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Sample records for early postoperative magnetic

  1. Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Detecting Radicular Pain After Lumbar Decompression Surgery: Retrospective Study of the Relationship Between Dural Sac Cross-sectional Area and Postoperative Radicular Pain.

    PubMed

    Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Takahashi, Jun; Oba, Hiroki; Ikegami, Shota; Mogami, Yuji; Shibata, Syunichi; Ohji, Yoshihito; Tanikawa, Hirotaka; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    A retrospective analysis. To evaluate the association between early postoperative dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) and radicular pain. The correlation between postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and postoperative neurological symptoms after lumbar decompression surgery is controversial. This study included 115 patients who underwent lumbar decompression surgery followed by MRI within 7 days postoperatively. There were 46 patients with early postoperative radicular pain, regardless of whether the pain was mild or similar to that before surgery. The intervertebral level with the smallest DCSA was identified on MRI and compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Risk factors for postoperative radicular pain were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subanalysis according to absence/presence of a residual suction drain also was performed. Multivariate regression analysis showed that smaller postoperative DCSA was significantly associated with early postoperative radicular pain (per -10 mm; odds ratio, 1.26). The best cutoff value for radicular pain was early postoperative DCSA of 67.7 mm. Even with a cutoff value of <70 mm, sensitivity and specificity are 74.3% and 75.0%, respectively. Early postoperative DCSA was significantly larger before suction drain removal than after (119.7±10.1 vs. 93.9±5.4 mm). Smaller DCSA in the early postoperative period was associated with radicular pain after lumbar decompression surgery. The best cutoff value for postoperative radicular pain was 67.7 mm. Absence of a suction drain at the time of early postoperative MRI was related to smaller DCSA.

  2. Early postoperative magnet application combined with hydrocolloid dressing for the treatment of earlobe keloids.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hwan; Chang, Choong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    To prevent the recurrence of earlobe keloids after surgical removal, a reliable and safe postoperative treatment method is critical. To the authors' knowledge, no studies have elucidated the most effective postoperative dressing method for preventing the recurrence of earlobe keloids. This study aimed to compare keloid recurrence rates in patients whose keloids were dressed using conventional methods (plain gauze or a polyvinyl alcohol sponge) with those of a matched cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using magnets combined with hydrocolloid materials. This observational case-control study compared a retrospective cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using conventional methods with a matched prospective cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using magnets combined with hydrocolloid materials. The study included patients with pathologically confirmed earlobe keloids that were surgically excised with primary closure. Patients 8 years of age or older underwent adjuvant pressure therapy with magnets at the study hospital. Patients were excluded from the study if they were unavailable for follow-up evaluation, if they had received additional adjuvant therapy during treatment, or if histologic confirmation of a keloid was not obtained. Matched-pair analysis was performed using the McNemar test. Treatment outcome was evaluated as recurrence or nonrecurrence. Overall, 9 (11.2%) of the 80 study patients experienced recurrence. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in the matched case group (2 of 40, 5%) than in the matched control group (7 of 40, 17.5%) during the follow-up period of 18 months (p=0.0253). The authors' novel dressing of magnets and hydrocolloid materials appears to be effective in reducing earlobe keloid recurrence. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to

  3. Early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging in glioblastoma: correlation among radiological findings and overall survival in 60 patients.

    PubMed

    Majós, Carles; Cos, Mònica; Castañer, Sara; Gil, Miguel; Plans, Gerard; Lucas, Anna; Bruna, Jordi; Aguilera, Carles

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) as a prognostic tool after resection of glioblastoma. Sixty EPMR examinations were evaluated for perioperative infarct, tumour growth between diagnosis and EPMR, contrast enhancement pattern, and extent of resection (EOR). The EOR was approached with the subjective evaluation of radiologists and by quantifying volumes. These parameters were tested as predictors of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method. Contrast enhancement was found in 59 patients (59/60; 98 %). Showing a thin-linear pattern of enhancement was the most favourable finding. Patients with this pattern survived longer than patients with thick-linear (median overall survival (OS) thin-linear=609 days; thick-linear=432 days; P = .023) or nodular (median OS = 318 days; P = .001) enhancements. The subjective evaluation of the EOR performed better than its quantification. Patients survived longer when resection was total (median OS total resection=609 days; subtotal=371 days; P = .001). When resection was subtotal, patients survived longer if it was superior to 95 % (median OS resection superior to 95 %=559 days; inferior to 95 %=256 days; P = .034). EPMR provides valuable prognostic information after surgical resection of glioblastomas. A thin-linear pattern of contrast enhancement is the most favourable finding. Further prognostic stratification may be obtained by assessing the EOR. • Some kind of contrast enhancement may be found in most EPMR examinations. • Thin-linear enhancements in the EPMR may be considered benign findings. • The EOR evaluated in the EPMR may stratify prognostic groups of patients. • The subjective evaluation of the EOR performs slightly better than its quantification.

  4. Early postoperative cartilage evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging using T2 mapping after arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kammei; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kan, Hiroyuki; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to quantitatively evaluate postoperative changes in cartilage by T2 mapping after arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. The study enrolled 17 patients with 20 knees that underwent arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. MRI was performed preoperatively and at six months postoperatively, with subjects evaluated by T2 mapping of the central part of the medial condyle of the femur in the sagittal plane. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set at 10 points between the point of intersection of the anatomical axis of the femur and the articular surface of the medial condyle and posterior area approximately 90 degrees to the anatomical axis. Pre- and postoperative T2 values at each ROI were evaluated. Postoperative T2 values were significantly longer than preoperative values at approximately 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the anatomical axis of the femur. The maximum change between pre- and postoperative T2 values was +6.65% at 30 degrees to the anatomical axis. Mechanical stress at positions approximately 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees relative to the anatomical axis of the femur increased soon after arthroscopic medial meniscectomy. These findings indicate the start of degeneration, via disorganization of collagen arrays, of the articular cartilage and increased water content. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Early postoperative pulmonary complications after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Camkiran Firat, A; Komurcu, O; Zeyneloglu, P; Turker, M; Sezgin, A; Pirat, A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the types, incidence, and risk factors for early postoperative pulmonary complications in heart transplant recipients. We retrospectively collected data from the records of consecutive heart transplantations from January 2003 to December 2013. A total of 83 patients underwent heart transplantation. The data collected for each case were demographic features, duration of mechanical ventilation, respiratory problems that developed during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and early postoperative mortality (<30 d). Of the 72 patients considered, 52 (72.2%) were male. The overall mean age at the time of transplantation was 32.1 ± 16.6 years. Twenty-five patients (34.7%) developed early postoperative respiratory complications. The most frequent problem was pleural effusion (n = 19; 26.4%), followed by atelectasis (n = 6; 8.3%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 5; 6.9%), pulmonary edema (n = 4; 5.6%), and pneumonia (n = 3; 4.2%). Postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (44.2 ± 59.2 h vs 123.8 ± 190.8 h; P = .005) and the length of postoperative ICU stay (10.1 ± 5.8 h vs 19.8 ± 28.9 h; P = .03) were longer among patients who had respiratory problems. Postoperative length of stay in the hospital (22.3 ± 12.5 d vs 30.3 ± 38.3 d; P = .75) was similar in the 2 groups. The overall mortality rate was 12.5% (n = 9). The patients who had respiratory problems did not show higher mortality than those who did not have respiratory problems (16.0% vs 10.6%; P = .71). Respiratory complications were relatively common in our cohort of heart transplant recipients. However, these complications were mostly self-limiting and did not result in worse mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  7. Intraoperative and early postoperative complications of manual sutureless cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Yasir; Zia, Sohail; Baig Mirza, Aneeq Ullah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the intraoperative and early postoperative complications of manual sutureless cataract extraction. Case series. Redo Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2010. Three hundred patients of cataract through purposive non-probability sampling were selected. The patients underwent manual sutureless cataract surgery (MSCS) by single experienced surgeon and intraoperative complications were documented. The surgical technique was modified to deal with any intraoperative complications accordingly. Patients were examined on the first postoperative day and on the first postoperative week for any postoperative complications. The data was entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and the results were calculated in frequencies. Among the 300 cases, 81.3% surgeries went uneventful whereas 18.6% had some complication. The common intraoperative complications were superior button-hole formation in 5%; posterior capsular rent in 5% and premature entry with iris prolapse in 3% cases. Postoperatively, the commonly encountered complications were striate keratopathy in 9.6% and hyphema 9%. At first week follow-up, 4% had striate keratopathy and 0.6% had hyphema. Striate keratopathy resolved with topical medication on subsequent follow-up. A total of 9 cases (3%) underwent second surgery: 2 cases for lens matter wash, 2 cases for hyphema and 5 cases needed suturing of wound for shallow anterior chamber due to wound leak. Superior button-hole formation, posterior capsular rent and premature entry were the common intraoperative complications of MSCS whereas the common early postoperative complications were striate keratopathy and hyphema.

  8. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (<10 days) and late (>30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (p<.001, Fisher’s exact test). The average percent decrease in cavity volume from pre-operative MRI (tumor volume) to early post-operative imaging was 45% with decreases in all but 3 patients. There was no correlation between the size of the early cavity and the visual outcome. Conclusions Early high resolution volumetric MRI is valuable in determining the presence or absence of residual tumor. Cavity volume almost always decreases after surgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  9. Early Postoperative Perils of Intraventricular Tumors: An Observational Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Schär, Ralph T; Schwarz, Christa; Söll, Nicole; Raabe, Andreas; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Beck, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Early postoperative patient surveillance after removal of intraventricular tumors is often hindered by delayed awakening and prolonged somnolence. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of early critical postoperative events after elective craniotomy for intraventricular tumors in adults compared with extraventricular lesions. An observational comparative study was conducted on adult patients who had undergone first-time elective craniotomy between November 2011 and August 2016. Patients were stratified into extraventricular lesions (group 1) and intraventricular tumors (group 2). The rates of late extubation, early postoperative seizures, emergency head computed tomography (CT) scans, and urgent surgical intervention within 48 hours and mortality within 30 days of surgery were analyzed from a prospective database. A total of 977 elective craniotomies were analyzed, including 951 (97.3%) in group 1 and 26 (2.7%) in group 2. Emergency CT scans were ordered significantly more frequently in group 2 (34.6% vs. 8.4%; odds ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.49-13.35; P = 0.0002), and the incidence of urgent surgical intervention was significantly higher in group 2 (11.5% vs. 0.8%; odds ratio, 15.38; 95% CI, 3.83-61.72; P = 0.002). The main reason for urgent surgical intervention in group 2 was acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Overall surgical mortality after 30 days was 0.3% (3 cases in group 1, no cases in group 2). Intraventricular tumors are at significantly higher risk for early emergency head CT and urgent surgical intervention. This patient cohort might benefit from routine intraoperative and early postoperative imaging, as well as intraoperative extraventricular drain placement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of Late Postoperative Hemorrhage after Whipple Procedure Using Computed Tomography Performed During Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Han, Ga Jin; Kim, Suk; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Seo, Hyeong Il; Kim, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Un

    2018-01-01

    Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is an uncommon but serious complication of Whipple surgery. To evaluate the radiologic features associated with late PPH at the first postoperative follow up CT, before bleeding. To evaluate the radiological features associated with late PPH at the first follow-up CT, two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the initial postoperative follow-up CT images of 151 patients, who had undergone Whipple surgery. Twenty patients showed PPH due to vascular problem or anastomotic ulcer. The research compared CT and clinical findings of 20 patients with late PPH and 131 patients without late PPH, including presence of suggestive feature of pancreatic fistula (presence of air at fluid along pancreaticojejunostomy [PJ]), abscess (fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas), fluid along hepaticojejunostomy or PJ, the density of ascites, and the size of visible gastroduodenal artery (GDA) stump. CT findings including pancreatic fistula, abscess, and large GDA stump were associated with PPH on univariate analysis ( p ≤ 0.009). On multivariate analysis, radiological features suggestive of a pancreatic fistula, abscess, and a GDA stump > 4.45 mm were associated with PPH ( p ≤ 0.031). Early postoperative CT findings including GDA stump size larger than 4.45 mm, fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas, and air at fluid along PJ, could predict late PPH.

  11. Role of gastrografin challenge in early postoperative small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Ugarte, Maria L Martinez; Srvantstian, Boris; Dozois, Eric J; Bannon, Michael P; Zielinski, Martin D

    2014-02-01

    Early small bowel obstruction following abdominal surgery presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Abdominal imaging using Gastrografin has been shown to have diagnostic and therapeutic properties when used in the setting of small bowel obstruction outside the early postoperative period (>6 weeks). We hypothesize that a GG challenge will reduce need for re-exploration. Patients with early small bowel obstruction who underwent a Gastrografin challenge between 2010 and 2012 were case controlled, based on age ±5 years, sex, and operative approach to an equal number of patients that did not receive the challenge. One hundred sixteen patients received a Gastrografin challenge. There were 87 males in each group with an average age of 62 years. A laparoscopic approach in the index operation was done equally between groups (18 vs. 18 %). There was no difference between groups in operative re-exploration rates (14 vs. 10 %); however, hospital duration of stay was greater in patients who received Gastrografin challenge (17 vs. 13 days). Two in hospital deaths occurred, one in each group, both of infectious complications. Use of the Gastrografin challenge in the immediate postoperative period appeared to be safe. There was no difference, however, in the rate of re-exploration between groups.

  12. Early extubation after cardiac surgery: emotional status in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Silbert, B S; Santamaria, J D; Kelly, W J; O'brien, J L; Blyth, C M; Wong, M Y; Allen, N B

    2001-08-01

    To compare the emotional state during the first 3 days after coronary artery surgery of patients who had undergone early versus conventional extubation. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. University hospital, single center. Eligible patients (n = 100) presenting for elective coronary artery surgery, randomized to an early extubation group or a conventional extubation group. Emotional status was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM), and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R). Tests were administered preoperatively and on the 1st and 3rd days postoperatively. Of patients in the conventional extubation group, 30% showed moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (HAD score >10) on day 3 postoperatively compared with 8% of patients in the early extubation group (p = 0.02). There was a clinically insignificant increase in MAACL-R depression score on the 1st postoperative day within both groups but no other differences within or between groups in SAM or MAACL-R scores. Early extubation results in fewer patients displaying depressive symptoms on the 3rd postoperative day but appears to have little effect on other measurements of emotional status. Anesthetic management during coronary artery bypass graft surgery may play an important role in the overall well-being of the patient by decreasing the incidence of postoperative depression. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  13. Assessment of early post-operative pain following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Szychta, P; Antoszewski, B

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate pain incidence and intensity in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty, and to assess analgesic treatment effectiveness, in the first 7 days after surgery. Prospective outcomes analysis using visual analogue scale assessment of pain intensity in the first 7 post-operative days. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 29 women and 28 men, aged 18 to 51 years. All were treated for post-traumatic deformity of the external nose and/or nasal septum, with either septorhinoplasty or septoplasty. In the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, patients' mean visual analogue scale pain score exceeded the range denoting 'analgesic success', and showed considerable exacerbation in the evening. Patients' pain decreased to a mean score of 15.4 one hour after administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (metamizole). Analgesia is recommended for all patients in the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, especially in the early evening.

  14. Early Transthoracic Echocardiography after Cardiac Surgery Predicts Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lacalzada, Juan; Jiménez, Juan José; Iribarren, José Luis; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Martín-Cabeza, Marta; Izquierdo, María Manuela; Marí-López, Belén; García-González, Martín Jesús; Jorge-Pérez, Pablo; Barragán, Antonio; Laynez, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is frequent after cardiac surgery. We aimed to establish a predictive model of POAF based on postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. This study included 147 patients (aged 67 ± 11 years; 109 men) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement. TTE and Doppler tissue imaging were performed on intensive care unit arrival after surgery. All patients were continuously monitored during hospitalization. The end point was the appearance of POAF. POAF appeared in 37 patients (25.2%). These patients were older (69 ± 16 vs. 65 ± 12 years; P < 0.001) and had increased long axis of the left atrium (LA) dimension (5.4 ± 1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 cm, P = 0.02), lower early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (e') (6.9 ± 2.1 vs. 8 ± 1.8 cm/sec; P < 0.01), and higher early diastolic pulsed Doppler mitral ratio (E)/e' (E/e') (17.4 ± 6.8 vs. 13.8 ± 6; P = 0.01). Left ventricle diastolic dysfunction grade (DFG) of 2 or 3 relative to grade 0 was significant: odds ratio (OR) 22.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.52-57.2; P < 0.001, and OR: 23.6, 95% CI: 3.57-60.1; P = 0.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of POAF were age (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18; P < 0.05), long-axis LA dimension (OR: 6.24, 95% CI: 1.97-8.23; P = 0.0017), DFG-2 (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.57-15.81; P < 0.001), and DFG-3 (OR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.11-25.37; P < 0.001). Apart from age, the simple determination by postoperative TTE of long-axis LA dimension and DFG after cardiac surgery proved to be powerful independent predictors of POAF and may be useful for risk stratification of these patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Serum proteomics of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Li, Shi-Zhong; Feng, Chun-Sheng; Qu, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xue-Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yun; Wu, An-Shi; Yue, Yun

    2012-07-01

    Studies on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) have attracted extensive attention and achieved significant progress. However, the diagnosis of POCD is not very satisfactory as no specific biomarkers have been classified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in serum protein composition between POCD and Non-POCD patients, identify potential biomarkers associated with early POCD, and study the mechanism underlying POCD. Sixty-eight elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) received isoflurane inhalation anesthesia for arthroplasty surgeries. One day before and seven days after the surgery, these patients were subjected to a neuropsychological test and venous blood sample collection. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was determined using Z test scores. Based on the results, the patients were divided into POCD and non-POCD groups. Twenty-five randomly chosen blood samples obtained seven days after the surgery from each group were analyzed on a Bruker ultraFlex(TM) time of flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectrophotometer. The resulting peptide fingerprints were compared with those from the pre-surgery samples to identify differences in serum protein composition. The model designed to distinguish between a non-POCD group and a POCD group were established and validated. Three proteins with the most significant changes were selected for further characterization. Thirty-three cases were diagnosed as POCD. Using the Clinprotools software, 58 polypeptides were found to display differential expression (P < 0.05). Using a support vector algorithm method, seven differential peaks were isolated to establish a diagnostic model to distinguish POCD patients from normal individuals. The prediction rate and recognition rate were 96.89% and 100%, respectively. Validation of this model showed that the accuracy rates were 100% and 85% using samples from the POCD and non-POCD groups, respectively. Protein analysis also led to the identification of fibrinopeptide A (FPA) as a

  16. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS IN ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    STOLL, Aluisio; ROSIN, Leandro; DIAS, Mariana Fernandes; MARQUIOTTI, Bruna; GUGELMIN, Giovana; STOLL, Gabriela Fanezzi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most common bariatric surgery and leads to considerable weight loss in the first months. Aim: To quantify the main early postoperative complications in patients submitted to the gastric bypass. Method: Observational retrospective cohort. Data of 1051 patients with class II obesity associated with comorbidities or class III obesity submitted to the gastric bypass with 30 days of follow-up starting from the date of the surgery. Results: The age average was 36 years with a predominance of females (81.1%). The mean preoperative body mass index was 43 kg/m². The major complication was fistula (2.3%), followed by intestinal obstruction (0.5%) and pulmonary embolism (0.5%). Death occurred in 0.6% of the cases. Conclusion: In the period of 30 days after surgery the overall complication rate was 3.8%; reoperation was necessary in 2.6% and death occurred in 0.6%. Fistula was the main complication and the leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit, reoperation and death. PMID:27683781

  17. Clinical Features of Early and Late Postoperative Hypothyroidism After Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Eyun; Oh, Hye-Seon; Kim, Mijin; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Won Gu

    2017-04-01

    Lobectomy is preferred in thyroid cancer to decrease surgical complications and avoid lifelong thyroid-hormone replacement. However, postoperative hypothyroidism, requiring thyroid-hormone replacement, may occur. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of postoperative hypothyroidism to develop a surveillance strategy after lobectomy for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This historical cohort study involved 335 patients with PTMC treated by lobectomy. Postoperative thyroid functions were measured regularly, and patients were prescribed levothyroxine according to specific criteria. Patients not satisfying hormone-replacement criteria were closely followed up. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred in 215 patients (64.2%) including 5 (1.5%) with overt hypothyroidism and 210 (62.7%) with subclinical hypothyroidism. Forty patients (11.9%) were required thyroid hormone replacement. One hundred nineteen patients (33.5%) experienced temporary hypothyroidism and spontaneously recovered to euthyroid state. High preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was the most important factor predicting postoperative hypothyroidism and failure of recover from hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 2.82 and 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07 to 3.95 and 1.22 to 2.63; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Of the 215 patients eventually developing postoperative hypothyroidism, 70 (32.6%) developed hypothyroidism after the first postoperative year. Postoperative 1-year TSH levels were able to differentiate patients developing late hypothyroidism or euthyroidism (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.68 to 3.26; P < 0.001). Preoperative and postoperative TSH levels might be predictive for patients who develop postlobectomy hypothyroidism and identify those requiring long-term surveillance for hypothyroidism. Additionally, mild postoperative hypothyroidism cases should be followed up without immediate levothyroxine replacement with the expectation of spontaneous recovery. Copyright

  18. Patient Satisfaction With an Early Smartphone-Based Cosmetic Surgery Postoperative Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Edoardo Dalla; D'Souza, Gehaan F; DeLeonibus, Anthony; Fabiani, Brianna; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Zins, James E

    2017-12-13

    While prevalent in everyday life, smartphones are also finding increasing use as a medical care adjunct. The use of smartphone technology as a postoperative cosmetic surgery adjunct for care has received little attention in the literature. The purpose of this effort was to assess the potential efficacy of a smartphone-based cosmetic surgery early postoperative follow-up program. Specifically, could smartphone photography provided by the patient to the plastic surgeon in the first few days after surgery allay patient's concerns, improve the postoperative experience and, possibly, detect early complications? From August 2015 to March 2016 a smartphone-based postoperative protocol was established for patients undergoing cosmetic procedures. At the time of discharge, the plastic surgeon sent a text to the patient with instructions for the patient to forward a postoperative photograph of the operated area within 48 to 72 hours. The plastic surgeon then made a return call/text that same day to review the patient's progress. A postoperative questionnaire evaluated the patients' postoperative experience and satisfaction with the program. A total of 57 patients were included in the study. Fifty-two patients responded to the survey. A total of 50 (96.2%) patients reported that the process improved the quality of their postoperative experience. The protocol allowed to detect early complications in 3 cases. The physician was able to address and treat the complications the following day prior to the scheduled clinic follow up. The smartphone can be effectively utilized by the surgeon to both enhance the patient's postoperative experience and alert the surgeon to early postoperative problems. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Early post-operative cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia: Report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Suo, Shihuan; Zhao, Jinchuan; Li, Guichen

    2018-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a common neurosurgical condition, which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. At our institution, a substantial number of the reported cases of early post-operative CSF hypovolemia were identified to have unintentional or unrecognized post-operative continuous excessive CSF leakage. Cases who presented with post-operative CSF hypovolemia several days after uneventful intracranial surgeries without continuous CSF leakage were rarely reported. A retrospective review of the medical records of these patients was performed to identify those patients who developed early post-operative CSF hypovolemia without the presence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. A total of 7 patients, 5 of which were males, were identified in this retrospective study. They experienced CSF hypovolemia between days 1 and 7 after emergency or scheduled intracranial surgeries. Ventricular collapse, cisternal effacement and midline shift are the most common radiological observations. With early diagnosis and management, 4 of the patients achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, 1 achieved a GOS score of 4 and the remaining 2 had a GOS score of 3. No mortality was noted in this series. Although rare in incidence, early post-operative CSF hypovolemia may occur without the existence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. When the diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia is reached, factors that may exacerbate CSF compensation should be promptly terminated. Trendelenburg position and sufficient intravenous hydration are practical and effective managements, and CSF hypovolemia may thereby be reversed in a substantial number of patients.

  20. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386

  1. Prediction of early postoperative infections in pediatric liver transplantation by logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova, Yordanka; Prodanova, Krasimira; Spassov, Lubomir

    2016-12-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of infections after OLT are usually associated with improved outcomes. This study's objective is to identify reliable factors that can predict postoperative infectious morbidity. 27 children were included in the analysis. They underwent liver transplantation in our department. The correlation between two parameters (the level of blood glucose at 5th postoperative day and the duration of the anhepatic phase) and postoperative infections was analyzed, using univariate analysis. In this analysis, an independent predictive factor was derived which adequately identifies patients at risk of infectious complications after a liver transplantation.

  2. Effects of oral preoperative carbohydrate on early postoperative outcome after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Lauwick, S M; Kaba, A; Maweja, S; Hamoir, E E; Joris, Jean L

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) reduces perioperative insulin resistance and improves preoperative patient comfort. We tested the hypotheses that preoperative CHO reduces the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and improves early postoperative patient comfort. Two hundred women scheduled for thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to drink 50 g CHO in 400 ml of water or 0.5 g aspartam in 100 ml of water 2 h before surgery. The incidence and the severity of PONV, pain scores, and analgesic consumption were recorded postoperatively. Intensity of thirst, hunger, anxiety, fatigue were recorded on 100-mm visual analog scales just before the induction of anesthesia, 2, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. The incidence and severity of PONV were similar in both groups. Patients from the CHO group reported significantly less thirst (P = 0.007), hunger (P = 0.04), and fatigue (P = 0.01) than patients from the control group. Postoperative pain scores did not differ significantly between both groups (P = 0.34). However patients from the CHO group requested less acetaminophen during the first 24 postoperative h: 3 g vs. 2 g (median, P = 0.002). Oral carbohydrate before thyroidectomy improves pre- and postoperative patient comfort, as well as postoperative analgesia, but has no effect on the PONV.

  3. Clinical multifactorial analysis of early postoperative seizures in elderly patients following meningioma resection

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, BO; WANG, DAN; GUO, YUNBAO; YU, JINLU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the major factors correlated with early postoperative seizures in elderly patients who had undergone a meningioma resection, and subsequently, to develop a logistic regression equation for assessing the seizures risk. Fourteen factors possibly correlated with early postoperative seizures in a cohort of 209 elderly patients who had undergone meningioma resection, as analyzed by multifactorial stepwise logistic regression. Phenobarbital sodium (0.1 g, intramuscularly) was administered to all 209 patients 30 min prior to undergoing surgery. All the patients had no previous history of seizures. The correlation of the 14 clinical factors (gender, tumor site, dyskinesia, peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), tumor diameter, pre- and postoperative prophylaxes, surgery time, tumor adhesion, circumscription, blood supply, intraoperative transfusion, original site of the tumor and dysphasia) was assessed in association with the risk for post-operative seizures. Tumor diameter, postoperative prophylactic antiepileptic drug (PPAD) administration, PTBE and tumor site were entered as risk factors into a mathematical regression model. The odds ratio (OR) of the tumor diameter was >1, and PPAD administration showed an OR >1, relative to a non-prophylactic group. A logistic regression equation was obtained and the sensitivity, specificity and misdiagnosis rates were 91.4, 74.3 and 25.7%, respectively. Tumor diameter, PPAD administration, PTBE and tumor site were closely correlated with early postoperative seizures; PTBE and PPAD administration were risk and protective factors, respectively. PMID:26137257

  4. Novel approach to repair of acute achilles tendon rupture: early recovery without postoperative fixation or orthosis.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Tadahiko; Miyamoto, Wataru; Uchio, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    Immobilization or orthosis is required after conventional Achilles tendon surgery. Hypothesis This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early rehabilitation without any postoperative immobilization or orthosis. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty consecutive patients (14 men and 6 women; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 16-70 years) who had acute subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture were treated by the new method, with an average follow-up of 2.9 years (range, 2-4.8 years). Among them, 15 injuries were sports-related and 5 were work-related. The authors applied a side-locking loop technique of their own design for the core suture, using braided polyblend suture thread, with peripheral cross-stitches added. The patients started active and passive ankle mobilization from the next day, partial weightbearing walking from 1 week, full-load walking from 4 weeks, and double-legged heel raises from 6 weeks after surgery. The range of motion recovery equal to the intact side averaged 3.2 weeks. Double-legged heel raises and 20 continuous single-legged heel raise exercises were possible at an average of 6.3 weeks and 9.9 weeks, respectively. T2-weighted magnetic resonance signal intensity recovered to equal that of the intact portion of the same tendon at 12 weeks. The patients resumed sports activities or heavy labor at an average of 14.4 weeks. The Achilles tendon rupture score averaged 98.3 at 24 weeks. There were no complications. This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early mobilization exercise without costly specialized orthosis or immobilization and allows an early return to normal life and sports activities, reducing the physical and economic burden on patients.

  5. Early and late postoperative seizure outcome in 97 patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Fu, Weiming; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jianmin

    2013-08-01

    We identified factors associated with early and late postoperative seizure control in patients with supratentorial meningioma plus preoperative seizures. In this retrospective study, univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis compared 24 clinical variables according to the occurrence of early (≤1 week) or late (>1 week) postoperative seizures. Sixty-two of 97 patients (63.9 %) were seizure free for the entire postoperative follow-up period (29.5 ± 11.8 months), while 13 patients (13.4 %) still had frequent seizures at the end of follow-up. Fourteen of 97 patients (14.4 %) experienced early postoperative seizures, and emergence of new postoperative neurological deficits was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio = 7.377). Thirty-three patients (34.0 %) experienced late postoperative seizures at some time during follow-up, including 12 of 14 patients with early postoperative seizures. Associated risk factors for late postoperative seizures included tumor progression (odds ratio = 7.012) and new permanent postoperative neurological deficits (odds ratio = 4.327). Occurrence of postoperative seizures in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizure was associated with new postoperative neurological deficits. Reduced cerebral or vascular injury during surgery may lead to fewer postoperative neurological deficits and better seizure outcome.

  6. Preoperative determinant of early postoperative renal function following radical cystectomy and intestinal urinary diversion.

    PubMed

    Gondo, Tatsuo; Ohno, Yoshio; Nakashima, Jun; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2017-02-01

    To identify preoperative factors correlated with postoperative early renal function in patients who had undergone radical cystectomy (RC) and intestinal urinary diversion. We retrospectively identified 201 consecutive bladder cancer patients without distant metastasis who had undergone RC at our institution between 2003 and 2012. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology equation before RC and 3 months following RC. Univariate and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were applied to estimate postoperative renal function and to identify significant preoperative predictors of postoperative renal function. Patients who had undergone intestinal urinary diversion and were available for the collection of follow-up data (n = 164) were eligible for the present study. Median preoperative and postoperative eGFRs were 69.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 56.3-78.0) and 70.7 (IQR 57.3-78.1), respectively. In univariate analyses, age, preoperative proteinuria, thickness of abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue (TSF), preoperative serum creatinine level, preoperative eGFR, and urinary diversion type were significantly associated with postoperative eGFR. In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, preoperative eGFR, age, and TSF were significant factors for predicting postoperative eGFR (p < 0.001, p = 0.02, and p = 0.046, respectively). The estimated postoperative eGFRs correlated well with the actual postoperative eGFRs (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). Preoperative eGFR, age, and TSF were independent preoperative factors for determining postoperative renal function in patients who had undergone RC and intestinal urinary diversion. These results may be used for patient counseling before surgery, including the planning of perioperative chemotherapy administration.

  7. [Circulating miR-152 helps early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Liao, Yu-Feng; Ma, Jian-Bo; Mao, Qi-Feng; Jia, Guang-Cheng; Dong, Xue-Jun

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the value of circulating miR-152 in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Sixty-six cases of prostate cancer were included in this study, 35 with and 31 without biochemical recurrence within two years postoperatively, and another 31 healthy individuals were enrolled as normal controls. The relative expression levels of circulating miR-152 in the serum of the subjects were detected by qRT-PCR, its value in the early diagnosis of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer was assessed by ROC curve analysis, and the correlation of its expression level with the clinicopathological parameters of the patients were analyzed. The expression of circulating miR-152 was significantly lower in the serum of the prostate cancer patients than in the normal controls (t = -5.212, P = 0.001), and so was it in the patients with than in those without postoperative biochemical recurrence (t = -5.727, P = 0.001). The ROC curve for the value of miR-152 in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer showed the area under the curve (AUC) to be 0.906 (95% CI: 0.809-0.964), with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 80.6%. The expression level of miR-152 was correlated with the Gleason score, clinical stage of prostate cancer, biochemical recurrence, and bone metastasis (P <0.05), decreasing with increased Gleason scores and elevated clinical stage of the malignancy. No correlation, however, was found between the miR-152 expression and the patients' age or preoperative PSA level (P >0.05). The expression level of circulating miR-152 is significantly reduced in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy and could be a biomarker in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of the malignancy.

  8. Impact of postoperative magnesium levels on early hypocalcemia and permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Garrahy, Aoife; Murphy, Matthew S; Sheahan, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is a common complication of thyroidectomy. Magnesium is known to modulate serum calcium levels and hypomagnesemia may impede correction of hypocalcemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hypomagnesemia after thyroidectomy has any impact on early hypocalcemia and/or permanent hypoparathyroidism. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively maintained databases. Inclusion criteria were total or completion total thyroidectomy with postoperative magnesium levels available. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia was correlated with postoperative hypomagnesemia and other risk factors. Two hundred one cases were included. Twenty-six patients (13%) developed postoperative hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia (p = .002), cancer diagnosis (p = .01), central neck dissection (p = .02), and inadvertent parathyroid resection (p = .02) were significantly associated with hypocalcemia. On multivariate analysis, only hypomagnesemia (p = .005) remained significant. Hypomagnesemia was also a significant predictor of permanent hypoparathyroidism (p = .0004). Hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with early hypocalcemia and permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy. Magnesium levels should be closely monitored in patients with postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Interference of postoperative pain on women's daily life after early discharge from cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Leegaard, Marit; Rustøen, Tone; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2010-06-01

    Women report more postoperative pain and problems performing domestic activities than men in the first month of recovery after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to describe how women rate and describe pain interference with daily life after early discharge from cardiac surgery. A qualitative study was conducted in 2004-2005 with ten women recruited from a large Norwegian university hospital before discharge from their first elective cardiac surgery. Various aspects of the women's postoperative experiences were collected with qualitative interviews in the women's homes 8-14 days after discharge: a self-developed pain diary measuring pain intensity, types and amount of pain medication taken every day after returning home from hospital; and the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form immediately before the interview. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify recurring themes from the interviews. Data from the questionnaires provided more nuances to the experiences of pain, pain management, and interference of postoperative pain. Postoperative pain interfered most with sleep, general activity, and the ability to perform housework during the first 2 weeks after discharge. Despite being advised at the hospital to take pain medication regularly, few women consumed the maximum amount of analgesics. Early hospital discharge after open cardiac surgery implies increased patient participation in pain management. Women undergoing this surgery need more information in hospital on why postoperative pain management beyond simple pain relief is important. (c) 2010 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early postoperative evaluation of groins after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of inguinal hernias.

    PubMed

    Shpitz, Baruch; Kuriansky, Josef; Werener, Miriam; Osadchi, Alexandra; Tiomkin, Vitaly; Bugayev, Nikolay; Klein, Ehud

    2004-12-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (LTEP) repair of bilateral and/or recurrent groin hernias has been popularized as one of the procedures of choice in the past decade. The early postoperative course is uneventful in most cases. A few patients, however, will develop temporary postoperative groin swelling. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and sonographic findings in the groin during the early postoperative period following LTEP. One hundred and five consecutive patients with primary bilateral (n = 90), recurrent unilateral (n = 12), and primary unilateral (n =3) groin hernias operated on during an 18-month period underwent clinical and sonographic examination two to three weeks after LTEP. On clinical examination, a localized groin swelling was found in 21 patients (20%). The most frequent sonographic findings were localized groin collections compatible with seroma or hematoma, found in 35 patients (33%). Hypoechoic diffuse tissue swelling around the mesh, lipomas, and residual hernias was found in four patients each (4%). None of the patients with hypoecoic mass had any clinical manifestations postoperatively. Extraperitoneal close suction drains were left for 8-12 hours in 46 patients. The average volume of fluid drained was 62 mL (range, 30-200 mL). There was no correlation between the use of suction drains and the frequency of fluid collections detected on sonography. Cord lipoma was detected postoperatively in four patients and was excised in one using an open anterior approach. Residual or recurrent hernia was detected postoperatively on sonography in four patients, but only one developed a symptomatic and clinically detectable hernia during eight months of follow-up. Overall, postoperative ultrasonographic findings following LTEP repair were found in 37% of patients. Clinical and sonographic findings such as localized fluid collections compatible with seroma or hematoma are common following LTEP. Postoperative suction drains

  11. [Usefulness of upper gastrointestinal series to detect leaks in the early postoperative period of bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Medina, Francisco J; Miranda-Merchak, Andrés; Martínez, Alonso; Sánchez, Felipe; Bravo, Sebastián; Contreras, Juan Eduardo; Alliende, Isabel; Canals, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative leaks are the most undesirable complication of bariatric surgery and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series are routinely ordered to rule them out. Despite the published literature recommending against its routine use, it is still being customarily used in Chile. To examine the usefulness of routine upper GI series using water-soluble iodinated contrast media for the detection of early postoperative leaks in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A cohort of 328 patients subjected to bariatric surgery was followed from October 2012 to October 2013. Most of them underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Upper GI series on the first postoperative day were ordered to 308 (94%) patients. Postoperative leaks were observed in two patients, with an incidence of 0.6%. The sensitivity for upper GI series detection of leak was 0% and the negative predictive value was 99%. Routine upper GI series after bariatric surgery is not useful for the diagnosis of postoperative leak, given the low incidence of this complication and the low sensitivity of the technique.

  12. Preoperative Recipient Parameters Allow Early Estimation of Postoperative Outcome and Intraoperative Transfusion Requirements in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Carsten; Eismann, Hendrik; Sieg, Lion; Friedrich, Lars; Scheinichen, Dirk; Vondran, Florian W R; Johanning, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a complex intervention, and early anticipation of personnel and logistic requirements is of great importance. Early identification of high-risk patients could prove useful. We therefore evaluated prognostic values of recipient parameters commonly available in the early preoperative stage regarding postoperative 30- and 90-day outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements in liver transplantation. All adult patients undergoing first liver transplantation at Hannover Medical School between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data as well as clinical courses were recorded. Prognostic values regarding 30- and 90-day outcomes were evaluated by uni- and multivariate statistical tests. Identified risk parameters were used to calculate risk scores. There were 426 patients (40.4% female) included with a mean age of 48.6 (11.9) years. Absolute 30-day mortality rate was 9.9%, and absolute 90-day mortality rate was 13.4%. Preoperative leukocyte count >5200/μL, platelet count <91 000/μL, and creatinine values ≥77 μmol/L were relevant risk factors for both observation periods ( P < .05, respectively). A score based on these factors significantly differentiated between groups of varying postoperative outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements ( P < .05, respectively). A score based on preoperative creatinine, leukocyte, and platelet values allowed early estimation of postoperative 30- and 90-day outcomes and intraoperative transfusion requirements in liver transplantation. Results might help to improve timely logistic and personal strategies.

  13. Early rise in postoperative creatinine for identification of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Karkouti, Keyvan; Rao, Vivek; Chan, Christopher T; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially serious complication of cardiac surgery. Treatment strategies are unlikely to prove efficacious unless patients are identified and treated soon after the onset of injury. In this observational study, we determined and validated the ability of an early rise in postoperative serum creatinine to identify patients who suffer AKI during cardiac surgery. The relationship between an early rise in creatinine (immediate postoperative / preoperative creatinine) and AKI (> 50% increase in creatinine by postoperative calendar days 1or 2) was determined by logistic regression modelling. Existing databases were used for model development (n = 4,820; one institution) and validation (n = 6,553; 12 institutions). Acute kidney injury occurred in 9.1% (n = 437) and 9.8% (n = 645) of patients in the development and validation sets, respectively. An early rise in creatinine was related to AKI (P < 0.001), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.80) in the development set and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.79) in the validation set. Using a threshold ratio of > 1.30 (n = 127), the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for AKI in the development set were 20% (95% CI, 16 to 24), 99% (95% CI, 99 to 99), 68% (95% CI, 59 to 76), and 93% (95% CI, 92 to 93), respectively. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, an early rise in postoperative creatinine is a useful marker for the early identification of AKI patients. This could allow inclusion of such patients in clinical trials of promising therapeutic strategies that need to be initiated soon after the onset of injury.

  14. Low fat-containing elemental formula is effective for postoperative recovery and potentially useful for preventing chyle leak during postoperative early enteral nutrition after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Moro, Kazuki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Miura, Kohei; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Nakajima, Masato; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Junko; Toshikawa, Chie; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-12-01

    Transthoracic esophagectomy using 3-field lymphadenectomy (TTE-3FL) for esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal surgeries. Early enteral nutrition (EN) for TTE-3FL patients is useful and valid for early recovery; however, EN using a fat-containing formula risks inducing chyle leak. In the present study, we retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients treated byTTE-3FL and administered postoperative EN to elucidate the validity of lowering the fat levels in elemental formulas to prevent postoperative chyle leak and improve postoperative recovery. A total of 74 patients who received TTE-3FL for esophageal cancer were retrospectively examined. Patients were classified into two groups according to the type of postoperative EN: Group LF patients received a low-fat elemental formula, and Group F patients received a standard fat-containing polymeric formula. The following clinical factors were compared between the groups: EN start day, maximum EN calories administered, duration of respirator use, length of ICU stay, incidence of postoperative infectious complications, use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and incidence of postoperative chyle leak. Patients in Group LF were started on EN significantly earlier after surgery and they consumed significantly higher maximum EN calories compared to Group F patients (P < 0.01). Duration of respirator use and length of ICU stay were also significantly shorter, and TPN was used significantly less in Group LF compared to Group F (P < 0.05). Postoperative chyle leak was observed in six patients in total (8.1%); five patients in Group F and one patient in Group LF, although there was no significant difference in frequency of chyle leak per patient between Group LF and Group F. Early EN using low-fat elemental formula after esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy was safe and valid for postoperative recovery and potentially useful in preventing chyle leak. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published

  15. Impact of early postoperative enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Liu, H Y; Guo, S H; Sun, P; Gong, F M; Jia, B Q

    2015-06-29

    The impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients was investigated. Three hundred pa-tients undergoing gastric cancer surgery from July 2010 to May 2014 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 150/group). Experimental group patients received enteral nutrition in water during the early postoperative period. Control group patients received conventional perioperative treatment. Patients' clinical outcomes, post-operative immune function, and nutritional statuses were compared, which revealed that the postoperative fever duration (80.2 ± 6.0 vs 88.1 ± 8.1 h, P < 0.05), anal exhaust time (78.8 ± 9.3 vs 85.3 ± 8.4 h, P < 0.05), and length of hospitalization (7.73 ± 2.13 vs 9.77 ± 1.76 days, P < 0.01) differed significantly. Treatment costs in thousands of dol-lars were 31.24 ± 3.21 for the experimental group and 35.61 ± 2.32 for the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the experimental and control groups [14.0% (21/150) vs 17.3% (26/150), P > 0.05]. At postoperative days 3 and 7, the CD3(+), CD4(+), natural killer cell, albumin, and prealbumin levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ra-tio were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (all P < 0.05). CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). Postsurgical oral EEN can improve nutritional status and immune function and promote early recovery of intestinal function in patients with gastric cancer.

  16. Beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in pediatric patients with tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Han, Chuanlai; Fu, Rong; Lei, Weifu

    2018-07-01

    According to clinical investigations, early postoperative cognitive dysfunction is the most common adverse event in pediatric patients after tonsillectomy. A previous study has indicated that dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an efficient drug for the treatment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. However, the efficacy of DEX in alleviating early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in pediatric patients following tonsillectomy has remained elusive, which was therefore assessed in the present study. A total of 186 children presenting with cognitive dysfunction subsequent to tonsillectomy were recruited to analyze the efficacy of DEX. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and received intravenous treatment with DEX (n=112) or placebo (n=74). Duration of treatment, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DEX were evaluated in a preliminary experiment. The improvement of postoperative cognitive function in children with tonsillectomy was analyzed with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) following treatment with DEX. A 40-item quality of life (MONEX-40) questionnaire was used to assess the efficacy of DEX. The plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, superoxide dismutase (SOD), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol and melatonin were also analyzed. The preliminary experiment determined that the DLT was 10 mg/kg and the MTD was 15 mg/kg. In the major clinical trial, it was revealed that MMSE scores in the DEX treatment group were markedly improved, indicating that DEX had a beneficial effect in pediatric patients with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after tonsillectomy. In addition, IL-1and TNF-α were downregulated, while IL-6 and SOD were upregulated in patients with cognitive dysfunction after treatment with DEX compared with those in the placebo group. Furthermore, DEX treatment markedly decreased the serum levels of CRP, NSE cortisol and melatonin, which are

  17. Early postoperative endophthalmitis after pars plana Ahmed valve placement with persistent extraocular infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Susanna S; Rabowsky, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case of early postoperative endophthalmitis that occurred after vitrectomy and Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) placement and was treated with intravitreal antibiotics. Intravenous vancomycin was started after aqueous culture grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The endophthalmitis improved, but new purulent discharge around the peritomy was noted 10 days after presentation, requiring removal of the valve.

  18. Early postoperative healing following buccal single flap approach to access intraosseous periodontal defects.

    PubMed

    Farina, Roberto; Simonelli, Anna; Rizzi, Alessandro; Pramstraller, Mattia; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the early postoperative healing of papillary incision wounds and its association with (1) patient/site-related factors and technical (surgical) aspects as well as with (2) 6-month clinical outcomes following buccal single flap approach (SFA) in the treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. Forty-three intraosseous defects in 35 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA alone or in combination with a reconstructive technology (graft, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), graft + EMD, or graft + membrane). Postoperative healing was evaluated at 2 weeks using the Early Wound-Healing Index (EHI). EHI ranged from score 1 (i.e., complete flap closure and optimal healing) to score 4 (i.e., loss of primary closure and partial tissue necrosis). SFA resulted in a complete wound closure at 2 weeks in the great majority of sites. A significantly more frequent presence of interdental contact point and interdental soft tissue crater, and narrower base of the interdental papilla were observed at sites with either EHI > 1 or EHI = 4 compared to sites with EHI = 1. No association between EHI and the 6-month clinical outcomes was observed. At 2 weeks, buccal SFA may result in highly predictable complete flap closure. Site-specific characteristics may influence the early postoperative healing of the papillary incision following SFA procedure. Two-week soft tissue healing, however, was not associated with the 6-month clinical outcomes.

  19. Inefficacy of Kinesio-Taping(®) on early postoperative pain after ACL reconstruction: Prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Laborie, M; Klouche, S; Herman, S; Gerometta, A; Lefevre, N; Bohu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Kinesio-Taping(®) (K-Tape) is used in sports traumatology with the aim of reducing pain and improving blood and lymph circulation. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of K-Tape on early postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The study hypothesis was that K-Tape significantly decreases pain. A prospective non-randomized comparative study was conducted in 2013-2014 and included all patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction by hamstring graft. Analgesia was standardized. Two groups, "K-Tape" and "controls", were formed according to the days on which the study physiotherapist was present. The K-Tape compression/decompression assembly was applied immediately postoperatively and maintained for 3days. Patients filled out online questionnaires. The main assessment criterion was mean postoperative pain (D0-D3) on a 0-to-10 scale. Secondary criteria were analgesia intake on the three WHO levels, awakening during the night of D0 due to pain, signs of postoperative discomfort, and patient satisfaction. Sixty patients (30 per group) were included, 57 of whom could be assessed: 28 K-Tape, 29 controls; 44 male, 13 female; mean age, 30.9±8.9 years. At inclusion, the two groups were comparable. There was no significant difference in mean (D0-D3) knee pain intensity: 3.8±2.2 for K-Tape, and 3.9±2 for controls (P=0.93). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no significant intergroup difference in evolution of pain (P=0.34). There were no other significant differences on the other assessment criteria. K-Tape showed no efficacy on early postoperative pain following ACL reconstruction. III; prospective non-randomized comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Major Pulmonary Resections on Right Ventricular Function: Early Postoperative Changes.

    PubMed

    Elrakhawy, Hany M; Alassal, Mohamed A; Shaalan, Ayman M; Awad, Ahmed A; Sayed, Sameh; Saffan, Mohammad M

    2018-01-15

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after pulmonary resection in the early postoperative period is documented by reduced RV ejection fraction and increased RV end-diastolic volume index. Supraventricular arrhythmia, particularly atrial fibrillation, is common after pulmonary resection. RV assessment can be done by non-invasive methods and/or invasive approaches such as right cardiac catheterization. Incorporation of a rapid response thermistor to pulmonary artery catheter permits continuous measurements of cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume. It can also be used for right atrial and right ventricular pacing, and for measuring right-sided pressures, including pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. This study included 178 patients who underwent major pulmonary resections, 36 who underwent pneumonectomy assigned as group (I) and 142 who underwent lobectomy assigned as group (II). The study was conducted at the cardiothoracic surgery department of Benha University hospital in Egypt; patients enrolled were operated on from February 2012 to February 2016. A rapid response thermistor pulmonary artery catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Preoperatively the following was recorded: central venous pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction and volumes. The same parameters were collected in fixed time intervals after 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours postoperatively. For group (I): There were no statistically significant changes between the preoperative and postoperative records in the central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure; there were no statistically significant changes in the preoperative and 12, 24, and 48 hour postoperative records for cardiac index; 3 and 6 hours postoperative showed significant changes. There were statistically significant changes between the preoperative and

  1. Accuracy of Intraoperative Computed Tomography during Deep Brain Stimulation Procedures: Comparison with Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Maarten; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Bakay, Roy; Stebbins, Glenn; Verhagen Metman, Leo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) in localizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes by comparing this modality with postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Background Optimal lead placement is a critical factor for the outcome of DBS procedures and preferably confirmed during surgery. iCT offers 3-dimensional verification of both microelectrode and lead location during DBS surgery. However, accurate electrode representation on iCT has not been extensively studied. Methods DBS surgery was performed using the Leksell stereotactic G frame. Stereotactic coordinates of 52 DBS leads were determined on both iCT and postoperative MRI and compared with intended final target coordinates. The resulting absolute differences in X (medial-lateral), Y (anterior-posterior), and Z (dorsal-ventral) coordinates (ΔX, ΔY, and ΔZ) for both modalities were then used to calculate the euclidean distance. Results Euclidean distances were 2.7 ± 1.1 and 2.5 ± 1.2 mm for MRI and iCT, respectively (p = 0.2). Conclusion Postoperative MRI and iCT show equivalent DBS lead representation. Intraoperative localization of both microelectrode and DBS lead in stereotactic space enables direct adjustments. Verification of lead placement with postoperative MRI, considered to be the gold standard, is unnecessary. PMID:28601874

  2. Accuracy of Intraoperative Computed Tomography during Deep Brain Stimulation Procedures: Comparison with Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bot, Maarten; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Bakay, Roy; Stebbins, Glenn; Verhagen Metman, Leo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) in localizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes by comparing this modality with postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Optimal lead placement is a critical factor for the outcome of DBS procedures and preferably confirmed during surgery. iCT offers 3-dimensional verification of both microelectrode and lead location during DBS surgery. However, accurate electrode representation on iCT has not been extensively studied. DBS surgery was performed using the Leksell stereotactic G frame. Stereotactic coordinates of 52 DBS leads were determined on both iCT and postoperative MRI and compared with intended final target coordinates. The resulting absolute differences in X (medial-lateral), Y (anterior-posterior), and Z (dorsal-ventral) coordinates (ΔX, ΔY, and ΔZ) for both modalities were then used to calculate the euclidean distance. Euclidean distances were 2.7 ± 1.1 and 2.5 ± 1.2 mm for MRI and iCT, respectively (p = 0.2). Postoperative MRI and iCT show equivalent DBS lead representation. Intraoperative localization of both microelectrode and DBS lead in stereotactic space enables direct adjustments. Verification of lead placement with postoperative MRI, considered to be the gold standard, is unnecessary. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Erin M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Baker, Wesley B.; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Xiao, Rui; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, A. G.; Gaynor, J. William; Licht, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The early postoperative period following neonatal cardiac surgery is a time of increased risk for brain injury, yet the mechanisms underlying this risk are unknown. To understand these risks more completely, we quantified changes in postoperative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) compared with preoperative levels by using noninvasive optical modalities. Methods Diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy were used concurrently to derive cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization postoperatively for 12 hours. Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were quantified with reference to preoperative data. A mixed-effect model was used to investigate the influence of total support time and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration on relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF. Results Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were assessed in 36 patients, 21 with single-ventricle defects and 15 with 2-ventricle defects. Among patients with single-ventricle lesions, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration did not affect relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, or OEF (P > .05). Among 2-ventricle patients, total support time was not a significant predictor of relative changes in CMRO2 or CBF (P > .05), although longer total support time was associated significantly with greater increases in relative change of postoperative OEF (P = .008). Conclusions Noninvasive diffuse optical techniques were used to quantify postoperative relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, and OEF for the first time in this observational pilot study. Pilot data suggest that surgical duration does not account for observed variability in the relative change in CMRO2, and that more comprehensive clinical studies using the new technology are feasible and warranted to elucidate these issues further. PMID:23111021

  4. The postoperative clinical outcomes and safety of early enteral nutrition in operated gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Liu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Shao-Hua; Sun, Peng; Gong, Fang-Ming; Jia, Bao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy. Four hundred gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy of any extend with D2 nodal dissection were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group with 200 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received postoperative parenteral nutrition (PN), while patients in the experimental group received postoperative EEN. After treatment, the clinical outcomes, postoperative immune function, and nutritional status of the two groups were evaluated. The postoperative fever time, intestinal function recovery time, anal exhaust time, and the length of hospital stay for patients in the experimental group were significantly shorter than those of the control group. We did not find significant differences in anastomotic leak, postoperative ileus and regurgitation between the two groups. The activities of multiple immune cell types, including CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and natural killer (NK) cells, were significantly lower in both groups on postoperative day 1 when compared with the preoperative levels (p<0.05). The level of CD8⁺ was not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). After treatment, levels of CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and NK cells in the experimental group patients were 35.6 ± 4.2, 42.2 ± 3.0, 1.7 ± 0.3, and 27.3 ± 5.3%, respectively, on postoperative day 7, which were similar to the preoperative levels. The immune cell levels from the control group patients remained significantly lower when compared with preoperative values; in addition, these values were also significantly lower when compared with the EEN patients (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: For gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy, the clinical outcome, immune function and nutritional status after EEN were significantly improved. These data suggest the widespread use of EEN in clinical practice.

  5. Spinal fusion for scoliosis in Rett syndrome with an emphasis on early postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Gabos, Peter G; Inan, Muharrem; Thacker, Mihir; Borkhu, Buttugs

    2012-01-15

    Retrospective case-control study. To examine the postoperative complications of posterior spinal fusion in a population of patients with Rett syndrome (RS). Scoliosis is a common feature of RS, a progressive neurologic disorder affecting almost exclusively females. Despite this, there is little published information regarding the surgical treatment of scoliosis in this disorder. Sixteen consecutive female patients with RS treated by posterior spinal fusion and unit rod instrumentation for progressive scoliosis between 1995 and 2003 were evaluated. Only patients with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were included. Preoperative medical conditions and postoperative complications were recorded. As a control group, we randomly selected 32 spastic quadriplegic patients who underwent the identical procedure during the same time period, selected from our database and matched according to age, level of neurologic impairment, and medical complexity. There was a high rate of early medical complications in the RS patients, with 28 major and 37 minor complications. Only 1 patient did not have a major medical complication, and every patient had at least 1 minor gastrointestinal and/or respiratory complication. Major respiratory complications occurred in 10 patients (63%) and comprised 61% of all major complications. Major gastrointestinal complications occurred in 6 patients (37%) and comprised 21% of all major complications. Other major complications included disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (1 patient), subacute bacterial endocarditis (1 patient), sacral decubiti requiring surgical debridement (2 patients), and extensive bilateral heterotopic ossification of the hips (1 patient). There were no cases of instrumentation failure, pseudarthrosis, deep infection, or need for rod revision. Postoperative complication scores were similar to those in patients with spastic quadriplegic pattern cerebral palsy. Spinal fusion for scoliosis in RS can give a satisfactory technical result

  6. Probing Magnetic Fields of Early Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    How do magnetic fields form and evolve in early galaxies? A new study has provided some clever observations to help us answer this question.The Puzzle of Growing FieldsDynamo theory is the primary model describing how magnetic fields develop in galaxies. In this picture, magnetic fields start out as weak seed fields that are small and unordered. These fields then become ordered and amplified by large-scale rotation and turbulence in galaxy disks and halos, eventually leading to the magnetic fields we observe in galaxies today.Schematic showinghow to indirectly measure protogalactic magnetic fields. The measured polarization of a background quasar is altered by the fields in a foreground protogalaxy. Click for a closer look! [Farnes et al. 2017/Adolf Schaller/STSCI/NRAO/AUI/NSF]To test this model, we need observations of the magnetic fields in young protogalaxies. Unfortunately, we dont have the sensitivity to be able to measure these fields directly but a team of scientists led by Jamie Farnes (Radboud University in the Netherlands) have come up with a creative alternative.The key is to find early protogalaxies that absorb the light of more distant background objects. If a protogalaxy lies between us and a distant quasar, then magnetic fields of the protogalaxy if present will affect the polarization measurements of the background quasar.Observing Galactic Building BlocksTop: Redshift distribution for the background quasars in the authors sample. Bottom: Redshift distribution for the foreground protogalaxies the authors are exploring. [Farnes et al. 2017]Farnes and collaborators examined two types of foreground protogalaxies: Damped Lyman-Alpha Absorbers (DLAs) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs). They obtained polarimetric data for a sample of 114 distant quasars with nothing in the foreground (the control sample), 19 quasars with DLAs in the foreground, and 27 quasars with LLSs in the foreground. They then used statistical analysis techniques to draw conclusions about

  7. Postoperative Delirium in Severely Burned Patients Undergoing Early Escharotomy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenggang; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Jia; Wang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hui; Ma, Panpan; Su, Xiaojun; Li, Ping

    The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, related risk factors, and outcomes of postoperative delirium (POD) in severely burned patients undergoing early escharotomy. This study included 385 severely burned patients (injured <1 week; TBSA, 31-50% or 11-20%; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, II-IV) aged 18 to 65 years, who underwent early escharotomy between October 2014 and December 2015, and were selected by cluster sampling. The authors excluded patients with preoperative delirium or diagnosed dementia, depression, or cognitive dysfunction. Preoperative, perioperative, intraoperative, and postoperative information, such as demographic characteristics, vital signs, and health history were collected. The Confusion Assessment Method was used once daily for 5 days after surgery to identify POD. Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for POD, t-tests, and χ tests were performed to compare the outcomes of patients with and without the condition. Fifty-six (14.55%) of the patients in the sample were diagnosed with POD. Stepwise binary logistic regression showed that the significant risk factors for POD in severely burned patients undergoing early escharotomy were advanced age (>50 years old), a history of alcohol consumption (>3/week), high American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (III or IV), time between injury and surgery (>2 days), number of previous escharotomies (>2), combined intravenous and inhalation anesthesia, no bispectral index applied, long duration surgery (>180 min), and intraoperative hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 55 mm Hg). On the basis of the different odds ratios, the authors established a weighted model. When the score of a patient's weighted odds ratios is more than 6, the incidence of POD increased significantly (P < .05). When the score of a patient's weighted odds ratios is more than 6, the incidence of POD increased significantly (P < .05

  8. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2013-10-12

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register;The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of their wounds

  9. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (30th June 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of

  10. Extended Release Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection (Exparel) for Early Postoperative Pain Control Following Palatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristopher M; Nair, Narayanan M; Sargent, Larry A

    2018-05-14

    Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is a long-acting local anesthetic reported to decrease postoperative pain in adults. The authors demonstrate the safe use of LB in pediatric patients with improved pain control following palatoplasty. Retrospective patient series of all single-surgeon palatoplasty patients treated at a tertiary craniofacial center from August 2014 to December 2015 were included. All patients received 1.3% LB intraoperatively as greater palatal nerve and surgical field blocks in 2-flap V-Y pushback palatoplasty. Postoperative oral intake, opioids administered, duration of hospitalization, and FLACC (face, legs, activity, cry, consolability) pain scores were measured. Twenty-seven patients (16 males and 11 females, average age of 10.8 months, weight 8.8 kg) received 2.9 ± 0.9 mL (2.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg) 1.3% LB. Average FLACC scores were 2.4 ± 2.2/10 in the postanesthesia care unit and 3.8 ± 1.8/10 while inpatients. Oral intake was first tolerated 10.3 ± 11.5 hours postoperatively and tolerated 496.4 ± 354.2 mL orally in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Patients received 8.5 ± 8.4 mg hydrocodone equivalents (0.46 ± 0.45 mg/kg per d hydrocodone equivalents) and were discharged 2.1 ± 1.3 days postoperatively. Opioid-related adverse events included emesis in 7.4% and pruritis in 3.7% of patients. The LB may be used safely in pediatric patients. Intraoperative injection of LB during palatoplasty can yield low postoperative opioid use and an early and adequate volume of oral intake over an average hospital stay. Further cost-efficacy studies of LB are needed to assess its value in pediatric plastic surgery.

