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Sample records for early postpartum reproductive

  1. Assessment of Early Postpartum Reproductive Performance in Two High Producing Estonian Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Kask, K; Kurykin, J; Lindjärv, R; Kask, A; Kindahl, H

    2003-01-01

    Early postpartum (6 weeks) ovarian activity, hormonal profiles, uterine involution, uterine infections, serum electrolytes, glucose, milk acetoacetate and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were studied in 2 Estonian high producing dairy herd with annual milk production of 7688 (Farm A) and 9425 (Farm B). From each farm 10 cows, with normal calving performance were used. Blood samples for the hormonal (PGF2α-metabolite, progesterone) analyses were withdrawn. On day 25 PP blood serum samples were taken for the evaluation of metabolic/electrolyte status. On the same day estimation of milk acetoacetate values was done. The ultrasound (US) was started on day 7 PP and was performed every 3rd day until the end of experiment. Uterine content, follicular activity and sizes of the largest follicle and corpus luteum were monitored and measured. Vaginal discharge and uterine tone were recorded during the rectal palpation. Each animal in the study was sampled for bacteriological examination using endometrial biopsies once a week. Two types of PGF2α-metabolite patterns were detected: elevated levels during 14 days PP, then decline to the basal level and then a second small elevation at the time of final elimination of the bacteria from the uterus; or elevated levels during first 7 days PP, then decline to the basal level and a second small elevation before the final elimination of bacteria. Endometritis was diagnosed in 5 cows in farm A and in 3 cows in farm B respectively. In farm A, 5 cows out of 10 ovulated during experimental period and in 1 cow cystic ovaries were found. In farm B, 3 cows out of 10 ovulated. In 3 cows cystic ovaries were found. Altogether 40% of cows had their first ovulation during the experimental period. Three cows in farm A and 5 cows in farm B were totally bacteria negative during the experimental period. The most frequent bacteria found were A. pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., E. coli., F. necrophorum and Bacteroides spp. The highest incidence of

  2. Evaluation of reproductive tract infection during early post-partum period and its relationship with subsequent reproductive performance in high milk producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T

    2012-04-01

    Clinically normal Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 43) were used to establish a relationship between the evaluations of the uterine condition by vaginoscopy, Metricheck, endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during post-partum period (pp), and subsequent reproductive performance. The uterine status of the selected cows was evaluated by EC, Metricheck, US and vaginoscopy on a weekly basis from the third week (W3) to the seventh week (W7) pp. The animals were bred after a voluntary waiting period of 45-60 days pp and diagnosed for pregnancy status at 45 days after breeding by US. First service conception rate (FSCR) of bred animals was 32.6% (14/43). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leucocyte percentage between conceived and non-conceived cows during different weeks post-partum. First service conception rate in animals with normal vaginal discharge as detected by Metricheck was significantly low when compared to those of abnormal discharge during W3 (2.3% vs 30.3%; p < 0.001) and W4 (4.7% vs 29.7%; p < 0.01) post-partum. Using US, the number of pregnant cows having fluid in uterus (FIU) during W6 (p < 0.01) and W7 (p < 0.001) post-partum was significantly lower (2/34, 4.7% and 1/43, 2.3%, respectively) than those that had no FIU (12/43, 27.9% and 13/43, 30.3%, respectively). Using vaginoscopy, FSCR in animals having abnormal discharge was significantly (p < 0.01) low when compared to that of normal discharge (2.4% vs 30.2%) during W5 and W6 post-partum. In conclusion, Metricheck during W3 and W4 and detection of FIU by US and vaginoscopy during W6 and W7 pp can be used as good predictive tools to anticipate the future reproductive performance of dairy cattle. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effect of altering the type of dietary carbohydrate early postpartum on reproductive performance and milk production in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Leane, S; Butler, S T; Roche, J R; Burke, C R

    2018-04-01

    effect on reproduction from increasing dietary starch in seasonally bred grazing dairy cows. However, the interactions indicate variability in the herd response to dietary starch early postpartum and imply that pregnancy rate could potentially be compromised through the provision of starch to grazing dairy cows in early lactation (i.e., prebreeding). The experiment was not designed to define the reasons for these interactions, but differences should be considered in future research on the subject. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum

  5. Dry period management and optimization of post-partum reproductive management in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gumen, A; Keskin, A; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Karakaya, E; Wiltbank, Mc

    2011-09-01

    Dry period and early post-partum management are decisive factors for fertility in lactating dairy cows. Previous studies have shown that decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) negatively affect fertility and subsequent milk production. The traditional dry period decreases DMI prior to parturition, resulting in a decrease in energy intake. A negative energy balance increases NEFA concentration, and increased NEFA may impair the immune system, especially by decreasing neutrophil function prior to parturition. Earlier studies have shown that post-partum health disorders, including retained placenta and metritis, were correlated with periparturient neutrophil function. In addition, decreased DMI is also linked to a reduced body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. These events in the periparturient period negatively affect fertility. Some manipulation, such as shortening the dry period, may be a solution to increased DMI in the periparturient period, preventing post-partum disorders and subsequent fertility issues. This article aims to explain the effects of shortening the dry period on reproduction and early post-partum treatments to improve fertility. In addition, timed artificial insemination protocols will be discussed for use during the post-partum period to improve fertility in dairy cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene.

  7. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  8. Pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding influences gene expression in the reproductive tract of cyclic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Hue, I; Degrelle, S A; Déjean, S; Marot, G; Dubois, O; Germain, G; Humblot, P; Ponter, A A; Charpigny, G; Grimard, B

    2013-06-01

    Undernutrition before and after calving has a detrimental effect on the fertility of dairy cows. The effect of nutritional stress was previously reported to influence gene expression in key tissues for metabolic health and reproduction such as the liver and the genital tract early after calving, but not at breeding, that is, between 70 and 90 days post-partum. This study investigated the effects of pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding on global gene expression in the oviduct, endometrium and corpus luteum of eight multiparous Holstein cows during the early and middle phases of an induced cycle 80 days post-partum. Four control cows received 100% of energy and protein requirements during the dry period and after calving, while four underfed received 80% of control diet. Oestrous synchronization treatment was used to induce ovulation on D80 post-partum. Oviducts, ovaries and the anterior part of each uterine horn were recovered surgically 4, 8, 12 and 15 days after ovulation. Corpora lutea were dissected from the ovaries, and the endometrium was separated from the stroma and myometrium in each uterine horn. The oviduct segments were comprised of ampulla and isthmus. RNAs from ipsi- and contralateral samples were pooled on an equal weight basis. In each tissue, gene expression was assessed on a custom bovine 10K array. No differentially expressed gene (DEG) in the corpus luteum was identified between underfed and control, conversely to 293 DEGs in the oviduct vs 1 in the endometrium under a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.10 and 1370 DEGs vs 3, respectively, under FDR < 0.15. Additionally, we used dedicated statistics (regularized canonical correlation analysis) to correlate the post-partum patterns of six plasma metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism measured weekly between calving and D80 with gene expression. High correlations were observed between post-partum patterns of IGF-1, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate and the expression in the oviduct of

  9. Metabolic and reproductive status are not improved from 11 to 25 day post-partum in non-weaned primiparous rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, R M; Sakr, O G; Arias-Alvarez, M; Velasco, B; Lorenzo, P L; Rebollar, P G

    2012-03-01

    The aim of present work was to analyze the body reserves and ovarian features of lactating primiparous rabbit does under extensive reproductive management (artificial insemination (AI) at 25 days post-partum (dpp)) compared with the common insemination rhythm at 11 dpp. A total of 48 primiparous Californian×New Zealand White rabbit does suckling 8 kits were used to assess liveweight, estimated body composition, serum metabolic and endocrine parameters (oestradiol and progesterone concentrations) and ovarian features like follicle population and atresia rate, and oocyte maturation. Rabbit does were randomly allocated in two experimental groups: (a) lactating does euthanized at early post-partum period (11 dpp) according to a semi-intensive rhythm (n=24), and (b) lactating does euthanized at later post-partum period (25 dpp) according to a more extensive rhythm (n=24). Liveweight, body energy content, lipid depots and serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations decreased from parturition to post-partum period (P<0.05). In addition, serum protein and glucose concentrations increased in the post-partum period (P<0.05). Similar oestradiol and progesterone levels were found in rhythms as well as similar follicle population and nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation rates measured as metaphase II and cortical granule migration, respectively in both post-partum times. However, the number of preovulatory follicles on the ovarian surface was lower (P<0.05) and the atresia rate tended to be higher with a lower percentage of healthy follicles (P<0.1) in ovaries from females of extensive group. In conclusion, the body reserves, serum metabolic parameters and oocyte quality of primiparous non-weaned rabbits does at the late post-partum time (25 days) were not improved. Thus this reproductive management did not present any advantages compared to earlier post-partum (11 days) reproductive rhythm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P < 0.05). In multiparous cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P < 0.01). The double ovulators experienced more anovulatory repeated waves of follicles before their first ovulations than the single ovulators, which resulted in an extension of the period from parturition to third ovulation (81.5 days vs. 64.2 days, P < 0.05). In the multiparous cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P < 0.01) with lower milk lactose concentration (P < 0.05), indicating the prevalence of a more severe negative energy balance during the postpartum 3-month compared to the multiparous single ovulators. Our results showed that, regardless of their parity, double ovulation had no impact on the reproductive performance of the cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early

  11. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  12. The influence of genital tract status in postpartum period on the subsequent reproductive performance in high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Helguera, I; López-Gatius, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I

    2012-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the early postpartum period in clinically healthy dairy cows by ultrasonography (US), endometrial cytology (EC), and white blood cell counts, and determine possible relationships between postpartum findings and subsequent reproductive performance. Fifty-three dairy cows were examined on Days 15 to 21 (Visit 1), 22 to 28 (Visit 2), and 29 to 35 (Visit 3) postpartum. The clinical examination included: examination of vaginal fluid, EC, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography of the genital tract (cervical diameter, endometrial thickness, presence of a corpus luteum [CL] or intrauterine fluid [IUF] and its echogenicity). Luteal activity (presence of a CL in a single visit), return to cyclicity (presence of a CL in 2 consecutive visits), and conception rate at 70 and 120 days postpartum were considered as the dependent variables in four consecutive binary logistic regression analyses. Factors affecting leukocyte counts were established by general linear model (GLM) repeated measures analysis of variance. Based on the odds ratio (OR), the likelihood of luteal activity was higher in multiparous than primiparous cows (OR = 3.75) and tended to diminish in cows showing increased endometrial thickness in Visit 1 (V1) (OR = 0.06). The likelihood of returning to cyclicity decreased for each centimeter increase in cervical diameter in V1 (OR = 0.14) and that of conception on Day 70 was lower in cows showing the presence of echogenic or anechogenic IUF in V1 (OR = 0.09 or OR = 0.13, respectively) compared with cows lacking IUF. Effects of parity and IUF were observed on neutrophil counts. Positive EC results were unrelated to the cumulative conception rate at 70 and 120 days in milk, whereas cows returning a positive EC result in V1 showed a greater likelihood of increased endometrial thickness. In conclusion, measuring cervical diameter, endometrial thickness, and detecting the echogenicity of IUF by ultrasonography from Days 15

  13. Low-income women's reproductive weight patterns empirically based clusters of prepregnant, gestational, and postpartum weights.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lorraine O

    2009-01-01

    Women have varying weight responses to pregnancy and the postpartum period. The purpose of this study was to derive sub-groups of women based on differing reproductive weight clusters; to validate clusters by reference to adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum incremental weight shifts; and to examine associations between clusters and demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables. A cluster analysis was conducted of a multi-ethnic/racial sample of low-income women (n = 247). Clusters were derived from three weight variables: prepregnant body mass index, GWG, and postpartum retained weight. Five clusters were derived: Cluster 1, normal weight-high prenatal gain-average retain; cluster 2, normal weight-low prenatal gain-zero retain; cluster 3, high normal weight-high prenatal gain-high retain; cluster 4, obese-low prenatal gain-average retain; and cluster 5, overweight-very high prenatal gain-very high retain. Clusters differed with regard to postpartum weight shifts (p < .001), with clusters 3, 4, and 5, mostly gaining weight between 6 weeks and 12 months postpartum, whereas clusters 1 and 2 were losing weight. Clusters were also associated with race/ethnicity (p < .01), breastfeeding immediately postdelivery (p < .01), smoking at 12 months (p < .05), and reaching weight goals at 6 and 12 months (p < .001), but not depressive symptoms, fat intake habits, or physical activity. In a five-cluster solution, postpartum weight shifts, ethnicity, and initial breastfeeding were among factors associated with clusters. Monitoring of weight and appropriate intervention beyond the 6 weeks after birth is needed for low-income women in high normal weight, overweight, and obese clusters.

  14. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  15. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative’s model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South–South collaboration has been central to the initiative’s accomplishments: Guinea’s clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP

  16. The early postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers.

    PubMed

    Ladores, Sigrid; Aroian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To explore the lived experience of becoming a new mother from the unique perspectives of previously infertile women. A descriptive phenomenological design was used to extract the fundamental structure of the postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers. Central Florida. Twelve first-time, previously infertile mothers age 27 to 43 years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted twice with each participant. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Colaizzi's approach. Two main themes emerged that described the early postpartum experience of first-time, previously infertile mothers: (a) lingering identity as infertile and (b) gratitude for the gift of motherhood. Participants reported that their lingering identities as infertile and immense gratitude for the gift of motherhood propelled them to establish unrealistic expectations to be perfect mothers. When they were unable to live up this expectation, they censored their feelings of inadequacy, guilt, and shame. Findings from this study may help to sensitize health care providers to the difficulties faced by previously infertile women during their transition to motherhood. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. The Efficiency of Reproduction Health Education Given to Adolescents during the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Topatan, Serap; Demirci, Nurdan

    2015-10-01

    Our research, partly experimental and partly prospective, was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of reproductive health education given to adolescents during the postpartum period. The study comprised with 120 adolescents aged 15 to 19 (60 experimental group, 60 control group). Follow-up was conducted every 3 months for a total of 12 months, and the study concluded with 55 individuals from the experimental group and 46 individuals from the control group having participated fully, for the full 12 months. At the end of the research, it was found that the reproductive health knowledge of the experimental (103.10 ± 11.43) and control (99.15 ± 9.53) groups were similar before education. A statistically significant difference was also found between the total points for the scale determining the reproductive health of the experimental and control groups before and after education (P < .001). The socio-demographic variables affecting the total points for the scale determining the reproductive health-protective behavior of women were evaluated by multiple regression analysis; the most effective variables were found to be age and educational status. A statistically significant difference was also found between the total points for the family planning behavior scale of the experimental and control groups before and after education (P < .001). From this, it was understood that reproductive health education given during the postpartum and follow-up periods has a positive effect on adolescents' developing reproductive health behaviors and on creating knowledge and awareness related to family planning behavior. But there needs to be follow-up and supporting specific for adolescents in the current health system. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Postpartum and Depression Status are Associated With Lower [11C]raclopride BPND in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Wisner, Katherine L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Berga, Sarah L; Grace, Anthony A; di Scalea, Teresa Lanza; Kaye, Walter H; Becker, Carl; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-01-01

    The early postpartum period is associated with increased risk for affective and psychotic disorders. Because maternal dopaminergic reward system function is altered with perinatal status, dopaminergic system dysregulation may be an important mechanism of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Subjects included were non-postpartum healthy (n=13), postpartum healthy (n=13), non-postpartum unipolar depressed (n=10), non-postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7), postpartum unipolar (n=13), and postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7) women. Subjects underwent 60 min of [11C]raclopride–positron emission tomography imaging to determine the nondisplaceable striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND). Postpartum status and unipolar depression were associated with lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in the whole striatum (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively) that reached a maximum of 7–8% in anteroventral striatum for postpartum status (p=0.02). Unipolar depression showed a nonsignificant trend toward being associated with 5% lower BPND in dorsal striatum (p=0.06). D2/3 receptor BPND did not differ significantly between unipolar depressed and healthy postpartum women or between bipolar and healthy subjects; however, D2/3 receptor BPND was higher in dorsal striatal regions in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives (p=0.02). In conclusion, lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in postpartum and unipolar depressed women, primarily in ventral striatum, and higher dorsal striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives reveal a potential role for the dopamine (DA) system in the physiology of these states. Further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying these differences in D2/3 receptor BPND, including study of DA system responsivity to rewarding stimuli, and increasing power to assess unipolar vs bipolar-related differences, are needed to better understand the affective role of the DA system in postpartum and depressed women. PMID:22257897

  19. Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Yonemoto, Naohiro; Dowswell, Therese; Nagai, Shuko; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-08-02

    Maternal complications including psychological and mental health problems and neonatal morbidity have been commonly observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following the birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic with long-term effects on women, their babies, and their families. To assess outcomes for women and babies of different home-visiting schedules during the early postpartum period. The review focuses on the frequency of home visits, the duration (when visits ended) and intensity, and on different types of home-visiting interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2013) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (including cluster-RCTs) comparing different types of home-visiting interventions enrolling participants in the early postpartum period (up to 42 days after birth). We excluded studies in which women were enrolled and received an intervention during the antenatal period (even if the intervention continued into the postnatal period) and studies recruiting only women from specific high-risk groups. (e.g. women with alcohol or drug problems). Study eligibility was assessed by at least two review authors. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias were carried out independently by at least two review authors. Data were entered into Review Manager software. We included data from 12 randomised trials with data for more than 11,000 women. The trials were carried out in countries across the world, and in both high- and low-resource settings. In low-resource settings women receiving usual care may have received no additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge.The interventions and control conditions varied considerably across studies with trials focusing on three broad types of comparisons: schedules involving more versus fewer postnatal home visits (five studies), schedules

  20. Effects of supplements with increasing glucogenic precursor content on reproduction and nutrient partitioning in young postpartum range cows

    Altering nutrient partitioning in young postpartum beef cows from milk production to body weight gain has potential to improve reproductive performance. A 2-yr study conducted at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center from February to July in 2003 (n = 33) and 2004 (n = 26) evaluated respons...

  1. Admissions for early parenting difficulties among women with infants conceived by assisted reproductive technologies: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane R W; Rowe, Heather; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-06-01

    To describe rate of and risks for residential early parenting service (REPS) admissions in women with infants conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART). A prospective study of women who conceived with ART. Self-report telephone interview and questionnaire data were collected in two pregnancy and three postpartum waves. Melbourne IVF and Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Services, Victoria, Australia. A consecutive cohort of women with ART pregnancies. None. REPS admission up to 18 months postpartum. Of 239 eligible women. 183 (77%) were recruited, six experienced pregnancy loss, and 153/177 (86%) were retained. In total, 17% (26/153) of participants were admitted to a REPS, 3.37 times more than the population admission rate of 5.05%. Admission risk was increased by primiparity, inadequate breastfeeding advice, low caregiving confidence when discharged from maternity hospital, lower early postpartum mood, unsettled infant behavior, and insufficient help from others. Compared with spontaneous conception, women who conceived with ART are at elevated risk of early parenting difficulties. Early interventions to address breastfeeding difficulties, management of unsettled infant behavior, social isolation, and postpartum anxiety are indicated. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comfort with motherhood in late pregnancy facilitates maternal role attainment in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuka; Takeishi, Yoko; Ito, Naoko; Ito, Mizuki; Atogami, Fumi; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life, comfort, and wellbeing during pregnancy are essential for every country in the world. Pregnancy is considered a preparation period for becoming a mother. Maternal role development, including confidence and satisfaction as a mother, is important in the transition to motherhood. Negative psychosocial affect, such as increased anxiety and distress, during pregnancy adversely influences the childbirth experience and childcare, which contributes to postpartum depression. However, the impact of positive feelings on the maternal role development remains unclear. Therefore, the study purpose was to clarify the relationship between comfort in late pregnancy and maternal role attainment and childcare during early postpartum. We designed a descriptive, longitudinal, correlational study by using the Prenatal Comfort Scale, the Postpartum Maternal Role Confidence Scale, and the Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Among 339 participants who had received care at a university hospital located in Sendai city in Japan, 215 subjects completed the longitudinal study by answering a questionnaire for the respective Scale late in their pregnancy or during early postpartum. The subjects consisted of 114 primipara (32.0 ± 5.4 years) and 101 multipara (33.4 ± 4.9 years). In primipara, comfort with motherhood was significantly correlated with maternal confidence regarding knowledge and childcare skills and maternal satisfaction. In multipara, comfort in late pregnancy was related to maternal confidence and satisfaction. Positive affect was related to maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction in early postpartum. Therefore, a prenatal nursing intervention helps women become more comfortable with impending motherhood, thereby promoting maternal role attainment after delivery.

  3. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies during early gestation and the subsequent risk of first-onset postpartum depression: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wesseloo, Richard; Kamperman, Astrid M; Bergink, Veerle; Pop, Victor J M

    2018-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women are at risk for the new onset of both auto-immune thyroid disorders and depression. The presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-ab) during early gestation is predictive for postpartum auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between TPO-ab status during early gestation and first-onset postpartum depression. Prospective cohort study (n = 1075) with follow-up during pregnancy up to one year postpartum. Thyroid function and TPO-ab status were measured during early gestation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed during each trimester and at four time points postpartum with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). Women with antenatal depression were not eligible for inclusion. Self-reported postpartum depression was defined with an EDS cut-off of ≥ 13. The cumulative incidence of self-reported first-onset depression in the first postpartum year was 6.3%. A positive TPO-ab status was associated with an increased risk for self-reported first-onset depression at four months postpartum (adjusted OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.6), but not at other postpartum time points. Prevalence rates of self-reported postpartum depression declined after four months postpartum in the TPO-ab positive group, but remained constant in the TPO-ab negative group. Depression was defined with a self-rating questionnaire (EDS). Women with an increased TPO-ab titer during early gestation are at increased risk for self-reported first-onset depression. The longitudinal pattern of self-reported postpartum depression in the TPO-ab positive group was similar to the typical course of postpartum TPO-ab titers changes. This suggests overlap in the etiology of first-onset postpartum depression and auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid function should be evaluated in women with first-onset postpartum depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PTSD SYMPTOMS ACROSS PREGNANCY AND EARLY POSTPARTUM AMONG WOMEN WITH LIFETIME PTSD DIAGNOSIS.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W; Bocknek, Erika; Morelen, Diana; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia; Abelson, James L

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about trajectories of PTSD symptoms across the peripartum period in women with trauma histories, specifically those who met lifetime PTSD diagnoses prior to pregnancy. The present study seeks to identify factors that influence PTSD symptom load across pregnancy and early postpartum, and study its impact on postpartum adaptation. The current study is a secondary analysis on pregnant women with a Lifetime PTSD diagnosis (N = 319) derived from a larger community sample who were interviewed twice across pregnancy (28 and 35 weeks) and again at 6 weeks postpartum, assessing socioeconomic risks, mental health, past and ongoing trauma exposure, and adaptation to postpartum. Using trajectory analysis, first we examined the natural course of PTSD symptoms based on patterns across peripartum, and found four distinct trajectory groups. Second, we explored factors (demographic, historical, and gestational) that shape the PTSD symptom trajectories, and examined the impact of trajectory membership on maternal postpartum adaptation. We found that child abuse history, demographic risk, and lifetime PTSD symptom count increased pregnancy-onset PTSD risk, whereas gestational PTSD symptom trajectory was best predicted by interim trauma and labor anxiety. Women with the greatest PTSD symptom rise during pregnancy were most likely to suffer postpartum depression and reported greatest bonding impairment with their infants at 6 weeks postpartum. Screening for modifiable risks (interpersonal trauma exposure and labor anxiety) and /or PTSD symptom load during pregnancy appears critical to promote maternal wellbeing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. PTSD Symptoms across Pregnancy and Early Postpartum Among Women with Lifetime PTSD Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W.; Bocknek, Erika; Morelen, Diana; Rosenblum, Katherine; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia; Abelson, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about trajectories of PTSD symptoms across the peripartum period in women with trauma histories, specifically those who met lifetime PTSD diagnoses prior to pregnancy. The present study seeks to identify factors that influence PTSD symptom load across pregnancy and early postpartum, and study its impact on postpartum adaptation. Method The current study is a secondary analysis on pregnant women with a Lifetime PTSD diagnosis (N=319) derived from a larger community sample who were interviewed twice across pregnancy (28 and 35 weeks) and again at 6 weeks postpartum, assessing socioeconomic risks, mental health, past and ongoing trauma exposure, and adaptation to postpartum. Results Using trajectory analysis, first we examined the natural course of PTSD symptoms based on patterns across peripartum, and found 4 distinct trajectory groups. Secondly, we explored factors (demographic, historical, and gestational) that shape the PTSD symptom trajectories, and examined the impact of trajectory membership on maternal postpartum adaptation. We found that child abuse history, demographic risk, and lifetime PTSD symptom count increased pregnancy-onset PTSD risk, whereas gestational PTSD symptom trajectory was best predicted by interim trauma and labor anxiety. Women with the greatest PTSD symptom rise during pregnancy were most likely to suffer postpartum depression and reported greatest bonding impairment with their infants at 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusions Screening for modifiable risks (interpersonal trauma exposure and labor anxiety) and/or PTSD symptom load during pregnancy appears critical to promote maternal wellbeing. PMID:26740305

  6. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.
METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.
CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has

  7. The Structure of Women's Mood in the Early Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Melissa M.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    The "postpartum blues" is a mild, predictable mood disturbance occurring within the first several days following childbirth. Previous analyses of the "blues" symptom structure yielded inconclusive findings, making reliable assessment a significant methodological limitation. The current study aimed to explicate the symptom…

  8. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

    2015-01-01

    metabolic and digestive problems should improve early cyclicity postpartum. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    compared with cows fed no oilseeds, and a disproportionate increase in the birth weight of female calves was evident in cows fed oilseed. Total reproductive disorders tended to be greater in cows fed supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseed (42 vs. 23%). Furthermore, cows fed sunflower seed had greater incidences of dystocia (35 vs. 18%) and total health disorders (52 vs. 32%) than those fed canola seed. Added oilseed and type of oilseed did not affect uterine inflammation at 25±1 d postpartum. Oilseed supplementation did not alter the intervals from calving to establishment of the first dominant follicle, preovulatory-size follicle, and ovulation, nor did it affect fertility (conception rate to first artificial insemination and proportion of pregnant cows by 150 d after calving). In summary, prepartum oilseed supplementation (6.2 to 7.4% ether extract, % of dietary dry matter) decreased DMI during the entire experimental period (pre- and postpartum), decreased milk yield during early lactation in multiparous cows, and increased calf birth weight with no significant improvement in ovarian function and reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bidirectional psychoneuroimmune interactions in the early postpartum period influence risk of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Pajer, Kathleen; Paul, Sudeshna; Lowe, Nancy; Weber, Mary; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-10-01

    More than 500,000 U.S. women develop postpartum depression (PPD) annually. Although psychosocial risks are known, the underlying biology remains unclear. Dysregulation of the immune inflammatory response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with depression in other populations. While significant research on the contribution of these systems to the development of PPD has been conducted, results have been inconclusive. This is partly because few studies have focused on whether disruption in the bidirectional and dynamic interaction between the inflammatory response and the HPA axis together influence PPD. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that disruption in the inflammatory-HPA axis bidirectional relationship would increase the risk of PPD. Plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and on Days 7 and 14, and Months 1, 2, 3, and 6 after childbirth. Saliva was collected 5 times the day preceding blood draws for determination of cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Survey (EPDS). Of the 152 women who completed the EPDS, 18% were depressed according to EDPS criteria within the 6months postpartum. Cortisol AUC was higher in symptomatic women on Day 14 (p=.017). To consider the combined effects of cytokines and cortisol on predicting symptoms of PPD, a multiple logistic regression model was developed that included predictors identified in bivariate analyses to have an effect on depressive symptoms. Results indicated that family history of depression, day 14 cortisol AUC, and the day 14 IL8/IL10 ratio were significant predictors of PPD symptoms. One unit increase each in the IL8/IL10 ratio and cortisol AUC resulted in 1.50 (p=0.06) and 2.16 (p=0.02) fold increases respectively in the development of PPD. Overall, this model correctly classified 84.2% of individuals in their respective groups. Findings

  11. Thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during early postpartum period: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Munetoshi; Nishida, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Thromboembolic events are one of the leading causes of maternal death during the postpartum period. Postpartum thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is controversial because the treatment may lead to massive bleeding. Data centralization may be beneficial for analyzing the safety and effectiveness of systemic thrombolysis during the early postpartum period. We performed a computerized MEDLINE and EMBASE search. We collected data for 13 cases of systemic thrombolytic therapy during the early postpartum period, when limiting the early postpartum period to 48 hours after delivery. Blood transfusion was necessary in all cases except for one (12/13; 92%). In seven cases (7/13; 54%), a large amount of blood was required for transfusion. Subsequent laparotomy to control bleeding was required in five cases (5/13; 38%), including three cases of hysterectomy and two cases of hematoma removal, all of which involved cesarean delivery. In cases of transvaginal delivery, there was no report of laparotomy. The occurrence of severe bleeding was high in relation to cesarean section, compared with vaginal deliveries. Using rt-PA in relation to cesarean section might be worth avoiding. However, the paucity of data in the literature makes it difficult to assess the ultimate outcomes and safety of this treatment. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Reproductive decision-making among postpartum HIV-infected women in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Babayigit, Suat; Chahine, Antonio; Weiss, Stephen M; Peltzer, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Despite pregnancy spacing recommendations to optimize health outcomes among mothers and neonates, unplanned pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is common among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WLHIV). This study examined factors associated with reproductive decision-making among WLHIV to inform pregnancy-planning interventions. WLHIV in rural South Africa (n = 165) were assessed at 12 months postpartum. The relative importance of factors associated with reproductive decision-making was estimated. Women were a mean of 28 years old (SD = 5.71). Risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV (Mean = 0.43; SD = 0.33) had the greatest impact on decision-making, followed by partners' desires (M = 0.22; SD = 0.18), family preferences (M = 0.18; SD = 0.13), and community opinion (M = 0.17; SD = 0.13). MTCT was most important to women with greater HIV knowledge. However, WLHIV who had been diagnosed with HIV for a longer time placed more emphasis on partner preference and community opinion, and less importance on MTCT risk. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) was less important to women experiencing intimate partner violence and those with depression. Findings highlight the need for tailored, focused interventions to support the unique circumstances of WLHIV and support the inclusion of families and/or partners in the counseling process. Results underscore the need for perinatal preconception counseling for women during routine HIV care.

