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Temois, S G; Santos-Martínez, L E; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Gutiérrez-Delgado, L G; Baranda-Tovar, F M

    2016-11-01

    To know the variability of transthoracic echocardiographic parameters that assess right ventricular systolic function by analyzing interobserver agreement in the early postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery. To assess the feasibility of these echocardiographic measurements. A cross-sectional study, double-blind pilot study was carried out from May 2011 to February 2013. Cardiovascular postoperative critical care at the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez", Mexico City, Mexico. Consecutive, non-probabilistic sampling. Fifty-six patients were studied in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. The first echocardiographic parameters were obtained between 6-8hours after cardiac surgery, followed by blinded second measurements. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging (VSPAT), diameters and right ventricular outflow area, tract fractional shortening. The agreement was analyzed by the Bland-Altman method, and its magnitude was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval). Both observers evaluated TAPSE and VSPAT in 48 patients (92%). The average TAPSE was 11.68±4.53mm (range 4-27mm). Right ventricular systolic dysfunction was observed in 41 cases (85%) and normal TAPSE in 7 patients (15%). The average difference and its limits according to TAPSE were -0.917±2.95 (-6.821, 4.988), with a magnitude of 0.725 (0.552, 0.837); the tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging was -0.001±0.015 (-0.031, 0.030), and its magnitude 0.825 (0.708, 0.898), respectively. VSPAT and TAPSE were estimated by both observers in 92% of the patients, these parameters exhibiting the lowest interobserver variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot Study on Early Postoperative Discharge in Pituitary Adenoma Patients: Effect of Socioeconomic Factors and Benefit of Specialized Pituitary Centers.

    PubMed

    Sarkiss, Christopher A; Lee, James; Papin, Joseph A; Geer, Eliza B; Banik, Rudrani; Rucker, Janet C; Oudheusden, Barbara; Govindaraj, Satish; Shrivastava, Raj K

    2015-08-01

    Introduction Pituitary neoplasms are benign entities that require distinct diagnostic and treatment considerations. Recent advances in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery have resulted in shorter lengths of stay (LOS). We implemented a postoperative day (POD) 1 discharge paradigm involving a multidisciplinary approach and detailed preoperative evaluation and review of both medical and socioeconomic factors. Methods The experience of a single neurosurgeon/ears, nose, throat (ENT) team was reviewed, generating a preliminary retrospective database of the first 30 patients who underwent resection of pituitary lesions under the POD 1 discharge paradigm. We assessed multiple axes from their preoperative, in-house, and postoperative care. Results There were 14 men and 16 women with an average age of 53.8 years (range: 27-76 years). There were 22 nonsecretory and 8 secretory tumors with average size of 2.80 cm (range: 1.3-5.0 cm). All 30 patients underwent preoperative ENT evaluation. Average LOS was 1.5 ± 0.7 days. A total of 18 of 30 patients were discharged on POD 1. The insurance status included 15 with public insurance such as emergency Medicaid and 15 with private insurance. Four patients had transient diabetes insipidus (DI); none had permanent DI. Overall, 28 of 30 patients received postoperative steroids. Factors that contributed to LOS > 1 day included public insurance status, two or more medical comorbidities, diabetes mellitus, transient panhypopituitarism, and DI. Conclusion The implementation of a POD 1 discharge plan for pituitary tumors is feasible and safe for elective patients. This implementation requires the establishment of a dedicated Pituitary Center model with experienced team members. The consistent limitation to early discharge was socioeconomic status. Efforts that incorporate the analysis of social disposition parameters with proper management of clinical sequelae are crucial to the maintenance of ideal LOS and optimal patient

  7. Predictors of early postoperative voiding dysfunction and other complications following a midurethral sling.

    PubMed

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Kowalski, Joseph T; Chaudhry, Zaid Q; Mahal, Aman S; Lanzer, Jennifer; Noor, Nabila; Good, Meadow M; Hynan, Linda S; Jeppson, Peter C; Rahn, David D

    2016-11-01

    The rates reported for postoperative urinary retention following midurethral sling procedures are highly variable. Determining which patients have a higher likelihood of failing a voiding trial will help with preoperative counseling prior to a midurethral sling. The objective of the study was to identify preoperative predictors for failed voiding trial following an isolated midurethral sling. A retrospective, multicenter, case-control study was performed by including all isolated midurethral sling procedures performed between Jan. 1, 2010 to June 30, 2015, at 6 academic centers. We collected demographics, medical and surgical histories, voiding symptoms, urodynamic evaluation, and intraoperative data from the medical record. We excluded patients not eligible for attempted voiding trial after surgery (eg, bladder perforation requiring catheterization). Cases failed a postoperative voiding trial and were discharged with an indwelling catheter or taught intermittent self-catheterization; controls passed a voiding trial. We also recorded any adverse events such as urinary tract infection or voiding dysfunction up to 6 weeks after surgery. Bivariate analyses were completed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson χ 2 tests as appropriate. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to determine predictors of failing a voiding trial. A total of 464 patients had an isolated sling (70.9% retropubic, 28.4% transobturator, 0.6% single incision); 101 (21.8%) failed the initial voiding trial. At follow-up visits, 90.4% passed a second voiding trial, and 38.5% of the remainder passed on the third attempt. For the bivariate analyses, prior prolapse or incontinence surgery was similar in cases vs controls (31% vs 28%, P = .610) as were age, race, body mass index, and operative time. Significantly more of the cases (32%) than controls (22%) had a Charlson comorbidity index score of 1 or greater (P = .039). Overactive bladder symptoms of urgency, frequency, and urgency

  8. Inflammatory markers in postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD): A meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuling; Yu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to summarize and discuss the similarities and differences in inflammatory biomarkers in postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Methods A systematic retrieval of literature up to June 2017 in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and the Wanfang database was conducted. Extracted data were analyzed with STATA (version 14). The standardized mean difference (SMD) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of each indicator were calculated using a random effect model. We also performed tests of heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis, assessments of bias, and meta-regression in this meta-analysis. Results A total of 54 observational studies were included. By meta-analysis we found significantly increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (9 studies, SMD 0.883, 95% CI 0.130 to 1.637, P = 0.022 in POD; 10 studies, SMD -0.133, 95% CI -0.512 to 0.246, P = 0.429 in POCD) and interleukin (IL)-6 (7 studies, SMD 0.386, 95% CI 0.054 to 0.717, P = 0.022 in POD; 16 studies, SMD 0.089, 95% CI -0.133 to 0.311, P = 0.433 in POCD) concentrations in both POD and POCD patients. We also found that the SMDs of CRP and IL-6 from POCD patients were positively correlated with surgery type in the meta-regression (CRP: Coefficient = 1.555365, P = 0.001, 10 studies; IL-6: Coefficient = -0.6455521, P = 0.086, 16 studies). Conclusion Available evidence from medium-to-high quality observational studies suggests that POD and POCD are indeed correlated with the concentration of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers. Some of these markers, such as CRP and IL-6, play roles in both POD and POCD, while others are specific to either one of them. PMID:29641605

  9. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2018-07-01

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p < .01). The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was significantly correlated with pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Our findings suggested that infants with cyanotic CHD are likely at a greater risk of gross motor delays, the recovery of which might differ between infants with cyanotic and acyanotic CHD after cardiac surgery. Early postoperative physical therapy promotes gross motor recovery. Implications of Rehabilitation Infants and toddlers with cyanotic congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected

  10. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p < 0.05). No statistical difference can be observed regarding the timing of serum biomarkers. Serum PTH levels at postoperative 12 and 24 h can predict early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration in dogs undergoing a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy: 100 cases (2002-2014).

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, F E; Cardy, T J A; Liebel, F X; Garosi, L; Kenny, P J; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2015-12-01

    Early post-operative neurological deterioration is a well-known complication following dorsal cervical laminectomies and hemilaminectomies in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate potential risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration following these surgical procedures. Medical records of 100 dogs that had undergone a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy between 2002 and 2014 were assessed retrospectively. Assessed variables included signalment, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs, neurological status before surgery, diagnosis, surgical site, type and extent of surgery and duration of procedure. Outcome measures were neurological status immediately following surgery and duration of hospitalisation. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify variables to be included in a multivariate model. Diagnoses included osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (OACSM; n = 41), acute intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE; 31), meningioma (11), spinal arachnoid diverticulum (10) and vertebral arch anomalies (7). Overall 54% (95% CI 45.25-64.75) of dogs were neurologically worse 48 h post-operatively. Multivariate statistical analysis identified four factors significantly related to early post-operative neurological outcome. Diagnoses of OACSM or meningioma were considered the strongest variables to predict early post-operative neurological deterioration, followed by higher (more severely affected) neurological grade before surgery and longer surgery time. This information can aid in the management of expectations of clinical staff and owners with dogs undergoing these surgical procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of sleep disordered breathing symptoms with early postoperative analgesic requirement in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kamie; Baetzel, Anne; Chimbira, Wilson T; Yermolina, Yuliya; Reynolds, Paul I; Nafiu, Olubukola O

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms are associated with increased rates of opioid-induced respiratory depression as well as enhanced nociception. Consequently, practitioners often withhold or administer lower intraoperative doses of opioids out of concern for postoperative respiratory depression. Therefore, SDB may be a critical determinant of analgesic requirement in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). We investigated whether preoperative SDB classification was independently associated with need for PACU analgesic intervention in a cross-sectional sample of 985 children who underwent elective, painful ambulatory surgical procedures. Methods Using prospectively collected data, children aged 4–17yr were grouped into two categories based on whether or not they had symptoms of SDB. Perioperative variables were compared between the exposed and control groups using Chi-squared test for categorical or t-test for continuous variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SDB and the odds of requiring PACU IV opioids. Results Children with preoperative SDB symptoms (N=325) compared with the reference group of children who did not have these symptoms had higher rates of PACU analgesic intervention (47.1% vs. 37.4%; p=0.004) and higher mean arousal pain scores (3.7±3.5 vs.1.9±2.9; p<0.001). In our primary multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for a number of variables, preoperative SDB symptoms was associated with a two-fold increased odds of receiving PACU intravenous opioid (OR = 2.01, 95%CI, 1.29–3.12; p=0.002). Conclusion These results suggest that preoperative SDB symptoms in children undergoing ambulatory surgery, exerts a significant influence on PACU pain behavior and analgesic requirement. Mechanisms underlying this enhanced pain experience deserve further elucidation. PMID:28390605

  13. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract helps prevent bacterial infections in the early postoperative period after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Emre, S; Sebastian, A; Chodoff, L; Boccagni, P; Meyers, B; Sheiner, P A; Mor, E; Guy, S R; Atillasoy, E; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    1999-01-01

    In liver transplant (LTx) recipients, gut-associated bacterial and fungal organisms produce significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the role of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) in preventing postoperative infections in a large single-center cohort of liver recipients transplanted under two non-simultaneous protocols. In 212 consecutive patients transplanted between 1/1/91 and 7/31/92, SDD (gentamicin 80 mg, polymyxin B 100 mg, nystatin suspension 10 mL) was employed, starting after induction of anesthesia and continued until POD 21 (SDD Group). In 157 consecutive patients transplanted between 1/1/93 and 12/31/93, SDD was not used (non-SDD Group). Both groups received IV vancomycin and cefotaxime prophylaxis. All culture-positive infections within the first 30 days post-LTx were recorded and classified as bacterial or fungal. Infection-related mortality (patients who died of infectious complications without any technical complication) was recorded. Groups did not differ in patient demographics, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status, use of veno-venous bypass, total/warm ischemia, or length of ICU stay. Infections developed in fewer SDD patients (56/212; 26%) than non-SDD patients (69/157; 44%) (p<0.001). The incidence of gram-negative infection was less in the SDD group (11% vs. 26%, p<0. 001) as was gram-positive infection (16% vs. 26%, p<0.001). Among patients who developed infection, there was no difference between groups in infections per patient. Primary graft non-function (PNF) developed in 20 SDD patients (7/20 had infections) and 8 non-SDD patients (6/8 had infections) (p=0.06). There were no differences in incidence of fungal infections or of infection-related mortality between groups. In the SDD group, there were fewer abdominal (p<0. 001), lung (p<0.001), wound (p<0.01), and urinary tract infections (p<0.05). Use of SDD in liver recipients early after transplant was associated with significantly fewer

  14. Cognitive Development in Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease Under Very Early Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. [Correlations of plasma concentrations of β-amyloid peptide and S-100β with postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Liang, Bing; Sun, Yuan-Qing; Jiang, Jue; Xu, Hui

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the changes of perioperative plasma concentrations of Aβ 1-40 and S-100β to determine the relationship with postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial cancer surgeries. One hundred and fifteen patients aged at least 60 years undergoing oral and maxillofacial tumor resection were investigated between May 2014 to December 2014.Neuropsychological tests for detecting postoperative cognitive dysfunction(POCD) were performed one day before surgery and 7 days postoperatively. According to the results of neuropsychological tests on day 7, patients were divided into POCD group and non-POCD group.Plasma values of Aβ 1-40 and S-100β were determined with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before anesthesia induction, 24 h and 7 days after surgery. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software package. According to the definition, POCD was present in 37 of 115 (32.3%) patients 1 week after surgery. Compared with pre-anesthesia, S-100β levels in POCD group were significantly increased (P<0.05); the level of Aβ 1-40 was significantly higher 24 h after surgery (P<0.05). Compared with non-POCD group, S-100β levels were significantly increased 24 h postoperatively (P<0.05); Aβ1-40 levels were significantly higher 24 h and 7 days postoperatively (P<0.05). POCD was present in 32.2% of patients on day 7 after oral and maxillofacial surgeries with general anesthesia. The increasing levels of Aβ 1-40 , S-100β may be associated with the occurence of POCD. Patients with long-lasting operation and high concentrations of Aβ 1-40 and S-100β after surgeries were at a higher risk of POCD. The clinical values of Aβ 1-40 and S-100 as predictive measurements of POCD after oral and maxillofacial cancer surgery appear to be reasonable.

  16. Early Neglect Is Associated with Alterations in White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in children who experienced early neglect, especially children raised in institutionalized settings. Previous research suggests that early neglect may differentially affect the directional organization of white matter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This may be one mechanism to explain cognitive deficits…

  17. Predictive value of early postoperative IOP and bleb morphology in Mitomycin-C augmented trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Hamed; Pakravan, Mohammad; Loewen, Nils A; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background : To determine the predictive value of postoperative bleb morphological features and intraocular pressure (IOP) on the success rate of trabeculectomy. Methods : In this prospective interventional case series, we analyzed for one year 80 consecutive primary open angle glaucoma patients who underwent mitomycin-augmented trabeculectomy. Bleb morphology was scored using the Indiana bleb appearance grading scale (IBAGS). Success was defined as IOP ≤15 mmHg at 12 months. We applied a multivariable regression analysis and determined the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results : The mean age of participants was 62±12.3 years in the success and 63.2±16.3 years in the failure group (P= 0.430) with equal gender distribution (P=0.911). IOPs on day 1, 7 and 30 were similar in both (P= 0.193, 0.639, and 0.238, respectively.) The AUC of IOP at day 1, day 7 and 30 for predicting a successful outcome was 0.355, 0.452, and 0.80, respectively. The AUC for bleb morphology parameters of bleb height, extension, and vascularization, on day 14 were 0.368, 0.408, and 0.549, respectively. Values for day 30 were 0.428, 0.563, and 0.654. IOP change from day 1 to day 30 was a good predictor of failure (AUC=0.838, 95% CI: 0.704 to 0.971) with a change of more than 3 mmHg predicting failure with a sensitivity of 82.5% (95% CI: 68 to 91%) and a specificity of 87.5% (95% CI: 53 to 98%). Conclusions : IOP on day 30 had a fair to good accuracy while bleb features failed to predict success except bleb vascularity that had a poor to fair accuracy.  An IOP increase more than 3 mmHg during the first 30 days was a good predictor of failure.

  18. Single-injection femoral nerve block. Effects on the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tugay, Nazan; Saricaoglu, Fatma; Satilmis, Tulin; Alpar, Ulku; Akarcali, Inci; Citaker, Seyit; Tugay, Umut; Atilla, Bulent; Tokgozoglu, Mazhar

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of single injection femoral nerve block (FNB) on the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted this prospective, randomized, blinded trial in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Hospital Ankara, Turkey, between June 2003 and April 2004. Twenty-three patients scheduled for elective TKA were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group I received preemptive single injection FNB, group II received postoperative single injection FNB, and group III served as a control group. Intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) was used following surgery in all groups. Morphine dose and pain score defined by the visual analog scale (VAS) were recorded postoperatively at the 15th minute, 30th minute, 1st, 4th, 6th, 12th, 24th, and 48th hours. A standard rehabilitation protocol was applied for all patients. The independence level in functional activities was assessed during the first 2 postoperative days and at discharge with the Iowa Level of Assistance Scale (ILAS) and the Iowa Ambulation Speed Scale (IASS). Physical therapists that enrolled in the study were blinded to the groups. Pain scores were significantly different between the groups (p<0.05). The preemptive and postoperative FNB group`s VAS scores were both significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in VAS scores between preemptive and postoperative FNB groups (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in any of the functional scores in the first 2 postoperative days, and at discharge (p>0.05). Single injection FNB provided effective analgesia in patients undergoing TKA. However, the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period was not influenced by the analgesia method.

  19. Cognitive consequences of early versus late antiepileptic drug withdrawal after pediatric epilepsy surgery, the TimeToStop (TTS) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boshuisen, Kim; Lamberink, Herm J; van Schooneveld, Monique Mj; Cross, J Helen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Geleijns, Karin; Uiterwaal, Cuno Spm; Braun, Kees Pj

    2015-10-26

    The goals of intentional curative pediatric epilepsy surgery are to achieve seizure-freedom and antiepileptic drug (AED) freedom. Retrospective cohort studies have indicated that early postoperative AED withdrawal unmasks incomplete surgical success and AED dependency sooner, but not at the cost of long-term seizure outcome. Moreover, AED withdrawal seemed to improve cognitive outcome. A randomized trial is needed to confirm these findings. We hypothesized that early AED withdrawal in children is not only safe, but also beneficial with respect to cognitive functioning. This is a multi-center pragmatic randomized clinical trial to investigate whether early AED withdrawal improves cognitive function, in terms of attention, executive function and intelligence, quality of life and behavior, and to confirm safety in terms of eventual seizure freedom, seizure recurrences and "seizure and AED freedom." Patients will be randomly allocated in parallel groups (1:1) to either early or late AED withdrawal. Randomization will be concealed and stratified for preoperative IQ and medical center. In the early withdrawal arm reduction of AEDs will start 4 months after surgery, while in the late withdrawal arm reduction starts 12 months after surgery, with intended complete cessation of drugs after 12 and 20 months respectively. Cognitive outcome measurements will be performed preoperatively, and at 1 and 2 years following surgery, and consist of assessment of attention and executive functioning using the EpiTrack Junior test and intelligence expressed as IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scales). Seizure outcomes will be assessed at 24 months after surgery, and at 20 months following start of AED reduction. We aim to randomize 180 patients who underwent anticipated curative epilepsy surgery below 16 years of age, were able to perform the EpiTrack Junior test preoperatively, and have no predictors of poor postoperative seizure prognosis (multifocal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

  20. Postoperative plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels are associated with delirium and cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuan-Bo; Ruan, Guo-Mo; Fu, Jia-Xing; Su, Zhong-Liang; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Jian-Zuo

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress may be involved in occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD). 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), an isoprostane derived from arachidonic acid via lipid peroxidation, is considered a gold standard for measuring oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of postoperative plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels to predict POD and POCD in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Postoperative plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels of 182 patients were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed the relationships between plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels and the risk of POD and POCD using a multivariate analysis. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels and age were identified as the independent predictors for POD and POCD. Based on areas under receiver operating characteristic curve, the predictive values of 8-iso-PGF2α were obviously higher than those of age for POD and POCD. In a combined logistic-regression model, 8-iso-PGF2α significantly enhanced the areas under curve of age for prediction of POD and POCD. Postoperative plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels may have the potential to predict POD and POCD in elder patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitral restenosis in the early postoperative period of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, P M; Corrêa, J D; Brandão, C M; de Assis, R V; Jatene, A D

    1999-04-01

    A forty-eight year old woman, who had undergone mitral comissurotomy and subsequently developed early restenosis, presented with major comissural fusion and verrucous lesions on the cuspid edges of the mitral valve, with normal subvalvar apparatus. Patient did well for the first six months after surgery when she began to present dyspnea on light exertion. A clinical diagnosis of restenosis was made, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. She underwent surgery, and a stenotic mitral valve with verrucous lesions suggesting Libman-Sacks' endocarditis was found. Because the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had not been confirmed at that time, a bovine pericardium bioprosthesis (FISICS-INCOR) was implanted. The patient did well in the late follow-up and is now in NYHA Class I.

  2. Early postoperative and long-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Park, Soo Yeun; Choi, Wohn Ho; Ryuk, Jong Pil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPC/IPAA) for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Also, we assessed the oncologic outcomes in FAP patients with coexisting malignancy. Methods From August 1999 to September 2010, 43 FAP patients with or without coexisting malignancy underwent TPC/IPAA by a laparoscopic-assisted or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Results The median age was 33 years (range, 18 to 58 years) at the time of operation. IPAA was performed by a hand-sewn method in 21 patients (48.8%). The median operative time was 300 minutes (range, 135 to 610 minutes), which reached a plateau after 22 operations. Early postoperative complications within 30 days occurred in 7 patients (16.3%) and long-term morbidity occurred in 15 patients (34.9%) including 6 (14.0%) with desmoid tumors and 3 (7.0%) who required operative treatment. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were diagnosed with coexisting colorectal malignancy. The median follow-up was 58.5 months (range, 7.9 to 97.8 months). There was only 1 case of local recurrence in the pelvic cavity. No cases of adenocarcinoma at the residual rectal mucosa developed. 5-year disease-free survival rate for 22 patients who had coexisting malignancy was 86.5% and 5-year overall survival rate was 92.6%. Three patients died from pulmonary or hepatic metastasis. Conclusion Laparoscopic TPC/IPAA in patients with FAP is feasible and offers favorable postoperative outcomes. It also delivered acceptable oncological outcomes in patients with coexisting malignancy. Therefore, laparoscopic TPC/IPAA may be a favorable treatment option for FAP. PMID:23166888

  3. The influence of different error estimates in the detection of postoperative cognitive dysfunction using reliable change indices with correction for practice effects.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew S; Maruff, Paul; Silbert, Brendan S; Evered, Lis A; Scott, David A

    2007-02-01

    The reliable change index (RCI) expresses change relative to its associated error, and is useful in the identification of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). This paper examines four common RCIs that each account for error in different ways. Three rules incorporate a constant correction for practice effects and are contrasted with the standard RCI that had no correction for practice. These rules are applied to 160 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery who completed neuropsychological assessments preoperatively and 1 week postoperatively using error and reliability data from a comparable healthy nonsurgical control group. The rules all identify POCD in a similar proportion of patients, but the use of the within-subject standard deviation (WSD), expressing the effects of random error, as an error estimate is a theoretically appropriate denominator when a constant error correction, removing the effects of systematic error, is deducted from the numerator in a RCI.

  4. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  5. [The effects of perioperative continuous administration of mivazerol on early postoperative hemodynamics and plasma catecholamines after major surgery].

    PubMed

    Apitzsch, H; Olthoff, D; Thieme, V; Vetter, B; Wiegel, M

    2000-08-01

    During and after surgical procedures a strong activation of the sympatho-adrenergic system is common with correlation to adverse cardiac outcome. Several drugs (alpha 2-adrenoceptor-agonists, beta blockers) are discussed to prevent this reaction. The new alpha 2-adrenoceptor-agonist mivazerol with marked specificity for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors may be suitable for this indication. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of perioperative continuous administration of mivazerol on plasma catecholamines, body temperature and calculated haemodynamic parameters in the early postoperative period in cardiac risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. 36 patients with known coronary heart disease or risk factors for coronary heart disease scheduled for elective abdominal or vascular surgery were included in the study. Patients received either mivazerol (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) [initial dose 4 micrograms kg-1 for 10 minutes before induction of anaesthesia, followed by a continuous infusion of 1.5 micrograms kg-1 h-1 intraoperatively and for as long as 72 h after surgery] in a double-blinded, randomized manner. Blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature were measured every 10 minutes until 240 minutes after arrival at the ICU. During 240 minutes after arrival at the ICU measured parameters (CVP, PAP, PCWP, SaO2, SvO2, CO), calculated parameters (CI, SVR, PVR, VO2) and plasma catecholamines were measured at defined time intervalls. The plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine and the heart rate were significantly lower in the mivazerol group in the study period. Regarding blood pressure and body temperature there were no differences between the groups. At some measuring points preload was higher in the mivazerol group, but there were no differences between the groups for measured (SaO2, SvO2, CO) and calculated (CI, SVR, PVR, VO2) cardiorespiratory parameters. The incidence of shivering, nausea and vomiting were similar in both

  6. Cognitive Vulnerabilities Amplify the Effect of Early Pubertal Timing on Interpersonal Stress Generation During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858

  7. Cognitive Constraints and the Early Learning Goals in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Lorna; Adams, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of a number of cognitive factors (i.e. working memory, vocabulary knowledge, general cognitive ability and reading skills) in accounting for differences in the rate of progress made by children in the development of emergent writing skills. Sixty-seven children were assessed on tasks measuring the…

  8. A Cognitive Approach to the Development of Early Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in the field of language development is whether language emergence and growth is dependent solely on processes specifically tied to language or could also depend on basic cognitive processes that affect all aspects of cognitive competence (domain-general processes). The present article examines this issue using a large…

  9. Varying strength of cognitive markers and biomarkers to predict conversion and cognitive decline in an early-stage-enriched mild cognitive impairment sample.