  11. [Influence of early kinesitherapy on rehabilitation postoperative recovery in case of low extremity operations].

    PubMed

    Tanović, Edina

    2009-01-01

    Arteriosclerosis is a disease effecting large elastic, elastic muscular and large muscular arteries. The primary pathological changes are found inside the arteries. Salient feature is atherosclerotic plaque. The main purpose of this paper is to determine whether early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization can give better rehabilitation results with patients after lower extremities operation, in comparison to patients which were not mobilized early in this stage. In this paper we have analyzed two groups of 40 patients that were operatively treated for circulation obstruction to lower extremities. The first, tested group was treated with early kinesiotherapy with early verticalization and mobilization. The second, controlled group was treated with kinesitherapy in bed. All the patients were analyzed according to their gender, age, primary diagnosis, postoperative complications, as well as capabilities for everyday activities. For the evaluation of the everyday life activities we used the Barthel index at hospital admission and discharge. Both groups of patients were equable in gender and age. The most common age group within the tested groups was between 61-70 for males and 51-60 for woman.The most common type of obstruction in both groups was occlusion of femoral artery. The complications which occurred among the tested patients were thrombosis, ileus and contracture in 7.5% of cases, while 85% of patients did not have any complications. Within the controlled group, decubitus occurred in 7.5% of cases, as well as gangrene and ileus. Ulcus occurred in 5% of patients, thrombosis in 10%, and contracture in 4% of cases. 40% of patients in this group were without complications. Based on the results stated above we can conclude that early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization of patients in postoperative phase after the treatment of lower extremities obstruction, have shown much better results in comparison to the patients which were only

  12. Association Between Early Postoperative Acetaminophen Exposure and Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Van Driest, Sara L; Jooste, Edmund H; Shi, Yaping; Choi, Leena; Darghosian, Leon; Hill, Kevin D; Smith, Andrew H; Kannankeril, Prince J; Roden, Dan M; Ware, Lorraine B

    2018-05-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication for pediatric cardiac surgery patients associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. Current strategies focus on risk reduction and early identification because there are no known preventive or therapeutic agents. Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass lyse erythrocytes, releasing free hemoglobin and contributing to oxidative injury. Acetaminophen may prevent AKI by reducing the oxidation state of free hemoglobin. To test the hypothesis that early postoperative acetaminophen exposure is associated with reduced risk of AKI in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this retrospective cohort study, the setting was 2 tertiary referral children's hospitals. The primary and validation cohorts included children older than 28 days admitted for cardiac surgery between July 1, 2008, and June 1, 2016. Exclusion criteria were postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and inadequate serum creatinine measurements to determine AKI status. Acetaminophen exposure in the first 48 postoperative hours. Acute kidney injury based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria (increase by ≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline or at least 1.5-fold more than the baseline [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4]) in the first postoperative week. The primary cohort (n = 666) had a median age of 6.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.9-44.7) months, and 341 (51.2%) had AKI. In unadjusted analyses, those with AKI had lower median acetaminophen doses than those without AKI (47 [IQR, 16-88] vs 78 [IQR, 43-104] mg/kg, P < .001). In logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, red blood cell distribution width, postoperative hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, acetaminophen exposure was protective against postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] per each

  13. Early postoperative statin therapy is associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Frederic T.; Pretorius, Mias; Siew, Edward D.; Yu, Chang; Brown, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that perioperative statin use reduces acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from an ongoing clinical trial Setting Quaternary-care university hospital Participants Three hundred twenty-four elective adult cardiac surgery patients Interventions None Measurements and Main Results We assessed the association of preoperative statin use, early postoperative statin use, and acute statin withdrawal with the incidence of AKI. Early postoperative statin use was defined as statin treatment within the first postoperative day. Statin withdrawal was defined as discontinuation of preoperative statin treatment prior to surgery until at least postoperative day 2. Logistic regression and propensity score modeling were used to control for AKI risk factors. Sixty-eight of 324 patients (21.0%) developed AKI. AKI patients stayed in the hospital longer (P=0.03) and were more likely to develop pneumonia (P=0.002) or die (P=0.001). Higher body mass index (P=0.003), higher central venous pressure (P=0.03), and statin withdrawal (27.4 vs. 14.7%, P=0.046) were associated with a higher incidence of AKI, while early postoperative statin use was protective (12.5 vs. 23.8%, P=0.03). Preoperative statin use did not affect risk of AKI. In multivariate logistic regression, age (P=0.03), male gender (P=0.02), body mass index (P<0.001), and early postoperative statin use (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, P=0.006) independently predicted AKI. Propensity score-adjusted risk assessment confirmed the association between early postoperative statin use and reduced AKI (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13–0.70, P=0.005). Conclusions Early postoperative statin use is associated with a lower incidence of AKI among both chronic statin users and statin-naïve cardiac surgery patients. PMID:20599398

  14. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Tanino, Hiromasa; Sato, Tatsuya; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Matsuno, Takeo

    2014-07-11

    It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of < 20°, showing good joint congruency with the hip in abduction, pre- or early stage of osteoarthritis, and age younger than 60 years were included in this study. We evaluated 156 hips in 138 patients, with a mean age at the time of surgery of 30 years. Full weight-bearing with two crutches started 2 months postoperatively in 73 patients (80 hips) with the standard rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P < 0.001), indicating that the accelerated rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard rehabilitation protocol (1/80) (P = 0

  15. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Methods Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of < 20°, showing good joint congruency with the hip in abduction, pre- or early stage of osteoarthritis, and age younger than 60 years were included in this study. We evaluated 156 hips in 138 patients, with a mean age at the time of surgery of 30 years. Full weight-bearing with two crutches started 2 months postoperatively in 73 patients (80 hips) with the standard rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. Results The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P < 0.001), indicating that the accelerated rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard

  16. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is not associated with early postoperative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chino, Junzo; Schroeck, Florian R; Sun, Leon; Lee, W Robert; Albala, David M; Moul, Judd W; Koontz, Bridget F

    2009-11-01

    To compare open radical prostatectomy (RP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), and to determine whether RALP is associated with a higher risk of features that determine recommendations for postoperative radiation therapy (RT). Patients undergoing RP from 2003 to 2007 were stratified into two groups: open RP and RALP. Preoperative (PSA level, T stage and Gleason score), pathological factors (T stage, Gleason score, extracapsular extension [ECE] and the status of surgical margins and seminal vesicle invasion [SVI]) and early treatment with RT or referral for RT within 6 months were compared between the groups. Multivariate analysis was used to control for selection bias in the RALP group. In all, 904 patients were identified; 368 underwent RALP and 536 underwent open RP (retropubic or perineal). Patients undergoing open RP had a higher pathological stage with ECE present in 24.8% vs 19.3% in RALP (P = 0.05) and SVI in 10.3% vs 3.8% (P < 0.001). In the RALP vs open RP group, there were positive surgical margins in 31.5% vs 31.9% (P = 0.9) and there were postoperative PSA levels of (3) 0.2 ng/mL in 5.7% vs 6.3% (P = 0.7), respectively. On multivariate analysis to control for selection bias, RALP was not associated with indication for RT (odds ratio (OR) 1.10, P = 0.55), or referral for RT (OR 1.04, P = 0.86). RALP was not associated with an increase in either indication or referral for early postoperative RT.

  17. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: early post-operative parathyroid hormone assay as a risk stratification and management tool.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Al Maqbali, T; Howe, D; Campbell, J

    2014-03-01

    To develop a practical, efficient and predictive algorithm to manage potential or actual post-operative hypocalcaemia after complete thyroidectomy, using a single post-operative parathyroid hormone assay. This paper reports a prospective study of 59 patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy over a period of 24 months. Parathyroid hormone levels were checked post-operatively on the day of surgery, and all patients were evaluated for hypocalcaemia both clinically and biochemically with serial corrected calcium measurements. No patient with an early post-operative parathyroid hormone level of 23 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately twice the lower limit of the normal range) developed hypocalcaemia. All the patients who initially had post-operative hypocalcaemia but had an early parathyroid hormone level of 8 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately two-thirds of the lower limit of the normal range) had complete resolution of their hypocalcaemia within three months. Early post-operative parathyroid hormone measurement can reliably predict patients at risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia, and predict those patients expected to recover from temporary hypocalcaemia. A suggested post-operative management algorithm is presented.

  18. Importance of Early Postoperative Body Temperature Management for Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Eiichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Goto, Hisaharu; Oku, Takayuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Fujiyama, Yuichi; Shirao, Satoshi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-06-01

    The importance of acute-phase brain temperature management is widely accepted for prevention of exacerbation of brain damage by a high body temperature. In this study, we investigated the influence of body temperature in the early postoperative period on the outcomes of 62 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage who were admitted to our department. Body temperature was measured from day 4 to day 14 after onset. The patients were divided into those treated with surgical clipping (clip group) and coil embolization (coil group), those graded I-III (mild) and IV-V (severe) based on the Hunt & Hess classification on admission, those with and without development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and those with favorable and poor outcomes. Body temperatures throughout the hospital stay were compared in each group. There was no significant difference in body temperature between the clip and coil groups or between the mild and severe groups, but body temperature was significantly higher in patients with DCI compared to those without DCI, and in patients with a poor outcome compared to those with a favorable outcome. Fever in the early postoperative period of subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with development of DCI and a poor outcome. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Value of Early Postoperative Computed Tomography Assessment in Ankle Fractures Defining Joint Congruity and Criticizing the Need for Early Revision Surgery.

    PubMed

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron S; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir; Hetsroni, Iftach

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigators have questioned the reliability of plain radiographs in assessing the accuracy of ankle fracture reduction when these were compared with the computed tomography (CT) evaluation in the preoperative setting, in particular, in fractures with syndesmosis injuries or trimalleolar fragments. The role of CT assessment, however, has not been investigated in the early postoperative setting. In the early postoperative setting, reduction still relies most commonly on fluoroscopy and plain radiographs alone. In the present study, we hypothesized that early postoperative CT assessment of ankle fractures with syndesmosic injuries and posterior malleolar fragments can add valuable information about the joint congruity compared with plain radiographs alone and that this information could affect the decisions regarding the need for early revision surgery. A total of 352 consecutive operated ankle fractures were reviewed. Of these, 68 (19%) underwent early postoperative CT assessment and were studied further to identify the causes that prompted revision surgery. Of the 68 cases, despite acceptable reduction found on the plain radiographs, 20 (29%) underwent early (within 1 week) revision surgery after studying the CT scans, which revealed malreduction of the syndesmosis, malreduction of the posterior lip fragment, and intra-articular fragments. We concluded that in ankle fractures involving disruptions of the syndesmosis or posterior malleolar fragments, early postoperative CT assessment could be justified, because it will reveal malreduction and prompt early revision intervention for a substantial proportion of these patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy for evaluating meniscal allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Byeong-Sam; Lee, Chang-Rack; Lim, Sung-Joon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of transplanted meniscal allograft with second-look arthroscopy and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI for assessing graft status. From 1996 to 2012, among 290 knees that underwent meniscal allograft transplantation and received follow-up examination for more than 1 year, those knees that underwent second-look arthroscopy were reviewed. Patients with no postoperative MRI and patients with a time gap between postoperative MRI and second-look arthroscopy of more than 3 months were excluded. Anatomically, the meniscus was divided into 3 segments: anterior one-third, mid body, and posterior one-third. Each part of the meniscus was evaluated using both methods. Grade 3 MRI signal intensity was diagnosed as a meniscal tear radiologically. By use of second-look arthroscopy as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of postoperative MRI were assessed in each segment of the grafts. Twenty knees were retrospectively enrolled. The specificity, PPV, and accuracy for the anterior one-third were lower than those for the mid body and posterior one-third (specificity of 35.3% v 91.7% and 90%, respectively; PPV of 21.4% v 87.5% and 90.9%, respectively; and accuracy of 45% v 90% and 95%, respectively). However, the sensitivity and NPV were similar among the anterior one-third, mid body, and posterior one-third (sensitivity of 100%, 87.5%, and 100%, respectively; and NPV of 100%, 91.7%, and 100%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the comparison between the diagnostic MRI values of lateral grafts and medial grafts. Of 5 cases that showed grade 3 signal at only the anterior one-third section, 60% had no clinical signs. There were no graft tears in any cases. The anterior one-third of grafts showed low specificity, PPV, and accuracy of postoperative MRI compared with the mid

  2. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  3. [Analgesic effect of TES therapy in the early postoperative period in patients who underwent tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Semënov, F V; Kade, A Kh; Banashek-Meshchiarkova, T V; Vartanian, M S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiarities of the analgesic action of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES therapy) in the early postoperative period in the patients who underwent tonsillectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for this surgery to the specialized otorhinolaryngological department were available for observation. They were divided into two groups depending on the pain relief strategy. The patients of the study group (n=30) underwent courses of transcranial electrical stimulation on a daily basis (from the onset of hospitalization) in addition to the administration of a standard analgetic. The standard dose of tramadol (2.0 ml) was given to the patients of the control group (n=30) who complained of strong pain. The results of the objective and subjective estimations indicate that the degree of pharyngeal pain in the patients treated with TES therapy and the standard analgetic was significantly different. The patients receiving TES therapy could sooner resume their habitual diet and required smaller amounts of the analgetic which makes this modality a cost-effective supplement to the standard postoperative treatment.

  4. [Nuclear magnetic resonance of anorectal malformations and persistent postoperative fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    de Agustín, J C; Alami, H; Lassaletta, L; Gámez, M; Fernández, A; Fraile, E; Alenda, J G; Rollán, V; Utrilla, J G

    1992-07-01

    We review our experience with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of 6 patients showing anorectal malformation, and 4 more with persistent postoperative fecal incontinence. Preoperative sagittal, axial and coronal planes were studied with special consideration to the pelvic and vertebral structures. The excellent resolution of MRI allowed accurate identification of the pelvic musculature in all patients, including those with bizarre sacral abnormalities. MRI revealed structural anomalies not detected previously, such as teathering cord, intraspinal lipoma, presacral mass and renal malformation. In our institution, MRI has replaced the CT scan in the study of patients suffering of persistent fecal incontinence. In non operated on cases of anorectal malformations, MRI determines with extraordinary accuracy the location of the rectal atretic pouch, the actual pelvic muscular quality, and the detection of previously unsuspected associated anomalies.

  5. [Laser in the prevention of early postoperative complications in the surgical treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Dotsenko, S A; Chuev, P N; Basenko, I L; Salamekh, A

    1994-01-01

    The results of conduction of operative interventions in 37 patients with alimentary-costitutional obesity are adduced. In 22 of them having the obesity of III-IV stages the small stomach 100-150 ml in volume was constructed puuling in it too tight with a synthetic ribbon. In 1-1.5 years after the operation patient loses 70-80% of excessive body mass, and severe metabolic disturbances never occur. In 15 patients cutaneo-subcutaneous aprons on the abdomen were excised. Intravascular blood irradiation with the help of helium-neon laser for the prophylaxis of early postoperative complications occurrence was conducted. The stimulating action of laserotherapy on the cell and humoral immunity groups, alike central and peripheral hemodynamics improvement, moderate hypocoagulating and analgetic effect, lowering of the purulent-septical and thromboembolic complications in 1.5-2 times was noted.

  6. Cerebral oximetry during infant cardiac surgery: evaluation and relationship to early postoperative outcome.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Barry D; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A; Newburger, Jane W; Mayer, John E; del Nido, Pedro J; Bacha, Emile A; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C

    2009-04-01

    We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% vs 35%. Before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO(2) values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow, and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO(2) values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO(2) and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with > or =5 min of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), there was no correlation between the rSO(2) (91% +/- 6%) or hematocrit (29.2% +/- 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO(2) during arrest. Intraoperative rSO(2) varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of DHCA.

  7. Clinical evaluation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of postoperative complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. Aim To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. Material and methods The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1st and 2nd postoperative day (POD). Results Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1st and 2nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2nd POD compared to the remainder. Conclusions The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG. PMID:28694902

  8. Clinical evaluation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of postoperative complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1 st and 2 nd postoperative day (POD). Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1 st and 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG.

  9. Does the obesity paradox apply to early postoperative complications after hip surgery? A retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Shaparin, Naum; Widyn, James; Nair, Singh; Kho, Irene; Geller, David; Delphin, Ellise

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that very obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m(2)) undergoing hip replacement have longer average hospital stays, as well as higher rates of complications and readmission compared with patients with normal BMI. However, there are sparse data describing how overweight and obese patients fare in the period immediately after hip replacement surgery compared with patients with low or normal BMI. In this study, we sought to explore the association of BMI with the rate of early postoperative complications in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. A proprietary hospital software program, Clinical Looking Glass was used to query the Montefiore Medical Center database and create a list of patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 81.51 (hip replacement) from the period of January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. The medical records of patients with length of stay 5 or more days were reviewed to evaluate the reason for the extended stay. The primary outcome studied was the association between BMI and occurrence of early complications in patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association of BMI and early postoperative complications. Of the 802 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery within our time frame, 142 patient medical records were reviewed due to their length of stay of ≥5 days. Overall complication rate in the analyzed patients demonstrated a J-curve distribution pattern, with the highest morbidity being 23.5% in the underweight group, the second highest in the normal-weight group (17.3%), and decreasing to nadir in the overweight (8.0%) and obese class I (10.0%) and then higher again in classes II (14.3%) and III (16.7%). Adjusted ORs demonstrated the same J distribution pattern similar to the pattern observed in the univariate analysis. Of the variables studied

  10. Relevance of Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Images in Evaluating Epidural Hematoma After Thoracic Fixation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Kyung; Choi, Il; Roh, Sung Woo; Rhim, Seung Chul; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2017-11-01

    It is difficult to evaluate the significant findings of epidural hematoma in magnetic resonance images (MRIs) obtained immediately after thoracic posterior screw fixation (PSF). Prospectively, immediate postoperative MRI was performed in 10 patients who underwent thoracic PSF from April to December 2013. Additionally, we retrospectively analyzed the MRIs from 3 patients before hematoma evacuation out of 260 patients who underwent thoracic PSF from January 2000 to March 2013. The MRI findings of 9 out of the 10 patients, consecutively collected after thoracic PSF, showed neurologic recovery with a well-preserved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space and no prominent hemorrhage. Even though there were metal artifacts at the level of the pedicle screws, the preserved CSF space was observed. In contrast, the MRI of 1 patient with poor neurologic outcome demonstrated a typical hematoma and slight spinal cord compression and reduced CSF space. In the retrospective analysis of the 3 patients who showed definite motor weakness in the lower extremities after their first thoracic fusion surgery and underwent hematoma evacuation, the magnetic resonance images before hematoma evacuation also revealed hematoma compressing the spinal cord and diminished CSF space. This study shows that epidural hematomas can be detected on MRI performed immediately after thoracic fixation surgery, despite metal artifacts and findings such as hematoma causing spinal cord compression. Loss of CSF space should be considered to be associated with neurologic deficit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Can preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels predict survival and early recurrence in patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ke; Hu, Hai-Jie; Shrestha, Anuj; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Liu, Fei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2017-07-11

    To investigate the predictive values of preoperative and postoperative serum CA19-9 levels on survival and other prognostic factors including early recurrence in patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. In univariate analysis, increased preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels in the light of different cut-off points (37, 100, 150, 200, 400, 1000 U/ml) were significantly associated with poor survival outcomes, of which the cut-off point of 150 U/ml showed the strongest predictive value (both P < 0.001). Preoperative to postoperative increase in CA19-9 level was also correlated with poor survival outcome (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, preoperative CA19-9 level > 150 U/ml was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.471, 95% CI 1.216-9.905; P = 0.020) and early recurrence (OR = 8.280, 95% CI 2.391-28.674; P = 0.001). Meanwhile, postoperative CA19-9 level > 150 U/ml was also correlated with early recurrence (OR = 4.006, 95% CI 1.107-14.459; P = 0.034). Ninety-eight patients who had undergone curative surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995 and 2014 in our institution were selected for the study. The correlations of preoperative and postoperative serum CA19-9 levels on the basis of different cut-off points with survival and various tumor factors were retrospectively analyzed with univariate and multivariate methods. In patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma, serum CA19-9 predict survival and early recurrence. Patients with increased preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels have poor survival outcomes and higher tendency of early recurrence.

  12. Early water intake restriction to prevent inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following transsphenoidal surgery: low BMI predicts postoperative SIADH.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Junko; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Koh; Ohashi, Genichiro; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the incidence of and risk factors for the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in patients following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and to validate the effectiveness of early prophylactic restriction of water intake. Retrospective analysis was performed for 207 patients who had undergone TSS, including 156 patients not placed on early prophylactic water restriction. Sixty-four patients received treatment for SIADH. We compared the incidence of SIADH between patients with and without early water intake restriction, and analyzed various risk factors for SIADH using statistical analyses. BMI was significantly lower for patients with SIADH than for those patients without SIADH. Statistical analysis revealed that the threshold BMI predicting SIADH was 26. Serum sodium levels on postoperative days 5-10 and daily urine volumes on postoperative days 5-10 were significantly lower in patients with SIADH than in those without SIADH. Postoperative body weight loss on days 6, 8, 10, and 11 was significantly higher in patients with SIADH. The incidence of SIADH after starting prophylactic water intake restriction (14%) was significantly lower than the rate before early water restriction (38%; P<0.05). SIADH is relatively common after TSS, and serum sodium concentrations and daily urine volumes should be carefully monitored. Patients with low preoperative BMI should be closely observed, as this represented a significant preoperative risk factor for SIADH. Early prophylactic water intake restriction appears effective at preventing postoperative SIADH. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Influence of yoga on postoperative outcomes and wound healing in early operable breast cancer patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Raghavendra M; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Vinay, C; Chandrashekara, S; Gopinath, K S; Srinath, B S

    2008-01-01

    Pre- and postoperative distress in breast cancer patients can cause complications and delay recovery from surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of yoga intervention on postoperative outcomes and wound healing in early operable breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Ninety-eight recently diagnosed stage II and III breast cancer patients were recruited in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a yoga program with supportive therapy and exercise rehabilitation on postoperative outcomes and wound healing following surgery. Subjects were assessed at the baseline prior to surgery and four weeks later. Sociodemographic, clinical and investigative notes were ascertained in the beginning of the study. Blood samples were collected for estimation of plasma cytokines-soluble Interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (IL-2R), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Postoperative outcomes such as the duration of hospital stay and drain retention, time of suture removal and postoperative complications were ascertained. We used independent samples t test and nonparametric Mann Whitney U tests to compare groups for postoperative outcomes and plasma cytokines. Regression analysis was done to determine predictors for postoperative outcomes. Sixty-nine patients contributed data to the current analysis (yoga: n = 33, control: n = 36). The results suggest a significant decrease in the duration of hospital stay (P = 0.003), days of drain retention (P = 0.001) and days for suture removal (P = 0.03) in the yoga group as compared to the controls. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TNF alpha levels following surgery in the yoga group (P < 0.001), as compared to the controls. Regression analysis on postoperative outcomes showed that the yoga intervention affected the duration of drain retention and hospital stay as well as TNF alpha levels. The results suggest possible benefits of yoga in reducing postoperative complications in

  14. Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery.

    PubMed

    Mokart, D; Merlin, M; Sannini, A; Brun, J P; Delpero, J R; Houvenaeghel, G; Moutardier, V; Blache, J L

    2005-06-01

    Patients who undergo major surgery for cancer are at high risk of postoperative sepsis. Early markers of septic complications would be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with postoperative sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early (first postoperative day) changes in interleukin 6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum concentrations and the occurrence of subsequent septic complications after major surgery. Serial blood samples were collected from 50 consecutive patients for determination of IL-6, PCT and CRP serum levels. Blood samples were obtained on the morning of surgery and on the morning of the first postoperative day. Sixteen patients developed septic complications during the first five postoperative days (group 1), and 34 patients developed no septic complications (group 2). On day 1, PCT and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in group 1 (P-values of 0.003 and 0.006, respectively) but CRP levels were similar. An IL-6 cut-off point set at 310 pg ml(-1) yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 58% to differentiate group 1 patients from group 2 patients. When associated with the occurrence of SIRS on day 1 these values reached 100% and 79%, respectively. A PCT cut-off point set at 1.1 ng ml(-1) yielded a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 72%. When associated with the occurrence of SIRS on day 1, these values reached 100% and 86%, respectively. PCT and IL-6 appear to be early markers of subsequent postoperative sepsis in patients undergoing major surgery for cancer. These findings could allow identification of postoperative septic complications.

  15. Effect of phrenic nerve palsy on early postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Gregor J; Mauss, Karl; Carboni, Giovanni L; Hoksch, Beatrix; Kuster, Roland; Ott, Sebastian R; Schmid, Ralph A

    2013-12-01

    The issue of phrenic nerve preservation during pneumonectomy is still an unanswered question. So far, its direct effect on immediate postoperative pulmonary lung function has never been evaluated in a prospective trial. We conducted a prospective crossover study including 10 patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between July 2011 and July 2012. After written informed consent, all consecutive patients who agreed to take part in the study and in whom preservation of the phrenic nerve during operation was possible, were included in the study. Upon completion of lung resection, a catheter was placed in the proximal paraphrenic tissue on the pericardial surface. After an initial phase of recovery of 5 days all patients underwent ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragmatic motion followed by lung function testing with and without induced phrenic nerve palsy. The controlled, temporary paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm was achieved by local administration of lidocaine 1% at a rate of 3 mL/h (30 mg/h) via the above-mentioned catheter. Temporary phrenic nerve palsy was accomplished in all but 1 patient with suspected catheter dislocation. Spirometry showed a significant decrease in dynamic lung volumes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity; p < 0.05) with the paralyzed hemidiaphragm. Blood oxygen saturation levels did not change significantly. Our results show that phrenic nerve palsy causes a significant impairment of dynamic lung volumes during the early postoperative period after pneumonectomy. Therefore, in these already compromised patients, intraoperative phrenic nerve injury should be avoided whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early laparoscopic management of acute postoperative hemorrhage after initial laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Edward M; Zorn, Kevin C; Gofrit, Ofer N; Lucioni, Alvaro; Orvieto, Marcelo A; Zagaja, Gregory P; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2007-08-01

    The use of laparoscopic surgery has been well established for the management of abdominal emergencies. However, the value of this technique for postoperative hemorrhage in urology has not been characterized. We present our favorable experience with laparoscopic exploration after urologic surgery and suggest guidelines for laparoscopic management of post-laparoscopy bleeding. Three patients who developed hemorrhage shortly after laparoscopic urologic surgery and were managed by laparoscopic exploration were identified from a series of 910 laparoscopic urologic procedures performed at our institution from October 2002 to June 2006. Three patients, who were hemodynamically stable (two after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, one after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy), required prompt surgical exploration for postoperative hemorrhage not stabilized by blood transfusion (mean 2.7 units) at a mean of 19.4 hours after initial surgery. Clots were evacuated with a 10-mm suction-irrigator. Two patients were found to have abdominal-wall arterial bleeding and were managed with suture ligation. The third patient demonstrated diffuse bleeding from the prostatic bed, which was controlled with Surgicel and FloSeal. Bleeding was efficiently controlled in all patients, and none required post-exploration transfusion. The mean post-exploration hospital stay was 2.3 days. Significant hemorrhage after urologic laparoscopy is a rare event. We found laparoscopic exploration to be an excellent way to diagnose and correct such hemorrhage in certain patients. Early diagnosis with clinical and hematologic studies, a lowered threshold for surgical exploration, and specific operative equipment may decrease patient morbidity and the need for open surgical exploration.

  17. The effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® after total knee replacement in early postoperative rehabilitation period. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Donec, V; Kriščiūnas, A

    2014-08-01

    The number of total knee replacements performed each year is increasing. Among the main impediments to functional recovery after these surgeries include postoperative edema, pain, lower limb muscle strength deficits, all of which point to a need to identify safe, effective postoperative rehabilitation modalities. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® (KT) method in reducing postoperative pain, edema, and improved knee range of motion recovery after total knee replacement (TKR) operation in early postoperative rehabilitation period. Randomized clinical trial. Inpatient rehabilitation facility. Ninety-four patients, who underwent primary TKR surgery. Using simple randomization, participants were divided into KT group and control group. Both groups received same rehabilitation program and procedures after surgery, except KT group also received KT applications throughout all rehabilitation period. Postoperative pain, edema, restoration of the operated knee flexion and extension were evaluated. The chosen level of significance was P<0.05; in evaluation power of the test β ≤ 0.2. Groups were homogenous to sex, age, BMI, comorbidities, preoperative knee flexion/extension impairment, preoperative pain intensity, anaesthesia, prosthesis implanted (P>0.05). In both groups postoperative pain decreased significantly during rehabilitation period, however less pain was found in KT group from the second postoperative week till the end of inpatient rehabilitation (28th postoperative day) (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). Postoperative edema was less intense and subsided more quickly in KT group as well (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). No difference was found in improvement of knee flexion (P>0.05). Operated knee extension was found better in KT group then in control at the end of in-patient rehabilitation (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). KT was well tolerated by patients. KT technique appeared to be beneficial for reducing postoperative pain, edema, improving knee extension

  18. Cerebral Oximetry During Infant Cardiac Surgery: Evaluation of and Relationship to Early Postoperative Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kussman, Barry D.; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A.; Newburger, Jane W.; Mayer, John E.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Bacha, Emile A.; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome Methods Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% versus 35%. Results Prior to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO2 values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO2 values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO2 and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with ≥5 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, there was no correlation between the rSO2 (91 ± 6%) or hematocrit (29.2 ± 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO2 during arrest. Conclusions Intraoperative rSO2 varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. PMID:19299774

  19. Advances in the mechanisms and early warning indicators of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction after the extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Han, Jian-ge

    2015-02-01

    The high incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after extracorporeal circulation has seriously affected the prognosis and quality of life. Its mechanism may involve the inflammatory response and oxidative stress,the excessive phosphorylation of tau protein, the decreased blood volume and oxygen in the cerebral cortex. Appropriate early warning indicators of POCD after the extracorporeal circulation should be chosen to facilitate the cross validation of the results obtained different technical approaches and thus promote the early diagnosis and treatment of POCD.

  20. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Background Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca2+) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. Results We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca2+ < 1.1 mmol/L) developed in 38 of 149 (25.7%) patients 24 hours after thyroidectomy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic. PMID:25078927

  1. Early Postoperative Results of Percutaneous Needle Fasciotomy in 451 Patients with Dupuytren Disease.

    PubMed

    Molenkamp, Sanne; Schouten, Tanneke A M; Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Werker, Paul M N; Moolenburgh, J Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Percutaneous needle fasciotomy is a minimally invasive treatment modality for Dupuytren disease. In this study, the authors analyzed the efficacy and complication rate of percutaneous needle fasciotomy using a statistical method that takes the multilevel structure of data, regarding multiple measurements from the same patient, into account. The data of 470 treated rays from 451 patients with Dupuytren disease that underwent percutaneous needle fasciotomy were analyzed retrospectively. The authors described the early postoperative results of percutaneous needle fasciotomy and applied linear mixed models to compare mean correction of passive extension deficit between joints and efficacy of primary versus secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Mean preoperative passive extension deficits at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints were 37, 40, and 31 degrees, respectively. Mean preoperative total passive extension deficit was 54 degrees. Results were excellent, with a mean total passive extension deficit correction of 85 percent. Percutaneous needle fasciotomy was most effective for metacarpophalangeal joints and less effective for proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. Secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy was as effective as primary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Complications were rare and mostly minor. The results of this study confirm that percutaneous needle fasciotomy is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate disease who prefer a minimally invasive procedure. Therapeutic, IV.

  2. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-08-01

    Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca(2+) < 1.1 mmol/L) developed in 38 of 149 (25.7%) patients 24 hours after thyroidectomy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic.

  3. The Effects of Patient Obesity on Early Postoperative Complications After Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sing, David C; Ding, David Y; Aguilar, Thomas U; Luan, Tammy; Ma, C Benjamin; Feeley, Brian T; Zhang, Alan L

    2016-11-01

    To report the prevalence of obesity in shoulder arthroscopy, determine a body mass index (BMI) threshold most predictive of complication within 30 days, and evaluate obesity as an independent risk factor for medical and surgical complications. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we reviewed all patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy during 2011 to 2013. Receiver operating characteristic and Youden coefficient were calculated to find an optimal BMI cutoff to predict complications within 30 days of surgery. A case-control matched analysis was then performed by stratifying patient BMI by this cutoff and matching patients one to one according to age, sex, type of shoulder arthroscopy, American Society of Anesthesiology rating, surgical setting, and 8 comorbidities. Operating time, complications, and readmissions were also compared. Of the 15,589 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy, 6,684 (43%) were classified as obese when using the optimal cutoff point of BMI = 30 according to the Youden coefficient. Obese patients had a higher risk of superficial site infection than nonobese patients (0.3% vs 0.0%; odds ratio [OR]: 6.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 26.8; P = .015). Obese patients did not have significantly increased risk for overall early postoperative complication (1.2% compared with nonobese 0.8%; OR: 1.54; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.4), readmissions (OR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.5), or increased operating time (P = .068). Up to 43% of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy can be classified as obese, but early perioperative complications are uncommon. Higher patient BMI is associated with increased risk of superficial site infection but not an overall risk for complication, readmission, or increased operating time. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage cervical cancer: utility of intraoperative versus postoperative assessment.

    PubMed

    Fader, A Nickles; Edwards, R P; Cost, M; Kanbour-Shakir, A; Kelley, J L; Schwartz, B; Sukumvanich, P; Comerci, J; Sumkin, J; Elishaev, E; Rohan, L Cencia

    2008-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection using lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative blue dye, and radiocolloid in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Intra-cervical injection of technetium-99 sulfur colloid and lymphoscintigraphy were performed preoperatively. Isosulfan blue was injected intra-cervically immediately prior to surgery. SLNs were excised and examined intraoperatively (imprint cytology and frozen section) and postoperatively (H and E histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for cytokeratin). Thirty eight patients were evaluable. Laparoscopy and laparotomy were performed in 28.9% and 71.1%, respectively. Subjects had squamous cell carcinoma (n=26), adenocarcinoma (n=10) or adenosquamous (n=2) histologies. 55.3% had cervical tumors <2 cm. The overall SLN detection rate was 92.1%. The external iliac region just distal to the common iliac bifurcation was the most common SLN location. A mean of 2.1 SLNs were detected per patient with bilateral SLNs observed in 47.4%. On final pathology, metastatic nodal disease was identified in 15.7% of patients. Of these, 83.3% were detected in the SLNs. Sensitivity of SLN detection of metastasis was 100% for patients with cervical tumors <2 cm. However intraoperative evaluation by imprint cytology and frozen section correctly identified lymph node metastasis in only 33.3%. SLN detection is feasible and accurately reflects pelvic nodal basin status when performed in early-stage cervical cancer patients. However, while current intraoperative pathology techniques for assessing nodal metastases reliably detect metastases larger than 2 mm, they lack sufficient sensitivity to detect micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells.

  5. [Personalized cell therapy for early postoperative bullous keratopathy (experimental proof and clinical results)].

    PubMed

    Kasparov, A A; Kasparova, Evg A; Fadeeva, L L; Subbot, A M; Borodina, N V; Kasparova, E A; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M; Pavliuk, A S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term research on development and clinical application of personalized cell therapy (PCT) for treatment of early postoperative (manifesting within the first 3 months after surgery) bullous keratopathy (BK). The method of intracameral PCT implies in vitro incubation of the patient's blood sample with poly(A:U) stimulator, separation of the serum with activated leukocytes, and injection of the final cell preparation into the anterior chamber. The fundamental part of the research was aimed at a detailed description of the cell preparation and investigation of its possible mechanisms of action. Cytokine and growth factor level in the cell preparation suggested that its high clinical efficacy might be due to its ability to improve regeneration of damaged corneal endothelium. The clinical study was conducted on a group of 52 patients with early BK. A significant effect (smoothing of the Descement's membrane folds, complete resorption of corneal edema, improvement of corneal transparency, reduction of corneal thickness and increase of visual acuity by 0.49 +/- 0.27) was achieved in 44.2% of patients, while partial effect was seen in 21.1% of patients. There was no clinical effect in 34.6% of patients. In those patients who developed significant or partial clinical effect after the PCT, many endotheliocytes appeared to have multiple nuclei (2 and more). In some patients polyploid nuclei persisted for 3-5 years after the treatment. Polyploidy results from incomplete mitosis which might be due to regenerative processes in the endothelium stimulated by the PCT. Obviously, high efficacy and relative simplicity of the method should promote its further clinical introduction.

  6. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, John J.; Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry

    Purpose: To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results: Median dose delivered wasmore » 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n=28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01-3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%-30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%-5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0-65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03-3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions: Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and

  7. Surgeon Annual and Cumulative Volumes Predict Early Postoperative Outcomes After Brain Tumor Resection.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Rohan; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Mao, Jialin; Sedrakyan, Art

    2018-06-01

    Surgeon volume has been previously shown to affect patient outcomes. However, data related to neuro-oncologic surgery are limited and do not include neurologic morbidities as an outcomes measure. In this study, we aimed to determine if 5-year surgeon cumulative and annual volumes predict early postoperative outcomes in patients after brain tumor surgery. A population-based cohort of patients (n = 10,258) undergoing brain tumor resection between 2005 and 2014 were included for study using the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperation System. Surgeons were categorized by their cumulative and annual surgical volume. Patients treated by high cumulative/high annual (HC/HA) volume surgeons had shorter length of stay (median, 5 days vs. 8 days vs. 8 days vs. 6 days, respectively; P < 0.01), lower charges (median, 70,025 vs. $77,043 vs. $93,715 vs. $77,018 respectively; P < 0.01) and less nonroutine discharge (41% vs. 48% vs. 50.9% vs. 43.9% respectively; P < 0.01) compared with patients treated by surgeons from the low cumulative/low annual (LC/LA), LC/HA, HC/LA groups. Similarly, HC/HA volume surgeons also had lower rate of hydrocephalus (9.9% vs. 10.4% vs. 13.7% respectively; P = 0.02), medical complications (6.9% vs. 11.2% vs. 11.5% respectively; P < 0.01), neurologic complications (44.1% vs. 46.8% vs. 48.1% respectively; P = 0.03), 30-day reoperation (5.1% vs. 6.9% vs. 7.1% respectively; P < 0.01) and 30-day death (3.3% vs. 5.4% vs. 5.2%; P < 0.01) compared with LC/LA and LC/HA volume surgeons. There is some evidence for improved postoperative outcomes when surgery is performed by HC and HA volume surgeons. This finding suggests that subspecialization in surgical neuro-oncology should be considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Postoperative Nutritional Effects of Early Enteral Feeding Compared with Total Parental Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodectomy Patients: A Prosepective, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD. PMID:22379336

  9. Prospective randomized study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an early versus delayed postoperative physical therapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated patient outcomes and rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a postoperative physical therapy protocol with early passive motion compared with a delayed protocol that limited early passive motion. The study enrolled 68 patients (average age, 63.2 years) who met inclusion criteria. All patients had a full-thickness crescent-shaped tear of the supraspinatus that was repaired using a transosseous equivalent suture-bridge technique along with subacromial decompression. In the early group, 33 patients were randomized to passive elevation and rotation that began at postoperative day 2. In the delayed group, 35 patients began the same protocol at 6 weeks. Patients were monitored clinically for a minimum of 12 months, and rotator cuff healing was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Both groups had similar improvements in preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (early group: 43.9 to 91.9, P < .0001; delayed group: 41.0 to 92.8, P < .0001) and Simple Shoulder Test scores (early group: 5.5 to 11.1, P < .0001; delayed group: 5.1 to 11.1, P < .0001). There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction, rotator cuff healing, or range of motion between the early and delayed groups. Patients in the early group and delayed group both demonstrated very similar outcomes and range of motion at 1 year. There was a slightly higher rotator cuff healing rate in the delayed passive range of motion group compared with the early passive range of motion group (91% vs 85%). Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of Early Enteral Immunonutrition on Postoperative Immune Function and Rehabilitation of Patients with Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Risk].

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang-Bing; Li, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Rui; Zhuang, Wen

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of early enteral immunonutrition on postoperative immune function and rehabilitation of gastric cancer patients with nutritional risk. New hospitalized patients with gastric cancer were evaluated the nutrient status based on NRS 2002. The patients who scored between 3 to 5 points were randomized into two groups(30 cases for each group), and those in experimental group were given 7-d early postoperative enteral immune nutrition, those in control group were given normal nutrition. The immune indexes (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + /CD8 + ) and nutritional indexes(transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin) were measured before operation and at the 3 rd and 7 th day postoperatively. In addition, the first flatus time, gastrointestinal adverse reactions and complications, length of hospital stays were compared between the two groups. The level of CD4 + /CD8 + and transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin in experimental group were significantly higher than those in control group at the third and seventh day postoperatively ( P <0.05).Compared with the control group, the experimental group had shorter first flatus time after surgery, which were (63.5±7.3) h vs. (72.8±8.6 ) h respectively ( P <0.05).There were no statistically difference on pneumonia, anastomosis leakage, severe abdominal distension, inflammatory bowel obstruction and total postoperative hospitalization time between the two groups ( P >0.05). Early enteral immunonutrition can effectively promote the recovery of nutritional status and immune function in gastric cancer patients with nutrition risk.

  11. Very Early Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage within 5 Post-operative Days: a More Severe Subtype Needs Relaparatomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Wei; Lian, Peng; Huang, Ben; Zheng, Hong-Tu; Wang, Ming-He; Gu, Wei-Lie; Li, Xin-Xiang; Xu, Ye; Cai, San-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Early anastomotic leakage (AL), usually defined as leakage within 30 post-operative days, represents a severe entity. However, mounting evidence has indicated that majorities of leakage occur within one week after surgery, making late AL rarity. Here we analyzed 101 consecutive colorectal AL, all of which occurred within 30 post-operative days, during Jan 2013 and Dec 2015 in cancer hospital of Fudan University. AL occurring within 5 post-operative days was defined as very early AL (vE-AL). We evaluated risk factors of vE-AL compared with non-vEAL and correlated with post-leakage peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. We found that AL occurred at median time of 7 days after surgery. 23 cases were vE-AL. Reconstruction of post-peritoneum for mid-low rectal carcinoma significantly reduced incidence of vE-AL compared with non-vE-AL (p = 0.042). Patients with vE-AL was associated with presence of peritonitis (p = 0.031), the latter significantly correlated with increased re-operation rate (p = 6.8E-13). Besides, patients with vE-AL trended to correlate with increased re-operation rate after leakage (p = 0.088). In concludsion, vE-AL occurring within 5 post-operative days represents a severe subtype associated with general peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. PMID:28084305

  12. Influence of pre- or intraoperational use of tramadol (preemptive or preventive analgesia) on tramadol requirement in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Wordliczek, Jerzy; Banach, Marcin; Garlicki, Jarosław; Jakowicka-Wordliczek, Joanna; Dobrogowski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of iv tramadol on opioid requirement in the early postoperative period. The subjects were 90 patients scheduled for colon surgery (hemicolectomy) who received general anesthesia using the (N2O/O2) isoflurane technique. Thirty patients (group I) were administered 100 mg of tramadol iv before induction of general anesthesia (preemptive analgesia). Group II (30 patients) was administered 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after peritoneal closure (preventive analgesia) and control group (30 patients) received 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after operation. Following the operation, all patients were administered tramadol in the PCA-iv mode in order to treat postoperative pain. In the postoperative period, the following parameters were measured: pain intensity (using VAS), total consumption of tramadol, time until the first PCA activation, and frequency of side effects (drowsiness, nausea, vomiting). In patients of groups I and II who had received preemptive or preventive analgesia, a significantly lower total consumption of tramadol, as compared with control group, was observed in the early postoperative period. However, the time until the first PCA activation was significantly shorter in group I as compared to the other two groups. No significant differences between the groups were found regarding pain intensity and frequency of side effects.

  13. Structural change of soft tissue anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with cross-pin fixation between immediate and postoperative 8 weeks: a study with use of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lim, Hong Chul; Kim, Jin Goo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Wang, Joon Ho; Park, Joon Soo

    2009-02-01

    There is some controversy regarding the optional method for proximal fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery using soft tissue grafts. Concern about the strength of fixation has limited rehabilitation during the early postoperative period. Graft slippage occurs after cross-pin femoral fixation during the early healing period when the strength of the tendon-to-bone interface is lowest. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Coronal and sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of arthroscopically reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments performed in 18 consecutive knees were evaluated. The images were taken along the tunnel direction an average of 4 days (after the hemovac removal) and 8 weeks (recovery >120 degrees range of motion) after surgery. The distance was measured from the uppermost point of the graft to the upper border of the superior cross pin. To reduce the intra- and interobserver bias, the measurements were taken twice by 2 orthopaedic surgeons for all patients. Interrater and intrarater reliability were determined twice by 2 orthopaedic surgeons. The intrarater (0.88 and 0.93) and interrater (0.79 and 0.81) agreement ranged from 0.79 to 0.93. One of the 18 patients showed complete breakage of the 2 cross pins 8 weeks after surgery, even though the pins were intact 4 days postoperatively. From an analysis of the remaining 17 patients, there was no significant difference in the coronal and sagittal measurements taken at postoperative 4 days and 8 weeks (P = .170-.737) and all individual cases showed less than 3 mm slippage. The expansion mechanism of the cross pin works well during the early healing period. However, further studies on the long-term outcomes are required. In addition, further study on the strength of this fixation technique is needed because 1 of the 18 patients showed broken pins.

  14. [Laboratory evaluation of endogenous intoxication in patients with stomach cancer during early postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, A N; Evtushenko, V A

    2004-01-01

    The total and effective concentrations of albumin, albumin-binding reserve in blood and toxicity index were determined in 25 patients with gastric cancer pre- and postoperatively as well as in 30 minutes and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 after surgery. The albumin concentration was shown to be decreasing postoperatively with its effective concentration tresspassing the norm values. As for the albumin-binding reserve, it was found to be decreased by 20-30% during the whole follow-up. The studied parameters ensure an effective monitoring of the postoperative period with their significance being more important in a worsening condition of patients.

  15. Intraoperative Inducibility of Atrial Fibrillation Does Not Predict Early Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; Yaksh, Ameeta; Kik, Charles; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Knops, Paul; van Groningen, Nicole J; Hokken, Thijmen; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-03-10

    Early postoperative atrial fibrillation (EPoAF) is associated with thromboembolic events, prolonged hospitalization, and development of late PoAF (LPoAF). It is, however, unknown if EPoAF can be predicted by intraoperative AF inducibility. The aims of this study are therefore to explore (1) the value of intraoperative inducibility of AF for development of both EPoAF and LPoAF and (2) the predictive value of de novo EPoAF for recurrence of LPoAF. Patients (N=496, 75% male) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery for coronary and/or valvular heart disease were included. AF induction was attempted by atrial pacing, before extracorporeal circulation. All patients were on continuous rhythm monitoring until discharge to detect EPoAF. During a follow-up period of 2 years, LPoAF was detected by ECGs and Holter recordings. Sustained AF was inducible in 56% of patients. There was no difference in patients with or without AF before surgery ( P =0.159), or between different types of surgery ( P =0.687). In patients without a history of AF, incidence of EPoAF and LPoAF was 37% and 2%, respectively. EPoAF recurred in 58% patients with preoperative AF, 53% developed LPoAF. There were no correlations between intraoperative inducibility and EPoAF or LPoAF ( P >0.05). EPoAF was not correlated with LPoAF in patients without a history of AF ( P =0.116), in contrast to patients with AF before surgery ( P <0.001). Intraoperative AF inducibility does not predict development of either EPoAF or LPoAF. In patients with AF before surgery, EPoAF is correlated with LPoAF recurrences. This correlation is absent in patients without AF before surgery. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Faecal calprotectin and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting Crohn’s disease endoscopic postoperative recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Pierre; Cadiot, Guillaume; Goutte, Marion; Goutorbe, Felix; Brixi, Hedia; Hoeffel, Christine; Allimant, Christophe; Reymond, Maud; Obritin-Guilhen, Hélène; Magnin, Benoit; Bommelaer, Gilles; Pereira, Bruno; Hordonneau, Constance; Buisson, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    AIM To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and faecal calprotectin to detect endoscopic postoperative recurrence in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS From two tertiary centers, all patients with CD who underwent ileocolonic resection were consecutively and prospectively included. All the patients underwent MRI and endoscopy within the first year after surgery or after the restoration of intestinal continuity [median = 6 mo (5.0-9.3)]. The stools were collected the day before the colonoscopy to evaluate faecal calprotectin level. Endoscopic postoperative recurrence (POR) was defined as Rutgeerts’ index ≥ i2b. The MRI was analyzed independently by two radiologists blinded from clinical data. RESULTS Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was lower in patients with endoscopic POR compared to those with no recurrence (2.03 ± 0.32 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 × 10-3 mm²/s, P = 0.032). Clermont score (10.4 ± 5.8 vs 7.4 ± 4.5, P = 0.038) and relative contrast enhancement (RCE) (129.4% ± 62.8% vs 76.4% ± 32.6%, P = 0.007) were significantly associated with endoscopic POR contrary to the magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) (7.3 ± 4.5 vs 4.8 ± 3.7; P = 0.15) and MR scoring system (P = 0.056). ADC < 2.35 × 10-3 mm²/s [sensitivity = 0.85, specificity = 0.65, positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.85, negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.65] and RCE > 100% (sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.81, PPV = 0.75, NPV = 0.81) were the best cut-off values to identify endoscopic POR. Clermont score > 6.4 (sensitivity = 0.61, specificity = 0.82, PPV = 0.73, NPV = 0.74), MaRIA > 3.76 (sensitivity = 0.61, specificity = 0.82, PPV = 0.73, NPV = 0.74) and a MR scoring system ≥ MR1 (sensitivity = 0.54, specificity = 0.82, PPV = 0.70, and NPV = 0.70) demonstrated interesting performances to detect endoscopic POR. Faecal calprotectin values were significantly higher in patients with endoscopic POR (114 ± 54.5 μg/g vs 354.8 ± 432.5 μg/g; P = 0.0075). Faecal

  17. Faecal calprotectin and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting Crohn's disease endoscopic postoperative recurrence.

    PubMed

    Baillet, Pierre; Cadiot, Guillaume; Goutte, Marion; Goutorbe, Felix; Brixi, Hedia; Hoeffel, Christine; Allimant, Christophe; Reymond, Maud; Obritin-Guilhen, Hélène; Magnin, Benoit; Bommelaer, Gilles; Pereira, Bruno; Hordonneau, Constance; Buisson, Anthony

    2018-02-07

    To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and faecal calprotectin to detect endoscopic postoperative recurrence in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). From two tertiary centers, all patients with CD who underwent ileocolonic resection were consecutively and prospectively included. All the patients underwent MRI and endoscopy within the first year after surgery or after the restoration of intestinal continuity [median = 6 mo (5.0-9.3)]. The stools were collected the day before the colonoscopy to evaluate faecal calprotectin level. Endoscopic postoperative recurrence (POR) was defined as Rutgeerts' index ≥ i2b. The MRI was analyzed independently by two radiologists blinded from clinical data. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was lower in patients with endoscopic POR compared to those with no recurrence (2.03 ± 0.32 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 × 10 -3 mm²/s, P = 0.032). Clermont score (10.4 ± 5.8 vs 7.4 ± 4.5, P = 0.038) and relative contrast enhancement (RCE) (129.4% ± 62.8% vs 76.4% ± 32.6%, P = 0.007) were significantly associated with endoscopic POR contrary to the magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) (7.3 ± 4.5 vs 4.8 ± 3.7; P = 0.15) and MR scoring system ( P = 0.056). ADC < 2.35 × 10 -3 mm²/s [sensitivity = 0.85, specificity = 0.65, positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.85, negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.65] and RCE > 100% (sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.81, PPV = 0.75, NPV = 0.81) were the best cut-off values to identify endoscopic POR. Clermont score > 6.4 (sensitivity = 0.61, specificity = 0.82, PPV = 0.73, NPV = 0.74), MaRIA > 3.76 (sensitivity = 0.61, specificity = 0.82, PPV = 0.73, NPV = 0.74) and a MR scoring system ≥ MR1 (sensitivity = 0.54, specificity = 0.82, PPV = 0.70, and NPV = 0.70) demonstrated interesting performances to detect endoscopic POR. Faecal calprotectin values were significantly higher in patients with endoscopic POR (114 ± 54.5 μg/g vs 354.8 ± 432.5 μg/g; P = 0.0075). Faecal calprotectin > 100

  18. Acceptance of Illness after Surgery in Patients with Breast Cancer in the Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Andrzej; Krzemkowska, Elżbieta; Rhone, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, both in Poland and in the world. Consequences entail a disruption in the physical, psychological and social functioning. The aim of the study was to assess the acceptance of illness by patients treated for breast cancer in the early postoperative period. The research was conducted on the group of 100 consecutive patients aged 32-80 years (median 56 years) who underwent surgery for breast cancer in the Centre of Oncology in Bydgoszcz w 2014 roku. 68 of women had mastectomy, 32 of women had conservative surgery. Polling was conducted in the early period after surgery. The original questionnaire containing closed questions the scale of acceptance of the disease (AIS) as well as mental adaptation to cancer (Mini-Mac) was used in the study. 38% of patients had high acceptance of the disease, 48% average and 14% had low acceptance. Patients after conservative surgery had a higher average values for the mental strategies to cope with the disease, for the fighting spirit (23.1), helplessness and hopelessness (13.5), positive revaluation (23), the patients had a lower average (16.5) in the strategy to absorb anxiety. Patients after conservative surgery had a higher average for constructive style (2.6) but lower for destructive style (1.5). High level of mental coping with the disease was observed in 53%of patients with constructive style and 4% of patients with destructive style. While, a low level of mental coping with the dosease was observed in 5% of patients with constructive style and 46% of patients with destructive style. Almost half of women after mastectomy or conservative surgery had an average acceptance of the disease. The disease was accepted best by educated women living in the cities, white-collar workers with a good economic situation. The following factors were affected the better management of the disease, in order: age, education, current occupation and economic situation, while the type of surgery did

  19. [Effect of early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics on the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-hua; Chen, Yuan-han; Liang, Xin-ling; Li, Rui-zhao; Li, Zhi-lian; Jiang, Fen; Shi, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influence of early postoperative use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) or diuretics on acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery in elderly patients. Data from elderly patients (age≥60 years old) who underwent cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in Guangdong General Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010 were analyzed in this retrospective research. The primary endpoint was AKI as diagnosed according to the serum creatinine criteria of RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage renal disease). The baseline serum creatinine was defined as the latest serum creatinine level before cardiac surgery. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to obtain the independent risk factors for AKI. Among 618 elderly patients, 76 (12.3%) patients received ACEI/ARB during early postoperative period, 491 (79.4%) patients were given diuretics during early postoperative period, and postoperative AKI occurred in 394 (63.8%) patients. The incidence of AKI was 46.1% in patients who received early postoperative ACEI/ARB, and 66.2% in patients who did not (P<0.001). Patients who received diuretics postoperatively were less likely to suffer from AKI compared with patients who did not (57.0% vs. 89.8%, P<0.001). After adjustment of other potential factors of postoperative AKI, logistic regression analysis showed that early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB [odds ratio (OR)=0.131, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.033-0.517, P=0.004], and early postoperative use of diuretics (OR=0.149, 95%CI 0.076-0.291, P<0.001) independently predicted the occurrence of AKI. Early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics is associated with a lower incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in elderly patients.

  20. Left atrial volume index as a predictor for persistent left ventricular dysfunction after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: the role of early postoperative echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Heo, Ran; Sung, Ji Min; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore whether echocardiographic measurements during the early postoperative period can predict persistent left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). We prospectively recruited 54 patients (59 ± 12 years) with isolated chronic severe AR who subsequently underwent aortic valve surgery. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed before the operation, during the early postoperative period (≤2 weeks), and then 1 year after the surgery. Twelve patients with preoperative LVSD demonstrated LVSD at early after the surgery. Of the 42 patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography, 15 patients (36%) developed early postoperative LVSD after surgical correction. All 27 patients without LVSD at early postoperative echocardiography maintained LV function at 1 year after surgery. In the other 27 patients with postoperative LVSD, 17 patients recovered from LVSD and 10 patients did not at 1 year after surgery. Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that postoperative left atrial volume index (LAVI) was the only independent predictor for persistent LVSD at 1 year after surgery in patients with postoperative LVSD (OR 1.180, 95% CI, 1.003-1.390, P = 0.046). The optimal LAVI cutoff value (>34.9 mL/m(2) ) had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 88% for the prediction of persistent LVSD. Prevalence of early postoperative LVSD was relatively high, even in the patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography. Postoperative LAVI could be useful to predict persistent LVSD after aortic valve surgery in patients with early postoperative LVSD. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Early Postoperative Measures Predict 1- and 2-Year Outcomes After Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Importance of Contralateral Limb Strength

    PubMed Central

    Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to be an effective surgical intervention for people with end-stage knee osteoarthritis. However, recovery of function is variable, and not all people have successful outcomes. Objective The aim of this study was to discern which early postoperative functional measures could predict functional ability at 1 year and 2 years after surgery. Design and Methods One hundred fifty-five people who underwent unilateral TKA participated in the prospective longitudinal study. Functional evaluations were performed at the initial outpatient physical therapy appointment and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Evaluations consisted of measurements of height, weight, quadriceps muscle strength (force-generating capacity), and knee range of motion; the Timed “Up & Go” Test (TUG); the stair-climbing task (SCT); and the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS) questionnaire. The ability to predict 1- and 2-year outcomes on the basis of early postoperative measures was analyzed with a hierarchical regression. Differences in functional scores were evaluated with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results The TUG, SCT, and KOS scores at 1 and 2 years showed significant improvements over the scores at the initial evaluation (P<.001). A weaker quadriceps muscle in the limb that did not undergo surgery (“nonoperated limb”) was related to poorer 1- and 2-year outcomes even after the influence of the other early postoperative measures was accounted for in the regression. Older participants with higher body masses also had poorer outcomes at 1 and 2 years. Postoperative measures were better predictors of TUG and SCT times than of KOS scores. Conclusions Rehabilitation regimens after TKA should include exercises to improve the strength of the nonoperated limb as well as to treat the deficits imposed by the surgery. Emphasis on treating age-related impairments and reducing body mass also might improve long-term outcomes. PMID:19959653

  2. C-reactive protein level as a possible predictor for early postoperative ileus following elective surgery for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Sutoh, Toshinaga; Kigure, Wakako; Morita, Hiroki; Katoh, Toshihide; Yajima, Reina; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions are par- tially responsible for postoperative ileus (POI). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acknowledged marker of inflammation. In this study the CRP response with respect to POI in elective colorectal surgery was exam- ined to define the role of serum CRP as an early predic- tor of POI. Three hundred eighty-three patients who underwent elective colorectal resection were identified for inclusion in this study. We defined early POI as that occurring within 30 days following the surgery. Thirty-five patients with POI were com- pared to a subgroup of 348 patients with an unevent- ful postoperative course, and the correlation between postoperative serum CRP levels and POI in colorectal surgery was investigated. In the univariate analysis, length of operation, surgical blood loss, and serum CRP were factors significantly associated with POI following colorectal surgery; however, these fac- tors lost their significance on multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that an increase in CRP levels alone is not a predictor for POI following surgery for colorectal surgery. Although inflammatory responses are known to contribute to the ileus, ad- ditional study is required to identify risk factors that would be more useful for prediction of POI.