  13. Reproductive performance of postpartum ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Silva, J C; Basto, Srl; Tenório Filho, F; Moura, M T; Silva Filho, M L; Oliveira, Mal

    2017-08-01

    The reproductive performance of postpartum Santa Inês (SI) and Morada Nova (MN) ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect was evaluated. Ewes from SI (n = 69) and MN (n = 69) breeds were randomly allocated to three groups of each breed (T1-ram effect only; T2-ram effect + insulin; T3-ram effect + progesterone). Progesterone concentrations (ηg/ml; mean ± SD) before and after introduction of rams (n = 6) were 0.51 ± 0.22 and 3.78 ± 0.68 (T1), 0.65 ± 0.21 and 3.77 ± 0.78 (T2) and 0.52 ± 0.21 and 3.84 ± 0.84 (T3) in SI ewes and 0.74 ± 0.19 and 3.71 ± 0.56 (T1), 0.70 ± 0.21 and 3.79 ± 0.75 (T2) and 0.81 ± 0.14 and 3.87 ± 0.80 (T3) in MN ewes, respectively. Thus, lower progesterone concentrations were found before the introduction of rams (p < .05). After the introduction of rams, preovulatory peaks of LH (ηg/ml) occurred at 28 (T1), 44 (T2) and 48 (T3) hr in SI ewes and at 64 (T1), 40 (T2) and 44 (T3) hr in MN ewes. The mean number of ovulations was similar between groups (p > .05), was 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.5 ± 0.54 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in SI ewes and 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.6 ± 0.51 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in MN ewes. In conclusion, the ram effect alone is effective at inducing and synchronizing oestrus in sheep under postpartum anoestrus, irrespective of hormone treatments. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Depressed polymorphonuclear cell functions in periparturient cows that develop postpartum reproductive diseases.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafiqul; Kumar, Harendra; Singh, Gyanendra; Krishnan, Binsila B; Dey, Sahadeb

    2017-09-01

    The study was planned to see if there is any important and significant changes in the PMN function in cows suffering from postpartum reproductive diseases (PRD). Blood sampling was done from 41 pregnant cows on 15 days prepartum (-15d), calving day (0d), 15 days (15d) and 30 days (30d) postpartum and thorough gynaecological examination was performed on 0d, 15d, 30d and 45d for diagnosis of PRD like retained placenta (RP), clinical metritis (CM), clinical endometritis (CE) and delayed involution of uterus (DIU). The heparinised blood was used for isolation of PMN leukocytes for estimation of superoxide (SO), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in each group of cows. The SO production (ΔOD) was greater for normal (0.19 ± 0.05) than cows suffering from RP (-0.12 ± 0.09), CM (-0.15 ± 0.13) and CE (-0.07 ± 0.05) at -15d. The mean value was greater for normal cows (0.12) than the cows with PRD (0.05 to 0.9) at 30d. The H 2 O 2 production was greater for normal than cows with PRD at all sampling days and significantly greater than cows with RP and CE at 15d (p < 0.01) and 30d (P < 0.05). The MPO activity (μmol/1 × 10 7 ) was greater for normal (18.77 ± 1.27) than for RP (12.52 ± 2.57) and CM (11.31 ± 3.30) cows on 0d. The depressed capability of the PMN from the cows with PRD to produce SO, H 2 O 2 and MPO during the periparturient period indicated their association with the development of RP, CM and CE.

  15. Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana

    2011-06-01

    To investigate high-anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, 260 Portuguese couples (N = 520) filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the first, second, and third pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety (STAI-S ≥ 45) in women (13.1%; 12.2%; 18.2%; 18.6%; 4.7%) and men (10.1%; 8.0%, 7.8%; 8.5%; 4.4%) and for depression (EPDS ≥ 10) in women (20.0%, 19.6%, 17.4%, 17.6%; 11.1%) and men (11.3%; 6.6%; 5.5%; 7.5%; 7.2%) were high. Rates for depression were higher than rates for high-anxiety only in women during early pregnancy and the postpartum, but not at the third pregnancy trimester and childbirth. Rates for high-anxiety and depression were higher in women than in men during pregnancy/childbirth, but not at 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety but not rates for depression were higher during pregnancy/childbirth compared to 3-months postpartum and only in women. Considering that 15.9% of the parents-to-be were highly anxious and/or depressed during pregnancy-comparing to 9.3% at 3-months postpartum-particular attention should be drawn to both women's and men's mental health early in pregnancy.

  16. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  17. The prevalence of early postpartum psychiatric morbidity in Dubai: a transcultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Abou-Saleh, M T; Ghubash, R

    1997-05-01

    There have been numerous studies of the prevalence of postpartum psychiatric illness and its putative risk factors in Western Europe and North America, but very few studies have been undertaken in developing countries, including the Arab world. A total of 95 women admitted to the New Dubai Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for childbirth were studied. All subjects were assessed in the postpartum period using clinical and socio-cultural instruments, namely the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) on day 2 and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) on day 7 after delivery. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 24% according to the SRQ and 18% according to the EPDS. A number of psychosocial factors emerged as putative risk factors for postpartum psychiatric disturbance, including depressive illness. It is concluded that the prevalence of postpartum psychiatric morbidity and its risk factors in this Arab culture are similar to the results obtained in numerous previous studies conducted in industrialized countries. These findings have implications for the early detection and care of women at risk for postpartum psychiatric illness.

  18. Maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum periods and psychosocial risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peixia; Ren, Hui; Li, Hong; Dai, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Maternal depression has been intensively explored; however, less attention has been paid to maternal suicide. No studies to date have observed maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum stages. In total, 213 Chinese women were recruited in hospitals after they were admitted for childbirth. All completed a short-term longitudinal survey at perinatal stages. Women reported lower depression scores (6.65) and higher suicidal ideation incidence (11.74%) after childbirth. Prenatal depression raised the possibility of prenatal suicidal ideation, while prenatal depression and suicidal ideation increased postpartum depression and suicidal ideation. At immediate prenatal stage, marital satisfaction protected women from depression, while miscarriage experiences and self-esteem increased the risk. At early postpartum stage, in contrast, being first-time mother, marital satisfaction, and harmony with mother-in-law prevented them from depression. Our study is among the first to confirm that women have decreased depression but increased suicidal ideation at early postpartum, and a causal relationship between them, which are worthy of public attention. Potential protective (marital satisfaction, being first-time mother, and harmony with mother-in-law) or risk factors (miscarriage experiences and self-esteem) of maternal depression and suicidal ideation are identified at perinatal stages. This offers reliable guidance for clinical practice of health care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal depression from early pregnancy to 4 years postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort study: implications for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, H; Gartland, D; Mensah, F; Brown, S J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum, and the risk factors for depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum. Prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women. Melbourne, Australia. In all, 1507 women completed baseline data in pregnancy (mean gestation 15 weeks). Women were recruited from six public hospitals. Questionnaires were completed at recruitment and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months postpartum, and 4 years postpartum. Scores ≥13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used to indicate depressive symptoms. Almost one in three women reported depressive symptoms at least once in the first 4 years after birth. The prevalence of depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum was 14.5%, and was higher than at any time-point in the first 12 months postpartum. Women with one child at 4 years postpartum were more likely to report depressive symptoms at this time compared with women with subsequent children (22.9 versus 11.3%), and this association remained significant in adjusted models (Adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.63). Maternal depression is more common at 4 years postpartum than at any time in the first 12 months postpartum, and women with one child at 4 years postpartum report significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than women with subsequent children. There is a need for scaling up of current services to extend surveillance of maternal mental health to cover the early years of parenting. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti

    2012-06-01

    morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after delivery at home and after discharge from institution to detect and manage maternal morbidity. Further, health programmes should also ensure that women are properly screened for complications before their discharge from hospitals after delivery.

  1. Risk factors for postpartum endometritis and the effect of endometritis on reproductive performance in dairy cows in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Hwa; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for postpartum endometritis by evaluating several reproductive factors in individual cows, and to determine the effect of endometritis on the subsequent reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea. The data, including health status, parity and body condition score (BCS) of cows, and calving date, were collected from 320 cows in eight dairy herds calving from January 2001 to October 2002. We used logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors on endometritis. A stepwise procedure, used to obtain the appropriate model with alpha=0.05, revealed that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and parity are the important risk factors for endometritis. The mean intervals from calving to first service and conception were prolonged (P<0.01) by 23 and 36 days, respectively, in the endometritis group compared to the non-endometritis group. The first service conception rate was lower (P<0.05) in the endometritis group (47.6%) than in the non-endometritis group (62.6%). The number of services per conception was higher (P<0.05) in the endometritis group (1.9) than in the non-endometritis group (1.6). We conclude that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and cow parity are strongly correlated with the development of postpartum endometritis, which decreases reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea.

  2. Serum and saliva cortisol relations in adolescents during pregnancy and the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Dorn, L D; Susman, E J

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine: (1) relations between serum and saliva cortisol in adolescents in pregnancy and early postpartum and (2) short-term consistency of serum and saliva cortisol across three samples, 20 minutes apart, as well as the long-term consistency from pregnancy to early postpartum. Pregnant adolescents (n = 40), ages 14 to 19 years, were enrolled in this study. Subjects were seen at 20 weeks gestation or earlier (T1), 34-36 weeks gestation (T2), and 2-3 weeks postpartum (T3). Blood samples were drawn at T1 and T3, at 0, 20, and 40 minutes. Saliva samples were collected across the same 40-minute period at T1, T2, and T3. Spearman rho (rs) correlation coefficients between serum and saliva ranged from 0.72 to 0.77 (T1), and 0.42 to 0.60 (T3) (p < or = 0.05). Short-term consistency between serum cortisol samples was 0.86-0.97 at T1 and 0.60-0.82 at T3. Short-term consistency for saliva cortisol samples was 0.70-0.96 at T1, 0.91-0.95 at T2, and 0.64-0.89 at T3. Long-term consistency (T1 to T3) for serum and saliva cortisol was low. Individual differences as well as dramatic changes in the endocrine environment in pregnancy and the early postpartum period may explain the more moderate serum-saliva correlations in the postpartum period.

  3. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range.

    PubMed

    Mulliniks, J T; Cox, S H; Kemp, M E; Endecott, R L; Waterman, R C; Vanleeuwen, D M; Petersen, M K

    2012-08-01

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first postpartum ovulation, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and calf BW change in 2- and 3-yr-old cows (n = 351) managed and selected to fit their environment of grazing native range over 6 yr at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center, Corona, NM. Cows were managed similarly before calving, without manipulation of management, to achieve predetermined BCS at parturition. Palpable BCS (scale of 1 to 9) were determined by 2 experienced technicians before calving. Cows were classified to 1 of 3 BCS groups prior calving: BCS 4 (mean BCS = 4.3 ± 0.02), 5 (mean BCS = 5.0 ± 0.03), or 6 (mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.06). Cows were weighed weekly after calving and serum was collected once weekly (1 yr) or twice weekly (5 yr) for progesterone analysis to estimate first postpartum ovulation beginning 35 d postpartum. Year effects also were evaluated, with years identified as either above or below average precipitation. Days to first postpartum ovulation did not differ among calving BCS groups (P = 0.93). Pregnancy rates were not influenced by calving BCS (P = 0.83; 92%, 91%, 90% for BCS 4, 5, and 6, respectively). Days to BW nadir was not influenced by BCS at calving (P = 0.95). Cow BW was different at all measuring points (P < 0.01) with BCS 6 cows having the heaviest BW and cows with BCS 4 the lightest. Cows with calving BCS 4 and 5 lost more (P = 0.06) BW from the initiation of the study to the end of breeding than cows with BCS 6. However, cow BW change at all other measurement periods was not different (P ≥ 0.49) among calving BCS groups. Serum glucose and NEFA concentrations were not influenced by calving BCS (P ≥ 0.51). Calf BW at birth (P = 0.60), branding (55-d BW; P = 0.76), and weaning (205-d BW; P = 0.60) were not

  4. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  5. Effect of two treatment protocols for ketosis on the resolution, postpartum health, milk yield, and reproductive outcomes of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Moon, Sung-Ho; Lee, Soo-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Jung, Young-Hun; Park, Soo-Bong; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2018-01-15

    We determined the effect of ketosis treatment with propylene glycol (PG) or PG plus l-carnitine and methionine (Metabolase ® , Fatro, Bologna, Italy) on the resolution, postpartum health, milk yield, and reproductive performances of dairy cows. Blood from 475 Holstein cows was collected weekly until 4 weeks after calving to measure blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. Cows with blood BHBA concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L were diagnosed with ketosis and were enrolled. One hundred and fifty cows diagnosed with ketosis were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (Day 0): (1) PG (300 g, PO) for 3 days (PG group, n = 50), (2) PG (300 g, PO) plus l-carnitine (1.25 g) plus methionine (5 g, IV) for 3 days (PG + CM group, n = 50), and (3) no treatment (control group, n = 50). On Day 3, blood was collected to evaluate whether the ketosis had resolved. Cows in the PG and PG + CM groups with blood BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L were retreated for an additional 2 days, and then blood BHBA concentration was evaluated on Days 5 and 10. Blood glucose and haptoglobin concentrations, rumen fill score (RFS), and body condition score (BCS) were measured on Days 0, 3, 5, and 10. Postpartum complications, milk yield during the first 2 months, and reproductive outcomes were evaluated. The probability of resolution from ketosis was higher (P < 0.05) in the PG + CM group than in the control group on Days 3, 5, and 10 (odds ratio: 2.6-6.3). Blood BHBA in the PG + CM group was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the control group on Days 3 and 5, whereas blood glucose in the PG + CM group was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control group on Days 3 and 5. RFS in the PG and PG + CM groups was higher than that of the control group on Day 10 (P < 0.01), while BCS loss from Day 0-10 in the control group was higher than those of the PG and PG + CM groups (P < 0.05). Milk yields on the 30th and 60th days postpartum were higher in the PG + CM group than the control

  6. The Correlation Between Breastfeeding Success in the Early Postpartum Period and the Perception of Self-Efficacy in Breastfeeding and Breast Problems in the Late Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Kılcı, Hanife; Çoban, Ayden

    2016-05-01

    The research was conducted to determine the correlation between breastfeeding success in the early postpartum period and the perception of self-efficacy in breastfeeding and breast problems in late postpartum. This analytic and cross-sectional research was carried out at Aydın Obstetrics and Gynecology and Children's Diseases Hospital. Three hundred twenty-seven primipara mothers who had delivered a single baby of healthy term at 37 or more gestational weeks with no previous experience with breastfeeding and who agreed to cooperate participated in the research. The mothers' mean gestational week of delivery was 39.25 ± 1.10 weeks, and it was found that 56.0% had delivered by cesarean section and 57.0% had started to breastfeed immediately after the birth. The mothers' LATCH mean score was 6.55 ± 0.86; their postnatal breastfeeding self-efficacy mean score was found to be 59.10 ± 7.21. Mothers who had high success in breastfeeding at early postpartum were found to experience fewer problems with their breasts (Z = -2.65, p < 0.05), gave birth by vaginal delivery (Z = -2.88, p < 0.05), and had not received anesthesia during the delivery (Z = -2.52, p < 0.05). In the correlation analysis, it was seen that mothers with high success in breastfeeding also had high self-efficacy scores (r = 0.210, p = 0.003). The results of the research indicated that breastfeeding success in the early postpartum period reduced breast problems and increased the perception of breastfeeding self-efficacy in the late postpartum period.

  7. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  8. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activitieson Physical Activity among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women’s physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines effects of pregnant women’s (1) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (2) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. We used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. We also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887

  9. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.

  10. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows.

  11. Interactions between metabolic and reproductive functions in the resumption of postpartum fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Valeggia, Claudia; Ellison, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Lactation has long been recognized as a major determinant of interbirth intervals. The temporal pattern of nursing has been proposed as the mechanism behind lactational amenorrhea. We present a new model of the dynamic regulation of lactational amenorrhea that identifies maternal energy availability as the main determinant of ovarian resumption. Variation in the intensity of lactation remains a component of the model as a determinant of the absolute energetic cost of milk production. But maternal energy supply determines net energy availability; a larger energy supply leaves a greater net energy surplus than a smaller energy supply (lactation costs being equal). We characterize the hormonal postpartum profile of 70 lactating Toba women of Argentina. We use C-peptide, which reflects maternal insulin production, as a measure of energy availability. Initially low, insulin production rises as the postpartum period progresses, reflecting the declining metabolic load of lactation. A short period of supernormal insulin production precedes menstrual resumption. The high levels of insulin may play a role in stimulating the resumption of ovarian activity, which in turn may help to resolve the transient period of insulin resistance. The dynamics of insulin sensitivity during lactation would aid in synchronizing the resumption of ovarian function with a reduction in the energy demands of milk production. This hypothesis is supported by the sustained weight gain experienced by lactating women during the months preceding the first postpartum menses. The link between fecundity and energy balance could serve as a mechanism for adjusting the duration of lactational amenorrhea to the relative metabolic load of lactation. PMID:19298003

  12. Comparison of an additional early visit to routine postpartum care on initiation of long-acting reversible contraception: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Caitlin; Wan, Leping; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Madden, Tessa

    2018-05-17

    To investigate whether an early 3-week postpartum visit in addition to the standard 6-week visit increases LARC initiation by 8weeks postpartum compared to the routine 6-week visit alone. We enrolled pregnant and immediate postpartum women into a prospective randomized, non-blinded trial comparing a single 6-week postpartum visit (routine care) to two visits at 3 and 6weeks postpartum (intervention), with initiation of contraception at the 3-week visit, if desired. All participants received structured contraceptive counseling. Participants completed surveys in-person at baseline and at the time of each postpartum visit. A sample size of 200 total participants was needed to detect a 2-fold difference in LARC initiation (20% vs. 40%). Between May 2016 and March 2017, 200 participants enrolled; outcome data are available for 188. The majority of LARC initiation occurred immediately postpartum (25% of the intervention arm and 27% of the routine care arm). By 8weeks postpartum,34% of participants in the intervention arm initiated LARC, compared to 41% in the routine care arm (p=.35). Overall contraceptive initiation by 8weeks was 83% and84% in the intervention and routine care arms, respectively (p=.79). There was no difference between the arms in the proportion of women who attended at least one postpartum visit (70% vs. 74%, p=.56). The addition of a 3-week postpartum visit to routine care does not increase LARC initiation by 8weeks postpartum. The majority of LARC users desired immediate rather than interval postpartum initiation. Clinicaltrials.govNCT02769676 Implications. The addition of a 3-week postpartum visit to routine care does not increase LARC or overall contraceptive initiation by 8weeks post-partum when the option of immediate postpartum placement is available. The majority of LARC users desired immediate rather than interval postpartum initiation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Early Compared With Delayed Physician Rounds on Patient Satisfaction of Postpartum Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Robyn P; Blackwell, Sean C; Brown, Kelly M; Pedroza, Claudia; Sibai, Baha M; Tyson, Jon E

    2016-08-01

    To investigate whether delayed timing of physician rounds improves patient satisfaction for postpartum women. Women were randomized to early (5-7 AM) or delayed (8-10 AM) physician rounding. Women with stillbirth, high-risk pregnancy, or complications precluding delayed rounding were excluded. At discharge, women completed a modified Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey. The primary outcome was rating of the hospital. Secondary outcomes included patient assessment of patient-physician communication, various hospital experiences, and timing of maternal and neonatal discharge. We estimated that 74 women were needed to detect a 20% difference in rating of the hospital (0-10 score) between groups (assumption P=.05, power 90%). Given limited information on primary outcome, an a priori plan was in place to conduct the study for 2 months. One hundred fifty-two women were randomized (n=76 early rounding; n=76 delayed rounding). More women had a cesarean delivery in the early compared with the delayed rounding group (47.4% compared with 22.4%). Median rating of the hospital was higher in the delayed as compared with the early rounding group (9.0 [7.0-9.0] compared with 7.0 [6.0-8.0]; P<.01). Median scores regarding physician communication and perception of hospital experiences were higher in the delayed compared with the early group (8.0 [7.0-9.0] compared with 6.0 [5.0-7.0]; P<.001). Adjustment for delivery mode did not alter results (P<.01). No differences in timing of maternal (P=.47) or neonatal hospital discharge (P=.35) were observed. Postpartum women receiving delayed physician rounding were more satisfied with their hospital experience and patient-physician communication without prolonging maternal or neonatal discharge. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02432573.

  14. Interacting effects of early dietary conditions and reproductive effort on the oxidative costs of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that oxidative damage accumulation can mediate the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan has recently been questioned. However, in captive conditions, studies reporting no evidence in support of this hypothesis have usually provided easy access to food which may have mitigated the cost of reproduction. Here, I test the hypothesis that greater investment in reproduction should lead to oxidative damage accumulation and telomere loss in domestic zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Moreover, since the change or fluctuation in diet composition between early and late postnatal period can impair the ability to produce antioxidant defences in zebra finches, I also tested if early nutritional conditions (constant vs fluctuating early diet) influenced the magnitude of any subsequent costs of reproduction (e.g., oxidative damage and/or telomere shortening). In comparison to pairs with reduced broods, the birds that had to feed enlarged broods showed a higher level of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), but brood size had no effect on telomeres. Fluctuating early diet composition reduced the capacity to maintain the activity of endogenous antioxidants (GPx), particularly when reproductive costs were increased (enlarged brood). The decline in GPx in birds feeding enlarged broods was accompanied by a change in bill colouration. This suggests that birds with lower endogenous antioxidant defences might have strategically increased the mobilization of antioxidants previously stored in other tissues (i.e., bill and liver) and thus, preventing an excessive accumulation of damage during reproduction. PMID:28316895

  15. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William; Steiner, Meir; Coote, Marg; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1) to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2) to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3) to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women's Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph's Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.025), and IL-10 (p = 0.006) were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score. Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  16. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-04-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC(glu)) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to first artificial insemination (AI) and first AI conception rate were recorded. Nutritional status postpartum was evaluated by blood chemical analysis. Based on AUC(glu) changes from Pre21 to Pre10, cows were classified into either the AUC-up group (AUC(glu) increase, n=5) or the AUC-down group (AUC(glu) decrease, n=10). There was no difference in the decrease in blood glucose at 30 min after insulin injection between groups, although glucose recovery from 30 to 60 min during the ITT was slow at Pre10 in the AUC-up group. The AUC-up group had a higher number of days to first AI and high glucose, total protein, globulin, γ-glutamyltransferase, triacylglycerol levels and a low albumin-globulin ratio at the 14th day postpartum. The present study infers that prepartum slow glucose recovery rather than insulin sensitivity might increase the potential for subclinical health problems postpartum and thus suppress reproductive performance. During the prepartum transition period, glucose dynamics in the ITT can be considered as a new indicator for the postpartum metabolic status and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

  17. Evaluation of the impact of breast milk expression in early postpartum period on breastfeeding duration: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Beiqi; Hua, Jing; Wang, Yijing; Fu, Yun; Zhuang, Zhigang; Zhu, Liping

    2015-10-20

    Breast milk expression (breast pumping) has become prevalent as an important dimension of breastfeeding behavior. It is, however, not clear whether increasing breast milk expression contributes to extend the duration of breastfeeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of breast milk expression in early postpartum period on breastfeeding duration amongst mothers of healthy term infants. A prospective cohort study had been conducted from March to June 2010. Mothers who gave birth to healthy, full-term and singleton babies were enrolled at discharge. These women were interviewed at 6 weeks postpartum about their breastfeeding behaviors. According to expressing patterns at 6 week postpartum, women were divided into three groups: direct breastfeeding (group 1), combining direct breastfeeding with expressing (group 2), exclusive expressing (group 3). The investigators followed up the women by telephone thereafter at a bimonthly basis and documented breastfeeding duration. Survival analysis was conducted to explore the association between expressing patterns at 6 weeks postpartum and breastfeeding duration. Associated factors of exclusive expressing at 6 weeks postpartum were characterized by logistic regression analysis. Four hundred one eligible women were enrolled at discharge. Among the 389 women who attended the face-to-face interview at 6 weeks postpartum, 345 women continued breastfeeding. They were divided into 3 groups by their expressing patterns. According to survival analysis, women who exclusively expressed breast milk at 6 months postpartum (group 3) were 1.77 times as likely to stop breastfeeding as those who did not (group 1 and 2) (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.48; P <0.001). There is, however, no significant difference of breastfeeding duration between group 1 and group 2. Subgroup analysis showed that exclusive expressing women who were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum had the shortest breastfeeding duration

  18. Factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Miller, Laura J; Zera, Chloe A; Davis, Roger B; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2013-11-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a substantial risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. This risk may be mitigated by engaging in healthy eating, physical activity, and weight loss when indicated. Since postpartum depressive symptoms may impair a woman's ability to engage in lifestyle changes, we sought to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent GDM. The participants are part of the baseline cohort of the TEAM GDM (Taking Early Action for Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) study, a one-year randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program for women with a recent history of GDM, conducted in Boston, Massachusetts between June 2010 and September 2012. We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-15 weeks postpartum to women whose most recent pregnancy was complicated by GDM (confirmed by laboratory data or medical record review). An EPDS score ≥9 indicated depressive symptoms. We measured height and thyroid stimulating hormone, and administered a questionnaire to collect demographic data and information about breastfeeding and sleep. We calculated body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. We reviewed medical records to obtain data about medical history, including history of depression, mode of delivery, and insulin use during pregnancy. We conducted bivariable analyses to identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms, and then modeled the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms using multivariable logistic regression. Our study included 71 women (mean age 33 years ± 5; 59 % White, 28 % African-American, 13 % Asian, with 21 % identifying as Hispanic; mean pre-pregnancy BMI 30 kg/m(2) ± 6). Thirty-four percent of the women scored ≥9 on the EPDS at the postpartum visit. In the best fit model, factors associated with depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum included cesarean

  19. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows. PMID:27383746

  20. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Postpartum Depression Home For Patients Search FAQs Postpartum Depression Page ... Postpartum Depression FAQ091, December 2013 PDF Format Postpartum Depression Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are the ...