    PubMed

    Egli, Simone C; Hirni, Daniela I; Taylor, Kirsten I; Berres, Manfred; Regeniter, Axel; Gass, Achim; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. However, predictors might be more or less powerful depending on the characteristics of the MCI sample. To investigate which cognitive markers and biomarkers predict conversion to AD dementia and course of cognitive functioning in a MCI sample with a high proportion of early-stage MCI patients. Variables known to predict progression in MCI patients and hypothesized to predict progression in early-stage MCI patients were selected. Cognitive (long-delay free recall, regional primacy score), imaging (hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes, fornix fractional anisotropy), and CSF (Aβ1-42/t-tau, Aβ1-42) variables from 36 MCI patients were analyzed with Cox regression and mixed-effect models to determine their individual and combined abilities to predict time to conversion to AD dementia and course of global cognitive functioning, respectively. Those variables hypothesized to predict the course of early-stage MCI patients were most predictive for MCI progression. Specifically, regional primacy score (a measure of word-list position learning) most consistently predicted conversion to AD dementia and course of cognitive functioning. Both the prediction of conversion and course of cognitive functioning were maximized by including CSF Aβ1-42 and fornix integrity biomarkers, respectively, indicating the complementary information carried by cognitive variables and biomarkers. Predictors of MCI progression need to be interpreted in light of the characteristics of the respective MCI sample. Future studies should aim to compare predictive strengths of markers between early-stage and late-stage MCI patients.

  10. Evaluation of longitudinal 12 and 24 month cognitive outcomes in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Stout, Julie C; Jones, Rebecca; Labuschagne, Izelle; O'Regan, Alison M; Say, Miranda J; Dumas, Eve M; Queller, Sarah; Justo, Damian; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Coleman, Allison; Hart, Ellen P; Dürr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund A; Langbehn, Doug R; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Frost, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Deterioration of cognitive functioning is a debilitating symptom in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD). To date, there are no effective treatments for the cognitive problems associated with HD. Cognitive assessment outcomes will have a central role in the efforts to develop treatments to delay onset or slow the progression of the disease. The TRACK-HD study was designed to build a rational basis for the selection of cognitive outcomes for HD clinical trials. There were a total of 349 participants, including controls (n=116), premanifest HD (n=117) and early HD (n=116). A standardised cognitive assessment battery (including nine cognitive tests comprising 12 outcome measures) was administered at baseline, and at 12 and 24 months, and consisted of a combination of paper and pencil and computerised tasks selected to be sensitive to cortical-striatal damage or HD. Each cognitive outcome was analysed separately using a generalised least squares regression model. Results are expressed as effect sizes to permit comparisons between tasks. 10 of the 12 cognitive outcomes showed evidence of deterioration in the early HD group, relative to controls, over 24 months, with greatest sensitivity in Symbol Digit, Circle Tracing direct and indirect, and Stroop word reading. In contrast, there was very little evidence of deterioration in the premanifest HD group relative to controls. The findings describe tests that are sensitive to longitudinal cognitive change in HD and elucidate important considerations for selecting cognitive outcomes for clinical trials of compounds aimed at ameliorating cognitive decline in HD.

  11. Early Detection of Cognitive-Linguistic Change Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Valarie B.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may present with subtle declines in linguistic ability that go undetected by tasks not challenging enough to tax a relatively intact cognitive-linguistic system. This study was designed to replicate and extend a previous study of cognitive-linguistic ability in MCI using a complex discourse…

  12. Early Detection of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Acute Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection With Doppler Renal Resistive Index.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huai; Wu, Haibo; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhanming

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the early efficiency of Doppler renal resistive index (DRRI) in prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) after surgery in acute Stanford Type A aortic dissection (AAAD) patients. Sixty-one AAAD patients who planned to receive Sun's surgical management were prospectively enrolled. The DRRI was measured by ultrasonography Doppler on the day before surgery (DRRI pre ), on admission to the intensive care unit (DRRI T0 ), 6 hours after surgery (DRRI T6 ), 24 hours after surgery (DRRI T24 ), and 48 hours after surgery (DRRI T48 ). The maximum DRRI value (DRRI max ) was recorded. The AKI was evaluated according to the classifications of the Acute Kidney Injury Network. The DRRI and serum creatinine (sCr) were compared between the pre- and postoperative time stations, as well as between the AKI and no-AKI groups. Thirty-nine (63.9%) patients suffered from AKI, and 12 (19.6%) patients received dialysis. No significant difference was found in DRRI pre (0.63 ± 0.04 versus 0.65 ± 0.06, P = .059) and sCr pre (84.13 ± 23.77 versus 94.29 ± 51.11, P = .383) between the two groups with and without AKI. Both the DRRI and sCr increased significantly after surgery in the AKI groups (P < .001). However, the DRRI reached its maximum 6 hours after surgery, whereas the sCr reached its maximum after 24 hours. Both the DRRI and sCr improved 48 hours after surgery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for DRRI max (0.864, 95% confidence interval: 0.770-0.957) and DRRI T6 (0.861, 95% confidence interval: 0.766-0.957) was larger than the other three DRRIs measured at different time points. The cutoff value of DRRI max was 0.71, a sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 95.5%. Postoperative DRRI predicts the AKI earlier than sCr after AAAD surgery. The best time to detect DRRI was 6 hours after surgery. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. A randomized placebo controlled trial of preoperative carbohydrate drinks and early postoperative nutritional supplement drinks in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lidder, P; Thomas, S; Fleming, S; Hosie, K; Shaw, S; Lewis, S

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence that preoperative carbohydrate drinks and postoperative nutritional supplements improve the outcome of colorectal surgery. There is little information on their individual contribution. A prospective four-arm double-blind controlled trial was carried out in which patients were randomized to carbohydrate or placebo drinks preoperatively and a polymeric supplement or placebo drink postoperatively. The primary outcome was insulin resistance (using the short insulin tolerance test and HOMA-IR). Secondary outcomes included handgrip strength, pulmonary function, intestinal permeability and postoperative complications. A total of 120 patients were randomized to four demographically well matched groups. Patients who received preoperative and postoperative supplements had better glucose homeostasis (P = 0.004), peak expiratory flow rate (P = 0.035), handgrip strength (P = 0.002) and less insulin resistance (P = 0.001) compared with those who only received placebo drinks. Oral nutritional supplements given preoperatively and postoperatively improve postoperative handgrip strength, pulmonary function and insulin resistance. A weaker effect was seen in patients who received supplements either preoperatively or postoperatively. Oral nutritional supplements should be given both preoperatively and postoperatively. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…

  15. Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

  16. Impaired Cognition in Rats with Cortical Dysplasia: Additional Impact of Early-Life Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory. Teasing…

  17. Causal Cognition, Force Dynamics and Early Hunting Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Gärdenfors, Peter; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    With this contribution we analyze ancient hunting technologies as one way to explore the development of causal cognition in the hominin lineage. Building on earlier work, we separate seven grades of causal thinking. By looking at variations in force dynamics as a central element in causal cognition, we analyze the thinking required for different hunting technologies such as stabbing spears, throwing spears, launching atlatl darts, shooting arrows with a bow, and the use of poisoned arrows. Our interpretation demonstrates that there is an interplay between the extension of human body through technology and expanding our cognitive abilities to reason about causes. It adds content and dimension to the trend of including embodied cognition in evolutionary studies and in the interpretation of the archeological record. Our method could explain variation in technology sets between archaic and modern human groups. PMID:29483885

  18. The Cognitive and Neural Expression of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M.; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Celine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to…

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early postoperative recovery of dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

    PubMed

    Bennaim, Michael; Porato, Mathilde; Jarleton, Astrid; Hamon, Martin; Carroll, James D; Gommeren, Kris; Balligand, Marc

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of postoperative photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early recovery variables for dogs after hemilaminectomy for treatment of intervertebral disk disease. ANIMALS 32 nonambulatory client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs received standard postoperative care with photobiomodulation therapy (n = 11), physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment (11), or sham photobiomodulation treatment only (10) after surgery. Neurologic status at admission, diagnostic and surgical variables, duration of postoperative IV analgesic administration, and recovery grades (over 10 days after surgery) were assessed. Time to reach recovery grades B (able to support weight with some help), C (initial limb movements present), and D (ambulatory [≥ 3 steps unassisted]) was compared among groups. Factors associated with ability to ambulate on day 10 or at last follow-up were assessed. RESULTS Time to reach recovery grades B, C, and D and duration of postoperative IV opioid administration did not differ among groups. Neurologic score at admission and surgeon experience were negatively associated with the dogs' ability to ambulate on day 10. The number of disk herniations identified by diagnostic imaging before surgery was negatively associated with ambulatory status at last follow-up. No other significant associations and no adverse treatment-related events were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study found no difference in recovery-related variables among dogs that received photobiomodulation therapy, physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment, or sham photobiomodulation treatment only. Larger studies are needed to better evaluate effects of these postoperative treatments on dogs treated surgically for intervertebral disk disease.

  20. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    PubMed

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  1. Do postoperative platelet-rich plasma injections accelerate early tendon healing and functional recovery after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan; McCann, Philip; Colliver, Jess; Koh, Eamon; Ackland, Timothy; Joss, Brendan; Zheng, Minghao; Breidahl, Bill

    2015-06-01

    Tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair directly correlates with a successful outcome. Biological therapies that elevate local growth-factor concentrations may potentiate healing after surgery. To ascertain whether postoperative and repeated application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to the tendon repair site improves early tendon healing and enhances early functional recovery after double-row arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 patients underwent arthroscopic double-row supraspinatus tendon repair. After randomization, half the patients received 2 ultrasound-guided injections of PRP to the repair site at postoperative days 7 and 14. Early structural healing was assessed with MRI at 16 weeks, and cuff appearances were graded according to the Sugaya classification. Functional scores were recorded with the Oxford Shoulder Score; Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; visual analog scale for pain; and Short Form-12 quality-of-life score both preoperatively and at postoperative weeks 6, 12, and 16; isokinetic strength and active range of motion were measured at 16 weeks. PRP treatment did not improve early functional recovery, range of motion, or strength or influence pain scores at any time point after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. There was no difference in structural integrity of the supraspinatus repair on MRI between the PRP group (0% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 77% intact) and the control group (7% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 70% intact) at 16 weeks postoperatively (P = .35). After arthroscopic supraspinatus tendon repair, image-guided PRP treatment on 2 occasions does not improve early tendon-bone healing or functional recovery. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging in glioblastoma: correlation among radiological findings and overall survival in 60 patients.

    PubMed

    Majós, Carles; Cos, Mònica; Castañer, Sara; Gil, Miguel; Plans, Gerard; Lucas, Anna; Bruna, Jordi; Aguilera, Carles

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) as a prognostic tool after resection of glioblastoma. Sixty EPMR examinations were evaluated for perioperative infarct, tumour growth between diagnosis and EPMR, contrast enhancement pattern, and extent of resection (EOR). The EOR was approached with the subjective evaluation of radiologists and by quantifying volumes. These parameters were tested as predictors of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method. Contrast enhancement was found in 59 patients (59/60; 98 %). Showing a thin-linear pattern of enhancement was the most favourable finding. Patients with this pattern survived longer than patients with thick-linear (median overall survival (OS) thin-linear=609 days; thick-linear=432 days; P = .023) or nodular (median OS = 318 days; P = .001) enhancements. The subjective evaluation of the EOR performed better than its quantification. Patients survived longer when resection was total (median OS total resection=609 days; subtotal=371 days; P = .001). When resection was subtotal, patients survived longer if it was superior to 95 % (median OS resection superior to 95 %=559 days; inferior to 95 %=256 days; P = .034). EPMR provides valuable prognostic information after surgical resection of glioblastomas. A thin-linear pattern of contrast enhancement is the most favourable finding. Further prognostic stratification may be obtained by assessing the EOR. • Some kind of contrast enhancement may be found in most EPMR examinations. • Thin-linear enhancements in the EPMR may be considered benign findings. • The EOR evaluated in the EPMR may stratify prognostic groups of patients. • The subjective evaluation of the EOR performs slightly better than its quantification.

  3. Chromatic multifocal pupillometer for objective early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Ben-Ner, Daniel; Sharvit-Ginon, Inbal; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal; Sher, Ifat

    2017-02-01

    The pupil responses of 15 cognitively normal subjects (ages 60-74) were examined in response to 76 focal red and blue light stimuli using a chromatic multifocal pupillometer (CMP). Subjects with low cognitive scores as determined as by Montreal Cognitive Assessment testing, presented significantly weaker and sluggish pupil responses in peripheral and central locations of the visual field in response to red and blue light. Our findings suggests that the CMP may present a novel objective, non-invasive, low cost technique for early diagnosis of cognitive decline that may serve for Alzheimer Disease prevention and as sensitive outcome measure of therapeutic effects.

  4. Cognitive Changes After Adjuvant Treatment in Older Adults with Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Noal, Sabine; Rigal, Olivier; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Lévy, Christelle; Allouache, Djelila; Rieux, Chantal; Lefel, Johan; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Leconte, Alexandra; Veyret, Corinne; Barthélémy, Philippe; Longato, Nadine; Tron, Laure; Castel, Hélène; Eustache, Francis; Giffard, Bénédicte; Joly, Florence

    2018-06-22

    Group-based trajectory modeling is particularly important to identify subgroups of patients with pathological cognitive changes after cancer treatment. To date, only one study has explored cognitive trajectories in older patients with cancer. The present article describes objective cognitive changes before to after adjuvant treatment in older adults with early-stage breast cancer (EBC) after adjuvant treatment compared with healthy controls. Participants were patients ≥65 years of age with newly diagnosed EBC and healthy controls (age-, sex-, and education-matched). The pretreatment assessment was conducted before adjuvant therapy, and the post-treatment assessment after the end of the first adjuvant treatment. Objective cognitive changes before to after treatment were evaluated based on the Reliable Change Index for cognitive decline accounting for cognitive impairment status. The sample consisted of women newly diagnosed with EBC ( n  = 118) and healthy controls ( n  = 62). Five patterns of changes before to after treatment were identified based on the presence of cognitive decline and cognitive impairment. The distribution of these five change patterns was statistically significant ( p  = .0001). Thirty-six percent of patients had phase shift changes, 31% without initial objective cognitive impairment developed impairment, 15% had a normal aging, 12% had a nonpathological decline, and 6% experienced accelerated cognitive decline. This study described for the first time objective cognitive changes before to after treatment of older adults with EBC immediately after the end of adjuvant treatment. A longer-term remote follow-up of adjuvant treatment is needed to better understand the cognitive trajectories of older patients with EBC. The Oncologist IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: After the end of adjuvant treatment, 31% of older adults with early-stage breast cancer without initial objective cognitive impairment developed impairment, and 6% experienced

  5. Discourse changes in early Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra Bond; Zientz, Jennifer; Weiner, Myron; Rosenberg, Roger; Frawley, William; Burns, Mary Hope

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of discourse gist measures to the early cognitive-linguistic changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) and in the preclinical stages. Differences in discourse abilities were examined in 25 cognitively normal adults, 24 adults with mild probable AD, and 20 adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at gist and detail levels of discourse processing. The authors found that gist and detail levels of discourse processing were significantly impaired in persons with AD and MCI as compared with normal control subjects. Gist-level discourse processing abilities showed minimal overlap between cognitively normal control subjects and those with mild AD. Moreover, the majority of the persons with MCI performed in the range of AD on gist measures. These findings indicate that discourse gist measures hold promise as a diagnostic complement to enhance early detection of AD. Further studies are needed to determine how early the discourse gist deficits arise in AD.

  6. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  7. [Role of hemodynamic factors and heart volume in the prognosis of acute cardiac insufficiency during the early postoperative period in patients with mitral valve stenosis].

    PubMed

    Guliamov, D S; Amanov, A A; Andres, Iu P; Bazhenova, T F

    1983-07-01

    Investigations performed in 172 patients have shown that the state of the myocardium (such parameters as the heart volume, degree of lung hypertension, end-diastolic pressure in the right and left ventricles) is of great importance in pathogenesis of the development of acute heart failure in the early postoperative period in patients with mitral stenosis of the IIIrd and IVth stage of the blood circulation insufficiency.

  8. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P < 0.05). The combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation for two weeks in the early postoperative period has a beneficial effect on knee extension strength in both lower limbs and BI (transfer, walking and toilet use) scores in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  10. Cognitive-Linguistic Foundations of Early Spelling Development in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing spelling skills in English is a particularly demanding task for Chinese speakers because, unlike many other bilinguals learning English as a second language, they must learn two languages with different orthography as well as phonology. To disentangle socioeconomic and pedagogical factors from the underlying cognitive-linguistic…

  11. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  12. Improvement of postoperative cognitive dysfunction and attention network function of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease via dexmedetomidine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fangxiang; Zhao, Qian

    2018-03-01

    The protective effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive dysfunction and decreased attention network function of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease after stenting was investigated. Fifty-eight patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease undergoing stenting in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital were selected and randomly divided into control group (n=29) and dexmedetomidine group (n=29). The dexmedetomidine group was treated with dexmedetomidine before induced anesthesia, while the control group was given the same dose of normal saline; and the normal volunteers of the same age were selected as the normal group (n=29). At 3 days after operation, the levels of serum S100B and nerve growth factor (NGF) in each group were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected via western blotting. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and attention network test (ANT) were performed. Moreover, the cognitive function and attention network function, and the effects of dexmedetomidine on cognitive function and attention network function were evaluated. The concentrations of serum S100B and NGF in dexmedetomidine group was lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The results of western blotting showed that the levels of serum BDNF in control group and dexmedetomidine group were significantly lower than that in normal group (P<0.01), and it was higher in dexmedetomidine group than that in control group (P<0.01). Besides, both MoCA and ANT results revealed that the visual space and executive function scores, attention scores, delayed memory scores, targeted network efficiency and executive control network efficiency in dexmedetomidine group were obviously higher than those in control group (P<0.01). The cognitive function and attention network function of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease have a certain degree of damage, and the preoperative administration of dexmedetomidine can

  13. Cognitive functioning in healthy aging: the role of reserve and lifestyle factors early in life.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J; Smyth, Kathleen A; Lerner, Alan J; Friedland, Robert P; Larsen, Janet D

    2007-06-01

    According to the reserve perspective on cognitive aging, individuals are born with or can develop resources that help them resist normal and disease-related cognitive changes that occur in aging. The reserve perspective is becoming more sophisticated, but gaps in knowledge persist. In the present research, we considered three understudied questions about reserve: Is reserve primarily static (unchangeable) throughout the life course or dynamic (changeable, in terms of increases or decreases)? Can reserve be increased at any point in life, or are there optimal time periods--such as early life, midlife, or late life--to increase it? Does participation in different types of leisure and occupational activities in early life and midlife have different effects depending on specific domains of late-life cognitive functioning? Here we link early cognitive and activity data--gathered from archival sources--with cognitive data from older adults to examine these issues. 349 participants, all mid-1940s graduates of the same high school, underwent telephone cognitive screening. All participants provided access to adolescent IQ scores; we determined activity levels from yearbooks. We used path analysis to evaluate the complex relationships between early life, midlife, and late-life variables. Adolescent IQ had strong direct effects on global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed. Participants' high school mental activities had direct effects on verbal fluency, but physical and social activities did not predict any cognitive measure. Education had direct effects on global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, and, most strongly, processing speed, but other midlife factors (notably, occupational demands) were not significant predictors of late-life cognition. There were weak indirect effects of adolescent IQ on global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, and processing speed, working through high school mental activities and education

  14. Early postoperative cartilage evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging using T2 mapping after arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kammei; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kan, Hiroyuki; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to quantitatively evaluate postoperative changes in cartilage by T2 mapping after arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. The study enrolled 17 patients with 20 knees that underwent arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. MRI was performed preoperatively and at six months postoperatively, with subjects evaluated by T2 mapping of the central part of the medial condyle of the femur in the sagittal plane. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set at 10 points between the point of intersection of the anatomical axis of the femur and the articular surface of the medial condyle and posterior area approximately 90 degrees to the anatomical axis. Pre- and postoperative T2 values at each ROI were evaluated. Postoperative T2 values were significantly longer than preoperative values at approximately 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the anatomical axis of the femur. The maximum change between pre- and postoperative T2 values was +6.65% at 30 degrees to the anatomical axis. Mechanical stress at positions approximately 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees relative to the anatomical axis of the femur increased soon after arthroscopic medial meniscectomy. These findings indicate the start of degeneration, via disorganization of collagen arrays, of the articular cartilage and increased water content. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Preoperative left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole as earlier identification of early patent ductus arteriosus operation and postoperative intensive care in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saida, Ken; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in premature infants. In very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), PDA requires surgical therapy in many cases. It is unclear to know at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after PDA surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We examined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) performance before and after PDA ligation in a retrospective observational cohort study. We studied 64 preterm neonates with symptomatic PDA before and after surgical ligation. Echocardiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. M-mode measurements included left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole (LVIDd) and LV fractional shortening (FS). All cases showed decreased LVFS after PDA closure. Most cases (49/64, 77%) showed postoperative FS decreased to below normal (<28%). Preoperative relative LVIDd was significantly larger in abnormal FS infants (137 ± 18%) than in normal FS infants (118 ± 11%; p<0.01). A cut-off value of preoperative relative LVIDd (absolute LVIDd/normal value) for predicting postoperative cardio-dysfunction was 127.4% (sensitivity, 0.735; specificity, 0.933; area under curve, 0.817). Determination of preoperative LVIDd might facilitate earlier identification of infants needing early PDA surgery and postoperative intensive care. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Significant impact of R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score on changes in postoperative renal function early after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideaki; Furukawa, Junya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Muramaki, Mototsugu; Tanaka, Kazushi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the significance of the R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RNS)--developed to quantitatively evaluate the complexity of renal tumors in a reproducible manner--in perioperative and renal functional outcomes following robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). This study assessed 48 consecutive patients with renal tumors who underwent RAPN. Preoperative RNS for each patient was calculated, and its impact on several parameters associated with perioperative outcomes, including postoperative renal function, was investigated with Spearman's rank correlation test. Mean RNS in the 48 patients was 6.8; of these 48 patients, 21 (43.7%), 24 (50.0%), and three (6.3%) were classified into low-, moderate-, and high-complexity groups, respectively. The RNS was significantly correlated with resected tumor weight and postoperative changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at both 1 and 4 weeks--but not age, body mass index (BMI), preoperative eGFR, operative time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss, postoperative complications, or eGFR-- after RAPN. No component of the RNS (R: radius; E: exophytic/endophytic properties; N: nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus; A: anterior/posterior; L: location relative to polar lines) alone had a significant impact on postoperative changes in eGFR at 1 and 4 weeks, whereas resected tumor weight was significantly associated with the R and E subcategories. Measurement of total RNS is useful for predicting renal functional outcomes early after RAPN.