  3. Meta-analysis: effect of preoperative infliximab use on early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wu, Q; Wang, F; Wu, K; Fan, D

    2012-11-01

    Infliximab is widely used in severe and refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). The results of clinical studies are inconsistent on whether preoperative infliximab use increases early postoperative complications in UC patients. To determine the clinical safety and efficacy of preoperative infliximab treatment in UC patients with regard to short-term outcomes following abdominal surgery. PubMed, Embase databases were searched for controlled observational studies comparing postsurgical morbidity in UC patients receiving infliximab preoperatively with those not on infliximab. The primary endpoint was total complication rate. Secondary endpoints included the rate of infectious and non-infectious complications. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as summary measures. A total of 13 studies involving 2933 patients were included in our meta-analysis. There was no significant association between infliximab therapy preoperatively and total (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.87-1.37, P = 0.47), infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.51-2.38, P = 0.81) and non-infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59, P = 0.61) postoperative complications respectively. Infliximab might be a protective factor against infection for the use within 12 weeks prior to surgery (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.83, P = 0.01). No publication bias was found. Preoperative infliximab use does not increase the risk of early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. [Role of the small intestinal decompression tube and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Zhixia; An, Dali; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the small intestinal decompression tube (SIDT) and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction (EPISBO). Twelve patients presented EPISBO after abdominal surgery in our department from April 2011 to July 2012. Initially, nasogastric tube decompression and other conventional conservative treatment were administrated. After 14 days, obstruction symptom improvement was not obvious, then the SIDT was used. At the same time, Gastrografin was injected into the small bowel through the SIDT in order to demonstrate the site of obstruction of small bowel and its efficacy. In 11 patients after this management, obstruction symptoms disappeared, bowel function recovered within 3 weeks, and oral feeding occurred gradually. Another patient did not pass flatus after 4 weeks and was reoperated. After postoperative follow-up of 6 months, no case relapsed with intestinal obstruction. For severe and long course of early postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction, intestinal decompression tube plus Gastrografin is safe and effective, and can avoid unnecessary reoperation.

  5. Early postoperative and late metabolic morbidity after pancreatic resections: An old and new challenge for surgeons - A review.

    PubMed

    Beger, Hans G; Mayer, Benjamin

    2018-02-16

    The metrics for measuring early postoperative morbidity after resection of pancreatic neoplastic tumors are overall morbidity, severe surgery-related morbidity, frequency of reoperation and reintervention, in-hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Thirty-day readmission after discharge is additionally an indispensable criterion to assess quality of surgery. The metrics for surgery-associated long-term results after pancreatic resections are survival times, new onset of diabetes (DM), impaired glucose tolerance, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, body mass index and GI motility dysfunctions. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) performed on pancreatic normo-glycemic patients for malignant and benign tumors, 4-30% develop postoperative new onset of diabetes. Long-term persistence of diabetes mellitus is observed after surgery for benign tumors in 14% and in 15.5% of patients after cancer resection. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after PD is observed in the early postoperative period in 23-80% of patients. Persistence of exocrine dysfunctions exists in 25% and 49% of patients. Following left-sided pancreatic resection, new onset DM is observed in 14% of cases; an exocrine insufficiency persisting in the long-term outcome is observed in 16-28% of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence, predictors and early post-operative course of diabetes insipidus in paediatric craniopharygioma: a comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Pratheesh, Ravindran; Swallow, Diane Margaret A; Rajaratnam, Simon; Jacob, K S; Chacko, Geeta; Joseph, Mathew; Chacko, Ari G

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to determine the incidence, predictors, early post-operative course of diabetes insipidus (DI) in paediatric craniopharyngiomas(CP) and compare the findings with adults. Retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, radiological and operative data for 102 consecutive CP surgeries (45 paediatric and 57 adult cases) was done. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to determine the predictors of DI. The incidence of the triphasic response and electrolyte abnormalities in the first post-operative week was compared between children and adults. Children had larger tumours and higher incidence of cystic tumours and hydrocephalus. Preoperative DI was close to 15 % in both the age groups. Radical/subtotal excision was achieved in 58 % of children and 53 % of adults. The incidence of post-operative DI was 80 % and 63 % in children and adults, respectively. Children had significantly higher incidence of permanent DI (55.6 %). Radical excision in children (p = 0.000); previous tumour surgery (p = 0.014) and new onset hypopituitarism (p = 0.019) in adults were associated with permanent DI. The triphasic response (23 %), wide intra-day serum sodium fluctuations and hyponatraemia were more common in children. Post-operative DI is a frequent and significant cause of morbidity in children undergoing surgery for CP. Children have a higher incidence of permanent DI. Radical excision is a predictor of permanent DI in children, whereas previous tumour excision and new onset hypopituitarism were predictors of permanent DI among adults. The management of post-operative DI is more difficult in children and the treating physician needs to be alert to detect the triphasic response.

  7. Systematic Occlusion of Shunts: Control of Early Postoperative IOP and Hypotony-related Complications Following Glaucoma Shunt Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharkawi, Eamon; Artes, Paul H; Oleszczuk, Justyna D; Bela, Cyrielle; Achache, Farid; Barton, Keith; Bergin, Ciara

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of a protocol of total intraluminal occlusion of Baerveldt shunts and its effects on early postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) control and hypotony-related complications. This was a noncomparative, prospective, and interventional study. Glaucoma patients were recruited to undergo Baerveldt shunt surgery. A total of 116 eyes of 112 patients were enrolled. During shunt implantation, aqueous outflow was restricted using an intraluminal occluding stent inserted through the entire tube length, with and without external ligation, to halt aqueous flow. Postoperatively, eyes underwent ligature laser suture lysis and partial or complete stent removals, at predetermined time intervals. Loss of postoperative IOP control was categorized as transient or persistent hypotony (IOP≤5 mm Hg) or hypertony (IOP>21 mm Hg). Patients were followed up for 1 year. Preoperatively median IOP was 23 mm Hg (mean 26 mm Hg, SD 12 mm Hg), median number of glaucoma medications was 3.0 (mean 3.0, SD 1.2). During year 1, laser suture lysis was performed in 30 eyes (26%) and stent removal in 93 eyes (80%) (23 partial; 70 complete). There was 1 case of transient hypotony, no cases of persistent hypotony, 10 of transient hypertony, and 3 of persistent hypertony. Nine eyes had IOP≤5 mm Hg at ≥1 time points and hypotony-related complications occurred in 8 eyes (7%). At 1 year, median IOP was 12 mm Hg (mean 13 mm Hg, SD 4 mm Hg) with a median of 1.0 glaucoma medications (mean 1.1, SD 1.3). The cumulative probability of failure during the first 12 months follow-up was 6% (n=7). Overall postoperative complications occurred in 11 eyes (9%). The surgical and postoperative protocol resulted in controlled, step-wise reductions of IOP with low rates of hypotony and related complications.

  8. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    the fracture stable while the bone heals. Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during...effect of treatment of post-op wound infection in bones after fracture fixation or joint fusion and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and PO

  9. The impact of obesity on early postoperative outcomes in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Ali N; Bauer, John A; Michalsky, Marc P; Olshove, Vincent; Boettner, Bethany; Phillips, Alistair; Cook, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to increase, it now includes the growing number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This particular obese patient population may pose additional intraoperative as well as postoperative challenges that may contribute to poor outcomes. Our aims were to determine the influence of obesity on morbidity and mortality in adults with CHD undergoing surgical repair at a free standing children's hospital. A retrospective analysis of adult (≥18 years) CHD surgery cases from 2002 to 2008 was performed. Congenital heart lesions were defined as mild, moderate, or complex. Patients were categorized by body mass index (BMI): underweight (BMI < 20 kg/m(2)), normal (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Demographics, incidence of mortality, or specific morbidities were statistically compared using Fisher's exact test and analyses of variance (anovas). In this population (n = 165), overweight (29%) and obese (22%) patients were prevalent. Hypertension (HTN) and pre-HTN were more prevalent in obese and overweight patients. Postoperative renal dysfunction was observed in obese patients with complex CHD (P = .04). Mortality was not different among groups. Obesity is becoming increasingly common among adults with CHD. Despite marginal evidence of postoperative renal complications in obese patients with CHD of severe complexity, the overall presence of obesity did not influence mortality or short term postoperative morbidities. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Congenital Heart Disease © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging appearance of the normal residual pituitary gland following macroadenoma resection: Clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Salvatore Di; Biswas, Arundhati; Vézina, Jean Lorrain; Hardy, Jules; Mohr, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Background: To assess the relationship between the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the normal residual pituitary gland (NRPG) and pituitary functional outcome following transsphenoidal resection of pituitary macroadenomas. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 100 consecutive patients with a pituitary macroadenoma, who underwent transsphenoidal resection. The preoperative configuration of the displaced NRPG was stratified as superior, superolateral or lateral. The extent of postoperative restitution of the NRPG was divided into four groups: Group 1 — normal residual gland or almost normal; Group 2 — more than 50% restitution; Group 3 — less than 50% of the normal residual gland; and Group 4 — barely visible or absent residual gland. The pre- and postoperative NRPG appearance was correlated with pituitary functional status. Results: Preoperatively, the NRPG was identifiable in 79 patients, with extrasellar displacement in 53%. The displacement pattern was superior in 8%, superolateral in 32%, and lateral in 58% of the patients. If the NRPG was displaced laterally, the ipsilateral cavernous sinus was not invaded by the pituitary macroadenoma. Partial or complete pituitary function was lost in 6 / 23 (26.1%) patients with superior or superolateral displacement of the NRPG, compared to only 1 / 36 (2.8%) patients without superior displacement of the NRPG (P = 0.025). Progressive postoperative reconstitution of the NRPG was related to the preservation of the pituitary hormonal axis (Pearson Chi-Square P < 0.001). Conclusions: Progressive displacement of the NRPG preoperatively, and lack of restitution of the NRPG on postoperative MRI appeared to correlate with the postoperative pituitary functional loss. PMID:22754732

  11. Parecoxib prevents early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang-Zi; Yao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Wang, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trial design neuroinflammation and postoperative pain after surgery are increasingly reported in association with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is used for postoperative analgesia for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to evaluate parecoxib's effects on POCD in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Around 134 elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into parecoxib (group P) and control (group C) groups, and treated with parecoxib sodium and saline, respectively, shortly after induction of general anesthesia and 12-h postsurgery, respectively. Perioperative plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 1evels were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed following surgery. Neuropsychological tests were performed before surgery, and 1 week and 3 months postoperation. Results: POCD incidence in group P was significantly lower compared with that of group C at 1 week after surgery (16.7% vs 33.9%; P < 0.05); no significant difference was found between groups C and P at 3-month follow-up (9.7% vs 6.7%). Compared with group C values, visual analog pain scale (VAS) scores at 3, 6, and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in group P(P < 0.05). Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were lower in group P than in group C after the operation (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the plasma CRP level was found between groups P and C. Conclusions: Parecoxib sodium decreases POCD incidence after total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients and may explain how this drug suppresses inflammation and acute postoperative pain caused by surgical trauma. PMID:27428192

  12. Early functional outcome after lateral UKA is sensitive to postoperative lower limb alignment.

    PubMed

    van der List, J P; Chawla, H; Villa, J C; Zuiderbaan, H A; Pearle, A D

    2017-03-01

    The predictive role of patient-specific characteristics and radiographic parameters on medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) outcomes is well known, but knowledge of these predictors is lacking in lateral UKA. Therefore, purpose of this study was to assess the predictive role of these parameters on short-term functional outcomes of lateral UKA. In this retrospective cohort study, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index scores were collected at 2-year follow-up (median 2.2 years, range 2.0-4.0 years) in 39 patients who underwent lateral UKA. Patient-specific characteristics included age, BMI and gender, while radiographic parameters included osteoarthritis severity of all three compartments and both preoperative and postoperative hip-knee-ankle alignment. BMI, gender, age and preoperative valgus alignment were not correlated with functional outcomes, while postoperative valgus alignment was correlated with functional outcomes (0.561; p = 0.001). Postoperative valgus of 3°-7° was correlated with better outcomes than more neutral (-2° to 3° valgus) alignment (96.7 vs. 85.6; p = 0.011). Postoperative alignment was a predictor when corrected for patient-specific characteristics (regression coefficient 4.1; p < 0.001) and radiological parameters (regression coefficient 3.8; p = 0.002). Postoperative valgus alignment of 3°-7° was correlated with the best short-term functional outcomes in lateral UKA surgery, while patient-specific parameters and preoperative alignment were not correlated with functional outcomes. Based on these findings, a surgeon should aim for valgus alignment of 3°-7° when performing lateral UKA surgery for optimal functional outcomes. Prognostic study, Level II.

  13. The 2013 Frank Stinchfield Award: Diagnosis of infection in the early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yi, Paul H; Cross, Michael B; Moric, Mario; Sporer, Scott M; Berger, Richard A; Della Valle, Craig J

    2014-02-01

    Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be difficult in the early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty (THA) because normal cues from the physical examination often are unreliable, and serological markers commonly used for diagnosis are elevated from the recent surgery. The purposes of this study were to determine the optimal cutoff values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count, and differential for diagnosing PJI in the early postoperative period after primary THA. We reviewed 6033 consecutive primary THAs and identified 73 patients (1.2%) who underwent reoperation for any reason within the first 6 weeks postoperatively. Thirty-six of these patients were infected according to modified Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Mean values for the diagnostic tests were compared between groups and receiver operating characteristic curves generated along with an area under the curve (AUC) to determine test performance and optimal cutoff values to diagnose infection. The best test for the diagnosis of PJI was the synovial fluid WBC count (AUC = 98%; optimal cutoff value 12,800 cells/μL) followed by the CRP (AUC = 93%; optimal cutoff value 93 mg/L), and synovial fluid differential (AUC = 91%; optimal cutoff value 89% PMN). The mean ESR (infected = 69 mm/hr, not infected = 46 mm/hr), CRP (infected = 192 mg/L, not infected = 30 mg/L), synovial fluid WBC count (infected = 84,954 cells/μL, not infected = 2391 cells/μL), and differential (infected = 91% polymorphonuclear cells [PMN], not infected = 63% PMN) all were significantly higher in the infected group. Optimal cutoff values for the diagnosis of PJI in the acute postoperative period were higher than those traditionally used for the diagnosis of chronic PJI. The serum CRP is an excellent screening test, whereas the synovial fluid WBC count is more specific.

  14. Psychological factors as predictors of early postoperative pain after open nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mimic, Ana; Bantel, Carsten; Jovicic, Jelena; Mimic, Branko; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Durutovic, Otas; Ladjevic, Nebojsa

    2018-01-01

    Purpose There is an increasing interest in the identification of predictors for individual responses to analgesics and surgical pain. In this study, we aimed to determine psychological factors that might contribute to this response. We hence investigated patients undergoing a standardized surgical intervention (open nephrectomy). Patients and methods Between May 2014 and April 2015, we conducted a prospective observational cohort study. The following psychological tests were administered preoperatively: Mini-Mental State Examination, Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. The primary outcome, postoperative pain intensity (11-point numerical rating scale, [NRS]), was assessed in the “immediate early” (first 8 hours), “early” (12 and 24 hours), and “late early” periods (48 and 72 hours). Results A total of 196 patients were assessed, and 150 were finally included in the study. NRS scores improved from 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–5.1) in the “immediate early” to 3.1 (95% CI: 2.9–3.3) in the “early” and 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1–2.5) in the “late early” postoperative period. Most (87%) patients received intravenous opioids, while 13% received analgesics epidurally. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated better pain management with epidural analgesia in the first two postoperative periods (F=15.01, p<0.00). Postoperative pain correlated strongly with analgesic strategy and preoperative psychological assessment. Multiple linear regression analysis showed “expected pain” was the only predictor in the “immediate early” phase, and “anxiety” was most important in the “early” postoperative period. In the “late early” phase, catastrophizing was the predominant predictor, alongside “preoperative analgesic usage” and “APAIS anxiety”. Conclusion After open nephrectomy, epidural analgesia

  15. [Recent advances of monitoring and glycaemia control during early postoperative period in patients after pancreas surgery].

    PubMed

    Lishova, E A; Nikoda, V V; Bondarenko, A V; Ragozin, A K; Skipenko, O G

    2013-01-01

    Recently new technologies of diagnostics and correction of carbohydrates metabolism disturbances are introduced in the ICU to improve the safety for patients during intensive care. 33 patients after pancreas surgery were included into the study 13 patients (39%) had underlying diabetes mellitus. Glucose level changes in the interstitial liquid of the subcutaneous fat during postoperative period were monitored by system of CGM Medtronic MiniMed Guardian RT, MiniMed Paradigm Real-time. Valid values of glucose were from 4.1 to 10.1 mmol/L. Episodes of glucose level increasing occurred in 94% of patients in postoperative period after pancreas surgery. Average level of glucose was within the limits of valid values. However in 64% of cases patients needed insulin therapy Used systems of continuous glucose monitoring in the ICU allow improving the safety for patients receiving artificial nutrition and intravenous insulin therapy.

  16. Renal excretion of ingested gastrografin: clinical relevance in early postoperative treatment of patients who have undergone gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kyung-Myung; Lee, Sung-Yong; Kwon, Oh-Han

    2002-05-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the clinical relevance of renal excretion of ingested Gastrografin (methylglucamine diatrizoate) revealed on CT in the early treatment of patients who have undergone gastric surgery. Unenhanced abdominal CT was performed before and then 1 hr to 1 hr 30 min after Gastrografin ingestion in 30 patients 7 days after gastric surgery and in 19 healthy adults who served as the control group. CT scans were reviewed for the opacification of the renal collecting system or urinary bladder after Gastrografin ingestion, a finding that represents renal excretion of the ingested contrast medium. In the control group, four (21 %) of the 19 healthy adults showed renal excretion of ingested Gastrografin visualized as opacification of the urinary tract on CT scans obtained 1 hr to 1 hr 30 min after ingestion of the substance. Renal excretion of the ingested Gastrografin was seen in 19 (63%) of the 30 patients, a significantly larger percentage than in the control group (z score, p < 0.01). No patient showed either radiologic or clinical evidence of leakage from the anastomotic site. Renal excretion of ingested Gastrografin is frequently visualized on CT in patients without anastomotic leakage during the early postoperative period after gastric surgery, and this phenomenon is not rare, even in healthy adults. Therefore, renal excretion seen on CT should not be regarded as a sign of anastomotic leakage in early postoperative patients.

  17. Early Post-Operative Outcomes and Blood Product Utilization in Adult Cardiac Surgery- The Post Aprotinin Era

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia; Toole, J. Matthew; Kratz, John M.; Uber, Walter E.; Wheat, Margaret J.; Stroud, Martha R.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aprotinin was a commonly utilized pharmacological agent for homeostasis in cardiac surgery but was discontinued resulting in the extensive use of lysine analogues. This study tested the hypothesis that early post-operative adverse events and blood product utilization would affected in this post-aprotinin era. Methods/Results Adult patients (n=781) undergoing coronary artery bypass (CABG), valve replacement, or both from November 1, 2005-October 31, 2008 at a single institution were included. Multiple logistic regression modeling and propensity scoring were performed on 29 pre-operative and intra-operative variables in patients receiving aprotinin (n=325) or lysine analogues (n=456). The propensity adjusted relative risk (RR;95% confidence interval;CI) for the intra-operative use of packed red blood cells (RR:0.75;CI:0.57–0.99), fresh frozen plasma (RR:0.37;0.21–0.64), and cryoprecipitate (RR:0.06;CI:0.02–0.22) were lower in the aprotinin versus lysine analogue group (all p<0.05). The risk for mortality (RR:0.53;CI:0.16–1.79) and neurological events (RR:0.87;CI:0.35–2.18) remained similar between groups, whereas a trend for reduced risk for renal dysfunction was observed in the aprotinin group. Conclusions In the post-aprotinin era with the exclusive use of lysine analogues, the relative risk of early post-operative outcomes such as mortality and renal dysfunction have not improved, but the risk for the intra-operative use of blood products has increased. Thus, improvements in early post-operative outcomes have not been realized with the discontinued use of aprotinin, but rather increased blood product utilization has occurred with the attendant costs and risks inherent with this strategy. PMID:21911820

  18. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem, E-mail: ucaradem@yahoo.com; Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: aghakishi@yahoo.com; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: drhuseyin@yahoo.com

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  19. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy: extent of tissue excision and clinical implications in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Behboo, R; Zanella, S; Ruffolo, C; Vafai, M; Marino, F; Scarpa, M

    2011-06-01

    This study quantified prospectively the amount of rectal wall removed during stapled haemorrhoidopexy and assessed its effect on ano-rectal function and health-related quality of life. Thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent stapled haemorrhoidopexy for second- or third- degree haemorrhoids, or for failed medical treatment, in the Department of Surgery and Gastroenterological Sciences at the University of Padova were included. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using a structured questionnaire to determine the number of defecations per week, incomplete defecations, time taken to defecate any difficulty in defecating, soiling, the use of drugs and continence. All patients were reassessed at 1 and 2 weeks and at 30 days after the procedure using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) questionnaire. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative ano-rectal manometry at least 30 days after stapled haemorrhoidopexy. The median surface area of the resected rectal wall was 10.5 (range, 9-15) mm(2) and the median thickness was 3 (range, 2-4) mm. Muscle tissue was included in all specimens. The median thickness of the resected rectal wall correlated inversely with the rectal volume when the recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) was initiated during postoperative manometry (ρ = -0.50, P = 0.07). A significant, direct correlation was found between the surface area of the resected rectal wall and the rectal volume during postoperative manometry (ρ = 0.53, P = 0.08) and the use of analgesic drugs after 2 weeks (ρ = 0.63, P = 0.04). Significant correlations were found between being female and postoperative resting pressure (ρ = -0.74, P < 0.01), squeeze pressure (ρ = -0.64, P = 0.01) and maximum tolerated volume (ρ = -0.78, P < 0.01). Stapled haemorrhoidopexy is safe and effective. The thicker the resected rectal wall, the lower the volume of initiation of the RAIR. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association

  20. Ultrasound-guided bilateral rectus sheath block reduces early postoperative pain after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sooyoung; Kim, Youn Jin; Jeong, Kyungah; Moon, Hye-Sung

    2018-04-01

    Rectus sheath block (RSB) is an anterior abdominal wall block that reduces postoperative pain associated with midline incisions. This study aims to investigate the effect of ultrasound-guided bilateral RSB (US-BRSB) on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Sixty patients who underwent laparoscopic gynecologic surgery were allocated to RSB (n = 30) or control (n = 30) group. A bilateral US-BRSB procedure (30 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine) was performed after induction of general anesthesia in the RSB group. The control group proceeded the surgery without sham block. All patients received fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia and rescue analgesics upon demand. Pain was scored by a blinded observer using a verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) at rest while coughing at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after postanesthesia care unit (PACU) admission. The primary outcome was the total number of rescue analgesics used in the 48-h postoperative period. At 0 h, VNRS were lower in the RSB group than in the control, both at rest (median VNRS 4.5 vs. 5, p = 0.02) and while coughing (median VNRS 6 vs. 7, p = 0.004). At 6 h, VNRS scores were lower in the RSB group than in the control while coughing (median VNRS 3 vs. 5, p = 0.01). Fentanyl use as rescue analgesics in the PACU was significantly lower in the RSB group than in the control (27.7 ± 32.1 vs. 53.3 ± 33.7 µg, respectively; p = 0.004). At 48 h postoperatively, the total number of rescue analgesics administered were significantly fewer in the RSB group than in the control (2.5 ± 2.5 vs. 3.9 ± 2.6, respectively; p = 0.04). US-BRSB reduces the immediate postoperative pain and opioid consumption during the early postoperative period. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02476799, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02476799 .

  1. Telemedicine with mobile devices and augmented reality for early postoperative care.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Brent A; Brabston, Eugene W; Shin Zu; Watson, Shawna L; Baker, Dustin; Winn, Dennis; Guthrie, Barton L; Shenai, Mahesh B

    2016-08-01

    Advanced features are being added to telemedicine paradigms to enhance usability and usefulness. Virtual Interactive Presence (VIP) is a technology that allows a surgeon and patient to interact in a "merged reality" space, to facilitate both verbal, visual, and manual interaction. In this clinical study, a mobile VIP iOS application was introduced into routine post-operative orthopedic and neurosurgical care. Survey responses endorse the usefulness of this tool, as it relates to The virtual interaction provides needed virtual follow-up in instances where in-person follow-up may be limited, and enhances the subjective patient experience.

  2. Occlusive ligature and standardized fenestration of a Baerveldt tube with and without antimetabolites for early postoperative intraocular pressure control.

    PubMed

    Trible, J R; Brown, D B

    1998-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a surgical modification for a nonvalved aqueous tube shunt in controlling intraocular pressure (IOP) in the early postoperative period. The effect of antimetabolite use on IOP also was studied. A retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent modified Baerveldt 350-mm2 implant with varied, nonrandomized, exposure to antimetabolites. Fifty-one eyes of 46 patients with uncontrolled glaucoma were examined. Identical surgical modification of a Baerveldt 350-mm2 tube was performed in all cases and consisted of placement of an occlusive 7-0 polyglactin suture just anterior to the plate followed by a through-and-through penetration of the tube just anterior to the occlusive ligature with a standardized 15 degrees blade. Seventeen eyes were not exposed to antimetabolite, while 2 groups of 17 eyes had 3 minutes' episcleral exposure to either 5-fluorouracil 50 mg/ml or mitomycin C 0.4 mg/ml at the location corresponding to the fenestration. The Tenon's layer and conjunctiva were not exposed because of concerns regarding conjunctival erosion over the device. Intraocular pressure and number of antiglaucoma medications required were analyzed. For the group, mean IOP before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 4, 10, 21, 42, 63, 84, and 112 was (in millimeters of mercury) 34.6, 20.1, 17.0, 17.2, 22.0, 17.3, 18.7, 17.4, and 15.6, respectively. There was an elevation of IOP at day 21 relative to fibrotic blockage of the fenestration before suture autolysis. This was temporized with antiglaucoma medication until suture autolysis occurred or treated with laser suture lysis (8 eyes). On day 1, hypotony occurred in 3 (6%) eyes whereas IOP greater than 30 mmHg was observed in 13 (26%) eyes. By day 10, the frequency had decreased to one (2.1 %) eye and three (6.4%) eyes, respectively. The use of antimetabolites did not result in lower IOP or less medication needed for any group at any interval (analysis of variance). This modification of a

  3. Toward Shorter Hospitalization After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery: Day-by-Day Analysis of Early Postoperative Complications and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Shimanskaya, Viktoria E; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Bartels, Ronald H M A; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Grotenhuis, J André; Hermus, Ad R M M; van de Ven, Annenienke C; van Lindert, Erik J

    2018-03-01

    It is unclear which patients have the greatest risk of developing complications in the first days after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (ETS) and how long patients should stay hospitalized after surgery. The objective of this study is to identify which patients are at risk for early postoperative medical and surgical reinterventions to optimize the length of hospitalization. The medical records of 146 patients who underwent ETS for a pituitary adenoma between January 2013 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected on baseline patient-related characteristics, characteristics of the pituitary adenoma, perioperative complications and interventions, and postoperative outcomes. Patients who underwent additional interventions on days 2, 3, and 4 after ETS were identified as cases, and patients who did not have any interventions after day 1 postoperatively were identified as controls. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 4.279; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.149-15.933; P = 0.03), incomplete adenoma resection (OR, 2.840; 95% CI, 1.228-6.568; P = 0.02) and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery (OR, 5.211; 95% CI, 2.158-12.579; P <0.001) were associated with reinterventions. Patients without interventions on day 1 or 2 had only an 18.6% chance of a reintervention (OR, 0.201; 95% CI, 0.095-0.424). Patients with diabetes mellitus, incomplete adenoma resection, and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery have an increased chance on reinterventions. In addition, patients without any interventions on day 1 and 2 are at low risk for later reinterventions. These patients could be suitable candidates for early hospital discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Can early postoperative intraocular pressure predict success following mitomycin-C augmented trabeculectomy in primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rong, S S; Feng, M Y; Wang, N; Meng, H; Thomas, R; Fan, S; Wang, R; Wang, X; Tang, X; Liang, Y B

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the association between early and late postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and determine if early postoperative IOP can predict the surgical outcome. A total of 165 consecutive patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) undergoing primary mitomycin-C-augmented trabeculectomy underwent a comprehensive eye examination before surgery and were followed-up on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, and months 3, 6, 12, and 18. IOPs on days 1, 7, 14, and 30 were stratified into groups A (<10 mm Hg), B (≥10 and <15 mm Hg), C (≥15 and <20 mm Hg), and D (≥20 mm Hg). Differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Multivariable regression was used to exam the predictive ability of early IOP for final outcome. The mean age was 62.5±7.9 years and 41.21% (n=68) were males. Stratified by IOP on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, respectively, mean IOPs at month 18 were different among groups A, B, C, and D (ANOVA, P=0.047, P=0.033, P=0.008, and P<0.001, respectively). Once the IOPs were settled with interventions on day 7 a higher IOP level was associated with decreasing success rate under different outcome definitions, final IOP <15 mm Hg (Fisher's exact P=0.001) and <20 mm Hg (P=0.039) without medication. Multiple regression showed early IOP predicted final IOP independently from baseline variables. A cutoff value of 13.5 mm Hg on day 7 achieved an accuracy of 80.0 and 57.1% in predicting IOP<15 mm Hg without medication and failure after surgery, respectively. The IOP at 18 months following primary antifibrotic-augmented trabeculectomy in PACG patients is associated with and predicted by the postoperative IOPs at 1 month. Control of early IOP to 13.5 or less may provide better outcomes.

  5. Implementation of a novel postoperative monitoring system using automated Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) incorporating end-tidal capnography.

    PubMed

    Blankush, Joseph M; Freeman, Robbie; McIlvaine, Joy; Tran, Trung; Nassani, Stephen; Leitman, I Michael

    2017-10-01

    Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO 2 ), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload. This study investigates whether the implementation of automated devices that utilize ongoing vital signs monitoring and MEWS calculations, inclusive of a score for end-tidal CO 2 (EtCO 2 ), can be feasibly implemented on the general care hospital floor and effectively identify derangements in a post-operative patient's condition while limiting the amount of false alarms that would serve to increase provider workload. From July to November 2014, post-operative patients meeting the inclusion criteria (BMI > 30 kg/m 2 , history of obstructive sleep apnea, or the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or epidural narcotics) were monitored using automated devices that record minute-by-minute VS included in classic MEWS calculations as well as EtCO 2 . Automated messages via pagers were sent to providers for instances when the device measured elevated MEWS, abnormal EtCO 2 , and oxygen desaturations below 85 %. Data, including alarm and message details from the first 133 patients, were recorded and analyzed. Overall, 3.3 alarms and pages sounded per hour of monitoring. Device-only alarms sounded 2.7 times per hour-21 % were technical alarms. The remaining device-only alarms for concerning VS sounded 2.0/h, 70 % for falsely recorded VS. Pages for abnormal EtCO 2 sounded 0.4/h (82 % false recordings) while pages for low blood oxygen saturation sounded 0.1/h (55 % false alarms). 143 times (0.1 pages/h) the devices calculated

  6. Early postoperative enteral nutrition is useful for recovering gastrointestinal motility and maintaining the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.

  7. Postoperative computed tomography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging findings in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis treated by dorsal laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Martin; Ley, Charles J; Hansson, Kerstin; Sjöström, Lennart

    2017-03-20

    To describe postoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) treated by dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy. Prospective clinical case study of dogs diagnosed with and treated for DLSS. Surgical and clinical findings were described. Computed tomography and low field MRI findings pre- and postoperatively were described and graded. Clinical, CT and MRI examinations were performed four to 18 months after surgery. Eleven of 13 dogs were clinically improved and two dogs had unchanged clinical status postoperatively despite imaging signs of neural compression. Vacuum phenomenon, spondylosis, sclerosis of the seventh lumbar (L7) and first sacral (S1) vertebrae endplates and lumbosacral intervertebral joint osteoarthritis became more frequent in postoperative CT images. Postoperative MRI showed mild disc extrusions in five cases, and in all cases contrast enhancing non-discal tissue was present. All cases showed contrast enhancement of the L7 spinal nerves both pre- and postoperatively and seven had contrast enhancement of the lumbosacral intervertebral joints and paraspinal tissue postoperatively. Articular process fractures or fissures were noted in four dogs. The study indicates that imaging signs of neural compression are common after DLSS surgery, even in dogs that have clinical improvement. Contrast enhancement of spinal nerves and soft tissues around the region of disc herniation is common both pre- and postoperatively and thus are unreliable criteria for identifying complications of the DLSS surgery.

  8. Double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with and without remnant preservation - Comparison of early postoperative outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kambara, Syunichiro; Iseki, Tomoya; Kanto, Ryo; Kurosaka, Kenji; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    To compare the early postoperative outcomes and complications of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with and without remnant preservation. The study population comprised 125 consecutive knees that underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft. Among the 125 knees, remnant preservation was indicated for 50 knees, while standard double-bundle reconstruction was performed in the remaining 75 knees. Postoperative evaluations included heel-height difference (HHD) at periodical follow-ups, number of knees requiring arthroscopic debridement due to problematic extension loss within six months, re-injury within one year, graft status upon second-look arthroscopy, and clinical examinations by Lysholm score and KT measurement at one year. All patients could be followed up for a minimum of one year after surgery. When the results obtained from both groups were compared, HHD values were significantly larger in the preservation group at three and six months, and the rate of knees requiring arthroscopic debridement was also higher in this group (12% versus 4.0%). Graft status on second-look arthroscopy was considered to be good for 92% of the knees in the preservation group versus 59% in the non-preservation group. Re-injury rates within one year were 2.0% in the preservation group and 5.3% in the non-preservation group. No significant differences in clinical examinations were found between the groups at one year. Remnant preservation in double-bundle hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction may enhance tissue healing; however, retention of the remnant with its full volume resulted in an increased incidence of postoperative problematic extension loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interobserver agreement on the echocardiographic parameters that estimate right ventricular systolic function in the early postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Temois, S G; Santos-Martínez, L E; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Gutiérrez-Delgado, L G; Baranda-Tovar, F M

    2016-11-01

    To know the variability of transthoracic echocardiographic parameters that assess right ventricular systolic function by analyzing interobserver agreement in the early postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery. To assess the feasibility of these echocardiographic measurements. A cross-sectional study, double-blind pilot study was carried out from May 2011 to February 2013. Cardiovascular postoperative critical care at the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez", Mexico City, Mexico. Consecutive, non-probabilistic sampling. Fifty-six patients were studied in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. The first echocardiographic parameters were obtained between 6-8hours after cardiac surgery, followed by blinded second measurements. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging (VSPAT), diameters and right ventricular outflow area, tract fractional shortening. The agreement was analyzed by the Bland-Altman method, and its magnitude was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval). Both observers evaluated TAPSE and VSPAT in 48 patients (92%). The average TAPSE was 11.68±4.53mm (range 4-27mm). Right ventricular systolic dysfunction was observed in 41 cases (85%) and normal TAPSE in 7 patients (15%). The average difference and its limits according to TAPSE were -0.917±2.95 (-6.821, 4.988), with a magnitude of 0.725 (0.552, 0.837); the tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging was -0.001±0.015 (-0.031, 0.030), and its magnitude 0.825 (0.708, 0.898), respectively. VSPAT and TAPSE were estimated by both observers in 92% of the patients, these parameters exhibiting the lowest interobserver variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot Study on Early Postoperative Discharge in Pituitary Adenoma Patients: Effect of Socioeconomic Factors and Benefit of Specialized Pituitary Centers.

    PubMed

    Sarkiss, Christopher A; Lee, James; Papin, Joseph A; Geer, Eliza B; Banik, Rudrani; Rucker, Janet C; Oudheusden, Barbara; Govindaraj, Satish; Shrivastava, Raj K

    2015-08-01

    Introduction Pituitary neoplasms are benign entities that require distinct diagnostic and treatment considerations. Recent advances in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery have resulted in shorter lengths of stay (LOS). We implemented a postoperative day (POD) 1 discharge paradigm involving a multidisciplinary approach and detailed preoperative evaluation and review of both medical and socioeconomic factors. Methods The experience of a single neurosurgeon/ears, nose, throat (ENT) team was reviewed, generating a preliminary retrospective database of the first 30 patients who underwent resection of pituitary lesions under the POD 1 discharge paradigm. We assessed multiple axes from their preoperative, in-house, and postoperative care. Results There were 14 men and 16 women with an average age of 53.8 years (range: 27-76 years). There were 22 nonsecretory and 8 secretory tumors with average size of 2.80 cm (range: 1.3-5.0 cm). All 30 patients underwent preoperative ENT evaluation. Average LOS was 1.5 ± 0.7 days. A total of 18 of 30 patients were discharged on POD 1. The insurance status included 15 with public insurance such as emergency Medicaid and 15 with private insurance. Four patients had transient diabetes insipidus (DI); none had permanent DI. Overall, 28 of 30 patients received postoperative steroids. Factors that contributed to LOS > 1 day included public insurance status, two or more medical comorbidities, diabetes mellitus, transient panhypopituitarism, and DI. Conclusion The implementation of a POD 1 discharge plan for pituitary tumors is feasible and safe for elective patients. This implementation requires the establishment of a dedicated Pituitary Center model with experienced team members. The consistent limitation to early discharge was socioeconomic status. Efforts that incorporate the analysis of social disposition parameters with proper management of clinical sequelae are crucial to the maintenance of ideal LOS and optimal patient

  11. Predictors of early postoperative voiding dysfunction and other complications following a midurethral sling.

    PubMed

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Kowalski, Joseph T; Chaudhry, Zaid Q; Mahal, Aman S; Lanzer, Jennifer; Noor, Nabila; Good, Meadow M; Hynan, Linda S; Jeppson, Peter C; Rahn, David D

    2016-11-01

    The rates reported for postoperative urinary retention following midurethral sling procedures are highly variable. Determining which patients have a higher likelihood of failing a voiding trial will help with preoperative counseling prior to a midurethral sling. The objective of the study was to identify preoperative predictors for failed voiding trial following an isolated midurethral sling. A retrospective, multicenter, case-control study was performed by including all isolated midurethral sling procedures performed between Jan. 1, 2010 to June 30, 2015, at 6 academic centers. We collected demographics, medical and surgical histories, voiding symptoms, urodynamic evaluation, and intraoperative data from the medical record. We excluded patients not eligible for attempted voiding trial after surgery (eg, bladder perforation requiring catheterization). Cases failed a postoperative voiding trial and were discharged with an indwelling catheter or taught intermittent self-catheterization; controls passed a voiding trial. We also recorded any adverse events such as urinary tract infection or voiding dysfunction up to 6 weeks after surgery. Bivariate analyses were completed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson χ 2 tests as appropriate. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to determine predictors of failing a voiding trial. A total of 464 patients had an isolated sling (70.9% retropubic, 28.4% transobturator, 0.6% single incision); 101 (21.8%) failed the initial voiding trial. At follow-up visits, 90.4% passed a second voiding trial, and 38.5% of the remainder passed on the third attempt. For the bivariate analyses, prior prolapse or incontinence surgery was similar in cases vs controls (31% vs 28%, P = .610) as were age, race, body mass index, and operative time. Significantly more of the cases (32%) than controls (22%) had a Charlson comorbidity index score of 1 or greater (P = .039). Overactive bladder symptoms of urgency, frequency, and urgency

  12. Flow Characterization of Severe Carotid Artery Stenosis in Pre- and Post-operative Phantoms by Using Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seungbin; Song, Simon; Kim, Doosang

    2016-11-01

    It is remained unknown that the flow characteristics changes between pre- and post-operative severe carotid artery stenosis could affect the long-term patency or failure. However, in-vivo clinical experiments to uncover the flow details are far from bed-side due to limited measurement resolutions, blurring artifact, etc. We studied detailed flow characteristics of more than 75% severe carotid artery stenosis before and after surgical treatments. Real-size flow phantoms for 10 patients, who underwent carotid endarterectomy with patch/no patch closure, were prepared by using a 3D rapid-prototype machine from CT scanned images. The working fluid is a glycerin aqueous solution, and patient-specific pulsatile flows were applied to the phantoms, based on ultrasonic flow rate measurements. The flows were visualized with magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). The detailed flow characteristics are presented for both pre- and post-operative carotid arteries along with visualization data of 3 dimensional, 3 component velocity fields. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  13. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2018-07-01

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p < .01). The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was significantly correlated with pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Our findings suggested that infants with cyanotic CHD are likely at a greater risk of gross motor delays, the recovery of which might differ between infants with cyanotic and acyanotic CHD after cardiac surgery. Early postoperative physical therapy promotes gross motor recovery. Implications of Rehabilitation Infants and toddlers with cyanotic congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected

  14. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p < 0.05). No statistical difference can be observed regarding the timing of serum biomarkers. Serum PTH levels at postoperative 12 and 24 h can predict early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration in dogs undergoing a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy: 100 cases (2002-2014).

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, F E; Cardy, T J A; Liebel, F X; Garosi, L; Kenny, P J; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2015-12-01

    Early post-operative neurological deterioration is a well-known complication following dorsal cervical laminectomies and hemilaminectomies in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate potential risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration following these surgical procedures. Medical records of 100 dogs that had undergone a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy between 2002 and 2014 were assessed retrospectively. Assessed variables included signalment, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs, neurological status before surgery, diagnosis, surgical site, type and extent of surgery and duration of procedure. Outcome measures were neurological status immediately following surgery and duration of hospitalisation. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify variables to be included in a multivariate model. Diagnoses included osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (OACSM; n = 41), acute intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE; 31), meningioma (11), spinal arachnoid diverticulum (10) and vertebral arch anomalies (7). Overall 54% (95% CI 45.25-64.75) of dogs were neurologically worse 48 h post-operatively. Multivariate statistical analysis identified four factors significantly related to early post-operative neurological outcome. Diagnoses of OACSM or meningioma were considered the strongest variables to predict early post-operative neurological deterioration, followed by higher (more severely affected) neurological grade before surgery and longer surgery time. This information can aid in the management of expectations of clinical staff and owners with dogs undergoing these surgical procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of sleep disordered breathing symptoms with early postoperative analgesic requirement in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kamie; Baetzel, Anne; Chimbira, Wilson T; Yermolina, Yuliya; Reynolds, Paul I; Nafiu, Olubukola O

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms are associated with increased rates of opioid-induced respiratory depression as well as enhanced nociception. Consequently, practitioners often withhold or administer lower intraoperative doses of opioids out of concern for postoperative respiratory depression. Therefore, SDB may be a critical determinant of analgesic requirement in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). We investigated whether preoperative SDB classification was independently associated with need for PACU analgesic intervention in a cross-sectional sample of 985 children who underwent elective, painful ambulatory surgical procedures. Methods Using prospectively collected data, children aged 4–17yr were grouped into two categories based on whether or not they had symptoms of SDB. Perioperative variables were compared between the exposed and control groups using Chi-squared test for categorical or t-test for continuous variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SDB and the odds of requiring PACU IV opioids. Results Children with preoperative SDB symptoms (N=325) compared with the reference group of children who did not have these symptoms had higher rates of PACU analgesic intervention (47.1% vs. 37.4%; p=0.004) and higher mean arousal pain scores (3.7±3.5 vs.1.9±2.9; p<0.001). In our primary multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for a number of variables, preoperative SDB symptoms was associated with a two-fold increased odds of receiving PACU intravenous opioid (OR = 2.01, 95%CI, 1.29–3.12; p=0.002). Conclusion These results suggest that preoperative SDB symptoms in children undergoing ambulatory surgery, exerts a significant influence on PACU pain behavior and analgesic requirement. Mechanisms underlying this enhanced pain experience deserve further elucidation. PMID:28390605

  17. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract helps prevent bacterial infections in the early postoperative period after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Emre, S; Sebastian, A; Chodoff, L; Boccagni, P; Meyers, B; Sheiner, P A; Mor, E; Guy, S R; Atillasoy, E; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    1999-01-01

    In liver transplant (LTx) recipients, gut-associated bacterial and fungal organisms produce significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the role of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) in preventing postoperative infections in a large single-center cohort of liver recipients transplanted under two non-simultaneous protocols. In 212 consecutive patients transplanted between 1/1/91 and 7/31/92, SDD (gentamicin 80 mg, polymyxin B 100 mg, nystatin suspension 10 mL) was employed, starting after induction of anesthesia and continued until POD 21 (SDD Group). In 157 consecutive patients transplanted between 1/1/93 and 12/31/93, SDD was not used (non-SDD Group). Both groups received IV vancomycin and cefotaxime prophylaxis. All culture-positive infections within the first 30 days post-LTx were recorded and classified as bacterial or fungal. Infection-related mortality (patients who died of infectious complications without any technical complication) was recorded. Groups did not differ in patient demographics, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status, use of veno-venous bypass, total/warm ischemia, or length of ICU stay. Infections developed in fewer SDD patients (56/212; 26%) than non-SDD patients (69/157; 44%) (p<0.001). The incidence of gram-negative infection was less in the SDD group (11% vs. 26%, p<0. 001) as was gram-positive infection (16% vs. 26%, p<0.001). Among patients who developed infection, there was no difference between groups in infections per patient. Primary graft non-function (PNF) developed in 20 SDD patients (7/20 had infections) and 8 non-SDD patients (6/8 had infections) (p=0.06). There were no differences in incidence of fungal infections or of infection-related mortality between groups. In the SDD group, there were fewer abdominal (p<0. 001), lung (p<0.001), wound (p<0.01), and urinary tract infections (p<0.05). Use of SDD in liver recipients early after transplant was associated with significantly fewer

  18. Early postoperative repair status after rotator cuff repair cannot be accurately classified using questionnaires of patient function and isokinetic strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Colliver, Jessica; Wang, Allan; Joss, Brendan; Ebert, Jay; Koh, Eamon; Breidahl, William; Ackland, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated if patients with an intact tendon repair or partial-thickness retear early after rotator cuff repair display differences in clinical evaluations and whether early tendon healing can be predicted using these assessments. We prospectively evaluated 60 patients at 16 weeks after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Evaluation included the Oxford Shoulder Score, 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, visual analog scale for pain, 12-item Short Form Health Survey, isokinetic strength, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Independent t tests investigated clinical differences in patients based on the Sugaya MRI rotator cuff classification system (grades 1, 2, or 3). Discriminant analysis determined whether intact repairs (Sugaya grade 1) and partial-thickness retears (Sugaya grades 2 and 3) could be predicted. No differences (P < .05) existed in the clinical or strength measures. Although discriminant analysis revealed the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand produced a 97% true-positive rate for predicting partial thickness retears, it also produced a 90% false-positive rate whereby it incorrectly predicted a retear in 90% of patients whose repair was intact. The ability to discriminate between groups was enhanced with up to 5 variables entered; however, only 87% of the partial-retear group and 36% of the intact-repair group were correctly classified. No differences in clinical scores existed between patients stratified by the Sugaya MRI classification system at 16 weeks. An intact repair or partial-thickness retear could not be accurately predicted. Our results suggest that correct classification of healing in the early postoperative stages should involve imaging. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Tomalak, Oleksandr; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of `inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  20. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    SciTech Connect

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr, E-mail: maxsydorenko@gmail.com, E-mail: tomalak@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field andmore » lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.« less

  1. Predictive value of early postoperative IOP and bleb morphology in Mitomycin-C augmented trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Hamed; Pakravan, Mohammad; Loewen, Nils A; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background : To determine the predictive value of postoperative bleb morphological features and intraocular pressure (IOP) on the success rate of trabeculectomy. Methods : In this prospective interventional case series, we analyzed for one year 80 consecutive primary open angle glaucoma patients who underwent mitomycin-augmented trabeculectomy. Bleb morphology was scored using the Indiana bleb appearance grading scale (IBAGS). Success was defined as IOP ≤15 mmHg at 12 months. We applied a multivariable regression analysis and determined the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results : The mean age of participants was 62±12.3 years in the success and 63.2±16.3 years in the failure group (P= 0.430) with equal gender distribution (P=0.911). IOPs on day 1, 7 and 30 were similar in both (P= 0.193, 0.639, and 0.238, respectively.) The AUC of IOP at day 1, day 7 and 30 for predicting a successful outcome was 0.355, 0.452, and 0.80, respectively. The AUC for bleb morphology parameters of bleb height, extension, and vascularization, on day 14 were 0.368, 0.408, and 0.549, respectively. Values for day 30 were 0.428, 0.563, and 0.654. IOP change from day 1 to day 30 was a good predictor of failure (AUC=0.838, 95% CI: 0.704 to 0.971) with a change of more than 3 mmHg predicting failure with a sensitivity of 82.5% (95% CI: 68 to 91%) and a specificity of 87.5% (95% CI: 53 to 98%). Conclusions : IOP on day 30 had a fair to good accuracy while bleb features failed to predict success except bleb vascularity that had a poor to fair accuracy.  An IOP increase more than 3 mmHg during the first 30 days was a good predictor of failure.

  2. Single-injection femoral nerve block. Effects on the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tugay, Nazan; Saricaoglu, Fatma; Satilmis, Tulin; Alpar, Ulku; Akarcali, Inci; Citaker, Seyit; Tugay, Umut; Atilla, Bulent; Tokgozoglu, Mazhar

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of single injection femoral nerve block (FNB) on the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted this prospective, randomized, blinded trial in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Hospital Ankara, Turkey, between June 2003 and April 2004. Twenty-three patients scheduled for elective TKA were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group I received preemptive single injection FNB, group II received postoperative single injection FNB, and group III served as a control group. Intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) was used following surgery in all groups. Morphine dose and pain score defined by the visual analog scale (VAS) were recorded postoperatively at the 15th minute, 30th minute, 1st, 4th, 6th, 12th, 24th, and 48th hours. A standard rehabilitation protocol was applied for all patients. The independence level in functional activities was assessed during the first 2 postoperative days and at discharge with the Iowa Level of Assistance Scale (ILAS) and the Iowa Ambulation Speed Scale (IASS). Physical therapists that enrolled in the study were blinded to the groups. Pain scores were significantly different between the groups (p<0.05). The preemptive and postoperative FNB group`s VAS scores were both significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in VAS scores between preemptive and postoperative FNB groups (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in any of the functional scores in the first 2 postoperative days, and at discharge (p>0.05). Single injection FNB provided effective analgesia in patients undergoing TKA. However, the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period was not influenced by the analgesia method.

  3. Mitral restenosis in the early postoperative period of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, P M; Corrêa, J D; Brandão, C M; de Assis, R V; Jatene, A D

    1999-04-01

    A forty-eight year old woman, who had undergone mitral comissurotomy and subsequently developed early restenosis, presented with major comissural fusion and verrucous lesions on the cuspid edges of the mitral valve, with normal subvalvar apparatus. Patient did well for the first six months after surgery when she began to present dyspnea on light exertion. A clinical diagnosis of restenosis was made, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. She underwent surgery, and a stenotic mitral valve with verrucous lesions suggesting Libman-Sacks' endocarditis was found. Because the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had not been confirmed at that time, a bovine pericardium bioprosthesis (FISICS-INCOR) was implanted. The patient did well in the late follow-up and is now in NYHA Class I.

  4. Early postoperative and long-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Park, Soo Yeun; Choi, Wohn Ho; Ryuk, Jong Pil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPC/IPAA) for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Also, we assessed the oncologic outcomes in FAP patients with coexisting malignancy. Methods From August 1999 to September 2010, 43 FAP patients with or without coexisting malignancy underwent TPC/IPAA by a laparoscopic-assisted or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Results The median age was 33 years (range, 18 to 58 years) at the time of operation. IPAA was performed by a hand-sewn method in 21 patients (48.8%). The median operative time was 300 minutes (range, 135 to 610 minutes), which reached a plateau after 22 operations. Early postoperative complications within 30 days occurred in 7 patients (16.3%) and long-term morbidity occurred in 15 patients (34.9%) including 6 (14.0%) with desmoid tumors and 3 (7.0%) who required operative treatment. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were diagnosed with coexisting colorectal malignancy. The median follow-up was 58.5 months (range, 7.9 to 97.8 months). There was only 1 case of local recurrence in the pelvic cavity. No cases of adenocarcinoma at the residual rectal mucosa developed. 5-year disease-free survival rate for 22 patients who had coexisting malignancy was 86.5% and 5-year overall survival rate was 92.6%. Three patients died from pulmonary or hepatic metastasis. Conclusion Laparoscopic TPC/IPAA in patients with FAP is feasible and offers favorable postoperative outcomes. It also delivered acceptable oncological outcomes in patients with coexisting malignancy. Therefore, laparoscopic TPC/IPAA may be a favorable treatment option for FAP. PMID:23166888

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging-a diagnostic tool for postoperative evaluation of dental implants: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Laura; Ludwig, Ute; Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Nelson, Katja; Flügge, Tabea

    2018-04-01

    Compared with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be superior for the diagnosis of nerve lesions associated with implant placement. A patient presented with unilateral pain associated with dysesthesia in the region of the right lower lip and chin after implant placement. Conventional orthopantomography could not identify an association between the position of the inferior alveolar nerve and the implant. For 3-dimensional display of the implant in relation to the surrounding anatomy, CBCT was compared with MRI. MRI enabled the precise depiction of the implant position and its spatial relation to the inferior alveolar nerve, whereas the nerve position and its exact course within the mandible could not be directly displayed in CBCT. MRI may be a valuable, radiation-free diagnostic tool for the visualization of intraoral hard and soft tissues, offering an objective assessment of nerve injuries by a direct visualization of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [The effects of perioperative continuous administration of mivazerol on early postoperative hemodynamics and plasma catecholamines after major surgery].

    PubMed

    Apitzsch, H; Olthoff, D; Thieme, V; Vetter, B; Wiegel, M

    2000-08-01

    During and after surgical procedures a strong activation of the sympatho-adrenergic system is common with correlation to adverse cardiac outcome. Several drugs (alpha 2-adrenoceptor-agonists, beta blockers) are discussed to prevent this reaction. The new alpha 2-adrenoceptor-agonist mivazerol with marked specificity for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors may be suitable for this indication. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of perioperative continuous administration of mivazerol on plasma catecholamines, body temperature and calculated haemodynamic parameters in the early postoperative period in cardiac risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. 36 patients with known coronary heart disease or risk factors for coronary heart disease scheduled for elective abdominal or vascular surgery were included in the study. Patients received either mivazerol (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) [initial dose 4 micrograms kg-1 for 10 minutes before induction of anaesthesia, followed by a continuous infusion of 1.5 micrograms kg-1 h-1 intraoperatively and for as long as 72 h after surgery] in a double-blinded, randomized manner. Blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature were measured every 10 minutes until 240 minutes after arrival at the ICU. During 240 minutes after arrival at the ICU measured parameters (CVP, PAP, PCWP, SaO2, SvO2, CO), calculated parameters (CI, SVR, PVR, VO2) and plasma catecholamines were measured at defined time intervalls. The plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine and the heart rate were significantly lower in the mivazerol group in the study period. Regarding blood pressure and body temperature there were no differences between the groups. At some measuring points preload was higher in the mivazerol group, but there were no differences between the groups for measured (SaO2, SvO2, CO) and calculated (CI, SVR, PVR, VO2) cardiorespiratory parameters. The incidence of shivering, nausea and vomiting were similar in both

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Colliot, O; Hamelin, L; Sarazin, M

    2013-10-01

    A major challenge for neuroimaging is to contribute to the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows detecting different types of structural and functional abnormalities at an early stage of the disease. Anatomical MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The recent diagnostic criteria of "mild cognitive impairment due to AD" include hippocampal atrophy, which is considered a marker of neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis techniques generate automatic and reproducible measures both in the hippocampus and throughout the whole brain. Recent modalities such as diffusion-tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI provide additional measures that could contribute to the early diagnosis but require further validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Were chondrites magnetized by the early solar wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oran, Rona; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cohen, Ofer

    2018-06-01

    Chondritic meteorites have been traditionally thought to be samples of undifferentiated bodies that never experienced large-scale melting. This view has been challenged by the existence of post-accretional, unidirectional natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in CV carbonaceous chondrites. The relatively young inferred NRM age [∼10 million years (My) after solar system formation] and long duration of NRM acquisition (1-106 y) have been interpreted as evidence that the magnetizing field was that of a core dynamo within the CV parent body. This would imply that CV chondrites represent the primitive crust of a partially differentiated body. However, an alternative hypothesis is that the NRM was imparted by the early solar wind. Here we demonstrate that the solar wind scenario is unlikely due to three main factors: 1) the magnitude of the early solar wind magnetic field is estimated to be <0.1 μT in the terrestrial planet-forming region, 2) the resistivity of chondritic bodies limits field amplification due to pile-up of the solar wind to less than a factor of 3.5 times that of the instantaneous solar wind field, and 3) the solar wind field likely changed over timescales orders of magnitude shorter than the timescale of NRM acquisition. Using analytical arguments, numerical simulations and astronomical observations of the present-day solar wind and magnetic fields of young stars, we show that the maximum mean field the ancient solar wind could have imparted on an undifferentiated CV parent body is <3.5 nT, which is 3-4 and 3 orders of magnitude weaker than the paleointensities recorded by the CV chondrites Allende and Kaba, respectively. Therefore, the solar wind is highly unlikely to be the source of the NRM in CV chondrites. Nevertheless, future high sensitivity paleomagnetic studies of rapidly-cooled meteorites with high magnetic recording fidelity could potentially trace the evolution of the solar wind field in time.

  9. Early Detection of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Acute Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection With Doppler Renal Resistive Index.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huai; Wu, Haibo; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhanming

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the early efficiency of Doppler renal resistive index (DRRI) in prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) after surgery in acute Stanford Type A aortic dissection (AAAD) patients. Sixty-one AAAD patients who planned to receive Sun's surgical management were prospectively enrolled. The DRRI was measured by ultrasonography Doppler on the day before surgery (DRRI pre ), on admission to the intensive care unit (DRRI T0 ), 6 hours after surgery (DRRI T6 ), 24 hours after surgery (DRRI T24 ), and 48 hours after surgery (DRRI T48 ). The maximum DRRI value (DRRI max ) was recorded. The AKI was evaluated according to the classifications of the Acute Kidney Injury Network. The DRRI and serum creatinine (sCr) were compared between the pre- and postoperative time stations, as well as between the AKI and no-AKI groups. Thirty-nine (63.9%) patients suffered from AKI, and 12 (19.6%) patients received dialysis. No significant difference was found in DRRI pre (0.63 ± 0.04 versus 0.65 ± 0.06, P = .059) and sCr pre (84.13 ± 23.77 versus 94.29 ± 51.11, P = .383) between the two groups with and without AKI. Both the DRRI and sCr increased significantly after surgery in the AKI groups (P < .001). However, the DRRI reached its maximum 6 hours after surgery, whereas the sCr reached its maximum after 24 hours. Both the DRRI and sCr improved 48 hours after surgery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for DRRI max (0.864, 95% confidence interval: 0.770-0.957) and DRRI T6 (0.861, 95% confidence interval: 0.766-0.957) was larger than the other three DRRIs measured at different time points. The cutoff value of DRRI max was 0.71, a sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 95.5%. Postoperative DRRI predicts the AKI earlier than sCr after AAAD surgery. The best time to detect DRRI was 6 hours after surgery. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. A randomized placebo controlled trial of preoperative carbohydrate drinks and early postoperative nutritional supplement drinks in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lidder, P; Thomas, S; Fleming, S; Hosie, K; Shaw, S; Lewis, S

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence that preoperative carbohydrate drinks and postoperative nutritional supplements improve the outcome of colorectal surgery. There is little information on their individual contribution. A prospective four-arm double-blind controlled trial was carried out in which patients were randomized to carbohydrate or placebo drinks preoperatively and a polymeric supplement or placebo drink postoperatively. The primary outcome was insulin resistance (using the short insulin tolerance test and HOMA-IR). Secondary outcomes included handgrip strength, pulmonary function, intestinal permeability and postoperative complications. A total of 120 patients were randomized to four demographically well matched groups. Patients who received preoperative and postoperative supplements had better glucose homeostasis (P = 0.004), peak expiratory flow rate (P = 0.035), handgrip strength (P = 0.002) and less insulin resistance (P = 0.001) compared with those who only received placebo drinks. Oral nutritional supplements given preoperatively and postoperatively improve postoperative handgrip strength, pulmonary function and insulin resistance. A weaker effect was seen in patients who received supplements either preoperatively or postoperatively. Oral nutritional supplements should be given both preoperatively and postoperatively. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early postoperative recovery of dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

    PubMed

    Bennaim, Michael; Porato, Mathilde; Jarleton, Astrid; Hamon, Martin; Carroll, James D; Gommeren, Kris; Balligand, Marc

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of postoperative photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early recovery variables for dogs after hemilaminectomy for treatment of intervertebral disk disease. ANIMALS 32 nonambulatory client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs received standard postoperative care with photobiomodulation therapy (n = 11), physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment (11), or sham photobiomodulation treatment only (10) after surgery. Neurologic status at admission, diagnostic and surgical variables, duration of postoperative IV analgesic administration, and recovery grades (over 10 days after surgery) were assessed. Time to reach recovery grades B (able to support weight with some help), C (initial limb movements present), and D (ambulatory [≥ 3 steps unassisted]) was compared among groups. Factors associated with ability to ambulate on day 10 or at last follow-up were assessed. RESULTS Time to reach recovery grades B, C, and D and duration of postoperative IV opioid administration did not differ among groups. Neurologic score at admission and surgeon experience were negatively associated with the dogs' ability to ambulate on day 10. The number of disk herniations identified by diagnostic imaging before surgery was negatively associated with ambulatory status at last follow-up. No other significant associations and no adverse treatment-related events were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study found no difference in recovery-related variables among dogs that received photobiomodulation therapy, physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment, or sham photobiomodulation treatment only. Larger studies are needed to better evaluate effects of these postoperative treatments on dogs treated surgically for intervertebral disk disease.