  1. Early-life nutritional effects on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M

    2015-02-01

    There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Anxiety and depression symptoms in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum: parity differences and effects.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate both anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, comparing women and men and first and second-time parents. A sample of 260 Portuguese couples (N=520), first or second-time parents, recruited in an Obstetrics Out-patients Unit, filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. A decrease in anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum was found in both women and men, as well as in first and second-time parents. Men presented less anxiety and depression symptoms than women, but the same pattern of symptoms over time. Second-time parents showed more anxiety and depression symptoms than first-time parents and a different pattern of symptoms over time: an increase in anxiety and depression symptoms from the 3rd trimester to childbirth was observed in first-time parents versus a decrease in second-time parents. The voluntary nature of the participation may have lead to a selection bias; women and men who agreed to participate could be those who presented fewer anxiety and depression symptoms. Moreover, the use of self-report symptom measures does not give us the level of possible disorder in participants. Anxiety and depression symptoms diminish from pregnancy to the postpartum period in all parents. Patterns of anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum are similar in women and men, but somewhat different in first and second-time parents. Second-time parents should also be considered while studying and intervening during pregnancy and the postpartum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors associated with abnormal glucose tolerance in the early postpartum period among Japanese women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kugishima, Yukari; Yasuhi, Ichiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Masashi; Kuzume, Akiko; Sugimi, So; Umezaki, Yasushi; Suga, Sachie; Kusuda, Nobuko

    2015-04-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) on the first postpartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) among Japanese women with gestational diabetes (GDM). In a retrospective study, data were analyzed from women with GDM who underwent their first postpartum OGTT 6-8weeks post partum at a center in Omura, Japan, between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Women with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance were deemed to have postpartum AGT. The association between postpartum AGT and various risk factors was analyzed. Among 169 women who underwent a postpartum OGTT, 58 (34.3%) had AGT. The significant risk factors associated with postpartum AGT in univariate analysis were pre-pregnancy body mass index (P=0.096), 1-hour plasma glucose (P=0.006), hemoglobin A1c (P<0.001), insulinogenic index (P=0.05), an insulinogenic index of less than 0.4 (P=0.006), and insulin therapy during pregnancy (P<0.001). Independent risk factors identified by multivariate logistic regression models were insulinogenic index (odds ratio [OR] 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.74; P=0.002), an insulinogenic index of less than 0.4 (OR 5.70, 95% CI 1.69-21.66; P=0.005), and insulin therapy during pregnancy (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.03-12.55; P=0.044). Among Japanese women with GDM, a lower insulinogenic index and use of insulin therapy during pregnancy are associated with early postpartum AGT. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus: decision-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nagao, Y; Mahbub, M H; Tanabe, T; Tanizawa, Y

    2018-04-29

    To identify factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus, using decision-curve analysis. A retrospective cohort study was performed. The participants were 123 Japanese women with gestational diabetes who underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests at 8-12 weeks after delivery. They were divided into a glucose intolerance and a normal glucose tolerance group based on postpartum oral glucose tolerance test results. Analysis of the pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results showed predictive factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. We also evaluated the clinical usefulness of the prediction model based on decision-curve analysis. Of 123 women, 78 (63.4%) had normoglycaemia and 45 (36.6%) had glucose intolerance. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin and summation of glucose levels, assessed during pregnancy oral glucose tolerance tests (total glucose), to be independent risk factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. Evaluating the regression models, the best discrimination (area under the curve 0.725) was obtained using the basic model (i.e. age, family history of diabetes, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and use of insulin during pregnancy) plus insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin <1.1. Decision-curve analysis showed that combining insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin <1.1 with basic clinical information resulted in superior net benefits for prediction of postpartum glucose intolerance. Insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin calculated using oral glucose tolerance test results during pregnancy is potentially useful for predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  5. Dystocia in Friesian cows and its effects on postpartum reproductive performance and milk production

    PubMed Central

    Shamiah, Sh. M.; El-Hamd, M. A. Abu; Shitta, A. A.; El-Din, M. A. Tag

    2010-01-01

    A total of 1,243 records for 585 dairy Friesian cows from 1997–2004 were used to study the factors affecting dystocia and its effects on reproductive performance and milk production. The overall incidence of dystocia was 6.9%. The percentage of dystocia decreased with increasing live body weight, age, and parity of cows (P < 0.05); however, it increased with increasing birth weight of calves (P < 0.05). The highest percentage of dystocia was detected in winter season, but the least percentage was in summer season (P < 0.05). The percentage of incidence of dystocia was significantly (P < 0.05) higher with winter feeding compared to summer ration (8.2% vs. 5.1%). The percentage of incidence of dystocia was significantly (P < 0.05) higher with twinning than single calving (15.5% vs. 6.5%), while not significantly affected by the sex of born calves. Incidence of dystocia had adverse effects on reproductive performance and milk yield. The service interval, service period, days open, and calving interval were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in cows afflicted with dystocia compared to normal cows. The conception rate was lower (P < 0.05), but the number of service per conception was higher (P < 0.05) in cows afflicted with dystocia compared to normal cows (60.5% vs. 73.0% and 3.4 vs. 2.7, respectively). Average daily milk yield was lower (P < 0.05) by 1 kg for cows with incidence of dystocia compared to normal cows. PMID:20835761

  6. Early usage of Bakri postpartum balloon in the management of postpartum hemorrhage: a large prospective, observational multicenter clinical study in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongyu; Xu, Shuqia; Qiu, Xiwen; Zhu, Caixia; Li, Zhuyu; Wang, Zilian; Hou, Hongying; Gao, Yu; Wang, Xiaoyi; He, Ping; Qin, Yiwei; Liu, Lihua

    2017-12-18

    To evaluate the success rate and protocol of the Bakri balloon for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in the course of a prospective observational multicenter cohort study in South China. At 20 hospitals in South China, women with postpartum bleeding who failed to respond to the first-line conservative management and received the Bakri balloon were recruited for the study. Maternal characteristics, PPH characteristics, PPH management and outcomes in regard to the Bakri balloon use were recorded. A total of 472 women had a Bakri balloon tamponade and 407 (86.23%) women were enrolled (67 after vaginal delivery and 340 either during or after cesarean delivery). The success rate of the Bakri balloon in this study was 91.65% (373/407 women). During vaginal deliveries, the group with a hemorrhage >2000 mL before balloon insertion had significantly more blood loss (551.67±635.17 mL vs. 242.06±313.69 mL, P=0.039) and lower maternal hemoglobin (73±21.77 g/L vs. 92.06±19.60 g/L, P=0.029) after using Bakri balloon than the group with a hemorrhage <1000 mL. Similar data were found during cesarean deliveries. The blood loss before and after balloon insertion were significantly higher in the Bakri balloon failure group (1700±1429.88 mL before and 1209.58±1139.72 mL after using the balloon) than those in the success group [918±493.92 mL before (P=0.002) and 266.57±361.60 mL after using the balloon (P=0.001)]. Rapid diagnosis or prognosis of PPH, in combination with early usage of the Bakri postpartum balloon is more effective for the management of PPH.

  7. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  8. Are reproductive and somatic senescence coupled in humans? Late, but not early, reproduction correlated with longevity in historical Sami women

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Samuli; Lummaa, Virpi; Jokela, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary theory of senescence emphasizes the importance of intense selection on early reproduction owing to the declining force of natural selection with age that constrains lifespan. In humans, recent studies have, however, suggested that late-life mortality might be more closely related to late rather than early reproduction, although the role of late reproduction on fitness remains unclear. We examined the association between early and late reproduction with longevity in historical post-reproductive Sami women. We also estimated the strength of natural selection on early and late reproduction using path analysis, and the effect of reproductive timing on offspring survival to adulthood and maternal risk of dying at childbirth. We found that natural selection favoured both earlier start and later cessation of reproduction, and higher total fe cundity. Maternal age at childbirth was not related to offspring or maternal survival. Interestingly, females who produced their last offspring at advanced age also lived longest, while age at first reproduction and total fecundity were unrelated to female longevity. Our results thus suggest that reproductive and somatic senescence may have been coupled in these human populations, and that selection could have favoured late reproduction. We discuss alternative hypotheses for the mechanisms which might have promoted the association between late reproduction and longevity. PMID:15875567

  9. Maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and its association with anxiety and early infant regulatory problems.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Sohn, Christof; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna

    2017-11-01

    Maternal self-confidence has become an essential concept in understanding early disturbances in the mother-child relationship. Recent research suggests that maternal self-confidence may be associated with maternal mental health and infant development. The current study investigated the dynamics of maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and the predictive ability of maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and early regulatory problems in infants. Questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and early regulatory problems (Questionnaire for crying, sleeping and feeding) were completed in a sample of 130 women at three different time points (third trimester (T1), first week postpartum (T2), and 4 months postpartum (T3). Maternal self-confidence increased significantly over time. High maternal trait anxiety and early infant regulatory problems negatively contributed to the prediction of maternal self-confidence, explaining 31.8% of the variance (R=.583, F 3,96 =15.950, p<.001). Our results emphasize the transactional association between maternal self-confidence, regulatory problems in infants, and maternal mental distress. There is an urgent need for appropriate programs to reduce maternal anxiety and to promote maternal self-confidence in order to prevent early regulatory problems in infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S; Buckley, F; Pierce, K; Byrne, N; Patton, J; Dillon, P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences among Holstein-Friesian (HF), Montbéliarde (MB), Normande (NM), Norwegian Red (NRF), Montbéliarde x Holstein-Friesian (MBX), and Normande x Holstein-Friesian (NMX) across 2 seasonal grass-based systems of milk production. The effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, fertility performance, hormone parameters, ovarian function, and survival were determined by using mixed model methodology, generalized linear models, and survival analysis. The 5-yr study comprised up to 749 lactations on 309 cows in one research herd. The HF produced the greatest yield of solids-corrected milk, the MB and NM produced the least yields, and NRF, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. The NRF had the lowest body weight throughout lactation, the NM had the highest, and the other breeds were intermediate. Body condition score was greatest for MB and NM, least for HF, and intermediate for NRF, MBX, and NMX. The HF had a lower submission rate and overall pregnancy rate compared with the NRF. The NRF survived the longest in the herd, the HF survived the shortest, and the NM, MB, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. Breed of dairy cow had no effect on selected milk progesterone parameters from 5 d postpartum until 26 d after first artificial insemination. Breed of dairy cow did not influence insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 around parturition or at the start of the breeding season. Animals offered a high-concentrate diet had greater milk yield, but they did not have improved reproductive performance. Differences observed between the different breeds in this study are a likely consequence of the past selection criteria for the respective breeds.

  11. Early School Outcomes for Children of Postpartum Depressed Mothers: Comparison with a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten-Alvarez, Laura E.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Smeekens, Sanny; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of the long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on child development have mostly focused on a limited set of outcomes, and have often not controlled for risk factors associated with maternal depression. The present study compared children of postpartum depressed mothers (n = 29) with children from a community…

  12. Paracetamol/acetaminophen (single administration) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Chou, Doris; Abalos, Edgardo; Gyte, Gillian M L; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2013-01-31

    Perineal pain is a common but poorly studied adverse outcome following childbirth. Pain may result from perineal trauma due to bruising, spontaneous tears, surgical incisions (episiotomies), or in association with operative births (ventouse or forceps assisted births). To determine the efficacy of a single administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) systemic drugs used in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain We updated the search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register on 6 November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a single dose compared with placebo for women with early postpartum perineal pain. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Two review authors assessed each paper for inclusion and extracted data. One review author reviewed the decisions and confirmed calculations for pain relief scores. We did not identify any new trials from the updated search so the results remain unchanged as follows.We have included 10 studies describing two dosages of paracetamol. Of these, five studies (526 women) assessed 500 mg to 650 mg and six studies (841 women) assessed 1000 mg of paracetamol. We chose to use random-effects meta-analyses because of the heterogeneity in dosage used. Studies were from the 1970s to the early 1990s, and there was insufficient information to assess the risk of bias adequately, hence the findings need to be interpreted within this context.More women experienced pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (average risk ratio (RR) 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59 to 2.89, 10 studies, 1279 women). In addition, there were significantly fewer women having additional pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, eight studies, 1132 women). Both the 500 mg to 650 mg and 1000 mg doses were effective in providing more pain relief than placebo.Maternal and neonatal potential adverse drug effects were not assessed in

  13. HIV-related stigma in pregnancy and early postpartum of mothers living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ion, Allyson; Wagner, Anne C; Greene, Saara; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is associated with many psychological challenges; however, minimal research has explored how perceived HIV-related stigma intersects with psychosocial issues that mothers living with HIV may experience including depression, perceived stress and social isolation. The present study aims to describe the correlates and predictors of HIV-related stigma in a cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) from across Ontario, Canada during pregnancy and early postpartum. From March 2011 to December 2012, WLWH ≥ 18 years (n = 77) completed a study instrument measuring independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, depression symptoms, social isolation, social support and perceived racism in the third trimester and 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Multivariable linear regression was employed to explore the relationship between HIV-related stigma and multiple independent variables. HIV-related stigma generally increased from pregnancy to postpartum; however, there were no significant differences in HIV-related stigma across all study time points. In multivariable regression, depression symptoms and perceived racism were significant predictors of overall HIV-related stigma from pregnancy to postpartum. The present analysis contributes to our understanding of HIV-related stigma throughout the pregnancy-motherhood trajectory for WLWH including the interactional relationship between HIV-related stigma and other psychosocial variables, most notably, depression and racism.

  14. Aspirin (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Molakatalla, Sujana; Shepherd, Emily; Grivell, Rosalie M

    2017-02-09

    Perineal trauma (due to spontaneous tears, surgical incision (episiotomy) or in association with operative vaginal birth) is common after vaginal birth, and is often associated with postpartum perineal pain. Birth over an intact perineum may also lead to perineal pain. There are adverse health consequences associated with perineal pain for the women and their babies in the short- and long-term, and the pain may interfere with newborn care and the establishment of breastfeeding. Aspirin has been used in the management of postpartum perineal pain and its effectiveness and safety should be assessed. To determine the efficacy of a single dose of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), including at different doses, in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (30 August 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing single dose aspirin compared with placebo, no treatment, a different dose of aspirin, or single dose paracetamol/acetaminophen for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We planned to include cluster-RCTs but none were identified. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included RCTs. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence for the main comparison (aspirin versus placebo) was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included 17 RCTs, with 16 involving 1132 women randomised to aspirin or placebo (one RCT did not report numbers of women). Two RCTs (of 16) did not contribute data to review meta-analyses. All women had perineal pain post-episiotomy, and were not breastfeeding. Studies were published between 1967 and 1997, and the risk of bias was often unclear due to poor

  15. Loss of body fat and associated decrease in leptin in early lactation are related to shorter duration of postpartum anovulation in healthy US women.

    PubMed

    Domer, Mary Colleen; Beerman, Kathy A; Ahmadzadeh, Amin; Dasgupta, Nairanjana; Williams, Janet E; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2015-05-01

    The mechanisms regulating postpartum anovulation (PPA) are not well understood, although poor nutritional status and "intense" breastfeeding behaviors are associated with longer durations. This study was designed primarily to investigate the hypothesis that higher body fat and leptin concentrations are related to shorter PPA in healthy, lactating US women. Nutrient intake, breastfeeding behaviors, prolactin, and insulin levels were also evaluated. Fasting serum was collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, at 2 and 4 weeks postpartum, and every 4 weeks until the occurrence of the first postpartum menses. Body composition and breastfeeding behaviors were assessed at the same times postpartum. Women (n = 13) were categorized based on initial percentage body fat and timing of first postpartum menses. There were no consistent relationships between body composition, leptin, or breastfeeding behaviors and duration of PPA. However, there was an interaction (P = .005) between ovulation group and time on adiposity; earlier ovulating women had less percentage body fat in early lactation than did later ovulating women. There was also an interaction (P = .1) between ovulation group and time postpartum on leptin, such that leptin concentrations tended to be greater in later than earlier ovulating groups beginning at 12 weeks postpartum. In summary, although baseline percentage body fat and leptin were not related to duration of PPA, fertility returned earlier in women who lost greater percentage body fat during the early postpartum period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Early life social stress and resting state functional connectivity in postpartum rat anterior cingulate circuits.

    PubMed

    Nephew, Benjamin C; Febo, Marcelo; Huang, Wei; Colon-Perez, Luis M; Payne, Laurellee; Poirier, Guillaume L; Greene, Owen; King, Jean A

    2018-03-15

    Continued development and refinement of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) fMRI techniques in both animal and clinical studies has enhanced our comprehension of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. The objective of the current study was to assess both maternal behavior and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes in these animals when they were dams caring for their own young. It was hypothesized that ECSS exposed dams would express depressed maternal care and exhibit similar (same networks), yet different specific changes in RSFC (different individual nuclei) than reported when they were adult females. We have developed an ethologically relevant transgenerational model of the role of chronic social stress (CSS) in the etiology of postpartum depression and anxiety. Initial fMRI investigation of the CSS model indicates that early life exposure to CSS (ECSS) induces long term changes in functional connectivity in adult nulliparous female F1 offspring. ECSS in F1 dams resulted in depressed maternal care specifically during early lactation, consistent with previous CSS studies, and induced changes in functional connectivity in regions associated with sensory processing, maternal and emotional responsiveness, memory, and the reward pathway, with robust changes in anterior cingulate circuits. The sample sizes for the fMRI groups were low, limiting statistical power. This behavioral and functional neuroanatomical foundation can now be used to enhance our understanding of the neural etiology of early life stress associated disorders and test preventative measures and treatments for stress related disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Determination of nosocomial infection incidence in mothers and newborns during the early postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Malavaud, S; Bou-Segonds, E; Berrebi, A; Castagno, R; Assouline, C; Connan, L

    2003-04-01

    We wished to determine the incidence of nosocomial infections in the mother and the newborn during the early postpartum period. Over a three-month period, the same investigator collected 50 different clinical and microbiological, standardized data related to infectious diseases in parturients and their newborns. Data were collected on 804 deliveries. The overall rate of nosocomial infection was 2.9% (23/804). For vaginal deliveries, the rate was 1.9% (12/615) and for deliveries by Cesarean section, the rate was 5.8% (11/189). Of 745 newborns followed until discharge from hospital, 0.7% (5/745) had a nosocomial infection. These results are in line with previously published rates of nosocomial infections, which varied between 0.2% to 2.3% for vaginal deliveries, 1.6% to 18.9% for Cesarean section, and 0.2 to 4% in newborns. Regular surveys of the incidence or the prevalence of nosocomial infections are necessary to monitor the effectiveness of educational programs, aimed to reduce hospital acquired infections.

  18. Early post-partum hematological changes in Holstein dairy cows with retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Morandi, Nicola; Trevisi, Erminio; Ferrari, Annarita; Minuti, Andrea; Venturini, Monica; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta (RP) occurs frequently in dairy cattle but little is known about the pathogenic or prognostic role of the hematological changes in this disease. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the hematological changes associated with RP in the immediate post-partum period and to assess whether these changes are associated with an acute phase reaction. Data concerning hematology, acute phase proteins, markers of inflammation and serum biochemistry performed on cows at 3±1 days in milk (DIM) from two intensive farms were extracted from the database of the ProZoo project, a research project aimed to investigate the relationship between genomic traits and bovine health and production. After application of restrictive inclusion criteria, data from 45 cows, 22 with RP and 23 controls, were statistically compared. RBC count, d-ROMs concentration, and AST activity were significantly higher in the RP group than controls. Conversely, neutrophils, thiol groups, and serum zinc concentration were significantly lower in the RP group than controls. In conclusion, although retained placenta has to be considered as a syndrome with multifactorial causes, neutropenia may be a co-factor involved in its pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to clarify whether neutropenia acts as a contributor in the pathogenesis of RP or if it is a very early consequence of the syndrome, preceding any other inflammatory changes in blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gestational dietary patterns are not associated with blood pressure changes during pregnancy and early postpartum in a Brazilian prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    To identify gestational dietary patterns and evaluate the association between these patterns and the blood pressure (BP) rate of change during pregnancy and the postpartum. Prospective cohort study composed of 191 healthy pregnant women. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were obtained at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th, 30th-36th gestational weeks, and with 30-45 days postpartum. A food frequency questionnaire administered at the 30th-36th gestational week was used to measure dietary intake during pregnancy. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the dietary patterns. A longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression model was used to evaluate the association between the dietary patterns and BP (adjusted for time elapsed after conception and the women's age, education, parity, body mass index and total energy intake). Three gestational dietary patterns were identified: healthy, common-Brazilian and processed. SBP/DBP mean values (SD) were 110.1 (9.0)/66.9 (7.5), 108.7 (9.0)/64.9 (6.7), 111.3 (9.2)/67.0 (6.9) and 115.0 (10.7)/73.7 (8.6) mmHg at the first, second and third gestational trimesters and postpartum, respectively. Women with higher/lower adherence to the processed pattern presented SBP of 117.9 and 113.0 mmHg (P = 0.037), respectively, during postpartum. No association was found between any of the three dietary patterns and SBP in the multiple longitudinal linear regression models, whereas 1 SD increase in the common-Brazilian pattern was associated with a small change of DBP (β = 0.0006; 95% CI 4.66e-06, 0.001; P = 0.048). The three dietary patterns identified revealed no association with changes of SBP and DBP levels during pregnancy and at early postpartum in this sample of healthy Brazilian women.

  20. Associations between gestational diabetes mellitus and elevated HbA1c early postpartum in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Waage, Christin; Jenum, Anne Karen; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Berg, Jens Petter; Richardsen, Kåre; Birkeland, Kåre

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of elevated HbA 1c 14 weeks postpartum in different ethnic groups and in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the index pregnancy and to explore demographic and biological factors from early pregnancy associated with elevated HbA 1c (HbA 1c ≥5.7% (≥39mmol/mol)) postpartum. From a cohort study in Oslo, Norway, we included 570 pregnant women, examined in gestational week 15, 28, and 14 weeks postpartum. The association between elevated HbA 1c and demographic and biological factors were assessed by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of elevated HbA 1c postpartum was 23% in the total population, 15% among Western Europeans and 28% among women with ethnic minority background (p<0.01). In ethnic minorities elevated HbA 1c was found in 39% of women with recent GDM diagnosed by the World Health Organization 2013 criteria and in 21% of women without GDM (p<0.01), compared to 22% and 13% in Western Europeans (p=0.11). We found independent associations between elevated HbA 1c and ethnic minority background (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.27, 3.18), and GDM (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.35, 3.10) (p<0.01). The prevalence of elevated HbA 1c postpartum was 23%, and significantly higher among women with ethnic minority background irrespective of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malta, Lise A; McDonald, Sheila W; Hegadoren, Kathy M; Weller, Carol A; Tough, Suzanne C

    2012-12-15

    Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319) completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34-36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p < 0.05) and multivariable logistic regression. Approximately 30% of women reported one or more experience of interpersonal violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale, screening and treatment

  2. Reproduction, hatching success, and early naupliar survival in Centropages typicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianora, A.; Miralto, A.; Halsband-Lenk, C.

    2007-02-01

    The broadcast spawner, Centropages typicus, is a very successful copepod species in many coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean. This review assembles the large amount of information on the reproduction and early life history of C. typicus that has emerged since the 1970s and has made this species one of the best-studied copepods, similar in that regard to species of Acartia and Calanus. Observations on mating behavior and the female gametogenic and oogenic cycles are presented, together with information on seasonal cycles of egg production rates in Mediterranean and Atlantic populations from various regions. These studies indicate a strong latitudinal gradient, with continuous reproduction and the main spawning season occurring earlier (late winter/spring) in warmer waters such as the Mediterranean Sea, compared to northern areas such as the North Sea and in the Kattegat, where C. typicus actively reproduces mainly in late summer and fall with reproduction ceasing altogether in winter in the German Bight. These observations strongly suggest that temperature is the controlling factor for reproductive activity in this species. Egg development times are also temperature dependent but do not vary with latitude, and there is as yet no conclusive evidence that diapause egg production occurs in C. typicus. Laboratory experiments have shown that food quantity and quality both affect fecundity and offspring fitness, but most of these studies have focused on diatom and dinoflagellate diets and non-algal prey have been strongly underrepresented, despite their importance for this omnivorous copepod. Large fluctuations in hatching success and naupliar survival have been reported in field surveys and have subsequently been related to maternal feeding history and food quality or toxicity in laboratory experiments. We identify future lines of research that will help to explain the interannual variability in breeding intensity and recruitment of C. typicus

  3. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  4. Therapeutics of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Michael; Sharma, Verinder

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder affecting many women of reproductive age. Despite increasing public awareness, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated leading to significant maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. When identified, postpartum depression is usually treated as major depressive disorder. Many studies have identified the postpartum as a period of high risk for first presentations and relapses of bipolar disorder. Areas covered: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder, bipolar depression and major depressive disorder with mixed features. The safety of antidepressant and mood stabilizing medications in pregnancy and breastfeeding will also be reviewed. Expert commentary: Differentiating postpartum major depressive disorder and postpartum bipolar depression can be difficult given their clinical similarities but accurate identification is vital for initiating proper treatment. Antidepressants are the mainstay of drug treatment for postpartum major depressive disorder, yet randomized controlled trials have shown conflicting results. A paucity of evidence exists for the effectiveness of antidepressant prophylaxis in the prevention of recurrences of major depressive disorder. Mood stabilizing medications reduce the risk of postpartum bipolar depression relapse but no randomized controlled trials have examined their use in the acute or prophylactic treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

  5. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in the Early Postpartum Period in Patients with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeru; Shinagawa, Takaaki; Horinouchi, Takashi; Kozuma, Yutaka; Yonemoto, Koji; Hori, Daizo; Ushijima, Kimio

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical predictors of abnormal glucose tolerance 5-7 weeks after delivery. Subjects were 155 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between October 2005 and September 2013 whose pregnancy and delivery were managed at our center. Subjects were divided into a normal glucose tolerance group (NGT; n = 113), or abnormal glucose tolerance group (AGT; n = 42) with borderline or overt diabetes mellitus, based on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75 gOGTT) results 5-7 weeks after delivery. We extracted profiles by which abnormal glucose tolerance levels 5-7 weeks after delivery were predicted using a classification and regression tree (CART) from parameters measured at the time of GDM diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine prediction accuracy. Subjects with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥92 mg/dL and immuno-reactive insulin level <100 μU/mL 60 min after load (IRI60min) at time of diagnosis showed a significantly higher risk of developing abnormal glucose tolerance 5-7 weeks after delivery than subjects with FPG <92 mg/dL (p < 0.0001). Subjects with FPG ≥92 mg/dL and IRI60min ≥ 100 μU/mL had the same risk as those with FPG of <92 mg/dL. Patients with gestational diabetes who met the criteria specified above at diagnosis were at a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the future. By explaining this issue to patients, we expect to improve the rate of postpartum follow-up. This should facilitate early detection of diabetes, and help prevent associated complications.