  17. Effects of Single Low Dose of Dexamethasone before Noncardiac and Nonneurologic Surgery and General Anesthesia on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction—A Phase III Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Valeria Fontenelle Angelim; Pietrobon, Ricardo S.; Schmidt, Andre P.; Oses, Jean P.; Portela, Luis V.; Souza, Diogo O.; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; da Luz, Vinicius Fernando; Trintoni, Leticia Maria de Araujo de Souza; Nielsen, Karen C.; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a multifactorial adverse event most frequently in elderly patients. This study evaluated the effect of dexamethasone on POCD incidence after noncardiac and nonneurologic surgery. METHODS: One hundred and forty patients (ASA I-II; age 60–87 years) took part in a prospective phase III, double blind, randomized study involving the administration or not of 8 mg of IV dexamethasone before general anesthesia under bispectral index (BIS) between 35–45 or 46–55. Neuropsychological tests were applied preoperatively and on the 3rd, 7th, 21st, 90th and 180th days after surgery and compared with normative data. S100β was evaluated before and 12 hours after induction of anesthesia. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) method was applied, followed by the posthoc Bonferroni test considering P<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: On the 3rd postoperative day, POCD was diagnosed in 25.2% and 15.3% of patients receiving dexamethasone, BIS 35–45, and BIS 46–55 groups, respectively. Meanwhile, POCD was present in 68.2% and 27.2% of patients without dexamethasone, BIS 35–45 and BIS 46–55 groups (p<0.0001). Neuropsychological tests showed that dexamethasone associated to BIS 46–55 decreased the incidence of POCD, especially memory and executive function. The administration of dexamethasone might have prevented the postoperative increase in S100β serum levels. CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone can reduce the incidence of POCD in elderly patients undergoing surgery, especially when associated with BIS 46–55. The effect of dexamethasone on S100β might be related with some degree of neuroprotection. Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01332812 PMID:27152422

  18. Dysfunction of Inflammation-Resolving Pathways Is Associated with Exaggerated Postoperative Cognitive Decline in a Rat Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiao; Feng, Xiaomei; Terrando, Niccolo; Yan, Yan; Chawla, Ajay; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Matthay, Michael A; Maze, Mervyn

    2012-01-01

    The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway (CAP), which terminates in the spleen, attenuates postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) in rodents. Surgical patients with metabolic syndrome exhibit exaggerated and persistent PCD that is reproduced in postoperative rats selectively bred for easy fatigability and that contain all features of metabolic syndrome (low-capacity runners [LCRs]). We compared the CAP and lipoxin A4 (LXA4), another inflammation-resolving pathway in LCR, with its counterpart high-capacity runner (HCR) rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized LCR and HCR rats either underwent aseptic trauma involving tibial fracture (surgery) or not (sham). At postoperative d 3 (POD3), compared with HCR, LCR rats exhibited significantly exaggerated PCD (trace fear conditioning freezing time 43% versus 57%). Separate cohorts were killed at POD3 to collect plasma for LXA4 and to isolate splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) to analyze CAP signaling, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages (M2 Mφ). Under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α produced by splenic MNCs was 117% higher in LCR sham and 52% higher in LCR surgery compared with HCR sham and surgery rats; LPS-stimulated TNF-α production could not be inhibited by an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, whereas inhibition by the β2 adrenergic agonist, salmeterol, was significantly less (−35%) than that obtained in HCR rats. Compared to HCR, sham and surgery LCR rats had reduced β2 adrenergic receptor–expressing T lymphocytes (59%, 44%), Tregs (47%, 54%) and M2 Mφ (45%, 39%); surgical LCR rats’ hippocampal M2 Mφ was 66% reduced, and plasma LXA4 was decreased by 120%. Rats with the metabolic syndrome have ineffective inflammation-resolving mechanisms that represent plausible reasons for the exaggerated and persistent PCD. PMID:23296426

  19. White matter maturation profiles through early childhood predict general cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elison, Jed T; Walker, Lindsay; Doernberg, Ellen; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Dean, Doug C; Jumbe, N L

    2016-03-01

    Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid brain development, during which brain structure and function mature alongside evolving cognitive ability. An important neurodevelopmental process during this postnatal period is the maturation of the myelinated white matter, which facilitates rapid communication across neural systems and networks. Though prior brain imaging studies in children (4 years of age and above), adolescents, and adults have consistently linked white matter development with cognitive maturation and intelligence, few studies have examined how these processes are related throughout early development (birth to 4 years of age). Here, we show that the profile of white matter myelination across the first 5 years of life is strongly and specifically related to cognitive ability. Using a longitudinal design, coupled with advanced magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that children with above-average ability show differential trajectories of myelin development compared to average and below average ability children, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gestation, and birth weight. Specifically, higher ability children exhibit slower but more prolonged early development, resulting in overall increased myelin measures by ~3 years of age. These results provide new insight into the early neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive ability, and suggest an early period of prolonged maturation with associated protracted white matter plasticity may result in strengthened neural networks that can better support later development. Further, these results reinforce the necessity of a longitudinal perspective in investigating typical or suspected atypical cognitive maturation.

  20. Threat perception in mild cognitive impairment and early dementia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; Thompson, Claire; Ruffman, Ted; Leslie, Felicity; Withall, Adrienne; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2009-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia affect many aspects of emotion processing. Even though the ability to detect threat is a particularly important aspect of emotion processing, no study to date has assessed threat perception in either of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to test whether individuals with MCI (n = 38) and mild dementia (n = 34) have difficulty differentiating between faces and situations normatively judged to be either high or low in threat relative to age-matched controls (n = 34). To achieve this aim, all participants completed 2 danger rating tasks that involved viewing and rating high- and low-danger images. It was also assessed whether threat perception was related to cognitive functioning and emotion recognition. The results indicated that all 3 groups were accurately, and comparably, able to differentiate high from low-danger faces. However, the dementia group had difficulties differentiating high from low-danger situations, which reflected a bias to overattribute the level of threat posed by normatively judged nonthreatening situations. This difficulty was related to more general cognitive decline.

  1. Resting Heart Rate Predicts Depression and Cognition Early after Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Arnaud; Sibon, Igor; Poli, Mathilde; Audiffren, Michel; Allard, Michèle; Pfeuty, Micha

    2017-10-01

    Early detection of poststroke depression (PSD) and cognitive impairment (PSCI) remains challenging. It is well documented that the function of autonomic nervous system is associated with depression and cognition. However, their relationship has never been investigated in the early poststroke phase. This pilot study aimed at determining whether resting heart rate (HR) parameters measured in early poststroke phase (1) are associated with early-phase measures of depression and cognition and (2) could be used as new tools for early objective prediction of PSD or PSCI, which could be applicable to patients unable to answer usual questionnaires. Fifty-four patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, without cardiac arrhythmia, were assessed for resting HR and heart rate variability (HRV) within the first week after stroke and for depression and cognition during the first week and at 3 months after stroke. Multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and stroke severity revealed that higher HR, lower HRV, and higher sympathovagal balance (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of HRV) were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms within the first week after stroke. Furthermore, higher sympathovagal balance in early phase predicted higher severity of depressive symptoms at the 3-month follow-up, whereas higher HR and lower HRV in early phase predicted lower global cognitive functioning at the 3-month follow-up. Resting HR measurements obtained in early poststroke phase could serve as an objective tool, applicable to patients unable to complete questionnaires, to help in the early prediction of PSD and PSCI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of cognitive impairment in an early stage Parkinson's disease cohort.

    PubMed

    Hu, Michele T M; Szewczyk-Królikowski, Konrad; Tomlinson, Paul; Nithi, Kannan; Rolinski, Michal; Murray, Clara; Talbot, Kevin; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Mackay, Clare E; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-03-01

    The impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) dementia is substantial and has major functional and socioeconomic consequences. Early prediction of future cognitive impairment would help target future interventions. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and fluency tests were administered to 486 patients with PD within 3.5 years of diagnosis, and the results were compared with those from 141 controls correcting for age, sex, and educational years. Eighteen-month longitudinal assessments were performed in 155 patients with PD. The proportion of patients classified with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia varied considerably, depending on the MoCA and MMSE thresholds used. With the MoCA total score at screening threshold, 47.7%, 40.5%, and 11.7% of patients with PD were classified with normal cognition, MCI, and dementia, respectively; by comparison, 78.7% and 21.3% of controls had normal cognition and MCI, respectively. Cognitive impairment was predicted by lower education, increased age, male sex, and quantitative motor and non-motor (smell, depression, and anxiety) measures. Longitudinal data from 155 patients with PD over 18 months showed significant reductions in MoCA scores, but not in MMSE scores, with 21.3% of patients moving from normal cognition to MCI and 4.5% moving from MCI to dementia, although 13.5% moved from MCI to normal; however, none of the patients with dementia changed their classification. The MoCA may be more sensitive than the MMSE in detecting early baseline and longitudinal cognitive impairment in PD, because it identified 25.8% of those who experienced significant cognitive decline over 18 months. Cognitive decline was associated with worse motor and non-motor features, suggesting that this reflects a faster progressive phenotype. © 2014 The Authors. International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with Group TP at 420.5 ± 188.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 531.1 ± 231.4 mL on postoperative day 3 and Group CT at 520.4 ± 228.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 633.7 ± 237.3 mL on postoperative day 3. Intravenous low-dose epinephrine exhibited a net anti-inflammatory activity in total knee arthroplasty and did not induce an obvious hypercoagulable status. Transfusion values were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in Group IV, but no significant

  4. Cognitive performance in childhood and early adult illness: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L.; Fitzmaurice, G.; Kindlon, D.; Buka, S.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To evaluate whether cognitive performance in childhood is an early determinant of adult illness. Design: Prospective cohort study covering over 30 years. Setting: Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Participants: 633 people ages 30–39 followed up since birth as part of the Providence cohort of the national collaborative perinatal project. Main results: Higher cognitive performance at age 7 was related to a significantly reduced risk of serious illness in adulthood, OR = 0.65 (95%CI: 0.47 to 0.89) for a one standard deviation (15 point) increase in IQ score. This association was independent of both parental socioeconomic status and participant's attained level of education. Conclusions: General cognitive performance may be an important and informative early determinant of adult health. Further evaluation of this association and mechanisms linking cognitive performance and health may provide new and innovative strategies to improve disease management and reduce morbidity. PMID:15252070

  5. The Dissociation between Polarity, Semantic Orientation, and Emotional Tone as an Early Indicator of Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Arias Tapia, Susana A.; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael; Gómez, Héctor F.; Hernández del Salto, Víctor; Sánchez Guerrero, Javier; Mocha-Bonilla, J. A.; Barbosa Corbacho, José; Khan, Azizudin; Chicaiza Redin, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify early cognitive impairment through the efficient use of therapies that can improve the quality of daily life and prevent disease progress. We propose a methodology based on the hypothesis that the dissociation between oral semantic expression and the physical expressions, facial gestures, or emotions transmitted in a person's tone of voice is a possible indicator of cognitive impairment. Experiments were carried out with phrases, analyzing the semantics of the message, and the tone of the voice of patients through unstructured interviews in healthy people and patients at an early Alzheimer's stage. The results show that the dissociation in cognitive impairment was an effective indicator, arising from patterns of inconsistency between the analyzed elements. Although the results of our study are encouraging, we believe that further studies are necessary to confirm that this dissociation is a probable indicator of cognitive impairment. PMID:27683555

  6. The Dissociation between Polarity, Semantic Orientation, and Emotional Tone as an Early Indicator of Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Arias Tapia, Susana A; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael; Gómez, Héctor F; Hernández Del Salto, Víctor; Sánchez Guerrero, Javier; Mocha-Bonilla, J A; Barbosa Corbacho, José; Khan, Azizudin; Chicaiza Redin, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify early cognitive impairment through the efficient use of therapies that can improve the quality of daily life and prevent disease progress. We propose a methodology based on the hypothesis that the dissociation between oral semantic expression and the physical expressions, facial gestures, or emotions transmitted in a person's tone of voice is a possible indicator of cognitive impairment. Experiments were carried out with phrases, analyzing the semantics of the message, and the tone of the voice of patients through unstructured interviews in healthy people and patients at an early Alzheimer's stage. The results show that the dissociation in cognitive impairment was an effective indicator, arising from patterns of inconsistency between the analyzed elements. Although the results of our study are encouraging, we believe that further studies are necessary to confirm that this dissociation is a probable indicator of cognitive impairment.

  7. Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE): a brief cognitive assessment Instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia.

    PubMed

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu-Ing; Murden, Robert A; Lamb, James; Beversdorf, David Q; Kataki, Maria; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Bornstein, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    To develop a self-administered cognitive assessment instrument to facilitate the screening of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia and determine its association with gold standard clinical assessments including neuropsychologic evaluation. Adults aged above 59 years with sufficient vision and English literacy were recruited from geriatric and memory disorder clinics, educational talks, independent living facilities, senior centers, and memory screens. After Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) screening, subjects were randomly selected to complete a clinical evaluation, neurologic examination, neuropsychologic battery, functional assessment, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Subjects were identified as dementia, MCI, or normal based on standard clinical criteria and neuropsychologic testing. Two hundred fifty-four participants took the SAGE screen and 63 subjects completed the extensive evaluation (21 normal, 21 MCI, and 21 dementia subjects). Spearman rank correlation between SAGE and neuropsychologic battery was 0.84 (0.76 for MMSE). SAGE receiver operating characteristics on the basis of clinical diagnosis showed 95% specificity (90% for MMSE) and 79% sensitivity (71% for MMSE) in detecting those with cognitive impairment from normal subjects. This study suggests that SAGE is a reliable instrument for detecting cognitive impairment and compares favorably with the MMSE. The self-administered feature may promote cognitive testing by busy clinicians prompting earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Use of a unipedal standing test to assess the ambulation reacquisition time during the early postoperative stage after hip fracture in elderly Japanese: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koichi; Sugitani, Shigeki; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Noguchi, Takashi; Aoto, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the ambulation reacquisition time after hip fracture in elderly people using the unipedal standing test during the early postoperative stage. Patients with an intertrochanteric fracture treated with internal fixation (n = 35) and patients with a femoral neck fracture treated with hemiarthroplasty (n = 22) were included. A unipedal standing test using the nonoperated leg was performed on days 3 and 7 after the operation. Among the patients with an intertrochanteric fracture, those with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on postoperative day (POD) 3 attained gait with parallel guide bars (BG) and walker-assisted gait (WG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative result on the unipedal standing test. Patients with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and cane-assisted gait (CG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Among patients with a femoral neck fracture, those with a positive unipedal standing test result on POD 3 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Those with a positive test result on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. The unipedal standing test given during the early postoperative stage is a good test for predicting the ambulation reacquisition time. Moreover, it gives information that can help determine the need for subacute rehabilitation and about discharge planning and health service provision.

  9. The effect of caudal vs intravenous morphine on early extubation and postoperative analgesic requirements for stage 2 and 3 single-ventricle palliation: a double blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stuth, Eckehard A E; Berens, Richard J; Staudt, Susan R; Robertson, Frederick A; Scott, John P; Stucke, Astrid G; Hoffman, George M; Troshynski, Todd J; Tweddell, James S T; Zuperku, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    High-dose single-shot caudal morphine has been postulated to facilitate early extubation and to lower initial analgesic requirements after staged single-ventricle (SV) palliation. With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed parental consent, 64 SV children aged 75-1667 days were randomized to pre-incisional caudal morphine-bupivacaine (100 μg·kg(-1) morphine (concentration 0.1%), mixed with 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine, total 1 ml·kg(-1)) and postcardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) intravenous (IV) droperidol (75 μg·kg(-1)) ('active caudal group') or pre-incisional caudal saline (1 ml·kg(-1)) and post-CPB IV morphine (150 μg·kg(-1)) with droperidol (75 μg·kg(-1)) ('active IV group'). Assignment remained concealed from families and the care teams throughout the trial. Early extubation failure rates (primary or reintubation within 24 h), time to first postoperative rescue morphine analgesia, and 12-h postoperative morphine requirements were assessed for extubated patients. Thirty-one (12 stage 2) SV patients received caudal morphine and 32 (15 stage 2) received IV morphine. Extubation failure rates were 6/31 (19%) for caudal and 5/32 (16%) for IV morphine. For successfully extubated patients (n = 54), active caudal treatment significantly delayed the need for postoperative rescue morphine in stage 3 patients (P = 0.02) but not in stage 2 patients (P = 0.189) (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with LogRank test). The reduction in 12-h postoperative morphine requirements with active caudal treatment did not reach significance (P = 0.085) but morphine requirements were significantly higher for stage 2 compared with stage 3 patients (P < 0.001) (two-way anova in n = 50 extubated patients). High-dose caudal morphine with bupivacaine delayed the need for rescue morphine analgesia in stage 3 patients. All stage 2 patients required early rescue morphine and had significantly higher postoperative 12-h morphine requirements than stage 3

  10. Cognitive function of children with cystic fibrosis: deleterious effect of early malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Koscik, Rebecca L; Farrell, Philip M; Kosorok, Michael R; Zaremba, Kathleen M; Laxova, Anita; Lai, Hui-Chuan; Douglas, Jeff A; Rock, Michael J; Splaingard, Mark L

    2004-06-01

    Patients who have cystic fibrosis (CF) and experience delayed diagnosis by traditional methods have greater nutritional insult compared with peers diagnosed via neonatal screening. The objective of this study was to evaluate cognitive function in children with CF and the influence of both early diagnosis through neonatal screening and the potential effect of early malnutrition. Cognitive assessment data were obtained for 89 CF patients (aged 7.3-17 years) during routine clinic visits. Patients had been enrolled in either the screened (N = 42) or traditional diagnosis (control) group (N = 47) of the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project. The Test of Cognitive Skills, Second Edition was administered to generate the Cognitive Skills Index (CSI) and cognitive factor scores (Verbal, Nonverbal, and Memory). Cognitive scores in the overall study population were similar to normative data (CSI mean [standard deviation]: 102.5 [16.6]; 95% confidence interval: 99.1-105.9). The mean (standard deviation) CSI scores for the screened and control groups were 104.4 (14.4) and 99.8 (18.5), respectively. Significantly lower cognitive scores correlated with indicators of malnutrition and unfavorable family factors such as single parents, lower socioeconomic status, and less parental education. Our analyses revealed lower cognitive scores in patients with low plasma alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) levels at diagnosis. In addition, patients in the control group who also had vitamin E deficiency at diagnosis (alpha-T < 300 microg/dl) showed significantly lower CSI scores in comparison with alpha-T-sufficient control subjects and both deficient and sufficient alpha-T subsets of screened patients. Results suggest that prevention of prolonged malnutrition by early diagnosis and nutritional therapy, particularly minimizing the duration of vitamin E deficiency, is associated with better cognitive functioning in children with CF.

  11. Brain metabolite alterations and cognitive dysfunction in early Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Unschuld, Paul G.; Edden, Richard A. E.; Carass, Aaron; Liu, Xinyang; Shanahan, Megan; Wang, Xin; Oishi, Kenichi; Brandt, Jason; Bassett, Susan S.; Redgrave, Graham W.; Margolis, Russell L.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Barker, Peter B.; Ross, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early cognitive decline, which progresses at later stages to dementia and severe movement disorder. HD is caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet-repeat expansion mutation in the Huntingtin gene, allowing early diagnosis by genetic testing. This study aims to identify the relationship of N-acetylaspartate and other brain metabolites to cognitive function in HD-mutation carriers by using high field strength magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy at 7-Tesla. Methods Twelve individuals with the HD-mutation in premanifest or early stage of disease versus twelve healthy controls underwent 1H magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy (7.2ml voxel in the posterior cingulate cortex) at 7-Tesla, and also T1-weighted structural magnetic-resonance-imaging. All participants received standardized tests of cognitive functioning including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and standardized quantified neurological examination within an hour before scanning. Results Individuals with the HD mutation had significantly lower posterior cingulate cortex N-acetylaspartate (−9.6%, p=0.02) and glutamate levels (−10.1%, p=0.02) than controls. By contrast, in this small group, measures of brain morphology including striatal and ventricle volumes did not differ significantly. Linear regression with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores revealed significant correlations with N-acetylaspartate (r2=0.50, p=0.01) and glutamate (r2=0.64, p=0.002) in HD subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest a relationship between reduced N-acetylaspartate and glutamate levels in the posterior cingulate cortex with cognitive decline in early stages of HD. N-acetylaspartate and glutamate magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy signals of the posterior cingulate cortex region may serve as potential biomarkers of disease progression or treatment outcome in HD and other neurodegenerative disorders with early cognitive dysfunction, when structural

  12. Early life exposure to malaria and cognition in adulthood: evidence from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the impact of early life malaria exposure on cognition in sample of Mexican adults, using the nationwide introduction of malaria eradication efforts to identify causal impacts. The core findings are that birth year exposure to malaria eradication was associated with increases in Raven Progressive Matrices test scores and consumption expenditures, but not schooling. Additionally, cohorts born after eradication both entered and exited school earlier than their pre-eradication counterparts. These effects were only seen for men and explanations for this are assessed. Collectively, these findings suggest that improvements in infant health help explain secular increases in cognitive test scores, that better cognition may link early life health to adulthood earnings, and that human capital investments through childhood and young adulthood respond sensitively to market returns to early life endowment shocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adapting Cognitive Interviewing for Early Adolescent Hispanic Girls and Sensitive Topics

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Torres-Thomas, Sylvia; Williams, Ellita T.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive interviewing is a research technique commonly used in survey research to improve measurement validity. However, this technique is useful to researchers planning to use self-report measures in intervention research because invalidity of such measures jeopardizes detection of intervention effects. Little research currently exists regarding the use of cognitive interviewing techniques with adolescent populations, particularly those who are Hispanic. This article describes common challenges to conducting cognitive interviewing with early adolescent girls and how these challenges are impacted by Hispanic culture and sensitive topics. A focus group approach is recommended over the traditional one-on-one cognitive interview format, and experiences from actual focus groups, conducted in preparation for an intervention study are used to illustrate strategies for accomplishing the goals of cognitive interviewing. Creative and careful planning, attention to developmental considerations, and incorporation of cultural values are essential to the success of this approach. PMID:25239207

  14. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period following microsurgical abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2014-11-01

    The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.

  15. Early life linguistic ability, late life cognitive function, and neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kathryn P; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Markesbery, William R

    2005-03-01

    The relationships between early life variables, cognitive function, and neuropathology were examined in participants in the Nun Study who were between the ages of 75 and 95. Our early life variable was idea density, which is a measure of linguistic ability, derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Six discrete categories of cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments, were evaluated, using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery of cognitive tests. Neuropathologic data included Braak staging, neurofibrillary tangle and senile plaque counts, brain weight, degree of cerebral atrophy, severity of atherosclerosis, and the presence of brain infarcts. Early-life idea density was significantly related to the categories of late-life cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments: low idea density was associated with greater impairment. Low idea density also was significantly associated with lower brain weight, higher degree of cerebral atrophy, more severe neurofibrillary pathology, and the likelihood of meeting neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Initial cognitive decline is associated with cortical thinning in early Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Svenningsson, Per; Weintraub, Daniel; Brønnick, Kolbjørn; Lebedev, Alexander; Westman, Eric; Aarsland, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to assess cortical thickness in a large multicenter cohort of drug-naive patients with early Parkinson disease (PD), with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and explore the cognitive correlates of regional cortical thinning. Methods: One hundred twenty-three newly diagnosed patients with PD and 56 healthy controls with 3-tesla structural MRI scans and complete neuropsychological assessment from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative were included. Modified Movement Disorders Society Task Force level II criteria were applied to diagnose MCI in PD. FreeSurfer image processing and analysis software was used to measure cortical thickness across groups and the association with cognitive domains and tests. Results: In patients with MCI, atrophy was found in temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital areas compared with controls. Specific regional thinning in the right inferior temporal cortex was also found in cognitively normal patients. Memory, executive, and visuospatial performance was associated with temporoparietal and superior frontal thinning, suggesting a relationship between cognitive impairment and both anterior and posterior cortical atrophy in the whole patient sample. Conclusions: These findings confirm that MCI is associated with widespread cortical atrophy. In addition, they suggest that regional cortical thinning is already present at the time of diagnosis in patients with early, untreated PD who do not meet the criteria for MCI. Together, the results indicate that cortical thinning can serve as a marker for initial cognitive decline in early PD. PMID:24808018

  17. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, N.E.; Girard, T.D.; Ely, E.W.; Pandharipande, P.P.; Morandi, A.; Hughes, C.G.; Graves, A.J.; Shintani, A.K.; Murphy, E.; Work, B.; Pun, B.T.; Boehm, L.; Gill, T.M.; Dittus, R.S.; Jackson, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. METHODS We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3-months, we also assessed cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%). RESULTS Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% [92–100%] of study days beginning 1.0 [1.0–1.0] day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% [10–26%], 67% [46–87%] and 75% [59–88%] of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed. PMID:24257969

  18. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial.