  12. Do postoperative platelet-rich plasma injections accelerate early tendon healing and functional recovery after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan; McCann, Philip; Colliver, Jess; Koh, Eamon; Ackland, Timothy; Joss, Brendan; Zheng, Minghao; Breidahl, Bill

    2015-06-01

    Tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair directly correlates with a successful outcome. Biological therapies that elevate local growth-factor concentrations may potentiate healing after surgery. To ascertain whether postoperative and repeated application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to the tendon repair site improves early tendon healing and enhances early functional recovery after double-row arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 patients underwent arthroscopic double-row supraspinatus tendon repair. After randomization, half the patients received 2 ultrasound-guided injections of PRP to the repair site at postoperative days 7 and 14. Early structural healing was assessed with MRI at 16 weeks, and cuff appearances were graded according to the Sugaya classification. Functional scores were recorded with the Oxford Shoulder Score; Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; visual analog scale for pain; and Short Form-12 quality-of-life score both preoperatively and at postoperative weeks 6, 12, and 16; isokinetic strength and active range of motion were measured at 16 weeks. PRP treatment did not improve early functional recovery, range of motion, or strength or influence pain scores at any time point after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. There was no difference in structural integrity of the supraspinatus repair on MRI between the PRP group (0% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 77% intact) and the control group (7% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 70% intact) at 16 weeks postoperatively (P = .35). After arthroscopic supraspinatus tendon repair, image-guided PRP treatment on 2 occasions does not improve early tendon-bone healing or functional recovery. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Effect of pre-emptive analgesia by continuous femoral nerve block on early postoperative cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Qin; Hou, Lei-Na; Song, Feng-Xiang; Zhu, Han-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Ying; Chen, Gang; Li, Jing-Jing

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the effect of pre-emptively blocking pain transmission on acute postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-emptive analgesia via a continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) on postoperative pain and early cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery in elderly patients. CFNB was performed prior to TKA surgery in the pre-emptive analgesia group (n=30) and following TKA surgery in the control group (n=30). POCD was defined as a two-point reduction in the postoperative score compared with the preoperative score in the mini-mental state examination. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the intensity of pain at rest and during exercise. The intraoperative dose of remifentanil in the pre-emptive analgesia group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.01). In the preemptive analgesia group, VAS scores at three days post-surgery were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The incidence of POCD on the third postoperative day was slightly lower in the pre-emptive analgesia group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that pre-emptive analgesia by CFNB may promote the recovery of early cognitive function following TKA in elderly patients. PMID:28413514

  14. Effect of pre-emptive analgesia by continuous femoral nerve block on early postoperative cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li-Qin; Hou, Lei-Na; Song, Feng-Xiang; Zhu, Han-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Ying; Chen, Gang; Li, Jing-Jing

    2017-04-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the effect of pre-emptively blocking pain transmission on acute postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-emptive analgesia via a continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) on postoperative pain and early cognitive function following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery in elderly patients. CFNB was performed prior to TKA surgery in the pre-emptive analgesia group (n=30) and following TKA surgery in the control group (n=30). POCD was defined as a two-point reduction in the postoperative score compared with the preoperative score in the mini-mental state examination. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the intensity of pain at rest and during exercise. The intraoperative dose of remifentanil in the pre-emptive analgesia group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.01). In the preemptive analgesia group, VAS scores at three days post-surgery were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The incidence of POCD on the third postoperative day was slightly lower in the pre-emptive analgesia group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that pre-emptive analgesia by CFNB may promote the recovery of early cognitive function following TKA in elderly patients.

  15. Hemispheric language dominance measured by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and postoperative course of language function in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Ille, Sebastian; Kulchytska, Nataliia; Sollmann, Nico; Wittig, Regina; Beurskens, Eva; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Ringel, Florian; Vajkoczy, Peter; Meyer, Bernhard; Picht, Thomas; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-10-01

    The resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions harbors the risk of postoperative aphasia. Because it is known that language function can shift between hemispheres in brain tumor patients, the preoperative knowledge of the patient's language dominance could be helpful. We therefore investigated the hemispheric language dominance by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and surgery-related deficits of language function. We pooled the bicentric language mapping data of 80 patients undergoing the resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions in our two university neurosurgical departments. We calculated error rates (ERs; ER = errors per stimulations) for both hemispheres and defined the hemispheric dominance ratio (HDR) as the quotient of the left- and right-sided ER (HDR >1= left dominant; HDR <1= right dominant). The course of the patient's language function was evaluated and correlated with the preoperative HDR. Only three of 80 patients (4%) presented with permanent surgery-related aphasia and 24 patients (30%) with transient surgery-related aphasia. The mean HDR (± standard deviation) of patients with new aphasia after five days was significantly higher (1.68±1.07) than the HDR of patients with no new language deficit (1.37±1.08) (p=0.0482). With a predefined cut-off value of 0.5 for HDR, we achieved a sensitivity for predicting new aphasia of 100%. A higher preoperative HDR significantly correlates with an increased risk for transient aphasia. Moreover, the intensive preoperative workup in this study led to a considerably low rate of permanent aphasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Large-scale magnetic topologies of early M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Morin, J.; Petit, P.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Aurière, M.; Cabanac, R.; Dintrans, B.; Fares, R.; Gastine, T.; Jardine, M. M.; Lignières, F.; Paletou, F.; Ramirez Velez, J. C.; Théado, S.

    2008-10-01

    We present here additional results of a spectropolarimetric survey of a small sample of stars ranging from spectral type M0 to M8 aimed at investigating observationally how dynamo processes operate in stars on both sides of the full convection threshold (spectral type M4). The present paper focuses on early M stars (M0-M3), that is above the full convection threshold. Applying tomographic imaging techniques to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarized profiles collected with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter, we determine the rotation period and reconstruct the large-scale magnetic topologies of six early M dwarfs. We find that early-M stars preferentially host large-scale fields with dominantly toroidal and non-axisymmetric poloidal configurations, along with significant differential rotation (and long-term variability); only the lowest-mass star of our subsample is found to host an almost fully poloidal, mainly axisymmetric large-scale field resembling those found in mid-M dwarfs. This abrupt change in the large-scale magnetic topologies of M dwarfs (occurring at spectral type M3) has no related signature on X-ray luminosities (measuring the total amount of magnetic flux); it thus suggests that underlying dynamo processes become more efficient at producing large-scale fields (despite producing the same flux) at spectral types later than M3. We suspect that this change relates to the rapid decrease in the radiative cores of low-mass stars and to the simultaneous sharp increase of the convective turnover times (with decreasing stellar mass) that models predict to occur at M3; it may also be (at least partly) responsible for the reduced magnetic braking reported for fully convective stars. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL), operated by the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France. E-mail: donati@ast.obs-mip.fr (J-FD); jmorin@ast.obs-mip.fr (JM); petit

  17. [Role of hemodynamic factors and heart volume in the prognosis of acute cardiac insufficiency during the early postoperative period in patients with mitral valve stenosis].

    PubMed

    Guliamov, D S; Amanov, A A; Andres, Iu P; Bazhenova, T F

    1983-07-01

    Investigations performed in 172 patients have shown that the state of the myocardium (such parameters as the heart volume, degree of lung hypertension, end-diastolic pressure in the right and left ventricles) is of great importance in pathogenesis of the development of acute heart failure in the early postoperative period in patients with mitral stenosis of the IIIrd and IVth stage of the blood circulation insufficiency.

  18. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P < 0.05). The combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation for two weeks in the early postoperative period has a beneficial effect on knee extension strength in both lower limbs and BI (transfer, walking and toilet use) scores in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping of Arithmetic Processing by Navigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Parietal Brain Tumors and Correlation with Postoperative Outcome.

    PubMed

    Ille, Sebastian; Drummer, Katharina; Giglhuber, Katrin; Conway, Neal; Maurer, Stefanie; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2018-06-01

    Preserving functionality is important during neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. Specialized centers also map further brain functions apart from motor and language functions, such as arithmetic processing (AP). The mapping of AP by navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nrTMS) in healthy volunteers has been reported. The present study aimed to correlate the results of mapping AP with functional patient outcomes. We included 26 patients with parietal brain tumors. Because of preoperative impairment of AP, mapping was not possible in 8 patients (31%). We stimulated 52 cortical sites by nrTMS while patients performed a calculation task. Preoperatively and postoperatively, patients underwent a standardized number-processing and calculation test (NPCT). Tumor resection was blinded to nrTMS results, and the change in NPCT performance was correlated to resected AP-positive spots as identified by nrTMS. The resection of AP-positive sites correlated with a worsening of the postoperative NPCT result in 12 cases. In 3 cases, no AP-positive sites were resected and the postoperative NPCT result was similar to or better than preoperatively. Also, in 3 cases, the postoperative NPCT result was better than preoperatively, although AP-positive sites were resected. Despite presenting only a few cases, nrTMS might be a useful tool for preoperative mapping of AP. However, the reliability of the present results has to be evaluated in a larger series and by intraoperative mapping data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole as earlier identification of early patent ductus arteriosus operation and postoperative intensive care in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saida, Ken; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in premature infants. In very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), PDA requires surgical therapy in many cases. It is unclear to know at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after PDA surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We examined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) performance before and after PDA ligation in a retrospective observational cohort study. We studied 64 preterm neonates with symptomatic PDA before and after surgical ligation. Echocardiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. M-mode measurements included left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole (LVIDd) and LV fractional shortening (FS). All cases showed decreased LVFS after PDA closure. Most cases (49/64, 77%) showed postoperative FS decreased to below normal (<28%). Preoperative relative LVIDd was significantly larger in abnormal FS infants (137 ± 18%) than in normal FS infants (118 ± 11%; p<0.01). A cut-off value of preoperative relative LVIDd (absolute LVIDd/normal value) for predicting postoperative cardio-dysfunction was 127.4% (sensitivity, 0.735; specificity, 0.933; area under curve, 0.817). Determination of preoperative LVIDd might facilitate earlier identification of infants needing early PDA surgery and postoperative intensive care. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Significant impact of R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score on changes in postoperative renal function early after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideaki; Furukawa, Junya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Muramaki, Mototsugu; Tanaka, Kazushi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the significance of the R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RNS)--developed to quantitatively evaluate the complexity of renal tumors in a reproducible manner--in perioperative and renal functional outcomes following robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). This study assessed 48 consecutive patients with renal tumors who underwent RAPN. Preoperative RNS for each patient was calculated, and its impact on several parameters associated with perioperative outcomes, including postoperative renal function, was investigated with Spearman's rank correlation test. Mean RNS in the 48 patients was 6.8; of these 48 patients, 21 (43.7%), 24 (50.0%), and three (6.3%) were classified into low-, moderate-, and high-complexity groups, respectively. The RNS was significantly correlated with resected tumor weight and postoperative changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at both 1 and 4 weeks--but not age, body mass index (BMI), preoperative eGFR, operative time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss, postoperative complications, or eGFR-- after RAPN. No component of the RNS (R: radius; E: exophytic/endophytic properties; N: nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus; A: anterior/posterior; L: location relative to polar lines) alone had a significant impact on postoperative changes in eGFR at 1 and 4 weeks, whereas resected tumor weight was significantly associated with the R and E subcategories. Measurement of total RNS is useful for predicting renal functional outcomes early after RAPN.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for detection of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Foy, Catherine; Poppe, Michaela; Cooper, Allison; Murphy, Declan; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of neurodegenerative disorder and early detection is of great importance if new therapies are to be effectively administered. We have investigated whether the discrimination between early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elderly healthy control subjects can be improved by adding magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. In this study 30 AD patients and 36 control subjects were included. High resolution T1-weighted axial magnetic resonance images were obtained from each subject. Automated regional volume segmentation and cortical thickness measures were determined for the images. 1H MRS was acquired from the hippocampus and LCModel was used for metabolic quantification. Altogether, this yielded 58 different volumetric, cortical thickness and metabolite ratio variables which were used for multivariate analysis to distinguish between subjects with AD and Healthy controls. Combining MRI and MRS measures resulted in a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 94% compared to using MRI or MRS measures alone (sensitivity: 87%, 76%, specificity: 86%, 83% respectively). Adding the MRS measures to the MRI measures more than doubled the positive likelihood ratio from 6 to 17. Adding MRS measures to a multivariate analysis of MRI measures resulted in significantly better classification than using MRI measures alone. The method shows strong potential for discriminating between Alzheimer's disease and controls.

  3. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with Group TP at 420.5 ± 188.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 531.1 ± 231.4 mL on postoperative day 3 and Group CT at 520.4 ± 228.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 633.7 ± 237.3 mL on postoperative day 3. Intravenous low-dose epinephrine exhibited a net anti-inflammatory activity in total knee arthroplasty and did not induce an obvious hypercoagulable status. Transfusion values were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in Group IV, but no significant

  4. Use of a unipedal standing test to assess the ambulation reacquisition time during the early postoperative stage after hip fracture in elderly Japanese: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koichi; Sugitani, Shigeki; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Noguchi, Takashi; Aoto, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the ambulation reacquisition time after hip fracture in elderly people using the unipedal standing test during the early postoperative stage. Patients with an intertrochanteric fracture treated with internal fixation (n = 35) and patients with a femoral neck fracture treated with hemiarthroplasty (n = 22) were included. A unipedal standing test using the nonoperated leg was performed on days 3 and 7 after the operation. Among the patients with an intertrochanteric fracture, those with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on postoperative day (POD) 3 attained gait with parallel guide bars (BG) and walker-assisted gait (WG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative result on the unipedal standing test. Patients with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and cane-assisted gait (CG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Among patients with a femoral neck fracture, those with a positive unipedal standing test result on POD 3 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Those with a positive test result on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. The unipedal standing test given during the early postoperative stage is a good test for predicting the ambulation reacquisition time. Moreover, it gives information that can help determine the need for subacute rehabilitation and about discharge planning and health service provision.

  5. The effect of caudal vs intravenous morphine on early extubation and postoperative analgesic requirements for stage 2 and 3 single-ventricle palliation: a double blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stuth, Eckehard A E; Berens, Richard J; Staudt, Susan R; Robertson, Frederick A; Scott, John P; Stucke, Astrid G; Hoffman, George M; Troshynski, Todd J; Tweddell, James S T; Zuperku, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    High-dose single-shot caudal morphine has been postulated to facilitate early extubation and to lower initial analgesic requirements after staged single-ventricle (SV) palliation. With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed parental consent, 64 SV children aged 75-1667 days were randomized to pre-incisional caudal morphine-bupivacaine (100 μg·kg(-1) morphine (concentration 0.1%), mixed with 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine, total 1 ml·kg(-1)) and postcardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) intravenous (IV) droperidol (75 μg·kg(-1)) ('active caudal group') or pre-incisional caudal saline (1 ml·kg(-1)) and post-CPB IV morphine (150 μg·kg(-1)) with droperidol (75 μg·kg(-1)) ('active IV group'). Assignment remained concealed from families and the care teams throughout the trial. Early extubation failure rates (primary or reintubation within 24 h), time to first postoperative rescue morphine analgesia, and 12-h postoperative morphine requirements were assessed for extubated patients. Thirty-one (12 stage 2) SV patients received caudal morphine and 32 (15 stage 2) received IV morphine. Extubation failure rates were 6/31 (19%) for caudal and 5/32 (16%) for IV morphine. For successfully extubated patients (n = 54), active caudal treatment significantly delayed the need for postoperative rescue morphine in stage 3 patients (P = 0.02) but not in stage 2 patients (P = 0.189) (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with LogRank test). The reduction in 12-h postoperative morphine requirements with active caudal treatment did not reach significance (P = 0.085) but morphine requirements were significantly higher for stage 2 compared with stage 3 patients (P < 0.001) (two-way anova in n = 50 extubated patients). High-dose caudal morphine with bupivacaine delayed the need for rescue morphine analgesia in stage 3 patients. All stage 2 patients required early rescue morphine and had significantly higher postoperative 12-h morphine requirements than stage 3

  6. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period following microsurgical abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2014-11-01

    The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.

  7. Effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after shoulder arthroscopy: A randomized double blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Hongmei; Zhou, Qinghe; Zhu, Zhipeng; Wu, Cheng

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after shoulder arthroscopy. Randomized, double-blind study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. One hundred and fifty-two elderly patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy. At 15min before the induction of anesthesia, 152 patients received intravenously parecoxib sodium 40mg and dexmedetomidine at a dose of 0.5μg/kg over 15min, followed by a continuous infusion at a rate of 0.5μg/kg/h until the end of surgery. Then all patients who received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia were divided 2 groups: sufentanil(0.04μg/kg/h, S group), sufentanil (0.04μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine(0.06μg/kg/h) (SD group). The mini-mental status examination score in SD group was significantly higher than S group at 1, 2 and 7days after surgery. The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction during 7days after surgery in S and SD groups was respectively 17.1% and 6.7%. Compared with the S group, the visual analogue scale scores at rest and upon movement were significantly lower at 6, 14, 24, 36 and 48h after surgery in SD group; analgesia pump liquid amount during 24h after surgery and number of rescue analgesia during 48h after surgery were significantly lower in SD group. Jugular venous oxygen partial pressure and jugular venous oxygen saturation values in SD group were significantly higher than S group at postoperative 24h. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting within 48h after surgery in SD group were significantly lower than S group. We found no complications including respiratory depression and sinus bradycardia within 48h after surgery in all patients. Parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine could reduce the incidence of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients. This might be related to the improvement of postoperative analgesia effect and cerebral oxygen

  8. Postoperative inspiratory muscle training in addition to breathing exercises and early mobilization improves oxygenation in high-risk patients after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos Savio R; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to investigate whether 2 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could preserve respiratory muscle strength in high-risk patients referred for pulmonary resection on the suspicion of or confirmed lung cancer. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of the intervention on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. The study was a single-centre, parallel-group, randomized trial with assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention group (IG, n = 34) underwent 2 weeks of postoperative IMT twice daily with 2 × 30 breaths on a target intensity of 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure, in addition to standard postoperative physiotherapy. Standard physiotherapy in the control group (CG, n = 34) consisted of breathing exercises, coughing techniques and early mobilization. We measured respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure, MIP/MEP), functional performance (6-min walk test), spirometry and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), assessed the day before surgery and again 3-5 days and 2 weeks postoperatively. Postoperative pulmonary complications were evaluated 2 weeks after surgery. The mean age was 70 ± 8 years and 57.5% were males. Thoracotomy was performed in 48.5% (n = 33) of cases. No effect of the intervention was found regarding MIP, MEP, lung volumes or functional performance at any time point. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 13% (n = 9), with no significant difference between groups [IG 6% (n = 2), CG 21% (n = 7), P = 0.14]. An improved SpO2 was found in the IG on the third and fourth postoperative days (Day 3: IG 93.8 ± 3.4 vs CG 91.9 ± 4.1%, P = 0.058; Day 4: IG 93.5 ± 3.5 vs CG 91 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02). We found no association between surgical procedure (thoracotomy versus thoracoscopy) and respiratory muscle strength, which was recovered in both groups 2 weeks after surgery. Two weeks of additional postoperative IMT, compared with standard physiotherapy alone, did not preserve

  9. The efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in the early postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seangleulur, Alisa; Vanasbodeekul, Pramook; Prapaitrakool, Sunisa; Worathongchai, Sukhumakorn; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; McEvoy, Mark; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin

    2016-11-01

    Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) has emerged as an alternative treatment for postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its efficacy remains inconclusive with inconsistent results from previous studies and meta-analyses. There is no agreement on which local anaesthetic agent and infiltration technique is most effective and well tolerated. The objective was to compare LIA after primary TKA with placebo or no infiltration in terms of early postoperative pain relief, mobilisation, length of hospital stay (LOS) and complications when used as a primary treatment or as an adjunct to regional anaesthesia. The role of injection sites, postoperative injection or infusion and multimodal drug injection with ketorolac were also explored. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was performed using PubMed and SCOPUS up to September 2015. RCTs comparing LIA with placebo or no infiltration after primary TKA in terms of pain score and opioid consumption at 24 and 48 h, mobilisation, LOS and complications were included. In total 38 RCTs were included. LIA groups had lower pain scores, opioid consumption and postoperative nausea and vomiting, higher range of motion at 24 h and shorter LOS than no injection or placebo. After subgroup analysis, intraoperative peri-articular but not intra-articular injection had lower pain score at 24 h than no injection or placebo with the pooled mean difference of pain score at rest of -0.89 [95% CI (-1.40 to -0.38); I = 92.0%]. Continuing with postoperative injection or infusion reduced 24-h pain score with the pooled mean difference at rest of -1.50 [95% CI (-1.92 to -1.08); I = 60.5%]. There was no additional benefit in terms of pain relief during activity, opioid consumption, range of movement or LOS when LIA was used as an adjunct to regional anaesthesia. Four out of 735 patients receiving LIA reported deep knee infection, three of whom had had postoperative

  10. [Characteristics of postoperative peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Lock, J F; Eckmann, C; Germer, C-T

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritonitis is still a life-threatening complication after abdominal surgery and approximately 10,000 patients annually develop postoperative peritonitis in Germany. Early recognition and diagnosis before the onset of sepsis has remained a clinical challenge as no single specific screening test is available. The aim of therapy is a rapid and effective control of the source of infection and antimicrobial therapy. After diagnosis of diffuse postoperative peritonitis surgical revision is usually inevitable after intestinal interventions. Peritonitis after liver, biliary or pancreatic surgery is managed as a rule by means of differentiated therapy approaches depending on the severity.

  11. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection ofmore » contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  12. Significant correlation of comprehensive Aristotle score with total cardiac output during the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Holtby, Helen; Cai, Sally; Walsh, Mark; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2008-07-01

    The comprehensive Aristotle score has been proposed as an individualized measure of the complexity of a given surgical procedure and has been reported to significantly correlate with postoperative morbidity and mortality after the Norwood procedure. An important factor leading to postoperative morbidity and mortality is low cardiac output. We studied the correlation between the comprehensive Aristotle score and cardiac output (CO) in infants after the Norwood procedure. Respiratory mass spectrometry was used to continuously measure systemic oxygen consumption (VO(2)) in 22 infants for 72 hours postoperatively. Arterial, superior vena caval and pulmonary venous blood gases were measured at 2 to 4 hour intervals to calculate CO. The comprehensive Aristotle score was collected. Hospital mortality was 4.5%. The comprehensive Aristotle score ranged from 14.5 to 23.5 and negatively correlated with CO (P = 0.027). Among the patient-adjusted factors, myocardial dysfunction (n = 10), mechanical ventilation to treat cardiorespiratory failure (n = 9) and atrioventricular valve regurgitation (n = 4) (P = 0.01) negatively correlated with CO (P = 0.06 to 0.07). Aortic atresia (n = 9) was associated with a lower CO (P = 0.01) for the first 24 hours which linearly increased overtime (P = 0.0001). No correlation was found between CO and other factors (P > 0.3 for all). Comprehensive Aristotle score significantly negatively correlates with CO after the Norwood procedure. A preoperative estimation of the comprehensive Aristotle score, particularly in association with myocardial dysfunction, mechanical ventilation to treat cardiorespiratory failure, atrioventricular valve regurgitation and aortic atresia may help to anticipate a high postoperative morbidity with low cardiac output syndrome.

  13. Sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine reduces early postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young K; Lee, Scott S; Suh, Euy H; Lee, Lyon; Lee, Hee C; Lee, Hyo J; Yeon, Seong C

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine to relieve postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOVH) in dogs. Sixteen sexually intact female dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. The sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine (SIB) group received 4.4 mg/kg of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine diluted to 0.25% with an equivalent volume of saline after pneumoperitoneum. The control group received 1.76 mL/kg of saline in a similar fashion. Both groups received preoperative periportal 5% bupivacaine (1 mL) before incision. Postoperative pain was measured using the short form of the Glasgow composite measures pain scale (CMPS-SF, 0-24). Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured preoperatively and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h postoperatively. The SIB group had significantly lower CMPS-SF compared to the control group 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12h after the operation. Cortisol concentrations were significantly increased from preoperative concentrations in the control group at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4h post operation and at 0.5 and 1h post operation in the SIB group. No significant differences were seen in serum glucose within each group. This report suggests that the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine can be used as part of a multimodal approach for pain management after LOVH in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Injectable magnetic supramolecular hydrogel with magnetocaloric liquid-conformal property prevents the post-operative recurrence in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haoan; Song, Lina; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Yi; Zang, Fengchao; Chen, Hong; Ma, Ming; Gu, Ning; Zhang, Yu

    2018-05-03

    Locoregional recurrence of breast cancer after tumor resection represents several clinical challenges. Here, we demonstrate that co-delivery of chemotherapy and thermotherapeutic agents by a magnetic supramolecular hydrogel (MSH) following tumor resection prevents tumor recurrence in a breast cancer mouse model. The self-assembled MSH was designed through the partial inclusion complexation associated with the threading of α-CD on the copolymer moieties on the surface of the PEGylated iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles, which enables shear-thinning injection and controllable thermoreversible gel-sol transition. MSH was injected to the postoperative wound uniformly, which became mobile and perfect match with irregular cavity without blind angle due to the magnetocaloric gel-sol transition when exposed to alternating current magnetic field (ACMF). The magnetic nanoparticle-mediated induction heat during the gel-sol transition process caused the triggered release of dual-encapsulated chemotherapeutic drugs and provided an effect of thermally induced cell damage. The hierarchical structure of the MSH ensured that both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs can be loaded and consecutively delivered with different release curves. The hydrogel nanocomposite might provide a potential locally therapeutic approach for the precise treatment of locoregional recurrence of cancer. Tumor recurrence after resection represents several clinical challenges. In this study, we prepared shear-thinning injectable magnetic supramolecular hydrogel (MSH) and demonstrated their therapeutic applications in preventing the post-operative recurrence of breast cancer with facile synthesis and minimally invasive implantation in vivo. MSH was injected to the postoperative wound uniformly, which become mobile and perfect match with irregular cavity without blind angle through magnetocaloric gel-sol transition when exposed to ACMF. The magnetic nanoparticles mediated induction heat during the gel

  15. Association of functional magnetic resonance imaging indices with postoperative language outcomes in patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Bornali; Penwarden, Amy; Wood, Joel M; Gallagher, Thomas A; Andreoli, Matthew J; Voss, Jed; Meier, Timothy; Nair, Veena A; Kuo, John S; Field, Aaron S; Moritz, Chad; Meyerand, M Elizabeth; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) has the potential to be a useful presurgical planning tool to treat patients with primary brain tumor. In this study the authors retrospectively explored relationships between language-related postoperative outcomes in such patients and multiple factors, including measures estimated from task fMRI maps (proximity of lesion to functional activation area, or lesion-to-activation distance [LAD], and activation-based language lateralization, or lateralization index [LI]) used in the clinical setting for presurgical planning, as well as other factors such as patient age, patient sex, tumor grade, and tumor volume. Patient information was drawn from a database of patients with brain tumors who had undergone preoperative fMRI-based language mapping of the Broca and Wernicke areas. Patients had performed a battery of tasks, including word-generation tasks and a text-versus-symbols reading task, as part of a clinical fMRI protocol. Individually thresholded task fMRI activation maps had been provided for use in the clinical setting. These clinical imaging maps were used to retrospectively estimate LAD and LI for the Broca and Wernicke areas. There was a relationship between postoperative language deficits and the proximity between tumor and Broca area activation (the LAD estimate), where shorter LADs were related to the presence of postoperative aphasia. Stratification by tumor location further showed that for posterior tumors within the temporal and parietal lobes, more bilaterally oriented Broca area activation (LI estimate close to 0) and a shorter Wernicke area LAD were associated with increased postoperative aphasia. Furthermore, decreasing LAD was related to decreasing LI for both Broca and Wernicke areas. Preoperative deficits were related to increasing patient age and a shorter Wernicke area LAD. Overall, LAD and LI, as determined using fMRI in the context of these paradigms, may be useful indicators of postsurgical outcomes. Whereas tumor

  16. Early initiation of aspirin after prostate and transurethral bladder surgeries is not associated with increased incidence of postoperative bleeding: a prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Y; Yossepowitch, O; Margel, D; Lask, D; Livne, P M; Baniel, J

    2007-08-01

    Lower urinary tract operations are being increasingly performed in elderly patients, in whom aspirin intake is common for preventing cardiovascular disease. We determined the safety of early aspirin re-initiation after lower urinary tract surgeries. A randomized, open label clinical trial was done. The study cohort included patients referred for transurethral prostatectomy, open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of bladder tumor while receiving aspirin prophylaxis. After controlling for surgical modality patients were randomized into 2 arms, including aspirin treatment initiation 24 hours after discontinuing of bladder irrigation (early treatment group) and aspirin treatment initiation 3 weeks after surgery (late treatment group). Primary end points were pre-discharge hematuria necessitating the restoration of bladder irrigation or the cessation of aspirin treatment and late hematuria treated in an urgent care setting, requiring hospital admission or compelling the cessation of aspirin treatment. A total of 120 patients were enrolled, including 60 per treatment group. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgery related factors that could have affected postoperative bleeding. Primary end points were attained by 16 of the 120 patients (13.6%), including 10 of the 60 (16.7%) in the early treatment group and 6 (10%) in the late treatment group (p = 0.28). Time to catheter removal and persistent hematuria duration were similar in the 2 groups. Cardiovascular morbidity was noted in 3 of 120 patients, of whom all were assigned to the early treatment group. Early aspirin initiation after lower urinary tract surgeries does not appear to carry an increased risk of postoperative bleeding. Thus, it may be considered in patients at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity.

  17. Posterior cruciate-substituting total knee replacement recovers the flexion arc faster in the early postoperative period in knees with high varus deformity: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Alpaslan; Akalın, Yavuz; Çevik, Nazan; Otuzbir, Ali; Özkan, Yüksel; Dostabakan, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    Posterior cruciate retention (CR) and substitution (PS) has been controversial in knee replacement surgery. Satisfactory medium and long-term results have been reported in knees with and without deformity but there are limited studies about early functional comparison in terms of recovery of flexion arc, stair activity, walking ability and straight leg raising, especially, in early postoperative period in knees with deformity. Therefore, we aimed to compare the flexion arc in CR and PS knees in postoperative first year including early postoperative days prospectively. Consecutive patients with a deformity of >10° were included and allocated to CR and PS groups randomly. KSS and Feller-patella scores were recorded both preoperatively and postoperatively (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months). Flexion and extension were measured both preoperatively and postoperatively (1st, 2nd, 3rd day and discharge day as well as 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months). Visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded postoperatively at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and discharge day and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months. The walking ability, stair activity and straight leg raising were recorded. Patients were also examined at the last visit with minimum 7-year follow-up with KSS, Feller-patella and VAS scores. Their mean flexion arcs were measured and recorded. There were 61 TKR evaluated. KSS knee and function scores at the 3rd month and KSS Knee Score at 1st year were superior in PS knees (p = 0.029, p = 0.046, p = 0.026). Flexion arc was found larger on day 1, 2, 3 and discharge day, and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th month in PS group (p = 0.048, p = 0.002, p = 0.027, p = 0.043, p = 0.014, p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p = 0.018). Walking and stair activity showed no difference but straight leg raising was better in CR knees (p = 0.02). Mean flexion arc was larger in PS knees at the last visit after 7 years (119.0° ± 7.5° in PS and 113.8° ± 8.7° in CR, p = 0.02). There was no revision

  18. Epidemiology, surgical management and early postoperative outcome in a cohort of gastric cancer patients of a tertiary referral center in relation to multi-center quality assurance studies.

    PubMed

    Garlipp, Benjamin; Schwalenberg, Jens; Adolf, Daniela; Lippert, Hans; Meyer, Frank

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiologic parameters, treatment-related data and prognostic factors in the management of gastric cancer patients of a university surgical center under conditions of routine clinical care before the onset of the era of multimodal therapies. By analyzing our data in relation with multi-center quality assurance trials [German Gastric Cancer Study - GGCS (1992) and East German Gastric Cancer Study - EGGCS (2004)] we aimed at providing an instrument of internal quality control at our institution as well as a base for comparison with future analyses taking into account the implementation of evolving (multimodal) therapies and their influence on treatment results. Retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data of gastric cancer patients treated at a single institution during a defined 10-year time period with multivariate analysis of risk factors for early postoperative outcome. From 04/01/1993 through 03/31/2003, a total of 328 gastric cancer patients were treated. In comparison with the EGGCS cohort there was a larger proportion of patients with locally advanced and proximally located tumors. 272 patients (82.9%) underwent surgery with curative intent; in 88.4% of these an R0 resection was achieved (EGGCS/GGCS: 82.5%/71.5%). 68.2% of patients underwent preoperative endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) (EGGCS: 27.4%); the proportion of patients undergoing EUS increased over the study period. Diagnostic accuracy of EUS for T stage was 50.6% (EGGCS: 42.6%). 77.2% of operated patients with curative intent underwent gastrectomy (EGGCS/GGCS: 79.8%/71.1%). Anastomotic leaks at the esophagojejunostomy occurred slightly more frequently (8.8%) than in the EGGCS (5.9%) and GGCS (7.2%); however, postoperative morbidity (36.1%) and early postoperative mortality (5.3%) were not increased compared to the multi-center quality assurance study results (EGGCS morbidity, 45%); EGGCS/GGCS mortality, 8%/8.9%). D2 lymphadenectomy was performed in 72

  19. Postoperative hypocalcemia: assessment timing.

    PubMed

    Sperlongano, Pasquale; Sperlongano, Simona; Foroni, Fabrizio; De Lucia, Francesco Paolo; Pezzulo, Carmine; Manfredi, Celeste; Esposito, Emanuela; Sperlongano, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    180 total thyroidectomy case studies performed by the same operator in the years 2006-2010, all done with sutureless technique (Ligasure precise(®)). The monitoring of patients involved a dose of serum calcium on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and seventh post-operative, before the ambulatory monitoring of the patient. Treatment of post-operative thyroidectomy also includes the administration from the first day of post-surgery, of 2 g/day of calcium (calcium lactate gluconate 2940 mg, calcium carbonate 300 mg). Hypocalcemia was observed in 27 cases (15%) of which 23/180 (12.8%) were transitional and 4/180 (2.2%) were permanent. The average postoperative hospitalization was 2.5 days with a minimum of 30 h. The peak of hypocalcemia was of 11 patients on the first postoperative day (40.7%) in 6 patients on the second postoperative day (22.2%), in 8 patients on the third postoperative day (29.6%), in 1 patient on the fourth postoperative day (3.7%) and in another one on the fifth postoperative day (3.7%). The second postoperative day is crucial for the determination of early discharge (24-30 h). When the surgeon identifies and manages to preserve at least 3 parathyroid glands during surgery, the risk of hypocalcemia together with evaluations of serum calcium on the first and second post-operative day, eliminates the hypocalcemic risk. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal infections in children in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Radoslaw; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Irga-Jaworska, Ninela; Chojnicki, Maciej; Steffens, Mariusz; Paczkowski, Konrad; Zielinski, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative infections are still an important problem in cardiac surgery, especially in the paediatric population, and may influence the final outcome of congenital heart disease treatment. Postoperative infections with fungi are uncommon. The aetiology is poorly understood, and the proper diagnosis and treatment is unclear. In this single-centre study, the frequency of invasive fungal disease in children who underwent surgical management of congenital heart diseases was determined along with the risk factors for infection, treatment options and outcomes. All consecutive paediatric patients (<18 years of age) who underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease between September 2008 and December 2015 in a paediatric cardiac centre in Poland were identified. Those who developed invasive fungal disease in the early postoperative period (30 days) were identified. Of the 1540 cardiosurgical procedures for congenital heart disease, 6 were complicated by fungal infection (0.39%). One patient had a high probability of fungal infection, but the diagnosis was unproved. Nevertheless, the patient was successfully treated with antifungal treatment. Five had proven invasive fungal disease. Of these, 3 were diagnosed with candidaemia. All had undergone cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the remaining 2 patients, 1 was a preterm newborn with complete atrioventricular septal defect who developed rib fungal invasion. The remaining patient had pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and developed Fournier's gangrene after surgery. None of the patients died due to infection in the early postoperative period. However, the child with rib fungal invasion died 39 days after surgery as a result of multiorgan failure. Fungal infections in paediatric patients after cardiac surgery may markedly influence morbidity and mortality. Fungal infection prophylaxis in this specific group of children may reduce morbidity, whereas early empirical treatment followed by a targeted approach may

  1. The role of suture cutout in the failure of meniscal root repair during the early post-operative period: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blanca, Ana; Prado Nóvoa, María; Lombardo Torre, Maximiano; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Ezquerro Juanco, Francisco; Espejo-Baena, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    To assess the role of suture cutout in the mechanics of failure of the repaired posterior meniscal root during the early post-operative period when using sutures of different shape. Twenty medial porcine menisci were randomized in two groups depending on the suture shape used to repair the posterior root: thread or tape. The sutured menisci were subjected to cyclic loading (1000 cycles, (10, 30) N) followed by load-to-failure testing. Residual displacements, stiffness, and ultimate failure load were determined. During tests, the tissue-suture interface was recorded using a high-resolution camera. In cyclic tests, cutout progression at the suture insertion points was not observed for any specimen of either group and no differences in residual displacements were found between use of thread or tape. In load-to-failure tests, suture cutout started in all menisci at a load close to the ultimate failure and all specimens failed by suture pullout. Suture tape had a greater ultimate load with no other differences. In a porcine model of a repaired posterior meniscal root subjected to cyclic loads representative of current rehabilitation protocols in the early post-operative period under restricted loading conditions, suture cutout was not found as a main source of permanent root displacement when using suture thread or tape. Suture cutout progression started at high loading levels close to the ultimate load of the construct. Tape, with a meniscus-suture contact area larger than thread, produced higher ultimate load.

  2. Revisiting the applicability of adult early post-operative nausea and vomiting risk factors for the paediatric patient: A prospective study using cotinine levels in children undergoing adenotonsillectomies

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Destiny F; Reddy, Arundathi; Breheny, Patrick; Young, Anna Rebecca; Ashford, Eric; Song, Megan; Zhang, Christina; Taylor, Tammy; Younes, Abbas; Vazifedan, Turaj

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative vomiting (POV) in children remains a significant clinical problem. This prospective study aims to investigate the applicability of well-established adult early post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk factors on paediatric POV after adenotonsillectomies under regulated anaesthetic conditions. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 213 children aged 3–10-year-old were enrolled. The participants had pre-operative questionnaires completed, followed protocolised anaesthetic plans and had saliva analysed for cotinine. The primary outcomes were POV as correlated with age, gender, family or personal history of PONV, motion sickness history, opioid use, surgical time, anaesthetic time and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, as assessed by cotinine levels and questionnaire reports. Data on analgesics, antiemetics and POV incidence before post-anaesthesia care unit discharge were collected. Statistical analysis was done through multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 200 patients finalised the study. Early POV occurred in 32%. Family history of PONV (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, P < 0.01) and motion sickness history (OR = 4.4, P = 0.02) were highly significant risk factors. Age reached borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.4, P = 0.05). None of the other factors reached statistical significance. Conclusion: Early POV occurs frequently in paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomies. In this paediatric-aged group, the incidence of POV was affected by the family history of PONV, and history of motion sickness. Age, female gender, opioid use, surgical and anaesthetic times did not affect the incidence of POV. ETS exposure, as assessed by cotinine levels and questionnaire reports, had no protective effect on early paediatric POV. PMID:29307901

  3. Prediction of postoperative diabetes insipidus using morphological hyperintensity patterns in the pituitary stalk on magnetic resonance imaging after transsphenoidal surgery for sellar tumors.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Fukui, Issei; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) remains a complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for sellar and parasellar tumors. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) appears as hyper intensity (HI) in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Its disappearance from the posterior lobe occurs with DI, indicating a lack of ADH. The appearance of HI in the pituitary stalk indicates disturbances in ADH transport. This retrospective study included 172 patients undergoing TSS for sellar tumors at our institute from 2006 to 2014. Sequential T1-weighted MR images without enhancement were evaluated for HI in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe to assess the localization of ADH before and at intervals after TSS. DI was assessed pre- and postoperatively. HI in the pituitary stalk showed the following morphology: (1) ovoid in the distal end of the pituitary stalk (group A), (2) linear in the distal part of the pituitary stalk (group B), (3) linear in the whole pituitary stalk (group C). Preoperative DI occurred in 6 patients (3.5 %) with no HI observed in the posterior lobe. Postoperative DI was transient in 82 patients (47.7 %), and permanent in 11 (6.4 %). One week after surgery, HI was absent in the posterior lobe in 74 patients (43.0 %), and present in the pituitary stalk in 99 patients (57.6 %); both were significantly correlated with postoperative DI (p < 0.001). The absence of HI in the posterior lobe (A, 48.9 %; B, 68.3 %; C, 92.3 %), persistence of DI (A, 3.7 days; B, 45.9 days; C, 20.5 months), and duration until HI recovery in the posterior lobe (A, 3.6 months; B, 6.8 months; C, 22.9 months) were greatest in group C, followed by group B, and then group A. Fourteen group A patients did not have postoperative DI despite having HI in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe. Four group C patients developed permanent DI with persistence HI in the pituitary stalk. HI in the pituitary stalk and its

  4. [Gender-specific differences of the early postoperative and oncosurgical long-term outcome in rectal cancer-data obtained in a prospective multicenter observational study].

    PubMed

    Katzenstein, J; Steinert, R; Ptok, H; Otto, R; Gastinger, I; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2018-04-11

    Gender-specific aspects have been increasingly considered in clinical medicine, also in oncological surgery. To analyze gender-specific differences of early postoperative and oncological outcomes after rectal cancer resection based on data obtained in a prospective multicenter observational study. As part of the multicenter prospective observational study "Quality assurance in primary rectal cancer", data on tumor site, exogenic and endogenic risk factors, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical procedures, tumor stage, intraoperative and postoperative complications of patients with the histological diagnosis of rectal cancer were registered. Data from the years 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 were investigated with respect to gender-specific differences of postoperative morbidity, hospital mortality, local recurrency rate, disease-free and overall survival by univariable and multivariable analyses. Overall, data from 10,657 patients were evaluated: 60.9% of the patients were male, who were significantly younger (p < 0.001). Men had a significantly higher rate of alcohol (p < 0.001) and nicotine abuse (p < 0.001) as well as a trend to a higher body mass index (BMI) compared with women. Although, there was no significant difference in the distribution of various tumor stages comparing men and women, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy was used significantly more often in male patients (p < 0.001). In addition, male patients underwent an abdominoperineal rectum exstirpation more often, whereas creation of an enterostoma and Hartmann's procedure were more frequently used in women (p < 0.001 each). Multivariate analysis revealed that male patients developed a higher overall morbidity (odds ratio, OR: 1.5; p < 0.001) during both study periods and from 2010-2011 a higher hospital mortality (OR: 1.8; p < 0.001). After a median follow-up period of 36 months, gender did not have a significant impact on overall survival, disease-free survival or on the local

  5. Efficacy of Celecoxib for Early Postoperative Pain Management in Hip Arthroscopy: A Prospective Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Patel, Ronak M; Knesek, Michael; Tjong, Vehniah K; Sonn, Kevin; Terry, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether 400 mg of celecoxib administered 1 hour before hip arthroscopy surgery would reduce pain, provide reduction in overall narcotic consumption, and lead to more rapid discharge from recovery rooms. Ninety-eight patients were randomized to either the celecoxib group (n = 50) or the placebo group (n = 48). An a priori power analysis was done set to detect a difference of 0.50 on the visual analog scale (VAS), based on the senior author's preference. The number of patients planned for recruitment was rounded up to 100 to allow for flexibility in the study. Inclusion criteria were any patient at least 18 years old who underwent hip arthroscopy surgery performed by the senior author. All patients had less than Tönnis grade 2 arthritis. Exclusion criteria were allergy to sulfa-based drugs, prior adverse reaction to celecoxib, or patients who were on chronic narcotics for whom alternative pain management regimens were arranged before surgery. Randomization was performed on a 1:1 basis in blocks of 10 using sealed envelopes stating celecoxib or placebo. One hour before surgery, all patients received either 400 mg celecoxib or placebo. Patients were evaluated using a VAS preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 1 and 2 hours postoperatively. Time from the operating room to "ready for discharge" and number of morphine equivalents of narcotic medication required in the postanesthesia care unit were recorded. Age and preoperative VAS were similar between the celecoxib and placebo control group, with average ages of 34.2 ± 11.9 and 35.8 ± 11.6 (P = .27) and preoperative VAS of 2.1 ± 2.06 and 2.3 ± 1.98 (P = .29), respectively. The celecoxib group had 26 females and 24 males, whereas the placebo group had 29 females and 19 males (P = .42). The most common surgical procedures were labral repair (31 patients in the celecoxib group and 29 patients in the placebo group), and labral repair with acetabular osteoplasty (13 patients in the

  6. Selecting postoperative adjuvant systemic therapy for early stage breast cancer: A critical assessment of commercially available gene expression assays

    PubMed Central

    Schuur, Eric; Angel Aristizabal, Javier; Bargallo Rocha, Juan Enrique; Cabello, Cesar; Elizalde, Roberto; García‐Estévez, Laura; Gomez, Henry L.; Katz, Artur; Nuñez De Pierro, Aníbal

    2017-01-01

    Risk stratification of patients with early stage breast cancer may support adjuvant chemotherapy decision‐making. This review details the development and validation of six multi‐gene classifiers, each of which claims to provide useful prognostic and possibly predictive information for early stage breast cancer patients. A careful assessment is presented of each test's analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility, as well as the quality of evidence supporting its use. PMID:28211064

  7. Impact of empiric nesiritide or milrinone infusion on early postoperative recovery after Fontan surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Costello, John M; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Allan, Catherine K; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Newburger, Jane W; McGowan, Francis X; Wessel, David L; Mayer, John E; Salvin, Joshua W; Dionne, Roger E; Laussen, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether empirical nesiritide or milrinone would improve the early postoperative course after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that compared with milrinone or placebo, patients assigned to receive nesiritide would have improved early postoperative outcomes. In a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-arm parallel-group clinical trial, patients undergoing primary Fontan surgery were assigned to receive nesiritide, milrinone, or placebo. A loading dose of study drug was administered on cardiopulmonary bypass followed by a continuous infusion for ≥12 hours and ≤5 days after cardiac intensive care unit admission. The primary outcome was days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included measures of cardiovascular function, renal function, resource use, and adverse events. Among 106 enrolled subjects, 35, 36, and 35 were randomized to the nesiritide, milrinone, and placebo groups, respectively, and all were analyzed based on intention to treat. Demographics, patient characteristics, and operative factors were similar among treatment groups. No significant treatment group differences were found for median days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery (nesiritide, 20 [minimum to maximum, 0-24]; milrinone, 18 [0-23]; placebo, 20 [0-23]; P=0.38). Treatment groups did not significantly differ in cardiac index, arrhythmias, peak lactate, inotropic scores, urine output, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care or chest tube drainage, or adverse events. Compared with placebo, empirical perioperative nesiritide or milrinone infusions are not associated with improved early clinical outcomes after Fontan surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00543309. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Isohashi, Fumiaki, E-mail: isohashi@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Seiji

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors andmore » the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative

  9. A prospective single-institute study of the impact of Daikenchuto on the early postoperative outcome after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Hidaka, Masaaki; Soyama, Akihiko; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-01-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Daikenchuto (DKT) on early postoperative outcomes after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), focusing on the prevention of abdominal distension and bacterial translocation. Adult LDLT recipients were prospectively divided into 2 groups, who were administered DKT (n = 20, group A) or not (n = 20, group B). The area of bowel gas defined as gas volume score (GVS) 7 days after LDLT was calculated. Postoperative liver function tests, the development of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, and GVS after LDLT were reviewed. There were no significant differences in liver function tests and ammonia level after LDLT. Also, the rates of infection and the result of culture study were not different between groups. The median GVS 7 days after LDLT was not significantly different between groups A (0.26 (range, 0.12-0.58)) and B (0.23 (range, 0.15-0.42)). No positive impact was observed for 14-day DKT administration after LDLT, in terms of preventing infection or abdominal distension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Aspects of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, treated by advanced core decompression.

    PubMed

    Lazik, Andrea; Landgraeber, Stefan; Claßen, Tim; Kraff, Oliver; Lauenstein, Thomas C; Theysohn, Jens M

    2015-10-01

    To analyze remodeling processes after advanced core decompression (ACD) in patients with avascular femoral head necrosis by means of 3T MRI and to identify indicators for clinical outcome considering the defect size and characteristics of the bone graft and of the neighboring regeneration tissue. Thirty-four hips, with preexisting preoperative MRIs in 21 cases, were examined 1-34 months (mean 12.7) postoperatively by 3T MRI. The volume of necrosis was measured manually pre- and postoperatively to calculate absolute as well as percentage necrosis reduction. The signal intensity of the bone graft was quantified using a 4-point scale. Border phenomena between the bone graft and bone were described and classified into groups. Wilcoxon sign-rank test was used to identify correlations between the analyzed items and clinical signs of femoral head collapse after a mean follow-up time of 28.6 months (10.4-46.8). Mean percentage reduction of necrosis was significantly higher in asymptomatic patients (59.36%) compared to patients with signs of femoral head collapse (28.78%, p = 0.008). Signal intensity of the bone graft increased in T1w and T2w TIRM sequences over time after surgery and was significantly higher in asymptomatic patients. Five border phenomena between the bone graft and healthy bone were identified. Among them, the so-called "rail sign" representing three layers of remodeling tissue correlated with the histological observations. A variety of border phenomena representing remodeling processes have been described using 3T MRI. Beneath the percentage amount of necrosis reduction, we identified the signal intensity of the bone graft as an indicator for clinical outcome.

  11. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of anterior talofibular ligament in lateral chronic ankle instability ankles pre- and postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui

    2017-09-12

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate and characterize the dimension and signal intensity of anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) using 3.0 T MRI in the mechanical ankle instability group pre- and postoperatively. A total of 97 participants were recruited retrospectively in this study, including 56 with mechanical chronic ankle instability (CAI group) and 41 without ankle instability (Control group). All the subjects accepted MRI preoperatively. Among the 56 CAI patients, 25 patients, who accepted modified Broström repair of ATFL, underwent a MRI scan at follow-up. The ATFL dimension (length and width) and signal/noise ratio (SNR) were measured based on MRI images. The results of the MRI studies were then compared between groups. The CAI group had a significantly higher ATFL length (p = 0.03) or ATFL width (p < 0.001) compared with the control group. The mean SNR value of the CAI group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p = 0.006). Furthermore, the mean SNR value of the ATFL after repair surgery (8.4 ± 2.4) was significantly lower than that of the ATFL before surgery (11.2 ± 3.4) (p < 0.001). However, no significant change of ATFL length or ATFL width were observed after repair surgery. CAI ankles had a higher ATFL length or width as well as higher signal intensity compared with stable ankles. After repair surgery, the mean SNR value of the ATFL decreased, indicating the relaxed ATFL becomes tight postoperatively.

  12. Technical Performance Scores are strongly associated with early mortality, postoperative adverse events, and intensive care unit length of stay-analysis of consecutive discharges for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Meena; Karamichalis, John; Liu, Hua; Gauvreau, Kimberley; Colan, Steven; Saia, Matthew; Pigula, Frank; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Emani, Sitaram; Baird, Christopher; Mayer, John E; del Nido, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in our institution has indicated that the Technical Performance Score (TPS) is highly associated with early outcomes in select subsets of procedures and age groups. We hypothesized that the TPS could predict early outcomes in a wide range of diagnoses and age groups. Consecutive patients discharged from January 2011 to March 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The TPS was assigned according to the discharge echocardiographic findings and the need for reinterventions in the anatomic area of interest. Case complexity was determined using Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) categories. Early mortality and postoperative adverse events were recorded. Relationships between the TPS and outcomes were assessed after adjusting for the baseline patient characteristics. The median age of the 1926 patients was 1.8 years (range, 0 days to 68 years). Bypass was used in 1740 (90%); 322 (17%) were neonates, 520 (27%) infants, 873 (45%) children, 211 (11%) adults. TPS was class 1 (optimal) in 956 (50%), class 2 (adequate) in 584 (30%), and class 3 (inadequate) in 226 (12%); 160 patients (8%) could not be scored. A total of 51 early deaths (2.6%) and 111 adverse events (5.7%) occurred. On univariate analysis, age, RACHS-1 category, and TPS were significantly associated with mortality and the occurrence of adverse events. On multivariate modeling, class 3 (inadequate) TPS was strongly associated with mortality (odds ratio, 16.9; 95% confidence interval, 6.7-42.9; P < .001), adverse events (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-11.6; P < .001), and postoperative intensive care unit length of stay (coefficient, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.6; P < .001) after adjusting for other covariates. The TPS is strongly associated with early outcomes across a wide range of ages and disease complexity and can serve as important tool for self-assessment and quality improvement. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  13. High resolution OCT quantitative analysis of the space between the IOL and the posterior capsule during the early cataract postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Tao, Aizhu; Lu, Ping; Li, Jin; Shao, Yilei; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao; Zhao, Yinying; Lu, Fan

    2013-10-25

    We quantitatively characterized the space between the IOL and the posterior capsule (IOL-PC space) during the early postphacoemulsification period, using high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). We recruited 30 eyes of 30 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and randomly divided them into two groups. Acrysof Natural IQ IOLs were implanted in one group (n = 15), and Adapt-AO IOLs were implanted into the other (n = 15). A custom-built OCT instrument was used to image the IOL-PC space at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery. Slit-lamp examination and auto refraction were performed at each visit. The IOL-PC spaces in the IQ group were 0.72 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24, and 0.23 ± 0.16 mm(2) at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery, respectively. At each of these times, the values for the AO group were significantly smaller (P < 0.001). Compared to 1 day after surgery, significant changes in the ACDs and refractive errors occurred up to 1 month postoperatively in the IQ group; however, changes in the ACD and refractive error were significant only at 1 week in the AO group. The decreases in IOL-PC space and in ACD during the early postoperative period were associated with a myopic shift. It appeared that the different IOL designs had a role in closure of the IOL-PC space. High resolution OCT was suitable for quantitative analysis of IOL-PC space. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01605812.).

  14. An intervention study exploring the effects of providing older adult hip fracture patients with an information booklet in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Siobhan; Conway, Col; McGrath, Niamh B; O'Leary, Breda; O'Sullivan, Mary P; O'Sullivan, Dawn

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the provision of an information booklet on mobilisation improves early mobility postsurgical repair of hip fracture. Hip fracture among older people can have long-lasting consequences with the majority of patients failing to achieve their prefracture functional status. Early postoperative mobility may have a positive effect on long-term recovery. The importance of providing postoperative information on mobility has been highlighted. It is suggested that patients remain passive in their recovery when they do not understand the importance of mobilisation. The study used a pretest-post-test design of two treatments and a usual care control group. Eighty-three adults postsurgical repair of hip fracture, aged 65 years and older, were recruited to the study. Participants were assigned to one of three groups, a usual care group, treatment group 1 (T(1)) usual care plus basic information booklet or treatment group 2 (T(2)) usual care plus detailed information booklet. Data collection three days postsurgery and prior to discharge included the Mini-Mental State Examination, a Demographic Questionnaire, the Elderly Mobility Scale and a Numerical Pain Scale. Greatest improvements in Elderly Mobility Scale scores occurred in T(1), with least changes observed in T(2). Changes did not reach significance level (p=0·105). The results of the study suggest that the provision of basic information is preferable and highlights a deficiency of education in usual care. Hip fracture patients should be provided with an educational booklet containing basic information on mobility to promote optimal recovery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression profiles of mucin antigens in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma: MUC4- and MUC6-negative expression predicts a shortened survival in the early postoperative phase.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kie; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Higashi, Michiyo; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nomoto, Mitsuharu; Yoshimura, Takuya; Batra, Surinder K; Yonezawa, Suguru; Semba, Ichiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Tanimoto, Akihide; Yamada, Sohsuke

    2018-02-01

    In mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the most common salivary gland carcinoma, there is a lack of novel prognostic markers, but post-operative early recurrence strongly affects the clinical course and a poor outcome. It is critical to predict which MEC patients are prone to develop recurrence/metastases. Mucins play pivotal roles in influencing cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, carcinoma invasion, aggressiveness and/or metastatic potential. Our aim is to elucidate the significance of expression profiles for mucins, particularly MUC4 and MUC6, and their correlations with various clinicopathological features and recurrence in salivary gland MECs. We performed immunohistochemical analyses on patients with surgically resected primary MEC using antibodies against mucin core proteins MUC4/8G7 and MUC6/CLH5 in 73 paraffin-embedded samples. Recurrence was noted in 15 of 73 (20.5%) patients. MUC4 or MUC6 expression was considered to be negative when <30% or 0% of the MEC cells showed positive staining, respectively. MUC4- and/or MUC6-negative expression respectively and variably showed a significant relationship to pathological tumor high-grade, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and/or tumor-related death. In addition, MUC4 showed significantly negative co-expression with MUC6. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that not only single MUC4/6-negative expression but also the combination of both predicted significantly shorter disease-free and disease-specific survivals in MECs, especially within the first two years postoperatively. Therefore, each mucin plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MEC progression. The detection of MUC4 and/or MUC6 might be a powerful parameter in the clinical management of MECs in the early postsurgical phase.

  16. Predictive Power of the NSQIP Risk Calculator for Early Post-Operative Outcomes After Whipple: Experience from a Regional Center in Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Henry Y; Kohtakangas, Erica L; Asai, Kengo; Shum, Jeffrey B

    2017-05-02

    NSQIP Risk Calculator was developed to allow surgeons to inform their patients about their individual risks for surgery. Its ability to predict complication rates and length of stay (LOS) has made it an appealing tool for both patients and surgeons. However, the NSQIP Risk Calculator has been criticized for its generality and lack of detail towards surgical subspecialties, including the hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. We wish to determine whether the NSQIP Risk Calculator is predictive of post-operative complications and LOS with respect to Whipple's resections for our patient population. As well, we wish to identify strategies to optimize early surgical outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent elective Whipple's procedure for benign or malignant pancreatic head lesions at Health Sciences North (Sudbury, Ontario), a tertiary care center, from February 2014 to August 2016. Comparisons of LOS and post-operative complications between NSQIP-predicted and actual ones were carried out. NSQIP-predicted complications rates were obtained using the NSQIP Risk Calculator through pre-defined preoperative risk factors. Clinical outcomes examined, at 30 days post-operation, included pneumonia, cardiac events, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), venous thromboembolism (VTE), renal failure, readmission, and reoperation for procedural complications. As well, mortality, disposition to nursing or rehabilitation facilities, and LOS were assessed. A total of 40 patients underwent Whipple's procedure at our center from February 2014 to August 2016. The average age was 68 (50-85), and there were 22 males and 18 females. The majority of patients had independent baseline functional status (39/40) with minimal pre-operative comorbidities. The overall post-operative morbidity was 47.5% (19/40). The rate of serious complication was 17.5% with four Clavien grade II, two grade III, and one grade

  17. A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing early postoperative complications in patients undergoing loop colostomy with and without a stoma rod.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, J; Varghese, G; Mittal, R; Rebekah, G; Jesudason, M R; Perakath, B

    2017-07-01

    A stoma rod or bridge has been traditionally placed under the bowel loop while constructing a loop colostomy. This is believed to prevent stomal retraction and provide better faecal diversion. However, the rod can cause complications such as mucosal congestion, oedema and necrosis. This single-centre prospective randomized controlled trial compared outcomes after creation of loop colostomy with and without a supporting stoma rod. The primary outcome studied was stoma retraction rate; other stoma-related complications were studied as secondary outcomes. One hundred and fifty-one patients were randomly allotted to one of two arms, colostomy with or without a supporting rod. Postoperative complications such as retraction, mucocutaneous separation, congestion and re-exploration for stoma-related complications were recorded. There was no difference in the stoma retraction rate between the two arms (8.1% in the rod arm and 6.6% in the no-rod arm; P = 0.719). Stomal necrosis (10.7% vs 1.3%; P = 0.018), oedema (23% vs 3.9%; P = 0.001), congestion (20.3% vs 2.6%; P = 0.001) and re-admission rates (8.5% vs 0%; P = 0.027) were significantly increased in the arm randomized to the rod. The stoma rod does not prevent stomal retraction. However, complication rates are significantly higher when a stoma rod is used. Routine use of a stoma rod for construction of loop colostomy can be avoided. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Multiple magnet ingestion: is there a role for early surgical intervention?