  7. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Harold David; Peacock, Ann; Miller, Yvette D.; Koh, Denise; Marshall, Alison L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n = 13) versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n = 15). Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD) were: Age  33 ± 4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI) 30.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range)}, increased by 60 (0–540) mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580) mins/week in the UC group (P = 0.234). Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period. PMID:22548057

  8. Recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with rheumatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases during the reproductive age, pregnancy, postpartum and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Martínez López, Juan Antonio; García Vivar, M Luz; Cáliz, Rafael; Freire, Mercedes; Galindo, María; Hernández, Maria Victoria; López Longo, Francisco Javier; Martínez Taboada, Víctor; Pego Reigosa, Jose María; Rubio, Esteban; Trujillo, Elisa; Vela-Casasempere, Paloma

    To develop recommendations on the evaluation and management of patients with rheumatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases during the reproductive age, pregnancy, post-partum and breastfeeding based on the best evidence and experience. Recommendations were generated using nominal group and Delphi techniques. An expert panel of 12 rheumatologists was established. A systematic literature review and a narrative review (websites, clinical guidelines and other relevant documentation) were performed and presented to the panel in its 1 st meeting to be discussed and to help define recommendations. A first draft of recommendations was generated and circulated for comments and wording refinement. A national survey analyzing different aspects of this topic was undertaken separately, followed by a Delphi process (2 rounds). Agreement with each recommendation was ranked on a scale of 1 (total disagreement) to 10 (total agreement), and was considered to be achieved if at least 70% voted≥7. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. A total of 14 recommendations were generated for the preconception period (oral and hormonal contraception, reproductive techniques), pregnancy (planning, treatment and follow-up), and breastfeeding (treatment and follow-up). High-risk situations such as lupus or antiphospholipid syndrome were included. A consensus>90% was reached for all but one recommendation. These recommendations are intended to provide rheumatologists, patients, families and other stakeholders with a consensus on the evaluation and management of patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases during the reproductive age, pregnancy, postpartum and breastfeeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. Profiling inflammatory biomarkers in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) postpartum: Potential early indicators of bovine clinical endometritis?

    PubMed

    Adnane, Mounir; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Kaidi, Rachid; Meade, Kieran G; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2017-11-01

    Endometritis significantly impacts fertility and milk yield, thus reducing profitability of the dairy production. In cows that develop endometritis, normal postpartum endometrial inflammation is dysregulated. Here, we propose that endometrial inflammation is reflected in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) which could therefore be used as a prognostic tool. CVM was collected from 20 dairy cows (10 with clinical endometritis and 10 healthy) 7 and 21 days postpartum (DPP). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), mononuclear leukocyte and epithelial cells were counted, total protein levels were estimated and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C5b were analyzed by ELISA in CVM. PMN were consistently high in CVM from 7 to 21 DPP, but were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis 21 DPP compared with healthy cows. In contrast, there were more epithelial cells in healthy cows 21 DPP than in clinical endometritis animals. Total protein levels decreased significantly in CVM from healthy cows between days 7 and 21 postpartum. All inflammatory biomarkers except C5b, remained high in cows with clinical endometritis from 7 to 21 DPP, indicating sustained and chronic endometrial inflammation. IL1, IL-6, IL-8 and Hp levels were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis compared to healthy cows 21 DPP. Interestingly IL-1β levels were raised in CVM from clinical endometritis but not in healthy cows 7 DPP suggesting that early measurement of IL-1β levels might provide a useful predictive marker of clinical endometritis. In contrast, SAA and C5b levels were increased in healthy cows 21 DPP, compared to cows with clinical endometritis suggesting that these acute phase proteins might have an anti-inflammatory role. Our results show that CVM is convenient for profiling disease-associated changes in key inflammatory molecules postpartum and reaffirms that sustained inflammation is a key feature of clinical endometritis in the dairy cow. Copyright

  10. Use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to assess phasic dopamine release in rat models of early postpartum maternal behavior and neglect.

    PubMed

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Mace, Kyla D; Sullivan, Kaitlin M; Martin, W Kyle; Andersen, Elizabeth H; Williams Avram, Sarah K; Johns, Josephine M; Robinson, Donita L

    2017-12-01

    Maternal behavior (MB) is a complex response to infant cues, orchestrated by postpartum neurophysiology. Although mesolimbic dopamine contributes toward MB, little is known about real-time dopamine fluctuations during the postpartum period. Thus, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure individual dopamine transients in the nucleus accumbens of early postpartum rats and compared them with dopamine transients in virgins and in postpartum females exposed to cocaine during pregnancy, which is known to disrupt MB. We hypothesized that dopamine transients are normally enhanced postpartum and support MB. In anesthetized rats, electrically evoked dopamine release was larger and clearance was faster in postpartum females than in virgins and gestational cocaine exposure blocked the change in clearance. In awake rats, control mothers showed more dopamine transients than cocaine-exposed mothers during MB. Salient pup-produced stimuli may contribute toward differences in maternal phasic dopamine by evoking dopamine transients; supporting the feasibility of this hypothesis, urine composition (glucose, ketones, and leukocytes) differed between unexposed and cocaine-exposed infants. These data, resulting from the novel application of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to models of MB, support the hypothesis that phasic dopamine signaling is enhanced postpartum. Future studies with additional controls can delineate which aspects of gestational cocaine reduce dopamine clearance and transient frequency.

  11. Supplementation of vitamin E, selenium and increased energy allowance mitigates the transition stress and improves postpartum reproductive performance in the crossbred cow.

    PubMed

    Khatti, Amit; Mehrotra, Sanjeev; Patel, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijai Prakash; Mahla, Ajit Singh; Chaudhari, Ravjibhai Karshanbhai; Das, Gautam Kumar; Singh, Mithilesh; Sarkar, Mihir; Kumar, Harendra; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2017-12-01

    Dairy cow undergoes tremendous physiological challenges during the transition period leading to negative energy balance (NEBAL), impaired immunity and oxidative stress that ultimately compromises the postpartum fertility. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of antioxidant supplementation and increased energy allowance on transition stress and fertility of crossbred cow. Advanced pregnant crossbred cows (n = 26) of 2-4 parity and lactation potential of >10 L/day were divided into two equal groups (n = 13 cows/group). Cows were fed diets either (i) supplemented with vitamin E (80 IU/kg DM), Selenium (Se; 0.3 mg/kg DM) and increased energy allowance in the form of 20% additional concentrate (TRT) or (ii) basal diet without any supplementation as control (CON). Vitamin E and Se were supplemented with wheat flour bolus from -4 to 8 week of calving whereas energy allowance was increased from 2 to 8 week of calving on daily basis to individual animal (where 0 is day of calving). Blood samples were collected on weekly interval from -4 to 8 week of calving. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Immunity level was assessed via estimation of phagocytic activity (PA) of granulocytes and lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA). Postpartum fertility was assessed by interval to first postpartum estrus (day) and pregnancy rate. Cows in TRT had a significantly lower MDA, higher TAC and decreased activity of SOD and CAT than that of CON (P < 0.05). Phagocytic activity increased at -1, 0 and 3-8 weeks postpartum (P < 0.05) while LPA showed difference (P < 0.05) at parturition, week 4 and 8 postpartum. Marked improvement in the fertility was recorded in terms of early resumption of postpartum estrus (P < 0.001) and higher pregnancy rate (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting early post-partum depressive symptoms among older primiparous Japanese mothers.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Aoki, Kyoko; Makaya, Miyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2015-10-01

    The number of older primiparas is increasing in Japan. These women have been shown to be more vulnerable to post-partum depression. This study aimed to identify factors for predicting post-partum depressive symptoms during hospitalization after childbirth in Japanese primiparas aged 35 years and over. The present authors used the data of 479 primiparas aged 35 years and over from a prospective cohort study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires on the day before hospital discharge. The questionnaire consisted of: demographics and background information; depressive symptoms; fatigue; maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction; child-care values; physical symptoms; perceptions of daily life during hospitalization; concerns about child care and daily life; and infant feeding. Additionally, vital records data were obtained from the hospitals. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed on the binary outcome variable of depressive symptoms, measured by the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Women who scored 9 or more were considered to be at high risk for post-partum depression. The authors obtained informed consent from all participants and institutional ethics approvals before initiating the study. The following six variables reliably predicted the risk of post-partum depression: emergency cesarean section, lower satisfaction with birth experience, higher physical burden in daily life, long-term complications with the newborn, more concerns about newborn caretaking after discharge, and more concerns about one's own life after discharge. Recognition of women with these factors will help nurses to identify those at risk for developing post-partum depression and to provide appropriate care during hospitalization after childbirth. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. Pelvic floor morphometry and function in women with and without puborectalis avulsion in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Marie-Pierre; Kruger, Jennifer; Wong, Vivien; Dumoulin, Chantale; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic floor muscles are subject to considerable stretching during vaginal birth. In 13-36% of women, stretching results in avulsion injury whereby the puborectalis muscle disconnects from its insertion points on the pubis bone. Until now, few studies have investigated the effect of this lesion on pelvic floor muscles in the early postpartum period. The primary aim of this study was to compare pelvic floor muscle morphometry and function in primiparous women with and without puborectalis avulsion in the early postpartum period. Our secondary objective was to compare the 2 groups for pelvic floor disorders and impact on quality of life. In all, 52 primiparous women diagnosed with (n = 22) or without (n = 30) puborectalis avulsion injury were assessed at 3 months postpartum. Pelvic floor muscle morphometry was evaluated with 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasound at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver. Different parameters were measured in the midsagittal and axial planes: bladder neck position, levator plate angle, anorectal angle, and levator hiatus dimensions. The dynamometric speculum was used to assess pelvic floor muscle function including: passive properties (passive forces and stiffness) during dynamic stretches, maximal strength, speed of contraction, and endurance. Pelvic floor disorder-related symptoms (eg, urinary incontinence, vaginal and bowel symptoms) and impact on quality of life were evaluated with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification was also assessed. In comparison to women without avulsion, women with avulsion presented an enlarged hiatus area at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver (P ≤ .013) and all other ultrasound parameters were found to be significantly altered during maximal contraction (P ≤ .014). They showed lower passive forces at maximal and 20-mm vaginal apertures as well as lower

  14. Early Breastfeeding Problems Mediate the Negative Association between Maternal Obesity and Exclusive Breastfeeding at 1 and 2 Months Postpartum1–3

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Elizabeth J; Perrine, Cria G; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared with normal-weight women, women with obesity experience poorer breastfeeding outcomes. Successful breastfeeding among women with obesity is important for achieving national breastfeeding goals. Objectives The objectives were to determine whether the negative association between obesity and any or exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 2 mo postpartum is mediated through breastfeeding problems that occur in the first 2 wk postpartum and if this association differs by parity. Methods Mothers (1151 normal-weight and 580 obese) in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II provided information on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, body mass index, and breastfeeding outcomes. At 1 mo postpartum, participants reported the breastfeeding problems they experienced in the first 2 wk postpartum from a predefined list of 17 options. We used factor analysis to condense these problems into 4 explanatory variables; continuous factor scores were computed for use in further analyses. We used maximum likelihood logistic regression to assess mediation of the association between obesity and breastfeeding outcomes through early breastfeeding problems. Results No significant effect of obesity was found on any breastfeeding at 1 or 2 mo. At 1 mo postpartum, for both primiparous and multiparous women, there was a significant direct effect of obesity on exclusive breastfeeding and a significant indirect effect of obesity through early breastfeeding problems related to the explanatory mediating variable “Insufficient Milk” (throughout the remainder of the Abstract, this factor will be denoted by upper case notation). At 2 mo postpartum both the direct effect of obesity and the indirect effect through Insufficient Milk were significant in primiparous women but only the indirect effect remained significant in multiparous women. Conclusions Early problems related to Insufficient Milk may partially explain the association between obesity and poor exclusive

  15. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  16. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Andrew M.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.; Salamone, John D.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. Objective This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A2A receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. Methods The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Results Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Conclusions Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother–infant relationship. PMID:20848086

  17. Does pelvic floor muscle contraction early after delivery cause perineal pain in postpartum women?

    PubMed

    Neels, Hedwig; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training is effective and necessary in the prevention and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction during pregnancy and after childbirth. But because of the high prevalence of perineal pain observed in women after childbirth, many women and caregivers fear to start pelvic floor muscle training immediately after childbirth. However, it is unknown whether pelvic floor muscle contractions (PFMC) provoke perineal pain in women shortly after childbirth. Therefore, the main objective is to study whether PFMC performed immediately after childbirth is painful or not. Observational longitudinal study. Perineal pain was assessed (1-6 days and 9 weeks postpartum) using a visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10) during PFMC and during several activities of daily living (ADL), during micturition and defecation. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon and McNemar tests were used. A total of 233 women participated (148 primiparous and 85 multiparous). Immediately postpartum the prevalence and intensity of pain during ADL (73%; VAS 4.9 (±2.3)), micturition (47%; VAS 3.4 (±1.7)) and defecation (19%; VAS 3.6 (±2.2)) were significantly higher (all p<0.000) than during PFMC (8%; VAS 2.2 (±0.9)). At 9 weeks postpartum, 30% experienced perineal pain during sexual intercourse (VAS 4.6 +/- 2.3) and 18% during defecation (VAS 4.7 +/- 2.3), but none during PFMC. Perineal pain is highly prevalent immediately after childbirth during ADL, micturition and defecation, but not during PFMC (only 8%). In case perineal pain occurs during PFMC, the intensity of pain is low (VAS 2). These results show that fear of perineal pain should not discourage women to start pelvic floor muscle training shortly after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of oral calcium bolus administration on milk production, concentrations of minerals and metabolites in serum, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Chashnidel, Y; Teimouri-Yansari, A; Mahjoubi, E; Dirandeh, E

    2018-05-01

    To determine the effects of oral Ca bolus administration in the early postpartum period of cows on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance. Multiparous Holstein dry cows (n=66) with a mean parity of 3.1 (SD 0.35) were fed a diet with a positive dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) prior to calving. They were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (Control; n=33) or two oral Ca boluses (n=33, 45 g of Ca per bolus); one was administered immediately after calving (Day 0) and the second 24 hours (±30 minutes) later. Blood samples were collected at calving, and on Days 2 and 7 to determine concentrations in serum of Ca, P, Mg, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). Milk yield was recorded daily and milk composition was determined weekly from calving until 28 day postpartum. Health and outcomes were determined during the first 30 days postpartum and reproductive outcomes to 180 days postpartum. Mean milk yields and composition over the first month of lactation were similar between cows in the two treatment groups (p>0.1). Mean concentrations of Ca in serum were not different between treatment groups on Day 0, but were higher on Day 2 for cows that received oral Ca boluses (1.77 (SE 0.07)) compared with Control cows (1.54 (SE 0.08)) (p=0.04). Concentrations in serum of P, Mg, glucose, NEFA and ΒHBA did not differ between treatment groups on any day of measurement. Fewer cows that received oral Ca were diagnosed with hypocalcaemia (total concentrations of Ca in serum <1.5 mmol/L) by Day 2 (2/33; 6%) compared with Control cows (12/33; 36%) (p=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of other health outcomes between treatment groups. The proportion of cows conceiving to first insemination was greater in cows that received an oral Ca bolus (19/29; 65%) than Control cows (12/29; 41%) (p=0.01). Oral Ca bolus administration increased concentrations of Ca

  19. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Strawderman, Myla S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = −0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = −0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. PMID:25244078

  20. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Postpartum diseases.

    PubMed

    Smith, F O

    1986-05-01

    This article includes discussions about postpartum care of the dam and postpartum disorders in the bitch such as hemorrhage, uterine prolapse, metritis, mastitis, eclampsia, and subinvolution of the placental sites.

  2. Postpartum Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of postpartum psychosis never had delusions containing violent commands. Delusions take many forms, and not all of them are destructive. Most women who experience postpartum psychosis do not harm themselves or anyone else. However, there ...

  3. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  4. Postpartum Consequences of an Overlap of Breastfeeding and Pregnancy: Reduced Breast Milk Intake and Growth During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Grace S.; Penny, Mary E.; Diaz, Judith M.; Marín, R. Margot

    2006-01-01

    Objective Despite cultural pressure to wean when a new pregnancy occurs, some women choose to continue breastfeeding. We determined the effect of an overlap of lactation and late pregnancy on breastfeeding and growth in early infancy. Methods We studied 133 Peruvian pregnant women who were ≥18 years of age, had a child <4 years old, and who then had a vaginal birth with a healthy, normal weight infant. Of the 133 women, 68 breastfed during the last trimester of pregnancy (BFP), and 65 had not breastfed during pregnancy (NBFP). On day 2 and at 1-month postpartum, 24-hour intake of breast milk and other liquids was measured. Twice weekly home surveillance documented infant morbidity and dietary intakes. Anthropometry was taken at birth and at 1 month. Maternal anthropometric, health, and socioeconomic status data were collected pre- and postpartum. Results Pregnant BFP mothers breastfed 5.3 ± 4.3 times/day. BFP and NBFP infants did not differ in breastfeeding behavior or in colostrum intake on day 2. BFP infants breastfed longer per feed and per 24 hours (35.2 minutes/24 hours) than did NBFP infants; however, 1-month intakes per feed tended to be lower among the BFP infants. After controlling for confounders, BFP infants gained 125 g less than did NBFP infants (about 15% of mean weight gain). A sustained decline would result in a −0.7 z score change in weight-for-age by 6 months. Conclusions A lactation-pregnancy overlap had a negative effect on early infant outcomes. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the effect continues past 1 month of age. PMID:11927729

  5. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (P<0.05) and IL-8 (P<0.01) responses to T-cell activation. Hierarchical clustering revealed 2 distinct inflammatory clusters associated with previous preeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Janice; Martin, Jonathan G; Bercu, Zachary; Shah, Jay; Shekhani, Haris; Peters, Gail

    2017-12-01

    Interventional radiologists are often called for emergent control of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding, even heavy bleeding as a result of uterine fibroids is not a common emergent procedure; instead, pregnancy and pregnancy related conditions, trauma and malignancy associated with bleeding can be the source of many interventional radiology on call events or procedures. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause, and is defined as blood loss of 500mL after vaginal delivery or 1000mL after cesarean section. Several authors have suggested a simpler definition of any amount of blood loss that creates hemodynamic instability in the mother. Regardless, PPH can be a life-threatening emergency and is a leading cause of maternal mortality requiring prompt action. Primary PPH is bleeding within the first 24 hour of delivery and secondary PPH is hemorrhage that occurs more than 24 hour after delivery. In addition to death, other serious morbidity resulting from postpartum bleeding includes shock, adult respiratory distress syndrome, coagulopathy, and loss of fertility due to hysterectomy. Transcatheter uterine artery embolization was first introduced as a treatment for PPH in 1979. It is a nonsurgical, minimally invasive, extremely safe and effective treatment for controlling excessive bleeding of the female reproductive track usually after conservative measures have failed, yet somewhat underused. Referring providers have limited awareness of the procedure. In hospitals where interventional radiologists have the experience and technical expertise to perform pelvic arteriography and embolization, this therapeutic option can play a pivotal role in the management of emergent obstetric hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between body condition score at calving and reproductive performance in young postpartum cows grazing native range

    Body condition score is used as a management tool to predict competency of reproduction in beef cows. Therefore, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate association of BCS at calving with subsequent pregnancy rate, days to first estrus, nutrient status (assessed by blood metabolites), and c...

  8. A randomized comparison of home visits and hospital-based group follow-up visits after early postpartum discharge.

    PubMed

    Escobar, G J; Braveman, P A; Ackerson, L; Odouli, R; Coleman-Phox, K; Capra, A M; Wong, C; Lieu, T A

    2001-09-01

    Short postpartum stays are common. Current guidelines provide scant guidance on how routine follow-up of newly discharged mother-infant pairs should be performed. We aimed to compare 2 short-term (within 72 hours of discharge) follow-up strategies for low-risk mother-infant pairs with postpartum length of stay (LOS) of <48 hours: home visits by a nurse and hospital-based follow-up anchored in group visits. We used a randomized clinical trial design with intention-to-treat analysis in an integrated managed care setting that serves a largely middle class population. Mother-infant pairs that met LOS and risk criteria were randomized to the control arm (hospital-based follow-up) or to the intervention arm (home nurse visit). Clinical utilization and costs were studied using computerized databases and chart review. Breastfeeding continuation, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal satisfaction were assessed by means of telephone interviews at 2 weeks postpartum. During a 17-month period in 1998 to 1999, we enrolled and randomized 1014 mother-infant pairs (506 to the control group and 508 to the intervention group). There were no significant differences between the study groups with respect to maternal age, race, education, household income, parity, previous breastfeeding experience, early initiation of prenatal care, or postpartum LOS. There were no differences with respect to neonatal LOS or Apgar scores. In the control group, 264 mother-infant pairs had an individual visit only, 157 had a group visit only, 64 had both a group and an individual visit, 4 had a home health and a hospital-based follow-up, 13 had no follow-up within 72 hours, and 4 were lost to follow-up. With respect to outcomes within 2 weeks after discharge, there were no significant differences in newborn or maternal hospitalizations or urgent care visits, breastfeeding discontinuation, maternal depressive symptoms, or a combined clinical outcome measure indicating whether a mother-infant pair had

  9. Pregnancy rates for embryos transferred from early postpartum beef cows into recipients with normal estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Schrick, F N; Inskeep, E K; Butcher, R L

    1993-09-01

    Survival rate of embryos from first ovulations of postpartum cows with SHORT (6.9 +/- 0.3 days; n = 35) or NORMAL (17.1 +/- 0.3 days; n = 42) luteal phases and quality of the embryos on Day 6 were compared. At 19 to 23 days postpartum, cows were allotted to receive a norgestomet implant for 9 days (normal luteal phase) or to serve as untreated controls (short luteal phase). Calves were weaned 7 days after initiation of treatment to induce behavioral estrus in cows for mating. In 25 cows, growth of the ovulatory follicle was monitored by ultrasonography. On Day 6 after estrus, embryos were recovered nonsurgically, and live embryos were transferred into recipient cows exhibiting normal estrous cycles. The medium used to flush the embryos from the uterus of each donor cow was assayed for prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). Days from calf removal to estrus and size of ovulatory follicles at ovulation (4.1 +/- 0.3 days and 16.7 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively) did not differ between NORMAL and SHORT cows. Interval from detection of the ovulatory follicle to ovulation was longer in NORMAL (10 +/- 0.7 days) than in SHORT cows (8 +/- 0.6 days; p < 0.05). Rates of recovery of an embryo or ovum (64%), rates of fertilization (65%), and quality or stage of development of Day 6 embryos did not differ between SHORT and NORMAL cows. Overall pregnancy rate from recovered oocytes was 13% for SHORT and 32% for NORMAL cows (p = 0.06); survival of fertilized oocytes was 23% for SHORT and 47% for NORMAL cows (p = 0.08).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of early or late resynchronization based on different methods of pregnancy diagnosis on reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinedino, L D P; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Cerri, R L A; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of dairy cows subjected to early (ER) or late (LR) resynchronization programs after nonpregnancy diagnoses based on either pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) ELISA or transrectal palpation, respectively. In addition, the accuracy of the PAG ELISA for early pregnancy diagnosis was assessed. Lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with timed artificial insemination (AI) performed between 61 and 74 DIM. On the day of the first postpartum AI, 1,093 cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to treatments; however, because of attrition, 452 ER and 520 LR cows were considered for the statistical analyses. After the first postpartum AI, cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and inseminated on the same day of detected estrus. Cows from ER that were not reinseminated in estrus received the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization 2d before pregnancy diagnosis. On d 28 after the previous AI (d 27 to 34), pregnancy status was determined by PAG ELISA, and nonpregnant cows continued on the Ovsynch protocol for reinsemination. Pregnant cows had pregnancy status reconfirmed on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) by transrectal palpation, and those that lost the pregnancies were resynchronized. Cows assigned to LR had pregnancy diagnosed by transrectal palpation on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) and nonpregnant cows were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol. Blood was sampled on d 28 after AI (d 27 to 34) from cows in both treatments that had not been reinseminated on estrus and again on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) for assessment of PAG ELISA to determine the accuracy of the test. Cows were subjected to treatments for 72d after the first insemination. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at first postpartum timed AI did not differ between treatments and averaged 28.9%. The proportion of nonpregnant cows that were resynchronized and received timed AI was greater

  11. Reproductive Health Education Model in Early Childhood through Education Film "Damar Wulan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahrulianingdyah, Atiek

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health education for early childhood it has been the time to teach, because the demand of the changing times and will affect the child's life when he/she is a teenager. During this time, the reproductive health education, which is in it there is sex education, considered taboo among some communities. They argue that the reproductive…

  12. Defining Postpartum Uterine Disease and the Mechanisms of Infection and Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract in Cattle 1

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines and anti-microbial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than in normal animals. However luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F to the E series, by a phospholipase A2 mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease. PMID:19439727

  13. Dietary assessment among women with overweight and obesity in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Bertz, F; Hellebö Johansson, E; Brekke, H K

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess dietary intake and evaluate the degree of agreement of group-level dietary intake as measured by 24-h recall against a 4-day diet record among postpartum women with overweight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 110 Swedish women with a body mass index of ≥27 kg m(-2) at 6-15 weeks postpartum who were recruited to a weight loss trial and randomised to diet intervention or control. One 24-h recall was conducted among all women prior to randomisation. In addition, women subsequently randomised to diet intervention also conducted a 4-day diet record before receiving dietary treatment (n = 54). Paired tests were used to evaluate agreement of group-level dietary intake as measured by 24-h recall against 4-day diet record among women randomised to diet intervention. Women reported a median (25th and 75th percentiles) energy intake of 9.1 (6.9, 11.7) MJ day(-1) and an intake of fibre, vitamin D, folate and iron below the recommended intake as assessed by 24-h recall prior to randomisation (n = 110). Group-level median intakes of energy (9.9 versus 10.0 MJ day(-1) ), fibre (21.9 versus 21.3 g day(-1) ), vitamin D (4.8 versus 6.5 μg day(-1) ), folate (296 versus 287 μg day(-1) ), iron (11.0 versus 11.3 mg day(-1) ) and calcium (915 versus 968 mg day(-1) ) did not differ significantly between the methods; however, the record captured a higher energy-adjusted intake of fat, saturated fat and alcohol, as well as a lower intake of carbohydrates, compared to the recall (n = 54). We found no difference in group-level estimates of energy or micronutrients between the recall and the record; however, there were some differences for macronutrients. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well-resourced sample: Early concurrent and long-term effects on infant cognitive, language, and motor development.