    PubMed

    Brummel, N E; Girard, T D; Ely, E W; Pandharipande, P P; Morandi, A; Hughes, C G; Graves, A J; Shintani, A; Murphy, E; Work, B; Pun, B T; Boehm, L; Gill, T M; Dittus, R S; Jackson, J C

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem-solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3 months, we also assessed cognitive, functional, and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or frequency (%). Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% (92-100%) of study days beginning 1.0 (1.0-1.0) day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients, and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% (10-26%), 67% (46-87%), and 75% (59-88%) of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional, and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment, and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Decline in Early Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Amber S.; Loskutova, Natalia; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Johnson, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors (i.e., abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose and insulin dysregulation) that is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. Recent studies addressing the association of MetS with cognitive performance and risk for dementia report mixed results. An important step in clarifying these conflicting results is determining whether cognition is influenced by the effects of individual MetS components versus the additive effects of multiple components. We assessed the effect of MetS on cognitive performance and decline over two years in 75 cases of early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 73 healthy older adult controls in the Brain Aging Project. Using factor analytic techniques, we compared the effect of a combined MetS factor to the effect of individual MetS components on change in attention, verbal memory, and mental status. In healthy controls, a combined MetS factor did not significantly predict cognitive performance, though higher insulin predicted poorer cognitive performance outcomes. In the AD group, higher scores on a combined MetS factor predicted better cognitive outcomes. Our findings suggest that MetS does not have the same association with cognitive decline in healthy older adults and those with early AD. We suggest that individual MetS components should not be evaluated in isolation and that careful methodological approaches are needed to understand the timing and non-linear relationships among these components over time. PMID:23388170

  20. Socioeconomic Attainment of Extremely Low Birth Weight Survivors: The Role of Early Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Kathleen G; Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A; Saigal, Saroj; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-03-01

    To determine: (1) if childhood cognitive and academic abilities mediate the association between being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and socioeconomic attainment at age 29 to 36 years; (2) which cognitive abilities (IQ, verbal abilities, fluid intelligence, mathematical abilities, or academic achievement) most strongly mediate this association; and (3) if the mediating role of cognition is different in ELBW survivors with significant neurosensory impairment (NSI). A prospective, longitudinal cohort of 100 Canadian ELBW survivors born between 1977 and 1982 and 89 normal birth weight comparison participants were used to examine the mediating role of childhood cognition by using 5 cognitive mediators assessed at age 8 years (overall IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, quantitative ability, and academic achievement) on socioeconomic attainment at adulthood. Socioeconomic attainment was defined as personal annual earnings and full-time employment assessed via self-report at age 29 to 36 years. Mediation models revealed that childhood cognition mediated the association between ELBW status and income attainment, with mathematical abilities and overall IQ each accounting for 26% of the direct effect. Mediated effects were not statistically significant in full-time employment models. For both outcomes, the mediating effect of cognition was stronger for ELBW survivors with NSI. Childhood cognitive abilities partially mediate associations between ELBW status and adult income attainment. Early life cognition is a critical predictor of socioeconomic attainment in ELBW survivors, particularly in those born with NSI. Interventions aimed at enhancing early cognition in ELBW survivors may help optimize their later socioeconomic attainment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Postoperative inspiratory muscle training in addition to breathing exercises and early mobilization improves oxygenation in high-risk patients after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos Savio R; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to investigate whether 2 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could preserve respiratory muscle strength in high-risk patients referred for pulmonary resection on the suspicion of or confirmed lung cancer. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of the intervention on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. The study was a single-centre, parallel-group, randomized trial with assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention group (IG, n = 34) underwent 2 weeks of postoperative IMT twice daily with 2 × 30 breaths on a target intensity of 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure, in addition to standard postoperative physiotherapy. Standard physiotherapy in the control group (CG, n = 34) consisted of breathing exercises, coughing techniques and early mobilization. We measured respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure, MIP/MEP), functional performance (6-min walk test), spirometry and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), assessed the day before surgery and again 3-5 days and 2 weeks postoperatively. Postoperative pulmonary complications were evaluated 2 weeks after surgery. The mean age was 70 ± 8 years and 57.5% were males. Thoracotomy was performed in 48.5% (n = 33) of cases. No effect of the intervention was found regarding MIP, MEP, lung volumes or functional performance at any time point. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 13% (n = 9), with no significant difference between groups [IG 6% (n = 2), CG 21% (n = 7), P = 0.14]. An improved SpO2 was found in the IG on the third and fourth postoperative days (Day 3: IG 93.8 ± 3.4 vs CG 91.9 ± 4.1%, P = 0.058; Day 4: IG 93.5 ± 3.5 vs CG 91 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02). We found no association between surgical procedure (thoracotomy versus thoracoscopy) and respiratory muscle strength, which was recovered in both groups 2 weeks after surgery. Two weeks of additional postoperative IMT, compared with standard physiotherapy alone, did not preserve

  2. The efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in the early postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seangleulur, Alisa; Vanasbodeekul, Pramook; Prapaitrakool, Sunisa; Worathongchai, Sukhumakorn; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; McEvoy, Mark; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin

    2016-11-01

    Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) has emerged as an alternative treatment for postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its efficacy remains inconclusive with inconsistent results from previous studies and meta-analyses. There is no agreement on which local anaesthetic agent and infiltration technique is most effective and well tolerated. The objective was to compare LIA after primary TKA with placebo or no infiltration in terms of early postoperative pain relief, mobilisation, length of hospital stay (LOS) and complications when used as a primary treatment or as an adjunct to regional anaesthesia. The role of injection sites, postoperative injection or infusion and multimodal drug injection with ketorolac were also explored. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was performed using PubMed and SCOPUS up to September 2015. RCTs comparing LIA with placebo or no infiltration after primary TKA in terms of pain score and opioid consumption at 24 and 48 h, mobilisation, LOS and complications were included. In total 38 RCTs were included. LIA groups had lower pain scores, opioid consumption and postoperative nausea and vomiting, higher range of motion at 24 h and shorter LOS than no injection or placebo. After subgroup analysis, intraoperative peri-articular but not intra-articular injection had lower pain score at 24 h than no injection or placebo with the pooled mean difference of pain score at rest of -0.89 [95% CI (-1.40 to -0.38); I = 92.0%]. Continuing with postoperative injection or infusion reduced 24-h pain score with the pooled mean difference at rest of -1.50 [95% CI (-1.92 to -1.08); I = 60.5%]. There was no additional benefit in terms of pain relief during activity, opioid consumption, range of movement or LOS when LIA was used as an adjunct to regional anaesthesia. Four out of 735 patients receiving LIA reported deep knee infection, three of whom had had postoperative

  3. Early Supplementary Feeding and Cognition: Effects over Two Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared the performance of two groups of subjects on psychoeducational tests taken during adolescence and early adulthood. Adolescents who had received a protein supplement when they were infants scored higher on tests of knowledge, numeracy, reading, and vocabulary and showed faster reaction times in information-processing tasks than adolescents…

  4. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  5. Short-Term Changes in Postoperative Cognitive Function in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years Undergoing General Anesthesia: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Aun, Cindy S T; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Anna; Lau, Angel S C; Chung, Raymond C K; Yeung, Chung Kwong; Lai, Kelly Y C; Gin, Tony

    2016-04-01

    Due to the neurotoxicity effects of general anesthesia (GA) and sedatives found in animal studies, there is a general recommendation to avoid nonurgent surgical procedures requiring anesthesia in children younger than 3 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) on the first day (Day 1) and at 6 weeks after elective noncardiac surgery in school-age children.This was a prospective cohort study of 118 children undergoing GA and 126 age-matched controls of school children aged 5 to 12 years. All children were given a panel of 4 neuropsychological assessments (Hong Kong List Learning for verbal memory, Visual Matching for processing speed, Visual Memory, and General Comprehension Skill from the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD on Day 1 and at 6 weeks after surgery. POCD was defined as when at least 2 of the 4 cognitive function tests showed individual Z-scores ≤-1.96 or a combined Z-score ≤-1.96.Using the combined Z-score definition, the incidence of POCD in the GA group on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-10.3) and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.1-8.0), respectively. No POCD was found using the other definition. The incidences of decline and improvement in neuropsychological tests were similar between groups over time except for a higher risk in visual matching impairment in the anesthesia group (11.9%) versus control group (1.6%) on Day 1 (P < 0.01). The adjusted relative risk ratio of postoperative cognitive decline to improvement between groups on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.10-7.05) and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.04-4.84), respectively. The observed risk of POCD is assumed to apply to current drugs and techniques used in GA.In conclusion, the incidence of POCD was low. GA was associated with a transient effect on visual matching. When using the widely accepted Z-score definitions and

  6. Early neurological and cognitive impairments in subclinical cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Penka A; Massaldjieva, Radka I; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar S; Semerdjieva, Maria A; Tsvetkova, Silvia B; Chalakova, Nedka T; Chompalov, Kostadin A

    2016-01-01

    The subclinical cerebrovascular disease (SCVD) is an important public health problem with demonstrated prognostic significance for stroke, future cognitive decline, and progression to dementia. The earliest possible detection of the silent presence of SCVD in adults at age at risk with normal functioning is very important for both clinical doctors and scientists. Seventy-seven adult volunteers, recruited during the years 2005-2007, with mean age 58.7 (standard deviation 5.9) years, were assessed by four subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)-Eclipse cognitive assessment system. We used a questionnaire survey for the presence of cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs) such as arterial hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia, among others, as well as instrumental (Doppler examination) and neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures. Descriptive statistics, comparison (t-test, Chi-square) and univariate methods were used as followed by multifactor logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics analyses. The risk factor questionnaire revealed nonspecific symptoms in 44 (67.7%) of the subjects. In 42 (64.6%) of all 65 subjects, we found at least one of the conventional CVRFs. Abnormal findings from the extra- and trans-cranial Doppler examination were established in 38 (58.5%) of all studied volunteers. Thirty-four subjects had brain MRI (52.3%), and abnormal findings were found in 12 (35.3%) of them. Two of the four subtests of CANTAB tool appeared to be potentially promising predictors of the outcome, as found at the univariate analysis (spatial working memory 1 [SWM1] total errors; intra-extra dimensional set 1 [IED1] total errors [adjusted]; IED2 total trials [adjusted]). We established that the best accuracy of 82.5% was achieved by a multifactor interaction logistic regression model, with the role CVRF and combined CANTAB predictor "IED total ratio (errors/trials) × SWM1 total errors" (P = 0.006). Our

  7. Effects of education on the progression of early- versus late-stage mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sangyun; Han, Seol-Heui; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2013-04-01

    Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education. A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (-1.5 to -1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below -1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated. Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.

  8. Early life exposure to China's 1959-61 famine and midlife cognition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhenmei; Li, Lydia; Liu, Jinyu

    2018-02-01

    Existing studies of the 1944-45 Dutch famine found little evidence of the association between early life malnutrition and midlife cognition. Among 2446 rural participants born between 1958 and 1963 in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, we examined effects of exposure to China's 1959-61 Great Leap Forward famine during prenatal and early postnatal life, on four cognitive measures in 2011 (baseline) and changes in cognition between 2011 and 2013 (first follow-up). We obtained difference-in-differences (DID) estimates of the famine effects by exploiting temporal variation in the timing and duration of famine exposure across six birth cohorts born between 1958 and 1963, together with geographical variation in famine severity at the prefecture level. After adjusting for gender, marital status and provincial fixed effects, we found that the 1961 cohort who experienced full-term prenatal and partial-term postnatal exposures to famine had lower scores on the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS), a test of drawing pentagons, and general cognition at age 50 years compared with the unexposed 1963 cohort. Adjusting for education, the famine effects on drawing pentagons and general cognition were fully attenuated, but the effect on TICS persisted. We also found a robust negative famine effect on the longitudinal change in general cognition during the 2-year follow-up in the 1959 cohort. Severe nutritional deprivation during prenatal and postnatal periods has a lasting impact on cognitive performance in Chinese adults in their early 50s. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  9. Functional and physical abilities in the early continuum of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joon-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Jaebong; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The early cognitive continuum has been emphasized recently. We sought to characterize the functional and physical aspects of the cognitive continuum in subjects with no cognitive impairment (NCI), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), nonamnestic (NA-MCI), and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (A-MCI). Furthermore, we identified the potential diagnostic utility of specific functional tasks. A total of 702 participants, aged ≥65 years and defined as NCI, SCI, NA-MCI, and A-MCI according to the original Petersen criteria, were included. They completed the Korean basic (K-ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scales (K-IADL) and the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Significant differences were observed between the different cognitive status groups in three items and total scores on the K-ADL, six items and total scores on the K-IADL and POMA. Controlling for confounding factors revealed that subjects from the A-MCI group performed poorly at bathing, shopping, handling money, and the sum of assorted functional items. These findings demonstrated the declining feature of functional and physical performance according to the cognitive continuum, with A-MCI being discriminative with respect to specific functional tasks as compared to milder cognitive statuses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    PubMed

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.

  11. [Characteristics of postoperative peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Lock, J F; Eckmann, C; Germer, C-T

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritonitis is still a life-threatening complication after abdominal surgery and approximately 10,000 patients annually develop postoperative peritonitis in Germany. Early recognition and diagnosis before the onset of sepsis has remained a clinical challenge as no single specific screening test is available. The aim of therapy is a rapid and effective control of the source of infection and antimicrobial therapy. After diagnosis of diffuse postoperative peritonitis surgical revision is usually inevitable after intestinal interventions. Peritonitis after liver, biliary or pancreatic surgery is managed as a rule by means of differentiated therapy approaches depending on the severity.

  12. Significant correlation of comprehensive Aristotle score with total cardiac output during the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Holtby, Helen; Cai, Sally; Walsh, Mark; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2008-07-01

    The comprehensive Aristotle score has been proposed as an individualized measure of the complexity of a given surgical procedure and has been reported to significantly correlate with postoperative morbidity and mortality after the Norwood procedure. An important factor leading to postoperative morbidity and mortality is low cardiac output. We studied the correlation between the comprehensive Aristotle score and cardiac output (CO) in infants after the Norwood procedure. Respiratory mass spectrometry was used to continuously measure systemic oxygen consumption (VO(2)) in 22 infants for 72 hours postoperatively. Arterial, superior vena caval and pulmonary venous blood gases were measured at 2 to 4 hour intervals to calculate CO. The comprehensive Aristotle score was collected. Hospital mortality was 4.5%. The comprehensive Aristotle score ranged from 14.5 to 23.5 and negatively correlated with CO (P = 0.027). Among the patient-adjusted factors, myocardial dysfunction (n = 10), mechanical ventilation to treat cardiorespiratory failure (n = 9) and atrioventricular valve regurgitation (n = 4) (P = 0.01) negatively correlated with CO (P = 0.06 to 0.07). Aortic atresia (n = 9) was associated with a lower CO (P = 0.01) for the first 24 hours which linearly increased overtime (P = 0.0001). No correlation was found between CO and other factors (P > 0.3 for all). Comprehensive Aristotle score significantly negatively correlates with CO after the Norwood procedure. A preoperative estimation of the comprehensive Aristotle score, particularly in association with myocardial dysfunction, mechanical ventilation to treat cardiorespiratory failure, atrioventricular valve regurgitation and aortic atresia may help to anticipate a high postoperative morbidity with low cardiac output syndrome.

  13. Sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine reduces early postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young K; Lee, Scott S; Suh, Euy H; Lee, Lyon; Lee, Hee C; Lee, Hyo J; Yeon, Seong C

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine to relieve postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOVH) in dogs. Sixteen sexually intact female dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. The sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine (SIB) group received 4.4 mg/kg of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine diluted to 0.25% with an equivalent volume of saline after pneumoperitoneum. The control group received 1.76 mL/kg of saline in a similar fashion. Both groups received preoperative periportal 5% bupivacaine (1 mL) before incision. Postoperative pain was measured using the short form of the Glasgow composite measures pain scale (CMPS-SF, 0-24). Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured preoperatively and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h postoperatively. The SIB group had significantly lower CMPS-SF compared to the control group 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12h after the operation. Cortisol concentrations were significantly increased from preoperative concentrations in the control group at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4h post operation and at 0.5 and 1h post operation in the SIB group. No significant differences were seen in serum glucose within each group. This report suggests that the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine can be used as part of a multimodal approach for pain management after LOVH in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting early cognitive decline in newly-diagnosed Parkinson's patients: A practical model.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Olivia; Fernandez, Hubert H; Floden, Darlene P

    2018-06-19

    To create a multivariable model to predict early cognitive decline among de novo patients with Parkinson's disease, using brief, inexpensive assessments that are easily incorporated into clinical flow. Data for 351 drug-naïve patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Baseline demographic, disease history, motor, and non-motor features were considered as candidate predictors. Best subsets selection was used to determine the multivariable baseline symptom profile that most accurately predicted individual cognitive decline within three years. Eleven per cent of the sample experienced cognitive decline. The final logistic regression model predicting decline included five baseline variables: verbal memory retention, right-sided bradykinesia, years of education, subjective report of cognitive impairment, and REM behavior disorder. Model discrimination was good (optimism-adjusted concordance index = .749). The associated nomogram provides a tool to determine individual patient risk of meaningful cognitive change in the early stages of the disease. Through the consideration of easily-implemented or routinely-gathered assessments, we have identified a multidimensional baseline profile and created a convenient, inexpensive tool to predict cognitive decline in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease. The use of this tool would generate prediction at the individual level, allowing clinicians to tailor medical management for each patient and identify at-risk patients for clinical trials aimed at disease modifying therapies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Motor, cognitive, and functional declines contribute to a single progressive factor in early HD.

    PubMed

    Schobel, Scott A; Palermo, Giuseppe; Auinger, Peggy; Long, Jeffrey D; Ma, Shiyang; Khwaja, Omar S; Trundell, Dylan; Cudkowicz, Merit; Hersch, Steven; Sampaio, Cristina; Dorsey, E Ray; Leavitt, Blair R; Kieburtz, Karl D; Sevigny, Jeffrey J; Langbehn, Douglas R; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2017-12-12

    To identify an improved measure of clinical progression in early Huntington disease (HD) using data from prospective observational cohort studies and placebo group data from randomized double-blind clinical trials. We studied Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and non-UHDRS clinical measures and brain measures of progressive atrophy in 1,668 individuals with early HD followed up prospectively for up to 30 to 36 months of longitudinal clinical follow-up. The results demonstrated that a composite measure of motor, cognitive, and global functional decline best characterized clinical progression and was most strongly associated with brain measures of progressive corticostriatal atrophy. Use of a composite motor, cognitive, and global functional clinical outcome measure in HD provides an improved measure of clinical progression more related to measures of progressive brain atrophy and provides an opportunity for enhanced clinical trial efficiency relative to currently used individual motor, cognitive, and functional outcome measures. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Varenicline improves motor and cognitive symptoms in early Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Ailsa L; Dysart, Jo; Tingle, Malcolm D; Russell, Bruce R; Kydd, Rob R; Finucane, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of varenicline, a smoking cessation aid that acts as a nicotinic agonist, on cognitive function in patients with early clinical Huntington’s disease (HD) who were current smokers. Three gene-positive patients transitioning to symptomatic HD were evaluated using the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale part I and III (motor and behavioral subscales) at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Cognitive function was assessed using a touch screen computer-based neurocognitive test battery (IntegNeuro®). Varenicline (1 mg twice daily) significantly improved performance in executive function and emotional recognition tasks. Our case reports describe no clinically significant adverse effects and suggest that varenicline improves aspects of cognitive function in patients with early HD. A randomized controlled study is now underway. PMID:27695336

  17. Cognitive Preconditions of Early Reading and Spelling: A Latent-Variable Approach with Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preßler, Anna-Lena; Könen, Tanja; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Krajewski, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to empirically disentangle the interdependencies of the impact of nonverbal intelligence, working memory capacities, and phonological processing skills on early reading decoding and spelling within a latent variable approach. In a sample of 127 children, these cognitive preconditions were assessed before the onset…

  18. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  19. Kindergarten Risk Factors, Cognitive Factors, and Teacher Judgments as Predictors of Early Reading in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the predictive value of risk factors, cognitive factors, and teachers' judgments in a sample of 462 kindergartners for their early reading skills and reading failure at the beginning of Grade 1. With respect to risk factors, enrollment in speech-language therapy, history of dyslexia or speech-language problems in the family,…

  20. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  1. Early Experience and the Development of Cognitive Competence: Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvund, Stein Erik

    1982-01-01

    Argues that in analyzing effects of early experience on development of cognitive competence, theoretical analyses as well as empirical investigations should be based on a transactional model of development. Shows optimal stimulation hypothesis, particularly the enhancement prediction, seems to represent a transactional approach to the study of…

  2. Early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease based on salivary lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Carro, Eva; Bartolomé, Fernando; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Villarejo-Galende, Alberto; Molina, José Antonio; Ortiz, Pablo; Calero, Miguel; Rabano, Alberto; Cantero, José Luis; Orive, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) process is likely initiated many years before clinical onset. Biomarkers of preclinical disease are critical for the development of disease-modifying or even preventative therapies. Current biomarkers for early disease, including cerebrospinal fluid tau and amyloid β (Aβ) levels, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, and the use of brain amyloid imaging, are limited because they are very invasive or expensive. Noninvasive biomarkers may be a more accessible alternative, but none can currently detect preclinical AD with the required sensitivity and specificity. Here, we show a novel, straight-forward, and noninvasive approach for assessment of early stages of cognitive decline. Salivary samples from cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD, and neurology controls were analyzed. We have discovered and validated a new single saliva biomarker, lactoferrin, which in our cross-sectional investigation perfectly discriminates clinically diagnosed aMCI and AD patients from a cognitively healthy control group. The accuracy for AD diagnosis shown by salivary lactoferrin was greater than that obtained from core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, including total tau and CSF Aβ 42 . Furthermore, salivary lactoferrin can be used for population screening and for identifying those underdiagnosed subjects with very early stages of mild cognitive impairment and AD. This biomarker may offer new insights in the early diagnostics for AD.

  3. The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    This study longitudinally followed Non-Hispanic White and African American children to see whether the impact of early maternal employment on cognitive and behavioral outcomes reported at age three and four persisted into school-age years. Results indicated that maternal employment in the first year of a child's life had significant negative…

  4. An Investigation on the Relationship between Prospective Teachers' Early Teacher Identity and Their Need for Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpaci, Dilara; Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between them can reveal important implications vital for classroom practice in teacher education institutions. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between pre-service teachers' early teacher identity and their need for cognition. The research data was collected with the sample which consists of 449…

  5. Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Early Education Interventions on Cognitive and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory; Vargas, Sadako; Ryan, Sharon; Barnett, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: There is much current interest in the impact of early childhood education programs on preschoolers and, in particular, on the magnitude of cognitive and affective gains. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: Because this new segment of public education requires significant funding, accurate descriptions are…

  6. Maternal Scaffolding and Home Stimulation: Key Mediators of Early Intervention Effects on Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Finch, Jenna E.; Rasheed, Muneera A.

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of how early parenting interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries during the first 2 years of children's lives are sustained longitudinally to promote cognitive skills in preschoolers. We employed path analytic procedures to examine 2 family processes--the quality of home stimulation…

  7. Investigating the Incremental Validity of Cognitive Variables in Early Mathematics Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Shanley, Lina; Kosty, Derek; Baker, Scott K.; Cary, Mari Strand; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incremental validity of a set of domain general cognitive measures added to a traditional screening battery of early numeracy measures. The sample consisted of 458 kindergarten students of whom 285 were designated as severely at-risk for mathematics difficulty. Hierarchical multiple regression…

  8. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  9. Relational and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Early Adolescents' Forgiveness of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Katherine J.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Busby, Dean M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Day, Randal D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how mother and father-child relationship quality and marital forgiveness were related to early adolescents' forgiveness of mothers and fathers. Adolescents' social-cognitive skills (empathy and emotional regulation) and parents' forgiveness of child were examined as mediators. Mother, father, and child self-reported…

  10. Cognitive Profiles and Early Reading Remediation of At-Risk Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrila, R. K.; Das, J. P.

    Sixty-one grade 1 students experiencing early reading difficulties received either a cognitive remediation program (PREP; PASS Remediation Program) designed to facilitate successive and simultaneous processing skills, or a meaning-based language enrichment program designed to provide children with meaningful experiences in reading. Repeated…

  11. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  12. Brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients early in abstinence.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Le Berre, Anne Pascale; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    Procedural learning allows for the acquisition of new behavioral skills. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcoholism is characterized by impaired cognitive procedural learning and brain abnormalities affecting regions that are involved in the automation of new cognitive procedures in healthy individuals. The goal of the present study was to investigate the brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients (ALs) early in abstinence. Thirty-one ALs and 31 control participants (NCs) performed the Tower of Toronto task (4 daily learning sessions, each comprising 10 trials) to assess cognitive procedural learning. We also assessed episodic and working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. ALs underwent 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. The initial cognitive phase was longer in the AL group than in the NC group, whereas the autonomous phase was shorter. In ALs, the longer cognitive phase was predicted by poorer planning and visuospatial working memory abilities, and by smaller gray matter (GM) volumes in the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus. ALs' planning abilities correlated with smaller GM volume in the angular gyrus. Cognitive procedural learning was impaired in ALs, with a delayed transition from the cognitive to the autonomous phase. This slowdown in the automation of the cognitive procedure was related to lower planning abilities, which may have hampered the initial generation of the procedure to be learned. In agreement with this neuropsychological finding, a persistent relationship was found between learning performance and the GM volumes of the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus, which are usually regarded as markers of planning and initial learning of the cognitive procedure. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients early in abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Le Berre, Anne Pascale; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background Procedural learning allows for the acquisition of new behavioral skills. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcoholism is characterized by impaired cognitive procedural learning and brain abnormalities affecting regions that are involved in the automation of new cognitive procedures in healthy individuals. The goal of the present study was to investigate the brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients (ALs) early in abstinence. Methods Thirty-one ALs and 31 control participants (NCs) performed the Tower of Toronto task (4 daily learning sessions, each comprising 10 trials) to assess cognitive procedural learning. We also assessed episodic and working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. ALs underwent 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results The initial cognitive phase was longer in the AL group than in the NC group, whereas the autonomous phase was shorter. In ALs, the longer cognitive phase was predicted by poorer planning and visuospatial working memory abilities, and by smaller gray matter (GM) volumes in the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus. ALs’ planning abilities correlated with smaller GM volume in the angular gyrus. Conclusions Cognitive procedural learning was impaired in ALs, with a delayed transition from the cognitive to the autonomous phase. This slowdown in the automation of the cognitive procedure was related to lower planning abilities, which may have hampered the initial generation of the procedure to be learned. In agreement with this neuropsychological finding, a persistent relationship was found between learning performance and the GM volumes of the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus, which are usually regarded as markers of planning and initial learning of the cognitive procedure. PMID:25156613

  14. Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Marshall, Peter J; Smyke, Anna T; Guthrie, Donald

    2007-12-21

    In a randomized controlled trial, we compared abandoned children reared in institutions to abandoned children placed in institutions but then moved to foster care. Young children living in institutions were randomly assigned to continued institutional care or to placement in foster care, and their cognitive development was tracked through 54 months of age. The cognitive outcome of children who remained in the institution was markedly below that of never-institutionalized children and children taken out of the institution and placed into foster care. The improved cognitive outcomes we observed at 42 and 54 months were most marked for the youngest children placed in foster care. These results point to the negative sequelae of early institutionalization, suggest a possible sensitive period in cognitive development, and underscore the advantages of family placements for young abandoned children.