    PubMed

    Salimi, Amrollah; Kooraki, Soheil; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Children often swallow foreign bodies. Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can result in serious complications. This study presents three unique cases of multiple magnet ingestion: one case an 8-year-old boy with multiple magnet ingestion resulting in gastric obstruction and the other two cases with intestinal perforations due to multiple magnet intake. History and physical examination are unreliable in children who swallow multiple magnets. Sometimes radiological findings are not conclusive, whether one magnet is swallowed or more. If magnets are not moved in sequential radiology images, we recommend early surgical intervention before gastrointestinal complications develop. Toy companies, parents, physicians, and radiologists should be warned about the potential complications of such toys.

  19. Correlation of Early Recurrence With In Vitro Adenosine Triphosphate Based Chemotherapy Response Assay in Pancreas Cancer With Postoperative Gemcitabine Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Jae Keun; Yoon, Dong Sup

    2016-11-01

    Gemcitabine-based regimens represent the standard systemic first line treatment in patients after pancreatic resection. However, the clinical impact of gemcitabine varies significantly in individuals because of chemoresistance. An in vitro adenosine triphosphate based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of cancer cells to various chemotherapeutic agents. This study investigated the correlation between in vitro gemcitabine sensitivity of tumor cells and early recurrence after curative resection. From January 2007 to December 2010, the ATP-CRA for gemcitabine was tested in 64 patients surgically treated for pancreas cancer at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. We analyzed the relationship between chemosensitivity and early systemic recurrence in patients with pancreas cancer to predict disease-free survival (DFS) after curative resection in pancreas cancer. The mean cell death rate (CDR) was 20.0 (±14.5) and divided into two groups according to the mean values of the CDR. Lymphovascular invasion was more frequently shown in gemcitabine resistance group without statistical significance. In univariate and multivariate analysis, advanced tumor stage and gemcitabine sensitive group (CDR ≥ 20) were identified as independent prognostic factors for DFS. Gemcitabine sensitivity measured by ATP-CRA was well correlated with in vivo drug responsibility to predict early recurrence following gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with pancreas cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effect of implant macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative period: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Jeffrey J; Klokkevold, Perry R

    2017-10-01

    Available literature suggests there is a transient drop in implant stability from approximately week 0 to week 3-4 as a result of peri-implant bone remodeling as it transitions from a primary, mechanical stability to a secondary, biological stability. Research investigating the influence of macro-thread design on this process is scant. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the role of macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Seven patients, each missing at least two posterior teeth in the same arch, were included in the study. Three patients qualified for four implants resulting in a total of 10 matched pairs. All sites were healed (>6 months), non-grafted sites with sufficient bone to place implants. Each site in a matched pair was randomly assigned to receive either a control (Megagen EZ Plus Internal; EZ) or test (Megagen AnyRidge; AR) implant. The test implant incorporates a novel thread design with a wide thread depth and increased thread pitch. RFA was used to determine implant stability quotient (ISQ) values for each implant at the time of placement and weekly for the first 8 weeks. Implants consistently achieved a relatively high insertion torque (30-45 N/cm) and high initial ISQ value (79.8 ± 1.49). Baseline ISQ values for test (AR; 79.55 ± 1.61) and control (EZ; 80.05 ± 1.37) implants were similar. A general pattern of stability from baseline through all eight follow-up evaluations was observed for the test implants. A pattern of decreasing ISQ values was observed for the control implants across the early follow-up evaluations up to week four, where the value plateaued. There was a statistically significant main effect due to implant type (P < 0.01) and a statistically significant interaction between implant type and time (P < 0.01), indicating that the test and control implants performed differently at certain time points. Within the limitations

  1. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): incremental validity in predicting early postoperative outcomes in spine surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Marek, Ryan J; Block, Andrew R; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-03-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals who undergo surgical procedures to relieve spine pain continue to report significant pain and dysfunction after recovery. Psychopathology and patient expectations have been linked to poor results, leading to an increasing reliance on presurgical psychological screening (PPS) as part of the surgical diagnostic process. The original Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, & Dahlstrom, 2001) were among the measures most commonly used in PPS evaluations and research. This study focuses on the newest version of the test, the MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008/2011) as a predictor of outcomes for spine surgery candidates. Using a sample of 172 men and 210 women who underwent a PPS, we examined the ability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores to predict early surgical outcomes independent of other presurgical risk factors identified by other means, as well as patients' presurgical expectations. MMPI-2-RF results accounted for up to 11% of additional variance in measures of early postoperative functioning. MMPI-2-RF scales that assess for emotional/internalizing problems, specifically Demoralization, measures of somatoform dysfunction, and interpersonal problems contributed most to the prediction of diminished outcome. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Association Between Exercise Therapy Dose and Functional Improvements in the Early Postoperative Phase After Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Zech, Astrid; Hendrich, Simon; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether intensity and duration of standard exercise therapy are associated with changes in function after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Prospective cohort study. Orthopedic inpatient rehabilitation center. A total of 123 patients 2 weeks after THA (n = 58; age, 62.5 ± 10.4 years) and TKA (n = 65; age, 66.6 ± 7.6 years). Standard rehabilitation (hands-on physiotherapy, group exercise therapy, strength training, cycle ergometer therapy, continuous passive motion therapy, and water exercise therapy). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and hip and knee range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and after inpatient rehabilitation. The individual rehabilitation period varied between 12-25 days and included 48.1 ± 12.5 (THA) or 41.9 ± 9.7 (TKA) exercise interventions with intensities between 9.6 and 14.0 points on the Borg Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale. WOMAC pain (P < .001), stiffness (P < .001), and function (P < .001), as well as hip (P < .001) and knee (P < .001) ROM, improved significantly in THA and TKA patients. Analysis of covariance showed that these changes could not be explained by the total duration or mean intensity of exercise therapy. The findings show a low dose-response relationship between early postoperative exercise therapy and the improvements in function or ROM after THA and TKA. Although the findings raise questions about the efficacy of existing rehabilitation programs, the small sample size, single setting, and geographic differences in postoperative treatment standards limit the generalizability of findings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of the turbulent motion on the chiral magnetic effect in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Maxim; Semikoz, Victor B.

    2017-02-01

    We study the magnetohydrodynamics of relativistic plasmas accounting for the chiral magnetic effect (CME). To take into account the evolution of the plasma velocity, obeying the Navier-Stokes equation, we approximate it by the Lorentz force accompanied by the phenomenological drag time parameter. On the basis of this ansatz, we obtain the contributions of both the turbulence effects, resulting from the dynamo term, and the magnetic field instability, caused by the CME, to the evolution of the magnetic field governed by the modified Faraday equation. In this way, we explore the evolution of the magnetic field energy and the magnetic helicity density spectra in the early Universe plasma. We find that the right-left electron asymmetry is enhanced by the turbulent plasma motion in a strong seed magnetic field compared to the pure CME case studied earlier for the hot Universe plasma in the same broken phase.

  4. Can Valeriana officinalis root extract prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after CABG surgery? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Soghra; Alipour, Abbas; Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Ghafari, Rahman; Habibi, Wali-Allah; Tahmasebi, Homeyra; Alipour, Fatemeh; Ebrahim Zadeh, Pooneh

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesized that valerian root might prevent cognitive dysfunction in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients through stimulating serotonin receptors and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Valeriana officinalis root extract on prevention of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 61 patients, aged between 30 and 70 years, scheduled for elective CABG surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were recruited into the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups who received either one valerian capsule containing 530 mg of valerian root extract (1,060 mg/daily) or placebo capsule each 12 h for 8 weeks, respectively. For all patients, cognitive brain function was evaluated before the surgery and at 10-day and 2-month follow-up by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test. Mean MMSE score decreased from 27.03 ± 2.02 in the preoperative period to 26.52 ± 1.82 at the 10th day and then increased to 27.45 ± 1.36 at the 60th day in the valerian group. Conversely, its variation was reduced significantly after 60 days in the placebo group, 27.37 ± 1.87 at the baseline to 24 ± 1.91 at the 10th day, and consequently slightly increased to 24.83 ± 1.66 at the 60th day. Valerian prophylaxis reduced odds of cognitive dysfunction compared to placebo group (OR = 0.108, 95 % CI 0.022-0.545). We concluded that, based on this study, the cognitive state of patients in the valerian group was better than that in the placebo group after CABG; therefore, it seems that the use of V. officinalis root extract may prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery.

  5. A basal magma ocean dynamo to explain the early lunar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinberg, Aaron L.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2018-06-01

    The source of the ancient lunar magnetic field is an unsolved problem in the Moon's evolution. Theoretical work invoking a core dynamo has been unable to explain the magnitude of the observed field, falling instead one to two orders of magnitude below it. Since surface magnetic field strength is highly sensitive to the depth and size of the dynamo region, we instead hypothesize that the early lunar dynamo was driven by convection in a basal magma ocean formed from the final stages of an early lunar magma ocean; this material is expected to be dense, radioactive, and metalliferous. Here we use numerical convection models to predict the longevity and heat flow of such a basal magma ocean and use scaling laws to estimate the resulting magnetic field strength. We show that, if sufficiently electrically conducting, a magma ocean could have produced an early dynamo with surface fields consistent with the paleomagnetic observations.

  6. Postoperative Neurosurgical Infection Rates After Shared-Resource Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Single-Center Experience with 195 Cases.

    PubMed

    Dinevski, Nikolaj; Sarnthein, Johannes; Vasella, Flavio; Fierstra, Jorn; Pangalu, Athina; Holzmann, David; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    To determine the rate of surgical-site infections (SSI) in neurosurgical procedures involving a shared-resource intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (ioMRI) scanner at a single institution derived from a prospective clinical quality management database. All consecutive neurosurgical procedures that were performed with a high-field, 2-room ioMRI between April 2013 and June 2016 were included (N = 195; 109 craniotomies and 86 endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures). The incidence of SSIs within 3 months after surgery was assessed for both operative groups (craniotomies vs. transsphenoidal approach). Of the 109 craniotomies, 6 patients developed an SSI (5.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-9.8%), including 1 superficial SSI, 2 cases of bone flap osteitis, 1 intracranial abscess, and 2 cases of meningitis/ventriculitis. Wound revision surgery due to infection was necessary in 4 patients (4%). Of the 86 transsphenoidal skull base surgeries, 6 patients (7.0%, 95% CI 1.5-12.4%) developed an infection, including 2 non-central nervous system intranasal SSIs (3%) and 4 cases of meningitis (5%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of infection significantly decreased with the number of operations in the new operational setting (odds ratio 0.982, 95% CI 0.969-0.995, P = 0.008). The use of a shared-resource ioMRI in neurosurgery did not demonstrate increased rates of infection compared with the current available literature. The likelihood of infection decreased with the accumulating number of operations, underlining the importance of surgical staff training after the introduction of a shared-resource ioMRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of inverter magnetic fields on early seed germination of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Wang, Show-Ran

    2008-12-01

    The biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) on living organisms have been explored in many studies. Most of them demonstrate the biological effects caused by 50/60 Hz magnetic fields or pulsed magnetic fields. However, as the development of power electronics flourishes, the magnetic fields induced are usually in other different waveforms. This study aims to assess the effects of magnetic fields generated by inverter systems on the early growth of plants using mung beans as an example. In the experiment, an inverter which can produce sinusoidal pulsed width modulation (SPWM) voltages was used to drive 3 specially made circular coils and an AC motor. Six SPWM voltages with different fundamental frequencies (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 Hz) set on the inverter drive the circuit to produce the specific kinds of MFs. The results indicate that the magnetic field induced by a 20 or 60 Hz SPWM voltage has an enhancing effect on the early growth of mung beans, but the magnetic fields induced by SPWM voltages of other frequencies (30, 40, and 50 Hz) have an inhibitory effect, especially at 50 Hz.

  8. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane vs surgeon administered intraoperative regional field infiltration with bupivacaine for early postoperative pain control in children undergoing open pyeloplasty.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Armando J; Lynch, Johanne; Matava, Clyde; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Hayes, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Regional analgesic techniques are commonly used in pediatric urology. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block has recently gained popularity. However, there is a paucity of information supporting a benefit over regional field infiltration. We present a parallel group, randomized, controlled trial evaluating ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block superiority over surgeon delivered regional field infiltration for children undergoing open pyeloplasty at a tertiary referral center. Following ethics board approval and registration, children 0 to 6 years old were recruited and randomized to undergo perioperative transversus abdominis plane block or regional field infiltration for early post-pyeloplasty pain control. General anesthetic delivery, surgical technique and postoperative analgesics were standardized. A blinded assessor regularly captured pain scores in the recovery room using the FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) scale. The primary outcome was the need for rescue morphine administration based on a FLACC score of 3 or higher. Two pediatric urologists performed 57 pyeloplasties during a 2.5-year period, enrolling 32 children (16 in each group, balanced for age and weight). There were statistically significant differences in the number of children requiring rescue morphine administration (13 of 16 receiving transversus abdominis plane block and 6 of 16 receiving regional field infiltration, p = 0.011), mean ± SD total morphine consumption (0.066 ± 0.051 vs 0.028 ± 0.040 mg/kg, p = 0.021) and mean ± SD pain scores (5 ± 5 vs 2 ± 3, p = 0.043) in the recovery room, in favor of surgeon administered regional field infiltration. No local anesthetic specific adverse events were noted. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block is not superior to regional field infiltration with bupivacaine as a strategy to minimize early opioid requirements following open pyeloplasty in children. Instead, our data suggest that

  9. Early exposure of rotating magnetic fields promotes central nervous regeneration in planarian Girardia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Lin, Gui-miao; Wu, Nan; Tang, Sheng-wei; Zheng, Zhi-jia; Lin, Marie Chia-mi; Xu, Gai-xia; Liu, Hao; Deng, Yue-yue; Zhang, Xiao-yun; Chen, Si-ping; Wang, Xiao-mei; Niu, Han-ben

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field exposure is an accepted safe and effective modality for nerve injury. However, it is clinically used only as a supplement or salvage therapy at the later stage of treatment. Here, we used a planarian Girardia sinensis decapitated model to investigate beneficial effects of early rotary non-uniform magnetic fields (RMFs) exposure on central nervous regeneration. Our results clearly indicated that magnetic stimulation induced from early RMFs exposure significantly promoted neural regeneration of planarians. This stimulating effect is frequency and intensity dependent. Optimum effects were obtained when decapitated planarians were cultured at 20 °C, starved for 3 days before head-cutting, and treated with 6 Hz 0.02 T RMFs. At early regeneration stage, RMFs exposure eliminated edema around the wound and facilitated subsequent formation of blastema. It also accelerated cell proliferation and recovery of neuron functionality. Early RMFs exposure up-regulated expression of neural regeneration related proteins, EGR4 and Netrin 2, and mature nerve cell marker proteins, NSE and NPY. These results suggest that RMFs therapy produced early and significant benefit in central nervous regeneration, and should be clinically used at the early stage of neural regeneration, with appropriate optimal frequency and intensity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does the Hip Capsule Remain Closed After Hip Arthroscopy With Routine Capsular Closure for Femoroacetabular Impingement? A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis in Symptomatic Postoperative Patients.

    PubMed

    Weber, Alexander E; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Lewis, Paul B; Mather, Richard C; Salata, Michael J; Nho, Shane J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hip capsule in a subset of symptomatic patients who underwent capsular closure during hip arthroscopy. All patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with routine capsular closure between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015, were eligible. Only patients with unilateral surgery and a postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; ordered for persistent symptoms) were included. Four independent reviewers evaluated each hip capsule for thickness and the absence or presence of defects. During the study, 1,463 patients had hip arthroscopy for FAI with routine capsular closure, and 53 (3.6%) underwent a postoperative MRI. Fourteen of the 53 were excluded owing to revision status or additional procedures. The final study population included 39 patients (23 female patients and 16 male patients), with an average patient age of 31.7 ± 11.4 years and an average body mass index of 23.3 ± 2.9. There were 3 (7.5%) capsular defects, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.82. The operative hip capsule was significantly thicker in the zone of capsulotomy, and subsequent repair as compared with the unaffected, contralateral hip capsule (5.0 ± 1.2 mm vs 4.6 ± 1.4 mm; P = .02), ICC 0.83. Additionally, males had thicker hip capsules as compared with their female counterparts, on the operative side (5.4 ± 1.1 mm vs 4.5 ± 1.2 mm; P = .02) and the nonoperative side (4.8 ± 1.6 mm vs 4.1 ± 0.9 mm; P = .08). In a subset of symptomatic patients after hip arthroscopy for FAI, the majority (92.5%) of the repaired hip capsules remained closed at greater than 1 year of follow-up. The hip capsule adjacent to the capsulotomy and subsequent repair is thickened compared with the same location on the contralateral, nonoperative hip. Aside from gender, patient-related and FAI-related factors do not correlate with capsular thickness nor do they seem to correlate with the propensity

  11. All-inside, physeal-sparing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction does not significantly compromise the physis in skeletally immature athletes: a postoperative physeal magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawabi, Danyal H; Jones, Kristofer J; Lurie, Brett; Potter, Hollis G; Green, Daniel W; Cordasco, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in skeletally immature patients can result in growth disturbance due to iatrogenic physeal injury. Multiple physeal-sparing ACL reconstruction techniques have been described; however, few combine the benefits of anatomic reconstruction using sockets without violation of the femoral or tibial physis. To utilize physeal-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the zone of physeal injury after all-inside ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-three skeletally immature patients (mean chronologic age 12.6 years; range, 10-15 years) were prospectively evaluated after all-inside ACL reconstruction. The mean bone age was 13.2 years. There were 8 females and 15 males. Fifteen patients underwent an all-epiphyseal (AE) ACL reconstruction and 8 patients had a partial transphyseal (PTP) ACL reconstruction, which spared the femoral physis but crossed the tibial physis. At 6 and 12 months postoperatively, MRI using 3-dimensional fat-suppressed spoiled gradient recalled echo sequences and full-length standing radiographs were performed to assess graft survival, growth arrest, physeal violation, angular deformity, and leg length discrepancy. The mean follow-up for this cohort was 18.5 months (range, 12-39 months). Minimal tibial physeal violation was seen in 10 of 15 patients in the AE group and, by definition, all patients in the PTP group. The mean area of tibial physeal disturbance (±SD) was 57.8 ± 52.2 mm(2) (mean 2.1% of total physeal area) in the AE group compared with 145.1 ± 100.6 mm(2) (mean 5.4% of total physeal area) in the PTP group (P = .003). Minimal compromise of the femoral physis (1.5%) was observed in 1 case in the PTP group and no cases in the AE group. No cases of growth arrest, articular surface violation, or avascular necrosis were noted on MRI. No postoperative angular deformities or significant leg length discrepancies were observed. The

  12. The magnetic early B-type stars I: magnetometry and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; MiMeS Collaboration; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    The rotational and magnetic properties of many magnetic hot stars are poorly characterized, therefore the Magnetism in Massive Stars and Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars collaborations have collected extensive high-dispersion spectropolarimetric data sets of these targets. We present longitudinal magnetic field measurements for 52 early B-type stars (B5-B0), with which we attempt to determine their rotational periods Prot. Supplemented with high-resolution spectroscopy, low-resolution Dominion Astrophysical Observatory circular spectropolarimetry, and archival Hipparcos photometry, we determined Prot for 10 stars, leaving only five stars for which Prot could not be determined. Rotational ephemerides for 14 stars were refined via comparison of new to historical magnetic measurements. The distribution of Prot is very similar to that observed for the cooler Ap/Bp stars. We also measured v sin i and vmac for all stars. Comparison to non-magnetic stars shows that v sin i is much lower for magnetic stars, an expected consequence of magnetic braking. We also find evidence that vmac is lower for magnetic stars. Least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted using single-element masks revealed widespread, systematic discrepancies in between different elements: this effect is apparent only for chemically peculiar stars, suggesting it is a consequence of chemical spots. Sinusoidal fits to H line measurements (which should be minimally affected by chemical spots), yielded evidence of surface magnetic fields more complex than simple dipoles in six stars for which this has not previously been reported; however, in all six cases, the second- and third-order amplitudes are small relative to the first-order (dipolar) amplitudes.

  13. Early post-operative weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy correlates with the volume of the excised stomach and not with that of the sleeve! Preliminary data from a multi-detector computed tomography-based study.

    PubMed

    Pawanindra, Lal; Vindal, Anubhav; Midha, Manoj; Nagpal, Prashant; Manchanda, Alpana; Chander, Jagdish

    2015-10-01

    Pre- and post-operative stomach volumes can be important determinants for effectiveness of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in causing weight loss. There is little existing data on the volumes of stomach preoperatively and that excised during LSG. This study was designed to evaluate the change in gastric volume after LSG using multi-detector CT and to correlate it with early post-operative weight loss. Twenty consecutive patients with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) and medical comorbidities underwent LSG between October 2011 and October 2013 and were analysed prospectively. The pre-operative stomach volume was measured by MDCT done 1-3 days before the surgery. LSG was performed in the standard manner using a 36F bougie. The volume of excised stomach was measured by distending the specimen with saline. MDCT of the upper abdomen was repeated 3 months postoperatively to calculate the gastric sleeve volume. Weight loss and resolution of comorbidities were documented. The mean pre-operative weight of patients was 123.90 kg, and the mean pre-operative stomach volume on MDCT was 1,067 ml. The stomach volume on pre-operative MDCT correlated with pre-operative weight and BMI. The mean volume of the excised stomach was 859 ml when measured by distension of the specimen and 850 ml on MDCT. After 3 months post surgery, the mean volume of gastric sleeve on MDCT was 217 ml, and the mean weight of the patients was 101.22 kg. The volume of the excised stomach calculated by MDCT correlated with the weight loss achieved 3 months postoperatively. However, no correlation was seen between the gastric sleeve volume 3 months postoperatively and weight loss during this period. MDCT is a good method to measure gastric volume before and after LSG. Early post-operative weight loss (3 months) correlates well with the volume of the excised stomach but not with that of the gastric sleeve.

  14. Individualized Prediction of Overall Survival After Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 13-03)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Han, Seungbong; Kim, Young Seok, E-mail: ysk@amc.seoul.kr

    Purpose: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination andmore » calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54). Conclusions: A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis.« less

  15. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-09-01

    The benefits of preoperative training programmes compared with alternative treatment are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-intensity preoperative resistance training programme in patients waiting for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3) and finally 3 months after TKA (T4). The intervention group completed an 8-week training programme 3 days per week prior to surgery. Isometric knee flexion, isometric hip abduction, VAS, WOMAC, ROM extension and flexion and all the functional assessments were greater for the intervention group at T2, T3 and T4, whereas isometric knee extension was greater for this group at T2 and T4 compared with control. The present study supports the use of preoperative training in end-stage OA patients to improve early postoperative outcomes. High-intensity strength training during the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up recovery after TKA. I.

  16. Thulium laser enucleation (ThuLEP) versus transurethral resection of the prostate in saline (TURis): A randomized prospective trial to compare intra and early postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, G; Seveso, M; Melegari, S; de Francesco, O; Buffi, N M; Guazzoni, G; Provenzano, M; Mandressi, A; Taverna, G

    2017-06-01

    To compare clinical intra and early postoperative outcomes between thulium laser transurethral enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) and transurethral bipolar resection of the prostate (TURis) for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a prospective randomized trial. The study randomized 208 consecutive patients with BPH to ThuLEP (n=102) or TURis (n=106). For all patients were evaluated preoperatively with regards to blood loss, catheterization time, irrigation volume, hospital stay and operative time. At 3 months after surgery they were also evaluated by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR). The patients in each study arm each showed no significant difference in preoperative parameters. Compared with TURIS, ThuLEP had same operative time (53.69±31.44 vs 61.66±18.70minutes, P=.123) but resulted in less hemoglobin decrease (0.45 vs 2.83g/dL, P=.005). ThuLEP also needed less catheterization time (1.3 vs 4.8 days, P=.011), irrigation volume (29.4 vs 69.2 L, P=.002), and hospital stay (1.7 vs 5.2 days, P=.016). During the 3 months of follow-up, the procedures did not demonstrate a significant difference in Qmax, IPSS, PVR, and QOLS. ThuLEP and TURis both relieve lower urinary tract symptoms equally, with high efficacy and safety. ThuLEP was statistically superior to TURis in blood loss, catheterization time, irrigation volume, and hospital stay. However, procedures did not differ significantly in Qmax, IPSS, PVR, and QOLS through 3 months of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Methods Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. Inclusion criteria: complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Results Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Conclusion Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer. PMID:24884793

  18. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  19. Unilateral lesion of dorsal hippocampus in adult rats impairs contralateral long-term potentiation in vivo and spatial memory in the early postoperative phase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Wu, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanrui; Huang, Yan; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang

    2012-05-01

    It is well documented that bilateral hippocampal lesions or unilateral hippocampal lesion at birth causes impairment of contralateral LTP and long-term memory. However, effects of unilateral hippocampal lesion in adults on contralateral in vivo LTP and memory are not clear. We here examined the influence of unilateral electrolytic dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats on contralateral LTP in vivo and spatial memory during different postoperative phases. We found that acute unilateral hippocampal lesion had no effect on contralateral LTP. However, contralateral LTP was impaired at 1 week after lesion, and was restored to the control level at postoperative week 4. Similarly, spatial memory was also impaired at postoperative week 1, and was restored at postoperative week 4. In addition, the rats at postoperative week 1 showed stronger spatial exploratory behavior in a novel open-field environment. The sham operation had no effects on contralateral LTP, spatial memory and exploration at either postoperative week 1 or week 4. These results suggest that unilateral dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats causes transient contralateral LTP impairment and spatial memory deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Juvenile Dermatomyositis: Key Roles of Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Early Aggressive Treatment.

    PubMed

    Corral-Magaña, O; Bauzá-Alonso, A F; Escudero-Góngora, M M; Lacruz, L; Martín-Santiago, A

    2017-09-12

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is a rare systemic connective tissue disease with onset during childhood. It presents clinically with proximal muscle weakness and characteristic skin involvement. Diagnosis is based on the Bohan and Peter criteria, though many authors are now substituting biopsy with muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both diagnosis and follow-up. Without intensive early treatment, complications such as calcinosis cutis and lipodystrophy can develop in the chronic phases of the disease. Early recognition is therefore key to management. We present a series of 5 patients who were diagnosed with Juvenile dermatomyositis on muscle MRI without undergoing muscle biopsy and who received early treatment. We draw attention to the usefulness of muscle MRI for the diagnosis of muscle involvement and to the importance of early initiation of intensive treatment to prevent complications. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurovascular unit impairment in early Alzheimer's disease measured with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    van de Haar, Harm J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; van Osch, Matthias J P; van Buchem, Mark A; Muller, Majon; Wong, Sau May; Hofman, Paul A M; Burgmans, Saartje; Verhey, Frans R J; Backes, Walter H

    2016-09-01

    The neurovascular unit, which protects neuronal cells and supplies them with essential molecules, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The aim of this study was to noninvasively investigate 2 linked functional elements of the neurovascular unit, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral blood flow (CBF), in patients with early AD and healthy controls. Therefore, both dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging were applied to measure BBB permeability and CBF, respectively. The patients with early AD showed significantly lower CBF and local blood volume in the gray matter, compared with controls. In the patients, we also found that a reduction in CBF is correlated with an increase in leakage rate. This finding supports the hypothesis that neurovascular damage, and in particular impairment of the neurovascular unit constitutes the pathophysiological link between CBF reduction and BBB impairment in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic early B-type stars. I. (Shultz+, 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; Mimes Collaboration; Binamics Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal magnetic field measurements of early B-type stars derived from 1) least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted from high-resolution spectropolarimetric data (ESPaDOnS, Narval, HARPSpol), using masks consisting of metallic lines, metallic + He lines, individual chemical elements, as well as single-line H measurements; and 2) from single-line low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with dimaPol. (3 data files).

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of appendicular musculoskeletal infection.

    PubMed

    Lalam, Radhesh K; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Tins, Bernhard J

    2007-06-01

    Appendicular skeletal infection includes osseous and extraosseous infections. Skeletal infection needs early diagnosis and appropriate management to prevent long-term morbidity. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality to diagnose skeletal infection early in most circumstances. This article describes the role of magnetic resonance imaging in relation to the other available imaging modalities in the diagnosis of skeletal infection. Special circumstances such as diabetic foot, postoperative infection, and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis are discussed separately.

  4. Electrical Acupoint Stimulation for Postoperative Recovery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative Complications; Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting; Postoperative Infection; Postoperative Delirium; Postoperative Pneumonia; Deep Vein Thrombosis; Postoperative Retention of Urine; Postoperative Recovery

  5. HD 66051: the first eclipsing binary hosting an early-type magnetic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Johnston, C.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    Early-type magnetic stars are rarely found in close binary systems. No such objects were known in eclipsing binaries prior to this study. Here we investigated the eclipsing, spectroscopic double-lined binary HD 66051, which exhibits out-of-eclipse photometric variations suggestive of surface brightness inhomogeneities typical of early-type magnetic stars. Using a new set of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations, we discovered a weak magnetic field on the primary and found intrinsic, element-dependent variability in its spectral lines. The magnetic field structure of the primary is dominated by a nearly axisymmetric dipolar component with a polar field strength Bd ≈ 600 G and an inclination with respect to the rotation axis of βd = 13°. A weaker quadrupolar component is also likely to be present. We combined the radial velocity measurements derived from our spectra with archival optical photometry to determine fundamental masses (3.16 and 1.75 M⊙) and radii (2.78 and 1.39 R⊙) with a 1-3% precision. We also obtained a refined estimate of the effective temperatures (13000 and 9000 K) and studied chemical abundances for both components with the help of disentangled spectra. We demonstrate that the primary component of HD 66051 is a typical late-B magnetic chemically peculiar star with a non-uniform surface chemical abundance distribution. It is not an HgMn-type star as suggested by recent studies. The secondary is a metallic-line star showing neither a strong, global magnetic field nor intrinsic spectral variability. Fundamental parameters provided by our work for this interesting system open unique possibilities for probing interior structure, studying atomic diffusion, and constraining binary star evolution.

  6. An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J William L; Pardini, Matteo; Brownlee, Wallace J; Fernando, Kryshani; Samson, Rebecca S; Prados Carrasco, Ferran; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2017-01-01

    sclerosis. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient was not significantly affected by the presence of brain lesions [T2 lesions (P = 0.918), periventricular T2 lesions (P = 0.580) or gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions (P = 0.724)]. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient also correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5 years later (Spearman r = 0.313, P = 0.027). An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis, is clinically relevant, and may arise from one or more mechanisms that are at least partly independent of lesion formation. PMID:28043954

  7. Leveraging Somali Basin Magnetic Anomalies to Constrain Gondwana Breakup and Early Indian Ocean Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. K.; Lawver, L. A.; Norton, I. O.; Gahagan, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Somali Basin, found between the Horn of Africa and Madagascar was formed during the rifting of East and West Gondwana. Understanding the evolution of the basin has historically been hindered by enigmatic seafloor fabric and an apparent paucity of magnetic anomaly data. Recent iterations of satellite gravity data have revealed nearly complete fracture zones as well as a distinct extinct spreading ridge within the basin. Through a thorough compilation of available Somali Basin shiptrack profiles, we have been able to successfully model and interpret magnetic anomalies with exceptional detail. This complication is unrivaled in completeness and provides unprecedented insight into basin formation. Using this high quality data, we have interpreted magnetic anomalies M0r (120.8 Ma) to M24Bn (152.43 Ma) about the extinct ridge. The interpreted Somali Basin spreading rate and spreading direction, through anomaly M15n (135.76 Ma), are similar to those observed in the neighboring coeval Mozambique Basin. This similarity suggests that East Gondwana separated from West Gondwana as a cohesive unit, and that the internal rifting of East Gondwana began later around 135 Ma. Our magnetic anomaly interpretations have been combined with additional magnetic interpretations from around the Indian Ocean to build a regionally consistent plate model of Gondwana breakup and early Indian Ocean formation. This plate model will be crucial for future efforts unraveling a precise history of East Gondwana fragmentation and constraining the formation of the Enderby Basin offshore East Antarctica and Bay of Bengal offshore East India.

  8. The effect of giant impactors on the magnetic field energy of an early Martian dynamo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, McGregor; Thieulot, Cedric; Monteux, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Through the cratering record embedded on its surface, Mars is one of the key planets required for investigating the formation and impact frequency in the early history of our Solar System. This record also holds clues to the events that may have caused the observed hemispheric dichotomy and cessation of the magnetic field that was present within the first 500 Myr of the planets' formation. We investigate the influence of giant impacts on the early Martian dynamo using the numerical dynamo modelling code PARODY-JA [1]. We hypothesize that the input heat from a giant impact will decrease the total heat flux at the CMB through mantle heating which leads to a decrease in the Rayleigh number of the core. As boundary conditions for the heat flux anomaly size, we use numerical results of a 750 km diameter impactor from the Monteux and Arkani-Hamed, 2014 [2] study which investigated impact heating and core merging of giant impacts in early Mars. We also determine the decrease in Rayleigh number from the change in total heat flux at the CMB using these results, where the decrease after impact is due to shock heating at the CMB. We calculate the time-averaged total magnetic field energy for an initial homogeneous heat flux model using a range of Rayleigh numbers (5 x 103 - 1 x 10^5). The Rayleigh number is then decreased for three new models - homogeneous, north pole impact and equatorial impact - and the time-averaged energy again determined. We find that the energy decreases more in our impact models, compared with the homogeneous, along with a variation in energy between the north pole and equatorial impact models. We conclude that giant impacts in Mars' early history would have decreased the total magnetic energy of the field and the decrease in energy is also dependent on the location of the impact. The magnetic field could have been disrupted beyond recovery from a planetesimal-sized collision; such as the suggested Borealis basin forming impact, or through the

  9. Magnetic iodixanol - a novel contrast agent and its early characterization.

    PubMed

    Arokiaraj, M C; Menesson, E; Feltin, N

    2018-02-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. The purpose of the study was to design and develop a novel contrast agent, which could be used to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in the future. In total, 20-220nm magnetic nanoparticles were conjugated with iodixanol, and their radio-opacity and magnetic properties were assessed thereafter. Scanning electron microscopy pictures were acquired. Thereafter, the nanoparticles conjugate was tested in cell culture (HUVEC cells), and Quantibody ® assay was studied after cell treatment in 1:5 dilutions for 48h, compared with control. The conjugate preparation had an adequate radio-opacity. A 4mm magnetic bubble was attached to a bar magnet and the properties were studied. The magnetic bubble maintained its structural integrity in all angles including antigravity position. Scanning electron microscopy showed magnetic nanoparticles in all pictures and the particles are of 100-400nm agglomerates with primary particle sizes of roughly 20nm. 1:5 diluted particles had no effect on secretion of IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and TNFa. Particles increased secretion of IL-8 from 24h and 48h. Secretion of IFNg was also increased when particles were added to the cells as early as 1h. Likewise, IL-6 was strongly secreted by HUVEC treated with particles from 24h incubation time. In contrast, the secretion of MCP-1 was slightly reduced on HUVEC treated with particles. There is potential for a novel iodixanol-magnetic nanoparticle conjugate to be used in cineradiography. Further investigations need to be performed to study its performance in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis with magnetic expansion control rods in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Inaparthy, P; Queruz, J C; Bhagawati, D; Thakar, C; Subramanian, T; Nnadi, C

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of magnetic expansion control growth rods for the surgical management of EOS has gained popularity. However, there are no published studies on the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) using this technique. The aim of this study is to report the incidence of PJK following treatment with magnetic growth rods in EOS. Retrospective review of data from 21 cases (12 males, 9 females) over 3 years. PJK was obtained from whole spine X-rays pre-op, immediate post-op and last follow-up. Cobb angle was measured between the superior end plate of vertebra two levels above the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and the inferior end plate of the UIV. A difference of >10° between the pre-operative x-rays and the last follow-up X-rays was recorded as PJK. 6/21 (28.6 %) had proximal junctional kyphosis of more than 10° at last follow-up. Average age was 5.3. Average follow-up was 32.5 months. All the patients with PJK were syndromic. Four out of these six patients were males (66 %). Average PJK angle was 25.55°. Average pre-operative kyphosis was 52.5°. Average number of distractions was 7.4. All six patients had syndromic association. 3/6 patients (50 %) were conversion cases treated with traditional growth rods previously (TGR). None of the patients required unplanned surgery for PJK. The incidence of PJK in EOS patients treated with magnetic rods is favourably comparable to that reported with traditional growth rods. Also, children who are male, syndromic, hyperkyphotic, and younger must be monitored closely.

  11. Pseudogout at the knee joint will frequently occur after hip fracture and lead to the knee pain in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Harato, Kengo; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2015-01-14

    Symptomatic knee joint effusion is frequently observed after hip fracture, which may lead to postoperative knee pain during rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery. However, unfortunately, very little has been reported on this phenomenon in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between symptomatic knee effusion and postoperative knee pain and to clarify the reason of the effusion accompanied by hip fracture. A total of 100 patients over 65 years of age with an acute hip fracture after fall were prospectively followed up. Knee effusion was assessed on admission and at the operating room before the surgery. If knee effusion was observed at the time of the surgery, synovial fluid was collected into syringes to investigate the cause of the effusion using a compensated polarized light microscope. Furthermore, for each patient, we evaluated age, sex, radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), type of the fracture, laterality, severity of the fracture, and postoperative knee pain during rehabilitation. These factors were compared between patients with and without knee effusion at the time of the surgery. As a statistical analysis, we used Mann-Whitney U-test for patients' age and categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. A total of 30 patients presented symptomatic knee effusion at the time of the surgery. In patients with knee effusion, numbers of intertrochanteric fracture, radiographic knee OA, and postoperative knee pain were significantly large compared to those without effusion. In terms of synovial fluid analysis, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were observed in 80% of patients with knee effusion. From our study, approximately 63% of patients with knee effusion at the time of the surgery had postoperative knee pain. In addition, this effusion was basically related to pseudogout.

  12. Parecoxib prevents early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: A double-blind, randomized clinical consort study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang-Zi; Yao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Wang, Li-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Trial design neuroinflammation and postoperative pain after surgery are increasingly reported in association with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is used for postoperative analgesia for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to evaluate parecoxib's effects on POCD in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Around 134 elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into parecoxib (group P) and control (group C) groups, and treated with parecoxib sodium and saline, respectively, shortly after induction of general anesthesia and 12-h postsurgery, respectively. Perioperative plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 1evels were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed following surgery. Neuropsychological tests were performed before surgery, and 1 week and 3 months postoperation. POCD incidence in group P was significantly lower compared with that of group C at 1 week after surgery (16.7% vs 33.9%; P < 0.05); no significant difference was found between groups C and P at 3-month follow-up (9.7% vs 6.7%). Compared with group C values, visual analog pain scale (VAS) scores at 3, 6, and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in group P(P < 0.05). Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were lower in group P than in group C after the operation (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the plasma CRP level was found between groups P and C. Parecoxib sodium decreases POCD incidence after total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients and may explain how this drug suppresses inflammation and acute postoperative pain caused by surgical trauma.

  13. [Therapeutic approach to postoperative anemia].

    PubMed

    Bisbe Vives, E; Moltó, L

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative anemia is a common finding in patients who undergo major surgery, and it can affect early rehabilitation and the return to daily activities. Allogeneic blood transfusion is still the most widely used method for restoring hemoglobin levels rapidly and effectively. However, the potential risks of transfusions have led to the review of this practice and to a search for alternative measures for treating postoperative anemia. The early administration of intravenous iron appears to improve the evolution of postoperative hemoglobin levels and reduce allogeneic transfusions, especially in patients with significant iron deficiency or anemia. What is not clear is whether this treatment heavily influences rehabilitation and quality of life. There is a lack of well-designed, sufficiently large, randomized prospective studies to determine whether postoperative or perioperative intravenous iron treatment, with or without recombinant erythropoietin, has a role in the recovery from postoperative anemia, in reducing transfusions and morbidity rates and in improving exercise capacity and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in early and advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Magerkurth, Jörg; Pilatus, Ulrich; Mozer, Anne; Seifried, Carola; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Zanella, Friedhelm; Hilker, Rüdiger

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction hypothetically contributes to neuronal degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease. While several in vitro data exist, the measurement of cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction in living patients with Parkinson's disease is challenging. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging combined with phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging provides information about the functional integrity of mitochondria in specific brain areas. We measured partial volume corrected concentrations of low-energy metabolites and high-energy phosphates with sufficient resolution to focus on pathology related target areas in Parkinson's disease. Combined phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the mesostriatal region was performed in 16 early and 13 advanced patients with Parkinson's disease and compared to 19 age-matched controls at 3 Tesla. In the putamen and midbrain of both Parkinson's disease groups, we found a bilateral reduction of high-energy phosphates such as adenosine triphophosphate and phosphocreatine as final acceptors of energy from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, low-energy metabolites such as adenosine diphophosphate and inorganic phosphate were within normal ranges. These results provide strong in vivo evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction of mesostriatal neurons is a central and persistent phenomenon in the pathogenesis cascade of Parkinson's disease which occurs early in the course of the disease.

  15. [Effect of high intensity magnetic field on the processes of early growth in plant seeds and development of honeybees].

    PubMed

    Es'kov, E K; Darkov, A V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the early growth processes in plant seeds and the postembryonic development of honeybees was studied. Some general trends in the effects of magnetic field and differences in the tolerance of plant seeds and developing honeybees to its action were revealed. Some factors that may be responsible for a low reproducibility of magneto-biological effects are discussed.

  16. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Kowal, G.

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growthmore » rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.« less

  17. Early primary biliary cholangitis is characterised by brain abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Grover, V P B; Southern, L; Dyson, J K; Kim, J U; Crossey, M M E; Wylezinska-Arridge, M; Patel, N; Fitzpatrick, J A; Bak-Bol, A; Waldman, A D; Alexander, G J; Mells, G F; Chapman, R W; Jones, D E J; Taylor-Robinson, S D

    2016-11-01

    Brain change can occur in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), potentially as a result of cholestatic and/or inflammatory processes. This change is linked to systemic symptoms of fatigue and cognitive impairment. To identify whether brain change occurs early in PBC. If the change develops early and is progressive, it may explain the difficulty in treating these symptoms. Early disease brain change was explored in 13 patients with newly diagnosed biopsy-proven precirrhotic PBC using magnetisation transfer, diffusion-weighted imaging and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results were compared to 17 healthy volunteers. Cerebral magnetisation transfer ratios were reduced in early PBC, compared to healthy volunteers, in the thalamus, putamen and head of caudate with no greater reduction in patients with greater symptom severity. Mean apparent diffusion coefficients were increased in the thalamus only. No 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy abnormalities were seen. Serum manganese levels were elevated in all PBC patients, but no relationship was seen with imaging or symptom parameters. There were no correlations between neuroimaging data, laboratory data, symptom severity scores or age. This is the first study to be performed in this precirrhotic patient population, and we have highlighted that neuroimaging changes are present at a much earlier stage than previously demonstrated. The neuroimaging abnormalities suggest that the brain changes seen in PBC occur early in the pathological process, even before significant liver damage has occurred. If such changes are linked to symptom pathogenesis, this could have important implications for the timing of second-line-therapy use. © 2016 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging artifact with cobalt-chromium versus titanium spinal instrumentation: presented at the 2013 Joint Spine Section Meeting. Clinical article.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Faiz U; Sidani, Charif; Fourzali, Roberto; Wang, Michael Y

    2013-11-01

    Cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) rods haves some preferred biomechanical properties over titanium rods for spinal fixation. The use of CoCr rods in spinal fusion is relatively new, and there is no study in the existing world literature assessing the artifact caused by these rods in patients undergoing postoperative MRI. The purpose of this study is to compare the amount of imaging artifact caused by these implants and to assess its impact on the visualization of neighboring neural structures. This study investigated MR images in patients who underwent implantation of thoracolumbar instrumentation using 5.5-mm-diameter CoCr rods between November 2009 and March 2011 and images obtained in a comparison group of patients who had 5.5-mm titanium rods implanted during the same time period. Axial measurements of the artifact created by the rods between the screw heads were compared between the groups. Two blinded board-certified radiologists performed the measurements independently. They scored the visualization of the spinal canal using a subjective scoring system of 1-3, with 1 representing very good visualization and 2 and 3 representing reduced (good or suboptimal, respectively) visualization as a result of rod-related artifact. All measurements and scores were independently provided for T1-weighted and T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences (1.5-T magnet, 5-mm slice thickness). A total of 40 levels from the CoCr group (6 patients) and 30 levels from the titanium group (9 patients) were included in the analysis. Visualization of the canal at all levels was rated a score of 1 (very good) by both evaluators for both the CoCr and titanium groups. The average artifact on T1-weighted images measured 11.8 ± 1.8 mm for the CoCr group and 8.5 ± 1.2 mm for the titanium group (p < 0.01). The corresponding measurements on T2-weighted images were 11.0 ± 2.3 mm and 8.3 ± 1.7 mm (p < 0.01), respectively. In a mixed regression model, the mean artifact measurement for the CoCr group

  19. Detrital and early chemical remanent magnetization in redbeds and their rock magnetic signature: Zicapa Formation, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra-Rojas, Maria Isabel; Molina-Garza, Roberto Stanley

    2018-06-01

    Poles from continental redbeds are a large fraction of the world's palaeomagnetic database. Nonetheless, the time of acquisition and origin of the remanent magnetization of redbeds has been long debated. We report palaeomagnetic data, rock magnetic data and microscope observations for Lower Cretaceous redbeds in southern Mexico. These data allow us to discriminate between the hysteresis properties of remanent magnetizations of detrital and chemical origin, and to establish the early origin of a chemical remanence. Red sandstones of the Zicapa Formation contain a multicomponent remanence revealed by thermal demagnetization, and consisting of three stable components with partially overlapping laboratory unblocking temperatures of <250 °C, ˜300 to ˜500 °C and >600 °C, (low, intermediate and high temperature, respectively). They are interpreted as a viscous remanence residing in detrital magnetite, a chemical remanence residing in authigenic hematite and a depositional remanence residing in detrital hematite, respectively. The low-temperature component is nearly parallel to the recent dipole field. The tilt-corrected overall site means of the intermediate (chemical) and high temperature (depositional) components are indistinguishable (Dec = 282.0°, Inc = 12.4°, k = 13.33, α95 = 10.1°, N = 17, for the intermediate temperature; and Dec = 272.5°, Inc = 16.5°, k = 14.04, α95 = 11, N = 14, for the high temperature). Elongation/inclination analysis suggests that depositional and chemical components require applying an f = factor of approximately 0.4. Both of these components define a magnetic polarity zonation, but the polarity of the chemical and detrital components may or may not be the same. The chemical remanence coincides, more often than not, with the polarity of the depositional remanence of the overlying (younger) strata, suggesting a delay in remanence acquisition of tens to a few hundred ka for the chemical component. Pigmentary and detrital haematite

  20. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of On-Pump and Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery on Respiratory Function in the Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Federica; Tsoutsouras, Theodoros; Cassisi, Cesare; Santonocito, Cristina; Gerry, Stephen; Astuto, Marinella; George, Shane; Sanfilippo, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory complications are common after cardiac surgery and the use of extracorporeal circulation is one of the main causes of lung injury. We hypothesized a better postoperative respiratory function in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) as compared with "on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting" (ONCABG). This is a retrospective, single-center study at a cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary university hospital. Consecutive data on 339 patients undergoing elective CABG (n = 215 ONCABG, n = 124 OPCABG) were collected for 1 year from the ICU electronic medical records. We compared respiratory variables (Pao 2 , Pao 2 /Fio 2 ratio, Sao 2 , and Paco 2 ) at 7 predefined time points (ICU admission, postoperative hours 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24). We also evaluated time to extubation, rates of reintubation, and use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We used mixed-effects linear regression models (with time as random effect for clustering of repeated measures) adjusted for a predetermined set of covariates. The values of Pao 2 and Pao 2 /Fio 2 were significantly higher in the OPCABG group only at ICU admission (mean differences: 9.7 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.2; and 27, 95% CI 6.1-47.7, respectively). The OPCABG group showed higher Paco 2 , overall ( P = .02) and at ICU admission (mean difference 1.8 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.6-3), although mean values were always within normal range in both groups. No differences were seen in Sao 2 values, time to extubation, rate of reintubation rate, and use of postoperative NIV. Extubation rate was higher in OPCABG only at postoperative hour 12 (92% vs ONCABG 82%, P = .02). The OPCABG showed only marginal improvements of unlikely clinical meaning in oxygenation as compared to ONCABG in elective low-risk patients.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging retinal oximetry: a quantitative physiological biomarker for early diabetic retinopathy?

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhu, X R; Xu, Q G; Metcalfe, H; Wang, Z C; Yang, J K

    2012-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of retinal oxygenation response to detect early diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted during 100% oxygen inhalation in patients with Type 2 diabetes with either no diabetic retinopathy (n = 12) or mild to moderate background diabetic retinopathy (n = 12), as well as in healthy control subjects (n = 12). Meanwhile, changes in retinal oxygenation response were measured. In the healthy control group, levels of retinal oxygenation response increased slowly during 100% oxygen inhalation. In contrast, they increased more quickly and attained homeostasis much earlier in the groups with background diabetic retinopathy (at the 20-min time point) and with no diabetic retinopathy (at the 25-min time point) than in the healthy control group (at the 42-min time point). Furthermore, levels of retinal oxygenation response in the group with background diabetic retinopathy increased more than that of the group with no diabetic retinopathy, which in turn increased more than that of the healthy control group. There are statistically significant differences between the group with background diabetic retinopathy and the healthy control group at 6-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-min time points (P < 0.05). According to the normal range of the healthy control group by setting fundus photography results as 'gold standard' in our research, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and receiver operating characteristic area for reporting the early indications of utility of diabetic retinopathy were 83.33%, 58.33%, 50%, 87.5% and 0.774, respectively. The results indicate that magnetic resonance imaging is a potential screening method and probably a quantitative physiological biomarker to find early diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  3. Technological Innovations in Magnetic Resonance for Early Detection of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Maria F; Positano, Vincenzo; Martini, Nicola; Valvano, Giuseppe; Landini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Most recent technical innovations in cardiovascular MR imaging (CMRI) are presented in this review. They include hardware and software developments, and novelties in parametric mapping. All these recent improvements lead to high spatial and temporal resolution and quantitative information on the heart structure and function. They make it achievable ambitious goals in the field of magnetic resonance, such as the early detection of cardiovascular pathologies. In this review article, we present recent innovations in CMRI, emphasizing the progresses performed and the solutions proposed to some yet opened technical problems.

  4. Early Postoperative FDG-PET-CT Imaging Results in a Relevant Upstaging in the pN2 Subgroup of Stage III Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Martin; Müller, Joachim; Knitel, Meinhard; Fornaro, Jürgen; Horber, Daniel; Koeberle, Dieter; Cerny, Thomas; Güller, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines regarding follow-up in patients after curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) vary widely. Current follow-up recommendations do not include additional postoperative imaging before starting adjuvant treatment in any patients. We evaluated the potential benefit of our institutional approach, recommending 18 fluor-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging in CRC stage III patients with ≥4 locoregional lymph node metastases (pN2). Our study included all patients from a single center with complete resection of a pT1-4, pN2, cM0 CRC. All patients were considered free of distant metastases on the basis of preoperative CT imaging of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The main objective of the present study was to assess the proportion of patients with changes of therapeutic management (defined as any other treatment than the preplanned adjuvant chemotherapy) because of the results of additional postoperative FDG-PET-CT imaging. Fifty patients (22 female/28 male) were included; the median age was 64 years (range, 37-78 years). Previously undiagnosed metastatic disease resulting in a change of the therapeutic management was detected using postoperative FDG-PET-CT imaging in 7 patients (14.0%; 95% confidence interval, 5.8%-26.7%). The number needed to screen to detect new or previously occult metastases was 7 (7 of 50). To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the role of an additional postoperative FDG-PET-CT scan before adjuvant treatment in patients with completely resected CRC with ≥4 lymph node metastases (pT1-4, pN2) and without distant metastases on preoperative CT imaging (cM0). Postoperative FDG-PET-CT imaging represents a valuable tool for the detection of new macrometastases in the subgroup of pN2 cM0 CRC patients. The low number needed to screen for consequent therapeutic changes is clinically relevant and should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  5. Early results from Magsat. [studies of near-earth magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented at the May 27, 1981 meeting of the American Geophysical Union concerning early results from the Magsat satellite program, which was designed to study the near-earth magnetic fields originating in the core and lithosphere, are discussed. The satellite was launched on October 30, 1979 into a sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit, and re-entered the atmosphere on June 11, 1980. Instruments carried included a cesium vapor magnetometer to measure field magnitudes, a fluxgate magnetometer to measure field components and an optical system to measure fluxgate magnetometer orientation. Early results concerned spherical harmonic models, fields due to ionospheric and magnetospheric currents, the identification and interpretation of fields from lithospheric sources. The preliminary results confirm the possibility of separating the measured field into core, crustal and external components, and represent significant developments in analytical techniques in main-field modelling and the physics of the field sources.

  6. Inflammatory cytokine levels in synovial fluid 3, 4 days postoperatively and its correlation with early-phase functional recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makiko; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Nakamura, Kaori; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-12-01

    Synovial fluid was collected prior to and at 3 to 4 days after ACL reconstruction to investigate the correlation between inflammatory cytokine levels in the acute phase after surgery and physical functional recovery at 3 months postoperatively.  For this purpose, 79 patients with ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus tendons were included in the study. Median days from injury to surgery were 80 days (13-291 days). Synovial fluid was obtained just before surgery and at 3 to 4 days after surgery. Physical activity of each patient was evaluated at 3 months postoperatively, and scored from 0 (hard to walk) to 5 (run). Patients able to jog (score 4) or run (score 5) were considered as the "quick recovery" group and others (scores 1-3) as the "delayed recovery" group. Physical activity recovery scores in the early surgery group (preoperative period less than 60 days; Group I) were significantly better than those in the delayed surgery group (Group II). Among the cytokines tested, TNF-alpha and IL10 levels in synovial fluid were significantly higher in Group II at 3 to 4 days postoperatively, while levels of these cytokines were quite comparable preoperatively between the groups. Increased IL1-beta expression was noted in the delayed recovery group at 3 to 4 days postoperatively. In addition, levels of IL6, IL10 and IFN-gamma also tended to increase in patients with delayed recovery. Delayed ACL reconstruction increases levels of inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid after surgery and correlates with a prolonged recovery of short-period physical activity of the patients.

  7. An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, J William L; Pardini, Matteo; Brownlee, Wallace J; Fernando, Kryshani; Samson, Rebecca S; Prados Carrasco, Ferran; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2017-02-01

    magnetization transfer ratio gradient was not significantly affected by the presence of brain lesions [T 2 lesions (P = 0.918), periventricular T 2 lesions (P = 0.580) or gadolinium-enhancing T 1 lesions (P = 0.724)]. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient also correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5 years later (Spearman r = 0.313, P = 0.027). An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis, is clinically relevant, and may arise from one or more mechanisms that are at least partly independent of lesion formation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Assessing the Effect of Early Visual Cortex Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Working Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining visual working memory (VWM) representations recruits a network of brain regions, including the frontal, posterior parietal, and occipital cortices; however, it is unclear to what extent the occipital cortex is engaged in VWM after sensory encoding is completed. Noninvasive brain stimulation data show that stimulation of this region can affect working memory (WM) during the early consolidation time period, but it remains unclear whether it does so by influencing the number of items that are stored or their precision. In this study, we investigated whether single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) to the occipital cortex during VWM consolidation affects the quantity or quality of VWM representations. In three experiments, we disrupted VWM consolidation with either a visual mask or spTMS to retinotopic early visual cortex. We found robust masking effects on the quantity of VWM representations up to 200 msec poststimulus offset and smaller, more variable effects on WM quality. Similarly, spTMS decreased the quantity of VWM representations, but only when it was applied immediately following stimulus offset. Like visual masks, spTMS also produced small and variable effects on WM precision. The disruptive effects of both masks and TMS were greatly reduced or entirely absent within 200 msec of stimulus offset. However, there was a reduction in swap rate across all time intervals, which may indicate a sustained role of the early visual cortex in maintaining spatial information.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Early Molecular and Cellular Changes in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael J; McCann, Bryony; Kauppinen, Risto A; Coulthard, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical trials have demonstrated that slowing or reversing pathology in Alzheimer's disease is likely to be possible only in the earliest stages of disease, perhaps even before significant symptoms develop. Pathology in Alzheimer's disease accumulates for well over a decade before symptoms are detected giving a large potential window of opportunity for intervention. It is therefore important that imaging techniques detect subtle changes in brain tissue before significant macroscopic brain atrophy. Current diagnostic techniques often do not permit early diagnosis or are too expensive for routine clinical use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most versatile, affordable, and powerful imaging modality currently available, being able to deliver detailed analyses of anatomy, tissue volumes, and tissue state. In this mini-review, we consider how MRI might detect patients at risk of future dementia in the early stages of pathological change when symptoms are mild. We consider the contributions made by the various modalities of MRI (structural, diffusion, perfusion, relaxometry) in identifying not just atrophy (a late-stage AD symptom) but more subtle changes reflective of early dementia pathology. The sensitivity of MRI not just to gross anatomy but to the underlying "health" at the cellular (and even molecular) scales, makes it very well suited to this task.

  10. Record review to explore the adequacy of post-operative vital signs monitoring using a local modified early warning score (mews) chart to evaluate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacos, Una; Jelsma, Jennifer; Jordan, Sue

    2014-01-01

    1) To explore the adequacy of: vital signs' recordings (respiratory and heart rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure (BP), temperature, level of consciousness and urine output) in the first 8 post-operative hours; responses to clinical deterioration. 2) To identify factors associated with death on the ward between transfer from the theatre recovery suite and the seventh day after operation. Retrospective review of records of 11 patients who died plus four controls for each case. We reviewed clinical records of 55 patients who met inclusion criteria (general anaesthetic, age >13, complete records) from six surgical wards in a teaching hospital between 1 May and 31 July 2009. In the absence of guidelines for routine post-operative vital signs' monitoring, nurses' standard practice graphical plots of recordings were recoded into MEWS formats (0 = normal, 1-3 upper or lower limit) and their responses to clinical deterioration were interpreted using MEWS reporting algorithms. No patients' records contained recordings for all seven parameters displayed on the MEWS. There was no evidence of response to: 22/36 (61.1%) abnormal vital signs for patients who died that would have triggered an escalated MEWS reporting algorithm; 81/87 (93.1%) for controls. Death was associated with age, ≥61 years (OR 14.2, 3.0-68.0); ≥2 pre-existing co-morbidities (OR 75.3, 3.7-1527.4); high/low systolic BP on admission (OR 7.2, 1.5-34.2); tachycardia (≥111-129 bpm) (OR 6.6, 1.4-30.0) and low systolic BP (≤81-100 mmHg), as defined by the MEWS (OR 8.0, 1.9-33.1). Guidelines for post-operative vital signs' monitoring and reporting need to be established. The MEWS provides a useful scoring system for interpreting clinical deterioration and guiding intervention. Exploration of the ability of the Cape Town MEWS chart plus reporting algorithm to expedite recognition of signs of clinical and physiological deterioration and securing more skilled assistance is essential.