    PubMed

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Krogh, Marianne Thode; Vaever, Mette Skovgaard

    2016-12-01

    This study examined early and long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression on cognitive, language, and motor development in infants of clinically depressed mothers. Participants were 83 mothers and their full-term born children from the urban region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Of this group, 28 mothers were diagnosed with postnatal depression three to four months postpartum in a diagnostic interview. Cognitive, language, and motor development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition, when the infants were 4 and 13 months of age. We found that maternal postpartum depression was associated with poorer cognitive development at infant age four months, the effect size being large (Cohen's d = 0.8) and with similar effects for boys and girls. At 13 months of age infants of clinical mothers did not differ from infants of non-clinical mothers. At this time most (79%) of the clinical mothers were no longer, or not again, depressed. These results may indicate that maternal depression can have an acute, concurrent effect on infant cognitive development as early as at four months postpartum. At the same time, in the absence of other risk factors, this effect may not be enduring. The main weaknesses of the study include the relatively small sample size and that depression scores were only available for 35 of the non-clinical mothers at 13 months. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Presence and dynamics of leptin, GLP-1, and PYY in human breast milk at early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Schueler, Jessica; Alexander, Brenda; Hart, Ann Marie; Austin, Kathleen; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2013-07-01

    The presence of appetite hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin in breast milk may be important in infant feeding regulation and infant growth. This study evaluated whether concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, and leptin change across a single feeding (from fore- to hindmilk), and are associated with maternal and infant anthropometrics. Thirteen postpartum women (mean ± SD: 25.6 ± 4.5 years, 72.0 ± 11.9 kg) provided fore- and hindmilk samples 4-5 weeks after delivery and underwent measurements of body weight and composition by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. GLP-1, PYY, and leptin concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay, and milk fat content was determined by creamatocrit. Concentration of GLP-1 and content of milk fat was higher in hindmilk than foremilk (P ≤ 0.05). PYY and leptin concentrations did not change between fore- and hindmilk. Both leptin concentration and milk fat content were correlated with indices of maternal adiposity, including body mass index (r = 0.65-0.85, P < 0.02), and fat mass (r = 0.65-0.84, P < 0.02). Hindmilk GLP-1 was correlated with infant weight gain from birth to 6 months (r = -0.67, P = 0.034). The presence of appetite hormones in breast milk may be important in infant appetite and growth regulation. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Stress levels and depressive symptoms in NICU mothers in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Alkozei, Anna; McMahon, Erin; Lahav, Amir

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether particular maternal and infant factors can identify mothers at risk for increased stress upon admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eighty-five mothers of preterm infants (25-34 weeks gestation) were assessed using the Parental Stressor Scale (PSS:NICU) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) within 3.24 ± 1.58 d postpartum. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which maternal stress is influenced by individual factors. Fifty-two percent of mothers experienced increased stress (PSS:NICU score ≥3) and 38% had significant depressive symptoms (EPDS score ≥10). Stress related to alterations in parental role was the most significant source of stress among NICU mothers. Distance from the hospital and married marital status were significant predictors for stress related to alterations in parental role (p = 0.003) and NICU sights and sounds (p = 0.01), respectively. Higher stress levels were associated with higher depressive scores (p = 0.001). Maternal mental health factors, demographic factors, pregnancy factors and infant characteristics were not associated with increased stress. Elevated stress levels and depressive symptoms are already present in mothers of preterm infants upon NICU admission. Being married or living long distance from the hospital is associated with higher stress. Future work is needed to develop effective interventions for alleviating stress in NICU mothers and preventing its potential development into postnatal depression.

  17. Early identification of women at risk of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a sample of Lebanese women.

    PubMed

    El-Hachem, Charline; Rohayem, Jihane; Bou Khalil, Rami; Richa, Sami; Kesrouani, Assaad; Gemayel, Rima; Aouad, Norma; Hatab, Najat; Zaccak, Eliane; Yaghi, Nancy; Salameh, Salimé; Attieh, Elie

    2014-09-07

    During the postpartum period, women are vulnerable to depression affecting about 10 to 20% of mothers during the first year after delivery. However, only 50% of women with prominent symptoms are diagnosed with postpartum depression (PPD). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used screening instrument for PPD . The main objectives of this study are to assess whether an EPDS score of 9 or more on day 2 (D2) postpartum is predictive of a depressive episode between days 30 and 40 postpartum (D30-40), to determine the risk factors as well as the prevalence of PPD in a sample of Lebanese women and to determine a threshold score of EPDS predictive of PPD. A sample of 228 women were administered the EPDS on D2. An assessment for PPD was done on D30-40 during a telephone interview. On D2, the average score on EPDS was 7.1 (SD = 5.2) and 33.3% of women had an EPDS score ≥ 9. On D30-40 postpartum, the average score was 6.5 (SD = 4.7) and 19 women (12.8%) presented with PPD. A positive correlation was shown between scores on EPDS on D2 and D30-40 (r = 0.5091, p < 0.0001). A stepwise regression shows that an EPDS score ≥9 on D2 (p < 0.001) and a personal history of depression (p = 0.008) are significantly associated with the diagnosis of PPD on D30-40. The EPDS may be considered as a reliable screening tool on as early as D2 after delivery. Women with EPDS score ≥ 9 and/or a positive personal history of major depressive disorder should benefit from a closer follow-up during the rest of the post-partum period.

  18. Dynamics of postpartum endometrial cytology and bacteriology and their relationship to fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert O; Santos, Natalia R

    2016-05-01

    Endometrial samples were obtained from 56 consecutively calving dairy cows examined for endometrial cytology and for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth. Changes over time, correlations between different cell types and between cell and bacterial populations and with fertility measures were calculated. The proportion of neutrophils in cytologic preparations decreased with time postpartum. Other cell types did not change significantly with time. The proportion of neutrophils early (Day 0 and 7) postpartum was negatively correlated with neutrophil proportion at 5 or 7 weeks postpartum and positively correlated with fertility. Cows with high proportion of neutrophils at 7 days postpartum (>40%) were significantly more likely to become pregnant than those with lower proportions of neutrophils. Escherichia coli were the bacteria most frequently isolated at 0 or 7 days postpartum but were uncommon after that. Trueperella pyogenes were most prevalent at 3 weeks postpartum and were more likely to infect cows that had previously been infected with E coli. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum increased the risk of concomitant or later infection with gram-negative anaerobes. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum significantly reduced the risk of pregnancy at 150 days in milk. The presence of alpha-hemolytic Streptoccus spp. at 7 days postpartum was associated with improved reproductive performance. The proportion of neutrophils at 5 and 7 weeks postpartum was related to concomitant bacterial infection. These findings suggest that rapid mobilization of neutrophils to the postpartum uterus is a beneficial response for uterine health in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Influence of body condition and bovine somatotropin on estrous behavior, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum somatotropin and plasma fatty acids in postpartum Brahman-influenced cows.

    PubMed

    Flores, R; Looper, M L; Rorie, R W; Lamb, M A; Reiter, S T; Hallford, D M; Kreider, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2007-05-01

    Ninety-nine multiparous Brahman-influenced (1/4 to 3/8 Brahman) cows were managed to achieve low (BCS = 4.3 +/- 0.1; n = 50) or moderate (BCS = 6.1 +/- 0.1; n = 49) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of bovine somatotropin (bST) on estrous characteristics, reproductive performance, and concentrations of serum GH and plasma NEFA. Beginning 32 d postpartum, cows within each BC were assigned randomly to treatment with or without bST. Non-bST-treated cows received no treatment, and treated cows were administered bST (Posilac, 500 mg s.c.) on d -35, -21, and -7 before initiation of the breeding season. On d -7, all cows received an intravaginal, controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) device. On d 0 (initiation of the 70-d breeding season), the CIDR were removed and cows received prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Blood samples were collected from the median caudal vein of the cows at each bST treatment and at d -28 and 0. Estrous behavior was monitored by radiotelemetry during the first 30 d of the breeding season. Growth hormone was increased (P < 0.05) in low and moderate BC cows treated with bST. The percentage of cows detected in estrus during the first 30 d of the breeding season was decreased (P = 0.05) for low BC (64%) compared with moderate BC (82%) cows. The interval to first estrus tended (P = 0.07) to be shorter in low BC-bST-treated cows (3.7 +/- 1.9 d) than in moderate BC-bST-treated cows (9.6 +/- 1.8 d). During the first 30 d of the breeding season, cows in low BC had a decreased (P = 0.02) number of mounts received and increased (P = 0.001) quiescence between mounts compared with cows in moderate BC. The number of mounts received was reduced (P = 0.04) in bST-treated cows. More (P = 0.02) cows treated with bST became pregnant during the first 3 d of the breeding season compared with non-bST-treated cows. The cumulative first-service conception rate tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for bST-low BC cows than non-bST-treated cows in low or

  1. Telomeres, Reproductive Aging, and Genomic Instability During Early Development.

    PubMed

    Keefe, David L

    2016-12-01

    Implantation rate decreases and miscarriage rate increases with advancing maternal age. The oocyte must be the locus of reproductive aging because donation of oocytes from younger to older women abrogates the effects of aging on fecundity. Nuclear transfer experiments in a mouse model of reproductive aging show that the reproductive aging phenotype segregates with the nucleus rather than the cytoplasm. A number of factors within the nucleus have been hypothesized to mediate reproductive aging, including disruption of cohesions, reduced chiasma, aneuploidy, disrupted meiotic spindles, and DNA damage caused by chronic exposure to reactive oxygen species. We have proposed telomere attrition as a parsimonious way to explain these diverse effects of aging on oocyte function. Telomeres are repetitive sequences of DNA and associated proteins, which form a loop (t loop) at chromosome ends. Telomeres prevent the blunt end of DNA from triggering a DNA damage response. Previously, we showed that experimental telomere shortening phenocopies reproductive aging in mice. Telomere shortening causes reduced synapsis and chiasma, chromosome fusions, embryo arrest and fragmentation, and abnormal meiotic spindles. Telomere length of polar bodies predicts the fragmentation of human embryos. Telomerase, the reverse transcriptase capable of reconstituting shortened telomeres, is only minimally active in oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Intriguingly, during the first cell cycles following activation, telomeres robustly elongate via a DNA double-strand break mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALTs). Alternative lengthening of telomere takes place even in telomerase-null mice. This mechanism of telomere elongation previously had been found only in cancer cells lacking telomerase activity. We propose that ALT elongates telomeres across generations but does so at the cost of extensive genomic instability in preimplantation embryos. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Early growth, dominance acquisition and lifetime reproductive success in male and female cooperative meerkats

    PubMed Central

    English, Sinead; Huchard, Elise; Nielsen, Johanna F; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2013-01-01

    In polygynous species, variance in reproductive success is higher in males than females. There is consequently stronger selection for competitive traits in males and early growth can have a greater influence on later fitness in males than in females. As yet, little is known about sex differences in the effect of early growth on subsequent breeding success in species where variance in reproductive success is higher in females than males, and competitive traits are under stronger selection in females. Greater variance in reproductive success has been documented in several singular cooperative breeders. Here, we investigated consequences of early growth for later reproductive success in wild meerkats. We found that, despite the absence of dimorphism, females who exhibited faster growth until nutritional independence were more likely to become dominant, whereas early growth did not affect dominance acquisition in males. Among those individuals who attained dominance, there was no further influence of early growth on dominance tenure or lifetime reproductive success in males or females. These findings suggest that early growth effects on competitive abilities and fitness may reflect the intensity of intrasexual competition even in sexually monomorphic species. PMID:24340181

  3. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life.

    PubMed

    Svechnikov, Konstantin; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Savchuck, Iuliia; Söder, Olle

    2014-01-01

    During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted.

  4. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... or your baby Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide Untreated, postpartum depression may last for many months or longer. Postpartum ... hotline number — in the U.S., call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at ... one People with depression may not recognize or acknowledge that they're ...

  5. [The relationship between early neo-maternal exposure, and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in the mothers of NICU infants].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young-Mee; Kim, Mi-Ran

    2005-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the quantities of three neo-maternal exposures; visiting frequency, auditory contact and physical contact, and to examine the relationship between the quantities of each exposure and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in 40 mothers of NICU babies during the first week in the NICU. Each neo-maternal exposure was counted at every mother's visit to the newborn and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression were measured using the maternal attachment inventory, the maternal self-report inventory and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) on the first and seventh day in the NICU. The Mean of each neo-maternal exposure was 8.77(2.81) for the visiting frequency, 5.82(3.66) for the auditory contact and 5.60(2.89) for the physical contact during 7 days in the NICU. No significant changes were found in the scores of maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression between the first and the seventh day in the NICU. The quantities of neo-maternal exposures were positively related to the scores of maternal attachment and maternal self-esteem but not related to postpartum depression. The results of the study suggest the lack of early neo-maternal exposure in cases of NICU hospitalization negate its beneficial effects on maternal psychological well-being in increasing maternal attachment and self-esteem. More efforts are needed for the neo-maternal interaction and the reevaluation of NICU visitation hours in order to promote maternal-infant interaction.

  6. Reproduction

    Reproductive efficiency, or percentage of lamb crop raised and marketed, is the major factor affecting profitability of a sheep flock. Frequently, an increased reproductive rate will be the most efficient way to increase income rather than an increase in numbers of ewes. Consequently, increasing th...

  7. Maternal Education, Early Child Care and the Reproduction of Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The social and human capital that educational attainment provides women enables them to better navigate their children's passages through school. In this study, we examine a key mechanism in this intergenerational process: mothers' selection of early child care. Analyses of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that…

  8. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low

  9. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cun-Quan; Sun, Yu-Han; Li, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Ke-Qi; Hu, Rui-Yang; Li, Yun

    2014-03-21

    Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia.

  10. Early-life stress and reproductive cost: A two-hit developmental model of accelerated aging?

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Two seemingly independent bodies of research suggest a two-hit model of accelerated aging, one highlighting early-life stress and the other reproduction. The first, informed by developmental models of early-life stress, highlights reduced longevity effects of early adversity on telomere erosion, whereas the second, informed by evolutionary theories of aging, highlights such effects with regard to reproductive cost (in females). The fact that both early-life adversity and reproductive effort are associated with shorter telomeres and increased oxidative stress raises the prospect, consistent with life-history theory, that these two theoretical frameworks currently informing much research are tapping into the same evolutionary-developmental process of increased senescence and reduced longevity. Here we propose a mechanistic view of a two-hit model of accelerated aging in human females through (a) early-life adversity and (b) early reproduction, via a process of telomere erosion, while highlighting mediating biological embedding mechanisms that might link these two developmental aging processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Francesca; Smith, Valerie; Cleary, Brian J

    2016-07-14

    Many women experience perineal pain after childbirth, especially after having sustained perineal trauma. Perineal pain-management strategies are thus an important part of postnatal care. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a commonly used type of medication in the management of postpartum pain and their effectiveness and safety should be assessed. To determine the effectiveness of a single dose of an oral NSAID for relief of acute perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2016), OpenSIGLE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, the ISRCTN Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov (31 March 2016). We also reviewed reference lists of retrieved papers and contacted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a single dose of a NSAID versus a single dose of placebo, paracetamol or another NSAID for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over trials were excluded. Two review authors (FW and VS) independently assessed all identified papers for inclusion and risk of bias. Any discrepancies were resolved through discussion and consensus. Data extraction, including calculations of pain relief scores, was also conducted independently by two review authors and checked for accuracy. We included 28 studies that examined 13 different NSAIDs and involved 4181 women (none of whom were breastfeeding). Studies were published between 1967 and 2013, with the majority published in the 1980s. Of the 4181 women involved in the studies, 2642 received a NSAID and 1539 received placebo or paracetamol. Risk of bias was generally unclear due to poor reporting, but in most studies the participants and personnel were blinded, outcome data were complete and the outcomes that were specified in the methods section were reported.None of the included studies reported on any of this review's secondary outcomes: prolonged hospitalisation or re

  12. A public health nursing early intervention program for adolescent mothers: outcomes from pregnancy through 6 weeks postpartum.

    PubMed

    Koniak-Griffin, D; Anderson, N L; Verzemnieks, I; Brecht, M L

    2000-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remain a major public concern because of their impact on maternal-child health and on the social and economic well-being of the nation. Federal welfare reform legislation has created an urgent need for community-based nursing intervention programs to improve health and social outcomes for disadvantaged adolescent mothers and to promote their self-sufficiency. To evaluate the effects of an early intervention program (EIP) that uses a public health nursing model on health and social outcomes of adolescent mothers and their children and on the quality of mother-child interaction. Pregnant adolescents referred to a county health department were randomly assigned to an experimental (EIP) or control (traditional public health nursing [TPHN]) group. The sample included 121 adolescents from predominantly minority and impoverished backgrounds who were followed from pregnancy through 6 weeks postpartum. Intense and comprehensive home visitation by public health nurses and preparation-for-motherhood classes were provided to adolescents in the EIP. Health outcomes were determined on the basis of medical record data. Other measures included maternal self-report on selected behaviors, nurse interviews, and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). Early findings indicate reduced premature birth and low-birth-weight (LBW) rates for young mothers receiving both forms of public health nursing care. No significant differences between groups were found for infant birth weight or type of delivery. Infants in the EIP had significantly fewer total days of birth-related hospitalization and rehospitalization than those in the TPHN group during the first 6 weeks of life (chi2(1) = 6.41; p = 0.01). Adolescents in the EIP demonstrated significantly more positive educational outcomes (e.g., lower school dropout rates) than those in the TPHN group (chi2(1) = 6.76; p < 0.009). The early findings of this study demonstrate that pregnant adolescents

  13. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... months and is associated with symptoms including anxiety, insomnia, palpitations (fast heart rate), fatigue, weight loss, and irritability. Since these symptoms are often attributed to being postpartum and the stress of having a new baby, the thyrotoxic phase ...

  14. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... long-term complications are the same as in major depression . Untreated postpartum depression may put you at risk ... American Psychiatric Association. Depressive disorders. Diagnostic ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013:155-233. Nonacs RM, ...

  15. Postpartum Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management ... Delivery (Postpartum Recovery)Fully recovering from pregnancy and childbirth can take months. While many women feel mostly ...

  16. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... a few hours or days following delivery. For women who have had a cesarean delivery, it is done right after the baby is born. How is postpartum sterilization performed? For women who have had a vaginal delivery, a small ...

  17. Early perinatal diagnosis of mothers at risk of developing post-partum depression--a concise guide for obstetricians, midwives, neonatologists and paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Alessandra; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we tried to provide all those involved in perinatal medicine with a concise guide to detect mothers at risk of developing post-partum depression. Motherhood is a critical situation characterized by role conflicts because conflicts among the role of mother, worker and wife are the norm in the post-partum period and may jeopardize the mother's existence. We have described a kind of personality that is at great risk of developing post-partum depression because of the incapacity to creatively manage situations of role conflict. This personality structure is called typus melancholicus, and we operationally defined its main features: orderliness, conscientiousness, hypernomia/heteronomia and intolerance of ambiguity. We have shown how these mothers may typically behave during pregnancy and early motherhood: they cannot avoid behaving with feverish perfectionism, developing an exaggerated preoccupation towards the unborn child and hostility towards persons and events that are experienced as an obstacle to their search for perfection. They ultra-carefully follow all the steps concerning paediatric check-ups and feel all the responsibility relating to the care of the child, without being able to delegate to someone else or share their feelings. We hope to provide those clinicians who are engaged in the care of pregnant women and their children with a valuable and user-friendly instrument for understanding and making a timely diagnoses of at-risk psychopathological phenomena.

  18. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of lifetime reproduction in female brown bears: early body mass, longevity, and hunting regulations.

    PubMed

    Zedrosser, Andreas; Pelletier, Fanie; Bischof, Richard; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Swenson, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    In iteroparous mammals, conditions experienced early in life may have long-lasting effects on lifetime reproductive success. Human-induced mortality is also an important demographic factor in many populations of large mammals and may influence lifetime reproductive success. Here, we explore the effects of early development, population density, and human hunting on survival and lifetime reproductive success in brown bear (Ursus arctos) females, using a 25-year database of individually marked bears in two populations in Sweden. Survival of yearlings to 2 years was not affected by population density or body mass. Yearlings that remained with their mother had higher survival than independent yearlings, partly because regulations prohibit the harvest of bears in family groups. Although mass as a yearling did not affect juvenile survival, it was positively associated with measures of lifetime reproductive success and individual fitness. The majority of adult female brown bear mortality (72%) in our study was due to human causes, mainly hunting, and many females were killed before they reproduced. Therefore, factors allowing females to survive several hunting seasons had a strong positive effect on lifetime reproductive success. We suggest that, in many hunted populations of large mammals, sport harvest is an important influence on both population dynamics and life histories.

  20. Respiratory and reproductive paleophysiology of dinosaurs and early birds.

    PubMed

    Ruben, John A; Jones, Terry D; Geist, Nicholas R

    2003-01-01

    In terms of their diversity and longevity, dinosaurs and birds were/are surely among the most successful of terrestrial vertebrates. Unfortunately, interpreting many aspects of the biology of dinosaurs and the earliest of the birds presents formidable challenges because they are known only from fossils. Nevertheless, a variety of attributes of these taxa can be inferred by identification of shared anatomical structures whose presence is causally linked to specialized functions in living reptiles, birds, and mammals. Studies such as these demonstrate that although dinosaurs and early birds were likely to have been homeothermic, the absence of nasal respiratory turbinates in these animals indicates that they were likely to have maintained reptile-like (ectothermic) metabolic rates during periods of rest or routine activity. Nevertheless, given the metabolic capacities of some extant reptiles during periods of elevated activity, early birds were probably capable of powered flight. Similarly, had, for example, theropod dinosaurs possessed aerobic metabolic capacities and habits equivalent to those of some large, modern tropical latitude lizards (e.g., Varanus), they may well have maintained significant home ranges and actively pursued and killed large prey. Additionally, this scenario of active, although ectothermic, theropod dinosaurs seems reinforced by the likely utilization of crocodilian-like, diaphragm breathing in this group. Finally, persistent in vivo burial of their nests and apparent lack of egg turning suggests that clutch incubation by dinosaurs was more reptile- than birdlike. Contrary to previous suggestions, there is little if any reliable evidence that some dinosaur young may have been helpless and nestbound (altricial) at hatching.

  1. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of hatchery salmon spawn in wild populations each year. Hatchery fish with multiple generations of hatchery ancestry often have heritably lower reproductive success than wild fish and may reduce the fitness of an entire population. Whether this reduced fitness also occurs for hatchery fish created with local- and predominantly wild-origin parents remains controversial. Here, we review recent studies on the reproductive success of such ‘early-generation’ hatchery fish that spawn in the wild. Combining 51 estimates from six studies on four salmon species, we found that (i) early-generation hatchery fish averaged only half the reproductive success of their wild-origin counterparts when spawning in the wild, (ii) the reduction in reproductive success was more severe for males than for females, and (iii) all species showed reduced fitness due to hatchery rearing. We review commonalities among studies that point to possible mechanisms (e.g., environmental versus genetic effects). Furthermore, we illustrate that sample sizes typical of these studies result in low statistical power to detect fitness differences unless the differences are substantial. This review demonstrates that reduced fitness of early-generation hatchery fish may be a general phenomenon. Future research should focus on determining the causes of those fitness reductions and whether they lead to long-term reductions in the fitness of wild populations. PMID:25469167

  2. Relationships among type of parturition, type of discharge from genital tract, involution of cervix, and subsequent reproductive performance in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oltenacu, P A; Britt, J H; Braun, R K; Mellenberger, R W

    1983-03-01

    Data were from 492 Holstein cows calved between October, 1976, and May, 1977, in eight herds in Michigan. Diameter of the cervix of each cow was estimated by palpation at 8 to 21 days postpartum and again 2 wk later. Parturition and postpartum discharge from the genital tract were classified as normal or abnormal. Size of the cervix between 12 and 26 days postpartum was classified as small, medium, or large within two parity groups. Incidence of abnormal parturition and incidence of abnormal postpartum discharge were 14.1 and 38.0%. Involution of the cervix was affected by parity and type of postpartum discharge. Involution of the cervix occurred sooner postpartum in primiparous than in multiparous cows and sooner postpartum in cows with normal discharge than in cows with abnormal discharge. The greatest difference in cervix diameter between cows with normal or abnormal discharges was 10 mm at 3 wk postpartum. Days from parturition to first detected estrus and first service were extended by abnormal postpartum discharge but not by abnormal parturition. First-service conception rate was lower and days from parturition to conception were higher in cows with medium or large cervices compared to cows with small cervices. Type of postpartum discharge and size of cervix early postpartum may be useful for predicting subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows.

  3. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake. PMID:26938997

  4. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake.

  5. The role of early life nutrition in programming of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life.

  6. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have these psychotic symptoms need medical attention right away. Why It Happens Women who have other psychiatric illnesses, such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, may be at greater risk for developing postpartum ... get medical help right away. How Can I Get Help? Tell your ...

  7. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible–infectious–removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  8. The Effect of Ginger on Breast Milk Volume in the Early Postpartum Period: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Paritakul, Panwara; Ruangrongmorakot, Kasem; Laosooksathit, Wipada; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Puapornpong, Pawin

    2016-09-01

    In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume. To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups. Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p < 0.01). However, the seventh day milk volume in the ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study. Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.