  15. Early initiation of aspirin after prostate and transurethral bladder surgeries is not associated with increased incidence of postoperative bleeding: a prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Y; Yossepowitch, O; Margel, D; Lask, D; Livne, P M; Baniel, J

    2007-08-01

    Lower urinary tract operations are being increasingly performed in elderly patients, in whom aspirin intake is common for preventing cardiovascular disease. We determined the safety of early aspirin re-initiation after lower urinary tract surgeries. A randomized, open label clinical trial was done. The study cohort included patients referred for transurethral prostatectomy, open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of bladder tumor while receiving aspirin prophylaxis. After controlling for surgical modality patients were randomized into 2 arms, including aspirin treatment initiation 24 hours after discontinuing of bladder irrigation (early treatment group) and aspirin treatment initiation 3 weeks after surgery (late treatment group). Primary end points were pre-discharge hematuria necessitating the restoration of bladder irrigation or the cessation of aspirin treatment and late hematuria treated in an urgent care setting, requiring hospital admission or compelling the cessation of aspirin treatment. A total of 120 patients were enrolled, including 60 per treatment group. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgery related factors that could have affected postoperative bleeding. Primary end points were attained by 16 of the 120 patients (13.6%), including 10 of the 60 (16.7%) in the early treatment group and 6 (10%) in the late treatment group (p = 0.28). Time to catheter removal and persistent hematuria duration were similar in the 2 groups. Cardiovascular morbidity was noted in 3 of 120 patients, of whom all were assigned to the early treatment group. Early aspirin initiation after lower urinary tract surgeries does not appear to carry an increased risk of postoperative bleeding. Thus, it may be considered in patients at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity.

  16. A new computerized cognitive and social cognition training specifically designed for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder in early stages of illness: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Jodar, Merce; Pousa, Esther; Hernandez Rambla, Carla; García, Rebeca; Palao, Diego

    2015-08-30

    People with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders at early stages of the illness present cognitive and social cognition deficits that have a great impact in functional outcomes. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) has demonstrated consistent effect in cognitive performance, symptoms and psychosocial functioning. However, any CRT intervention or social cognition training have been specifically designed for patients in the early stages of psychosis. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the efficacy of a new computerized cognitive and social cognition program for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with recent diagnosis. A comprehensive assessment of clinical, social and non-social cognitive and functional measures was carried out in 53 randomized participants before and after the 4-months treatment. Significant results were observed in Spatial Span Forwards, Immediate Logical Memory and Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) total score. None of these results were explained by medication, premorbid social functioning or psychopathological symptoms. No impact of the intervention was observed in other cognitive and social cognition outcome neither in clinical and functional outcomes. This new computerized intervention may result effective ameliorating visual attention, logical memory and emotional processing in patients in the early stages of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive vulnerabilities and depression versus other psychopathology symptoms and diagnoses in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Lauren B; Black, Shimrit K; Young, Mathew E; Goldstein, Kim E; Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Boccia, Angelo S; Matt, Lindsey M; Boland, Elaine M; Moore, Lauren C; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Male and female, Caucasian and African American, 12- to 13-year-old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals' presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated.

  18. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in Hopelessness Theory, Beck’s Theory, and Response Styles Theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Method Male and female, Caucasian and African-American, 12–13 year old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Results Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Conclusions Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals’ presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated. PMID:22853629

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Felipe Q; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C; da S Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-02-28

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants-53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight-were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484

  1. Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes.

    PubMed

    Wobber, Victoria; Herrmann, Esther; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There is very little research comparing great ape and human cognition developmentally. In the current studies we compared a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 4-year-old human children (n=48) with a large sample of chimpanzees and bonobos in the same age range (n=42, hereafter: apes) on a broad array of cognitive tasks. We then followed a group of juvenile apes (n=44) longitudinally over 3 years to track their cognitive development in greater detail. In skills of physical cognition (space, causality, quantities), children and apes performed comparably at 2 years of age, but by 4 years of age children were more advanced (whereas apes stayed at their 2-year-old performance levels). In skills of social cognition (communication, social learning, theory of mind), children out-performed apes already at 2 years, and increased this difference even more by 4 years. Patterns of development differed more between children and apes in the social domain than the physical domain, with support for these patterns present in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal ape data sets. These results indicate key differences in the pattern and pace of cognitive development between humans and other apes, particularly in the early emergence of specific social cognitive capacities in humans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cognitive function in early clinical phase huntington disease after rivastigmine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sešok, Sanja; Bolle, Nika; Kobal, Jan; Bucik, Valentin; Vodušek, David B

    2014-09-01

    In Huntington disease (HD) patients receiving rivastigmine treatment improvement of behavioral symptoms and of cognitive function (assessed with screening diagnostic instruments) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to verify such improvement in cognitive function by cognitive function assessment with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering all relevant cognitive systems expected to be impaired in early phase HD. Eighteen (18) HD patients entered the study and were randomly allocated to the rivastigmine and placebo group. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was applied after 6 months of rivastigmine or placebo treatment. Eighteen (18) healthy controls entered the study to control for practice effect and underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months, without treatment. The neuropsychological battery consisted of assessment tools that are sensitive to cognitive impairment seen in early phase HD: CTMT, SDMT, Stroop (attention and information control), RFFT, TOL, Verbal fluency (executive functioning), CVLT-II, RCFT (learning and memory). Effect of rivastigmine and possible effect of practice was assessed using the mixed ANOVA model. No statistically significant effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients was detected. There was no evidence for practice or placebo effect. Detailed neuropsychological assessment did not confirm previously reported effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients. The limitations of our study are, in particular, small sample size and the lack of a single measure of relevant cognitive functioning in HD patients. Instead of focusing solely on statistical significance, a clinical relevance study is proposed to clarify the issue of rivastigmine effects in HD.

  3. Early life instruction in foreign language and music and incidence of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yang, Jingyun; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that foreign language and music instruction in early life are associated with lower incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and slower rate of cognitive decline in old age. At enrollment in a longitudinal cohort study, 964 older persons without cognitive impairment estimated years of foreign language and music instruction by age 18. Annually thereafter they completed clinical evaluations that included cognitive testing and clinical classification of MCI. There were 264 persons with no foreign language instruction, 576 with 1-4 years, and 124 with > 4 years; 346 persons with no music instruction, 360 with 1-4 years, and 258 with > 4 years. During a mean of 5.8 years of observation, 396 participants (41.1%) developed MCI. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher levels (> 4 years) of foreign language (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.687, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.482, 0.961]) and music (HR = 0.708, 95% CI [0.539, 0.930]) instruction by the age of 18 were each associated with reduced risk of MCI. The association persisted after adjustment for other early life indicators of an enriched cognitive environment, and it was stronger for nonamnestic than amnestic MCI. Both foreign language and music instruction were associated with higher initial level of cognitive function, but neither instruction measure was associated with cognitive decline. Higher levels of foreign language and music instruction during childhood and adolescence are associated in old age with lower risk of developing MCI but not with rate of cognitive decline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Do Early Intervention Programmes Improve Cognitive and Motor Outcomes for Preterm Infants after Discharge? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane; Spittle, Alicia; Doyle, Lex; Anderson, Peter; Boyd, Roslyn

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to review the effects of early developmental intervention after discharge from hospital on motor and cognitive development in preterm infants. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of early developmental intervention programmes for preterm infants in which motor or cognitive outcomes were reported…

  5. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  6. Posterior cruciate-substituting total knee replacement recovers the flexion arc faster in the early postoperative period in knees with high varus deformity: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Alpaslan; Akalın, Yavuz; Çevik, Nazan; Otuzbir, Ali; Özkan, Yüksel; Dostabakan, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    Posterior cruciate retention (CR) and substitution (PS) has been controversial in knee replacement surgery. Satisfactory medium and long-term results have been reported in knees with and without deformity but there are limited studies about early functional comparison in terms of recovery of flexion arc, stair activity, walking ability and straight leg raising, especially, in early postoperative period in knees with deformity. Therefore, we aimed to compare the flexion arc in CR and PS knees in postoperative first year including early postoperative days prospectively. Consecutive patients with a deformity of >10° were included and allocated to CR and PS groups randomly. KSS and Feller-patella scores were recorded both preoperatively and postoperatively (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months). Flexion and extension were measured both preoperatively and postoperatively (1st, 2nd, 3rd day and discharge day as well as 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months). Visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded postoperatively at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and discharge day and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months. The walking ability, stair activity and straight leg raising were recorded. Patients were also examined at the last visit with minimum 7-year follow-up with KSS, Feller-patella and VAS scores. Their mean flexion arcs were measured and recorded. There were 61 TKR evaluated. KSS knee and function scores at the 3rd month and KSS Knee Score at 1st year were superior in PS knees (p = 0.029, p = 0.046, p = 0.026). Flexion arc was found larger on day 1, 2, 3 and discharge day, and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th month in PS group (p = 0.048, p = 0.002, p = 0.027, p = 0.043, p = 0.014, p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p = 0.018). Walking and stair activity showed no difference but straight leg raising was better in CR knees (p = 0.02). Mean flexion arc was larger in PS knees at the last visit after 7 years (119.0° ± 7.5° in PS and 113.8° ± 8.7° in CR, p = 0.02). There was no revision

  7. Epidemiology, surgical management and early postoperative outcome in a cohort of gastric cancer patients of a tertiary referral center in relation to multi-center quality assurance studies.

    PubMed

    Garlipp, Benjamin; Schwalenberg, Jens; Adolf, Daniela; Lippert, Hans; Meyer, Frank

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiologic parameters, treatment-related data and prognostic factors in the management of gastric cancer patients of a university surgical center under conditions of routine clinical care before the onset of the era of multimodal therapies. By analyzing our data in relation with multi-center quality assurance trials [German Gastric Cancer Study - GGCS (1992) and East German Gastric Cancer Study - EGGCS (2004)] we aimed at providing an instrument of internal quality control at our institution as well as a base for comparison with future analyses taking into account the implementation of evolving (multimodal) therapies and their influence on treatment results. Retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data of gastric cancer patients treated at a single institution during a defined 10-year time period with multivariate analysis of risk factors for early postoperative outcome. From 04/01/1993 through 03/31/2003, a total of 328 gastric cancer patients were treated. In comparison with the EGGCS cohort there was a larger proportion of patients with locally advanced and proximally located tumors. 272 patients (82.9%) underwent surgery with curative intent; in 88.4% of these an R0 resection was achieved (EGGCS/GGCS: 82.5%/71.5%). 68.2% of patients underwent preoperative endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) (EGGCS: 27.4%); the proportion of patients undergoing EUS increased over the study period. Diagnostic accuracy of EUS for T stage was 50.6% (EGGCS: 42.6%). 77.2% of operated patients with curative intent underwent gastrectomy (EGGCS/GGCS: 79.8%/71.1%). Anastomotic leaks at the esophagojejunostomy occurred slightly more frequently (8.8%) than in the EGGCS (5.9%) and GGCS (7.2%); however, postoperative morbidity (36.1%) and early postoperative mortality (5.3%) were not increased compared to the multi-center quality assurance study results (EGGCS morbidity, 45%); EGGCS/GGCS mortality, 8%/8.9%). D2 lymphadenectomy was performed in 72

  8. Postoperative hypocalcemia: assessment timing.

    PubMed

    Sperlongano, Pasquale; Sperlongano, Simona; Foroni, Fabrizio; De Lucia, Francesco Paolo; Pezzulo, Carmine; Manfredi, Celeste; Esposito, Emanuela; Sperlongano, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    180 total thyroidectomy case studies performed by the same operator in the years 2006-2010, all done with sutureless technique (Ligasure precise(®)). The monitoring of patients involved a dose of serum calcium on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and seventh post-operative, before the ambulatory monitoring of the patient. Treatment of post-operative thyroidectomy also includes the administration from the first day of post-surgery, of 2 g/day of calcium (calcium lactate gluconate 2940 mg, calcium carbonate 300 mg). Hypocalcemia was observed in 27 cases (15%) of which 23/180 (12.8%) were transitional and 4/180 (2.2%) were permanent. The average postoperative hospitalization was 2.5 days with a minimum of 30 h. The peak of hypocalcemia was of 11 patients on the first postoperative day (40.7%) in 6 patients on the second postoperative day (22.2%), in 8 patients on the third postoperative day (29.6%), in 1 patient on the fourth postoperative day (3.7%) and in another one on the fifth postoperative day (3.7%). The second postoperative day is crucial for the determination of early discharge (24-30 h). When the surgeon identifies and manages to preserve at least 3 parathyroid glands during surgery, the risk of hypocalcemia together with evaluations of serum calcium on the first and second post-operative day, eliminates the hypocalcemic risk. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal infections in children in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Radoslaw; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Irga-Jaworska, Ninela; Chojnicki, Maciej; Steffens, Mariusz; Paczkowski, Konrad; Zielinski, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative infections are still an important problem in cardiac surgery, especially in the paediatric population, and may influence the final outcome of congenital heart disease treatment. Postoperative infections with fungi are uncommon. The aetiology is poorly understood, and the proper diagnosis and treatment is unclear. In this single-centre study, the frequency of invasive fungal disease in children who underwent surgical management of congenital heart diseases was determined along with the risk factors for infection, treatment options and outcomes. All consecutive paediatric patients (<18 years of age) who underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease between September 2008 and December 2015 in a paediatric cardiac centre in Poland were identified. Those who developed invasive fungal disease in the early postoperative period (30 days) were identified. Of the 1540 cardiosurgical procedures for congenital heart disease, 6 were complicated by fungal infection (0.39%). One patient had a high probability of fungal infection, but the diagnosis was unproved. Nevertheless, the patient was successfully treated with antifungal treatment. Five had proven invasive fungal disease. Of these, 3 were diagnosed with candidaemia. All had undergone cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the remaining 2 patients, 1 was a preterm newborn with complete atrioventricular septal defect who developed rib fungal invasion. The remaining patient had pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and developed Fournier's gangrene after surgery. None of the patients died due to infection in the early postoperative period. However, the child with rib fungal invasion died 39 days after surgery as a result of multiorgan failure. Fungal infections in paediatric patients after cardiac surgery may markedly influence morbidity and mortality. Fungal infection prophylaxis in this specific group of children may reduce morbidity, whereas early empirical treatment followed by a targeted approach may

  10. Early-life enteric infections: relation between chronic systemic inflammation and poor cognition in children

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301

  11. The role of suture cutout in the failure of meniscal root repair during the early post-operative period: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blanca, Ana; Prado Nóvoa, María; Lombardo Torre, Maximiano; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Ezquerro Juanco, Francisco; Espejo-Baena, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    To assess the role of suture cutout in the mechanics of failure of the repaired posterior meniscal root during the early post-operative period when using sutures of different shape. Twenty medial porcine menisci were randomized in two groups depending on the suture shape used to repair the posterior root: thread or tape. The sutured menisci were subjected to cyclic loading (1000 cycles, (10, 30) N) followed by load-to-failure testing. Residual displacements, stiffness, and ultimate failure load were determined. During tests, the tissue-suture interface was recorded using a high-resolution camera. In cyclic tests, cutout progression at the suture insertion points was not observed for any specimen of either group and no differences in residual displacements were found between use of thread or tape. In load-to-failure tests, suture cutout started in all menisci at a load close to the ultimate failure and all specimens failed by suture pullout. Suture tape had a greater ultimate load with no other differences. In a porcine model of a repaired posterior meniscal root subjected to cyclic loads representative of current rehabilitation protocols in the early post-operative period under restricted loading conditions, suture cutout was not found as a main source of permanent root displacement when using suture thread or tape. Suture cutout progression started at high loading levels close to the ultimate load of the construct. Tape, with a meniscus-suture contact area larger than thread, produced higher ultimate load.

  12. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes 'normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational

  13. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, p<0.05). Infants with insecure attachment collectively exhibited a significantly lower mental development index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do economic recessions during early and mid-adulthood influence cognitive function in older age?

    PubMed

    Leist, Anja K; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-02-01

    Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/2009 and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b=-0.06, CI -0.11 to -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34=-0.03, CI -0.04 to -0.01; b35-44=-0.02, CI -0.04 to -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly through more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function.

  15. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  16. Revisiting the applicability of adult early post-operative nausea and vomiting risk factors for the paediatric patient: A prospective study using cotinine levels in children undergoing adenotonsillectomies

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Destiny F; Reddy, Arundathi; Breheny, Patrick; Young, Anna Rebecca; Ashford, Eric; Song, Megan; Zhang, Christina; Taylor, Tammy; Younes, Abbas; Vazifedan, Turaj

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative vomiting (POV) in children remains a significant clinical problem. This prospective study aims to investigate the applicability of well-established adult early post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk factors on paediatric POV after adenotonsillectomies under regulated anaesthetic conditions. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 213 children aged 3–10-year-old were enrolled. The participants had pre-operative questionnaires completed, followed protocolised anaesthetic plans and had saliva analysed for cotinine. The primary outcomes were POV as correlated with age, gender, family or personal history of PONV, motion sickness history, opioid use, surgical time, anaesthetic time and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, as assessed by cotinine levels and questionnaire reports. Data on analgesics, antiemetics and POV incidence before post-anaesthesia care unit discharge were collected. Statistical analysis was done through multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 200 patients finalised the study. Early POV occurred in 32%. Family history of PONV (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, P < 0.01) and motion sickness history (OR = 4.4, P = 0.02) were highly significant risk factors. Age reached borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.4, P = 0.05). None of the other factors reached statistical significance. Conclusion: Early POV occurs frequently in paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomies. In this paediatric-aged group, the incidence of POV was affected by the family history of PONV, and history of motion sickness. Age, female gender, opioid use, surgical and anaesthetic times did not affect the incidence of POV. ETS exposure, as assessed by cotinine levels and questionnaire reports, had no protective effect on early paediatric POV. PMID:29307901

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood cognitive development: a review of putative environmental mediators.

    PubMed

    Ahun, Marilyn N; Côté, Sylvana M

    2018-06-06

    Despite the abundance of research investigating the associations between maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and children's cognitive development, little is known about the putative mechanisms through which depressive symptoms are associated with children's cognitive development. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on family mediators (i.e., maternal parenting behaviors, mother-child interactions, and family stress) involved in this association in early childhood. The review includes seven studies, five longitudinal and two cross-sectional, which tested putative mediators of the association between MDS and children's cognitive development. Studies were selected from online databases (PubMed, PsycNet) and manual searches. Only studies which quantitatively assessed associations between MDS in the postnatal period and child cognitive development in early childhood (i.e., 0-5 years) and included mediator variables were included in the review. Six out of seven studies identified mediating variables. The mediators included maternal responsiveness, parenting style, family dysfunction, the quality of the home environment, and maternal caregiving practices. Different mediators were identified across the reviewed studies. Maternal depressive symptoms are partly associated with child cognitive development via family processes and parenting practices. Various mediating processes are at play. Further research is needed on the role of maternal and paternal mental health and gene-environment correlations in this association. A better understanding of the mediating pathways is needed for the design of preventative intervention targeting specific family processes.

  18. Cognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Sauter, Julia; Rimmele, Ulrike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-05

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of psychological stress to cognitive performance and its interplay with key life course markers of cognitive reserve and social capital in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (verbal abilities and processing speed) and psychological stress in 2,812 older adults. The Participants reported information on education, occupation, leisure activities, family, and close friends. Greater psychological stress was significantly related to lower performance in verbal abilities and processing speed. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of psychological stress to cognitive performance were reduced in individuals with higher education, a higher cognitive level of the first profession practiced after education, a larger number of midlife leisure activities, a larger number of significant family members, and a larger number of close friends. Cognitive reserve and social capital accrued in early and midlife may reduce the detrimental influences of psychological stress on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of “programming” where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed

  20. Longitudinal functional brain imaging study in early course schizophrenia before and after cognitive enhancement therapy.

    PubMed

    Keshavan, Matcheri S; Eack, Shaun M; Prasad, Konasale M; Haller, Chiara S; Cho, Raymond Y

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired -social and non social cognition both of which lead to functional deficits. These deficits may benefit from cognitive remediation, but the neural underpinnings of such improvements have not been clearly delineated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study in early course schizophrenia patients randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or enriched supportive therapy (EST) and treated for two years. Imaging data over three time points including fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) data were acquired during performance of a cognitive control paradigm, the Preparing to Overcome Prepotency (POP) task, and functional connectivity data, were analyzed. During the two years of treatment, CET patients showed a continual increase in BOLD activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas EST patients tended to show no change in prefrontal brain function throughout treatment. Increases in right DLPFC activity were modestly associated with improved neurocognition (β = .14, p = .041), but not social cognition. Functional connectivity analyses showed reduced connectivity between the DLPFC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in CET compared to EST over the two years of treatment, which was associated with neurocognitive improvement. These findings suggest that CET leads to enhanced neural activity in brain regions mediating cognitive control and increased efficiency in prefrontal circuits; such changes may be related to the observed therapeutic effects of CET on neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Blood-Based Oxidative Stress Markers and Cognitive Performance in Early Old Age: The HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Kozela, Magdalena; Jansen, Eugene; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Oxidative stress is involved in Alzheimer disease pathology, but its impact on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults remains unknown. We estimated associations between serum oxidative stress markers and cognitive function in early old age. Methods Subjects aged 45-69 years recruited in urban centers in Central and Eastern Europe had memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed assessed at baseline (2002-2005) and 3 years later. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and total thiol levels (TTLs) were measured at baseline in a subsample. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of biomarkers with cognitive test scores cross-sectionally (n = 4,304) and prospectively (n = 2,882). Results Increased d-ROM levels were inversely associated with global cognition and verbal fluency cross-sectionally and in prospective analysis; observed effects corresponded to 3-4 years' higher age. TTL was inconsistently associated with memory. BAP was not related to cognitive function. Conclusion This study found modest evidence for a relationship between serum d-ROMs and cognitive function in a population sample of older adults. PMID:27802435

  2. Cognitive Vulnerabilities as Predictors of Stress Generation in Early Adolescence: Pathway to Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Connolly, Samantha L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals with depression have been found to experience a higher rate of stress in their lives, it remains unclear to what extent other personal characteristics may contribute to stress generation. The current study extended past research by examining the effects of two theoretically and empirically supported cognitive vulnerabilities to depression (negative cognitive style and rumination) as predictors of dependent interpersonal and achievement events, independent events, and relational peer victimization. In a diverse sample of 301 early adolescents (56% female; Mage = 12.82 years), we found that negative cognitive style prospectively predicted the experience of dependent interpersonal stress and relational victimization, and that rumination did not predict stress in any of the domains. Furthermore, the occurrence of intervening stress mediated the associations between negative cognitive style and subsequent depressive symptoms. Additionally, whereas negative cognitive style predicted relational victimization among both boys and girls, girls were particularly vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms following the occurrence of relational victimization. Thus, a negative cognitive may contribute to the occurrence of stressful events, which in turn increases depressive symptoms. Girls may be particularly reactive to the effects of relational victimization, representing one pathway through which sex differences in depression may emerge. PMID:23624770

  3. [Gender-specific differences of the early postoperative and oncosurgical long-term outcome in rectal cancer-data obtained in a prospective multicenter observational study].