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of ventricular function and myocardial scarring before and early after repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) left ventricular (LV) dilatation and dysfunction evolves due to diminished myocardial perfusion caused by coronary steal phenomenon. Using late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging, myocardial scarring has been shown in ALCAPA patients late after repair, however the incidence of scarring before surgery and its impact on postoperative course after surgical repair remained unknown. Methods 8 ALCAPA-patients (mean age 10.0 ± 5.8 months) underwent CMR before and early after (mean 4.9 ± 2.5 months) coronary reimplantation procedures. CMR included functional analysis and LGE for detection of myocardial scars. Results LV dilatation (mean LVEDVI 171 ± 94 ml/m2) and dysfunction (mean LV-EF 22 ± 10 %) was present in all patients and improved significantly after surgery (mean LVEDV 68 ± 42 ml/m2, p = 0.02; mean LV-EF 58 ± 19 %, p < 0.001). Preoperative CMR revealed myocardial scarring in 2 of the 8 patients and did not predict postoperative course. At follow-up CMR, one LGE-positive patient showed delayed recovery of LV function while myocardial scarring was still present in both patients. In two patients new-onset transmural scarring was found, although functional recovery after operation was sufficient. One of them showed a stenosis of the left coronary artery and required resurgery. Conclusions Despite diminished myocardial perfusion and severely compromised LV function, myocardial scarring was preoperatively only infrequently present. Improvement of myocardial function was independent of new-onset scarring while the impact of preoperative scarring still needs to be defined. PMID:24387660

  12. Postoperative Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Gastrectomy Versus Open Gastrectomy During the Early Introduction of Minimally Invasive Gastrectomy in the Netherlands: A Population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Brenkman, Hylke J F; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Slaman, Annelijn E; Goense, Lucas; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2017-11-01

    To compare postoperative outcomes of minimally invasive gastrectomy (MIG) to open gastrectomy (OG) for cancer during the introduction of MIG in the Netherlands. Between 2011 and 2015, the use of MIG increased from 4% to 53% in the Netherlands. This population-based cohort study included all patients with curable gastric adenocarcinoma that underwent gastrectomy between 2011 and 2015, registered in the Dutch Upper GI Cancer Audit. Patients with missing preoperative data, and patients in whom no lymphadenectomy or reconstruction was performed were excluded. Propensity score matching was applied to create comparable groups between patients receiving MIG or OG, using year of surgery and other potential confounders. Morbidity, mortality, and hospital stay were evaluated. Of the 1697 eligible patients, 813 were discarded after propensity score matching; 442 and 442 patients who underwent MIG and OG, respectively, remained. Conversions occurred in 10% of the patients during MIG. Although the overall postoperative morbidity (37% vs 40%, P = 0.489) and mortality rates (6% vs 4%, P = 0.214) were comparable between the 2 groups, patients who underwent MIG experienced less wound complications (2% vs 5%, P = 0.006). Anastomotic leakage occurred in 8% of the patients after MIG, and in 7% after OG (P = 0.525). The median hospital stay declined over the years for both procedures (11 to 8 days, P < 0.001). Overall, hospital stay was shorter after MIG compared with OG (8 vs 10 days, P < 0.001). MIG was safely introduced in the Netherlands, with overall morbidity and mortality comparable with OG, less wound complications and shorter hospitalization.

  13. Intraoperative ketorolac dose of 15mg versus the standard 30mg on early postoperative pain after spine surgery: A randomized, blinded, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Duttchen, Kaylene M; Lo, Andy; Walker, Andrew; McLuckie, Duncan; De Guzman, Cecilia; Roman-Smith, Helen; Davis, Melinda

    2017-09-01

    The primary aim of this study is to show the non-inferiority of 15mg intraoperative dose of ketorolac as compared to the standard 30mg ketorolac by looking at the visual analog scale pain (VAS) scores 4h after an adult spine surgery. The study design is a prospective randomized non-inferiority clinical trial looking at non-inferiority of intraoperative 15mg ketorolac from the standard 30mg dose. Quaternary care center. 50 adult (18-65years of age) undergoing lumbar decompression spine surgery. Group A received a single intraoperative dose of 15mg ketorolac at the end of surgery and group B received single intraoperative dose of 30mg ketorolac. The primary outcome was the visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores 4h after an adult spine surgery. Secondary measures were morphine usage in the first 8 and 24h postoperatively, numeric rating scores (NRS) up to 24h, sedation, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, pruritus and bleeding complications. Intention to treat analysis showed a mean increase in 4h VAS pain score of 7.9mm (95% CI: -4.5mm to 20.4mm) in patients administered 15mg ketorolac. This difference was neither statistically (P=0.207) nor clinically significant (<18mm on VAS scale). A similar increase in the 15mg group was noted through a per protocol analysis, 6.9mm (95% CI: -6.6mm to 20.5mm, P=0.307) greater in the 15mg group. Non-inferiority of 15mg was not confirmed. No significant difference was found in secondary endpoints. Ketorolac 30mg intravenous was not superior to 15mg intravenous for post-operative pain management after spine surgery. However, 15mg failed to meet the pre-specified criteria for non-inferiority to the 30mg dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative Early Major and Minor Complications in Laparoscopic Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (LVSG) Versus Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) Procedures: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Alodat, Tareq; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf

    2016-10-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) have been proposed as cost-effective strategies to manage obesity-related chronic disease. The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to compare the "early postoperative complication rate i.e. within 30-days" reported from randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing these two procedures. RCTs comparing the early complication rates following LVSG and LRYGB between 2000 and 2015 were selected from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database. The outcome variables analyzed included 30-day mortality, major and minor complications and interventions required for their management, length of hospital stay, readmission rates, operating time, and conversions from laparoscopic to open procedures. Six RCTs involving a total of 695 patients (LVSG n = 347, LRYGB n = 348) reported on early major complications. A statistically significant reduction in relative odds of early major complications favoring the LVSG procedure was noted (p = 0.05). Five RCTs representing 633 patients (LVSG n = 317, LRYGB n = 316) reported early minor complications. A non-statically significant reduction in relative odds of 29 % favoring the LVSG procedure was observed for early minor complications (p = 0.4). However, other outcomes directly related to complications which included reoperation rates, readmission rate, and 30-day mortality rate showed comparable effect size for both surgical procedures. This meta-analysis and systematic review of RCTs suggests that fewer early major and minor complications are associated with LVSG compared with LRYGB procedure. However, this does not translate into higher readmission rate, reoperation rate, or 30-day mortality for either procedure.

  15. Refining the Formation and Early Evolution of the Eastern North American Margin: New Insights From Multiscale Magnetic Anomaly Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, John A.; Tominaga, Masako; Miller, Nathaniel C.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Karl, Matthew R.

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the oceanic lithosphere formation and early seafloor spreading history of the North Atlantic Ocean, we examine multiscale magnetic anomaly data from the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous age Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) between 31 and 40°N. We integrate newly acquired sea surface magnetic anomaly and seismic reflection data with publicly available aeromagnetic and composite magnetic anomaly grids, satellite-derived gravity anomaly, and satellite-derived and shipboard bathymetry data. We evaluate these data sets to (1) refine magnetic anomaly correlations throughout the ENAM and assign updated ages and chron numbers to M0-M25 and eight pre-M25 anomalies; (2) identify five correlatable magnetic anomalies between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA), which may document the earliest Atlantic seafloor spreading or synrift magmatism; (3) suggest preexisting margin structure and rifting segmentation may have influenced the seafloor spreading regimes in the Atlantic Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ); (4) suggest that, if the BSMA source is oceanic crust, the BSMA may be M series magnetic anomaly M42 ( 168.5 Ma); (5) examine the along and across margin variation in seafloor spreading rates and spreading center orientations from the BSMA to M25, suggesting asymmetric crustal accretion accommodated the straightening of the ridge from the bend in the ECMA to the more linear M25; and (6) observe anomalously high-amplitude magnetic anomalies near the Hudson Fan, which may be related to a short-lived propagating rift segment that could have helped accommodate the crustal alignment during the early Atlantic opening.

  16. Refining the formation and early evolution of the Eastern North American Margin: New insights from multiscale magnetic anomaly analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, John A.; Tominaga, Masako; Miller, Nathaniel; Hutchinson, Deborah; Karl, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the oceanic lithosphere formation and early seafloor spreading history of the North Atlantic Ocean, we examine multiscale magnetic anomaly data from the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous age Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) between 31 and 40°N. We integrate newly acquired sea surface magnetic anomaly and seismic reflection data with publicly available aeromagnetic and composite magnetic anomaly grids, satellite-derived gravity anomaly, and satellite-derived and shipboard bathymetry data. We evaluate these data sets to (1) refine magnetic anomaly correlations throughout the ENAM and assign updated ages and chron numbers to M0–M25 and eight pre-M25 anomalies; (2) identify five correlatable magnetic anomalies between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA), which may document the earliest Atlantic seafloor spreading or synrift magmatism; (3) suggest preexisting margin structure and rifting segmentation may have influenced the seafloor spreading regimes in the Atlantic Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ); (4) suggest that, if the BSMA source is oceanic crust, the BSMA may be M series magnetic anomaly M42 (~168.5 Ma); (5) examine the along and across margin variation in seafloor spreading rates and spreading center orientations from the BSMA to M25, suggesting asymmetric crustal accretion accommodated the straightening of the ridge from the bend in the ECMA to the more linear M25; and (6) observe anomalously high-amplitude magnetic anomalies near the Hudson Fan, which may be related to a short-lived propagating rift segment that could have helped accommodate the crustal alignment during the early Atlantic opening.

  17. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation...research proposed here can directly lead to clinical improvements in both early breast cancer detection, as well as effective breast cancer therapy. To date... cancer is a major prognostic factor in the management of the disease. In particular, detecting breast cancer in its pre-invasive form as ductal carcinoma

  18. Tight glycemic control with insulin does not affect skeletal muscle degradation during the early post-operative period following pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeremy G.; Sparks, Eric A.; Khan, Faraz A.; Alexander, Jamin L.; Asaro, Lisa A.; Wypij, David; Gaies, Michael; Modi, Biren P.; Duggan, Christopher; Agus, Michael S.D.; Yu, Yong-Ming; Jaksic, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Critical illness is associated with significant catabolism and persistent protein loss correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. Insulin is a potent anti-catabolic hormone; high-dose insulin decreases skeletal muscle protein breakdown in critically ill pediatric surgical patients. However, insulin's effect on protein catabolism when given at clinically utilized doses has not been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effect of post-operative tight glycemic control and clinically-dosed insulin on skeletal muscle degradation in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Design Secondary analysis of a two-center, prospective randomized trial comparing tight glycemic control with standard care. Randomization was stratified by study center. Patients Children 0-36 months who were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Interventions In the tight glycemic control (TGC) arm, insulin was titrated to maintain blood glucose between 80-110 mg/dL. Patients in the control arm received standard care. Skeletal muscle breakdown was quantified by a ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to urinary creatinine (3MH:Cr). Main Results A total of 561 patients were included: 281 in the TGC arm and 280 receiving standard care. There was no difference in 3MH:Cr between groups (TGC 249 ± 127 vs. standard care 253 ± 112, mean ± standard deviation in μmol/g, P=0.72). In analyses restricted to the TGC patients, higher 3MH:Cr correlated with younger age as well as lower weight, weight-for-age z-score, length, and body surface area (P<0.005 for each), and lower post-operative day 3 serum creatinine (r=-0.17, P=0.02). Sex, prealbumin, and albumin were not associated with 3MH:Cr. During urine collection, 245 patients (87%) received insulin. However, any insulin exposure did not impact 3MH:Cr (t-test, P=0.45), and there was no dose-dependent effect of insulin on 3MH:Cr (r=-0.03, P=0.60). Conclusion Though high-dose insulin

  19. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Christian; Cerasa, Antonio; Battista, Petronilla; Gilardi, Maria C; Quattrone, Aldo; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression is intended to aid researchers and clinicians to develop new treatments and monitor their effectiveness, as well as to lessen the time and cost of clinical trials. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-related biomarkers have been recently identified by the use of machine learning methods for the in vivo differential diagnosis of AD. However, the vast majority of neuroimaging papers investigating this topic are focused on the difference between AD and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), not considering the impact of MCI patients who will (MCIc) or not convert (MCInc) to AD. Morphological T1-weighted MRIs of 137 AD, 76 MCIc, 134 MCInc, and 162 healthy controls (CN) selected from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) cohort, were used by an optimized machine learning algorithm. Voxels influencing the classification between these AD-related pre-clinical phases involved hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, basal ganglia, gyrus rectus, precuneus, and cerebellum, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD. Classification accuracy was 76% AD vs. CN, 72% MCIc vs. CN, 66% MCIc vs. MCInc (nested 20-fold cross validation). Our data encourage the application of computer-based diagnosis in clinical practice of AD opening new prospective in the early management of AD patients.

  1. Early tectonic evolution of the Thomson Orogen in Queensland inferred from constrained magnetic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Giovanni P. T.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Armit, Robin J.

    2015-05-01

    The crustal architecture as well as the kinematic evolution of the Thomson Orogen in Queensland is poorly resolved because the region is concealed under thick Phanerozoic sedimentary basins and the basement geology is known from limited drill holes. Combined potential field and seismic interpretation indicates that the Thomson Orogen is characterized by prominent regional NE- and NW-trending structural grain defined by long wavelength and low amplitude geophysical anomalies. The 'smooth' magnetic signature is interpreted to reflect deeply buried source bodies in the mid- to lower crust. Short wavelength positive magnetic features that correlate with negative gravity anomalies are interpreted to represent shallower granitic intrusions. They appear to be focused along major fault zones that might have controlled the locus for magmatism. The eastern Thomson Orogen is characterized by a prominent NE structural grain and orthogonal faults and fold interference patterns resulting in a series of troughs and highs. The western Thomson Orogen consists of a series of NW-trending structures interpreted to reflect reverse faults. Sedimentation and basin development are interpreted to have initiated in the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian during E-W- to ENE-WSW extension, possibly related to the Rodinia break-up. This extensional event was followed by Late Cambrian shortening recorded in the Maneroo Platform and the Diamantina River Domain which possibly correlates with the Delamerian Orogeny. Renewed deposition and volcanism occurred during the Ordovician and may have continued until Late Silurian, resulting in thinned Proterozoic basement crust and extensive basin systems that formed in a distal continental back-arc environment. Our interpretation places the Thomson Orogen to the west of the Neoproterozoic passive margin preserved in the Anakie Inlier. The region is likely to represent the internal extensional architecture during the Rodinia break-up that has been

  2. Postoperative ultrasonography of the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Kil-Ho

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonography of the postoperative musculoskeletal system plays an important role in the accurate diagnosis of abnormal lesions in the bone and soft tissues. Ultrasonography is a fast and reliable method with no harmful irradiation for the evaluation of postoperative musculoskeletal complications. In particular, it is not affected by the excessive metal artifacts that appear on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Another benefit of ultrasonography is its capability to dynamically assess the pathologic movement in joints, muscles, or tendons. This article discusses the frequent applications of musculoskeletal ultrasonography in various postoperative situations including those involving the soft tissues around the metal hardware, arthroplasty, postoperative tendons, recurrent soft tissue tumors, bone unions, and amputation surgery.

  3. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millward, Jason M.; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Wuerfel, Jens T.; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset. PMID:23452162

  4. Early effects of low dose bevacizumab treatment assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Simonsen, Trude G; Smistad, Ragnhild; Wegner, Catherine S; Andersen, Lise Mari K; Rofstad, Einar K

    2015-11-14

    Antiangiogenic treatments have been shown to increase blood perfusion and oxygenation in some experimental tumors, and to reduce blood perfusion and induce hypoxia in others. The purpose of this preclinical study was to investigate the potential of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in assessing early effects of low dose bevacizumab treatment, and to investigate intratumor heterogeneity in this effect. A-07 and R-18 human melanoma xenografts, showing high and low expression of VEGF-A, respectively, were used as tumor models. Untreated and bevacizumab-treated tumors were subjected to DCE-MRI and DW-MRI before treatment, and twice during a 7-days treatment period. Tumor images of Ktrans (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DOTA) and ve (the fractional distribution volume of Gd-DOTA) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data, and tumor images of ADC (the apparent diffusion coefficient) were produced from DW-MRI data. Untreated A-07 tumors showed higher Ktrans, v e, and ADC values than untreated R-18 tumors. Untreated tumors showed radial heterogeneity in Ktrans, i.e., Ktrans was low in central tumor regions and increased gradually towards the tumor periphery. After the treatment, bevacizumab-treated A-07 tumors showed lower Ktrans values than untreated A-07 tumors. Peripherial tumor regions showed substantial reductions in Ktrans, whereas little or no effect was seen in central regions. Consequently, the treatment altered the radial heterogeneity in Ktrans. In R-18 tumors, significant changes in Ktrans were not observed. Treatment induced changes in tumor size, v e, and ADC were not seen in any of the tumor lines. Early effects of low dose bevacizumab treatment may be highly heterogeneous within tumors and can be detected with DCE-MRI.

  5. Posttraining transcranial magnetic stimulation of striate cortex disrupts consolidation early in visual skill learning.

    PubMed

    De Weerd, Peter; Reithler, Joel; van de Ven, Vincent; Been, Marin; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-02-08

    Practice-induced improvements in skilled performance reflect "offline " consolidation processes extending beyond daily training sessions. According to visual learning theories, an early, fast learning phase driven by high-level areas is followed by a late, asymptotic learning phase driven by low-level, retinotopic areas when higher resolution is required. Thus, low-level areas would not contribute to learning and offline consolidation until late learning. Recent studies have challenged this notion, demonstrating modified responses to trained stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1) and offline activity after very limited training. However, the behavioral relevance of modified V1 activity for offline consolidation of visual skill memory in V1 after early training sessions remains unclear. Here, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to a trained retinotopic V1 location to test for behaviorally relevant consolidation in human low-level visual cortex. Applying TMS to the trained V1 location within 45 min of the first or second training session strongly interfered with learning, as measured by impaired performance the next day. The interference was conditional on task context and occurred only when training in the location targeted by TMS was followed by training in a second location before TMS. In this condition, high-level areas may become coupled to the second location and uncoupled from the previously trained low-level representation, thereby rendering consolidation vulnerable to interference. Our data show that, during the earliest phases of skill learning in the lowest-level visual areas, a behaviorally relevant form of consolidation exists of which the robustness is controlled by high-level, contextual factors.

  6. Cushing`s disease: Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels fail to normalize despite early postoperative remission - a prospective, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Witek, Przemysław; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Witek, Joanna; Kamiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Effective transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing`s disease (CD) normalizes cortisol levels and reduces complications of hypercortisolism. However, there is evidence of increased cardiovascular morbidity even after successful surgery. A prospective, controlled study on the dynamics of fibrinogen and D-dimer levels with a six-month follow-up after an effective TSS for CD. Forty patients with CD and forty healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were included. We assessed ACTH, urinary and serum cortisol, and fibrinogen and D-dimer levels before TSS and during follow-up. Baseline BMI (P < 0.001), fibrinogen (P = 0.002), and D-dimer (P = 0.001) levels in CD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. High fibrinogen levels in the CD group were independent of BMI, and were positively associated with hsCRP (rS = 0.61, P < 0.001) and arterial hypertension (P = 0.029). After the six-month follow-up we confirmed a sustained difference between the remission group and controls in fibrinogen and D-dimer levels (P = 0.001 and P = 0.017, respectively). Despite early biochemical remission of CD the levels of fibrinogen and D-dimer failed to decrease. This probably contributes to the high risk of thrombotic events and indicates the need for a close follow-up for signs of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications in patients with early CD remission. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (3): 283-291).

  7. Early indicators of cervical insufficiency assessed using magnetic resonance imaging of the cervix during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Habib, Viviane Vieira Francisco; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Sun, Sue Yasaki; Júnior, Dirceu Faggion; Mattar, Rosiane; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Ajzen, Sergio Aron

    2015-04-01

    To establish the main characteristics of the cervix in pregnant women with cervical insufficiency, by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A prospective observational case-control study was conducted among 59 pregnant women with cervical insufficiency and 10 normal pregnant women, between their 10th and 28th weeks. The parameters analyzed in the MRI examinations were: precise identification of the cervix; presence of hyposignal at the internal orifice of the cervix; loss of definition of the periendocervical stromal zone (PESZ); presence of hyposignal content inside the amniotic sac (sludge sign) and anatomical and functional biometry of the cervix. Peripheral hyposignal was found in 41 (85.4%) and loss of definition of the PESZ was observed in 36 pregnant women (73.5%) with cervical insufficiency. Sludge was observed in 46 pregnant women with cervical insufficiency, and this was seen on MRI in 27 cases (58.7%). The mean anatomical and functional lengths of the cervix on MRI in the pregnant women with cervical insufficiency were 3.5 ± 0.8 cm (0.8-4.9 cm) and 28.7 ± 6.3 mm (9-41 mm). None of the normal pregnant women presented hyposignal loss of the PESZ and the sludge sign. MRI may be useful for evaluating the cervix and for early identification of signs of cervical insufficiency during pregnancy.

  8. Paleomagnetic determinations on Lanzarote from magnetic and gravity anomalies: Implications for the early history of the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Montenegro, I.; Montesinos, F. G.; GarcíA, A.; Vieira, R.; VillalaíN, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Bouguer and aeromagnetic anomaly maps of Lanzarote show a gravity high and a dipolar magnetic anomaly over the central part of the island, indicating one isolated source. Assuming that the structure responsible for both anomalies is the same, a methodology has been designed to estimate the total magnetization vector of the source, which is interpreted as a large intrusive body (mafic core) positioned as a result of magma rising to the surface during the early stages of growth of Lanzarote. Considering its geometry to be known from a previous three-dimensional (3-D) gravity model, the approach proposed in this paper is based on the delineation of magnetic contacts through analysis of the horizontal gradient of the reduced-to-the-pole anomaly map, comparison between the gravity and the pseudogravity anomalies, and 3-D forward magnetic modeling. The total magnetization vector obtained by this method is defined by a module of 4.5 A m-1 and a direction D = -20° and I = 30°. Comparing the paleomagnetic pole, obtained from this direction, with the apparent polar wander path of Africa for the last 160 Myr, it is concluded that the main component of the total magnetization vector is probably a primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) which could have been acquired between 60 and 100 Ma. This result suggests that the emplacement of magmas at shallow depths linked to the beginning of volcanism in Lanzarote took place during the Upper Cretaceous, thus providing the first evidence of a timeline for the early formative stages of this volcanic island.

  9. Understanding postoperative fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rose, E A; King, T C

    1978-07-01

    Performance characteristics of the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in man postoperatively have received little investigative attention, despite the well known syndrome of postoperative fatigue. The impairmen in perception and psychomotor skills that has been shown to result from caloric restriction, bedrest, sedation and sleep deprivation suggests that a similar deficit may occur after surgical procedures. After a simple elective surgical procedure, maximal oxygen uptake decreases and the adaptability of heart rate to submaximal workloads is impaired. Similar deleterious effects on cardiorespiratory performance have been documented with starvation and bedrest; an understanding of cardiorespiratory performance postoperatively awaits further investigation. Maximal muscular force of contraction is also impaired by caloric restriction and bedrest, suggesting that similar effects may be seen in the postoperative state, although this has not been studied. A better understanding of the syndrome of postoperative fatigue could be achieved by a descriptive analysis of physiologic performance postoperatively. Such descriptive data could form the basis for objective evaluation of therapeutic measures intended to improve performance, such as nutritional supplementation and pharmacologic intervention. The observation that exercise with the patient in the supine position may decrease the impairment in maximal aerobic power otherwise expected in immobilized patients suggests that controlled exercise therapy may be of value in reducing physiologic impairment postoperatively.

  10. Management of pediatric postoperative chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Bond, S J; Guzzetta, P C; Snyder, M L; Randolph, J G

    1993-09-01

    Questions persist about the management of postoperative chylothorax in infants and children. Our experience with postoperative chylothorax over the most recent decade (1980 to 1990) has been reviewed. The type and amount of drainage, data from cardiac catheterization and echocardiography, operative decisions and details, and eventual outcomes have been cataloged. All patients were initially treated with total gut rest, with operation reserved for unabated drainage. Chylothorax developed postoperatively in 15 infants and 11 children (18 with a cardiac procedure and 8 with a noncardiac procedure). The average age was 3.1 years. Spontaneous cessation and cure occurred in 19 (73.1%) of these 26 patients, with an average drainage duration of 11.9 days (range, 4 to 30 days). Those for whom operation was chosen drained preoperatively for an average of 29.2 days (range, 25 to 40 days). There were no deaths in either group. Complications were lymphopenia (2 patients) and fungal sepsis (1 patient). The amount of drainage per day was not significantly different between patients treated operatively and those treated nonoperatively. Failure of nonoperative management was associated with venous hypertension from increased right-sided cardiac pressures or central venous thrombosis (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Presumably this increased pressure is transmitted to the lymphatic system. These patients should be identified early and considered for thoracic duct suture or pleuroperitoneal shunting.

  11. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer on the lesser curvature in upper third of the stomach is a risk factor for postoperative delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Obata, Daisuke; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Norihiro; Hashimura, Hiroki; Kano, Chise; Matsushita, Megumi; Kanamori, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kei; Tsujimae, Masahiro; Momose, Kenji; Eguchi, Takaaki; Okuyama, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mikio; Okada, Akihiko

    2018-02-07

    Advances in Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technology have established ESD for early gastric cancer as a safe and stable technique. However, ESD may induce delayed gastric emptying and the cause of food residue retention in the stomach after ESD is not clear. This study aimed to clarify risk factors for delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD. We retrospectively examined for food residue in the stomach 1 week after ESD was performed for early gastric carcinoma at Osaka Saiseikai Nakatsu Hospital from February 2008 to November 2016. Food residue was observed in 68 (6.1%) of 1114 patients who underwent gastric ESD. The percentage of lesions located on the lesser curvature of the upper third of the stomach was 45.6% (31/68) in the food residue group and 3.5% (37/1046) in the non-food residue group, which was significantly different (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lesions on the lesser curvature of the upper third of the stomach (Odds ratio [OR] 23.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.60-43.61, P < 0.01), post-ESD bleeding (OR 4.25, 95%CI 1.67-9.80, P < 0.01), submucosal invasion (OR 2.80, 95%CI 1.34-5.63, P < 0.01), and age over 80 years (OR 2.34, 95%CI 1.28-4.22, P < 0.01) were independent risk factors for food retention after gastric ESD. Of the 68 patients, 3 had food residue in the stomach on endoscopic examination for follow-up observation after the ESD ulcer had healed. Delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD was associated with lesions located in the lesser curvature of the upper stomach, submucosal invasion of the lesion, age older than 80 years, and post-ESD bleeding, though it was temporary in most cases.

  12. Value analysis of postoperative staging imaging for asymptomatic, early-stage breast cancer: implications of clinical variation on utility and cost.

    PubMed

    Pellet, Andrew C; Erten, Mujde Z; James, Ted A

    2016-06-01

    Routine staging imaging for early-stage breast cancer is not recommended. Despite this, there is clinical practice variation with imaging studies obtained for asymptomatic patients with a positive sentinel node (SN+). We characterize the utility, cost, and clinical implications of imaging studies obtained in asymptomatic SN+ patients. A retrospective review was performed of asymptomatic, clinically node-negative patients who were found to have a positive sentinel node after surgery. The type of imaging, subsequent tests/interventions, frequency of additional malignancy detected, and costs were recorded. From April 2009 to April 2013, a total of 50 of 113 (44%) asymptomatic patients underwent staging imaging for a positive sentinel node; 11 (22%) patients had at least 1 subsequent imaging study or diagnostic intervention. No instance of metastatic breast cancer was identified, with a total cost of imaging calculated at $116,905. Staging imaging for asymptomatic SN+ breast cancer demonstrates clinical variation. These tests were associated with low utility, increased costs, and frequent false positives leading to subsequent testing/intervention. Evidence-based standardization may help increase quality by decreasing unnecessary variation and cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How bone quality may influence intraoperative and early postoperative problems after angular stable open reduction-internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Spross, Christian; Zeledon, Rebeca; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Jost, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of the deltoid tuberosity index (DTI), a simple radiographic tool has become available to measure bone mineral density of the proximal humerus. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of local bone mineral density on the early failure rate after angular stable open reduction-internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures (PHFs). We retrospectively followed up all patients treated with angular stable implants for PHFs from 2007 to 2014. The fractures were classified according to Neer, and the DTI, metaphyseal head extension (MHE), medial hinge displacement, and quality of reduction were assessed. Failures were defined as head screw cutouts. The study included 146 patients (mean age, 66 years; range, 20-94 years). The mean follow-up period was 11 months (range, 3-94 months). Of the fractures, 91% were classified as 2- or 3-part fractures and 9% as 4-part fractures. The mean DTI was 1.44 (range, 1.19-2.11), and the mean MHE was 12 mm (range, 0-48 mm). The reduction result was at least acceptable in 80% of fractures. Screw cutouts were found in 23%. The DTI and MHE were the most significant preoperative predictors for the reduction result. The DTI (P = .036) and age (P = .02) were independent preoperative factors, and a good reduction (P = .001) was the only intraoperative factor influencing cutout. This study proves that good bone quality and a long MHE are helpful for the reduction. Furthermore, good bone quality, a younger age, and a good reduction prevent later cutout. We conclude that local bone quality is a relevant factor in the treatment plan for PHFs. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume

    PubMed Central

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L.; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (p<0.05). GOS-E Peds correlated with HLVI-total (r=0.39; p=0.002) and HLVI in all three zones: zone A (r=0.31; p<0.02); zone B (r=0.35; p=0.004); and zone C (r=0.37; p=0.003). In adolescents ages 13–17 years, HLVI-total correlated best with outcome (r=0.5; p=0.007), whereas in younger children under the age of 13, HLVI-zone B correlated best (r=0.52; p=0.001). Compared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  15. Early postoperative changes of the foveal surface in epiretinal membranes: comparison of 23-gauge macular surgery with air vs. balanced salt solution.

    PubMed

    Leitritz, Martin A; Ziemssen, Focke; Voykov, Bogomil; Dimopoulos, Spyridon; Zobor, Ditta; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Gelisken, Faik

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the foveal surface using binary image analysis after spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) following 23-gauge macular surgery in epiretinal membranes (ERM) using either air tamponade (AIR) or balanced salt solution (BSS). One hundred twenty-four eyes (124 patients) with ERM that had undergone membrane peeling with installation of air or BSS were analyzed retrospectively. Ophthalmic examination was performed at baseline and 3 months. The foveal area and surface symmetry, area matched thickness, area matched contour, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The OCT images were analyzed after binary conversion with ImageJ software. Eighty eyes (80 patients) of 124 screened patients were included (AIR group: 39 patients, BSS group: 41 patients). Median follow-up time was 14 weeks (range, 9-19 weeks). Three months after surgery, the median horizontal area decreased significantly in both groups (p < 0.0001). At follow-up, the foveal surface symmetry values for the BSS group (median, 22.73 μm, range, 0-153) were significantly lower than for the AIR group (median, 23.95 μm, range, 0-160.43) (p < 0.0001). The area-matched thickness increased significantly in both groups (p < 0.001). The AIR group showed a significant increase of the area matched contour for the nasal located measurement-areas N1 (p < 0.0003), N2 (p < 0.0079), N3 (p < 0.007). The BSS group showed a significant increase of the area-matched contour for the measurement areas N1 (p < 0.019), N2 (p < 0.0014), and N4 (p < 0.022). After surgery, median BCVA for both groups increased significantly to 0.3 logMAR. The analysis of early contour changes after ERM surgery was technically possible. Long-term data have to be looked at before the clinical impact of this methodology can be estimated. Although there were no big differences between both groups (AIR vs. BSS), this could change within a longer and more representative follow-up.

  16. Evolution of the postoperative sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis: is there a difference between rib-based and spine-based growth-friendly instrumentation?

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonghui; Li, Song; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang; Chen, Xi; Xu, Liang; Sun, Xu

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Although the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) and growing rod instrumentation (GRI) encourage spinal growth via regular lengthening, they can create different results because of their different fixation patterns and mechanisms in correcting scoliosis. Previous studies have focused comparisons on coronal plane deformity with minimal attention to the sagittal profile. In this retrospective study, the authors aimed to compare the evolution of the sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treated with VEPTR versus GRI. METHODS The data for 11 patients with VEPTR and 22 with GRI were reviewed. All patients had more than 2 years' follow-up with more than 2 lengthening procedures. Radiographic measurements were performed before and after the index surgery and at the latest follow-up. The complications in both groups were recorded. RESULTS Patients in both groups had similar diagnoses, age at the index surgery, and number of lengthening procedures. The changes in the major coronal Cobb angle and T1-S1 spinal height were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Compared with the GRI group, the VEPTR group had less correction in thoracic kyphosis (23% ± 12% vs 44% ± 16%, p < 0.001) after the index surgery and experienced a greater correction loss in thoracic kyphosis (46% ± 18% vs 11% ± 8%, p < 0.001) at the latest follow-up. Although the increase in the proximal junctional angle was not significantly different (VEPTR: 7° ± 4° vs GRI: 8° ± 5°, p = 0.569), the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis was relatively lower in the VEPTR group (VEPTR: 18.2% vs GRI: 22.7%). No significant changes in the spinopelvic parameters were observed, while the sagittal vertical axis showed a tendency toward a neutral position in both groups. The overall complication rate was higher in the VEPTR group than in the GRI group (72.7% vs 54.5%). CONCLUSIONS The VEPTR had coronal correction and spinal growth results similar to those

  17. Postoperative Cerebral Infarction Risk Factors and Postoperative Management of Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Shinsuke; Araki, Yoshio; Kondo, Goro; Kurimoto, Michihiro; Shiba, Yoshiki; Uda, Kenji; Ota, Shinji; Okamoto, Sho; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Although revascularization surgery for patients with moyamoya disease can effectively prevent ischemic events and thus improve the long-term clinical outcome, the incidence of postoperative ischemic complications affects patients' quality of life. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors associated with postoperative ischemic complications and to discuss the appropriate perioperative management. Fifty-eight revascularization operations were performed in 37 children with moyamoya disease. Patients with moyamoya syndrome were excluded from this study. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed within 7 days after surgery. Postoperative cerebral infarction was defined as a diffusion-weighted imaging high-intensity lesion with or without symptoms. We usually use fentanyl and dexmedetomidine as postoperative analgesic and sedative drugs for patients with moyamoya disease. We used barbiturate coma therapy for pediatric patients with moyamoya disease who have all postoperative cerebral infarction risk factors. Postoperative ischemic complications were observed in 10.3% of the children with moyamoya disease (6 of 58). Preoperative cerebral infarctions (P = 0.0005), younger age (P = 0.038), higher Suzuki grade (P = 0.003), and posterior cerebral artery stenosis/occlusion (P = 0.003) were related to postoperative ischemic complications. Postoperative cerebral infarction occurred all pediatric patients using barbiturate coma therapy. The risk factors associated with postoperative ischemic complications for children with moyamoya disease are preoperative infarction, younger age, higher Suzuki grade, and posterior cerebral artery stenosis/occlusion. Barbiturate coma therapy for pediatric patients with moyamoya disease who have the previous risk factors is insufficient for prevention of postoperative cerebral infarction. More studies are needed to identify the appropriate perioperative management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Use of magnetic therapy for treatment of early symptoms of vascular-type vibration syndrome in forestry workers].

    PubMed

    Karczewska, M

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of therapeutic parameters in the treatment of early symptoms of vascular-type vibration syndrome in forestry workers. The study covered 96 forestry workers, and the control group was composed of 29 sawyers who underwent a simulated treatment. Each worker was granted sick leave and applied 20 procedures by employing an Aplhatron 4100 device under the ambulatory conditions. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated directly after the last procedure and 3 months later. A diversified positive influence on individual subjective and objective pathological changes in regard to both direct and late effects was observed. The abatement of subjective disorders right after termination of the treatment was observed in 67.7% and objective disorders in 57.3%. A long-term improvement (after 3 months) was found in a smaller proportion of persons as the abatement of subjective disorders was reported by 59.3% while objective disorders persisted in 43.7%. The results obtained prove that the application of variable magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of therapeutic parameters is useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of pathological changes during the period of prodromal symptoms and early pathological changes in vascular-type vibration syndrome induced by local magnetic vibrations.

  19. Unveiling the Early History of Mercury by Studying Its Crustal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. S.; Hood, L. L.

    2018-05-01

    We study different anomalies that are found on Mercury that were very likely thermoremanently magnetized, to look for true polar wander events and/or understand if they aren't entirely induced in origin.

  20. Magnetic constraints on early lunar evolution revisited: Limits on accuracy imposed by methods of paleointensity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    It is impossible to carry out conventional paleointensity experiments requiring repeated heating and cooling to 770 C without chemical, physical or microstructural changes on lunar samples. Non-thermal methods of paleointensity determination have been sought: the two anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) methods, and the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (IRMS) method. Experimental errors inherent in these alternative approaches have been investigated to estimate the accuracy limits on the calculated paleointensities. Results are indicated in this report.

  1. Cognitive effects of bilateral high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in early phase psychosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Francis, Michael M; Hummer, Tom A; Vohs, Jenifer L; Yung, Matthew G; Visco, Andrew C; Mehdiyoun, Nikki F; Kulig, Teresa C; Um, Miji; Yang, Ziyi; Motamed, Mehrdad; Liffick, Emily; Zhang, Ying; Breier, Alan

    2018-05-31

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core facet of schizophrenia that is present early in the course of the illness and contributes to diminished functioning and outcomes. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively new neuropsychiatric intervention. Initially used in treatment resistant depression, investigators are now studying rTMS for other psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. In this study we examined the effect of high frequency rTMS on cognitive function in a group of individuals with early phase psychosis. Twenty subjects were randomized (1:1) in double-blind fashion to rTMS or sham condition. Over two weeks subjects underwent ten sessions of high frequency, bilateral, sequential rTMS targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Prior to beginning and following completion of study treatment, subjects completed a cognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects receiving rTMS, compared to sham treatment, displayed improvement on a standardized cognitive battery both immediately following the course of study treatment and at follow-up two weeks later. Imaging results revealed that left frontal cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with treatment response. The study treatment was found to be safe and well tolerated. These results suggest that rTMS may hold promise for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in the early phase of psychosis, and that MRI may provide biomarkers predicting response to the treatment.

  2. Early prognostic markers for fatal fulminant hepatic failure cases with viral hepatitis: proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of serum.

    PubMed

    Bala, Lakshmi; Mehrotra, Mayank; Mohindra, Samir; Saxena, Rajan; Khetrapal, Chunni Lal

    2013-02-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is associated with liver metabolic derangements which could have fatal consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify serum markers for early prediction of the outcome. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of serum of fulminant hepatic failure patients due to viral hepatitis with grade II/III of encephalopathy (twenty-four: ten prospective and fourteen retrospective) and twenty-five controls were undertaken. Of the twenty-four patients, fifteen survived with medical management alone while nine had fatal outcome. The results demonstrated significantly elevated indices of amino acids (alanine, lysine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and 1,2-propanediol) in fatal cases compared to survivors and controls. Principal component analysis showed clear separation of fatal and surviving cases. Liver function parameters were significantly deranged in patients but they failed to provide early significant differences between surviving and fatal cases. Compared to model for end-stage liver disease scores, principal component analysis appear to be better as an early prognostic indicator. Biochemical mapping of pathways suggested interruptions in amino acid metabolism and urea cycle. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of serum have the potential of rapidly identifying patients with irreversible fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation as life saving option. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Postoperative cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Leposavić, Ljubica; Kocica, Mladen; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Vucetić, Cedomir; Paunović, Ivan; Slavković, Nemanja; Filimonović, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are relatively common in postoperative and critically ill patients. This complication not only compromises recovery after surgery, but, if persistent, it minimizes and compromises surgery itself. Risk factors of postoperative cognitive disorders can be divided into age and comorbidity dependent, and those related to anesthesia and surgery. Cardiovascular, orthopedic and urologic surgery carries high risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. It can also occur in other types of surgical treatment, especially in elderly. Among risk factors of cognitive disorders, associated with comorbidity, underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders, substance abuse and conditions with elevation of intracranial pressure are in the first place in postoperative patients. Preoperative and perioperative predisposing conditions for cognitive dysfunction and their incidence were described in our paper. These are: geriatric patients, patients with substance abuse, preexisting psychiatric or cognitive disorders, neurologic disease with high intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insufficiency, epilepsia, preeclampsia, acute intermittent porphyria, operation type, brain hypoxia, changes in blood glucose level, electrolyte imbalance, anesthetic agents, adjuvant medication and intraoperative awareness. For each of these factors, evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies were suggested, with special regard on anesthetic technique.

  4. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (P<.05). Spirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Thyroidectomy: post-operative care and common complications.

    PubMed

    Furtado, L

    Any surgical procedure involves risks. Thyroid surgery can cause potentially fatal complications during the early post-operative phase. It is essential that nurses have the knowledge and skills to detect early signs and symptoms of potential complications and take appropriate action. Early detection and rapid response are key to maintaining patient safety and minimising harm.

  6. BATTERIES AND BULBS, BOOK 1, CIRCUITS I, AN EARLY EXPLORATION OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND MAGNETS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    THIS TRIAL EDITION OF A TEACHING GUIDE IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR AN INTRODUCTORY STUDY OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, AND IS NUMBER ONE OF A SERIES OF FOUR. IT IS SUITABLE FOR USE AT VARIOUS LEVELS FROM GRADES 2-10. THE FOUR VOLUMES PRESENT ACTIVITIES SUFFICIENT FOR A PROGRAM OF FROM 5 TO 40 WEEKS, DEPENDING UPON EXTENT OF USE…

  7. Noninvasive Imaging of Early Venous Thrombosis by 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Targeted Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Temme, Sebastian; Grapentin, Christoph; Quast, Christine; Jacoby, Christoph; Grandoch, Maria; Ding, Zhaoping; Owenier, Christoph; Mayenfels, Friederike; Fischer, Jens W; Schubert, Rolf; Schrader, Jürgen; Flögel, Ulrich

    2015-04-21

    Noninvasive detection of deep venous thrombi and subsequent pulmonary thromboembolism is a serious medical challenge, since both incidences are difficult to identify by conventional ultrasound techniques. Here, we report a novel technique for the sensitive and specific identification of developing thrombi using background-free 19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2-antiplasmin peptide (α2AP)-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFCs) as contrast agent, which is cross-linked to fibrin by active factor XIII. Ligand functionality was ensured by mild coupling conditions using the sterol-based postinsertion technique. Developing thrombi with a diameter<0.8 mm could be visualized unequivocally in the murine inferior vena cava as hot spots in vivo by simultaneous acquisition of anatomic matching 1H and 19F magnetic resonance images at 9.4 T with both excellent signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (71±22 and 17±5, respectively). Furthermore, α2AP-PFCs could be successfully applied for the diagnosis of experimentally induced pulmonary thromboembolism. In line with the reported half-life of factor XIIIa, application of α2AP-PFCs>60 minutes after thrombus induction no longer resulted in detectable 19F magnetic resonance imaging signals. Corresponding results were obtained in ex vivo generated human clots. Thus, α2AP-PFCs can visualize freshly developed thrombi that might still be susceptible to pharmacological intervention. Our results demonstrate that 1H/19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2AP-PFCs, is a sensitive, noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombi and pulmonary thromboemboli. Furthermore, ligand coupling by the sterol-based postinsertion technique represents a unique platform for the specific targeting of PFCs for in vivo 19F magnetic resonance imaging. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The fast Padé transform in magnetic resonance spectroscopy for potential improvements in early cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkic, Dzevad; Belkic, Karen

    2005-09-01

    The convergence rates of the fast Padé transform (FPT) and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are compared. These two estimators are used to process a time-signal encoded at 4 T by means of one-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for healthy human brain. It is found systematically that at any level of truncation of the full signal length, the clinically relevant resonances that determine concentrations of metabolites in the investigated tissue are significantly better resolved in the FPT than in the FFT. In particular, the FPT has a better resolution than the FFT for the same signal length. Moreover, the FPT can achieve the same resolution as the FFT by using twice shorter signals. Implications of these findings for two-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as for two- and three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging are highlighted. Self-contained cross-validation of all the results from the FPT is secured by using two conceptually different, equivalent algorithms (inside and outside the unit-circle), that are both valid in the entire complex frequency plane. The difference between the results from these two variants of the FPT is indistinguishable from the background noise. This constitutes robust error analysis of proven validity. The FPT shows promise in applications of MRS for early cancer detection.

  9. Early Rivaroxaban Use After Cardioembolic Stroke May Not Result in Hemorrhagic Transformation: A Prospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Laura C; Kate, Mahesh; Sivakumar, Leka; Hussain, Dulara; Kalashyan, Hayrapet; Buck, Brian; Bussiere, Miguel; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Emery, Derek; Butcher, Ken

    2016-07-01

    Early anticoagulation after cardioembolic stroke remains controversial because of the potential for hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We tested the safety and feasibility of initiating rivaroxaban ≤14 days after cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack. A prospective, open-label study of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with rivaroxaban ≤14 days of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale <9). All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging <24 hours of rivaroxaban initiation and day 7. The primary end point was symptomatic HT at day 7. Sixty patients (mean±SD age 71±19 years, 82% stroke/18% transient ischemic attack) were enrolled. Median (interquartile range) time from onset to rivaroxaban was 3 (5) days. At treatment initiation, median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 2 (4), and median diffusion-weighted imaging volume was 7.9 (13.7) mL. At baseline, HT was present in 25 (42%) patients (hemorrhagic infarct [HI]1=19, HI2=6). On follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, no patients developed symptomatic HT. New asymptomatic HI1 developed in 3 patients, and asymptomatic progression from HI1 to HI2 occurred in 5 patients; otherwise, HT remained unchanged at day 7. These data support the safety of rivaroxaban initiation ≤14 days of mild-moderate cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of petechial HT, which is common, does not appear to increase the risk of symptomatic HT. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. The impact of early visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual working memory precision and guess rate.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; van de Ven, Vincent G; Tong, Frank; Sack, Alexander T

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield. Memory for one of the four gratings was probed at random, and participants reported this orientation via method of adjustment. Recall errors were smaller when the visual field location targeted by TMS overlapped with that of the cued memory item, compared to errors for stimuli probed diagonally to TMS. This implied topographic storage of orientation information, and a memory-enhancing effect at the targeted location. Furthermore, early pulses impaired performance at all four locations, compared to late pulses. Next, response errors were fit empirically using a mixture model to characterize memory precision and guess rates. Memory was more precise for items proximal to the pulse location, irrespective of pulse timing. Guesses were more probable with early TMS pulses, regardless of stimulus location. Thus, while TMS administered at the offset of the stimulus array might disrupt early-phase consolidation in a non-topographic manner, TMS also boosts the precise representation of an item at its targeted retinotopic location, possibly by increasing attentional resources or by injecting a beneficial amount of noise.

  11. The impact of early visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual working memory precision and guess rate

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Vincent G.; Tong, Frank; Sack, Alexander T.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield. Memory for one of the four gratings was probed at random, and participants reported this orientation via method of adjustment. Recall errors were smaller when the visual field location targeted by TMS overlapped with that of the cued memory item, compared to errors for stimuli probed diagonally to TMS. This implied topographic storage of orientation information, and a memory-enhancing effect at the targeted location. Furthermore, early pulses impaired performance at all four locations, compared to late pulses. Next, response errors were fit empirically using a mixture model to characterize memory precision and guess rates. Memory was more precise for items proximal to the pulse location, irrespective of pulse timing. Guesses were more probable with early TMS pulses, regardless of stimulus location. Thus, while TMS administered at the offset of the stimulus array might disrupt early-phase consolidation in a non-topographic manner, TMS also boosts the precise representation of an item at its targeted retinotopic location, possibly by increasing attentional resources or by injecting a beneficial amount of noise. PMID:28384347

  12. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  13. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of Prostatic Fluids for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMRS). The metabolites quantified included citrate, spermine, myo- inositol , lactate, alanine...adjusting for age. The LR models indicated that the absolute concentrations of citrate, myo- inositol , and spermine were highly predictive of PCa and...inversely related to the risk of PCa. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for citrate, myo- inositol and spermine were

  14. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of Prostatic Fluids for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMRS). The metabolites quantified included citrate, spermine, myo- inositol , lactate, alanine...concentrations while adjusting for age. The LR models indicated that the absolute concentrations of citrate, myo- inositol , and spermine were highly predictive...of PCa and inversely related to the risk of PCa. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for citrate, myo- inositol and

  15. [Neuroprotective subthalamotomy in Parkinson's disease. The role of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound in early surgery].

    PubMed

    Guridi, Jorge; Marigil, Miguel; Becerra, Victoria; Parras, Olga

    Subthalamic nucleus hyperactivity in Parkinson's disease may be a very early phenomenon. Its start is not well known, and it may occur during the pre-symptomatic disease stage. Glutamatergic hyperactivity may be neurotoxic over the substantia nigra compacta dopaminergic neurons. If this occurred, the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, should affect the neurons that maintain a high turnover as a compensatory mechanism. Would a subthalamic nucleus lesion decrease this hyperactivity and thus be considered as a neuroprotective mechanism for dopaminergic neurons? The authors hypothesise about the possibility to perform surgery on a subthalamic nucleus lesion at a very early stage in order to avoid the neurotoxic glutamatergic effect over the dopaminergic neurons, and therefore be considered as a neuroprotective surgery able to alter the progress of the disease during early motor symptoms. In this regard, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound techniques open a new window in the stereotactic armamentarium. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Necessity of Repeating MRI in Noncooled and Cooled Infants With Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chakkarapani, Elavazhagan; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Miller, Steven P; Zwicker, Jill G; Xu, Qi; Wong, Darren S T; Roland, Elke H; Hill, Alan; Chau, Vann

    2016-04-01

    In cooled newborns with encephalopathy, although late magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan (10-14 days of age) is reliable in predicting long-term outcome, it is unknown whether early scan (3-6 days of life) is. We compared the predominant pattern and extent of lesion between early and late MRI in 89 term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-three neonates (48%) were cooled. The predominant pattern of lesions and the extent of lesion in the watershed region agreed near perfectly in noncooled (kappa = 0.94; k = 0.88) and cooled (k = 0.89; k = 0.87) infants respectively. There was perfect agreement in the extent of lesion in the basal nuclei in noncooled infants (k = 0.83) and excellent agreement in cooled infants (k = 0.67). Changes in extent of lesions on late MRI occurred in 19 of 89 infants, with higher risk in infants with hypoglycemia and moderate-severe lesions in basal nuclei. In most term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy, early MRI (relative to late scan) robustly predicts the predominant pattern and extent of injury. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Acute cholecystitis as a postoperative complication.

    PubMed Central

    Ottinger, L W

    1976-01-01

    The clinical course and management of 40 patients who underwent operation for acute cholecystitis developing as a postoperative complication were reviewed. Of note was the mortality of 47%, the high incidence of gangrene, perforation, empyema, and cholangitis, and the atypical clinical presentation of acute cholecystitis under these conditions. Awareness of this possible complication, knowledge of its clinical features, and early surgical intervention are important facets of successful management. PMID:952563

  18. [Chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Propionibacterium acnes].

    PubMed

    Kocur, I; Baráková, D; Kuchynka, P; Fiser, I

    1998-07-01

    There is a report of three cases of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract operations. In two patients there was proven Propionibacterium acnes. There is presented a technique to obtain specimens for microbiological examination and an overview of clinical experience in treatment of the mentioned less common types of endophthalmitis. Early surgical treatment as well as intraocular injection of vancomycin can help to restore a good visual acuity despite of longlasting inflammation.

  19. Effect of sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethyl cellulose (Guardix-sol) on retear rate and postoperative stiffness in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeung Yeol; Chung, Pill Ku; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronate-based anti-adhesive agents are expected to enhance rotator cuff healing; however, their effect on the incidence and extent of postoperative complications such as stiffness and retears has not been investigated. From July 2012 to February 2013, 80 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery were prospectively enrolled. Forty patients were assigned to the control group, while the other 40 were assigned to the injection group and received a Guardix-sol injection immediately after surgery. Passive range of motion, pain visual analog scale, and functional score were assessed at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 24 months postoperatively. Gliding motion between the deltoid muscle and the greater tuberosity of the proximal humerus was evaluated using ultrasonography at 2 and 8 weeks postoperatively, and tendon integrity was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months postoperatively. We found no significant difference between the groups regarding gliding motion at 2 weeks postoperatively. However, at 8 weeks, the incidence of poor gliding motion was 2.5% and 15% for the injected patients and control group, respectively, which was statistically significant. At 6 months after surgery, the retear rate between the two groups was not statistically significant. We found no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding retear rate and clinical score throughout the follow-up period. We noted no complications related to the use of Guardix-sol. Patients who received the Guardix-sol injection showed improved gliding motion between the deltoid muscle and the greater tuberosity in the early postoperative period.

  20. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a New Contrast Agent for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Biasutti, Maria; Dufour, Natacha; Ferroud, Clotilde; Dab, William; Temime, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background Used as contrast agents for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), markers for beta-amyloid deposits might allow early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such a diagnostic test, MRI+CLP (contrastophore-linker-pharmacophore), should it become clinically available. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the cost-effectiveness of MRI+CLP to that of standard diagnosis using currently available cognition tests and of standard MRI, and investigated the impact of a hypothetical treatment efficient in early AD. The primary analysis was based on the current French context for 70-year-old patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In alternative “screen and treat” scenarios, we analyzed the consequences of systematic screenings of over-60 individuals (either population-wide or restricted to the ApoE4 genotype population). We used a Markov model of AD progression; model parameters, as well as incurred costs and quality-of-life weights in France were taken from the literature. We performed univariate and probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analyses. The base-case preferred strategy was the standard MRI diagnosis strategy. In the primary analysis however, MRI+CLP could become the preferred strategy under a wide array of scenarios involving lower cost and/or higher sensitivity or specificity. By contrast, in the “screen and treat” analyses, the probability of MRI+CLP becoming the preferred strategy remained lower than 5%. Conclusions/Significance It is thought that anti-beta-amyloid compounds might halt the development of dementia in early stage patients. This study suggests that, even should such treatments become available, systematically screening the over-60 population for AD would only become cost-effective with highly specific tests able to diagnose early stages of the disease. However, offering a new diagnostic test based on beta-amyloid markers to elderly patients with MCI might prove cost

  2. Cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging with a new contrast agent for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Biasutti, Maria; Dufour, Natacha; Ferroud, Clotilde; Dab, William; Temime, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Used as contrast agents for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), markers for beta-amyloid deposits might allow early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such a diagnostic test, MRI+CLP (contrastophore-linker-pharmacophore), should it become clinically available. We compared the cost-effectiveness of MRI+CLP to that of standard diagnosis using currently available cognition tests and of standard MRI, and investigated the impact of a hypothetical treatment efficient in early AD. The primary analysis was based on the current French context for 70-year-old patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In alternative "screen and treat" scenarios, we analyzed the consequences of systematic screenings of over-60 individuals (either population-wide or restricted to the ApoE4 genotype population). We used a Markov model of AD progression; model parameters, as well as incurred costs and quality-of-life weights in France were taken from the literature. We performed univariate and probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analyses. The base-case preferred strategy was the standard MRI diagnosis strategy. In the primary analysis however, MRI+CLP could become the preferred strategy under a wide array of scenarios involving lower cost and/or higher sensitivity or specificity. By contrast, in the "screen and treat" analyses, the probability of MRI+CLP becoming the preferred strategy remained lower than 5%. It is thought that anti-beta-amyloid compounds might halt the development of dementia in early stage patients. This study suggests that, even should such treatments become available, systematically screening the over-60 population for AD would only become cost-effective with highly specific tests able to diagnose early stages of the disease. However, offering a new diagnostic test based on beta-amyloid markers to elderly patients with MCI might prove cost-effective.

  3. [In vitro early detection of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease by Pittsburgh compound B-modified magnetic nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Zeng, J Q; Wu, J Q; Li, M H; Wang, P J

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To construct magnetic nanoparticles targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, the pathological biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to study their binding capability in vitro . Methods: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles Mn(0.6)Zn(0.4)Fe(2)O(4) (MZF) were coated with amphiphilic star-block copolymeric micelles and modified with Aβ-specific probe Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to construct a novel magnetic nanoparticle MZF-PiB, which specifically targeted amyloid plaques. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the morphological features of MZF-PiB. Superparamagnetism of MZF-PiB was assessed by its r(2) relaxation rate by using 3.0 T MRI scanner. Cytotoxic test was applied to determine biosafety of MZF-PiB nanoparticles in differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). In vitro binding tests were conducted via immunohistochemistry on 6-month old AD mice brain sections. Differences of cell viability between groups were compared with one-way analysis of variance. Results: MZF-PiB nanoparticles were successfully constructed. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the nanoparticles were about 100 nm in size. The r(2) relaxation rate was 163.11 mMS(-1). No differences were found in cell viability of SH-SY5Y and MDCK incubated with MZF-PiB suspension for 24 h or 48 h when compared with those of untreated cells ( F =2.336, 2.539, 0.293, 1.493, all P >0.05). In vitro binding tests indicated that the MZF-PiB were specifically bound to amyloid plaques. The smallest size of detected plaques was 27 μm. Conclusion: PiB-modified nanoparticles targeting Aβ are biologically safe and highly superparamagnetic, possessing the capability to detect amyloid plaques early in vitro and the potential for early diagnosis of AD.

  4. Delayed early passive motion is harmless to shoulder rotator cuff healing in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shurong; Li, Hong; Tao, Hongyue; Li, Hongyun; Cho, Samson; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Shiyi; Li, Yunxia

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative passive motion is the most widely accepted rehabilitation protocol after rotator cuff repair; however, a rotator cuff retear remains a frequent surgical complication. Clinical outcomes indicate that early passive motion is harmless to rotator cuff healing, but no laboratory evidence supports this proposition. (1) Immediate postoperative immobilization improves rotator cuff healing in rabbits. (2) Early passive motion after short-term immobilization does not harm rotator cuff healing in rabbits. Controlled laboratory study. An injury to the supraspinatus tendon was created and repaired in 90 New Zealand White rabbits, after which they were randomly separated into 3 groups: (1) nonimmobilization (NI; n = 30), (2) continuous immobilization (IM; n = 30), and (3) immobilization with early passive motion (IP; n = 30). At 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively, 5 rabbits from each group were sacrificed for histological evaluation, biomechanical testing, and magnetic resonance imaging. The histological study demonstrated better postoperative healing in the IM and IP groups, with clusters of chondrocytes accumulated at the tendon-bone junction. Magnetic resonance imaging illustrated that the tendon-bone junction was intact in the IM and IP groups. The magnetic resonance quantification analysis showed that the signal-to-noise quotient (SNQ) of the NI group was not significantly higher than that of the immobilization groups at 3 weeks (P = .232) or 6 weeks (P = .117), but it was significantly different at 12 weeks (NI vs IM, P = .006; NI vs IP, P = .009). At 12 weeks, the failure load was significantly higher in the IM and IP groups than in the NI group (NI vs IM, P = .002; NI vs IP, P = .002), but no difference was found between the IM and IP groups (P = .599). Immediate postoperative immobilization led to better tendon-bone healing than immediate postoperative mobilization, and under immobilization, early passive motion was harmless to tendon-bone healing in this

  5. Reconstruction of early phase deformations by integrated magnetic and mesotectonic data evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, András A.; Márton, Emő; Fodor, László

    2018-02-01

    Markers of brittle faulting are widely used for recovering past deformation phases. Rocks often have oriented magnetic fabrics, which can be interpreted as connected to ductile deformation before cementation of the sediment. This paper reports a novel statistical procedure for simultaneous evaluation of AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) and fault-slip data. The new method analyzes the AMS data, without linearization techniques, so that weak AMS lineation and rotational AMS can be assessed that are beyond the scope of classical methods. This idea is extended to the evaluation of fault-slip data. While the traditional assumptions of stress inversion are not rejected, the method recovers the stress field via statistical hypothesis testing. In addition it provides statistical information needed for the combined evaluation of the AMS and the mesotectonic (0.1 to 10 m) data. In the combined evaluation a statistical test is carried out that helps to decide if the AMS lineation and the mesotectonic markers (in case of repeated deformation of the oldest set of markers) were formed in the same or different deformation phases. If this condition is met, the combined evaluation can improve the precision of the reconstruction. When the two data sets do not have a common solution for the direction of the extension, the deformational origin of the AMS is questionable. In this case the orientation of the stress field responsible for the AMS lineation might be different from that which caused the brittle deformation. Although most of the examples demonstrate the reconstruction of weak deformations in sediments, the new method is readily applicable to investigate the ductile-brittle transition of any rock formation as long as AMS and fault-slip data are available.