  9. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, You Jeong; Park, Bo Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period. Methods We performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=100), pre-diabetes (n=73), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=11). Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery. Results Eating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups. Conclusion Although diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM. PMID:21977455

  10. Effect of Lavender Oil Aroma in the Early Hours of Postpartum Period on Maternal Pains, Fatigue, and Mood: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Farideh; Shiravani, Mahsa; Najib, Fatemeh Sadat; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Salehi, Alireza; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Busy care providers focus on the serious complications of postpartum period. This issue causes the seemingly trivial complications, such as mother's pains, fatigue, and psychological status, to be less taken into account. The study aimed to determine the effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood in primiparous mothers. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 participants; 29 in intervention group and 27 in control group. The intervention group received lavender oil in three doses during the first 24 h after delivery. Sesame oil was used in the control group. Intensity of pain, fatigue, and distress level was measured by visual analog scale before and after the interventions. Besides, mood status was assessed through the positive and negative affect schedule. Results: The mean age of all the participants was 23.88 ± 3.88 years. After the first intervention and also in the tomorrow morning assessment, significant differences were found between the two groups regarding perineal pain (P = 0.004, P < 0.001), physical pain (P < 0.001), fatigue (P = 0.02, P < 0.001), and distress scores (P < 0.001). In addition, significant differences were found concerning the mean scores of positive (P < 0.001) and negative (P = 0.007, P < 0.001) moods between the two groups after the interventions. Repeated measures analyses showed that the two groups were significantly different over time in all the evaluated variables. Conclusions: Lavender oil aromatherapy starting in the first hours of postpartum period resulted in better physical and mood status compared to nonaromatic group. PMID:28567231

  11. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium intake affect rates of bone calcium deposition during pregnancy and the early postpartum period123

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kimberly O; Donangelo, Carmen M; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Gildengorin, Ginny; Abrams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background: Factors affecting bone calcium deposition across pregnancy and lactation are not well characterized. Objective: The impact of maternal age, calcium intake, race-ethnicity, and vitamin D status on the rate of bone calcium deposition (VO+) was assessed across pregnancy and lactation. Design: Stable calcium isotopes were given to 46 women at pre- or early pregnancy (trimester 1), late pregnancy (trimester 3), and 3–10 wk postpartum. Three cohorts were included: 23 adolescents from Baltimore (MD), aged 16.5 ± 1.4 y (mean ± SD; Baltimore cohort); 13 adults from California, aged 29.5 ± 2.6 y (California cohort); and 10 adults from Brazil, aged 30.4 ± 4.0 y (Brazil cohort). The total exchangeable calcium pool, VO+, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], parathyroid hormone, and calcium intake were evaluated. Results: At trimester 3, inverse associations between 1,25(OH)2D and VO+ were evident in the Baltimore (P = 0.059) and Brazil (P = 0.008) cohorts and in the whole group (P = 0.029); calcium intake was not a significant determinant of VO+ in any group during pregnancy. At postpartum, a significant positive association was evident between VO+ and calcium intake (P ≤ 0.002) and between VO+ and African ethnicity (P ≤ 0.004) in the whole group and within the Baltimore and Brazil cohorts. Conclusions: Elevated 1,25(OH)2D was associated with decreased rates of bone calcium deposition during late pregnancy, a finding that was particularly evident in pregnant adolescents and adult women with low calcium intakes. Higher dietary calcium intakes and African ethnicity were associated with elevated rates of bone calcium deposition in the postpartum period. PMID:22648718

  12. Postpartum Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

  13. Relationship Between Postpartum Depression and Psychological and Biological Variables in the Initial Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Marín-Morales, Dolores; Toro-Molina, Susana; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Losa-Iglesias, Marta; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier

    2018-06-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive relationship between psychological symptomatology 24 h postpartum and depression 4 months postpartum, and analyze the relationship between estradiol and postpartum mood. Methods Two hundred women participated in an assessment 24 h postpartum and gave a blood sample for estradiol analysis. One hundred eleven of these women completed the second assessment 4 months postpartum. The Beck Depression Inventory II and the Scale of State-Trait Anxiety were used to assess psychological symptoms. Results At 24 h postpartum, symptoms of depression, trait anxiety, and state anxiety were all significantly correlated with each other. Depression at 24 h postpartum was the only significant independent predictor of depression at 4 months postpartum, explaining 28.7% of the variance. No statistically significant relationship was found between levels of estradiol and mood. Symptoms of depression immediately postpartum thus appear to be a predictor of postpartum depression. Conclusions for Practice These results suggest that early postpartum psychological evaluation of the mother, and intervention as warranted, might prevent or lessen postpartum depression.

  14. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Mycoplasma infection in the uterus of early postpartum dairy cows and its relation to dystocia and endometritis.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Tezuka, Erisa; Ito, Hideki; Devkota, Bhuminand; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Osawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence of mycoplasma infection in the uterus of postpartum Holstein dairy cows and its relationship to the occurrence of endometritis. The genital tracts of 209 cows from three dairy farms in the Iwate Prefecture, Japan, were examined at Weeks 5 and 7 postpartum. The condition of the cervicovaginal mucus was assessed using a Metricheck device and assigned a score from 0 (clear mucus) to 4 (purulent material with fetid odor). Intrauterine samples (N = 418) were collected at Weeks 5 and 7 postpartum using a cytobrush. After its withdrawal, swab samples were placed in mycoplasma culture broth at 37 °C for 72 hours. A novel and rapid polymerase chain reaction was used to detect seven mycoplasma species (Mycoplasma bovis, M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. californicum, M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens, and M. canadense). The cytobrush was also rolled gently along the length of a glass slide for subsequent polymorphonuclear neutrophil count. The diagnostic criteria for cytological endometritis were 6% or more and 4% or more polymorphonuclear neutrophils at Weeks 5 and 7, respectively. From a subset of cows, additional swabs were rolled against the cytobrush and then placed in transport medium. These samples were then plated on specific agar plates and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to identify other bacteria present. The incidence of dystocia at the last calving was compared in mycoplasma positive and negative cows. Of the seven mycoplasma species, only M. bovigenitalium was detected; it was detected in 31 of the 418 uterine swabs (7.4%). Twenty-four cows were positive for M. bovigenitalium (eight cows at Week 5, nine cows at Week 7, and seven cows at both Weeks 5 and 7). The incidence of dystocia was higher (P < 0.0001) in mycoplasma positive (7/24; 29.2%) compared with mycoplasma negative (4/185; 2.2%) cows. However, there was no significant association between dystocia at last calving and subsequent uterine infection

  16. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls aged 15–19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. Methods We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Results Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria–nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage–an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Conclusions Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle

  17. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls aged 15-19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria-nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage-an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Given the association of early

  18. Immediate postpartum mood assessment and postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle L; Kroska, Emily B; Grekin, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N=526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n=364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n=271). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immediate Postpartum Mood Assessment and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michelle L.; Kroska, Emily B.; Grekin, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Methods Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N = 526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n = 364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n = 271). Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. Limitations The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. Conclusions The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. PMID:27716540

  20. Postpartum Depression Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  1. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Русский (Russian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Postpartum Depression - English PDF Postpartum Depression - Русский (Russian) PDF Postpartum Depression - English MP3 ...

  2. Early postpartum administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin to dairy cows calved during the hot season: Effects on fertility after first artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Patron-Collantes, R; Lopez-Helguera, I; Pesantez-Pacheco, J L; Sebastian, F; Fernández, M; Fargas, O; Astiz, S

    2017-04-01

    Heat stress reduces fertility of high-producing dairy cows, and early administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) may improve it. Here, 401 heat-stressed, high-producing dairy cows on a single commercial farm were given eCG (500 UI, n = 214) or saline (n = 187) on days 11-17 after calving, and the effects on fertility after the first artificial insemination (AI) were assessed. On post-partum day 96.34 ± 9.88, all cows were inseminated after a "double short Cosynch" synchronization protocol. Ovarian activity and uterine status were checked by ultrasound on the day of eCG administration and every 7 days thereafter for a total of 3 weeks; checks were also performed during synchronization, and 7 days after AI. On post-partum day 30, cytobrush uterine cytology was performed to check for subclinical endometritis. Pregnancy status was checked on days 30 and 60 after AI. The eCG and control groups did not differ significantly in terms of average lactations per cow (2.33 ± 1.34), days in milk at first AI (96.33 ± 9.88), average milk yield at AI (41.38 ± 7.74 L), or the particular inseminator or bull used for AI. The eCG and control groups showed increasing ovarian activity with time, with approximately 75% of cows in both groups showing a corpus luteum at the beginning of the synchronization protocol. On post-partum day 30, 17.4% of eCG cows and 22.9% of control cows showed subclinical endometritis. Cows treated with eCG showed a tendency toward lower hyperecogenic intraluminal content (16.8 vs. 21.4%, P = 0.15), but ovarian activity during the synchronization protocol was similar between eCG and control groups, with 91% of animals in both groups showing luteolysis after prostaglandin application and 88% showing ovulation after the last administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Fertility was similar between the two groups at both time points after AI (30 days, 34.9 vs. 31.8%; 60 days, 30.6 vs. 28.5%; P > 0.2). These results suggest

  3. Oldest known dinosaurian nesting site and reproductive biology of the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph Massospondylus

    PubMed Central

    Reisz, Robert R.; Evans, David C.; Roberts, Eric M.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Yates, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive Early Jurassic continental strata of southern Africa have yielded an exceptional record of dinosaurs that includes scores of partial to complete skeletons of the sauropodomorph Massospondylus, ranging from embryos to large adults. In 1976 an incomplete egg clutch including in ovo embryos of this dinosaur, the oldest known example in the fossil record, was collected from a road-cut talus, but its exact provenance was uncertain. An excavation program at the site started in 2006 has yielded multiple in situ egg clutches, documenting the oldest known dinosaurian nesting site, predating other similar sites by more than 100 million years. The presence of numerous clutches of eggs, some of which contain embryonic remains, in at least four distinct horizons within a small area, provides the earliest known evidence of complex reproductive behavior including site fidelity and colonial nesting in a terrestrial vertebrate. Thus, fossil and sedimentological evidence from this nesting site provides empirical data on reproductive strategies in early dinosaurs. A temporally calibrated optimization of dinosaurian reproductive biology not only demonstrates the primary significance of the Massospondylus nesting site, but also provides additional insights into the initial stages of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, including evidence that deposition of eggs in a tightly organized single layer in a nest evolved independently from brooding. PMID:22308330

  4. Effect of pre- and postpartum supplementation with lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid on reproductive performance and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in multiparous high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Csillik, Z; Faigl, V; Keresztes, M; Galamb, E; Hammon, H M; Tröscher, A; Fébel, H; Kulcsár, M; Husvéth, F; Huszenicza, Gy; Butler, W R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of prepartum and postpartum (PP) supplementation with 2 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on reproductive parameters and some related metabolic factors in dairy cows. High-producing, multiparous Holstein Friesian cows (n = 60) were allotted to 3 treatment groups: the CLA1 group (n = 20) was supplemented with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA providing 7 g each of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA from d 21 (d 21) before expected calving until d 7 after artificial insemination (AI), that is, until 77 to 91 d PP; the CLA2 group (n = 20) was supplemented with the same amount of CLA beginning at calving until d 7 after AI; and the control group (n = 20) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and isolipidic diet. Blood samples were taken weekly to measure glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and leptin. Liver biopsy was performed in 10 cows per group for growth hormone receptor 1A and IGF-I mRNA analyses. At d 49 to 63 PP, ovulation was synchronized with the Pre-Synch protocol followed by fixed-time AI. Milk progesterone was monitored from calving until d 35 post-AI. Cows returning to estrus following AI were inseminated. Supplementation with CLA before calving improved the recovery of plasma leptin levels in the early PP period (from the day of calving until wk 3 PP; treatment effect). Later PP (wk 5), plasma IGF-I, and leptin remained significantly higher in both CLA1 and CLA2 groups compared with control, although hepatocellular IGF-I mRNA was not different among groups. Plasma IGF-I levels remained higher in both CLA-treated groups on the day of AI. Growth hormone receptor 1A mRNA levels in hepatic tissue decreased in all groups, reaching a nadir in the first week PP. Days to first PP ovulation did not differ between groups; however, both supplemented groups conceived earlier compared with control (d 97 ± 19, d 97 ± 23, and d 113 ± 30 for CLA1, CLA2, and control, respectively

  5. Small body size in an insect shifts development, prior to adult eclosion, towards early reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Ashley D; Pexton, John J; Dytham, Calvin; Mayhew, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory has suggested that individual body size can strongly affect the allocation of resources to reproduction and away from other traits such as survival. In many insects, adults eclose with a proportion of their potential lifetime egg production that is already mature (the ovigeny index). We establish for the solitary parasitoid wasp Aphaereta genevensis that the ovigeny index decreases with adult body size, despite both initial egg load and potential lifetime fecundity increasing with body size. This outcome is predicted by adaptive models and is the first unequivocal intraspecific demonstration. Evidence suggests that a high ovigeny index carries a cost of reduced longevity in insects. Our results therefore contribute to the emerging evidence that small body size can favour a developmental shift in juveniles that favours early reproduction, but which has adverse late-life consequences. These findings are likely to have important implications for developmental biologists and population biologists. PMID:16600887

  6. "Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and early modern midwifery manuals.

    PubMed

    Hobby, E

    2001-01-01

    Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).

  7. The impact of early outcome events on the effect of tranexamic acid in post-partum haemorrhage: an exploratory subgroup analysis of the WOMAN trial.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Amy; Shakur-Still, Haleema; Chaudhri, Rizwana; Fawole, Bukola; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Roberts, Ian

    2018-06-07

    In severe post-partum haemorrhage, death can occur within hours of bleeding onset so interventions to control the bleeding must be given immediately. In clinical trials of treatments for life-threatening bleeding, established treatments are given priority and the trial treatment is usually given last. However, enrolling patients in whom severe maternal morbidity or death is imminent or inevitable at the time of randomisation may dilute the effects of a trial treatment. We conducted an exploratory analysis of data from the WOMAN trial, an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial of the effects of tranexamic acid on death and surgical intervention in 20,060 women with post-partum haemorrhage. We assessed the impact of early maternal death or hysterectomy due to exsanguination on the effect of tranexamic acid on each of these respective outcomes. We conducted repeated analyses excluding patients with these outcomes at increasing intervals from the time of randomisation. We quantified treatment effects using risk ratios (RR) and 99% confidence intervals (CI) and prepared cumulative failure plots. Among 14,923 women randomised within 3 h of delivery (7518 tranexamic acid and 7405 placebo), there were 216 bleeding deaths (1.5%) and 383 hysterectomies due to bleeding (2.8%). After excluding deaths from exsanguination at increasing time intervals following randomization, there was a significant reduction in the risk of death due to bleeding with tranexamic acid (RR = 0.41; 99% CI 0.19-0.89). However, after excluding hysterectomies at increasing time intervals post-randomization, there was no reduction in the risk of hysterectomy due to bleeding with tranexamic acid (RR = 0.79; 99% CI 0.33-1.86). Findings from this analysis provide further evidence that tranexamic acid reduces the risk of death from exsanguination in women who experience postpartum haemorrhage. It is uncertain whether tranexamic acid reduces the risk of hysterectomy for bleeding after

  8. Predictors of early postpartum mental distress in mothers with midwifery home care--results from a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Staehelin, Katharina; Kurth, Elisabeth; Schindler, Christian; Schmid, Monika; Zemp Stutz, Elisabeth

    2013-08-27

    The prevalence of early postpartum mental health conditions is high. Midwives and other health professionals visiting women at home may identify mothers at risk. This seems crucial given decreasing trends of length of hospital stay after childbirth. This study aimed to identify predictors of maternal mental distress in a midwifery home care setting. Using the statistical database of independent midwives' services in Switzerland in 2007, we conducted a matched nested case-control study. Out of a source population of 34,295 mothers with midwifery home care in the first ten days after childbirth, 935 mothers with maternal distress and 3,645 controls, matched by midwife, were included. We analysed whether socio-demographic, maternal and neonatal factors predict maternal mental distress by multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. Infant crying problems and not living with a partner were the strongest predictors for maternal distress, whereas higher parity was the most protective factor. Significantly elevated risks were also found for older age, lower educational levels, breast/breastfeeding problems, infant weight gain concerns, neonatal pathologies and use of midwifery care during pregnancy. A lower likelihood for maternal distress was seen for non-Swiss nationality, full-time employment before birth, intention to return to work after birth and midwife-led birth. The study informs on predictors of maternal mental distress identified in a home care setting in the early postpartum period. Midwives and other health care professionals should pay particular attention to mothers of excessively crying infants, single mothers and primipara, and assess the need for support of these mothers.

  9. The Role of Physical Activity in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postpartum Health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Cheryce L; Brown, Wendy J; Hayman, Melanie; Moran, Lisa J; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-03-01

    The rise in obesity and associated morbidity is currently one of our greatest public health challenges. Women represent a high risk group for weight gain with associated metabolic, cardiovascular, reproductive and psychological health impacts. Regular physical activity is fundamental for health and well-being with protective benefits across the spectrum of women's health. Preconception, pregnancy and the early postpartum period represent opportune windows to engage women in regular physical activity to optimize health and prevent weight gain with added potential to transfer behavior change more broadly to children and families. This review summarizes the current evidence for the role of physical activity for women in relation to preconception (infertility, assisted reproductive therapy, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight gain prevention and psychological well-being) pregnancy (prevention of excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia as well as labor and neonatal outcomes) and postpartum (lactation and breastfeeding, postpartum weight retention and depression) health. Beneficial outcomes validate the importance of regular physical activity, yet key methodological gaps highlight the need for large, high-quality studies to clarify the optimal type, frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity required for beneficial health outcomes during preconception, pregnancy and postpartum. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia: reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; van Rijn, Bas B; Westerveld, H Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable metabolic constitution in women may present itself early in life as a reproductive complication, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and preeclampsia. We evaluated the cardiovascular risk of women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and women with PCOS and assessed their need for implementation of early risk factor-reduction strategies. We performed a standardized evaluation of 240 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 456 women diagnosed with PCOS for established major CVD risk factors. Metabolic syndrome characteristics were analyzed per body mass index category. Mean age was 30.6 and 29.0 years for women with preeclampsia and PCOS, respectively. High percentages of metabolic syndrome were found in both groups (preeclampsia group, 14.6%; and PCOS group, 18.4%), with an incidence of greater than 50% in both groups of women if body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m. Overall, more than 90% of the women qualified for either lifestyle or medical intervention according to the American Heart Association guideline for CVD prevention in women. Women with PCOS and early-onset preeclampsia already show an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile with high need for lifestyle or medical intervention at a young age. We therefore recommend an active role of the gynecologist in routine screening and follow-up of women with reproductive conditions linked to future cardiovascular risk.

  11. Associations of elevated nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with early lactation reproductive performance and milk production in transition dairy cattle in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; Stokol, T; Overton, T R

    2010-04-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of elevated pre- and postpartum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations during the transition period on reproductive performance and milk production in dairy cattle. In a prospective cohort study of 91 freestall, total mixed ration-fed herds in the northeastern United States, blood samples were collected from approximately 15 prepartum and 15 different postpartum transition animals in each herd. All samples were stratified based on pre- or postpartum status at the time of sample collection, and 2,259 and 2,290 animals were used to evaluate reproductive and milk production performance, respectively. Reproductive performance was assessed by time to conception within 70 d post-voluntary waiting period (VWP) and milk production was assessed using mature-equivalent 305-d (ME305) milk yield estimated at 120 d in milk. While controlling for body condition score (BCS), calving season, median ME305 milk production, and parity, NEFA and BHBA concentrations were evaluated with time to event analysis to investigate reproductive performance. These same predictor variables were used to determine the effects of elevated NEFA and BHBA concentrations on ME305 milk yield with herd as a random effect. Heifers and cows were grouped in the final analyses if the results between groups were similar. In all animals sampled prepartum, the risk of pregnancy within 70 d post-VWP was reduced by 19% when NEFA concentrations were >or=0.27 mEq/L. In all animals sampled postpartum, those with NEFA concentrations >or=0.72 mEq/L had a 16% decrease in risk of pregnancy and those with BHBA concentrations >or=10mg/dL had a 13% decrease in risk. In cows and heifers, ME305 milk yield was decreased by 683 kg when prepartum NEFA concentrations were >or=0.33 mEq/L. In heifers sampled postpartum, ME305 milk yield was increased by 488 kg when NEFA concentrations were >or=0.57 mEq/L and increased by 403 kg when BHBA

  12. Influence of shift work on early reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Linden J; Macklon, Nicholas S; Cheong, Ying C; Bewley, Susan J

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether an association exists between shift work and early reproductive outcomes. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Additional sources included Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, online publications of national colleges, the ClinicalTrials.gov, and references of retrieved papers. Included studies compared female shift workers (work outside 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM) with nonshift workers with menstrual disruption (cycles less than 25 days or greater than 31 days), infertility (time-to-pregnancy exceeding 12 months), or early spontaneous pregnancy loss (less than 25 weeks). Two reviewers extracted adjusted and raw data. Random effect models were used to pool data weighting for the inverse of variance. Assessments of heterogeneity, bias, and subgroup analyses were performed. Sixteen independent cohorts from 15 studies (123,403 women) were subject to analysis. Shift workers had increased rates of menstrual disruption (16.05% [2,207/13,749] compared with 13.05% [7,561/57,932] [n=71.681, odds ratio {OR} 1.22, 95% confidence interval {CI} 1.15-1.29, I 0%]) and infertility (11.3% [529/4,668] compared with 9.9% [2,354/23,811] [OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.01-3.20, I 94%]) but not early spontaneous pregnancy loss (11.84% [939/7,931] compared with 12.11% [1,898/15,673] [n=23,604, OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.05, I 0%]). Night shifts were associated with increased early spontaneous pregnancy loss (n=13,018, OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.50, I 0%). Confounder adjustment led to persistent relationships between shift work and menstrual disruption (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.31, I 70%) but not infertility (adjusted OR 1.11 95% CI 0.86-1.44, I 61%). The association between night shifts and early spontaneous pregnancy loss remained (adjusted OR 1.41 95% CI 1.22-1.63, I 0%). This review provides evidence for an association between performing shift work and early reproductive outcomes, consistent with later pregnancy findings. However, there is currently insufficient evidence

  13. Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-04-07

    The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. PMID:25740893

  15. Reproductive strategy, spawning induction, spawning temperatures and early life history of captive sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki

    Albers, Janice; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Macrhybopsis reproduction and propagule traits were studied in the laboratory using two temperature regimes and three hormone treatments to determine which methods produced the most spawns. Only sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki spawned successfully although sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida released unfertilized eggs. All temperature and hormone treatments produced M. meeki spawns, but two treatments had similar success rates at 44 and 43%, consisting of a constant daily temperature with no hormone added, or daily temperature fluctuations with hormone added to the water. Spawns consisted of multiple successful demersal circular swimming spawning embraces interspersed with circular swims without embraces. The most spawns observed for one female was four and on average, 327 eggs were collected after each spawn. The water-hardened eggs were semi-buoyant and non-adhesive, the first confirmation of this type of reproductive guild in the Missouri River Macrhybopsis sp. From spawn, larvae swam vertically until 123 accumulated degree days (° D) and 167° D for consumption of first food. Using average water speed and laboratory development time, the predicted drift distance for eggs and larvae could be 468–592 km in the lower Missouri River. Results from this study determined the reproductive biology and early life history of Macrhybopsis spp. and provided insight into their population dynamics in the Missouri River.

  16. Effect of system of lamb rearing and season on early post-partum fertility of ewes and growth performance of lambs in Katahdin sheep.

    PubMed

    Rastle-Simpson, S; D'Souza, K; Redhead, A; Singh-Knights, D; Baptiste, Q; Knights, M

    2017-10-01

    The effect of season (S), lamb rearing system (RT) and grain supplementation (GS) on post-partum fertility in Katahdin ewes and growth in Katahdin lambs was evaluated. Katahdin ewes were bred to lamb in fall (n = 36) or spring (n = 56) and at approximately 2.5 months post-partum were randomly assigned to be permanently separated or to continue to suckle their lambs for an additional 3 months. All ewes were joined with rams following treatment to synchronize oestrus. Weaned (W, n = 84) and continuously suckled lambs (CSK, n = 88) were fed forage only (n = 84; hay and pasture for fall- and spring-born lambs respectively) or were supplemented (n = 88; 18% crude protein ration ad libitum) and all weighed biweekly. Ewes rebred in the fall had a shorter ram introduction to lambing interval (p < 0.05), higher prolificacy (p = 0.001) and higher lambing rates (p = 0.02); however, the proportion of ewes lambing was not affected by season. The first service lambing rate was lower in ewes continuously suckling lambs in the spring, but not in the fall breeding season (S × RT, p = 0.03). Lambs that continuously suckled their dams and were supplemented grew quicker and gained more (p < 0.001) than their weaned and unsupplemented counterparts. The effect of CSK on growth rate of lambs was greater in the spring (RT × S; p = 0.05), and the effect of supplementation on growth rate of lambs was greater in the fall (GS × S; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Katahdin lambs achieved higher weight gains from continuous suckling and grain supplementation. Moreover, Katahdin ewes are capable of early rebreeding post-partum while suckling their lambs, which makes them suited for use in accelerated lambing programmes. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-19

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

  18. Trunk forward flexion mobility in reference to postural sway in women after delivery: A prospective longitudinal comparison between early pregnancy and 2- and 6-month postpartum follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Opala-Berdzik, Agnieszka; Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Świder, Dariusz; Cieślińska-Świder, Joanna

    2018-07-01

    It has been documented that pregnancy-related increased connective tissue laxity may persist postpartum; however, it is still unclear for how long. This longitudinal study aimed to compare total trunk forward flexion mobility in women between their first trimester of pregnancy and at 2- and 6-month postpartum follow-ups. We also searched for a correlation between women's trunk flexibility and their postural stability in the sagittal plane. Seventeen healthy women participated in the study. Data were collected at their 7-12 weeks gestation appointments and at 6-10 and 25-28 weeks postpartum. At each session, the women performed a finger floor distance test, and data were collected on their waist circumference and BMI. The women's center of foot pressure mean velocity in the anterior-posterior direction was computed from 30-s long quiet-standing trials on a stationary force plate. Total trunk forward flexion mobility was significantly higher at 2 and 6 months postpartum compared to that in early pregnancy (P < 0.05). At 6 months postpartum, a moderate negative correlation between finger floor distance test values and their anterior-posterior center of foot pressure mean velocity was observed (r = -0.6, P < 0.05). Increased total trunk flexibility may be present in women 6 months postpartum. During that period, women with higher trunk flexibility may be more likely to present higher anterior-posterior postural sway velocity in quiet standing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking and Illicit Drug Use Associations With Early Versus Delayed Reproduction: Findings in a Young Adult Cohort of Australian Twins*

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article examines relationships between reproductive onset and lifetime history of smoking, regular smoking, and nicotine dependence, and cannabis and other illicit drug use. Method: Data were drawn from a young adult cohort of 3,386 female and 2,751 male Australian twins born between 1964 and 1971. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models predicting age at first childbirth from history of substance use or disorder separately by substance class. Other substance use or disorder, including alcohol dependence, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, history of psychopathology, and family and childhood risks, were included as control variables in adjusted models. Results: Regular smoking and nicotine dependence were associated with earlier reproduction, with pronounced effects for women. For women, use of cannabis was associated with early reproduction before age 20, and with delayed reproduction among women who have not reproduced by age 20 or 25. Adjustment for control variables only partially explained these associations. Conclusions: Consistent with research linking adolescent use with sexual risk taking predictive of early childbearing, regular smokers and nicotine-dependent individuals show earlier reproductive onset. In contrast, delays in childbearing associated with use of cannabis are consistent with impairments in reproductive ability and/or opportunities for reproduction. Continued research on risks both upstream and downstream of substance-use initiation and onset of substance-use disorder is needed for causal mechanisms to be fully understood. PMID:19737504

  20. ‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in early modern England†

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in early modern England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608

  1. Myomas and Adenomyosis: Impact on Reproductive Outcome.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikos F; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Partsinevelos, George A

    2017-01-01

    Among uterine structural abnormalities, myomas and adenomyosis represent two distinct, though frequently coexistent entities, with a remarkable prevalence in women of reproductive age. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the impact of each of them on reproductive outcome. In respect to myomas, current evidence implies that submucosal ones have an adverse effect on conception and early pregnancy. A similar effect yet is not quite clear and has been suggested for intramural myomas. Still, it seems reasonable that intramural myomas greater than 4 cm in diameter may negatively impair reproductive outcome. On the contrary, subserosal myomas do not seem to have a significant impact, if any, on reproduction. The presence of submucosal and/or large intramural myomas has also been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In particular increased risk for miscarriage, fetal malpresentation, placenta previa, preterm birth, placenta abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean section has been reported. With regard to adenomyosis, besides the tentative coexistence of adenomyosis and infertility, to date a causal relationship among these conditions has not been fully confirmed. Preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony, and ectopic pregnancy have all been reported in association with adenomyosis. Further research on the impact of adenomyosis on reproductive outcome is welcome.

  2. Myomas and Adenomyosis: Impact on Reproductive Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Vlahos, Nikos F.; Theodoridis, Theodoros D.