    PubMed

    Katzenstein, J; Steinert, R; Ptok, H; Otto, R; Gastinger, I; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2018-04-11

    Gender-specific aspects have been increasingly considered in clinical medicine, also in oncological surgery. To analyze gender-specific differences of early postoperative and oncological outcomes after rectal cancer resection based on data obtained in a prospective multicenter observational study. As part of the multicenter prospective observational study "Quality assurance in primary rectal cancer", data on tumor site, exogenic and endogenic risk factors, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical procedures, tumor stage, intraoperative and postoperative complications of patients with the histological diagnosis of rectal cancer were registered. Data from the years 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 were investigated with respect to gender-specific differences of postoperative morbidity, hospital mortality, local recurrency rate, disease-free and overall survival by univariable and multivariable analyses. Overall, data from 10,657 patients were evaluated: 60.9% of the patients were male, who were significantly younger (p < 0.001). Men had a significantly higher rate of alcohol (p < 0.001) and nicotine abuse (p < 0.001) as well as a trend to a higher body mass index (BMI) compared with women. Although, there was no significant difference in the distribution of various tumor stages comparing men and women, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy was used significantly more often in male patients (p < 0.001). In addition, male patients underwent an abdominoperineal rectum exstirpation more often, whereas creation of an enterostoma and Hartmann's procedure were more frequently used in women (p < 0.001 each). Multivariate analysis revealed that male patients developed a higher overall morbidity (odds ratio, OR: 1.5; p < 0.001) during both study periods and from 2010-2011 a higher hospital mortality (OR: 1.8; p < 0.001). After a median follow-up period of 36 months, gender did not have a significant impact on overall survival, disease-free survival or on the local

  4. Parents’ Education, Mothers’ Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise. PMID:22021308

  5. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  6. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Efficacy of Celecoxib for Early Postoperative Pain Management in Hip Arthroscopy: A Prospective Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Patel, Ronak M; Knesek, Michael; Tjong, Vehniah K; Sonn, Kevin; Terry, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether 400 mg of celecoxib administered 1 hour before hip arthroscopy surgery would reduce pain, provide reduction in overall narcotic consumption, and lead to more rapid discharge from recovery rooms. Ninety-eight patients were randomized to either the celecoxib group (n = 50) or the placebo group (n = 48). An a priori power analysis was done set to detect a difference of 0.50 on the visual analog scale (VAS), based on the senior author's preference. The number of patients planned for recruitment was rounded up to 100 to allow for flexibility in the study. Inclusion criteria were any patient at least 18 years old who underwent hip arthroscopy surgery performed by the senior author. All patients had less than Tönnis grade 2 arthritis. Exclusion criteria were allergy to sulfa-based drugs, prior adverse reaction to celecoxib, or patients who were on chronic narcotics for whom alternative pain management regimens were arranged before surgery. Randomization was performed on a 1:1 basis in blocks of 10 using sealed envelopes stating celecoxib or placebo. One hour before surgery, all patients received either 400 mg celecoxib or placebo. Patients were evaluated using a VAS preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 1 and 2 hours postoperatively. Time from the operating room to "ready for discharge" and number of morphine equivalents of narcotic medication required in the postanesthesia care unit were recorded. Age and preoperative VAS were similar between the celecoxib and placebo control group, with average ages of 34.2 ± 11.9 and 35.8 ± 11.6 (P = .27) and preoperative VAS of 2.1 ± 2.06 and 2.3 ± 1.98 (P = .29), respectively. The celecoxib group had 26 females and 24 males, whereas the placebo group had 29 females and 19 males (P = .42). The most common surgical procedures were labral repair (31 patients in the celecoxib group and 29 patients in the placebo group), and labral repair with acetabular osteoplasty (13 patients in the

  8. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results From a Two-Year Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163

  9. Social Cognition in Preschoolers: Effects of Early Experience and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bulgarelli, Daniela; Molina, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition is the way in which people process, remember, and use information in social contexts to explain and predict their own behavior and that of others. Children’s social cognition may be influenced by multiple factors, both external and internal to the child. In the current study, two aspects of social cognition were examined: Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of type of early care (0–3 years of age), maternal education, parents’ country of birth, and child’s language on the social cognition of 118 Italian preschoolers. To our knowledge, the joint effect of these variables on social cognition has not previously been investigated in the literature. The measures used to collect social cognition and linguistic data were not parent- or teacher-reports, but based on direct assessment of the children through two standardized tests, the Test of Emotion Comprehension and the ToM Storybooks. Relationships among the variables showed a complex pattern. Overall, maternal education and linguistic competence showed a systematic effect on social cognition; the linguistic competence mediated the effect of maternal education. In children who had experienced centre-base care in the first 3 years of life, the effect of maternal education disappeared, supporting the protective role of centre-base care for children with less educated mothers. The children with native and foreign parents did not significantly differ on the social cognition tasks. Limits of the study, possible educational outcomes and future research lines were discussed. PMID:27895605

  10. [Timing and effectiveness of Brenner's IPT cognitive training in early psychosis. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Borriello, Adriana; Balbi, Andrea; Menichincheri, Renato Maria; Mirabella, Fiorino

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the outcome of cognitive training as part of Brenner's Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT) in two groups of individuals with a schizophrenic spectrum disorder (F20-F24 ICD-10). 28 participants were divided into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group was composed of 13 individuals (46%) with a mean age of 21.2 years and a mean duration of illness (since their first episode of psychosis FEP) of 15.6 months. The control group included 15 individuals (54%) with a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean duration of illness of 74.4 months (beyond the critical period). Participants underwent an assessment of cognitive functioning which focused on attention, memory, executive functioning and cognitive flexibility as measured by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Each individual was tested pre- and 6-month post-intervention. The original IPT method was altered by reducing the frequency of sessions to once a week and by limiting our sessions to 2-3 individuals per group. Cognitive flexibility (p<0.01) and long-term memory (p<0.01) improved only in the experimental group. These former skills worsened in the control group (p<0.01). Selective attention, short-term memory and verbal fluency improved in both groups (from p<0.05 to p<0.01). IPT cognitive training, when delivered in the early stages of psychosis (within 18 months from FEP), seems to be particularly effective in improving cognitive flexibility and long-term memory. We did not see improvements in those who had a longer duration of illness who also underwent the same treatment. Cognitive flexibility is linked to clinical insight and social cognition. Therefore, improving this function may lead to a better outcome for patients.

  11. Selecting postoperative adjuvant systemic therapy for early stage breast cancer: A critical assessment of commercially available gene expression assays

    PubMed Central

    Schuur, Eric; Angel Aristizabal, Javier; Bargallo Rocha, Juan Enrique; Cabello, Cesar; Elizalde, Roberto; García‐Estévez, Laura; Gomez, Henry L.; Katz, Artur; Nuñez De Pierro, Aníbal

    2017-01-01

    Risk stratification of patients with early stage breast cancer may support adjuvant chemotherapy decision‐making. This review details the development and validation of six multi‐gene classifiers, each of which claims to provide useful prognostic and possibly predictive information for early stage breast cancer patients. A careful assessment is presented of each test's analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility, as well as the quality of evidence supporting its use. PMID:28211064

  12. The cognitive and neural expression of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Céline; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy older subjects; (ii) investigate the association between naming and semantic knowledge in aMCI and AD; (iii) examine if the semantic impairment was present in different modalities; and (iv) study the relationship between semantic performance and grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Results indicate that both naming and semantic knowledge of objects and famous people were impaired in aMCI and early AD groups, when compared to healthy age- and education-matched controls. Item-by-item analyses showed that anomia in aMCI and early AD was significantly associated with underlying semantic knowledge of famous people but not with semantic knowledge of objects. Moreover, semantic knowledge of the same concepts was impaired in both the visual and the verbal modalities. Finally, voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that semantic impairment in aMCI and AD was associated with cortical atrophy in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region as well as in the inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC), some of the key regions of the semantic cognition network. These findings suggest that the semantic impairment in aMCI may result from a breakdown of semantic knowledge of famous people and objects, combined with difficulties in the selection, manipulation and retrieval of this knowledge. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of empiric nesiritide or milrinone infusion on early postoperative recovery after Fontan surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Costello, John M; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Allan, Catherine K; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Newburger, Jane W; McGowan, Francis X; Wessel, David L; Mayer, John E; Salvin, Joshua W; Dionne, Roger E; Laussen, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether empirical nesiritide or milrinone would improve the early postoperative course after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that compared with milrinone or placebo, patients assigned to receive nesiritide would have improved early postoperative outcomes. In a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-arm parallel-group clinical trial, patients undergoing primary Fontan surgery were assigned to receive nesiritide, milrinone, or placebo. A loading dose of study drug was administered on cardiopulmonary bypass followed by a continuous infusion for ≥12 hours and ≤5 days after cardiac intensive care unit admission. The primary outcome was days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included measures of cardiovascular function, renal function, resource use, and adverse events. Among 106 enrolled subjects, 35, 36, and 35 were randomized to the nesiritide, milrinone, and placebo groups, respectively, and all were analyzed based on intention to treat. Demographics, patient characteristics, and operative factors were similar among treatment groups. No significant treatment group differences were found for median days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery (nesiritide, 20 [minimum to maximum, 0-24]; milrinone, 18 [0-23]; placebo, 20 [0-23]; P=0.38). Treatment groups did not significantly differ in cardiac index, arrhythmias, peak lactate, inotropic scores, urine output, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care or chest tube drainage, or adverse events. Compared with placebo, empirical perioperative nesiritide or milrinone infusions are not associated with improved early clinical outcomes after Fontan surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00543309. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Isohashi, Fumiaki, E-mail: isohashi@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Seiji

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors andmore » the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative

  15. Subjective cognitive concerns and neuropsychiatric predictors of progression to the early clinical stages of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Nancy J; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Zoller, Amy S; Rudel, Rebecca K; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Blacker, Deborah; Hyman, Bradley T; Locascio, Joseph J; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Marshall, Gad A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2014-12-01

    To examine neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological predictors of progression from normal to early clinical stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). From a total sample of 559 older adults from the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center longitudinal cohort, 454 were included in the primary analysis: 283 with clinically normal cognition (CN), 115 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 56 with subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) but no objective impairment, a proposed transitional group between CN and MCI. Two latent cognitive factors (memory-semantic, attention-executive) and two neuropsychiatric factors (affective, psychotic) were derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers' Uniform Data Set neuropsychological battery and Neuropsychiatric Inventory brief questionnaire. Factors were analyzed as predictors of time to progression to a worse diagnosis using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with backward elimination. Covariates included baseline diagnosis, gender, age, education, prior depression, antidepressant medication, symptom duration, and interaction terms. Higher/better memory-semantic factor score predicted lower hazard of progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.4 for 1 standard deviation [SD] increase, p <0.0001), and higher/worse affective factor score predicted higher hazard (HR = 1.3 for one SD increase, p = 0.01). No other predictors were significant in adjusted analyses. Using diagnosis as a sole predictor of transition to MCI, the SCC diagnosis carried a fourfold risk of progression compared with CN (HR = 4.1, p <0.0001). These results identify affective and memory-semantic factors as significant predictors of more rapid progression from normal to early stages of cognitive decline and highlight the subgroup of cognitively normal elderly with SCC as those with elevated risk of progression to MCI. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stingone, Jeanette A.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child’s neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m3) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: −2.91, −0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: −2.30, −0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [−1.48, 95% CI: −2.79, −0.18; −1.05, 95% CI: −2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low

  17. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children.

    PubMed

    Lett, Lanair A; Stingone, Jeanette A; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-26

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m³) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: -2.91, -0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: -2.30, -0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [-1.48, 95% CI: -2.79, -0.18; -1.05, 95% CI: -2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low HOME score had a

  18. Analysis of early life influences on cognitive development in childhood using multilevel ordinal models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies of cognitive development in children are often based on tests designed for specific ages. Examination of the changes of these scores over time may not be meaningful. This paper investigates the influence of early life factors on cognitive development using maths and reading test scores at ages 7, 11, and 16 years in a British birth cohort born in 1958. The distributions of these test scores differ between ages, for example, 20% participants scored the top mark in the reading test at 7 and the distribution of reading score at 16 is heavily skewed. In this paper, we group participants into 5 ordered categories, approximately 20% in each category according to their test scores at each age. Multilevel models for a repeated ordinal outcome are applied to relate the ordinal scale of maths and reading ability to early life factors. PMID:22661923

  19. The genetic-environmental etiology of cognitive school readiness and later academic achievement in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Séguin, Jean R; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 840 60-month-old twins, this study investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to (a) individual differences in four components of cognitive school readiness, (b) the general ability underlying these four components, and (c) the predictive association between school readiness and school achievement. Results revealed that the contribution of the shared environment for cognitive school readiness was substantial. Genetic effects were more important for the core abilities underlying school readiness than for each specific skill, although shared environment remained the largest factor overall. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors all accounted for the predictive association between school readiness and early school achievement. These results contribute to a better understanding of the early determinants of school readiness.

  20. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  1. Cognition and adjustment after late and early operation for ruptured aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, B; Ljunggren, B; Säveland, H; Brandt, L

    1987-09-01

    Does early aneurysm operation, while lowering the overall management mortality, result in an unacceptable morbidity in terms of increased cognitive disturbances and psychosocial maladjustment? The present study evaluates quality of life, degree of cognitive dysfunction, and adjustment of 93 patients with satisfactory neurological recoveries after operations for ruptured supratentorial aneurysms. All patients had been in neurological Grades I to III (Hunt and Hess) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fifty-five patients were operated upon during the acute state, i.e., within 72 hours after bleeding (early surgery = ES), and 38 patients had been subjected to late surgery (LS), i.e., were operated on 9 days or more after SAH. Each patient was subjected to a clinical interview and a comprehensive neuropsychological investigation. The time interval between SAH and assessment varied between 12 and 103 months (mean, 56 months). The results confirm that there are indication of cognitive malfunctioning and psychosocial disturbances of varying severity and distribution in patients who have undergone LS. The pattern and distribution of sequelae after LS did not differ substantially from that in patients subjected to ES. The results offer strong support to the concept that remaining disturbances in cognition are mainly related to the impact of the initial hemorrhage per se. In patients with anterior communicating artery aneurysms, a larger decrease in tempo and perceptual vigilance was noted, suggesting that the subfrontal midline structures are particularly involved in processes demanding flexibility, attention, and capacity to adapt to novel demands in a perceptual situation.

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early Life and Mental Health Problems in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Lawlor, John P.; Duggan, Anne K.; Hardy, Janet B.; Eaton, William W.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the extent to which borderline mental retardation and mental retardation at preschool ages are related to emotional and behavioral problems in young adulthood. We also explored early risk factors for having mental health problems as a young adult that might be related to preschool differences in cognitive ability. Methods. We used data from a cohort of births studied in the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study and followed up in the Pathways to Adulthood Study. Preschool cognitive functioning was assessed at 4 years of age. Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors, and mental problems were prospectively evaluated from birth through young adulthood. Results. Children with subaverage cognitive abilities were more likely to develop mental health problems than their counterparts with IQs above 80. Inadequate family interactions were shown to increase 2- to 4-fold the risk of emotional or behavioral problems among children with borderline mental retardation. Conclusions. Subaverage cognitive functioning in early life increases later risk of mental health problems. Future research may help to delineate possible impediments faced at different developmental stages and guide changes in supportive services to better address the needs of children with borderline mental retardation. PMID:17008572

  3. Mild cognitive impairment in early life and mental health problems in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Lawlor, John P; Duggan, Anne K; Hardy, Janet B; Eaton, William W

    2006-10-01

    We assessed the extent to which borderline mental retardation and mental retardation at preschool ages are related to emotional and behavioral problems in young adulthood. We also explored early risk factors for having mental health problems as a young adult that might be related to preschool differences in cognitive ability. We used data from a cohort of births studied in the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study and followed up in the Pathways to Adulthood Study. Preschool cognitive functioning was assessed at 4 years of age. Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors, and mental problems were prospectively evaluated from birth through young adulthood. Children with subaverage cognitive abilities were more likely to develop mental health problems than their counterparts with IQs above 80. Inadequate family interactions were shown to increase 2- to 4-fold the risk of emotional or behavioral problems among children with borderline mental retardation. Subaverage cognitive functioning in early life increases later risk of mental health problems. Future research may help to delineate possible impediments faced at different developmental stages and guide changes in supportive services to better address the needs of children with borderline mental retardation.

  4. Longitudinal stability of cognitive ability from infancy to early childhood: genetic and environmental etiologies.

    PubMed

    LaBuda, M C; DeFries, J C; Plomin, R; Fulker, D W

    1986-10-01

    A path model of genetic and shared family environmental transmission was fitted to general cognitive ability data from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old adopted and nonadopted children and their parents in order to assess the etiology of longitudinal stability from infancy to early childhood. Stability across years is moderate and is due mainly to influences not predicted by parental IQ. Results of the present study, in conjunction with those of previous twin studies, suggest substantial genetic stability from infancy and early childhood to adulthood.

  5. Monitoring the early signs of cognitive decline in elderly by computer games: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Sirály, Enikő; Szabó, Ádám; Szita, Bernadett; Kovács, Vivienne; Fodor, Zsuzsanna; Marosi, Csilla; Salacz, Pál; Hidasi, Zoltán; Maros, Viktor; Hanák, Péter; Csibri, Éva; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    It is anticipated that current and future preventive therapies will likely be more effective in the early stages of dementia, when everyday functioning is not affected. Accordingly the early identification of people at risk is particularly important. In most cases, when subjects visit an expert and are examined using neuropsychological tests, the disease has already been developed. Contrary to this cognitive games are played by healthy, well functioning elderly people, subjects who should be monitored for early signs. Further advantages of cognitive games are their accessibility and their cost-effectiveness. The aim of the investigation was to show that computer games can help to identify those who are at risk. In order to validate games analysis was completed which measured the correlations between results of the 'Find the Pairs' memory game and the volumes of the temporal brain regions previously found to be good predictors of later cognitive decline. 34 healthy elderly subjects were enrolled in the study. The volume of the cerebral structures was measured by MRI. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed by Freesurfer. There was a correlation between the number of attempts and the time required to complete the memory game and the volume of the entorhinal cortex, the temporal pole, and the hippocampus. There was also a correlation between the results of the Paired Associates Learning (PAL) test and the memory game. The results gathered support the initial hypothesis that healthy elderly subjects achieving lower scores in the memory game have increased level of atrophy in the temporal brain structures and showed a decreased performance in the PAL test. Based on these results it can be concluded that memory games may be useful in early screening for cognitive decline.

  6. Multimodal MRI for early diabetic mild cognitive impairment: study protocol of a prospective diagnostic trial.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2016-08-24

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediary state between normal cognition and dementia, often occurs during the prodromal diabetic stage, making early diagnosis and intervention of MCI very important. Latest neuroimaging techniques revealed some underlying microstructure alterations for diabetic MCI, from certain aspects. But there still lacks an integrated multimodal MRI system to detect early neuroimaging changes in diabetic MCI patients. Thus, we intended to conduct a diagnostic trial using multimodal MRI techniques to detect early diabetic MCI that is determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In this study, healthy controls, prodromal diabetes and diabetes subjects (53 subjects/group) aged 40-60 years will be recruited from the physical examination center of Tangdu Hospital. The neuroimaging and psychometric measurements will be repeated at a 0.5 year-interval for 2.5 years' follow-up. The primary outcome measures are 1) Microstructural and functional alterations revealed with multimodal MRI scans including structure magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pCASL); 2) Cognition evaluation with MoCA. The second outcome measures are obesity, metabolic characteristics, lifestyle and quality of life. The study will provide evidence for the potential use of multimodal MRI techniques with psychometric evaluation in diagnosing MCI at prodromal diabetic stage so as to help decision making in early intervention and improve the prognosis of T2DM. This study has been registered to ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02420470 ) on April 2, 2015 and published on July 29, 2015.

  7. A prospective single-institute study of the impact of Daikenchuto on the early postoperative outcome after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Hidaka, Masaaki; Soyama, Akihiko; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-01-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Daikenchuto (DKT) on early postoperative outcomes after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), focusing on the prevention of abdominal distension and bacterial translocation. Adult LDLT recipients were prospectively divided into 2 groups, who were administered DKT (n = 20, group A) or not (n = 20, group B). The area of bowel gas defined as gas volume score (GVS) 7 days after LDLT was calculated. Postoperative liver function tests, the development of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, and GVS after LDLT were reviewed. There were no significant differences in liver function tests and ammonia level after LDLT. Also, the rates of infection and the result of culture study were not different between groups. The median GVS 7 days after LDLT was not significantly different between groups A (0.26 (range, 0.12-0.58)) and B (0.23 (range, 0.15-0.42)). No positive impact was observed for 14-day DKT administration after LDLT, in terms of preventing infection or abdominal distension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Early Childhood Educators' Meta-Cognitive Knowledge of Problem-Solving Strategies and Quality of Childcare Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of early childhood educators' meta-cognitive knowledge on the quality of their childcare curriculum implementation, and to gain insights regarding successful problem-solving strategies associated with early education and care. Early childhood educators' implementation of general problem-solving strategies in…

  9. Extended Household Transitions, Race/Ethnicity, and Early Childhood Cognitive Outcomes*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Fomby, Paula; Dennis, Jeff A.

    2012-01-01

    Beyond mothers’ union status transitions, other adults’ transitions into and out of the household contribute to family instability, particularly in early childhood. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N≅8,550), this study examines associations between extended household transitions and age 2 cognitive development. A substantial minority of toddlers experiences these transitions, and their consequences vary by household member type, entry versus exit, and race/ethnicity. Extended household transitions predict lower cognitive scores for white children, but the selection of low-socioeconomic status families into extended households explains these disparities. Grandparent transitions predict significantly higher cognitive scores for African American and Latino children than whites, and some “other adult” transitions predict higher scores for Latinos than African Americans and whites. Extended household transitions’ consequences are independent of co-occurring residential moves and partner transitions. Findings suggest that studying extended household transitions is useful for understanding children’s early development, and their consequences vary by race/ethnicity. PMID:23017924

  10. Investigating the incremental validity of cognitive variables in early mathematics screening.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ben; Shanley, Lina; Kosty, Derek; Baker, Scott K; Cary, Mari Strand; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith

    2018-03-26

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incremental validity of a set of domain general cognitive measures added to a traditional screening battery of early numeracy measures. The sample consisted of 458 kindergarten students of whom 285 were designated as severely at-risk for mathematics difficulty. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI) Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests, and Digit Span Forward and Backward measures explained a small, but unique portion of the variance in kindergarten students' mathematics performance on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition (TEMA-3) when controlling for Early Numeracy Curriculum Based Measurement (EN-CBM) screening measures (R² change = .01). Furthermore, the incremental validity of the domain general cognitive measures was relatively stronger for the severely at-risk sample. We discuss results from the study in light of instructional decision-making and note the findings do not justify adding domain general cognitive assessments to mathematics screening batteries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Early childhood diarrhoeal diseases and cognition: are we missing the rest of the iceberg?

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Jessica; McTaggart, Jennifer; Guerrant, Richard L; Goldfarb, David M

    2014-11-01

    Risk factors which interfere with cognitive function are especially important during the first 2 years of life - a period referred to as early child development and a time during which rapid growth and essential development occur. Malnutrition, a condition whose effect on cognitive function is well known, has been shown to be part of a vicious cycle with diarrhoeal diseases, and the two pathologies together continue to be the leading cause of illness and death in young children in developing countries. This paper reviews the burden of early childhood diarrhoeal diseases globally and the emerging evidence of their relationship with global disparities in neurocognitive development. The strength of evidence which indicates that the severe childhood diarrhoeal burden may be implicated in cognitive impairment of children from low- and middle-income counties is discussed. Findings suggest that greater investment in multi-site, longitudinal enteric infection studies that assess long-term repercussions are warranted. Furthermore, economic analyses using the concept of human capital should play a key role in advancing our understanding of the breadth and complexities of the health, social and economic ramifications of early childhood diarrhoeal diseases and enteric infections. This broadened awareness can serve to help advocate for more effective interventions, particularly in developing economies.

  12. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Educational Inequalities in Health Behaviors at Midlife: Is There a Role for Early-life Cognition?

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Richards, Marcus; Cadar, Dorina; Hofer, Scott M

    2015-09-01

    Education is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections, that can be used in situ to influence health. Recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for educational attainment and determining health and age of mortality. Health behaviors provide a plausible mechanism linking both education and cognition to later-life health and mortality. We examine the role of education and cognition in predicting smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 10,317), National Survey of Health and Development (N = 5,362), and National Childhood Development Study (N = 16,782). Adolescent cognition was associated with education but was inconsistently associated with health behaviors. Education, however, was robustly associated with improved health behaviors after adjusting for cognition. Analyses highlight structural inequalities over individual capabilities when studying health behaviors. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  14. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  15. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years) were screened. Results A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood. PMID:29387718

  16. Educational inequalities in health behaviors at midlife: Is there a role for early-life cognition?

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean; Richards, Marcus; Cadar, Dorina; Hofer, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Educational attainment is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections that can be used in situ to influence health. However, recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for education and determining health and mortality. A primary causal mechanism through which education and adolescent cognition plausibly impact health is through the modification of health behaviors. We integrate analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the National Survey of Health and Development, and the National Childhood Development Study to examine the role of adolescent cognition and education on smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife. Results suggest that adolescent cognition is associated with the propensity for education, but that associations between cognition and health behaviors are attenuated by adjusting for education. In contrast, education was robustly associated with poor health behaviors. These results support the view that education is robustly associated with health behaviors. PMID:26315501

  17. Motor-cognitive dual-task deficits in individuals with early-mid stage Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Nora E; Hamana, Katy; Kelson, Mark; Rosser, Anne; Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori

    2016-09-01

    Huntington disease (HD) results in a range of cognitive and motor impairments that progress throughout the disease stages; however, little research has evaluated specific dual-task abilities in this population, and the degree to which they may be related to functional ability. The purpose of this study was to a) examine simple and complex motor-cognitive dual-task performance in individuals with HD, b) determine relationships between dual-task walking ability and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability, and c) examine the relationship of dual-task measures to falls in individuals with HD. Thirty-two individuals with HD were evaluated for simple and complex dual-task ability using the Walking While Talking Test. Demographics and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability were also obtained. Individuals with HD had impairments in simple and complex dual-task ability. Simple dual-task walking was correlated to disease-specific motor scores as well as cognitive performance, but complex dual-task walking was correlated with total functional capacity, as well as a range of cognitive measures. Number of prospective falls was moderately-strongly correlated to dual-task measures. Our results suggest that individuals with HD have impairments in cognitive-motor dual-task ability that are related to disease progression and specifically functional ability. Dual-task measures appear to evaluate a unique construct in individuals with early to mid-stage HD, and may have value in improving the prediction of falls risk in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical Performance Scores are strongly associated with early mortality, postoperative adverse events, and intensive care unit length of stay-analysis of consecutive discharges for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Meena; Karamichalis, John; Liu, Hua; Gauvreau, Kimberley; Colan, Steven; Saia, Matthew; Pigula, Frank; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Emani, Sitaram; Baird, Christopher; Mayer, John E; del Nido, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in our institution has indicated that the Technical Performance Score (TPS) is highly associated with early outcomes in select subsets of procedures and age groups. We hypothesized that the TPS could predict early outcomes in a wide range of diagnoses and age groups. Consecutive patients discharged from January 2011 to March 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The TPS was assigned according to the discharge echocardiographic findings and the need for reinterventions in the anatomic area of interest. Case complexity was determined using Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) categories. Early mortality and postoperative adverse events were recorded. Relationships between the TPS and outcomes were assessed after adjusting for the baseline patient characteristics. The median age of the 1926 patients was 1.8 years (range, 0 days to 68 years). Bypass was used in 1740 (90%); 322 (17%) were neonates, 520 (27%) infants, 873 (45%) children, 211 (11%) adults. TPS was class 1 (optimal) in 956 (50%), class 2 (adequate) in 584 (30%), and class 3 (inadequate) in 226 (12%); 160 patients (8%) could not be scored. A total of 51 early deaths (2.6%) and 111 adverse events (5.7%) occurred. On univariate analysis, age, RACHS-1 category, and TPS were significantly associated with mortality and the occurrence of adverse events. On multivariate modeling, class 3 (inadequate) TPS was strongly associated with mortality (odds ratio, 16.9; 95% confidence interval, 6.7-42.9; P < .001), adverse events (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-11.6; P < .001), and postoperative intensive care unit length of stay (coefficient, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.6; P < .001) after adjusting for other covariates. The TPS is strongly associated with early outcomes across a wide range of ages and disease complexity and can serve as important tool for self-assessment and quality improvement. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  19. Comparison of odor identification among amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and early Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jee-Eun; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2018-03-01

    Olfactory impairment might be an important clinical marker and predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we aimed to compare the degree of olfactory identification impairment in each mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtype, subjective memory impairment, and early AD dementia and assessed the relationship between olfactory identification and cognitive performance. We consecutively included 50 patients with amnestic MCI, 28 patients with non-amnestic MCI, 20 patients with mild AD, and 17 patients with subjective memory impairment (SMI). All patients underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessments. A multiple choice olfactory identification cross-cultural smell identification test was also utilized. Controlling for age and gender, olfactory impairment was significantly more severe in patients with AD and amnestic MCI compared with the results from the non-amnestic MCI and SMI groups. Higher scores on MMSE, verbal and non-verbal memory, and frontal executive function tests were significantly related to olfactory identification ability. In conclusion, olfactory identification is impaired in amnestic MCI and AD. These findings are consistent with previous studies. In amnestic MCI patients, this dysfunction is considered to be caused by underlying AD pathology.