  6. Early magnetic resonance imaging in acute knee injury: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirav K; Bucknill, Andrew; Ahearne, David; Denning, Janet; Desai, Kailash; Watson, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Acute knee injury is common, and MRI is often only used when non-operative management fails because of limited availability. We investigated whether early MRI in acute knee injury is more clinically and cost-effective compared to conventional physiotherapy and reassessment. All patients with acute indirect soft tissue knee injury referred to fracture clinic were approached. Recruited patients were randomised to either the MRI group: early MRI within 2 weeks or the control group: conventional management with physiotherapy. Patients were assessed in clinic initially, at 2 weeks and 3 months post-injury. Management costs were calculated for all patients until surgical treatment or discharge. Forty-six patients were recruited: 23 in the MRI and 23 in the control group. Male sex and mean age were similar in the two groups. The total management cost of the MRI group was £16,127 and control group was £16,170, with a similar mean cost per patient (NS). The MRI group had less mean physiotherapy (2.5 ± 1.9 vs. 5.1 ± 3.5, p < 0.01) and outpatient appointments (NS). Median time to surgery and time off work was less in the MRI group (NS). The MRI group had less pain (p < 0.05), less activity limitation (p = 0.04) and better satisfaction (p = 0.04). Early MRI in acute knee injury facilitates faster diagnosis and management of internal derangement at a cost comparable to conventional treatment. Moreover, patients had significantly less time off work with improved pain, activity limitation and satisfaction scores. II.

  7. High field strength magnetic resonance imaging in paediatric brain tumour surgery--its role in prevention of early repeat resections.

    PubMed

    Avula, Shivaram; Pettorini, Benedetta; Abernethy, Laurence; Pizer, Barry; Williams, Dawn; Mallucci, Conor

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the surgical and imaging outcome in children who underwent brain tumour surgery with intention of complete tumour resection, prior to and following the start of intra-operative MRI (ioMRI) service. ioMRI service for brain tumour resection commenced in October 2009. A cohort of patients operated between June 2007 and September 2009 with a pre-surgical intention of complete tumour resection were selected (Group A). A similar number of consecutive cases were selected from a prospective database of patients undergoing ioMRI (Group B). The demographics, imaging, pathology and surgical outcome of both groups were compared. Thirty-six of 47 cases from Group A met the inclusion criterion and 36 cases were selected from Group B; 7 of the 36 cases in Group A had unequivocal evidence of residual tumour on the post-operative scan; 5 (14%) of them underwent repeat resection within 6 months post-surgery. In Group B, ioMRI revealed unequivocal evidence of residual tumour in 11 of the 36 cases following initial resection. In 10 of these 11 cases, repeat resections were performed during the same surgical episode and none of these 11 cases required repeat surgery in the following 6 months. Early repeat resection rate was significantly different between both groups (p = 0.003). Following the advent of ioMRI at our institution, the need for repeat resection within 6 months has been prevented in cases where ioMRI revealed unequivocal evidence of residual tumour.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of early experimental periostitis. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and plain radiography with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, H J; Chandnani, V P; Beltran, J; Lucas, J G; Ortiz, I; King, M A; Bennett, W F; Bova, J G; Mueller, C F; Shaffer, P B

    1991-04-01

    This study characterizes the appearance of periosteal reaction by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluates the efficacy of MRI versus computed tomography (CT), and plain film radiography (PF) in detecting early, experimentally induced periostitis. Acute Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis was induced in 30 legs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were then imaged with MR, contrast-unenhanced CT, and PF 4 days after infection. Histologically, periosteal elevation was present in 27 cases. Periosteal ossification was seen in 23 cases, and cellular reaction without ossification in 4 cases. Periosteal reaction was demonstrated by PF in 21 (78%) and by CT in 20 (74%) cases. Evidence of periostitis was seen by MR in all 27% (100%) cases. MR resulted in two false-positive diagnoses. Multiple concentric, alternating high and low signal arcs demonstrated by MR in 19 (70%) cases represented periosteal ossification surrounded by fibrous or granulation tissue. These findings demonstrate the ability of MR to detect periostitis despite the absence of periosteal ossification. MR was more sensitive than CT (P less than .05) or PF (P less than .05) in the detection of experimentally induced periostitis.

  9. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars II: the early main sequence (250-650 Myr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folsom, C. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Lèbre, A.; Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    There is a large change in surface rotation rates of sun-like stars on the pre-main sequence and early main sequence. Since these stars have dynamo-driven magnetic fields, this implies a strong evolution of their magnetic properties over this time period. The spin-down of these stars is controlled by interactions between stellar and magnetic fields, thus magnetic evolution in turn plays an important role in rotational evolution. We present here the second part of a study investigating the evolution of large-scale surface magnetic fields in this critical time period. We observed stars in open clusters and stellar associations with known ages between 120 and 650 Myr, and used spectropolarimetry and Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their large-scale magnetic field strength and geometry. We report 15 stars with magnetic detections here. These stars have masses from 0.8 to 0.95 M⊙, rotation periods from 0.326 to 10.6 d, and we find large-scale magnetic field strengths from 8.5 to 195 G with a wide range of geometries. We find a clear trend towards decreasing magnetic field strength with age, and a power law decrease in magnetic field strength with Rossby number. There is some tentative evidence for saturation of the large-scale magnetic field strength at Rossby numbers below 0.1, although the saturation point is not yet well defined. Comparing to younger classical T Tauri stars, we support the hypothesis that differences in internal structure produce large differences in observed magnetic fields, however for weak-lined T Tauri stars this is less clear.

  10. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex ((t)BuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that (t)BuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35-40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI.

  11. Delayed rotation of the cerebellar vermis: a pitfall in early second-trimester fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J; Paladini, D; Severino, M; Morana, G; Pais, R; Martinetti, C; Rossi, A

    2016-07-01

    We describe two cases in which delayed rotation of the cerebellar vermis simulated a Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) on early second-trimester magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two pregnant women with suspected fetal posterior fossa anomaly on ultrasound examination underwent fetal MRI at 21 (Case 1) and 19 (Case 2) weeks' gestation. In both cases, upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis was noted; on midsagittal imaging, the brainstem-vermis angle was 28° and 43°, respectively, while cerebellar morphometry showed a reduced vermian anteroposterior diameter compared to reference data. The posterior fossa appeared to be mildly enlarged, while all other findings were normal. Follow-up MRI at 28 + 3 weeks' gestation (Case 1) and at 1 postnatal year (Case 2) showed completely normal findings. Both children had normal psychomotor development and neurological examinations at 1 year of age. Incomplete rotation of the cerebellar vermis can be a physiological finding on early second-trimester fetal MRI examination and can simulate DWM or other forms of cerebellar hypoplasia. Embryologically, delayed permeabilization of Blake's pouch could account for the delayed vermian rotation. Follow-up imaging at a later gestational age is crucial to ensure that this condition is not over-reported and to avoid the potential risk of unnecessary pregnancy interruption. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging as First-Line Investigation for Growth Hormone Deficiency Diagnosis in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Pampanini, Valentina; Pedicelli, Stefania; Gubinelli, Jessica; Scirè, Giuseppe; Cappa, Marco; Boscherini, Brunetto; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in infancy and early childhood is not straightforward. GH stimulation tests are unsafe and unreliable in infants, and normative data are lacking. This study aims to investigate whether brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may replace GH stimulation tests in the diagnosis of GHD in children younger than 4 years. We examined a retrospective cohort, with longitudinal follow-up, of 68 children consecutively diagnosed with GHD before the age of 4 years. The prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) alterations at MRI and the associations with age and either isolated GHD (IGHD) or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) were assessed. The prevalences of IGHD and MPHD were 54.4 and 45.6%, respectively. In the first group, brain MRI showed abnormalities in 83.8%: isolated pituitary hypoplasia in 48.7% and complex defects in 35.1%. In patients with MPHD, MRI showed complex alterations in 100%. All children younger than 24 months showed HP MRI abnormalities, regardless of the diagnosis. Complex defects were found in 94% of patients younger than 12 months and in 75% of patients between 13 and 24 months. Our data suggest that brain MRI may represent the first-line investigation for diagnosing GHD in infancy and early childhood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Topographic contribution of early visual cortex to short-term memory consolidation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Vincent; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-04

    The neural correlates for retention of visual information in visual short-term memory are considered separate from those of sensory encoding. However, recent findings suggest that sensory areas may play a role also in short-term memory. We investigated the functional relevance, spatial specificity, and temporal characteristics of human early visual cortex in the consolidation of capacity-limited topographic visual memory using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Topographically specific TMS pulses were delivered over lateralized occipital cortex at 100, 200, or 400 ms into the retention phase of a modified change detection task with low or high memory loads. For the high but not the low memory load, we found decreased memory performance for memory trials in the visual field contralateral, but not ipsilateral to the side of TMS, when pulses were delivered at 200 ms into the retention interval. A behavioral version of the TMS experiment, in which a distractor stimulus (memory mask) replaced the TMS pulses, further corroborated these findings. Our findings suggest that retinotopic visual cortex contributes to the short-term consolidation of topographic visual memory during early stages of the retention of visual information. Further, TMS-induced interference decreased the strength (amplitude) of the memory representation, which most strongly affected the high memory load trials.

  14. Thrombolysis in Postoperative Stroke.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Nicolas; Hubert, Nikolai Dominik; Backhaus, Roland; Haberl, Roman Ludwig; Hubert, Gordian Jan

    2017-11-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is beneficial in reducing disability in selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. There are numerous contraindications to IVT. One is recent surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety of IVT in patients with postoperative stroke. Data of consecutive IVT patients from the Telemedical Project for Integrative Stroke Care thrombolysis registry (February 2003 to October 2014; n=4848) were retrospectively searched for keywords indicating preceding surgery. Patients were included if surgery was performed within the last 90 days before stroke. The primary outcome was defined as surgical site hemorrhage. Subgroups with major/minor surgery and recent/nonrecent surgery (within 10 days before IVT) were analyzed separately. One hundred thirty-four patients underwent surgical intervention before IVT. Surgery had been performed recently (days 1-10) in 49 (37%) and nonrecently (days 11-90) in 85 patients (63%). In 86 patients (64%), surgery was classified as major, and in 48 (36%) as minor. Nine patients (7%) developed surgical site hemorrhage after IVT, of whom 4 (3%) were serious, but none was fatal. One fatal bleeding occurred remotely from surgical area. Rate of surgical site hemorrhage was significantly higher in recent than in nonrecent surgery (14.3% versus 2.4%, respectively, odds ratio adjusted 10.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-61.27). Difference between patients with major and minor surgeries was less distinct (8.1% and 4.2%, respectively; odds ratio adjusted 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-25.04). Overall in-hospital mortality was 8.2%. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 9.7% and was asymptomatic in all cases. IVT may be administered safely in postoperative patients as off-label use after appropriate risk-benefit assessment. However, bleeding risk in surgical area should be taken into account particularly in patients who have undergone surgery shortly before stroke onset. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Suitability of chondrules for studying the magnetic field of the early solar system: an examination of synthetically produced dusty olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Feinberg, J. M.; Church, N.; Bromiley, G.; Bowles, J.; Jackson, M.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Chondritic meteorites are rare, yet incredibly valuable windows into the geophysical and geochemical environment of the early solar system. Dusty olivine grains containing exsolved nanometer-scale iron-nickel alloy inclusions are present in many chondritic meteorites and their remanent magnetization may give insight into the strength of the solar dynamo at the time of chondrule formation. Laboratory methods for determining the paleointensity of these rare materials must be optimized prior to conducting experiments on actual meteorite samples. To this end, we have used high temperature recrystallization techniques to produce synthetic dusty olivine samples with textures remarkably similar to those observed in chondritic meteorites. The olivine grains used in these annealing experiments are from the 13 kya Haleyjabunga picritic basalt flow in Iceland and have compositions of Fo90, which closely resembles the olivine composition observed in chondritic meteorites. Samples were annealed at 1350°C either under vacuum in the presence of graphite or under controlled oxygen fugacity using pure CO gas. The laboratory-produced magnetic mineral assemblages in two sets of samples have been characterized using low and high temperature remanence and susceptibility measurements, hysteresis loops, FORC diagrams, and scanning electron microscopy. The room-temperature remanence properties of these materials have been explored using stepwise IRM and ARM acquisition and alternating field demagnetization. These synthesis techniques allow us to produce a wide rage of iron-nickel grain sizes with correspondingly large variations in coercivity (between 0 and 500 mT). High temperature measurements of saturation magnetization show that both samples reach their Curie temperatures at ~760°C, consistent with kamacite, a low-Ni high-Fe metal alloy. Multiple experiments have shown that care must be taken to rigorously control the atmosphere in which the samples are heated and cooled in order to

  16. Comparison of clinical, radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging methods for early prediction of canine hip laxity and dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ginja, Mário M D; Ferreira, António J; Jesus, Sandra S; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Bulas-Cruz, José; Orden, Maria A; San-Roman, Fidel; Llorens-Pena, Maria P; Gonzalo-Orden, José M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use two palpation methods (Bardens and Ortolani), a radiographic distraction view, three computed tomography (CT) measurements (dorsolateral subluxation score, the lateral center-edge angle, and acetabular ventroversion angle) and two magnetic resonance (MR) imaging hip studies (synovial fluid and acetabular depth indices) in the early monitoring of hip morphology and laxity in 7-9 week old puppies; and in a follow-up study to compare their accuracy in predicting later hip laxity and dysplasia. The MR imaging study was performed with the dog in dorsal recumbency and the CT study with the animal in a weight-bearing position. There was no association between clinical laxity with later hip laxity or dysplasia. The dorsolateral subluxation score and the lateral center-edge angle were characterized by a weak negative correlation with later radiographic passive hip laxity (-0.26 < r < -0.38, P < 0.05) but its association with hip dysplasia was not significant. There was an association between early radiographic passive hip laxity and synovial fluid index with later passive hip laxity (0.41 < r < 0.55, P < 0.05) and this was significantly different in dysplastic vs. nondysplastic hips (P < 0.05). There was no association between the remaining variables and later hip laxity or dysplasia. The overlapping ranges of early passive hip laxity and synovial fluid index for hip dysplasia grades and the moderate correlations with the later passive hip laxity make the results of these variables unreliable for use in predicting hip laxity and dysplasia susceptibility.

  17. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and alpha-fetoprotein predict prognosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, XinWei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in ∼15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n=70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n=109). This noninvasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Alpha-fetoprotein Predict Prognosis of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, Xin Wei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here, we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in approximately 15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n = 70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n = 109). Conclusion: This non-invasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. PMID:24700365

  19. Near-infrared Fluorescence Optical Imaging in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparison to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Michaela; Ohrndorf, Sarah; Werner, Stephanie G; Schicke, Bernd; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Hamm, Bernd; Backhaus, Marina; Hermann, Kay-Geert A

    2015-07-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) is a novel imaging technology in the detection and evaluation of different arthritides. FOI was validated in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), greyscale ultrasonography (GSUS), and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hands of 31 patients with early RA were examined by FOI, MRI, and US. In each modality, synovitis of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) 2-5, and proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP) 2-5 were scored on a 4-point scale (0-3). Sensitivity and specificity of FOI were analyzed in comparison to MRI and US as reference methods, differentiating between 3 phases of FOI enhancement (P1-3). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to evaluate the agreement of FOI with MRI and US. A total of 279 joints (31 wrists, 124 MCP and 124 PIP joints) were evaluated. With MRI as the reference method, overall sensitivity/specificity of FOI was 0.81/0.00, 0.49/0.84, and 0.86/0.38 for wrist, MCP, and PIP joints, respectively. Under application of PDUS as reference, sensitivity was even higher, while specificity turned out to be low, except for MCP joints (0.88/0.15, 0.81/0.76, and 1.00/0.27, respectively). P2 appears to be the most sensitive FOI phase, while P1 showed the highest specificity. The best agreement of FOI was shown for PDUS, especially with regard to MCP and PIP joints (ICC of 0.57 and 0.53, respectively), while correlation with MRI was slightly lower. FOI remains an interesting diagnostic tool for patients with early RA, although this study revealed limitations concerning the detection of synovitis. Further research is needed to evaluate its full diagnostic potential in rheumatic diseases.

  20. [Accelerated postoperative recovery after colorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, P; Schaack, E

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated recovery programs are clinical pathways which outline the stages, and streamline the means, and techniques aiming toward the desired end a rapid return of the patient to his pre-operative physical and psychological status. Recovery from colo-rectal surgery may be slowed by the patient's general health, surgical stress, post-surgical pain, and post-operative ileus. Both surgeons and anesthesiologists participate throughout the peri-operative period in a clinical pathway aimed at minimizing these delaying factors. Key elements of this pathway include avoidance of pre-operative colonic cleansing, early enteral feeding, and effective post-operative pain management permitting early ambulation (usually via thoracic epidural anesthesia). Pre-operative information and motivation of the patient is also a key to the success of this accelerated recovery program. Studies of such programs have shown decreased duration of post-operative ileus and hospital stay without an increase in complications or re-admissions. The elements of the clinical pathway must be regularly re-evaluated and updated according to local experience and published data.

  1. Development of vocal tract length during early childhood: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Kent, Ray D.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Kalina, Cliff M.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Yandell, Brian S.

    2005-01-01

    Speech development in children is predicated partly on the growth and anatomic restructuring of the vocal tract. This study examines the growth pattern of the various hard and soft tissue vocal tract structures as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and assesses their relational growth with vocal tract length (VTL). Measurements on lip thickness, hard- and soft-palate length, tongue length, naso-oro-pharyngeal length, mandibular length and depth, and distance of the hyoid bone and larynx from the posterior nasal spine were used from 63 pediatric cases (ages birth to 6 years and 9 months) and 12 adults. Results indicate (a) ongoing growth of all oral and pharyngeal vocal tract structures with no sexual dimorphism, and a period of accelerated growth between birth and 18 months; (b) vocal tract structure's region (oral/anterior versus pharyngeal/posterior) and orientation (horizontal versus vertical) determine its growth pattern; and (c) the relational growth of the different structures with VTL changes with development-while the increase in VTL throughout development is predominantly due to growth of pharyngeal/posterior structures, VTL is also substantially affected by the growth of oral/anterior structures during the first 18 months of life. Findings provide normative data that can be used for modeling the development of the vocal tract. .

  2. The Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada-Evidence for Early Proterozoic magmatic arc crust at the edge of the North American craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the nature of the source of the high-amplitude, long-wavelength, Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly (MRA), Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, based on magnetic field data collected at three different altitudes: 300??m, 3.5??km and 400??km. The MRA is the largest amplitude (13??nT) satellite magnetic anomaly over Canada. Within the extent of the MRA, source depth estimates (8-12??km) from Euler deconvolution of low-altitude aeromagnetic data show coincidence with basement depths interpreted from reflection seismic data. Inversion of high-altitude (3.5??km) aeromagnetic data produces an average magnetization of 2.5??A/m within a 15- to 35-km deep layer, a value typical of magmatic arc complexes. Early Proterozoic magmatic arc rocks have been sampled to the southeast of the MRA, within the Fort Simpson magnetic anomaly. The MRA is one of several broad-scale magnetic highs that occur along the inboard margin of the Cordillera in Canada and Alaska, which are coincident with geometric changes in the thrust front transition from the mobile belt to stable cratonic North America. The inferred early Proterozoic magmatic arc complex along the western edge of the North American craton likely influenced later tectonic evolution, by acting as a buttress along the inboard margin of the Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. Crown Copyright ?? 2008.

  3. Lunar paleointensities via the IRMs normalization method and the early magnetic history of the moon. [saturation remanence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, S. M.; Fuller, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining a planetary body's magnetic field environment over time is proposed. This relative paleointensity method is based on the normalization of natural remanence to saturation remanence magnetization as measured after each sample is exposed to a strong magnetic field. It is shown that this method is well suited to delineating order-of-magnitude changes in magnetizing fields.

  4. Immunonutrition - the influence of early postoperative glutamine supplementation in enteral/parenteral nutrition on immune response, wound healing and length of hospital stay in multiple trauma patients and patients after extensive surgery.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kai J; Schallert, Reiner; Daniel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    In the postoperative phase, the prognosis of multiple trauma patients with severe brain injuries as well as of patients with extensive head and neck surgery mainly depends on protein metabolism and the prevention of septic complications. Wound healing problems can also result in markedly longer stays in the intensive care unit and general wards. As a result, the immunostimulation of patients in the postoperative phase is expected to improve their immunological and overall health. A study involving 15 patients with extensive ENT tumour surgery and 7 multiple-trauma patients investigated the effect of enteral glutamine supplementation on immune induction, wound healing and length of hospital stay. Half of the patients received a glutamine-supplemented diet. The control group received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet. In summary, we found that total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of activated CD4+DR+ T helper lymphocytes, the in-vitro response of lymphocytes to mitogens, as well as IL-2 plasma levels normalised faster in patients who received glutamine-supplemented diets than in patients who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets and that these parameters were even above normal by the end of the second postoperative week. We believe that providing critically ill patients with a demand-oriented immunostimulating diet is fully justified as it reduces septic complications, accelerates wound healing, and shortens the length of ICU (intensive care unit) and general ward stays.

  5. Perspectives on the importance of postoperative ileus.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Spoletini, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Post-operative ileus (POI) is a common condition after surgery. Failure to restore adequate bowel function after surgery generates a series of complications and it is associated to patients frustration and discomfort, worsening their perioperative experience. Even mild POI can be source of anxiety and could be perceived as a drop out from the "straight-forward" pathway. Enhanced recovery programmes have emphasized the importance of early commencement of oral diet, avoiding the ancient dogmata of prolonged gastric decompression and fasting. These protocols with early oral feeding and mobilization have led to improved perioperative management and have decreased hospital length of stay, ameliorating patient's postoperative experience as well. Nonetheless, the incidence of POI is still high especially after major open abdominal surgery. In order to decrease the incidence of POI, minimally-invasive surgical approaches and minimization of surgical manipulation have been suggested. From a pharmacological perspective, a meta-analysis of pro-kinetics showed beneficial results with alvimopan, although its use has been limited by the augmented risk of myocardial infarction and the high costs. A more simple approach based on the postoperative use of chewing-gum has provided some benefits in restoring bowel function. From an anaesthesiological perspective, epidural anaesthesia/analgesia does not only reduce the postoperative consumption of systemic opioids but directly improve gastrointestinal function and should be considered where possible, at least for open surgical procedures. POI represents a common and debilitating complication that should be challenged with multi-disciplinary approach. Prospective research is warranted on this field and should focus also on patient s reported outcomes.

  6. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Doman, Sydney E.; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L.; Drummond, Gabrielle T.; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S.; Johnston, Michael V.; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  7. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Doman, Sydney E; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L; Drummond, Gabrielle T; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  8. Role of Early Postradiation Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in Children With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Christine; Kaushal, Aradhana, E-mail: kaushala@mail.nih.gov; Hammoud, Dima A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine optimal timing of assessing postradiation radiographic response on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated on a prospective study at the National Cancer Institute (Protocol no. 06-C-0219) evaluating the effects of radiotherapy (RT). Standard RT was administered in standard fractionation over 6 weeks. Postradiation MRI scans were performed at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Results: Eleven patients with DIPG were evaluated. Median age was 6 years (range, 4-13 years). Patients were treated with external-beam RT to 55.8 Gy (n = 10) or 54 Gy (nmore » = 1), with a gross tumor volume to planning target volume expansion of 1.8-2.0 cm. All patients received prescribed dose and underwent posttreatment MRI scans at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Pretreatment imaging revealed compression of fourth ventricle (n = 11); basilar artery encasement (n = 9); tumor extension outside the pons (n = 11); and tumor hemorrhage (n = 2). At the 2-week scan, basilar artery encasement improved in 7 of 9 patients, and extent of tumor was reduced in 5 of 11 patients. Fourth ventricle compression improved in 6 of 11 patients but worsened in 3 of 11 patients. Presumed necrosis was observed in 5 of 11 patients at 2 weeks and in 1 additional patient at 6-8 weeks. There was no significant difference in mean anteroposterior and transverse diameters of tumor between the 2- and 6-8-week time points. Six of 11 patients had increasing ventricular size, with no evidence of obstruction. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in tumor size of DIPG patients who have received standard RT when measured at 2 weeks vs. 6-8 weeks after RT. The majority of patients had the largest change in tumor size at the 2-week post-RT scan, with evolving changes documented on the 6-8-week scan. Six of 11 patients had progressive ventriculomegaly without obstruction, suggestive of communicating hydrocephalus. To

  9. Postoperative surgical complications of lymphadenohysterocolpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F; Pleşca, M; Bordea, CI; Voinea, SC; Burlănescu, I; Ichim, E; Jianu, CG; Nicolăescu, RR; Teodosie, MP; Maher, K; Blidaru, A

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The current standard surgical treatment for the cervix and uterine cancer is the radical hysterectomy (lymphadenohysterocolpectomy). This has the risk of intraoperative accidents and postoperative associated morbidity. Objective The purpose of this article is the evaluation and quantification of the associated complications in comparison to the postoperative morbidity which resulted after different types of radical hysterectomy. Methods and results Patients were divided according to the type of surgery performed as follows: for cervical cancer – group A- 37 classic radical hysterectomies Class III Piver - Rutledge -Smith ( PRS ), group B -208 modified radical hysterectomies Class II PRS and for uterine cancer- group C -79 extended hysterectomies with pelvic lymphadenectomy from which 17 patients with paraaortic lymphnode biopsy . All patients performed preoperative radiotherapy and 88 of them associated radiosensitization. Discussion Early complications were intra-abdominal bleeding ( 2.7% Class III PRS vs 0.48% Class II PRS), supra-aponeurotic hematoma ( 5.4% III vs 2.4% II) , dynamic ileus (2.7% III vs 0.96% II) and uro - genital fistulas (5.4% III vs 0.96% II).The late complications were the bladder dysfunction (21.6% III vs 16.35% II) , lower limb lymphedema (13.5% III vs 11.5% II), urethral strictures (10.8% III vs 4.8% II) , incisional hernias ( 8.1% III vs 7.2% II), persistent pelvic pain (18.91% III vs 7.7% II), bowel obstruction (5.4% III vs 1.4% II) and deterioration of sexual function (83.3% III vs 53.8% II). PRS class II radical hysterectomy is associated with fewer complications than PRS class III radical hysterectomy , except for the complications of lymphadenectomy . A new method that might reduce these complications is a selective lymphadenectomy represented by sentinel node biopsy . In conclusion PRS class II radical hysterectomy associated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy is a therapeutic option for the incipient stages of cervical cancer

  10. Early Detection and Quantification of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Magnetic Resonance Black Blood Thrombus Imaging (MRBTI)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Duan, Jiangang; Fan, Zhaoyang; Qu, Xiaofeng; Xie, Yibin; Nguyen, Christopher; Du, Xiangying; Bi, Xiaoming; Li, Kuncheng; Ji, Xunming; Li, Debiao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Early diagnosis of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVT) is currently a major clinical challenge. We proposed a novel MR black-blood thrombus imaging technique(MRBTI) for detection and quantification of CVT. Methods MRBTI was performed on 23 patients with proven CVT and 24 patients with negative CVT confirmed by conventional imaging techniques. Patients were divided into two groups based on the duration of clinical onset: ≤ 7 days (group 1); between 7 and 30 days (group 2). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated for the detected thrombus and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between thrombus and lumen, and also between thrombus and brain tisssue. The feasibility of using MRBTI for thrombus volume measurement was explored and total thrombus volume was calculated for each patient. Results In 23 patients with proven CVT, MRBTI correctly identified 113 out of 116 segments with a sensitivity of 97.4%. Thrombus SNR was 153±57 and 261±95 for group 1(n=10) and group 2(n=13), respectively(P<0.01). Thrombus to lumen CNR was 149±57 and 256±94 for group 1 and group 2. Thrombus to brain tissue CNR was 41±36 and 120±63 (P<0.01), respectively. Quantification of thrombus volume was successfully conducted in all patients with CVT, and mean volume of thrombus was 10.5±6.9cc. Conclusions The current findings support that with effectively suppressed blood signal, MRBTI allows selective visualization of thrombus as opposed to indirect detection of venous flow perturbation and can be used as a promising first line diagnostic imaging tool. PMID:26670082

  11. [Postoperative management of patients with BMI > 40 kg / m2].

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, M; Utzolino, S

    2009-02-01

    Bariatric surgery, especially in the morbidly obese, can be associated with serious postoperative problems. Apart from surgical complications requiring reoperation, pre-existing disease can worsen during the postoperative period. Bariatric patients require particular therapeutic approaches such as adapted fluid and pain management, management of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnea, early ambulation and measures for preventing pressure ulcers. Another challenging issue is the early identification and management of postoperative intraabdominal sepsis (IAS) before the onset of organ dysfunction. Early and frequent ambulation is thought to reduce risk of pressure ulcers, deep vein thrombosis, resedation, pain, pneumonia and atelectasis. To prevent spine injury of health care workers it is necessary to provide appropriate support with special beds, lifting and transfer devices.

  12. [Clinical randomized controlled trial on ultrashort wave and magnetic therapy for the treatment of early stage distal radius fractures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Jie; Liu, Jia

    2012-07-01

    To explore the effect of application of ultrashort wave and magnetic therapy instrument on the swelling regression in distal radius fractures treated by splint external fixation in initial stage. From March 2007 to May 2010,90 patients with distal radial fracture were treated by manual reduction and splint external fixation. After manual reduction and small splints external fixation, these patients were randomly divided into electrical physical therapy group, western medicine group and the control group by the order of calling number, with 30 cases each group. In control group, there were 9 males and 21 females with an average age of (61.29 +/- 1.97) years, the patients raised and exercise the limb and fingers only. The other two groups also carried out this treatment. In electrical physical therapy group, there were 9 males and 21 females with an average age of (62.37 +/- 2.48) years, the patients were treated with ultrashort wave and magnetic therapy instrument for early intervention, once a day, 5 days for a course of treatment and three cycle were operated. In western medicine group,there were 8 males and 22 females with an average age of (60.12 +/- 2.87) years, the patients were injected with beta-aescin (20 mg, intravenous injection,once a day) for 5 days, followed by Danshen injection (20 ml, intravenous injection, once a day) for 10 days. The limb swelling of patients were assessed every day for 20 days after manual reduction and small splints external fixation. The time of swelling regression in electrical physical therapy group, western medicine group and the control group were respectively (9.62 +/- 3.32), (10.05 +/- 3.05) and (14.57 +/- 2.93) days. Both of that in electrical physical therapy group and western medicine group were shorter than that in the control group (P<0.05), then there were not statistical difference between electrical physical therapy group and western medicine group (P>0.05). The effective rate of swelling regression in electrical

  13. Magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  14. Neonatal Encephalopathic Cerebral Injury in South India Assessed by Perinatal Magnetic Resonance Biomarkers and Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pauliah, Shreela S.; Bainbridge, Alan; Kurien, Justin; Sivasamy, Neeraja; Cowan, Frances M.; Balraj, Guhan; Ayer, Manjula; Satheesan, Kariyapilly; Ceebi, Sreejith; Wade, Angie; Swamy, Ravi; Padinjattel, Shaji; Hutchon, Betty; Vijayakumar, Madhava; Nair, Mohandas; Padinharath, Krishnakumar; Zhang, Hui; Cady, Ernest B.; Shankaran, Seetha; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2014-01-01

    Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India. Methods We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III. Results Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%); moderate in 15 (28%) and severe in 6 (11%), with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%). Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91%) and cortex (n = 31, 70%) while only 12 (27%) had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81%) with 38 (79%) survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42%) had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusions No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of

  15. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    PubMed

    Lally, Peter J; Price, David L; Pauliah, Shreela S; Bainbridge, Alan; Kurien, Justin; Sivasamy, Neeraja; Cowan, Frances M; Balraj, Guhan; Ayer, Manjula; Satheesan, Kariyapilly; Ceebi, Sreejith; Wade, Angie; Swamy, Ravi; Padinjattel, Shaji; Hutchon, Betty; Vijayakumar, Madhava; Nair, Mohandas; Padinharath, Krishnakumar; Zhang, Hui; Cady, Ernest B; Shankaran, Seetha; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2014-01-01

    Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India. We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III. Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%); moderate in 15 (28%) and severe in 6 (11%), with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%). Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91%) and cortex (n = 31, 70%) while only 12 (27%) had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81%) with 38 (79%) survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42%) had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  16. Early myocardial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a study using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xichun; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Towner, Rheal A; Abbott, Andrew; Patterson, Eugene; Huang, Shijun; Garrett, Marion W; Chandrasekaran, Suresh; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Luke I; Gordon, Brian E; Kem, David C

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL/6 mice with two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 19–25 mmol/l using intermittent low dosages of long acting insulin glargine. MRI and echocardiography were performed at 4 weeks of diabetes (age of 12 weeks) in diabetic mice and age-matched controls. Results After 4 weeks of hyperglycemia one marker of mitochondrial function, NADH oxidase activity, was decreased to 50% of control animals. MRI studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks demonstrated significant deficits in myocardial morphology and functionality including: a decreased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, an increased LV end-systolic diameter and volume, a diminished LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, a decreased LV circumferential shortening, and decreased LV peak ejection and filling rates. M-mode echocardiographic and Doppler flow studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks showed a decreased wall thickening and increased E/A ratio, supporting both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that MRI interrogation can identify the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice with its impaired functional capacity and altered morphology. The MRI technique will lend itself to repetitive study of early changes in cardiac function in small animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:17309798

  17. Infarct Volume Prediction by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Murine Stroke Model Depends on Ischemia Duration and Time of Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Christoph; Füchtemeier, Martina; Jorks, Devi; Mueller, Susanne; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Royl, Georg

    2015-11-01

    Despite standardization of experimental stroke models, final infarct sizes after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) vary considerably. This introduces uncertainties in the evaluation of drug effects on stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging may detect variability of surgically induced ischemia before treatment and thus improve treatment effect evaluation. MCAO of 45 and 90 minutes induced brain infarcts in 83 mice. During, and 3 and 6 hours after MCAO, we performed multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated time courses of cerebral blood flow, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T1, T2, accuracy of infarct prediction strategies, and impact on statistical evaluation of experimental stroke studies. ADC decreased during MCAO but recovered completely on reperfusion after 45 and partially after 90-minute MCAO, followed by a secondary decline. ADC lesion volumes during MCAO or at 6 hours after MCAO largely determined final infarct volumes for 90 but not for 45 minutes MCAO. The majority of chance findings of final infarct volume differences in random group allocations of animals were associated with significant differences in early ADC lesion volumes for 90, but not for 45-minute MCAO. The prediction accuracy of early magnetic resonance imaging for infarct volumes depends on timing of magnetic resonance imaging and MCAO duration. Variability of the posterior communicating artery in C57Bl6 mice contributes to differences in prediction accuracy between short and long MCAO. Early ADC imaging may be used to reduce errors in the interpretation of post MCAO treatment effects on stroke volumes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Earth's magnetic field strength in the Early Cambrian: Thellier paleointensity estimates of Itabaiana mafic dykes, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, R. I. F.; Macouin, M.; Poitou, C.; Chauvin, A.; Hill, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thellier's paleointensity and microwave paleointensity experiments were carried out in Early Cambrian dykes from Itabaiana (NE Brazil) dated at 525 ±5 Ma. A previous paleomagnetic study on these dykes reveals a very stable characteristic component, whose thermoremanent nature is confirmed by positive baked contact tests performed in three different dykes. The main magnetic carrier is Ti-poor to pure magnetite in the PSD to SD domain state. Hysteresis parameters and first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams will be presented in order to apprehend the two different behaviors that characterize the samples during paleointensity experiments. From the 96 samples (from 13 dykes) analyzed in two laboratories using slightly different Thellier's experimental protocols, we have retained 12 samples (3 dykes) for paleointensity estimates. Paleointensity values range from 18.1 up to 40 μΤ. This corresponds to equivalent VDMs of 4.3 ± 0.5, 4.4 ± 1.4 and 5.3 ± 0.9 x 1022 Am2, for the three dykes respectively. These results, the first obtained for rapidly cooled Cambrian rocks, document a moderate Earth field in the Precambrian-Cambrian transition.

  19. Early uptake of breast magnetic resonance imaging in a community-based medical practice, 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Stout, Natasha K; Nekhlyudov, Larissa

    2011-04-01

    Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast have expanded across the breast cancer detection and control spectrum over the past decade. Use appears to be growing, although evidence for or against its use is still accumulating. Using electronic health plan and medical record data, we documented early trends in breast MRI use from 2000 through 2004 in a large community practice setting with approximately 82,000 eligible female patients. During the study period, 225 women received at least one breast MRI; of those, 64 had subsequent MRI (for a total of 333 MRIs). Utilization grew from 6 MRIs in 2000 to 112 in 2004, with increasing use for screening, diagnosis, disease staging/treatment, and surveillance purposes. Diagnostic use accounted for nearly half of the breast MRIs (164 of 333). In this community-based practice, there was rapid uptake of this new technology despite paucity of evidence about its uses. As new evidence is generated, use of this technology will need to be monitored to minimize the risk of overuse and unintended downstream consequences.

  20. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. NASPGHAN Clinical Report on Postoperative Recurrence in Pediatric Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Splawski, Judy B; Pffefferkorn, Marian D; Schaefer, Marc E; Day, Andrew S; Soldes, Oliver S; Ponsky, Todd A; Stein, Philip; Kaplan, Jess L; Saeed, Shehzad A

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric Crohn disease is characterized by clinical and endoscopic relapses. The inflammatory process is considered to be progressive and may lead to strictures, fistulas, and penetrating disease that may require surgery. In addition, medically refractory disease may be treated by surgical resection of inflamed bowel in an effort to reverse growth failure. The need for surgery in childhood suggests severe disease and these patients have an increased risk for recurrent disease and potentially more surgery. Data show that up to 55% of patients had clinical recurrence in the first 2 years after initial surgery. The current clinical report on postoperative recurrence in pediatric Crohn disease reviews the risk factors for early surgery and postoperative recurrence, operative risk factors for recurrence, and prevention and monitoring strategies for postoperative recurrence. We also propose an algorithm for postoperative management in pediatric Crohn disease.

  2. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Early brain magnetic resonance imaging can predict short and long-term outcomes after organophosphate poisoning in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Shrot, Shai; Tauber, Maya; Shiyovich, Arthur; Milk, Nadav; Rosman, Yossi; Eisenkraft, Arik; Kadar, Tamar; Kassirer, Michael; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a sensitive modality for demonstrating in vivo alterations in brain structure and function after acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning. The goals of this study were to explore early imaging findings in organophosphate-poisoned animals, to assess the efficacy of centrally acting antidotes and to find whether early MR findings can predict post-poisoning cognitive dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were poisoned with the agricultural OP paraoxon and were treated with immediate atropine and obidoxime (ATOX) to reduce acute mortality caused by peripheral inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Animals were randomly divided into three groups based on the protocol of centrally acting antidotal treatment: group 1 - no central antidotal treatment (n=10); group 2 - treated with midazolam (MID) at 30 min after poisoning (n=9), group 3 - treated with a combination of MID and scopolamine (SCOP) at 30 min after poisoning (n=9) and controls (n=6). Each animal had a brain MR examination 3 and 24 h after poisoning. Each MR examination included the acquisition of a T2 map and a single-voxel (1)H MR spectroscopy (localized on the thalami, to measure total creatine [Cr], N-acetyl-aspartate [NAA] and cholines [Cho] levels). Eleven days after poisoning each animal underwent a Morris water maze to assess hippocampal learning. Eighteen days after poisoning, animals were euthanized, and their brains were dissected, fixed and processed for histology. All paraoxon poisoned animals developed generalized convulsions, starting within a few minutes following paraoxon injection. Brain edema was maximal on MR imaging 3 h after poisoning. Both MID and MID+SCOP prevented most of the cortical edema, with equivalent efficacy. Brain metabolic dysfunction, manifested as decreased NAA/Cr, appeared in all poisoned animals as early as 3h after exposure (1.1 ± 0.07 and 1.42 ± 0.05 in ATOX and control groups, respectively) and remained lower compared to non-poisoned animals even

  4. Ultrashort Echo-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is a Sensitive Method for the Evaluation of Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roach, David J.; Crémillieux, Yannick; Fleck, Robert J.; Brody, Alan S.; Serai, Suraj D.; Szczesniak, Rhonda D.; Kerlakian, Stephanie; Clancy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Recent advancements that have been made in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improve our ability to assess pulmonary structure and function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A nonionizing imaging modality that can be used as a serial monitoring tool throughout life can positively affect patient care and outcomes. Objectives: To compare an ultrashort echo-time MRI method with computed tomography (CT) as a biomarker of lung structure abnormalities in young children with early CF lung disease. Methods: Eleven patients with CF (mean age, 31.8 ± 5.7 mo; median age, 33 mo; 7 male and 4 female) were imaged via CT and ultrashort echo-time MRI. Eleven healthy age-matched patients (mean age, 22.5 ± 10.2 mo; median age, 23 mo; 5 male and 6 female) were imaged via ultrashort echo-time MRI. CT scans of 13 additional patients obtained for clinical indications not affecting the heart or lungs and interpreted as normal provided a CT control group (mean age, 24.1 ± 11.7 mo; median age, 24 mo; 6 male and 7 female). Studies were scored by two experienced radiologists using a well-validated CF-specific scoring system for CF lung disease. Measurements and Main Results: Correlations between CT and ultrashort echo-time MRI scores of patients with CF were very strong, with P values ≤0.001 for bronchiectasis (r = 0.96) and overall score (r = 0.90), and moderately strong for bronchial wall thickening (r = 0.62, P = 0.043). MRI easily differentiated CF and control groups via a reader CF-specific scoring system. Conclusions: Ultrashort echo-time MRI detected structural lung disease in very young patients with CF and provided imaging data that correlated well with CT. By quantifying early CF lung disease without using ionizing radiation, ultrashort echo-time MRI appears well suited for pediatric patients requiring longitudinal imaging for clinical care or research studies. Clinical Trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01832519). PMID

  5. Early Exposure to Intermediate-Frequency Magnetic Fields Alters Brain Biomarkers without Histopathological Changes in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Recently we have reported that intermediate-frequency magnetic field (IF-MF) exposure transiently altered the mRNA expression levels of memory function-related genes in the hippocampi of adult male mice. However, the effects of IF-MF exposure during brain development on neurological biomarkers have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IF-MF exposure during development on neurological and immunological markers in the mouse hippocampus in 3- and 7-week-old male mice. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to IF-MF (21 kHz, 3.8 mT) for one hour per day from organogenesis period day 7 to 17. At adolescence, some IF-MF-exposed mice were further divided into exposure, recovery, and sham-exposure groups. The adolescent-exposure groups were exposed again to IF-MF from postnatal day 27 to 48. The expression of mRNA in the hippocampi was examined using a real-time RT-PCR method, and microglia activation was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression levels of NR1 and NR2B as well as transcription factors (CaMKIV, CREB1), inflammatory mediators (COX2, IL-1 β,TNF-α), and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 were significantly increased in the IF-MF-exposed mice, compared with the control group, in the 7-week-old mice, but not in the 3-week-old mice. Microglia activation was not different between the control and other groups. This study provides the first evidence that early exposure to IF-MF reversibly affects the NMDA receptor, its related signaling pathways, and inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of young adult mice; these changes are transient and recover after termination of exposure without histopathological changes. PMID:25913185

  6. Early detection of neuropathophysiology using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic cats with feline immunodeficiency viral infection.

    PubMed

    Bucy, Daniel S; Brown, Mark S; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Thompson, Jesse; Bachand, Annette M; Morges, Michelle; Elder, John H; Vandewoude, Sue; Kraft, Susan L

    2011-08-01

    HIV infection results in a highly prevalent syndrome of cognitive and motor disorders designated as HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Neurologic dysfunction resembling HAD has been documented in cats infected with strain PPR of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), whereas another highly pathogenic strain (C36) has not been known to cause neurologic signs. Animals experimentally infected with equivalent doses of FIV-C36 or FIV-PPR, and uninfected controls were evaluated by magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) at 17.5-18 weeks post-infection, as part of a study of viral clade pathogenesis in FIV-infected cats. The goals of the MR imaging portion of the project were to determine whether this methodology was capable of detecting early neuropathophysiology in the absence of outward manifestation of neurological signs and to compare the MR imaging results for the two viral strains expected to have differing degrees of neurologic effects. We hypothesized that there would be increased diffusion, evidenced by the apparent diffusion coefficient as measured by DW-MRI, and altered metabolite ratios measured by MRS, in the brains of FIV-PPR-infected cats relative to C36-infected cats and uninfected controls. Increased apparent diffusion coefficients were seen in the white matter, gray matter, and basal ganglia of both the PPR and C36-infected (asymptomatic) cats. Thalamic MRS metabolite ratios did not differ between groups. The equivalently increased diffusion by DW-MRI suggests similar indirect neurotoxicity mechanisms for the two viral genotypes. DW-MRI is a sensitive tool to detect neuropathophysiological changes in vivo that could be useful during longitudinal studies of FIV.

  7. Postoperative Copeptin Concentration Predicts Diabetes Insipidus After Pituitary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winzeler, Bettina; Zweifel, Christian; Nigro, Nicole; Arici, Birsen; Bally, Martina; Schuetz, Philipp; Blum, Claudine Angela; Kelly, Christopher; Berkmann, Sven; Huber, Andreas; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh; Landolt, Hans; Mariani, Luigi; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2015-06-01

    Copeptin is a stable surrogate marker of vasopressin release; the peptides are stoichiometrically secreted from the neurohypophysis due to elevated plasma osmolality or nonosmotic stress. We hypothesized that following stress from pituitary surgery, patients with neurohypophyseal damage and eventual diabetes insipidus (DI) would not exhibit the expected pronounced copeptin elevation. The objective was to evaluate copeptin's accuracy to predict DI following pituitary surgery. This was a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Three Swiss or Canadian referral centers were used. Consecutive pituitary surgery patients were included. Copeptin was measured postoperatively daily until discharge. Logistic regression models and diagnostic performance measures were calculated to assess relationships of postoperative copeptin levels and DI. Of 205 patients, 50 (24.4%) developed postoperative DI. Post-surgically, median [25th-75th percentile] copeptin levels were significantly lower in patients developing DI vs those not showing this complication: 2.9 [1.9-7.9] pmol/L vs 10.8 [5.2-30.4] pmol/L; P < .001. Logistic regression analysis revealed strong association between postoperative copeptin concentrations and DI even after considering known predisposing factors for DI: adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.41 (1.16-1.73). DI was seen in 22/27 patients with copeptin <2.5 pmol/L (positive predictive value, 81%; specificity, 97%), but only 1/40 with copeptin >30 pmol/L (negative predictive value, 95%; sensitivity, 94%) on postoperative day 1. Lack of standardized DI diagnostic criteria; postoperative blood samples for copeptin obtained during everyday care vs at fixed time points. In patients undergoing pituitary procedures, low copeptin levels despite surgical stress reflect postoperative DI, whereas high levels virtually exclude it. Copeptin therefore may become a novel tool for early goal-directed management of postoperative DI.

  8. Effects of preoperative and postoperative enteral nutrition on postoperative nutritional status and immune function of gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dayong; Feng, Ye; Song, Bin; Gao, Shuohui; Zhao, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    Effects of preoperative one week enteral nutrition (EN) support on the postoperative nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory response of gastric cancer patients were investigated. 106 cases of gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into preoperative one week EN group (trial group) and early postoperative EN group (control group), which were continuously treated with EN support until the postoperative 9th day according to different treatment protocols. All the patients were checked for their body weight, skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, white blood cell count (WBC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP), humoral immunity (IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. on the preoperative and the postoperative 1st and 10th day, respectively. PA and IgG levels of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group on the postoperative 10th day, whereas IL-6 level of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. EN support for preoperative gastric cancer patients will improve the postoperative nutritional status and immune function, alleviate inflammatory response, and facilitate the recovery of patients.

  9. Total resection of any segment of the lateral meniscus may cause early cartilage degeneration: Evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging using T2 mapping.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koji; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kato, Kammei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Fujii, Yuta; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform quantitative evaluation of degeneration of joint cartilage using T2 mapping in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after arthroscopic partial resection of the lateral meniscus.The subjects were 21 patients (23 knees) treated with arthroscopic partial resection of the lateral meniscus. MRI was performed for all knees before surgery and 6 months after surgery to evaluate the center of the lateral condyle of the femur in sagittal images for T2 mapping. Ten regions of interest (ROIs) on the articular cartilage were established at 10-degree intervals, from the point at which the femur shaft crossed the lateral femoral condyle joint to the articular cartilage 90° relative to the femur shaft. Preoperative and postoperative T2 values were evaluated at each ROI. Age, sex, body mass index, femorotibial angle, Tegner score, and amount of meniscal resection were evaluated when the T2 value increased more than 6% at 30°.T2 values at approximately 10 °, 20 °, 30 °, 40 °, 50 °, and 60 ° degrees relative to the anatomical axis of the femur were significantly greater postoperatively (3.1, 3.6, 5.5, 4.4, 5.0, 6.4%, respectively) than preoperatively. A >6% increase at 30° was associated with total resection of any segment of the meniscus.Degeneration of the articular cartilage, as shown by the disorganization of collagen arrays at positions approximately 10 °, 20 °, 30 °, 40 °, 50 °, and 60 ° relative to the anatomical axis of the femur, may start soon after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy. Total resection of any segment of the lateral meniscus may cause T2 elevation of articular cartilage of lateral femoral condyle.

  10. [Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy recognition of metabolic patterns in fecal extracts for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Wang, Z N; Ma, C C; Liu, C K; Yang, J R; Shen, Z W; Wu, R H

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To characterize the metabolic " fingerprint" of fecal extracts for diagnosis of early-stage colorectal cancer(CRC)using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy( 1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics coupled with pattern recognition. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2014, we collected fecal samples at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, from 25 patients with colorectal adenomas(CR-Ad), 20 with stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ CRC, and 32 healthy controls(HCs). The patients were diagnosed by histopathology. No subjects had any complicating diseases. HCs showed no abnormalities from blood tests, endoscopic examination, diagnostic imaging, and/or medical interviews. We excluded participants who used antibiotics, NSAIDS, statins, or probiotics within two months of study participation, and any patients who underwent chemotherapy or radiation treatments prior to surgery. We used orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA)for pattern recognition(dimension reduction)on 1 H-NMR processed data( 1 H frequency of 400.13 MHz), to find metabolic differences among CR-Ad, carcinoma and HC fecal samples; and receiver operating characteristic(ROC)analysis to determine the diagnostic value of the fecal metabolic biomarkers. Results: Fecal samples were collected from 20 patients with Stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ CRC(11 M, 9 F, median age(52±13)years), 25 with CR-Ad(14 M, 11 F, median age(53 ± 11)years)and 32 HCs(15 M, 17 F, median age(53 ± 14)years). OPLS-DA clearly distinguished CR-Ad and stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ CRC from HC samples, based on their metabolomic profiles. Relative signal intensities in HCs were significantly lower than in the cancer patients for butyrate(HC: 23.0±6.0; CR-Ad: 18.0±5.0; CRC: 14.0±6.0; Z =-2.07, P =0.008), acetate(HC: 45.0±11.0; CR-Ad: 31.0±11.0; CRC: 24.0±8.0; Z =- 2.32, P =0.011), propionate(HC: 26.0 ± 7.0; CR-Ad: 22.0 ± 6.0; CRC: 19.0 ± 5.0; Z =- 2.43, P =0.032), glucose(HC: 37.0±7.0; CR-Ad: 31.0±7.0; CRC: 26.0±8

  11. Cryotherapy of Renal Lesions: Enhancement on Contrast-Enhanced Sonography on Postoperative Day 1 Does Not Imply Viable Tissue Persistence.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Siracusano, Salvatore; Cicero, Calogero; Iannelli, Mariano; Silvestri, Tommaso; Celia, Antonio; Guarise, Alessandro; Stacul, Fulvio

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether persistent enhancement detected on contrast-enhanced sonography at postoperative day 1 (early contrast-enhanced sonography) after cryoablation of renal tumors implies the presence of residual viable tumor tissue, defined as residual enhancing tissue on reference imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) performed 6 months after the procedure. Seventy-four patients with percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors had early contrast-enhanced sonography from November 2011 to August 2015. Two independent readers evaluated early contrast-enhanced sonographic findings and contrast-enhanced sonographic investigations performed 1 month after cryoablation of lesions that displayed enhancement on early contrast-enhanced sonography. They scored intralesional enhancement in 4 groups: no enhancement, few intralesional vessels, focal enhancing areas, and diffuse enhancement. Inter-reader agreement in evaluating lesion vascularity on early contrast-enhanced sonography was assessed with weighted κ statistics. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed 6 months after the treatment was the reference procedure for assessing the absence or presence of residual disease. Inter-reader agreement in assessing intratumoral vascularization on early contrast-enhanced sonography was very good (κ = 0.90). Enhancement was absent for both readers in 33 of 74 cases; only a few intralesional vessels were visible in 21; whereas diffuse or focal enhancement was present in 13. In the remaining 7 patients, there were differences. Four lesions with focal enhancement on early contrast-enhanced sonography and 1 that was considered avascular had residual tumors on reference imaging. Ablation was successful in the remaining 69 of 74 patients (93%). After cryoablation, intratumoral enhancement on early contrast-enhanced sonography does not imply tumor cell viability. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in the assessment of mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Influence on surgical management and post-operative course.

    PubMed

    Farrow, E S; Boulanger, T; Wojcik, T; Lemaire, A-S; Raoul, G; Julieron, M

    2016-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation of the bone for invasion by oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma remains challenging. The aim of our study was to compare the accuracy of MRI and CT in detecting mandibular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, with histologic results as the reference standard, and to assess the influence on surgical management and post-operative course. Patients who were clinically suspected of having bone invasion from oral cavity carcinoma were retrospectively included. A single senior radiologist reviewed MRI images and CT-scans, independently, for the presence or absence of mandibular invasion. The different surgical procedures were compared in terms of length of hospital stay and occurrence of surgical complications. Histological mandibular invasion occurred in 9 of 35 patients (25.7%). None of the preoperative imaging tests failed to detect bone invasion which resulted in a sensitivity of 100% for both MRI and CT. CT had slightly higher specificity than MRI (61.9% and 57.1% respectively) in predicting bone invasion, but no statistically significant difference was found (P=0.32). Specificity of CT and MRI was higher in the edentulous group (75% and 625% respectively) than in the dentate group (53.8% both), although no statistically significant difference was found. The length of hospital stay was increased in the segmental resection group (25±14.5 days) compared to the marginal resection group (13±4.6 days; P=0.004) and to the hemimandibulectomy group (15±7.2 days; P=0.014). Occurrence of post-operative complications, across all categories, was increased in the segmental resection group (70%, n=7/10; P=0.006) compared to the marginal resection group (8.3%, n=1/12) and to the hemimandibulectomy group (23.1%, n=3/13; P=0.04). MRI and CT being equivalent in detecting mandibular invasion, we suggest MRI as single imaging technique in the preoperative assessment of oral cavity SCC. Specificity could be increased if combined with

  13. Early diagnosis of blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, in rice plant by using an ultra-sensitive electrically magnetic-controllable electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weijuan; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Mengxue; Wang, Zonghua; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Shihua; Lu, Guodong; Fu, FengFu

    2014-11-19

    As one of the most destructive and widespread disease of rice, Magnaporthe oryzae (also called Magnaporthe grisea) has a significant negative impact on rice production. Therefore, it is still in high demand to develop extremely sensitive and accurate methods for the early diagnosis of Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). In this study, we developed a novel magnetic-controllable electrochemical biosensor for the ultra sensitive and specific detection of M. oryzae in rice plant by using M. oryzae's chitinases (Mgchi) as biochemical marker and a rice (Oryza sativa) cDNA encoding mannose-binding jacalin-related lectin (Osmbl) as recognition probe. The proposed biosensor combined with the merits of chronoamperometry, electrically magnetic-controllable gold electrode and magnetic beads (MBs)-based palladium nano-particles (PdNPs) catalysis amplification, has an ultra-high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of trace M. oryzae in rice plant. It could be used to detect M. oryzae in rice plant in the initial infection stage (before any symptomatic lesions were observed) to help farmers timely manage the disease. In comparison with previous methods, the proposed method has notable advantages such as higher sensitivity, excellent specificity, short analysis time, robust resistibility to complex matrix and low cost etc. The success in this study provides a reliable approach for the early diagnosis and fast screening of M. oryzae in rice plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre- and Postoperative Imaging of the Aortic Root

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Frandics P.; Mitchell, R. Scott; Miller, D. Craig; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional datasets acquired using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are ideally suited for characterization of the aortic root. These modalities offer different advantages and limitations, which must be weighed according to the clinical context. This article provides an overview of current aortic root imaging, highlighting normal anatomy, pathologic conditions, imaging techniques, measurement thresholds, relevant surgical procedures, postoperative complications and potential imaging pitfalls. Patients with a range of clinical conditions are predisposed to aortic root disease, including Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Various surgical techniques may be used to repair the aortic root, including placement of a composite valve graft, such as the Bentall and Cabrol procedures; placement of an aortic root graft with preservation of the native valve, such as the Yacoub and David techniques; and implantation of a biologic graft, such as a homograft, autograft, or xenograft. Potential imaging pitfalls in the postoperative period include mimickers of pathologic processes such as felt pledgets, graft folds, and nonabsorbable hemostatic agents. Postoperative complications that may be encountered include pseudoaneurysms, infection, and dehiscence. Radiologists should be familiar with normal aortic root anatomy, surgical procedures, and postoperative complications, to accurately interpret pre- and postoperative imaging performed for evaluation of the aortic root. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26761529

  15. Proving instruments credible in the early nineteenth century: The British Magnetic Survey and site-specific experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For several decades now, many histories of science have sought to emphasize the important role of instruments and other material objects in the operation of science. Many, too, have been attentive to ideas of space and place and the different geographies which are visible in the historical practice of science. This paper draws on both traditions in its interpretation of a heretofore neglected aspect of Britain's nineteenth-century geomagnetic story: that of the British Magnetic Survey, 1833–38. Far from being a footnote to the more expansive geomagnetic projects then taking place in mainland Europe or to the later British worldwide magnetic scheme, this paper argues that the British Magnetic Survey represents an important instance in which magnetic instruments, their users and their makers, were tested, developed and ultimately proved credible.

  16. The role of early magnetic resonance imaging in predicting survival on bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma: Results from a prospective clinical trial (CABARET).

    PubMed

    Field, Kathryn M; Phal, Pramit M; Fitt, Greg; Goh, Christine; Nowak, Anna K; Rosenthal, Mark A; Simes, John; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Sawkins, Kate; Cher, Lawrence M; Hovey, Elizabeth J; Wheeler, Helen

    2017-09-15

    Bevacizumab has been associated with prolonged progression-free survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma; however, not all derive a benefit. An early indicator of efficacy or futility may allow early discontinuation for nonresponders. This study prospectively assessed the role of early magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) and its correlation with subsequent routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and survival. Patients were part of a randomized phase 2 clinical trial (CABARET) comparing bevacizumab with bevacizumab plus carboplatin for recurrent glioblastoma. eMRI was conducted after 4 weeks in the trial (after 2 treatments with bevacizumab [10 mg/kg every 2 weeks]). The results were compared with the results of the subsequent 8-week MRI standard. For 119 of 122 patients, eMRI was available, and 111 had subsequent MRI for comparison. Thirty-six (30%) had an early radiological response, and 17 (14%) had progressive disease. The concordance between eMRI and 8-week MRI was moderate (κ = 0.56), with most providing the same result (n = 79 [71%]). There was strong evidence that progression-free survival and overall survival were predicted by the eMRI response (both P values < .001). The median survival was 8.6 months for an eMRI response, 6.6 months for stable disease, and 3.7 months for progressive disease; the hazard ratio (progressive disease vs stable disease) was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.0). Landmark analyses showed that eMRI progression was a strong predictor of mortality independent of other potential baseline predictors. In this study, early progression on MRI appears to be a robust marker of a poor prognosis for patients on bevacizumab. Cancer 2017;123:3576-82. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Central magnetic anomalies of Nectarian-aged lunar impact basins: Probable evidence for an early core dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Lon L.

    2011-02-01

    A re-examination of all available low-altitude LP magnetometer data confirms that magnetic anomalies are present in at least four Nectarian-aged lunar basins: Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Humboldtianum, and Crisium. In three of the four cases, a single main anomaly is present near the basin center while, in the case of Crisium, anomalies are distributed in a semi-circular arc about the basin center. These distributions, together with a lack of other anomalies near the basins, indicate that the sources of the anomalies are genetically associated with the respective basin-forming events. These central basin anomalies are difficult to attribute to shock remanent magnetization of a shocked central uplift and most probably imply thermoremanent magnetization of impact melt rocks in a steady magnetizing field. Iterative forward modeling of the single strongest and most isolated anomaly, the northern Crisium anomaly, yields a paleomagnetic pole position at 81° ± 19°N, 143° ± 31°E, not far from the present rotational pole. Assuming no significant true polar wander since the Crisium impact, this position is consistent with that expected for a core dynamo magnetizing field. Further iterative forward modeling demonstrates that the remaining Crisium anomalies can be approximately simulated assuming a multiple source model with a single magnetization direction equal to that inferred for the northernmost anomaly. This result is most consistent with a steady, large-scale magnetizing field. The inferred mean magnetization intensity within the strongest basin sources is ˜1 A/m assuming a 1-km thickness for the source layer. Future low-altitude orbital and surface magnetometer measurements will more strongly constrain the depth and/or thicknesses of the sources.