    2017-01-01

    Among uterine structural abnormalities, myomas and adenomyosis represent two distinct, though frequently coexistent entities, with a remarkable prevalence in women of reproductive age. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the impact of each of them on reproductive outcome. In respect to myomas, current evidence implies that submucosal ones have an adverse effect on conception and early pregnancy. A similar effect yet is not quite clear and has been suggested for intramural myomas. Still, it seems reasonable that intramural myomas greater than 4 cm in diameter may negatively impair reproductive outcome. On the contrary, subserosal myomas do not seem to have a significant impact, if any, on reproduction. The presence of submucosal and/or large intramural myomas has also been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In particular increased risk for miscarriage, fetal malpresentation, placenta previa, preterm birth, placenta abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean section has been reported. With regard to adenomyosis, besides the tentative coexistence of adenomyosis and infertility, to date a causal relationship among these conditions has not been fully confirmed. Preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony, and ectopic pregnancy have all been reported in association with adenomyosis. Further research on the impact of adenomyosis on reproductive outcome is welcome. PMID:29234680

  3. [Feasibility and results of at-home follow-up after early postpartum discharge from maternity units in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, S; Some, D A; Toure, B; Ouattara, Z A; Dembele, A; Bambara, M; Dao, B

    2014-01-01

    to describe the feasibility and results of at-home follow-up of mothers and newborns discharged early from the maternity ward after normal childbirth. This prospective descriptive study took place during a one month period (April 1-30, 2011) in five maternity units in Bobo-Dioulasso, the second largest city in Burkina Faso. Mothers with normal vaginal deliveries and no complications at the sixth hour postpartum were included in the study with their newborns after informed oral consent. The discharge took place between 12 and 48 hours after delivery. The follow-up took place by telephone, home visits, and emergency hospital visits in cases of complications. A postnatal hospital visit was systematically planned for day 7. The study included 630 mothers and their babies. There were 1567 phone calls made: 27 women could not be reached by telephone after discharge, and 140 home visits took place, either at the mother's request or because of the failure to reach her by telephone. Complications were observed in 55 mothers and 135 babies. Postnatal follow-up at home is required for mothers and their newborns discharged early from the maternity ward after normal childbirth in view of the possibility of complications. This ensures continuity of care to improve survival of mothers and babies. As cell phones become more and more available, they may play an important role as a tool for such follow up.

  4. Early reproductive developmental anatomy in Decaisnea (Lardizabalaceae) and its systematic implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Feng; Friedman, Cynthia Ross; Zhu, Zhi-Xin; Qin, Hai-Ning

    2009-11-01

    Decaisnea insignis, known as 'dead man's fingers' (Lardizabalaceae), is widely distributed in China and the Himalayan foothill countries. This economically important plant, which is the only species in the genus, has not been the subject of any embryological studies aside from one brief, older paper that lacks micrographs. Data on Decaisnea are also important because its systematic position has been unstable since the genus was established in 1855. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (a) to use modern microscopy to document early reproductive anatomical development in Decaisnea; and (b) to compare qualitatively these early embryological characters with allied taxa in a systematic context. Decaisnea insignis floral buds and inflorescences were regularly collected from Shaanxi Province, China and prepared for light microscopy. The embryological characters studied were qualitatively compared with those of allied taxa via a thorough examination of the existing literature. Early reproductive anatomy in Decaisnea was documented and novel revelations made. It was discovered that the pollen is shed when three-celled (not two-celled, as previously reported), and that endosperm formation is nuclear (not cellular or helobial, as previously reported). These two newly revealed embryological characters are not found in any other members of Lardizabalaceae. Furthermore, neither are persistent antipodal cells, which we confirmed to be present in Decaisnea. Decaisnea and other Lardizabalaceae characteristically have tetrasporangiate anthers, a secretory tapetum, simultaneous microsporocyte cytokinesis, primarily bitegmic, crassinucellate ovules, and a Polygonum type embryo sac. However, in the family, persistent antipodals, nuclear endosperm, and pollen shed at the three-celled stage are only found in Decaisnea. These embryological data prompted the suggestion that Decaisnea needs elevation above the level of genus.

  5. Early reproductive developmental anatomy in Decaisnea (Lardizabalaceae) and its systematic implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Feng; Friedman, Cynthia Ross; Zhu, Zhi-Xin; Qin, Hai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Decaisnea insignis, known as ‘dead man's fingers’ (Lardizabalaceae), is widely distributed in China and the Himalayan foothill countries. This economically important plant, which is the only species in the genus, has not been the subject of any embryological studies aside from one brief, older paper that lacks micrographs. Data on Decaisnea are also important because its systematic position has been unstable since the genus was established in 1855. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (a) to use modern microscopy to document early reproductive anatomical development in Decaisnea; and (b) to compare qualitatively these early embryological characters with allied taxa in a systematic context. Methods Decaisnea insignis floral buds and inflorescences were regularly collected from Shaanxi Province, China and prepared for light microscopy. The embryological characters studied were qualitatively compared with those of allied taxa via a thorough examination of the existing literature. Key Results Early reproductive anatomy in Decaisnea was documented and novel revelations made. It was discovered that the pollen is shed when three-celled (not two-celled, as previously reported), and that endosperm formation is nuclear (not cellular or helobial, as previously reported). These two newly revealed embryological characters are not found in any other members of Lardizabalaceae. Furthermore, neither are persistent antipodal cells, which we confirmed to be present in Decaisnea. Conclusions Decaisnea and other Lardizabalaceae characteristically have tetrasporangiate anthers, a secretory tapetum, simultaneous microsporocyte cytokinesis, primarily bitegmic, crassinucellate ovules, and a Polygonum type embryo sac. However, in the family, persistent antipodals, nuclear endosperm, and pollen shed at the three-celled stage are only found in Decaisnea. These embryological data prompted the suggestion that Decaisnea needs elevation above the level of genus

  6. Cohort study of early literacy and childbearing over the reproductive lifecourse.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Jane W; Frasso, Rosemary; Shofer, Frances S; Bennett, Ian M

    2016-12-30

    Literacy is linked to a range of health outcomes, but its association with reproductive health in high-income countries is not well understood. We assessed the relationship between early-life literacy and childbearing across the reproductive lifecourse in the USA. A prospective cohort design was employed to assess early-life literacy and subsequent childbearing, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The US youth aged 14-22 years in 1979, including 6283 women, were surveyed annually through 1994 and biannually thereafter. Literacy was assessed in 1980 using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Reading Grade Level (RGL). Cumulative childbearing and grand multiparity (≥5 births) were assessed in 2010. Summary statistics, χ 2 , Kruskal-Wallis, test for trend and logistic regression, were used. Of 6283 women enrolled, 4025 (64%) had complete data and were included in the analyses. In 1980, these women were on average 18 years old and in 2010 they were 45. Median cumulative parity decreased for each RGL and ranged from 3.0 (<5th grade) to 2.0 (>12th grade) (p=0.001). Adjusting for race/ethnicity, poverty status, whether a woman had had a child in 1980, and age in 1980, odds of grand multiparity were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.5) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.3), greater among women with <5th or 5-6th grade literacy compared with those ≥12th literacy. In the USA, early-life literacy is associated with total parity over a woman's lifecourse. Literacy is a powerful social determinant of reproductive health in this high-income nation just as it has been shown to be in low-income nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; González-Pensado, Solana; Bielli, Alejandro; Villagrán, Matías; Olazabal, Daniel; Pérez, William

    2008-01-01

    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed. PMID:18534014

  8. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and early reproductive health outcomes among women undergoing IVF.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L; Missmer, Stacey A; Flaws, Jodi A; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Petrozza, John C; Wright, Diane; Hauser, Russ

    2012-12-01

    In women undergoing IVF, are urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations associated with ovarian response and early reproductive outcomes, including oocyte maturation and fertilization, Day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst formation? Higher urinary BPA concentrations were found to be associated with decreased ovarian response, number of fertilized oocytes and decreased blastocyst formation. Experimental animal and in vitro studies have reported associations between BPA exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes. We previously reported an association between urinary BPA and decreased ovarian response [peak serum estradiol (E(2)) and oocyte count at the time of retrieval] in women undergoing IVF; however, there are limited human data on reproductive health outcomes, such as fertilization and embryo development. Prospective preconception cohort study. One hundred and seventy-four women aged 18-45 years and undergoing 237 IVF cycles were recruited at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center, Boston, MA, USA, between November 2004 and August 2010. These women were followed until they either had a live birth or discontinued treatment. Cryothaw and donor egg cycles were not included in the analysis. Urinary BPA concentrations were measured by online solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed effect models, poisson regression and multivariate logistic regression models were used wherever appropriate to evaluate the association between cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations and measures of ovarian response, oocyte maturation (metaphase II), fertilization, embryo quality and cleavage rate. We accounted for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. The geometric mean (SD) for urinary BPA concentrations was 1.50 (2.22) µg/l. After adjustment for age and other potential confounders (Day 3 serum FSH, smoking, BMI), there was a significant linear

  9. Sex differences in episodic memory in early midlife: impact of reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Dorene M; Weiss, Blair K; Jacobs, Emily G; Cherkerzian, Sara; Klibanski, Anne; Remington, Anne; Aizley, Harlyn; Goldstein, Jill M

    2017-04-01

    Few have characterized cognitive changes with age as a function of menopausal stage relative to men, or sex differences in components of memory in early midlife. The study aim was to investigate variation in memory function in early midlife as a function of sex, sex steroid hormones, and reproductive status. A total of 212 men and women aged 45 to 55 were selected for this cross-sectional study from a prenatal cohort of pregnancies whose mothers were originally recruited in 1959 to 1966. They underwent clinical and cognitive testing and hormonal assessments of menopause status. Multivariate general linear models for multiple memory outcomes were used to test hypotheses controlling for potential confounders. Episodic memory, executive function, semantic processing, and estimated verbal intelligence were assessed. Associative memory and episodic verbal memory were assessed using Face-Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) and Selective Reminding Test (SRT), given increased sensitivity to detecting early cognitive decline. Impacts of sex and reproductive stage on performance were tested. Women outperformed men on all memory measures including FNAME (β = -0.30, P < 0.0001) and SRT (β = -0.29, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, premenopausal and perimenopausal women outperformed postmenopausal women on FNAME (initial learning, β= 0.32, P = 0.01) and SRT (recall, β= 2.39, P = 0.02). Across all women, higher estradiol was associated with better SRT performance (recall, β = 1.96, P = 0.01) and marginally associated with FNAME (initial learning, β = 0.19, P = 0.06). This study demonstrated that, in early midlife, women outperformed age-matched men across all memory measures, but sex differences were attenuated for postmenopausal women. Initial learning and memory retrieval were particularly vulnerable, whereas memory consolidation and storage were preserved. Findings underscore the significance of the decline in ovarian estradiol production in

  10. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Karishma K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Goldenberg, Shira M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Results Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences—early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care—were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. PMID:25458416

  11. [Early prenatal interview knowledge in post-partum women: Cross-sectional study in 2011 in Lille (France)].

    PubMed

    Aernout, E M; Carpentier, S

    2016-04-01

    Early prenatal interview (EPI) is one of the flagship measures of the 2005-2007 perinatal strategy. It allows mothers to have a 45-minute interview, distinct from a medical consultation, promoting the expression of their expectations and medical, psychological or social difficulties. It should be routinely offered to all mothers in early pregnancy. The main objective of our study was to determine the proportion of women who had knowledge of Early prenatal interview and to profile women who knew it. Secondary objectives were to describe the EPI achievement rate and its terms of implementation. All women who gave birth between 16 and 20 January 2011 in one of the ten maternity hospitals of the Lille metropolis were interviewed during their stay in maternity. A mixed model logistic regression was made to draw the profile of women with knowledge of Early prenatal interview. Of 311 women who gave birth during the study period, 270 were included in the survey. 148 patients (54.8 %) knew Early prenatal interview and 79 (29.3 %) had it. Women who had a high level of education were significantly more aware of this interview than those with low level of study. Other factors studied were not significantly related to knowledge of the EPI. While the EPI should be routinely offered to all pregnant women, only half of the patients who give birth had heard about it during their pregnancy. Women of low educational level should be more targeted by professional performing this interview. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  13. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: The current status of heat shock in early embryonic survival and reproductive efficiency

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium entitled “The Current Status of Heat Shock in Early Embryonic Survival and Reproductive Efficiency” was held at the Joint ADSA-CSAS-AMPA-WSAS-ASAS Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, July 15 to 19, 2012. In recent years, data has accumulated suggesting a role for...

  14. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  15. An appraisal of early reproduction after cutting in northern Appalachian hardwood stands

    George R., Jr. Trimble; George Hart

    1961-01-01

    How shall I cut to get reproduction? What kind of reproduction will I get if I cut the way I am planning to? All foresters have asked themselves these questions. To help supply some answers to these questions for the northern Appalachian hardwood area, the authors have summarized and analyzed before- and after-cutting reproduction data collected over a period of 10...

  16. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Winfrey, William; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Askew, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.). The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against) low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC), childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and ‘equiplot’ displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics. Results Overall

  17. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration.

    PubMed

    Hounton, Sennen; Winfrey, William; Barros, Aluisio J D; Askew, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.). The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against) low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC), childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and 'equiplot' displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics. Overall, variation in postpartum use of modern

  18. Postpartum anemia II: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils

    2012-02-01

    This review focuses on the prevention and treatment of anemia in women who have just given childbirth (postpartum anemia). The problem of anemia both prepartum and postpartum is far more prevalent in developing countries than in the Western societies. The conditions for mother and child in the postpartum, nursing, and lactation period should be as favorable as possible. Many young mothers have a troublesome life due to iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) causing a plethora of symptoms including fatigue, physical disability, cognitive problems, and psychiatric disorders. Routine screening for postpartum anemia should be considered as part of the national maternal health programs. Major causes of postpartum anemia are prepartum iron deficiency and IDA in combination with excessive blood losses at delivery. Postpartum anemia should be defined as a hemoglobin level of <110 g/l at 1 week postpartum and <120 g/l at 8 weeks postpartum. Bleeding exceeding normal blood losses of approximately 300 ml may lead to rapid depletion of body iron reserves and may, unless treated, elicit long-standing iron deficiency and IDA in the postpartum period. The prophylaxis of postpartum anemia should begin already in early pregnancy in order to ensure a good iron status prior to delivery. The most reliable way to obtain this goal is to give prophylactic oral ferrous iron supplements 30-50 mg daily from early pregnancy and take obstetric precautions in pregnancies at risk for complications. In the treatment of slight-to-moderate postpartum IDA, the first choice should be oral ferrous iron 100 to 200 mg daily; it is essential to analyze hemoglobin after approximately 2 weeks in order to check whether treatment works. In severe IDA, intravenous ferric iron in doses ranging from 800 to 1,500 mg should be considered as first choice. In a few women with severe anemia and blunted erythropoiesis due to infection and/or inflammation, additional recombinant human

  19. Reproduction and early-life accommodations of landlocked alewives to a southern range extension

    Nigro, A.A.; Ney, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Reproduction and first-year growth and food habits of landlocked alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Claytor Lake, Virginia were examined and compared to descriptions for populations in the species' established New England-Great Lakes range. Alewives in mesothermal (2–27 C) Claytor Lake are shorter-lived (3 years) but grow faster, mature earlier (age 1), and have higher relative and absolute fecundities than have been reported for populations in colder northern waters. The 1979 spawning period extended from early May to early August, beginning at least 1 month earlier and lasting 4–9 weeks longer than in northern lakes. Changes in ovary condition during the spawning period suggest that alewives may be fractional spawners. Evidence of spawning was found in littoral areas throughout the lower 15 km of the reservoir. Growth in length of age-0 Claytor Lake alewives was linear through September and terminated in late autumn. Total first-year growth was reduced in 1979 (maximum of 130 mm total length, TL) from previous years (average of 160 mm TL), although it was substantially greater than recorded in the Great Lakes and the northeastern United States. The longer growing season, rather than accelerated in-season growth, appears to account for larger size achieved in Claytor Lake. High annual growth limits predation by Claytor Lake game fish on early spawned age-0 alewives by late summer. As elsewhere, larval and juvenile alewives (6–70 mm TL) fed primarily on copepods and cladocerans. Age-0 alewives longer than 35 mm TL demonstrated positive size-selection for cyclopoid copepods comparable to that shown by adults. Our findings suggest that self-sustaining alewife populations can be established in many inland waters but raise concerns regarding their forage value and community impacts.

  20. Effect of music therapy during vaginal delivery on postpartum pain relief and mental health.

    PubMed

    Simavli, Serap; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Gumus, Ilknur; Usluogulları, Betul; Yildirim, Melahat; Kafali, Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Childbirth is an important experience in a woman's life, and unfavorable birth experiences have been shown to negatively impact postpartum maternal health. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music therapy on postpartum pain, anxiety level, satisfaction and early pospartum depression rate. Totally 161 primiparous women were recruited and randomized either music group (n=80) or a control group (n=81). Women in the music group listened to self-selected music during labor. Postpartum pain intensity, anxiety level and satisfaction rate were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), postpartum depression rate was assessed with Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) at postpartum day one and day eight. Mothers in the music therapy group had a lower level of postpartum pain and anxiety than the control group and it was statistically significant at all time intervals (1, 4, 8, 16 and 24h, p<0.001). A significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of satisfaction rate (p<0.001) and postpartum depression rate at postpartum day one and day eight (p<0.05). We only measured the effect of music therapy on early postpartum depression rate. Effect of music on late postpartum depression rate should be investigated in future. Using music therapy during labor decreased postpartum anxiety and pain, increased the satisfaction with childbirth and reduced early postpartum depression rate. Music therapy can be clinically recommended as an alternative, safe, easy and enjoyable nonpharmacological method for postpartum well-being. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Early-acting inbreeding depression and reproductive success in the highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    PubMed

    Krebs, S L; Hancock, J F

    1990-06-01

    Tetraploid Vaccinium corymbosum genotypes exhibit wide variability in seed set following self- and cross-pollinations. In this paper, a post-zygotic mechanism (seed abortion) under polygenic control is proposed as the basis for fertility differences in this species. A pollen chase experiment indicated that self-pollen tubes fertilize ovules, but are also 'outcompeted' by foreign male gametes in pollen mixtures. Matings among cultivars derived from a pedigree showed a linear decrease in seed number per fruit, and increase in seed abortion, with increasing relatedness among parents. Selfed (S1) progeny from self-fertile parents were largely self-sterile. At zygotic levels of inbreeding of F>0.3 there was little or no fertility, suggesting that an inbreeding threshold regulates reproductive success in V. corymbosum matings. Individuals below the threshold are facultative selfers, while those above it are obligate outcrossers. Inbreeding also caused a decrease in pollen viability, and reduced female fertility more rapidly than male fertility. These phenomena are discussed in terms of two models of genetic load: (1) mutational load - homozygosity for recessive embryolethal or sub-lethal mutations and (2) segregational load - loss of allelic interactions essential for embryonic vigor. Self-infertility in highbush blueberries is placed in the context of 'late-acting' self-incompatibility versus 'early-acting' inbreeding depression in angiosperms.

  2. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  3. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Diaper Change Play: Validation of a New Observational Assessment Tool for Early Triadic Family Interactions in the First Month Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Rime, Jérôme; Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Watson, Michael; Stadlmayr, Werner

    2018-01-01

    The quality of family relations, observed during mother-father-infant triadic interactions, has been shown to be an important contributor to child social and affective development, beyond the quality of dyadic mother-child, father-child, and marital relationships. Triadic interactions have been well described in families with 3 month olds and older children using the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP). Little is known about the development of mother-father-baby interactions in the very 1st weeks postpartum, mostly because no specific observational setting or particular instrument had been designed to cover this age yet. To fill this gap, we adapted the LTP to create a new observational setting, namely the Diaper Change Play (DCP). Interactions are assessed using the Family Alliance Assessment Scales for DCP (FAAS-DCP). We present the validation of the DCP and its coding system, the FAAS-DCP. The three validation studies presented here (44 mother-father-child-triads) involve a sample of parents with 3-week-old infants recruited in two maternity wards ( n = 32 and n = 12) in Switzerland. Infants from both sites were all healthy according to their APGAR scores, weight at birth, and scores on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), which was additionally conducted on the twelve infants recruited in one of the maternity ward. Results showed that the "FAAS - DCP" coding system has good psychometric properties, with a good internal consistency and a satisfying reliability among the three independent raters. Finally, the "FAAS-DCP" scores on the interactive dimensions are comparable to the similar dimensions in the FAAS-LTP. The results showed that there is no statistically significant difference on scores between the "FAAS-DCP" and the "FAAS," which is consistent with previous studies underlying stability in triadic interaction patterns from pregnancy to 18 months. These first results indicated that the DCP is a promising observational setting, able to assess the

  5. The Diaper Change Play: Validation of a New Observational Assessment Tool for Early Triadic Family Interactions in the First Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Rime, Jérôme; Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Watson, Michael; Stadlmayr, Werner

    2018-01-01

    The quality of family relations, observed during mother–father–infant triadic interactions, has been shown to be an important contributor to child social and affective development, beyond the quality of dyadic mother–child, father–child, and marital relationships. Triadic interactions have been well described in families with 3 month olds and older children using the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP). Little is known about the development of mother–father–baby interactions in the very 1st weeks postpartum, mostly because no specific observational setting or particular instrument had been designed to cover this age yet. To fill this gap, we adapted the LTP to create a new observational setting, namely the Diaper Change Play (DCP). Interactions are assessed using the Family Alliance Assessment Scales for DCP (FAAS-DCP). We present the validation of the DCP and its coding system, the FAAS-DCP. The three validation studies presented here (44 mother–father–child–triads) involve a sample of parents with 3-week-old infants recruited in two maternity wards (n = 32 and n = 12) in Switzerland. Infants from both sites were all healthy according to their APGAR scores, weight at birth, and scores on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), which was additionally conducted on the twelve infants recruited in one of the maternity ward. Results showed that the “FAAS – DCP” coding system has good psychometric properties, with a good internal consistency and a satisfying reliability among the three independent raters. Finally, the “FAAS-DCP” scores on the interactive dimensions are comparable to the similar dimensions in the FAAS-LTP. The results showed that there is no statistically significant difference on scores between the “FAAS-DCP” and the “FAAS,” which is consistent with previous studies underlying stability in triadic interaction patterns from pregnancy to 18 months. These first results indicated that the DCP is a promising observational

  6. Head butting as an early indicator of reproductive disinhibition in the termite zootermopsis nevadensis

    In lower termites, functionally sterile larval helpers are totipotent, capable of becoming reproductively active with the loss of their colony’s king or queen. Full reproductive development may take several weeks, but initiation of this response most likely occurs shortly after colony members detect...

  7. Preliminary Evaluation on the Effects of Feeds on the Growth and Early Reproductive Performance of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of several commercially available feeds and different feeding regimes on the growth and early reproductive performance of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Juvenile zebrafish (n= 20; 5.06 ± 0.69 mg) were stocked into each of 24 tanks (volume, 2 L); 3 tanks were assigned to each of 8 feeding combinations for a period of 60 d. At the end of 60 d, 2 male and 2 female fish from each tank were pooled by dietary treatment (n = 6) and used to evaluate the effects of feeding combinations on early reproductive performance. Zebrafish fed dietary treatments 3 and 7 had significantly greater weight gain than zebrafish fed diet 5. Mean spawning success was significantly greater in zebrafish fed the control diet (Artemiaonly) than in those fed diet 1. Mean hatch rates were greater in zebrafish fed the control feed and diets 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 than zebrafish fed diet 4. Additional results suggest that female zebrafish are sexually mature after 90 d post fertilization and that fertilization rates are the limiting factor in early reproduction. PMID:23043806

  8. The oxidative cost of reproduction depends on early development oxidative stress and sex in a bird species

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Haro, A. A.; Sorci, G.; Alonso-Alvarez, C.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, a new component of the cost of reproduction was proposed: oxidative stress. Since then the oxidative cost of reproduction hypothesis has, however, received mixed support. Different arguments have been provided to explain this. Among them, the lack of a life-history perspective on most experimental tests was suggested. We manipulated the levels of a key intracellular antioxidant (glutathione) in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during a short period of early life and subsequently tested the oxidative cost of reproduction. Birds were allowed to mate freely in an outdoor aviary for several months. We repeatedly enlarged or reduced their broods to increase or reduce, respectively, breeding effort. Birds whose glutathione levels were reduced during growth showed higher erythrocyte resistance to free radical-induced haemolysis when forced to rear enlarged broods. This supports the hypothesis predicting the occurrence of developing programmes matching early and adult environmental conditions to improve fitness. Moreover, adult males rearing enlarged broods endured higher plasma levels of lipid oxidative damage than control males, whereas adult females showed the opposite trend. As most previous studies reporting non-significant or opposite results used females only, we also discuss some sex-related particularities that may contribute to explain unexpected results. PMID:27358368

  9. Anxiety During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Social Support Online Training Help for Moms Frequently Asked Questions ... 944.4773 Learn More Pregnancy & Postpartum Mental Health Social Support Online Training Screening Recommendations Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum ...

  10. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (P<0.01). Energy restriction induced an increase in exercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of

  11. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Causes Lifelong Molecular Reprogramming of the Hypothalamus and Premature Reproductive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Zama, Aparna M.; Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Gestational exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor methoxychlor (MXC) disrupts the female reproductive system at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels in adulthood. The current study addressed whether perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors reprograms expression of a suite of genes expressed in the hypothalamus that control reproductive function and related these molecular changes to premature reproductive aging. Fischer rats were exposed daily for 12 consecutive days to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), estradiol benzoate (EB) (1 mg/kg), and MXC (low dose, 20 μg/kg or high dose, 100 mg/kg), beginning on embryonic d 19 through postnatal d 7. The perinatally exposed females were aged to 16–17 months and monitored for reproductive senescence. After euthanasia, hypothalamic regions [preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus] were dissected for real-time PCR of gene expression or pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation of the Esr1 gene. Using a 48-gene PCR platform, two genes (Kiss1 and Esr1) were significantly different in the POA of endocrine-disrupting chemical-exposed rats compared with vehicle-exposed rats after Bonferroni correction. Fifteen POA genes were up-regulated by at least 50% in EB or high-dose MXC compared with vehicle. To understand the epigenetic basis of the increased Esr1 gene expression, we performed bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of the Esr1 promoter. EB-treated rats had significantly higher percentage of methylation at three CpG sites in the Esr1 promoter compared with control rats. Together with these molecular effects, perinatal MXC and EB altered estrous cyclicity and advanced reproductive senescence. Thus, early life exposure to endocrine disruptors has lifelong effects on neuroendocrine gene expression and DNA methylation, together with causing the advancement of reproductive senescence. PMID:22016562

  12. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Williams, Kayla B; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Longitudinal field-based study. There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. None. During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown.

  13. The reproductive biology and early life ecology of a common Caribbean brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis (Scleractinia: Faviinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberland, Valérie F.; Snowden, Skylar; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Petersen, Dirk; Vermeij, Mark J. A.

    2017-03-01

    Despite the fact that most of the severe demographic bottlenecks in coral populations occur during their earliest life stages, information on the reproductive biology and early life history traits of many coral species is limited and often inferred from adult traits only. This study reports on several atypical aspects of the reproductive biology and early life ecology of the grooved brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis (Linnaeus, 1758), a conspicuous reef-building species on Caribbean reefs. The timing of gamete release of D. labyrinthiformis was monitored in Curaçao over eight consecutive months, and embryogenesis, planulae behavior, and settlement rates were observed and quantified. We further studied growth and symbiont acquisition in juvenile D. labyrinthiformis for 3.5 yr and compared settler survival under ambient and nutrient-enriched conditions in situ. Notably, D. labyrinthiformis reproduced during daylight hours in six consecutive monthly spawning events between May and September 2013, with a peak in June. This is the largest number of reproductive events per year ever observed in a broadcast-spawning Caribbean coral species. In settlement experiments, D. labyrinthiformis planulae swam to the bottom of culture containers 13 h after spawning and rapidly settled when provided with settlement cues (42% within 14 h). After 5 months, the survival and growth rates of settled juveniles were 3.7 and 1.9 times higher, respectively, for settlers that acquired zooxanthellae within 1 month after settlement, compared to those that acquired symbionts later on. Nutrient enrichment increased settler survival fourfold, but only for settlers that had acquired symbionts within 1 month after settlement. With at least six reproductive events per year, a short planktonic larval phase, high settlement rates, and a positive response to nutrient enrichment, the broadcast-spawning species D. labyrinthiformis displays a range of reproductive and early life-history traits that

  14. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-02-01

    To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed.