  20. Cognitive ability in young adulthood predicts risk of early-onset dementia in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Henriksson, Markus; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri

    2018-06-06

    To test if the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test scores at 20.1 years predicted risk of organic dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). Dementia was defined as inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of organic dementia or AD risk derived from Hospital Discharge or Causes of Death Registers in 2,785 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, divided based on age at first diagnosis into early onset (<65 years) or late onset (≥65 years). The Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test comprises verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial subtests and a total score (scores transformed into a mean of 100 and SD of 15). We used Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for age at testing, childhood socioeconomic status, mother's age at delivery, parity, participant's birthweight, education, and stroke or coronary heart disease diagnosis. Lower cognitive ability total and verbal ability (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD disadvantage >1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.63) scores predicted higher early-onset any dementia risk across the statistical models; arithmetic and visuospatial ability scores were similarly associated with early-onset any dementia risk, but these associations weakened after covariate adjustments (HR per 1 SD disadvantage >1.57, 95% CI 0.96-2.57). All associations were rendered nonsignificant when we adjusted for participant's education. Cognitive ability did not predict late-onset dementia risk. These findings reinforce previous suggestions that lower cognitive ability in early life is a risk factor for early-onset dementia. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. High resolution OCT quantitative analysis of the space between the IOL and the posterior capsule during the early cataract postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Tao, Aizhu; Lu, Ping; Li, Jin; Shao, Yilei; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao; Zhao, Yinying; Lu, Fan

    2013-10-25

    We quantitatively characterized the space between the IOL and the posterior capsule (IOL-PC space) during the early postphacoemulsification period, using high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). We recruited 30 eyes of 30 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and randomly divided them into two groups. Acrysof Natural IQ IOLs were implanted in one group (n = 15), and Adapt-AO IOLs were implanted into the other (n = 15). A custom-built OCT instrument was used to image the IOL-PC space at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery. Slit-lamp examination and auto refraction were performed at each visit. The IOL-PC spaces in the IQ group were 0.72 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24, and 0.23 ± 0.16 mm(2) at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery, respectively. At each of these times, the values for the AO group were significantly smaller (P < 0.001). Compared to 1 day after surgery, significant changes in the ACDs and refractive errors occurred up to 1 month postoperatively in the IQ group; however, changes in the ACD and refractive error were significant only at 1 week in the AO group. The decreases in IOL-PC space and in ACD during the early postoperative period were associated with a myopic shift. It appeared that the different IOL designs had a role in closure of the IOL-PC space. High resolution OCT was suitable for quantitative analysis of IOL-PC space. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01605812.).

  2. An intervention study exploring the effects of providing older adult hip fracture patients with an information booklet in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Siobhan; Conway, Col; McGrath, Niamh B; O'Leary, Breda; O'Sullivan, Mary P; O'Sullivan, Dawn

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the provision of an information booklet on mobilisation improves early mobility postsurgical repair of hip fracture. Hip fracture among older people can have long-lasting consequences with the majority of patients failing to achieve their prefracture functional status. Early postoperative mobility may have a positive effect on long-term recovery. The importance of providing postoperative information on mobility has been highlighted. It is suggested that patients remain passive in their recovery when they do not understand the importance of mobilisation. The study used a pretest-post-test design of two treatments and a usual care control group. Eighty-three adults postsurgical repair of hip fracture, aged 65 years and older, were recruited to the study. Participants were assigned to one of three groups, a usual care group, treatment group 1 (T(1)) usual care plus basic information booklet or treatment group 2 (T(2)) usual care plus detailed information booklet. Data collection three days postsurgery and prior to discharge included the Mini-Mental State Examination, a Demographic Questionnaire, the Elderly Mobility Scale and a Numerical Pain Scale. Greatest improvements in Elderly Mobility Scale scores occurred in T(1), with least changes observed in T(2). Changes did not reach significance level (p=0·105). The results of the study suggest that the provision of basic information is preferable and highlights a deficiency of education in usual care. Hip fracture patients should be provided with an educational booklet containing basic information on mobility to promote optimal recovery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Immunohistochemical expression profiles of mucin antigens in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma: MUC4- and MUC6-negative expression predicts a shortened survival in the early postoperative phase.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kie; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Higashi, Michiyo; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nomoto, Mitsuharu; Yoshimura, Takuya; Batra, Surinder K; Yonezawa, Suguru; Semba, Ichiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Tanimoto, Akihide; Yamada, Sohsuke

    2018-02-01

    In mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the most common salivary gland carcinoma, there is a lack of novel prognostic markers, but post-operative early recurrence strongly affects the clinical course and a poor outcome. It is critical to predict which MEC patients are prone to develop recurrence/metastases. Mucins play pivotal roles in influencing cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, carcinoma invasion, aggressiveness and/or metastatic potential. Our aim is to elucidate the significance of expression profiles for mucins, particularly MUC4 and MUC6, and their correlations with various clinicopathological features and recurrence in salivary gland MECs. We performed immunohistochemical analyses on patients with surgically resected primary MEC using antibodies against mucin core proteins MUC4/8G7 and MUC6/CLH5 in 73 paraffin-embedded samples. Recurrence was noted in 15 of 73 (20.5%) patients. MUC4 or MUC6 expression was considered to be negative when <30% or 0% of the MEC cells showed positive staining, respectively. MUC4- and/or MUC6-negative expression respectively and variably showed a significant relationship to pathological tumor high-grade, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and/or tumor-related death. In addition, MUC4 showed significantly negative co-expression with MUC6. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that not only single MUC4/6-negative expression but also the combination of both predicted significantly shorter disease-free and disease-specific survivals in MECs, especially within the first two years postoperatively. Therefore, each mucin plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MEC progression. The detection of MUC4 and/or MUC6 might be a powerful parameter in the clinical management of MECs in the early postsurgical phase.

  4. Predictive Power of the NSQIP Risk Calculator for Early Post-Operative Outcomes After Whipple: Experience from a Regional Center in Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Henry Y; Kohtakangas, Erica L; Asai, Kengo; Shum, Jeffrey B

    2017-05-02

    NSQIP Risk Calculator was developed to allow surgeons to inform their patients about their individual risks for surgery. Its ability to predict complication rates and length of stay (LOS) has made it an appealing tool for both patients and surgeons. However, the NSQIP Risk Calculator has been criticized for its generality and lack of detail towards surgical subspecialties, including the hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. We wish to determine whether the NSQIP Risk Calculator is predictive of post-operative complications and LOS with respect to Whipple's resections for our patient population. As well, we wish to identify strategies to optimize early surgical outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent elective Whipple's procedure for benign or malignant pancreatic head lesions at Health Sciences North (Sudbury, Ontario), a tertiary care center, from February 2014 to August 2016. Comparisons of LOS and post-operative complications between NSQIP-predicted and actual ones were carried out. NSQIP-predicted complications rates were obtained using the NSQIP Risk Calculator through pre-defined preoperative risk factors. Clinical outcomes examined, at 30 days post-operation, included pneumonia, cardiac events, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), venous thromboembolism (VTE), renal failure, readmission, and reoperation for procedural complications. As well, mortality, disposition to nursing or rehabilitation facilities, and LOS were assessed. A total of 40 patients underwent Whipple's procedure at our center from February 2014 to August 2016. The average age was 68 (50-85), and there were 22 males and 18 females. The majority of patients had independent baseline functional status (39/40) with minimal pre-operative comorbidities. The overall post-operative morbidity was 47.5% (19/40). The rate of serious complication was 17.5% with four Clavien grade II, two grade III, and one grade

  5. MAXCOG-Maximizing Cognition: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of Goal-Oriented Cognitive Rehabilitation for People with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Regan, Bridget; Wells, Yvonne; Farrow, Maree; O'Halloran, Paul; Workman, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    To review the efficacy of a home-based four-session individualized face-to-face cognitive rehabilitation (MAXCOG) intervention for clients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or early dementia and their close supporters. Randomized controlled trial comparing the intervention group (MAXCOG) with treatment as usual (control). A total of 55 client-supporter dyads were enrolled in the study and 40 completed; 25 client-supporter dyads completed MAXCOG and 15 completed treatment as usual. Both MAXCOG and control groups included more MCI cases than dementia (22 versus 3 and 12 versus 3, respectively). Four weekly individual sessions of MAXCOG consisting of personalized interventions to address individually relevant goals, supported by the provision of the MAXCOG information resource. The primary outcomes were goal performance and satisfaction, assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Questionnaires assessing mood, illness adjustment, quality of life, and carer burden were also administered. The intervention group displayed significantly higher performance and satisfaction with primary goals on the COPM post-intervention than the control group, using a per-protocol analysis. The MAXCOG intervention is effective in improving goal performance and satisfaction in clients with MCI and early dementia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  6. A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing early postoperative complications in patients undergoing loop colostomy with and without a stoma rod.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, J; Varghese, G; Mittal, R; Rebekah, G; Jesudason, M R; Perakath, B

    2017-07-01

    A stoma rod or bridge has been traditionally placed under the bowel loop while constructing a loop colostomy. This is believed to prevent stomal retraction and provide better faecal diversion. However, the rod can cause complications such as mucosal congestion, oedema and necrosis. This single-centre prospective randomized controlled trial compared outcomes after creation of loop colostomy with and without a supporting stoma rod. The primary outcome studied was stoma retraction rate; other stoma-related complications were studied as secondary outcomes. One hundred and fifty-one patients were randomly allotted to one of two arms, colostomy with or without a supporting rod. Postoperative complications such as retraction, mucocutaneous separation, congestion and re-exploration for stoma-related complications were recorded. There was no difference in the stoma retraction rate between the two arms (8.1% in the rod arm and 6.6% in the no-rod arm; P = 0.719). Stomal necrosis (10.7% vs 1.3%; P = 0.018), oedema (23% vs 3.9%; P = 0.001), congestion (20.3% vs 2.6%; P = 0.001) and re-admission rates (8.5% vs 0%; P = 0.027) were significantly increased in the arm randomized to the rod. The stoma rod does not prevent stomal retraction. However, complication rates are significantly higher when a stoma rod is used. Routine use of a stoma rod for construction of loop colostomy can be avoided. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Early Childhood Diarrhea Predicts Cognitive Delays in Later Childhood Independently of Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Relana; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Lima, Aldo A M; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Oriá, Mônica O B; Patrick, Peter D; Moore, Sean R; Wiseman, Benjamin L; Niehaus, Mark D; Guerrant, Richard L

    2016-11-02

    Understanding the complex relationship between early childhood infectious diseases, nutritional status, poverty, and cognitive development is significantly hindered by the lack of studies that adequately address confounding between these variables. This study assesses the independent contributions of early childhood diarrhea (ECD) and malnutrition on cognitive impairment in later childhood. A cohort of 131 children from a shantytown community in northeast Brazil was monitored from birth to 24 months for diarrhea and anthropometric status. Cognitive assessments including Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), coding tasks (WISC-III), and verbal fluency (NEPSY) were completed when children were an average of 8.4 years of age (range = 5.6-12.7 years). Multivariate analysis of variance models were used to assess the individual as well as combined effects of ECD and stunting on later childhood cognitive performance. ECD, height for age (HAZ) at 24 months, and weight for age (WAZ) at 24 months were significant univariate predictors of the studies three cognitive outcomes: TONI, coding, and verbal performance (P < 0.05). Multivariate models showed that ECD remained a significant predictor, after adjusting for the effect of 24 months HAZ and WAZ, for both TONI (HAZ, P = 0.029 and WAZ, P = 0.006) and coding (HAZ, P = 0.025 and WAZ, P = 0.036) scores. WAZ and HAZ were also significant predictors after adjusting for ECD. ECD remained a significant predictor of coding (WISC III) after number of household income was considered (P = 0.006). This study provides evidence that ECD and stunting may have independent effects on children's intellectual function well into later childhood. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Early Childhood Diarrhea Predicts Cognitive Delays in Later Childhood Independently of Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Relana; Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Oriá, Mônica O. B.; Patrick, Peter D.; Moore, Sean R.; Wiseman, Benjamin L.; Niehaus, Mark D.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between early childhood infectious diseases, nutritional status, poverty, and cognitive development is significantly hindered by the lack of studies that adequately address confounding between these variables. This study assesses the independent contributions of early childhood diarrhea (ECD) and malnutrition on cognitive impairment in later childhood. A cohort of 131 children from a shantytown community in northeast Brazil was monitored from birth to 24 months for diarrhea and anthropometric status. Cognitive assessments including Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), coding tasks (WISC-III), and verbal fluency (NEPSY) were completed when children were an average of 8.4 years of age (range = 5.6–12.7 years). Multivariate analysis of variance models were used to assess the individual as well as combined effects of ECD and stunting on later childhood cognitive performance. ECD, height for age (HAZ) at 24 months, and weight for age (WAZ) at 24 months were significant univariate predictors of the studies three cognitive outcomes: TONI, coding, and verbal performance (P < 0.05). Multivariate models showed that ECD remained a significant predictor, after adjusting for the effect of 24 months HAZ and WAZ, for both TONI (HAZ, P = 0.029 and WAZ, P = 0.006) and coding (HAZ, P = 0.025 and WAZ, P = 0.036) scores. WAZ and HAZ were also significant predictors after adjusting for ECD. ECD remained a significant predictor of coding (WISC III) after number of household income was considered (P = 0.006). This study provides evidence that ECD and stunting may have independent effects on children's intellectual function well into later childhood. PMID:27601523

  9. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy Improves Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Early Course Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cognitive remediation is emerging as an effective psychosocial intervention for addressing untreated cognitive and functional impairments in persons with schizophrenia, and might achieve its benefits through neuroplastic changes in brain connectivity. This study seeks to examine the effects of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) on fronto-temporal brain connectivity in a randomized controlled trial with individuals in the early course of schizophrenia. Method Stabilized, early course outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 41) were randomly assigned to CET (n = 25) or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) control (n = 16) and treated for 2 years. Functional MRI data were collected annually, and pseudo resting-state functional connectivity analysis was used to examine differential changes in fronto-temporal connectivity between those treated with CET compared with EST. Results Individuals receiving CET evidenced significantly less functional connectivity loss between the resting-state network and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as significantly increased connectivity with the right insular cortex compared to EST (all corrected p < .01). These neural networks are involved in emotion processing and problem-solving. Increased connectivity with the right insula significantly mediated CET effects on improved emotion perception (z′ = −1.96, p = .021), and increased connectivity with the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediated CET-related improvements in emotion regulation (z′ = −1.71, p = .052). Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence that CET, a psychosocial cognitive remediation intervention, may enhance connectivity between frontal and temporal brain regions implicated in problem-solving and emotion processing in service of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia. PMID:27713804

  10. Correlation of Early Recurrence With In Vitro Adenosine Triphosphate Based Chemotherapy Response Assay in Pancreas Cancer With Postoperative Gemcitabine Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Jae Keun; Yoon, Dong Sup

    2016-11-01

    Gemcitabine-based regimens represent the standard systemic first line treatment in patients after pancreatic resection. However, the clinical impact of gemcitabine varies significantly in individuals because of chemoresistance. An in vitro adenosine triphosphate based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of cancer cells to various chemotherapeutic agents. This study investigated the correlation between in vitro gemcitabine sensitivity of tumor cells and early recurrence after curative resection. From January 2007 to December 2010, the ATP-CRA for gemcitabine was tested in 64 patients surgically treated for pancreas cancer at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. We analyzed the relationship between chemosensitivity and early systemic recurrence in patients with pancreas cancer to predict disease-free survival (DFS) after curative resection in pancreas cancer. The mean cell death rate (CDR) was 20.0 (±14.5) and divided into two groups according to the mean values of the CDR. Lymphovascular invasion was more frequently shown in gemcitabine resistance group without statistical significance. In univariate and multivariate analysis, advanced tumor stage and gemcitabine sensitive group (CDR ≥ 20) were identified as independent prognostic factors for DFS. Gemcitabine sensitivity measured by ATP-CRA was well correlated with in vivo drug responsibility to predict early recurrence following gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with pancreas cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on cognition in early postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; DiBartolo, Michelle M; Kumbhare, Suchit; Strange, Charlie; Joseph, Jane E

    2016-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has a higher prevalence in postmenopausal women who are not on hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as compared to premenopausal women. Cognitive impairment (CI) is associated with OSAS and the early postmenopausal state. We hypothesized that compared to postmenopausal women at low risk for OSAS, postmenopausal women at high risk for OSAS would report worse cognitive function. Early postmenopausal women not on HRT between the ages of 45 and 60 years, within 5 years of natural menopause, were enrolled. Participants completed a REDCap survey which collected information on demographics and risk factors, Berlin questionnaire to screen subjects for OSAS risk, and the Mail-In Cognitive Function Screening Instrument (MCFSI) score which was used to assess CI. Of 381 respondents, 127 were omitted due to missing/duplicate data or not meeting inclusion criteria. One hundred fifty-four women were classified as high risk for OSAS (OSAS+), and 100 were classified as low risk for OSAS (OSAS-). OSAS- women reported lifetime smoking, lifetime drinking, and recreational drug use more often than OSAS+ women, while OSAS+ women reported a depression diagnosis more often. The mean MCFSI score in the OSAS+ group was significantly higher (worse cognition) than in the OSAS- group after controlling for covariates (5.59, 95 % CI 5.08-6.11 vs. 4.29, 95 % CI 3.64-4.93, p < 0.05). Early postmenopausal women at high risk for OSAS report more CI than those at low risk for OSAS. Future studies should identify biomarkers of this CI and define the degree of reversibility of CI with OSAS treatment.

  12. Early post-stroke cognition in stroke rehabilitation patients predicts functional outcome at 13 months.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Jørgen; Farner, Lasse; Flekkøy, Kjell; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir; Sandvik, Leiv; Fure, Brynjar; Stensrød, Brynhild; Engedal, Knut

    2011-01-01

    To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2-3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13 months later with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as outcome measure. Three predictive models were built using linear regression analyses: a biological model (sociodemographics, apolipoprotein E genotype, prestroke vascular factors, lesion characteristics and neurological stroke-related impairment); a functional model (pre- and early post-stroke cognitive functioning, personal and instrumental activities of daily living, ADL, and depressive symptoms), and a combined model (including significant variables, with p value <0.05, from the biological and functional models). A combined model of 4 variables best predicted long-term functional outcome with explained variance of 49%: neurological impairment (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; β = 0.402, p < 0.001), age (β = 0.233, p = 0.001), post-stroke cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status, RBANS; β = -0.248, p = 0.001) and prestroke personal ADL (Barthel Index; β = -0.217, p = 0.002). Further linear regression analyses of which RBANS indexes and subtests best predicted long-term functional outcome showed that Coding (β = -0.484, p < 0.001) and Figure Copy (β = -0.233, p = 0.002) raw scores at baseline explained 42% of the variance in mRS scores at follow-up. Early post-stroke cognitive functioning as measured by the RBANS is a significant and independent predictor of long-term functional post-stroke outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The effect of implant macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative period: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Jeffrey J; Klokkevold, Perry R

    2017-10-01

    Available literature suggests there is a transient drop in implant stability from approximately week 0 to week 3-4 as a result of peri-implant bone remodeling as it transitions from a primary, mechanical stability to a secondary, biological stability. Research investigating the influence of macro-thread design on this process is scant. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the role of macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Seven patients, each missing at least two posterior teeth in the same arch, were included in the study. Three patients qualified for four implants resulting in a total of 10 matched pairs. All sites were healed (>6 months), non-grafted sites with sufficient bone to place implants. Each site in a matched pair was randomly assigned to receive either a control (Megagen EZ Plus Internal; EZ) or test (Megagen AnyRidge; AR) implant. The test implant incorporates a novel thread design with a wide thread depth and increased thread pitch. RFA was used to determine implant stability quotient (ISQ) values for each implant at the time of placement and weekly for the first 8 weeks. Implants consistently achieved a relatively high insertion torque (30-45 N/cm) and high initial ISQ value (79.8 ± 1.49). Baseline ISQ values for test (AR; 79.55 ± 1.61) and control (EZ; 80.05 ± 1.37) implants were similar. A general pattern of stability from baseline through all eight follow-up evaluations was observed for the test implants. A pattern of decreasing ISQ values was observed for the control implants across the early follow-up evaluations up to week four, where the value plateaued. There was a statistically significant main effect due to implant type (P < 0.01) and a statistically significant interaction between implant type and time (P < 0.01), indicating that the test and control implants performed differently at certain time points. Within the limitations

  14. The effect of early childhood stunting on children’s cognitive achievements: Evidence from young lives Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Behrman, Jere R.; Araya, Mesele W.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is little empirical evidence on the effect of childhood malnutrition on children’s cognitive achievements in low income countries like Ethiopia. A longitudinal data is thus vital to understand the factors that influence cognitive development of children over time, particularly how early childhood stunting affects cognitive achievement of children up to the age of 8 years. Objective To examine the effect of early childhood stunting on cognitive achievements of children using longitudinal data that incorporate anthropometric measurements and results of cognitive achievement tests such as Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Cognitive Development Assessment quantitative tests. Method Defining stunted children as those having a standardized height for age z-score less than −2; we used a Propensity Score Matching (PSM) to examine the effect of early childhood stunting on measures of cognitive performance of children. The balance of the propensity score matching techniques was checked and found to be satisfied (P<0.01) Results Early childhood stunting is significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance of children. Controlled for confounding variables such as length of breastfeeding, relative size of the child at birth, health problems of early childhood such as acute respiratory illness and malaria, baseline household wealth, child gender, household size and parental education, estimates from PSM show that stunted children scored 16.1% less in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and 48.8% less in the Quantitative Assessment test at the age of eight, both statistically significant at P<0.01. Conclusions It is important to realize the importance of early investment in terms of child health and nutrition until five years for the cognitive performance of children. As household wealth and parental education are particularly found to play an important role in children’s nutritional achievements, policy measures that are directed in

  15. Early Intervention and Mediating Processes in Cognitive Performance of Children of Low-Income African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Campbell, Frances A.; Bryant, Donna M.; Wasik, Barbara H.; Ramey, Craig T.