  18. Surgery for post-operative entero-cutaneous fistulas: is bowel resection plus primary anastomosis without stoma a safe option to avoid early recurrence? Report on 20 cases by a single center and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LAURO, A.; CIROCCHI, R.; CAUTERO, N.; DAZZI, A.; PIRONI, D.; DI MATTEO, F.M.; SANTORO, A.; FAENZA, S.; PIRONI, L.; PINNA, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Background A review was performed on entero-cutaneous fistula (ECF) repair and early recurrence, adding our twenty adult patients (65% had multiple fistulas). Methods The search yielded 4.098 articles but only 15 were relevant: 1.217 patients underwent surgery. The interval time between fistula’s diagnosis and operative repair was between 3 months and 1 year. A bowel resection with primary anastomosis was performed in 1.048 patients, 192 (18.3%) underwent a covering stoma: 856 patients (81.7%) had a fistula takedown in one procedure. Results The patients had 14.3% recurrence and 13.1% mortality rate. In our experience 75% were surgically treated after a period equal or above one year from fistula occurrence: surgery was very demolitive (in 40% remnant small bowel was less than 100 cm). We performed a bowel resection with a hand-sewn anastomosis (95%) without temporary stoma. In-hospital mortality was 0% and at discharge all were back to oral intake with 0% early re-fistulisation. Conclusions Literature supports our experience: ECF takedown could be safely performed after an adequate period of recovery from 3 months to one year from fistula occurrence. In our series primary repair (bowel resection plus reconnection surgery without temporary stoma) avoided an early recurrence without mortality. PMID:29182901

  19. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a Tool for Early Diagnosis and Prognostication in Cortico-Basal Ganglia Degeneration (CBD) Syndromes: Review of Literature and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Nagaraju, B C

    2016-01-01

    Cortico basal degeneration (CBD) of the brain is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease which encompasses unique neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis is essential for initiating proper treatment and favorable outcome. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a well-known technique for assessment of cortical excitatory and inhibitory properties. It was suggested that in a degenerative disease like CBD which involves the cortex as well as the subcortical structures, comparing both hemispheres, a differential pattern in TMS can be obtained which would help in early identification, prognostication and early therapeutic intervention. We describe a case of CBD with corroborative clinical and imaging picture wherein single pulse TMS was used over both the hemispheres measuring the following parameters of interest which included: Motor Threshold (MT), Central Motor Conduction Time (CMCT) and Silent Period (SP). Differential patterns of MT, CMCT and SP was obtained by stimulating over both the hemispheres with the affected hemisphere showing significantly reduced MT and prolonged CMCT implying early impairment of cortical and subcortical structures thereby revealing the potential application of TMS being utilized in a novel way for early detection and prognostication in CBD syndromes.

  20. Post-operative paediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome: time to move beyond structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Toescu, Sebastian M; Hettige, Samantha; Phipps, Kim; Smith, R J Paul; Haffenden, Verity; Clark, Chris; Hayward, Richard; Mankad, Kshitij; Aquilina, Kristian

    2018-06-20

    To determine the value of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting post-operative paediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (pCMS) in children undergoing surgical treatment for medulloblastoma. Retrospective cohort study design. Electronic/paper case note review of all children with medulloblastoma presenting to Great Ormond Street Hospital between 2003 and 2013. The diagnosis of pCMS was established through a scoring system incorporating mutism, ataxia, behavioural disturbance and cranial nerve deficits. MRI scans performed at three time points were assessed by neuroradiologists blinded to the diagnosis of pCMS. Of 56 children included, 12 (21.4%) developed pCMS as judged by a core symptom of mutism. pCMS was more common in those aged 5 or younger. There was no statistically significant difference in pre-operative distortion or signal change of the dentate or red nuclei or superior cerebellar peduncles (SCPs) between those who did and did not develop pCMS. In both early (median 5 days) and late (median 31 months) post-operative scans, T2-weighted signal change in SCPs was more common in the pCMS group (p = 0.040 and 0.046 respectively). Late scans also showed statistically significant signal change in the dentate nuclei (p = 0.024). The development of pCMS could not be linked to any observable changes on pre-operative structural MRI scans. Post-operative T2-weighted signal change in the SCPs and dentate nuclei underlines the role of cerebellar efferent injury in pCMS. Further research using advanced quantitative MRI sequences is warranted given the inability of conventional pre-surgical MRI to predict pCMS.

  1. Ultrasound diagnosis of postoperative complications of nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Caterina; Erra, Carmen; Fernandez Marquez, Eduardo Marcos; Ortensi, Andrea; Faiola, Andrea; Coraci, Daniele; Piccinini, Giulia; Padua, Luca

    2018-05-03

    Peripheral nerve injuries often undergo surgical repair, but poor postoperative functional recovery is frequently observed. We describe four cases of traumatic nerve lesions in whom postoperative recovery was prevented by complications such as detachment of nerve sutures or neuroma growth. To the best of our knowledge no similar cases have been reported in literature so far. It is important an early diagnosis of such condition because it prevents recovery and delays re-intervention, which should be performed before complete muscle denervation and atrophy. Nerve ultrasound is a valuable tool in traumatic nerve injury and has proven to be useful in postoperative follow-up, especially in diagnosing surgical complications such as detachment of nerve direct sutures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A rare disease mimics postoperative bile leakage: Invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Urfalıoğlu, Aykut; Boran, Ömer Faruk; Sayar, Hamide; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Emre, Arif; Cengiz, Emrah; Bülbüloğlu, Ertan

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus fungi can cause serious infections, including intra-abdominal infection, particularly in patients with compromised immune system. Described in the present report is case of 46-year-old female patient who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) at another healthcare facility. In early postoperative period, she had increasing complaints of swelling, nausea, and vomiting. On postoperative 19th day, she was referred to our clinic with diagnosis of acute abdomen. Surgery was performed with suspected possibility of bile leakage. However, pathological examination of soft, yellow-green mass found in subhepatic space determined it was fungus ball caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Patient was diagnosed postoperative intra-abdominal aspergillosis (IAA).

  3. Postoperative hyperglycaemia control reduces postoperative complications in patients subject to total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Reátegui, Diego; Tornero, Eduard; Popescu, Dragos; Sastre, Sergi; Camafort, Miquel; Gines, Gracia; Combalía, Andrés; Lozano, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was the early detection and treatment of patients with unknown alterations of the hydrocarbon metabolism subject to total knee arthroplasty in order to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. Patients were classified as non-diabetic patients (group 1), diabetic patients (group 2) and patients with stress hyperglycaemia (group 3). The last two groups were recommended assessment by a primary care physician (PCP). After one year follow-up the groups were compared with respect to incidence of postoperative complications. The groups were also compared regarding the decrease or increase of HbA1c levels with the incidence of complications. Of the 228 patients, 116 (50%) were included in group 1, 40 (17.5%) in group 2 and 72 (31.6%) in group 3. Patients that consulted their PCP presented lower medical complication rates than those who did not (9.2% vs. 26.4%, P=0.020). Not being attended by a PCP was an independent predictive factor of medical complication (odds ratio (OR): 21.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.6-98.5), surgical site infection (OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1-15.0) and mechanical complication (OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.3-18.8). A decrease of HbA1c value was related to less medical systemic complications (7.3% vs. 24.2%, P=0.035). Patients with hyperglycaemia during the postoperative total knee arthroplasty period, who are controlled by the PCP present lower incidence of complications. Decrease of HbA1c value during postoperative total knee arthroplasty period leads to a lower rate of medical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Branched chains support postoperative protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cerra, F B; Upson, D; Angelico, R; Wiles, C; Lyons, J; Faulkenbach, L; Paysinger, J

    1982-08-01

    A blinded, prospective trial of the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BcAA)-enriched total parenteral nutrition (TPN) versus standard TPN was undertaken in nonseptic noncirrhotic abdominal surgery patients and patients with multiple traumatic injuries. The study reflected data from the immediate 7-day postoperative period. With isocaloric and isonitrogenous input, the BcAA-TPN patients achieved positive nitrogen balance on day 3. Although the urinary nitrogen output was decreased by day 3 in BcAA-TPN, the plasma BcAA levels did not increase until day 6. With no change in 3-methylhistidine urinary excretion, the early nitrogen retention with BcAA-TPN probably reflects a stimulation of protein synthesis. The ability to favorably modulate the metabolic stress response with alternate fuels has become a clinical reality.

  5. Postoperative ascitic leaks: the ongoing challenge.

    PubMed

    Rosemurgy, A S; Statman, R C; Murphy, C G; Albrink, M H; McAllister, E W

    1992-06-01

    The leak of ascitic fluid from surgical incisions is thought to be associated with a very high mortality rate. There have been few reports, however, focusing on the clinical characteristics, management, or mortality rates of this condition. During a 10-year period, 18 patients with postoperative ascitic fluid leaks were treated. All patients had ascites before surgery and all had liver disease; in 13 of the 18 patients alcoholic liver disease was the cause of ascites. Ten of the 18 patients died (56%). Midline incisions were more often associated with recalcitrant leaks and fatal complications than were transverse incisions. Early consideration of fascial dehiscence and prompt repair is emphasized. The most effective predictor of survival was cessation of the leak.

  6. Influence of desflurane on postoperative oral intake compared with propofol.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative oral intake is an important predictor of early postoperative recovery, and anesthesia is known to influence this intake. We compared the influences of desflurane anesthesia and propofol anesthesia on early postoperative oral intake retrospectively. The subjects included a consecutive series of patients who received general anesthesia with propofol or desflurane between June and December 2013. The total amount of calories and proteins taken orally and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) on postoperative days (POD) 0, 1, and 2 were collected. A total of 147 patients were analyzed. The desflurane (Des) and the propofol (Pro) groups included 52 and 95 patients, respectively. The incidence of PONV on POD 0, 1, and 2 did not show significant intergroup differences. Total calorie intake on POD 1 and 2 was not significantly different between the 2 groups (1117 ± 508 vs. 1036 ± 549 kcal/day, p=0.39 and 1504 ± 368 vs. 1437 ± 433 kcal/day, p=0.35, respectively). Total amount of protein via oral intake on POD 1 and 2 were not significantly different between the two groups (45.9 ± 21.1 vs. 43.8 ± 22.8 g/day, p=0.60 and 61.3 ± 15.0 vs. 58.9 ± 18.0 g/day, p=0.42, respectively). These findings suggest that desflurane and propofol affect postoperative oral intake in a similar fashion. These results should be confirmed in a future prospective study.

  7. Noninvasive testing, early surgery, and seizure freedom in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, J Y; Salamon, N; Kirsch, H E; Mantle, M M; Nagarajan, S S; Kurelowech, L; Aung, M H; Sankar, R; Shields, W D; Mathern, G W

    2010-02-02

    The unambiguous identification of the epileptogenic tubers in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) can be challenging. We assessed whether magnetic source imaging (MSI) and coregistration of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) with MRI could improve the identification of the epileptogenic regions noninvasively in children with TSC. In addition to standard presurgical evaluation, 28 children with intractable epilepsy from TSC referred from 2000 to 2007 had MSI and FDG-PET/MRI coregistration without extraoperative intracranial EEG. Based on the concordance of test results, 18 patients with TSC (64%) underwent surgical resection, with the final resection zone confirmed by intraoperative electrocorticography. Twelve patients are seizure free postoperatively (67%), with an average follow-up of 4.1 years. Younger age at surgery and shorter seizure duration were associated with postoperative seizure freedom. Conversely, older age and longer seizure duration were linked with continued seizures postoperatively or prevented surgery because of nonlateralizing or bilateral independent epileptogenic zones. Complete removal of presurgery MSI dipole clusters correlated with postoperative seizure freedom. Magnetic source imaging and (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI coregistration noninvasively localized the epileptogenic zones in many children with intractable epilepsy from tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), with 67% seizure free postoperatively. Seizure freedom after surgery correlated with younger age and shorter seizure duration. These findings support the concept that early epilepsy surgery is associated with seizure freedom in children with TSC and intractable epilepsy.

  8. Studies of angiospermous woods in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insight into early coalification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassalo, M.; Lerch, H. E.

    1990-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms that often dominated some ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of which can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous woods from Australian brown coal with similar woods buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms), two modern techniques especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. From these studies, we conclude that the earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation of cellulosic components. The efficiency of removal of cellulosic components in the wood varies considerably in peat, which results in variable levels of cellulose in peatified wood. However, the net trend is towards eventual removal of the cellulose. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalifications reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guaiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from the NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin and leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross-linked, as determined by dipolar

  9. A Punctate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pattern in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an Early Sign of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Clinicopathological Study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Junko; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Michi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Imai, Yukihiro; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kohara, Nobuo

    2018-04-27

    A 37-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with gait disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed small, punctate, T2-/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense and T1-hypointense lesions without gadolinium enhancement, which is atypical for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). On a pathological examination of biopsied brain tissues, JC virus-infected cells were hardly detected via immunohistochemistry but were certainly detected via in situ hybridization, conclusively verifying the PML diagnosis. After tapering off the immunosuppressant and mefloquine administration, the MRI findings revealed gradual improvement, and she has been stable for over 18 months. A punctate MRI pattern is not specific to natalizumab-associated PML but may be a ubiquitous early sign useful for the early diagnosis of PML.

  10. Laparoscopic surgery complications: postoperative peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Drăghici, L; Drăghici, I; Ungureanu, A; Copăescu, C; Popescu, M; Dragomirescu, C

    2012-09-15

    Complications within laparoscopic surgery, similar to classic surgery are inevitable and require immediate actions both to diminish intraoperative risks and to choose the appropriate therapeutic attitude. Peritonitis and hemorrhagic incidents are both part of the complications aspect of laparoscopic surgery. Fortunately, the incidence is limited, thus excluding the rejection of celioscopic methods. Patient's risks and benefits are to be analyzed carefully prior recommending laparoscopic surgery. This study presents a statistical analysis of peritonitis consecutive to laparoscopic surgery, experience of "Sf. Ioan" Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, and Department of Surgery (2000-2010). There were 180 (0,96%) complicated situations requiring reinterventions, from a total of 18676 laparoscopic procedures. 106 cases (0,56%) represented different grades of postoperative peritonitis. Most frequently, there were consecutive laparoscopic appendicectomia and colecistectomia. During the last decade, few severe cases of peritonitis followed laparoscopic bariatric surgical procedures. This study reflects the possibility of unfavorable evolution of postoperative peritonitis comparing with hemorrhagic incidents within laparoscopic surgery.

  11. Health care utilization and costs associated with adherence to clinical practice guidelines for early magnetic resonance imaging among workers with acute occupational low back pain.

    PubMed

    Graves, Janessa M; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Franklin, Gary M

    2014-04-01

    To estimate health care utilization and costs associated with adherence to clinical practice guidelines for the use of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; within the first 6 weeks of injury) for acute occupational low back pain (LBP). Washington State Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC), consisting of administrative claims and patient interview data from workers' compensation claimants (2002-2004). In this prospective, population-based cohort study, we compared health care utilization and costs among workers whose imaging was adherent to guidelines (no early MRI) to workers whose imaging was not adherent to guidelines (early MRI in the absence of red flags). We identified workers (age>18) with work-related LBP using administrative claims. We obtained demographic, injury, health, and employment information through telephone interviews to adjust for baseline differences between groups. We ascertained health care utilization and costs from administrative claims for 1 year following injury. Of 1,770 workers, 336 (19.0 percent) were classified as nonadherent to guidelines. Outpatient and physical/occupational therapy utilization was 52-54 percent higher for workers whose imaging was not adherent to guidelines compared to workers with guideline-adherent imaging; utilization of chiropractic care was significantly lower (18 percent). Nonadherence to guidelines for early MRI was associated with increased likelihood of lumbosacral injections or surgery and higher costs for out-patient, inpatient, and nonmedical services, and disability compensation. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging among Workers with Acute Occupational Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Janessa M; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Franklin, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate health care utilization and costs associated with adherence to clinical practice guidelines for the use of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; within the first 6 weeks of injury) for acute occupational low back pain (LBP). Data Sources Washington State Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC), consisting of administrative claims and patient interview data from workers’ compensation claimants (2002–2004). Study Design In this prospective, population-based cohort study, we compared health care utilization and costs among workers whose imaging was adherent to guidelines (no early MRI) to workers whose imaging was not adherent to guidelines (early MRI in the absence of red flags). Data Collection/Extraction Methods We identified workers (age >18) with work-related LBP using administrative claims. We obtained demographic, injury, health, and employment information through telephone interviews to adjust for baseline differences between groups. We ascertained health care utilization and costs from administrative claims for 1 year following injury. Principal Findings Of 1,770 workers, 336 (19.0 percent) were classified as nonadherent to guidelines. Outpatient and physical/occupational therapy utilization was 52–54 percent higher for workers whose imaging was not adherent to guidelines compared to workers with guideline-adherent imaging; utilization of chiropractic care was significantly lower (18 percent). Conclusions Nonadherence to guidelines for early MRI was associated with increased likelihood of lumbosacral injections or surgery and higher costs for out-patient, inpatient, and nonmedical services, and disability compensation. PMID:23910019

  13. Association of postoperative pulmonary complications with delayed mobilisation following major abdominal surgery: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haines, K J; Skinner, E H; Berney, S

    2013-06-01

    Previous Australian studies reported that postoperative pulmonary complications affect 13% of patients undergoing upper abdominal laparotomy. This study measured the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications, risk factors for the diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications and barriers to physiotherapy mobilisation in a cohort of patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two surgical wards in a tertiary Australian hospital. Seventy-two patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery (participants in a larger trial evaluating a novel model of medical co-management). Incidence of, and risk factors for, postoperative pulmonary complications, barriers to mobilisation and length of stay. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 39%. Incision type and time to mobilise away from the bed were independently associated with a diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications. Patients were 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 8.0) times more likely to develop a postoperative pulmonary complication for each postoperative day they did not mobilise away from the bed. Fifty-two percent of patients had a barrier to mobilisation away from the bed on the first postoperative day, with the most common barrier being hypotension, although cessation criteria were not defined objectively by physiotherapists. Development of a postoperative pulmonary complication increased median hospital length of stay (16 vs 13 days; P=0.046). This study demonstrated an association between delayed postoperative mobilisation and postoperative pulmonary complications. Randomised controlled trials are required to test the role of early mobilisation in preventing postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Clinical research of features of magnetic resonance imaging of high-voltage electrical burns in limbs at early stage].

    PubMed

    Li, S J; Wang, Z L; Zhu, W P; Xiang, Y; Lin, J; Yu, Y J; Li, P

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To analyze the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with high-voltage electrical burns in limbs at early stage. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with high-voltage electrical burns, conforming to the study criteria, were hospitalized in our unit from March 2013 to August 2016. T(1) weighted imaging (T(1)WI), T(2)WI, fat-suppression T(2)WI plain scan, and fat-suppression T(1)WI enhanced scan of MRI were performed in 78 limbs, including 56 upper limbs and 22 lower limbs at post injury hour 72. The MRI signal characteristics of electrical burns in skin and subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, tendon, joint ligament, and skeleton of limbs were analyzed. " Sandwich-like" necrosis and injury in skeletal muscle, injuries of tendon, joint ligament, and skeleton were observed. MRI signal characteristics of amputated upper limbs and salvaged limbs were also analyzed. All patients underwent surgery within 24 h after MRI examination, and the muscle vitality was judged during operation. Muscle tissue without reaction to electrical stimulation which was completely necrotic as shown by MRI, muscle tissue with weak reaction to electrical stimulation which was injured with blood supply as shown by MRI, and muscle tissue with edema as shown by MRI were collected, and then the pathological characteristics of muscle tissue were observed with HE staining. Results: (1) The defect area of patients at entrance of current was bigger than that at exit. The skin and subcutaneous tissue extensively unevenly thickened. T(2)WI manifested hyperintensity, and T(1)WI manifested isointensity, while fat-suppression enhanced T(1)WI manifested uneven enhancement. Zonal effusion was seen in the region of serious subcutaneous edema. (2) For complete necrosis of skeletal muscle, T(2)WI manifested hypointense, isointensity, or slight hyperintensity, and T(1)WI manifested isointensity, slight hyperintensity, or mixed signal of isointensity and slight hyperintensity, while fat

  15. Early detection of response to radiation therapy in patients with brain malignancies using conventional and high b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mardor, Yael; Pfeffer, Raphael; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Roth, Yiftach; Maier, Stephan E; Nissim, Ouzi; Berger, Raanan; Glicksman, Ami; Baram, Jacob; Orenstein, Arie; Cohen, Jack S; Tichler, Thomas

    2003-03-15

    To study the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI), which is sensitive to the diffusion of water molecules in tissues, for detection of early tumor response to radiation therapy; and to evaluate the additional information obtained from high DWMRI, which is more sensitive to low-mobility water molecules (such as intracellular or bound water), in increasing the sensitivity to response. Standard MRI and DWMRI were acquired before and at regular intervals after initiating radiation therapy for 10 malignant brain lesions in eight patients. One week posttherapy, three of six responding lesions showed an increase in the conventional DWMRI parameters. Another three responding lesions showed no change. Four nonresponding lesions showed a decrease or no change. The early change in the diffusion parameters was enhanced by using high DWMRI. When high DWMRI was used, all responding lesions showed increase in the diffusion parameter and all nonresponding lesions showed no change or decrease. Response was determined by standard MRI 7 weeks posttherapy. The changes in the diffusion parameters measured 1 week after initiating treatment were correlated with later tumor response or no response (P <.006). This correlation was increased to P <.0006 when high DWMRI was used. The significant correlation between changes in diffusion parameters 1 week after initiating treatment and later tumor response or no response suggests the feasibility of using DWMRI for early, noninvasive prediction of tumor response. The ability to predict response may enable early termination of treatment in nonresponding patients, prevent additional toxicity, and allow for early changes in treatment.

  16. Detection of early osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of Icelandic horses: Evaluation of radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ley, C J; Björnsdóttir, S; Ekman, S; Boyde, A; Hansson, K

    2016-01-01

    Validated noninvasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies. To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard. Prospective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints. Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27-29 months were radiographed. Horses were subjected to euthanasia approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared with microscopy. Forty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P<0.0001), joint margin lesion (P<0.0001), central osteophyte (P = 0.03) and the low-field MRI lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P = 0.01), joint margin lesion (P = 0.02) and articular cartilage lesion (P = 0.0003). The most frequent lesion category detected in microscopic OA positive joints was the mineralisation front defect in radiographs (28/42 OA positive joints, specificity 97%, sensitivity 67%). No significant differences were detected between the sensitivity and specificity of radiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories, but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared. Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. © 2015 EVJ

  17. Postoperative ileus following major colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S J; Pericleous, A; Downey, C; Jayne, D G

    2018-06-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is characterized by delayed gastrointestinal recovery following surgery. Current knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical interventions and methodological challenges was reviewed to inform modern practice and future research. A systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase databases was performed using search terms related to ileus and colorectal surgery. All RCTs involving an intervention to prevent or reduce POI published between 1990 and 2016 were identified. Grey literature, non-full-text manuscripts, and reanalyses of previous RCTs were excluded. Eligible articles were assessed using the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias. Of 5614 studies screened, 86 eligible articles describing 88 RCTs were identified. Current knowledge of pathophysiology acknowledges neurogenic, inflammatory and pharmacological mechanisms, but much of the evidence arises from animal studies. The most common interventions tested were chewing gum (11 trials) and early enteral feeding (11), which are safe but of unclear benefit for actively reducing POI. Others, including thoracic epidural analgesia (8), systemic lidocaine (8) and peripheral μ antagonists (5), show benefit but require further investigation for safety and cost-effectiveness. POI is a common condition with no established definition, aetiology or treatment. According to current literature, minimally invasive surgery, protocol-driven recovery (including early feeding and opioid avoidance strategies) and measures to avoid major inflammatory events (such as anastomotic leak) offer the best chances of reducing POI. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Is the Lecompte technique the last word on transposition of the great arteries repair for all patients? A magnetic resonance imaging study including a spiral technique two decades postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Rickers, Carsten; Kheradvar, Arash; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Wegner, Philip; Gabbert, Dominik; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Hart, Chris; Voges, Inga; Putman, Léon M; Kristo, Ines; Fischer, Gunther; Scheewe, Jens; Kramer, Hans-Heiner

    2016-06-01

    To compare the Lecompte technique and the spiral anastomosis (complete anatomic correction) two decades after arterial switch operation (ASO). Nine patients after primary ASO with Lecompte and 6 selected patients after spiral anastomosis were evaluated 20.8 ± 2.1 years after ASO versus matched controls. Blood flow dynamics and flow profiles (e.g. vorticity, helicity) in the great arteries were quantified from time-resolved 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase contrast flow measurements (4D flow MR) in addition to a comprehensive anatomical and functional cardiovascular MRI analysis. Compared with spiral reconstruction, patients with Lecompte showed more vortex formation, supranatural helical blood flow (relative helicity in aorta: 0.036 vs 0.089; P < 0.01), a reduced indexed cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery (155 vs 85 mm²/m²; P < 0.001) and more semilunar valve dysfunctions (n = 5 vs 1). There was no difference in elastic aortic wall properties, ventricular function, myocardial perfusion and myocardial fibrosis between the two groups. Cross-sectional area of the aortic sinus was larger in patients than in controls (669 vs 411 mm²/m²; P < 0.01). In the spiral group, the pulmonary root was rotated after ASO more towards the normal left position (P < 0.01). In this study, selected patients with spiral anastomoses showed, two decades after ASO, better physiologically adapted blood flow dynamics, and attained a closer to normal anatomical position of their great arteries, as well as less valve dysfunction. Considering the limitations related to the small number of patients and the novel MRI imaging techniques, these data may provoke reconsidering the optimal surgical approaches to transposition of the great arteries repair. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Signal intensity of the pancreas on magnetic resonance imaging: Prediction of postoperative pancreatic fistula after a distal pancreatectomy using a triple-row stapler.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takuma; Kobayashi, Akira; Yokoyama, Takahide; Ohya, Ayumi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Shimizu, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Furusawa, Norihiko; Sakai, Hiroshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Kadoya, Masumi; Miyagawa, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pancreatic signal intensity (SI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for predicting the development of pancreatic fistula (PF) after a distal pancreatectomy (DP) involving a triple-row stapler closure. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for clinical PF, as defined by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula grade B or C. The pancreas-to-muscle SI ratio was evaluated using fat-suppressed T1-weighted MRI. Of the 41 enrolled patients, 8 (19.5%) developed clinical PF. The pancreatic thickness (≥15 mm) and SI ratio (≥1.3) were identified as independent predictors of clinical PF in a multivariate analysis. Clinical PF was observed in one patient with a thick pancreas and a low SI ratio (14.3%), whereas it was observed in 60% of the patients with a thick pancreas and a high SI ratio. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for a predictive model consisting of the two factors was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.99), the level of which tended to be greater than that for pancreatic thickness alone (0.81, p = 0.09). The SI ratio as evaluated using MRI might be useful for predicting clinical PF in patients with the pancreatic thickness ≥15 mm after DP involving a stapler closure. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  1. Regional tau deposition and subregion atrophy of medial temporal structures in early Alzheimer's disease: A combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sone, Daichi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Maikusa, Norihide; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Ogawa, Masayo; Takano, Harumasa; Yokoi, Yuma; Sakata, Masuhiro; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Kato, Koichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging and selective hippocampal subfield atrophy are a focus of recent Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Here, we investigated correlations between molecular imaging and hippocampal subfields in early AD. We investigated 18 patients with early AD and 18 healthy control subjects using 11 C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) and 18 F-THK5351 PET and automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The PET images were normalized and underwent voxelwise regression analysis with each subregion volumes using SPM12. As for 18 F-THK5351 PET, the bilateral perirhinal cortex volumes were significantly associated with the ipsilateral or bilateral temporal lobar uptakes, whereas hippocampal subfields showed no correlations. 11 C-PIB PET showed relatively broad negative correlation with the right cornu ammonis 3 volumes. Regional tau deposition was correlated with extrahippocampal subregional atrophy and not with hippocampal subfields, possibly reflecting different underlying mechanisms of atrophy in early AD. Amyloid might be associated with right cornu ammonis 3 atrophy.

  2. Representing massive gravitons, as a way to quantify early universe magnetic field contributions to space-time, created by non linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, Andrew Walcott, E-mail: Rwill9955b@gmail.com

    We review a relationship between cosmological vacuum energy and massive gravitons as given by Garattini and also the nonlinear electrodynamics of Camara et.al (2004) for a non singular universe and NLED. . In evaluating the Garattini result, we find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in, an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Garattini’s linkage of the ‘cosmological constant’ value and non zero graviton mass.. We close as to how these initial conditions affect the issue of an early universe initial pressure and its experimental similarities and differencesmore » with results by Corda and Questa as to negative pressure at the surface of a star. Note, that in theDupays et.al. article , the star in question is rapidly spinning, which is not. assumed in the Camara et.al article , for an early universe. Also, Corda and Questa do not assume a spinning star. We conclude with a comparison between the Lagrangian Dupays and other authors bring up for non linear electrodynamics which is for rapidly spinning neutron stars , and a linkage between the Goldstone theorem and NLED. Our conclusion is for generalizing results seen in the Dupays neutron star Lagrangian with conditions which may confirm C. A. Escobar and L. F. Urrutia’s work on the Goldstone theorem and non linear electrodynamics, for some future projects we have in mind. If the universe does not spin, then we will stick with the density analogy given by adapting density as proportional to one over the fourth power of the minimum value of the scale factor as computed by adaptation of the Camara et.al.(2004) theory for non spinning universes. What may happen is that the Camara (2004) density and Quintessential density are both simultaneously satisfied, which would put additional restrictions on the magnetic field, which is one of our considerations, regardless if a universe spins, akin to spinning neutron stars. The spinning universe though

  3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; Piñero, Pilar; Sellers, Guillermo; Argente, Joaquín; Casado, Alfredo; Foronda, Jesus; Uclés, Antonio; Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female) with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p < 0.05) between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score) and N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA/Cr ratio) levels in normal appearing white matter in these patients. No correlation was found between the NAA/Cr ratio and disability measured by any of the other disability assessment scales. Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score) and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor. PMID:15191618

  4. A comparison of functional magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with and without a history of early exposure to general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Taghon, Thomas A; Masunga, Abigail N; Small, Robert H; Kashou, Nasser H

    2015-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to evaluate the long-term consequences of early exposure to neurotoxic agents. fMRI shows that different patterns of brain activation occur in ethanol-exposed subjects performing a go/no-go response inhibition task. Pharmacologically, ethanol and general anesthetics have similar receptor-level activity in the brain. This study utilizes fMRI to examine brain activation patterns in children exposed to general anesthesia and surgery during early brain development. After obtaining Nationwide Children's Hospital IRB approval, a surgical database was utilized to identify children aged 10-17 years with a history of at least 1 h of exposure to general anesthetics and surgery when they were between 0 and 24 months of age. Age- and gender-matched children without anesthesia exposure were recruited as a control group. All subjects were scanned while being presented with a go/no-go response inhibition task. Reaction time and accuracy data were acquired, and the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal was measured as a biomarker for regional neuronal activity. There were no differences in terms of performance accuracy and response time. The analysis did not reveal any significant activation differences in the primary region of interest (prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus); however, activation differences were seen in other structures, including the cerebellum, cingulate gyrus, and paracentral lobule. Early anesthetic exposure and surgery did not affect accuracy, response time, or activation patterns in the primary region of interest during performance of the task. Intergroup differences in activation patterns in other areas of the brain were observed, and the significance of these findings is unknown. fMRI appears to be a useful tool in evaluating the long-term effects of early exposure to general anesthesia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Optimising postoperative pain management in the ambulatory patient.

    PubMed

    Shang, Allan B; Gan, Tong J

    2003-01-01

    treatment of acute pain.Non-pharmacological methods for the management of postoperative pain include acupuncture, electromagnetic millimetre waves, hypnosis and the use of music during surgery. However, further research of these techniques is warranted to elucidate their effectiveness in this indication. Pain is a multifactorial experience, not just a sensation. Emotion, perception and past experience all affect an individual's response to noxious stimuli. Improved postoperative pain control through innovation and creativity may improve compliance, ease of delivery, reduce length of hospital stay and improve patient satisfaction. Patient education, early diagnosis of symptoms and aggressive treatment of pain using an integrative approach, combining pharmacotherapy as well as complementary technique, should serve us well in dealing with this complex problem.

  6. Safe surgery: validation of pre and postoperative checklists 1

    PubMed Central

    Alpendre, Francine Taporosky; Cruz, Elaine Drehmer de Almeida; Dyniewicz, Ana Maria; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo e; dos Santos, Gabriela de Souza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to develop, evaluate and validate a surgical safety checklist for patients in the pre and postoperative periods in surgical hospitalization units. Method: methodological research carried out in a large public teaching hospital in the South of Brazil, with application of the principles of the Safe Surgery Saves Lives Programme of the World Health Organization. The checklist was applied to 16 nurses of 8 surgical units and submitted for validation by a group of eight experts using the Delphi method online. Results: the instrument was validated and it was achieved a mean score ≥1, level of agreement ≥75% and Cronbach’s alpha >0.90. The final version included 97 safety indicators organized into six categories: identification, preoperative, immediate postoperative, immediate postoperative, other surgical complications, and hospital discharge. Conclusion: the Surgical Safety Checklist in the Pre and Postoperative periods is another strategy to promote patient safety, as it allows the monitoring of predictive signs and symptoms of surgical complications and the early detection of adverse events. PMID:28699994

  7. Off-pump grafting does not reduce postoperative pulmonary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Izzat, Mohammad Bashar; Almohammad, Farouk; Raslan, Ahmad Fahed

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Pulmonary dysfunction is a recognized postoperative complication that may be linked to use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The off-pump technique of coronary artery bypass aims to avoid some of the complications that may be related to cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we compared the influence of on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass on pulmonary gas exchange following routine surgery. Methods Fifty patients (mean age 60.4 ± 8.4 years) with no preexisting lung disease and good left ventricular function undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to undergo surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. Alveolar/arterial oxygen pressure gradients were calculated prior to induction of anesthesia while the patients were breathing room air, and repeated postoperatively during mechanical ventilation and after extubation while inspiring 3 specific fractions of oxygen. Results Baseline preoperative arterial blood gases and alveolar/arterial oxygen pressure gradients were similar in both groups. At both postoperative stages, the partial pressure of arterial oxygen and alveolar/arterial oxygen pressure gradients increased with increasing fraction of inspired oxygen, but there were no statistically significant differences between patients who underwent surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, either during ventilation or after extubation. Conclusions Off-pump surgery is not associated with superior pulmonary gas exchange in the early postoperative period following routine coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with good left ventricular function and no preexisting lung disease.

  8. Hematogenous Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis in the Postoperative Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Masaya; Suzuki, Kensuke; Iwai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) involving the temporal bone is a rare entity. It is usually asymptomatic and misdiagnosis as acute otitis media, mastoiditis, and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome in early onset is not uncommon. We report a case of RCC metastasis to the postoperative temporal bone in the middle of molecular targeted therapy. A 60-year-old man presented left facial palsy with severe retro-auricular pain and he also underwent left middle ear surgery for cholesteatoma more than 30 years before and had been aware of discontinuous otorrhea; therefore, initially we speculated that facial palsy was derived from recurrent cholesteatoma or Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed RCC metastasis and postoperative MR indicated hematogenous metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, no report was obtained on temporal bone metastasis in the middle of chemotherapy or hematogenous metastasis in the postoperative middle ear. Metastasis in the temporal bone is still a possible pathological condition despite the development of present cancer therapy. Besides, this case indicates that hematogenous metastasis can occur in the postoperative state of the temporal bone. PMID:28611633

  9. The clinical utility and diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging for identification of early and advanced knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Quatman, Carmen E; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Schmitt, Laura C; Spindler, Kurt P

    2011-07-01

    Current diagnostic strategies for detection of structural articular cartilage abnormalities, the earliest structural signs of osteoarthritis, often do not capture the condition until it is too far advanced for the most potential benefit of noninvasive interventions. To systematically review the literature relative to the following questions: (1) Is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable instrument to identify knee articular cartilage abnormalities compared with arthroscopy? (2) Is MRI a sensitive tool that can be utilized to identify early cartilage degeneration? Systematic review. A systematic search was performed in November 2010 using PubMed MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), SPORTDiscus (from 1985), SCOPUS (from 1996), and EMBASE (from 1974) databases. Fourteen level I and 13 level II studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and provided information related to diagnostic performance of MRI compared with arthroscopic evaluation. The diagnostic performance of MRI demonstrated a large range of sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies. The sensitivity for identifying articular cartilage abnormalities in the knee joint was reported between 26% and 96%. Specificity and accuracy were reported between 50% and 100% and between 49% and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying early osteoarthritis were reported between 0% and 86%, 48% and 95%, and 5% and 94%, respectively. As a result of inconsistencies between imaging techniques and methodological shortcomings of many of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed, and it was difficult to fully synthesize the information to state firm conclusions about the diagnostic performance of MRI. There is evidence in some MRI protocols that MRI is a relatively valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable clinical tool for identifying articular cartilage degeneration. Because of heterogeneity of MRI sequences, it is not

  10. Are rheumatoid arthritis patients discernible from other early arthritis patients using 1.5T extremity magnetic resonance imaging? a large cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stomp, Wouter; Krabben, Annemarie; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Bloem, Johan L; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Reijnierse, Monique

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research. A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recently suggested that MRI can improve the certainty of RA diagnosis. Because this recommendation may reflect a tendency to use MRI in daily practice, thorough studies on the value of MRI are required. Thus far no large studies have evaluated the accuracy of MRI to differentiate early RA from other patients with early arthritis. We performed a large cross-sectional study to determine whether patients who are clinically classified with RA differ in MRI features compared to patients with other diagnoses. In our study, 179 patients presenting with early arthritis (median symptom duration 15.4 weeks) underwent 1.5T extremity MRI of unilateral wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints according to our arthritis protocol, the foot without contrast. Images were scored according to OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) by 2 independent readers. Tenosynovitis was also assessed. The main outcome was fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. Test characteristics and areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. In subanalyses, the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria were used as outcome, and analyses were stratified for anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). The ACR 1987 criteria were fulfilled in 43 patients (24.0%). Patients with RA had higher scores for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bone marrow edema (BME) than patients without RA (p < 0.05). ACPA-positive patients had more BME (median scores 6.5 vs. 4.25, p = 0.016) than ACPA-negative patients. For all MRI features, the predictive value for the presence of RA was low (< 50%). For all MRI features the AUC were < 0.70. Patients who fulfilled ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria but not ACR87 criteria for RA had less synovitis than patients who were positive for RA according to

  11. Early detection of secondary damage in ipsilateral thalamus after acute infarction at unilateral corona radiata by diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can identify abnormal changes in ipsilateral thalamus in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts. However, it is difficult to demonstrate these early changes quantitatively. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are potentially sensitive and quantitative methods of detection in examining changes of tissue microstructure and metabolism. In this study, We used both DTI and MRS to examine possible secondary damage of thalamus in patients with corona radiata infarction. Methods Twelve patients with unilateral corona radiata infarction underwent MR imaging including DTI and MRS at one week (W1), four weeks (W4), and twelve weeks (W12) after onset of stroke. Twelve age-matched controls were imaged. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline(Cho), and creatine(Cr) were measured in thalami. Results T1-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2-weighted, and T2-FLAIR imaging showed an infarct at unilateral corona radiate but no other lesion in each patient brain. In patients, MD was significantly increased at W12, compared to W1 and W4 (all P< 0.05). NAA was significantly decreased at W4 compared to W1, and at W12 compared to W4 (all P< 0.05) in the ipsilateral thalamus. There was no significant change in FA, Cho, or Cr in the ipsilateral thalamus from W1 to W12. Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between MD and the peak area of NAA, Cho, and Cr at W1, W4, and W12 and a significant positive correlation of FA with NAA at W1. Conclusions These findings indicate that DTI and MRS can detect the early changes indicating secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus after unilateral corona radiata infarction. MRS may reveal the progressive course of damage in the ipsilateral thalamus over time. PMID:21542942

  12. Acute postoperative obstruction of extracardiac conduit due to separation of thin fibrous peel.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, K C; Edwards, W D; Puga, F J; Mair, D D

    1982-03-01

    Late postoperative obstruction of extracardiac conduits may occur in some patients and may result from one of several mechanisms. Severe intraoperative or early postoperative obstruction of such conduits is very rare. Herein we describe a case of acute, severe, early postoperative obstruction of an extracardiac conduit; this followed partial excision and replacement of a Hancock conduit in which late postoperative calcific valvular stenosis had occurred. Unexpectedly elevated right ventricular pressure should suggest the possibility of acute conduit obstruction. In cases with partial conduit replacement, the remaining segment should be carefully inspected for the presence of a peel; if a peel is present, it should be removed from the conduit even if it is considered thin and nonobstructive.

  13. Extracting a Detailed Magnetostratigraphy From Weakly Magnetized, Oligocene to Early Miocene Sediment Drifts Recovered at IODP Site U1406 (Newfoundland Margin, Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peer, Tim E.; Xuan, Chuang; Lippert, Peter C.; Liebrand, Diederik; Agnini, Claudia; Wilson, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Fine-grained magnetic particles in deep-sea sediments often statistically align with the ambient magnetic field during (and shortly after) deposition and can therefore record geomagnetic reversals. Correlation of these reversals to a geomagnetic polarity time scale is an important geochronological tool that facilitates precise stratigraphic correlation and dating of geological records globally. Sediments often carry a remanence strong enough for confident identification of polarity reversals, but in some cases a low signal-to-noise ratio prevents the construction of a reliable and robust magnetostratigraphy. Here we implement a data-filtering protocol, which can be integrated with the UPmag software package, to automatically reduce the maximum angular deviation and statistically mask noisy data and outliers deemed unsuitable for magnetostratigraphic interpretation. This protocol thus extracts a clearer signal from weakly magnetized sediments recovered at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 342 Site U1406 (Newfoundland margin, northwest Atlantic Ocean). The resulting magnetostratigraphy, in combination with shipboard and shore-based biostratigraphy, provides an age model for the study interval from IODP Site U1406 between Chrons C6Ar and C9n (˜21-27 Ma). We identify rarely observed geomagnetic directional changes within Chrons C6Br, C7r, and C7Ar, and perhaps within Subchron C8n.1n. Our magnetostratigraphy dates three intervals of unusual stratigraphic behavior within the sediment drifts at IODP Site U1406 on the Newfoundland margin. These lithostratigraphic changes are broadly concurrent with the coldest climatic phases of the middle Oligocene to early Miocene and we hypothesize that they reflect changes in bottom water circulation.

  14. Manually controlled targeted prostate biopsy with real-time fusion imaging of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound: an early experience.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sunao; Hiraiwa, Shinichiro; Endo, Jun; Hashida, Kazunobu; Tomonaga, Tetsuro; Nakano, Mayura; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Tajiri, Takuma; Terachi, Toshiro; Uchida, Toyoaki

    2015-02-01

    To report our early experience with manually controlled targeted biopsy with real-time multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound fusion images for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 20 consecutive patients suspicious of prostate cancer at the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scan were recruited prospectively. Targeted biopsies were carried out for each cancer-suspicious lesion, and 12 systematic biopsies using the BioJet system. Pathological findings of targeted and systematic biopsies were analyzed. The median age of the patients was 70 years (range 52-83 years). The median preoperative prostate-specific antigen value was 7.4 ng/mL (range 3.54-19.9 ng/mL). Median preoperative prostate volume was 38 mL (range 24-68 mL). The number of cancer-detected cases was 14 (70%). The median Gleason score was 6.5 (range 6-8). Cancer-detected rates of the systematic and targeted biopsy cores were 6.7 and 31.8%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In six patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, the geographic locations and pathological grades of clinically significant cancers and index lesions corresponded to the pathological results of the targeted biopsies. Prostate cancers detected by targeted biopsies with manually controlled targeted biopsy using real-time multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound fusion imaging have significantly higher grades and longer length compared with those detected by systematic biopsies. Further studies and comparison with the pathological findings of whole-gland specimens have the potential to determine the role of this biopsy methodology in patients selected for focal therapy and those under active surveillance. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Analgesics for orthopedic postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Michael H

    2004-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is critical for optimal care of orthopedic surgery patients. Opioids, administered intramuscularly, as epidurals, or IV as patient-controlled analgesia, are effective for severe pain. Adjunctive therapy and preemptive analgesia such as nerve blocks, and methods of delivery such as infusion pumps, may be used after total knee arthroplasty and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Oral opioids are effective for moderate to severe pain, and tramadol, with efficacy comparable to morphine but with fewer severe side effects, is selected for moderate to moderately severe pain. Opioid-sparing NSAIDs, such as ketorolac, and COX-2-specific NSAIDS have use in pain management of hip, knee, and ACL procedures. An individualized regimen of appropriate analgesics, combined with nonpharmacologic treatments such as physical therapy or cryotherapy and patient education, can aid orthopedic surgery patients' recovery.

  16. Post-operative complications in elderly onset inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sacleux, S-C; Sarter, H; Fumery, M; Charpentier, C; Guillon-Dellac, N; Coevoet, H; Pariente, B; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Gower-Rousseau, C; Savoye, G

    2018-06-01

    IBD diagnosed after the age of 60 is increasing. Data on post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD are scarce. To describe the incidence of and factors associated with post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD, diagnosed after the age of 60. Using EPIMAD Cohort (1988-2006), among 841 incident IBD patients, 139 (17%) underwent intestinal surgery, including 100 Crohn's disease (CD) and 39 ulcerative colitis (UC). After a median post-operative follow-up of 6 years (2-10), 50 (36%) patients experienced at least 1 complication with a total of 69. During the first 30 post-operative days, the mortality rate was 4%. Thirty-two early complications (<30 days) were observed in 23 patients (17%), with 15 infectious, without significant difference between CD and UC. More than half early post-operative complications (n = 19, 59%) were severe (>grade 2) without significant difference between CD and UC (P = 0.28). Thirty-seven long-term adverse effects of surgical therapy (≥30 days) were observed in 33 patients (24%). Multivariate analysis found (1) acute severe colitis (OR = 7.84 [2.15-28.52]) and emergency surgery (OR = 4.46 [1.75-11.36]) were associated with early post-operative complications, and (2) Female gender (HR = 2.10 [1.01-4.37]) and delay before surgery >3 months (HR = 2.09 [1.01-4.31]) with long-term adverse effects of surgical therapy. One-third of elderly IBD patients experienced at least 1 post-operative complication. Half of the early complications were severe, and infectious. Emergency surgery was the key driver for post-operative complication. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Legionnaire's disease in postoperative neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Glazier, M C; Kohler, R B; Campbell, R L

    1983-10-01

    Legionella pneumophila postoperative pneumonia may be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in selected surgical patients. This report presents five postoperative neurosurgical patients in whom the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease was made. Their clinical course and treatment are presented. Clinical manifestations, methods of diagnosis, and treatment of L. pneumophila pneumonia are discussed. It is pointed out that neurosurgical patients who have received high doses of corticosteroids and who develop nosocomial postoperative pneumonias should be suspected of having Legionnaires' disease.

  18. Postoperative PTH measurement as a predictor of hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Proczko-Markuszewska, M; Kobiela, J; Stefaniak, T; Lachiński, A J; Sledziński, Z

    2010-01-01

    Hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy is the most common postoperative complication, with a reported incidence from 0.5% to even 50% of the operated patients. Hypoparathyroidism could be a result of careless or inadequate preparation during the surgical procedure. There is a variety of proposed options for the prediction of the incidence of hypocalcaemia. The most effective of them are the peri-operative and intra-operative measurements of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. A prospective study was performed on 100 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from January 2007 to June 2008. The total calcium level and intact human PTH (iPTH) levels were measured 24 hours before as well as 1 hour and 24 hours after the surgery. The goal of the study was to assess the potential correlation between the iPTH levels after the operation and the development of hypocalcaemia. The possible prediction value of postoperative iPTH levels was to be assessed. We have presented a significant correlation between early iPTH measurement and the risk of hypocalcaemia. Moreover, a significant correlation between the iPTH level one hour after operation with the calcium level 24 hours after the operation was demonstrated. Early postoperative assessment of iPTH levels can be used to identify the group of patients at risk of hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy. Pre-emptive calcium supplementation can lead to the avoidance of complications causing prolonged hospital stay and most importantly to prevent severe hypocalcaemia.

  19. Postoperative management of dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus.

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Yaron; Kelmer, Efrat

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to review the veterinary literature for evidence-based and common clinical practice supporting the postoperative management of dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV). GDV involves rapid accumulation of gas in the stomach, gastric volvulus, increased intragastric pressure, and decreased venous return. GDV is characterized by relative hypovolemic-distributive and cardiogenic shock, during which the whole body may be subjected to inadequate tissue perfusion and ischemia. Intensive postoperative management of the patients with GDV is essential for survival. Therapy in the postoperative period is focused on maintaining tissue perfusion along with intensive monitoring for prevention and early identification of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and consequent potential complications such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, acute kidney injury (AKI), gastric ulceration, electrolyte imbalances, and pain. In addition, early identification of patients in need for re-exploration owing to gastric necrosis, abdominal sepsis, or splenic thrombosis is crucial. Therapy with intravenous lidocaine may play a central role in combating IRI and cardiac arrhythmias. The most serious complications of GDV are associated with IRI and consequent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Other reported complications include hypotension, AKI, disseminated intravascular coagulation, gastric ulceration, and cardiac arrhythmias. Despite appropriate medical and surgical treatment, the reported mortality rate in dogs with GDV is high (10%-28%). Dogs with GDV that are affected with gastric necrosis or develop AKI have higher mortality rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The efficacy of gum chewing in reducing postoperative ileus: a multisite randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forrester, David Anthony Tony; Doyle-Munoz, Janet; McTigue, Toni; D'Andrea, Stephanie; Natale-Ryan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, attention-controlled, randomized study was to determine whether postoperative gum chewing reduces the duration of postoperative ileus symptoms following elective open or laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy when compared with standard care or an attention-control intervention. Forty-seven subjects scheduled for either an open or laparoscopic colon resection participated in the study. Subjects were recruited preoperatively at the preadmission learning centers of the 2 acute care medical centers that comprised the study settings. Subjects were randomized to 3 groups: (1) standard postoperative care (n = 18); (2) standard care and a silicone-adhesive patch applied to the deltoid region of the upper arm as an attention control (n = 16); and (3) standard care and gum chewing (n = 13). Standard postoperative care included removal of the nasogastric tube, early ambulation, nothing by mouth with ice chips only until the first passage of flatus, and then advancement of diet until tolerance of solid food. No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 study groups for the 4 postoperative outcome variables measured: (1) first passage of flatus; (2) first bowel movement; (3) return of hunger; and (4) ability to tolerate solid food for one meal. Postoperative gum chewing was not found to be more effective than standard postoperative care or our attention-control intervention in reducing the duration of postoperative ileus symptoms, length of stay, or complications among patients following open/laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy.

  1. Contrast-enhanced dynamic and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Liangping; Liu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0 T. A total of 44 patients newly diagnosed with NPC were included in the present study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T using DCE-MRI and DWI. The volume transfer constant ( K trans ), flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma ( K ep ), the volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue ( V e ) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumours were investigated. Furthermore, the correlation between clinical stages and ADC value and K trans were analysed. The diagnostic accuracy of K trans and ADC were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves. NPC stage correlated positively with K trans and negatively with ADC values. Additionally, tumour K trans negatively correlated with ADC value. The sensitivity and accuracy of combined K trans and ADC in distinguishing between stage II and stage III and stage III and IV were higher than the values of either measurement used separately. The present study suggested that K trans and ADC derived from DCE-MRI and DWI may be useful to detect stage early NPC accurately. K trans and ADC in combination were superior than either alone.

  2. The usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging performed in the acute phase as an early predictor of delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Cha, Y S; Kim, M S; Kim, H J; Lee, Y S; Youk, H; Kim, H I; Kim, O H; Cha, K-C; Kim, H; Lee, K H; Hwang, S O

    2018-06-01

    Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). No previous study has determined whether early use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can predict which patients will develop DNS in the acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 17-month period. All included patients with acute CO poisoning underwent DWI to evaluate brain injury within 72 h after CO exposure. DWI was evaluated as follows: (1) presence of pathology, (2) number of pathologies, (3) asymmetry, and (4) location of pathology. Patients were divided into two groups. The DNS group was composed of patients with delayed sequelae, while the non-DNS group included patients with no sequelae. A total of 102 patients with acute CO poisoning were finally enrolled in this study. DNS developed in 10 patients (9.8%). Between the DNS group and the non-DNS group, presence of pathology on DWI and initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) showed significant difference. There was also a statistical difference between the non-DNS group and DNS group in terms of CO exposure time, troponin I, rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, and pneumonia. The presence of pathology in DWI and initial GCS (cutoff: <12) at the emergency department served as an early predictors of DNS.

  3. Early increase in marker of neuronal integrity with antidepressant treatment of major depression: 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of N-acetyl-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J; Godlewska, Beata R; Norbury, Ray; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Near, Jamie; Cowen, Philip J

    2012-11-01

    Increasing interest surrounds potential neuroprotective or neurotrophic actions of antidepressants. While growing evidence points to important early clinical and neuropsychological effects of antidepressants, the time-course of any effect on neuronal integrity is unclear. This study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess effects of short-term treatment with escitalopram on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity. Thirty-nine participants with major depression were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily in a double-blind, parallel group design. On the seventh day of treatment, PRESS data were obtained from a 30×30×20 mm voxel placed in medial frontal cortex. Age and gender-matched healthy controls who received no treatment were also scanned. Levels of NAA were significantly higher in patients treated with escitalopram than in either placebo-treated patients (p<0.01) or healthy controls (p<0.01). Our findings are consistent with the proposition that antidepressant treatment in depressed patients can produce early changes in neuronal integrity.

  4. Pharmacological stress, rest perfusion and delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance identifies very early cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis patients of recent onset.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Roberto; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Cipriani, Paola; Ruscitti, Piero; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Gennarelli, Antonio; Carubbi, Francesco; Splendiani, Alessandra; Berardicurti, Onorina; Di Benedetto, Paola; Ciccia, Francesco; Guggino, Giuliana; Radchenko, Ganna; Triolo, Giovanni; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate occult cardiac involvement in asymptomatic systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients by pharmacological stress, rest perfusion and delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), for a very early identification of patients at higher risk of cardiac-related mortality. Sixteen consecutive patients with definite SSc, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2013 classification criteria in less than 1 year from the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon, underwent pharmacological stress, rest perfusion and delayed enhancement CMR. At enrollment, no patient showed signs and/or symptoms suggestive for cardiac involvement. No patient showed traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Both the 12-lead electrocardiogram examination and echocardiographic evaluation did not show any alterations in our cohort. Stress perfusion defects of left ventricle were detected in six out of 16 (37.5%) patients and these defects did not match with the coronary flow distribution. The results showed the presence of two different patterns of stress perfusion defects: sub-endocardial and/or a midmyocardial. The presence of stress perfusion defects did not correlate with any clinical feature of enrolled patients. Myocardial stress perfusion defects may be detected early by pharmacological stress perfusion CMR, a reliable and sensitive technique for the noninvasive evaluation of SSc heart disease, in patients with SSc of recent onset. These defects seem to be independent from traditional risk factors and associated comorbidities, suggesting they are a specific hallmark of the disease. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Assessment of Early Diastolic Strain-Velocity Temporal Relationships Using SPAMM-PAV (SPAtial Modulation of Magnetization with Polarity Alternating Velocity encoding)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziheng; Dione, Donald P.; Brown, Peter B.; Shapiro, Erik M.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Sampath, Smita

    2011-01-01

    A novel MR imaging technique, spatial modulation of magnetization with polarity alternating velocity encoding (SPAMM-PAV), is presented to simultaneously examine the left ventricular early diastolic temporal relationships between myocardial deformation and intra-cavity hemodynamics with a high temporal resolution of 14 ms. This approach is initially evaluated in a dynamic flow and tissue mimicking phantom. A comparison of regional longitudinal strains and intra-cavity pressure differences (integration of computed in-plane pressure gradients within a selected region) in relation to mitral valve inflow velocities is performed in eight normal volunteers. Our results demonstrate that apical regions have higher strain rates (0.145 ± 0.005 %/ms) during the acceleration period of rapid filling compared to mid-ventricular (0.114 ± 0.007 %/ms) and basal regions (0.088 ± 0.009 %/ms), and apical strain curves plateau at peak mitral inflow velocity. This pattern is reversed during the deceleration period, when the strain-rates in the basal regions are the highest (0.027 ± 0.003 %/ms) due to ongoing basal stretching. A positive base-to-apex gradient in peak pressure difference is observed during acceleration, followed by a negative base-to apex gradient during deceleration. These studies shed insight into the regional volumetric and pressure difference changes in the left ventricle during early diastolic filling. PMID:21630348

  6. In vivo detection of microstructural correlates of brain pathology in preclinical and early Alzheimer Disease with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Raichle, Marcus E; Wen, Jie; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fagan, Anne M; Hassenstab, Jason; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Luo, Jie; Cairns, Nigel J; Christensen, Jon J; Morris, John C; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) affects at least 5 million individuals in the USA alone stimulating an intense search for disease prevention and treatment therapies as well as for diagnostic techniques allowing early identification of AD during a long pre-symptomatic period that can be used for the initiation of prevention trials of disease-modifying therapies in asymptomatic individuals. Our approach to developing such techniques is based on the Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging (GEPCI) technique that provides quantitative in vivo measurements of several brain-tissue-specific characteristics of the gradient echo MRI signal (GEPCI metrics) that depend on the integrity of brain tissue cellular structure. Preliminary data were obtained from 34 participants selected from the studies of aging and dementia at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis. Cognitive status was operationalized with the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The participants, assessed as cognitively normal (CDR=0; n=23) or with mild AD dementia (CDR=0.5 or 1; n=11) underwent GEPCI MRI, a collection of cognitive performance tests and CSF amyloid (Aβ) biomarker Aβ 42 . A subset of 19 participants also underwent PET PiB studies to assess their brain Aβ burden. According to the Aβ status, cognitively normal participants were divided into normal (Aβ negative; n=13) and preclinical (Aβ positive; n=10) groups. GEPCI quantitative measurements demonstrated significant differences between all the groups: normal and preclinical, normal and mild AD, and preclinical and mild AD. GEPCI quantitative metrics characterizing tissue cellular integrity in the hippocampus demonstrated much stronger correlations with psychometric tests than the hippocampal atrophy. Importantly, GEPCI-determined changes in the hippocampal tissue cellular integrity were detected even in the hippocampal areas not affected by the atrophy. Our studies also uncovered strong correlations between

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Postoperative Ketamine in Chiari Decompression.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Michael M; Alhourani, Ahmad; Pearce-Smith, Beverly A; Mazurkiewicz, Anna; Friedlander, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    In Chiari I patients, postoperative pain and discomfort frequently slow the transition back to the home setting. We sought to determine the effect of standardized ketamine infusion protocols on hospital length of stay (LOS). This retrospective cohort study reviewed 100 consecutive adult patients undergoing Chiari I decompression. Fifty-nine patients were placed on a 2-3 mg/hr ketamine drip until postoperative day 1. This group was compared with a group who received 2-3 mg/hr of ketamine until postoperative day 2 (19 patients) and patients who did not receive ketamine at all (22 patients). Clinical characteristics, opioid use, LOS, and relative hospitalization costs were assessed. All narcotic amounts were converted into milligram equivalents of morphine. LOS of the short-ketamine group was 46.5 hours when compared with the long-ketamine group (66.8 hours) and no-ketamine group (56.9 hours). There was a statistically significant difference when comparing the short-ketamine group with the long-ketamine group and no-ketamine group together (P < 0.001), as well as when compared individually (P = 0.001 and 0.004). The mean cost of hospitalization was 20% less when a short-ketamine protocol was used (P < 0.001). Mean morphine milligram equivalents used postoperatively were 148 mg in the short-ketamine group, 196 mg in the long-ketamine group, and 187 mg in the no-ketamine group (P = 0.65). No adverse events from ketamine were noted. Ketamine at subanesthetic levels may be an effective tool to facilitate early return home postoperatively and may significantly reduce medical costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Two spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.; Lorenz, D.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J. M.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.; Barnes, T. G.; Thoul, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD 47887 and HD 47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination ang