    1997-01-01

    Examined influences on African-American children's cognitive development between 6 months and 8 years. Found that more optimal patterns of development were associated with intensive early educational child care, responsive home stimulation, and higher maternal IQ. Child care experiences were related to cognitive performance through enhancing…

  16. Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Impairment in Cognitive Control in Adolescence: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Maheu, Francoise S.; Dozier, Mary; Peloso, Elizabeth; Mandell, Darcy; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Early-life stress (ES) has been associated with diverse forms of psychopathology. Some investigators suggest that these associations reflect the effects of stress on the neural circuits that support cognitive control. However, very few prior studies have examined the associations between ES, cognitive control, and underlying neural architecture.…

  17. [Effects of parecoxib sodium analgesia on serum concentrations of neuron-specific enolase and S-100β and postoperative cognitive function of elderly patients undergoing acute replacement of femoral head].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-zhu; Li, Xiao-zheng; Wang, Xiao-min; Wang, Ming-shan; Yu, Hai-fang; Shi, Fei; Miao, Dan; Bi, Yan-lin

    2013-07-16

    To explore the effects of parecoxib sodium analgesia on serum concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100β and postoperative cognitive function of elderly patients undergoing acute replacement of femoral head. After the approval of institutional review board and the provision of informed consent, 80 patients over 70 years old, undergoing acute replacement of femoral head under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia and midazolam sedation at Qingdao Municipal Hospital and Qingdao Hiser Medical Center from January 2011 to May 2012, were randomly assigned into control group (group C, n = 40) and parecoxib group (group P, n = 40). In group P, parecoxib sodium 20/40 mg (based on weight 50 kg) was administered via an intravenous injection after admission with 12 hours intervals for six times. In group C, morphine 2/4 mg was given initially. Additional morphine 2 mg was given to maintain the pain visual analog scale (VAS) of 3 points or less in both groups. Primary observation indices: (1) postoperative time and additional amount of morphine; (2) rate of postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at 3 days, 1 week, 3 months and 6 months postoperation (T1-T4); (3) se rum levels of NSE and S-100β were measured at the timepoints of before analgesia (t0), before anesthesia (t1), end of surgery (t2) and 6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours postoperation (t3-t5); (4) other serious complications. Compared with group C, the additional amount of morphine, postoperative time, rate of POD and POCD at T1-T4, the level of NSE at t2-t5 and S-100β at t1-t5 were lower in group P (P < 0.05). No other serious complications were observed. Parecoxib sodium analgesia reduces the rate of POD and POCD in elderly patients with neuroprotective effects.

  18. DNA METHYLATION SIGNATURES OF EARLY CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRMENTS IN ATTENTION AND COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Cyril J.; Fischer, Laura K.; Kundakovic, Marija; Garg, Paras; Jakovcevski, Mira; Dincer, Aslihan; Amaral, Ana C.; Ginns, Edward I; Galdzicka, Marzena; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Ratner, Chana; Waber, Deborah P; Mokler, David; Medford, Gayle; Champagne, Frances A.; Rosene, Douglas L.; McGaughy, Jill A.; Sharp, Andrew J.; Galler, Janina R.; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-01-01

    Background Early childhood malnutrition affects 113 million children worldwide, impacting health and increasing vulnerability for cognitive and behavioral disorders later in life. Molecular signatures after childhood malnutrition, including the potential for intergenerational transmission, remain unexplored. Methods We surveyed blood DNA methylomes (~483,000 individual CpG sites) in 168 subjects across two generations (G1,G2), including 50 G1 individuals hospitalized during the first year of life for moderate to severe protein energy malnutrition, then followed up to 48 years in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Attention deficits and cognitive performance were evaluated with Connors Adult Attention Rating Scale (CAARS) and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Expression of nutrition-sensitive genes was explored by qRT-PCR in rat prefrontal cortex. Results We identified altogether 134 nutrition-sensitive differentially methylated genomic regions (DMR), with the overwhelming majority (87%) specific for G1. Multiple neuropsychiatric risk genes, including COMT, IFNG, MIR200B, SYNGAP1 and VIP2R showed associations of specific methyl-CpGs with attention and IQ. Interferon Gamma (IFNG) expression was decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats showing attention deficits after developmental malnutrition. Conclusions Early childhood malnutrition entails long lasting epigenetic signatures associated with liability for attention and cognition, and limited potential for intergenerational transmission. PMID:27184921

  19. [Cognitive functions of school children with normal IQ and histories of severe and early malnutrition].

    PubMed

    Perales, C G; Heresi, E; Pizarro, F; Colombo, M

    1996-12-01

    This is a cross section study designed to evaluate the long lasting consequences of early and severe undernutrition on the development of basic cognitive functions. Attention, memory and problem-solving capacity were assessed in a group of 16 school children, who were severely undernourished during the first two years of age. They were compared with a group of 16 children with a normal growth. All subjects, age 8 to 10, had a normal intellectual coefficient and they belonged to the me same socioeconomical level. Memory was measured with a modified version of subtest of digits from WISC; attention was evaluated with a modified version of the Continuous Performance Task and problem-solving was measured with the Anstey Domino Test. A personal computer was used to assess the cognitive functions. The children who were undernourished during infancy presented lower scores in memory (number of the digits) and in problems solving (number of correct answers). They also had a worse performance than the control group in the same response time, when attention was evaluated. These results suggest that early severe undernutrition had deletereous effects on basic cognitive functions.

  20. DNA Methylation Signatures of Early Childhood Malnutrition Associated With Impairments in Attention and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Peter, Cyril J; Fischer, Laura K; Kundakovic, Marija; Garg, Paras; Jakovcevski, Mira; Dincer, Aslihan; Amaral, Ana C; Ginns, Edward I; Galdzicka, Marzena; Bryce, Cyralene P; Ratner, Chana; Waber, Deborah P; Mokler, David; Medford, Gayle; Champagne, Frances A; Rosene, Douglas L; McGaughy, Jill A; Sharp, Andrew J; Galler, Janina R; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-11-15

    Early childhood malnutrition affects 113 million children worldwide, impacting health and increasing vulnerability for cognitive and behavioral disorders later in life. Molecular signatures after childhood malnutrition, including the potential for intergenerational transmission, remain unexplored. We surveyed blood DNA methylomes (~483,000 individual CpG sites) in 168 subjects across two generations, including 50 generation 1 individuals hospitalized during the first year of life for moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition, then followed up to 48 years in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Attention deficits and cognitive performance were evaluated with the Connors Adult Attention Rating Scale and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Expression of nutrition-sensitive genes was explored by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in rat prefrontal cortex. We identified 134 nutrition-sensitive, differentially methylated genomic regions, with most (87%) specific for generation 1. Multiple neuropsychiatric risk genes, including COMT, IFNG, MIR200B, SYNGAP1, and VIPR2 showed associations of specific methyl-CpGs with attention and IQ. IFNG expression was decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats showing attention deficits after developmental malnutrition. Early childhood malnutrition entails long-lasting epigenetic signatures associated with liability for attention and cognition, and limited potential for intergenerational transmission. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Developmental Disturbances of Cortical Inhibitory Neurons: Contribution to Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Volk, David W.; Lewis, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a disabling and core feature of schizophrenia. Cognitive impairments have been linked to disturbances in inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Cognitive deficits are present well before the onset of psychotic symptoms and have been detected in early childhood with developmental delays reported during the first year of life. These data suggest that the pathogenetic process that produces dysfunction of prefrontal GABA neurons in schizophrenia may be related to altered prenatal development. Interestingly, adult postmortem schizophrenia brain tissue studies have provided evidence consistent with a disease process that affects different stages of prenatal development of specific subpopulations of prefrontal GABA neurons. Prenatal ontogeny (ie, birth, proliferation, migration, and phenotypic specification) of distinct subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons is differentially regulated by a host of transcription factors, chemokine receptors, and other molecular markers. In this review article, we propose a strategy to investigate how alterations in the expression of these developmental regulators of subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons may contribute to the pathogenesis of cortical GABA neuron dysfunction and consequently cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25053651

  2. Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Findings from the Nun Study.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, D A; Kemper, S J; Mortimer, J A; Greiner, L H; Wekstein, D R; Markesbery, W R

    1996-02-21

    To determine if linguistic ability in early life is associated with cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Two measures of linguistic ability in early life, idea density and grammatical complexity, were derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Approximately 58 years later, the women who wrote these autobiographies participated in an assessment of cognitive function, and those who subsequently died were evaluated neuropathologically. Convents in the United States participating in the Nun Study; primarily convents in the Milwaukee, Wis, area. Cognitive function was investigated in 93 participants who were aged 75 to 95 years at the time of their assessments, and Alzheimer's disease was investigated in the 14 participants who died at 79 to 96 years of age. Seven neuropsychological tests and neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Low idea density and low grammatical complexity in autobiographies written in early life were associated with low cognitive test scores in late life. Low idea density in early life had stronger and more consistent associations with poor cognitive function than did low grammatical complexity. Among the 14 sisters who died, neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease was present in all of those with low idea density in early life and in none of those with high idea density. Low linguistic ability in early life was a strong predictor of poor cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life.

  3. Early brain connectivity alterations and cognitive impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Tudela, Raúl; López-Gil, Xavier; Soria, Guadalupe

    2018-02-07

    Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain connectivity at an early stage (5 months of age) before a significant concentration of β-amyloid plaques is present. Cognitive abilities were assessed by a delayed nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) task preceded by a training phase where the animals learned the task. The number of training sessions required to achieve a learning criterion was recorded and evaluated. After DNMS, MRI acquisition was performed, including diffusion-weighted MRI and resting-state functional MRI, which were processed to obtain the structural and functional connectomes, respectively. Global and regional graph metrics were computed to evaluate network organization in both transgenic and control rats. The results pointed to a delay in learning the working memory-related task in the AD rats, which also completed a lower number of trials in the DNMS task. Regarding connectivity properties, less efficient organization of the structural brain networks of the transgenic rats with respect to controls was observed. Specific regional differences in connectivity were identified in both structural and functional networks. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between cognitive performance and brain networks, including whole-brain structural connectivity as well as functional and structural network metrics of regions related to memory and reward processes. In this study, connectivity and neurocognitive impairments were identified in TgF344-AD rats at a very early stage of the disease when most of the pathological hallmarks

  4. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): incremental validity in predicting early postoperative outcomes in spine surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Marek, Ryan J; Block, Andrew R; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-03-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals who undergo surgical procedures to relieve spine pain continue to report significant pain and dysfunction after recovery. Psychopathology and patient expectations have been linked to poor results, leading to an increasing reliance on presurgical psychological screening (PPS) as part of the surgical diagnostic process. The original Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, & Dahlstrom, 2001) were among the measures most commonly used in PPS evaluations and research. This study focuses on the newest version of the test, the MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008/2011) as a predictor of outcomes for spine surgery candidates. Using a sample of 172 men and 210 women who underwent a PPS, we examined the ability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores to predict early surgical outcomes independent of other presurgical risk factors identified by other means, as well as patients' presurgical expectations. MMPI-2-RF results accounted for up to 11% of additional variance in measures of early postoperative functioning. MMPI-2-RF scales that assess for emotional/internalizing problems, specifically Demoralization, measures of somatoform dysfunction, and interpersonal problems contributed most to the prediction of diminished outcome. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Cross-cultural investigation into cognitive underpinnings of individual differences in early arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Rodic, Maja; Zhou, Xinlin; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Wei, Wei; Malykh, Sergei; Ismatulina, Victoria; Sabirova, Elena; Davidova, Yulia; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic - operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were small, 13% of the variance in arithmetic skills could be explained by the sample, replicating the pattern, previously found with older children in PISA. Furthermore, the same cognitive skills were related to early arithmetic in these diverse populations. Only understanding of symbolic number explained variation in mathematical performance in all samples. We discuss the results in terms of potential influences of socio-demographic, linguistic and genetic factors on individual differences in mathematics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Early adolescents show sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by emotional distractors.

    PubMed

    Heim, Sabine; Ihssen, Niklas; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A child's ability to continuously pay attention to a cognitive task is often challenged by distracting events. Distraction is especially detrimental in a learning or classroom environment in which attended information is typically associated with establishing skills and knowledge. Here we report a study examining the effect of emotional distractors on performance in a subsequent visual lexical decision task in 11- to 13-year-old students (n=30). Lexical decisions about neutral verbs and verb-like pseudowords (i.e., targets) were analysed as a function of the preceding distractor type (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant photos) and the picture-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; 200 or 600 ms). Across distractor categories, emotionally arousing pictures prolonged decisions about word targets when compared to neutral pictures, irrespective of the SOA. The present results demonstrate that similar to adults, early adolescent students exhibit sustained susceptibility to cognitive interference by irrelevant emotional events.

  7. Cingulum correlates of cognitive functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion spectrum imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Chu, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Meng-Tien; Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) of MRI can detect neural fiber tract changes. We investigated integrity of cingulum bundle (CB) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (EAD) using DSI tractography and explored its relationship with cognitive functions. We recruited 8 patients with MCI, 9 with EAD and 15 healthy controls (HC). All subjects received a battery of neuropsychological tests to access their executive, memory and language functions. We used a 3.0-tesla MRI scanner to obtain T1- and T2-weighted images for anatomy and used a pulsed gradient twice-refocused spin-echo diffusion echo-planar imaging sequence to acquire DSI. Patients with EAD performed significantly poorer than the HC on most tests in executive and memory functions. Significantly smaller general fractional anisotropy (GFA) values were found in the posterior and inferior segments of left CB and of the anterior segment of right CB of the EAD compared with those of the HC. Spearman's correlation on the patient groups showed that GFA values of the posterior segment of the left CB were significantly negatively associated with the time used to complete Color Trails Test Part II and positively correlated with performance of the logical memory and visual reproduction. GFA values of inferior segment of bilateral CB were positively associated with the performance of visual recognition. DSI tractography demonstrates significant preferential degeneration of the CB on the left side in patients with EAD. The location-specific degeneration is associated with corresponding declines in both executive and memory functions.

  8. Association Between Exercise Therapy Dose and Functional Improvements in the Early Postoperative Phase After Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Zech, Astrid; Hendrich, Simon; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether intensity and duration of standard exercise therapy are associated with changes in function after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Prospective cohort study. Orthopedic inpatient rehabilitation center. A total of 123 patients 2 weeks after THA (n = 58; age, 62.5 ± 10.4 years) and TKA (n = 65; age, 66.6 ± 7.6 years). Standard rehabilitation (hands-on physiotherapy, group exercise therapy, strength training, cycle ergometer therapy, continuous passive motion therapy, and water exercise therapy). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and hip and knee range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and after inpatient rehabilitation. The individual rehabilitation period varied between 12-25 days and included 48.1 ± 12.5 (THA) or 41.9 ± 9.7 (TKA) exercise interventions with intensities between 9.6 and 14.0 points on the Borg Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale. WOMAC pain (P < .001), stiffness (P < .001), and function (P < .001), as well as hip (P < .001) and knee (P < .001) ROM, improved significantly in THA and TKA patients. Analysis of covariance showed that these changes could not be explained by the total duration or mean intensity of exercise therapy. The findings show a low dose-response relationship between early postoperative exercise therapy and the improvements in function or ROM after THA and TKA. Although the findings raise questions about the efficacy of existing rehabilitation programs, the small sample size, single setting, and geographic differences in postoperative treatment standards limit the generalizability of findings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive structures in women with sexual dysfunction: the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cátia; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive schemas are often related to psychological problems. However, the role of these structures within sexual problems is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and importance of early maladaptive schemas on women's sexual functioning and cognitive schemas activated in response to negative sexual events. A total of 228 women participated in the study: a control sample of 167 women without sexual problems, a subclinical sample of 37 women with low sexual functioning, and a clinical sample of 24 women with sexual dysfunction. Participants completed several self-reported measures: the Schema Questionnaire, the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings indicated that women with sexual dysfunction presented significantly more early maladaptive schemas from the Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain, particularly failure (P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.08), dependence/incompetence (P < 0.05, η(2) = 0.03), and vulnerability to danger (P < 0.05, η(2) = 0.04). Additionally, in response to negative sexual events, women with sexual dysfunction presented significantly higher scores on incompetence (P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.16), self-depreciation (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05), and difference/loneliness (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05) schemas. Results supported differences between women with and without sexual problems regarding cognitive factors. This may have implications for the knowledge, assessment, and treatment of sexual dysfunction in women. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Familiarity-based memory as an early cognitive marker of preclinical and prodromal AD

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, David A.; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Daria; Arnold, Steven E.; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in the development of cognitive markers that differentiate “normal” age-associated cognitive change from that of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its prodromal (i.e., mild cognitive impairment; MCI) or even preclinical stages. Dual process models posit that recognition memory is supported by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Familiarity-based memory has generally been considered to be spared during normal aging, but it remains controversial whether this type of memory is impaired in early AD. Here, we describe findings of estimates of recollection and familiarity in young adults (YA), cognitively normal older adults (CN), and patients with amnestic-MCI (a-MCI). These measures in the CN and a-MCI patients were then related to a structural imaging biomarker of AD that has previously been demonstrated to be sensitive to preclinical and prodromal AD, the Cortical Signature of AD (ADsig). Consistent with much work in the literature, recollection, but not familiarity, was impaired in CN versus YA. Replicating our prior findings, a-MCI patients displayed impairment in both familiarity and recollection. Finally, the familiarity measure was correlated with the ADsig biomarker across the CN and a-MCI group, as well as within the CN adults alone. No other standard psychometric measure was as highly associated with the ADsig, suggesting that familiarity may be a sensitive biomarker of AD-specific brain changes in preclinical and prodromal AD and that it may offer a qualitatively distinct measure of early AD memory impairment relative to normal age-associated change. PMID:23474075

  11. Study protocol: EXERcise and cognition in sedentary adults with early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON).

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M; Eggermont, Laura H P; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Koppe, Peter A; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-08-16

    Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. The present study is registered within The Netherlands National Trial Register (ref: NTR2124).

  12. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. Discussion The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. Trial registration The present study is registered within The Netherlands

  13. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  14. Transient anorexia, hyper-nociception and cognitive impairment in early adjuvant arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Skurlova, M; Stofkova, A; Kiss, A; Belacek, J; Pecha, O; Deykun, K; Jurcovicova, J

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, pain, anorexia, and cognitive changes. The enhanced production of cytokines appears before the full manifestation of the disease. So far, any experimental data on behavioral effects of early arthritis are lacking. In the present series we describe anorexia early changes in, pain hyper-sensitivity and altered cognitive behavior during the first four days of adjuvant arthritis in rats (AA), when no clinical signs are yet apparent. AA was induced to male Lewis rats by a single injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (cFA) at the base of the tail. Plasma leptin and ghrelin were measured using specific RIA methods. Gene expressions for food-regulatory peptides, neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC), were quantitated by TaqMan real-time PCR. Pain sensation was measured on all four limbs and tail by the plantar test. Cognitive functions were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Levels of orexigenic ghrelin as well as mRNA expression of orexigenic NPY in nucleus arcuatus (nRC)re significantly enhanced on day 2 of AA only. Reduced body weight and food intake persisted by day 4 with the most profound reduction on day 2. The mRNA for anorexigenic IL-1β in the nARC was significantly enhanced on days 2 and 4. Enhanced pain sensitivity was observed on day 2, as was the cognitive impairment given by longer time to find the hidden platform, longer time spent in thigmotaxis zone, and longer trajectory. The less effective strategy used to find the hidden platform was observed up to the day 4 of AA. Early stage of AA brings about reduced body weight, food intake, and activation of central orexigenic pathways. The observed anorexia could be ascribed to the over-expression of anorexigenic IL-1β which dominates over the NPY orexigenic effects. On day 2 of AA higher pain sensitivity and cognitive impairment appear. All the observed change tend

  15. Cognitive and Social Processes Predicting Partner Psychological Adaptation to Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners’ psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning-making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Materials and Methods Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner’s diagnosis (n= 253), nine (n = 167), and 18 months (n = 149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning-making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Results Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Conclusions Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners’ processing depends upon whether these efforts result changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners’ adaptation to cancer. PMID:18435865

  16. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  17. Early Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Brain Volume, Cognition, and Gait

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric E; O'Donnell, Martin; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott A; Wielgosz, Andreas; Sharma, Mukul; Poirier, Paul; Stotts, Grant; Black, Sandra E; Strother, Stephen; Noseworthy, Michael D; Benavente, Oscar; Modi, Jayesh; Goyal, Mayank; Batool, Saima; Sanchez, Karla; Hill, Vanessa; McCreary, Cheryl R; Frayne, Richard; Islam, Shofiqul; DeJesus, Jane; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Objective Decline in cognitive function begins by the 40s, and may be related to future dementia risk. We used data from a community-representative study to determine whether there are age-related differences in simple cognitive and gait tests by the 40s, and whether these differences were associated with covert cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Between 2010 and 2012, 803 participants aged 40 to 75 years in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, recruited from prespecified postal code regions centered on 4 Canadian cities, underwent brain MRI and simple tests of cognition and gait as part of a substudy (PURE-MIND). Results Mean age was 58 ± 8 years. Linear decreases in performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and Timed Up and Go test of gait were seen with each age decade from the 40s to the 70s. Silent brain infarcts were observed in 3% of 40- to 49-year-olds, with increasing prevalence up to 18.9% in 70-year-olds. Silent brain infarcts were associated with slower timed gait and lower volume of supratentorial white matter. Higher volume of supratentorial MRI white matter hyperintensity was associated with slower timed gait and worse performance on DSST, and lower volumes of the supratentorial cortex and white matter, and cerebellum. Interpretation Covert cerebrovascular disease and its consequences on cognitive and gait performance and brain atrophy are manifest in some clinically asymptomatic persons as early as the 5th decade of life. Ann Neurol 2015;77:251–261 PMID:25428654

  18. Maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood cognitive development: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Kaaya, S; Chai, J; McCoy, D C; Surkan, P J; Black, M M; Sutter-Dallay, A-L; Verdoux, H; Smith-Fawzi, M C

    2017-03-01

    Previous findings have been mixed regarding the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child cognitive development. The objective of this study was to systematically review relevant literature and to perform a meta-analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO) were searched. Initial screening was conducted independently by two reviewers. Studies selected for detailed review were read in full and included based on a set of criteria. Data from selected studies were abstracted onto a standardized form. Meta-analysis using the inverse variance approach and random-effects models was conducted. The univariate analysis of 14 studies revealed that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores among children aged ⩽56 months (Cohen's d = -0.25, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.12). The synthesis of studies controlling for confounding variables showed that the mean cognitive score for children 6-8 weeks post-partum whose mothers had high depressive symptoms during the first few weeks postpartum was approximately 4.2 units lower on the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) compared with children with non-symptomatic mothers (B̂ = -4.17, 95% CI -8.01 to -0.32). The results indicated that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores in early infancy, after adjusting for confounding factors. An integrated approach for supporting child cognitive development may include program efforts that promote maternal mental health in addition to family economic wellbeing, responsive caregiving, and child nutrition.

  19. Early postoperative repair status after rotator cuff repair cannot be accurately classified using questionnaires of patient function and isokinetic strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Colliver, Jessica; Wang, Allan; Joss, Brendan; Ebert, Jay; Koh, Eamon; Breidahl, William; Ackland, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated if patients with an intact tendon repair or partial-thickness retear early after rotator cuff repair display differences in clinical evaluations and whether early tendon healing can be predicted using these assessments. We prospectively evaluated 60 patients at 16 weeks after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Evaluation included the Oxford Shoulder Score, 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, visual analog scale for pain, 12-item Short Form Health Survey, isokinetic strength, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Independent t tests investigated clinical differences in patients based on the Sugaya MRI rotator cuff classification system (grades 1, 2, or 3). Discriminant analysis determined whether intact repairs (Sugaya grade 1) and partial-thickness retears (Sugaya grades 2 and 3) could be predicted. No differences (P < .05) existed in the clinical or strength measures. Although discriminant analysis revealed the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand produced a 97% true-positive rate for predicting partial thickness retears, it also produced a 90% false-positive rate whereby it incorrectly predicted a retear in 90% of patients whose repair was intact. The ability to discriminate between groups was enhanced with up to 5 variables entered; however, only 87% of the partial-retear group and 36% of the intact-repair group were correctly classified. No differences in clinical scores existed between patients stratified by the Sugaya MRI classification system at 16 weeks. An intact repair or partial-thickness retear could not be accurately predicted. Our results suggest that correct classification of healing in the early postoperative stages should involve imaging. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p <.0001) and was predictive of 24-month language (β = 0.20, p <.05). The effect of early cognitive stimulation on 24-month language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  1. Keeping Kids on Track: Impacts of a Parenting-Focused Early Head Start Program on Attachment Security and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggman, Lori A.; Boyce, Lisa K.; Cook, Gina A.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The home-based Early Head Start program in this local study aimed to promote children's early attachment and cognitive development by establishing supportive relationships with parents and guiding responsive parenting and positive parent-child play interactions. To test the effectiveness of this approach, we studied the…

  2. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiological Evaluation of Strategic Structures in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nesteruk, Tomasz; Nesteruk, Marta; Styczyńska, Maria; Barcikowska-Kotowicz, Maria; Walecki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of two measurement techniques in patients with cognitive impairment - automated volumetry of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, cortex of the temporal lobes and corpus callosum, and fractional anisotropy (FA) index measurement of the corpus callosum using diffusion tensor imaging. A total number of 96 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain - 33 healthy controls (HC), 33 patients with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early stage. The severity of the dementia was evaluated with neuropsychological test battery. The volumetric measurements were performed automatically using FreeSurfer imaging software. The measurements of FA index were performed manually using ROI (region of interest) tool. The volumetric measurement of the temporal lobe cortex had the highest correct classification rate (68.7%), whereas the lowest was achieved with FA index measurement of the corpus callosum (51%). The highest sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between the patients with MCI vs. early AD was achieved with the volumetric measurement of the corpus callosum - the val