  16. Reproduction and early-age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, Upper St. Johns River, Florida

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Hartley, W.C.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We summarize reproduction of adults and survival of calves and subadult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) that were identified in winter at Blue Spring on the upper St. Johns River in Florida. Some records span more than 20 years, but most are from 15-year continuous annual observations during winter 1978-79 through winter 1992-93. Fifty-seven, first-year calves were identified; 55 litter sizes were one, and one consisted oftwins (1.79% of all births). Sex ratios of first-year calves did notsignificantly differfrom 1:1. Based on 21 of35 sighted females (15 individuals) that appeared pregnant and returned with calves during the subsequent winter, we estimated an early (neonatal to about 6 months) calf survival of 0.600. Based on estimations with a minimum-number-known-alive method, calf survival from the first to the second winter was at least 0.822, and subadult survival was 0.903 to the third, 0.958 to the fourth, 1.00 to the fifth, and 1.00 to the sixth winters. Seven females were observed from year of birth to their first winter with a nursing calf; the mean age at parturition to the first calf that survived to the next winter was 5.4 + 0.98 (SD) years. The estimated ages at first conception ranged from 3 to 6 years. The proportion of adult pregnant females was 0.410/year. Weaning was not observed in winter. Intervals between births averaged 2.60 + 0.81 years. The pooled proportion of adult females nursing first-winter calves was 0.303; the proportion of adult females nursing calves of any age was 0.407. These values do not significantly differ from those ofmanatees from the Crystal River or Atlantic Coast study areas. Anecdotal accounts are provided that suggested the existence of a pseudo estrus, an 11 to 13-month gestation, suppression of parturition in winter, and giving birth in quiet backwaters and canals. A female from Blue Spring produced at least seven calves during the 22 years since first observed and died giving birth at an estimated

  17. Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Fenech, M; López-Béjar, M

    2002-11-01

    Cystic ovarian disease is a major cause of reproductive failure and economic loss for the dairy industry. Many cysts that develop during the early postpartum period regress spontaneously. However, it is difficult to decide at what point it would be more cost effective to treat ovarian cysts than to wait for spontaneous recovery. The objective of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of the ovarian cystic condition during early and late postpartum, and for its persistence or recovery during the pre-service period in lactating dairy cows. Using multiple logistic regression, we analyzed data derived from 873 lactating dairy cows from a single herd. An ovarian cyst was diagnosed if it was possible to observe a single follicular structure with an antrum diameter > or = 25 mm in the absence of a corpus luteum in three sonograms performed at 7-day intervals. The cystic condition was denoted as early if the cyst was diagnosed 43-49 days postpartum, and late if detected 57-63-day postpartum. Spontaneous cyst regression before 60-day postpartum was regarded as early cystic recovery. For the early cystic group, there were no significant effects of lactation number, body condition score on prepartum Day 60, at parturition or on postpartum Day 30, or of body condition loss from parturition to 30-day postpartum. Cows calving in summer were 2.6 times more likely to develop ovarian cysts than those giving birth in winter. The risk of having a cyst was 1.9 times higher in cows with an abnormal puerperium. A 1-kg increase in milk yield raised the risk of cysts by a factor of 1.05. A 1-unit increase in body condition score (scale from 1 to 5) from prepartum Day 60 to parturition increased the risk of cyst development 8.4 times. Milk production and lactation number were negatively correlated with spontaneous early cyst recovery. A 1-kg decrease in milk production increased the probability of cyst recovery by a factor of 1.06, and a 1-unit drop in lactation number

  18. Associations of prepartum body condition score with occurrence of clinical endometritis and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Ali; Ahmadi, Mohammad Rahim; Vatankhah, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of periparturient body condition score on the occurrence of clinical endometritis and postpartum resumption of ovarian activity in dairy cows. Eighty-seven lactating Holstein cows, fed with a total mixed ration diet, were included into the study. Body condition scoring (using a 5-point scale with quarter-point divisions) was performed by the same investigator using the visual technique every 2 weeks, from 2 weeks before until 6 weeks after calving. Palpation of the reproductive tract and ultrasonographic assessment of ovaries for detection of corpus luteum using a rectal linear probe was also performed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after calving. Cows with clinical endometritis had significantly lower body condition score (BCS) than normal cows at all weeks pre- and postcalving, and cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving had a significantly lower BCS pre- and postpartum. Cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving also lost more BCS from 2 weeks before to 4 weeks after calving. Besides, first ovulation after calving take occurred later in cows with clinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, low BCS is a risk factor for postpartum endometritis and delayed cyclicity in dairy cows. BCS loss from dry-off to early lactation and occurrence of clinical endometritis can significantly affect postpartum ovarian activity.

  19. Differences in the genetic control of early egg development and reproduction between C. elegans and its parthenogenetic relative D. coronatus.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Christopher; Schiffer, Philipp H; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Hideaki; Vogt, Theresa; Kroiher, Michael; Kohara, Yuji; Schierenberg, Einhard

    2017-01-01

    The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393-397, 2006). Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017) provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes. Our genomic data also yielded indications for the view that D. coronatus is a product of interspecies hybridization. In a genomic comparison between D. coronatus , C. elegans , other representatives of the genus Caenorhabditis and the more distantly related Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus , certain genes required for central developmental processes in C. elegans like control of meiosis and establishment of embryonic polarity were found to be restricted to the genus Caenorhabditis . The mRNA content of early D. coronatus embryos was sequenced and compared with similar stages in C. elegans and Ascaris suum . We identified 350 gene families transcribed in the early embryo of D. coronatus but not in the other two nematodes. Looking at individual genes transcribed early in D. coronatus but not in C. elegans and A. suum , we found that orthologs of most of these are present in the genomes of the latter species as well, suggesting heterochronic shifts with respect to expression behavior. Considerable genomic heterozygosity and allelic divergence lend further support to the view that D. coronatus may be the result of an interspecies hybridization. Expression analysis of early acting single-copy genes yields no indication for silencing of one parental genome. Our comparative cellular and molecular studies support the view that the genus Caenorhabditis differs

  20. The effect of body condition at calving and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on energy status and some reproductive parameters in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    AlIbrahim, R M; Crowe, M A; Duffy, P; O'Grady, L; Beltman, M E; Mulligan, F J

    2010-08-01

    Improving the energy status of dairy cows during the early post-partum (PP) period by adding a safe dietary supplement such as live yeast culture (YS) may have a positive effect on reproductive function. The objective was to examine potential benefits of YS supplementation on PP energy status and fertility indices of dairy cows managed to have low or high body condition score (BCS, 1-5 scale) at calving. Forty (10 primiparous and 30 multiparous) Holstein/Friesian dairy cows were blocked by yield, parity, BCS, and predicted calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly allocated to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments which were: BCS at calving (low < or =3.5 or high > or =3.75; n=20) and YS supplementation (2.5g/cow/day for pre-calving and 10g/cow/day for post-calving x 10(8) CFU of Saccharomyces cerevisiae/g) (supplemented or control; n=20). Daily milk yield was recorded and weekly milk composition, BCS and BW were assessed from calving to week 10 PP. Forage (100% grass silage pre-calving; 50% grass silage, 50% maize silage post-calving; ad libitum) intake was recorded individually. Concentrate (2kg of pre-calver nuts+/-YS for pre-calving and 8 kg of lactating nuts+/-YS for post-calving) feeding was controlled individually. Estimated energy balance PP was calculated on a weekly basis individually as the difference between the net energy (NE) intake and the sum of NE for maintenance and milk production. Insulin and IGF-I concentrations were determined on days 14 and 7 pre-calving and 1, 5, 15, 25 and 35 post-calving. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed from day 10 PP to monitor the size and development of the first dominant follicle (>10mm in diameter with absence of other large growing follicles), first ovulatory follicle and days to first ovulation PP. Pre-ovulatory peak of serum oestradiol concentration was determined during the 2 days before ovulation day. Cows with high BCS (over-conditioned) at calving ingested less NE, produced more milk

  1. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  2. Persevering through postpartum fatigue.

    PubMed

    Runquist, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To construct a substantive theory of postpartum fatigue. Grounded theory. Participants were recruited in the hospital after delivery and interviewed in their homes. Thirteen primiparae (n=5) and multiparae (n=8) women between 2 and 5 weeks postpartum from diverse ethnic, age, obstetric, and financial contexts were theoretically sampled. Persevering was the central human process around which the grounded theory emerged. The process of persevering was explained through the relationships of influencing factors, postpartum fatigue, coping techniques, self-transcendence, and caregiving. Participants persevered in caregiving of infants and older children in spite of an overwhelming desire to rest and sleep using self-identified coping techniques in combination with the belief that their children brought purpose and meaning to their lives. The theory "Persevering Through Postpartum Fatigue" contributes a more complete understanding of the complex phenomenon of postpartum fatigue as it is expressed in the everyday lives of women during the postpartum period. The results may be used to develop and implement health-promoting nursing interventions to reduce postpartum fatigue and its health-related consequences.

  3. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  4. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  5. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: influence of follicular characteristics at ovulation on early embryonic survival.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; Smith, M F; MacNeil, M D; Day, M L; Bridges, G A; Perry, G A; Abreu, F M; Atkins, J A; Pohler, K G; Jinks, E M; Madsen, C A

    2013-07-01

    Reproductive failure in livestock can result from failure to fertilize the oocyte or embryonic loss during gestation. Although fertilization failure occurs, embryonic mortality represents a greater contribution to reproductive failure. Reproductive success varies among species and production goals but is measured as a binomial trait (i.e., pregnancy), derived by the success or failure of multiple biological steps. This review focuses primarily on follicular characteristics affecting oocyte quality, fertilization, and embryonic health that lead to pregnancy establishment in beef cattle. When estrous cycles are manipulated with assisted reproductive technologies and ovulation is induced, duration of proestrus (i.e., interval from induced luteolysis to induced ovulation), ovulatory follicle growth rate, and ovulatory follicle size are factors that affect the maturation of the follicle and oocyte at induced ovulation. The most critical maturational component of the ovulatory follicle is the production of sufficient estradiol to prepare follicular cells for luteinization and progesterone synthesis and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. The exact roles of estradiol in oocyte maturation remain unclear, but cows that have lesser serum concentrations of estradiol have decreased fertilization rates and decreased embryo survival on d 7 after induced ovulation. When length of proestrus is held constant, perhaps the most practical follicular measure of fertility is ovulatory follicle size because it is an easily measured attribute of the follicle that is highly associated with its ability to produce estradiol.

  6. Reproduction in female yaks (Bos grunniens) and opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Zi, Xiang-Dong

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews seasonal breeding, puberty, postpartum anestrus, embryonic loss and calf survival and their constraints in female yaks. Methods for improving fertility in postpartum yak cows are also considered. Yaks are seasonal breeders with mating and conception restricted in the warm season. Puberty generally occurs in the 2nd to the 4th warm season following birth, i.e. between 13 and 36 months of age. The cows usually have a long postpartum anestrus period; only a small proportion of the cows return to estrus in the 1st breeding season after calving, most come into estrus in the 2nd and 3rd years. Nutritional status is the most important determinant of reproduction in female yaks. Reproductive success is a direct result of the availability of pasture determined by climate, season, and management practices. Milking delays puberty by reducing milk intake (restricted suckling) and growth rate for the calf. Milking interferes with grazing and prolongs the duration of postpartum acyclicity in cows. Calves born early in the season have a longer suckling season than those born later in the season before the onset of winter. Thus, they can have their first cycle in the breeding season of the following year, while those born late in the season may not have their first estrus until 25 or 26 months of age. Cows calving early in the season are more likely to return to estrus in the year of calving because they have a longer period to recover from the demand on body reserves before the onset of winter. Inbreeding in smallholder yak farms is also discussed and minimizing inbreeding by exchanging bulls among different herds is suggested. Reproductive efficiency can be improved by nutritional supplementation during the winter, however, the most cost-effective and practical strategy for this needs to be determined. Early weaning or restricted suckling may shorten the duration of postpartum acyclicity, however, it is impractical due to reduced growth rates and increased

  7. [Post-partum thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Neves, Celestino; Alves, Marta; Delgado, Luís; Medina, J Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the post-partum period the immune alterations are associated with the multiple autoimmune diseases relapse. After birth, immune-tolerance variation slowly disappear, and is observed a return to a normal state - after an exacerbation period - of autoimmune reactivity, during which a great increase in T cells and autoantibodies is observed. In this period - 3 to 9 months after birth - the thyroid autoimmune disease relapses or reappears. The reactivation of the immune system in the post-partum period unchains an acute phase of celular destruction which characterizes the post-partum thyroiditis.

  8. Ovarian follicular activity during late gestation and postpartum in guanaco (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Riveros, J L; Schuler, G; Urquieta, B; Hoffmann, B; Bonacic, C

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated ovarian activity in late gestation and post-partum in guanacos in captivity. Follicular dynamics was monitored every second day from 40 days before and other 40 after delivery by transrectal sonography and by plasma steroids concentrations. Seven out of eight (87.5%) of gestating females presented ovarian follicular activity under progesterone levels >3 nmol/l with maximum follicular size of 8.42 ± 0.83 mm from days 23 to 1 before delivery. After delivery, all females have follicular wave development from day 0 to 38, with larger follicular size and longer follicular wave phases and interwave interval when compared with pre-partum data. During post-partum period, there was a close relationship between follicle size and estradiol-17β concentration, with r = 0.69 at the beginning of growth phase and r = 0.86 in association with the largest dominant follicle. Plasma estradiol-17β concentration varied from 11.92 to 198.55 pmol/l. Plasma estrone sulfate, free estrone and progesterone returned to baseline concentrations during peripartal period and remained basal thereafter. The results described follicular activity during late gestation and early post-partum period. These findings provide relevant information to understand physiological changes occurring during this reproductive key period in seasonal breeders with long gestation duration as New and Old World camelids. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30 minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38 weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245

  10. Early reproductive maturity among Pumé foragers: Implications of a pooled energy model to fast life histories.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    Life history theory places central importance on relationships between ontogeny, reproduction, and mortality. Fast human life histories have been theoretically and empirically associated with high mortality regimes. This relationship, however, poses an unanswered question about energy allocation. In epidemiologically stressful environments, a greater proportion of energy is allocated to immune function. If growth and maintenance are competing energetic expenditures, less energy should be available for growth, and the mechanism to sustain rapid maturation remains unclear. The human pattern of extended juvenile provisioning and resource sharing may provide an important source of variation in energy availability not predicted by tradeoff models that assume independence at weaning. We consider a group of South American foragers to evaluate the effects that pooled energy budgets may have on early reproduction. Despite growing up in an environment with distinct seasonal under-nutrition, harsh epidemiological conditions, and no health care, Pumé girls mature quickly and initiate childbearing in their midteens. Pooled energy budgets compensate for the low productivity of girls not only through direct food transfers but importantly by reducing energy they would otherwise expend in foraging activities to meet metabolic requirements. We suggest that pooled energy budgets affect energy availability at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels. Because energy budgets are pooled, Pumé girls and young women are buffered from environmental downturns and can maximize energy allocated to growth completion and initiate reproduction earlier than a traditional bound-energy model would predict. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Are pregnant and postpartum women: at increased risk for violent death? Suicide and homicide findings from North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women.

  12. Your Postpartum Checkup

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. This is called postpartum depression (also called PPD). It’s a serious condition that can make it ... your life and take care of your baby. PPD can be treated. There are things you and ...

  13. Postpartum Support International

    MedlinePlus

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Social Support Online Training Tools for Mom Frequently Asked Questions Screening Recommendations Useful Links Media Family International Father’s Mental Health Day Dads for World ...

  14. Aneuploidy: a common and early evidence-based biomarker for carcinogens and reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, Daniele; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Perry, Melissa J

    2016-10-12

    Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. It has been well documented that aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer. Aneuploidies in oocytes and spermatozoa contribute to infertility, pregnancy loss and a number of congenital abnormalities, and sperm aneuploidy is associated with testicular cancer. It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells. In this paper we review 1) the contributions of aneuploidy to cancer, infertility, and developmental abnormalities; 2) techniques for assessing aneuploidy in precancerous and malignant lesions and in sperm; and 3) the utility of aneuploidy as a biomarker for integrated chemical assessments of carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity.

  15. [Hypertension and pregnancy: Post-partum period].

    PubMed

    Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum period is associated with specific characteristics in women with gestational disorders or preeclampsia. For breastfeeding women, the choice of antihypertensive treatment should take into account the impact on child health. The impact of breastfeeding on health mother must be also discussed. Moreover, for lactation inhibition, bromocriptine should not be used, especially in the context of gestational disorders. In post-partum period, the best contraceptive strategy is only-progestin contraception or non-hormonal contraceptives use. However, this choice will depend on the stabilization or normalization of blood pressure in early post-partum period. Finally, several consultations should be suggested: an information and announcement to explain the consequences of these gestational disorders and organize their multidisciplinary management and follow-up. A preconceptional consultation takes its place to anticipate potential recurrent preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and to schedule a future pregnancy in optimal conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Ultrastructural dynamics of human reproduction, from ovulation to fertilization and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Nottola, Stefania A; Sathananthan, A Henry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the updated, fine structure of human gametes, the human fertilization process, and human embryos, mainly derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART). As clearly shown, the ultrastructure of human reproduction is a peculiar multistep process, which differs in part from that of other mammalian models, having some unique features. Particular attention has been devoted to the (1) sperm ultrastructure, likely "Tygerberg (Kruger) strict morphology criteria"; (2) mature oocyte, in which the MII spindle is barrel shaped, anastral, and lacking centrioles; (3) three-dimensional microarchitecture of the zona pellucida with its unique supramolecular filamentous organization; (4) sperm-egg interactions with the peculiarity of the sperm centrosome that activates the egg and organizes the sperm aster and mitotic spindles of the embryo; and (5) presence of viable cumulus cells whose metabolic activity is closely related to egg and embryo behavior in in vitro as well as in vivo conditions, in a sort of extraovarian "microfollicular unit." Even if the ultrastructural morphodynamic features of human fertilization are well understood, our knowledge about in vivo fertilization is still very limited and the complex sequence of in vivo biological steps involved in human reproduction is only partially reproduced in current ART procedures.

  17. The accumulation of reproductive isolation in early stages of divergence supports a role for sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Martin, M D; Mendelson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Models of speciation by sexual selection propose that male-female coevolution leads to the rapid evolution of behavioural reproductive isolation. Here, we compare the strength of behavioural isolation to ecological isolation, gametic incompatibility and hybrid inviability in a group of dichromatic stream fishes. In addition, we examine whether any of these individual barriers, or a combined measure of total isolation, is predicted by body shape differences, male colour differences, environmental differences or genetic distance. Behavioural isolation reaches the highest values of any barrier and is significantly greater than ecological isolation. No individual reproductive barrier is associated with any of the predictor variables. However, marginally significant relationships between male colour and body shape differences with ecological and behavioural isolation are discussed. Differences in male colour and body shape predict total reproductive isolation between species; hierarchical partitioning of these two variables' effects suggests a stronger role for male colour differences. Together, these results suggest an important role for divergent sexual selection in darter speciation but raise new questions about the mechanisms of sexual selection at play and the role of male nuptial ornaments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Effects of the biopesticide Zequanox® on reproduction and early development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The biopesticide, Zequanox®, is registered for dreissenid mussel control in open water systems in the United States. Previous toxicity trials with nontarget organisms, including several young-of-the-year fish species and invertebrates, demonstrated selectivity of Zequanox for dreissenid mussels, but data are lacking on the treatment-related effects on reproduction and early life stage development of fish. The present study evaluated the effects of Zequanox on spawning and early life stages of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, after exposure to the maximum approved concentration [100 mg active ingredient (AI)/L] and exposure duration (8h) for open water application. The results showed no significant treatment-related effect of Zequanox on survival, condition, or cumulative egg production (21 d) in adult fathead minnow. Eggs (≤24 h old) exposed to Zequanox developed to the eyed-stage at a similar rate to that of untreated eggs. Additionally, Zequanox did not have a significant effect on survival and growth (90 d) of newly hatched larvae (≤24-h old). Zequanox may be an option for control of dreissenid mussels in localized open water habitats where concerns exist regarding reproduction and recruitment of cyprinids and related species.

  19. Effects of tributyltin on early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Shintaku, Yoko; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2018-07-01

    Tributyltin, an organotin compound, was used worldwide as an antifouling agent in aquatic environments and there has been much concern about the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of organotin compounds. Even though it has been prohibited worldwide, tributyltin is still detected at low concentrations in aquatic environments. Here we investigated the effects of tributyltin on the early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). In adults, exposure to tributyltin at 3.82 μg/L suppressed fecundity and fertility and increased mortality. At 10.48 μg/L all medaka died by the sixth day of exposure. Exposure to tributyltin during early life-stages induced no significant differences in mortality or embryonic development, but growth was suppressed in groups exposed to 0.13 and 0.68 μg/L. Furthermore, there was no abnormal gonadal development in Japanese medaka exposed to tributyltin. These results provide evidence of the negative effects of tributyltin on reproduction in a teleost fish. Tributyltin did not affect gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka, but fecundity and fertility were suppressed, although it is not clear whether this suppression resulted from the endocrine-disrupting action of tributyltin or its toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Postpartum Depression: How Childbirth Educators Can Help Break the Silence

    PubMed Central

    Zauderer, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The voices of women suffering from postpartum depression are often silent. Women are reluctant to reveal to others that they are unhappy after the birth of their babies. Much has been written on possible causes, risk factors, and treatments for postpartum depression, but little has been done to investigate why women take so long to seek help. Early detection and treatment are key to a full recovery. Childbirth educators are in the position to offer anticipatory guidance on possible complications of the postpartum period, including postpartum depression. This article explores why women with postpartum depression choose to suffer in silence and suggests how childbirth educators can help new mothers find their voices. PMID:20190853

  1. Meta-analysis of the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue.

    PubMed

    Badr, Hanan A; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 64% of new mothers are affected by fatigue during the postpartum period, making it the most common problem that a woman faces as she adapts to motherhood. Postpartum fatigue can lead to serious negative effects on the mother's health and the newborn's development and interfere with mother-infant interaction. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify predictive factors of postpartum fatigue and to document the magnitude of their effects using effect sizes. We used two search engines, PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify studies that met three inclusion criteria: (a) the article was written in English, (b) the article studied the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue, and (c) the article included information about the validity and reliability of the instruments used in the research. Nine articles met these inclusion criteria. The direction and strength of correlation coefficients between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were examined across the studies to determine their effect sizes. Measurement of predictor variables occurred from 3days to 6months postpartum. Correlations reported between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were as follows: small effect size (r range =0.10 to 0.29) for education level, age, postpartum hemorrhage, infection, and child care difficulties; medium effect size (r range =0.30 to 0.49) for physiological illness, low ferritin level, low hemoglobin level, sleeping problems, stress and anxiety, and breastfeeding problems; and large effect size (r range =0.50+) for depression. Postpartum fatigue is a common condition that can lead to serious health problems for a new mother and her newborn. Therefore, increased knowledge concerning factors that influence the onset of postpartum fatigue is needed for early identification of new mothers who may be at risk. Appropriate treatments, interventions, information, and support can then be initiated to prevent or minimize the postpartum fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  2. Induced reproduction and early development histology of Oscar Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831).

    PubMed

    Paes, Maria do Carmo Faria; Makino, Lilian Cristina; Vasquez, Leonardo Avendaño; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger; Valentin, Fernanda Nogueira; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada

    2015-04-01

    Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) is an important fish from the Amazon Basin that has great potential for fish farming, human consumption, sport fishing and fish keeping. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two hormonal treatments on the induction of artificial reproduction in broodstock and to describe the histological development of embryos and larvae. Broodstocks were selected and induced using two different hormones: (i) extract of carp pituitary (ECP); and (ii) synthetic human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Spawnings were transferred to hatcheries, collected at pre-established times, processed and analysed by histology. Astronotus ocellatus did not respond well to induced reproduction. From 16 couples of breeding fish, only five out of the eight females released oocytes after the hormonal action time, three with hCG and two with ECP; just one male responded positively to hCG. Oscar eggs were oval, and semi-adhesive, the yolk contained granules, and egg diameter was approximately 1.65 ± 0.057 to 1.98 ± 0.038 mm. Development from the initial collection (IC) point until the total absorption of the yolk lasted 315 h, at an average temperature of 27.45 ± 2.13°C. Several events marked embryonic and larval development, including the formation of the optic cup, forebrain, otic vesicle and cephalic divisions. The newly hatched larvae had non-pigmented eyes, and a closed mouth and anus, as well as the presence of adhesive glands on the head. Larval development was characterized by formation of the heart, liver, gaseous bladder, gills, pronephros, brain, fins and also the digestive tract. These results provide important information for the rearing and reproduction of A. ocellatus.

  3. Optimising reproductive performance of beef cows and replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2014-05-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd is fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognisant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires significant technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval for each successive calving, conception and pregnancy rate and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals and number of calves weaned over her lifetime. Puberty in heifers is a consequence of the interactive effects of genetics and both pre- and post-weaning nutrition. Early onset of puberty is essential to achieving the first main reproductive target for beef cow herds; first calving at 2 years of age. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. Following the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through artificial insemination. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. While, increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively

  4. Cluster Sampling with Referral to Improve the Efficiency of Estimating Unmet Needs among Pregnant and Postpartum Women after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Horney, Jennifer; Zotti, Marianne E.; Williams, Amy; Hsia, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background Women of reproductive age, in particular women who are pregnant or fewer than 6 months postpartum, are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, which may create stressors for caregivers, limit access to prenatal/postpartum care, or interrupt contraception. Traditional approaches (e.g., newborn records, community surveys) to survey women of reproductive age about unmet needs may not be practical after disasters. Finding pregnant or postpartum women is especially challenging because fewer than 5% of women of reproductive age are pregnant or postpartum at any time. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted three pilots of a sampling strategy that aimed to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women of reproductive age who were included in postdisaster reproductive health assessments in Johnston County, North Carolina, after tornadoes, Cobb/Douglas Counties, Georgia, after flooding, and Bertie County, North Carolina, after hurricane-related flooding. Results Using this method, the percentage of pregnant and postpartum women interviewed in each pilot increased from 0.06% to 21%, 8% to 19%, and 9% to 17%, respectively. Conclusion and Discussion Two-stage cluster sampling with referral can be used to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women included in a postdisaster assessment. This strategy may be a promising way to assess unmet needs of pregnant and postpartum women in disaster-affected communities. PMID:22365134

  5. Incident HIV during pregnancy and early postpartum period: a population-based cohort study in a rural area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Terusha; Vandormael, Alain; Thorne, Claire; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-07-26

    The evidence on the effect of pregnancy on acquiring HIV is conflicting, with studies reporting both higher and lower HIV acquisition risk during pregnancy when prolonged antiretroviral therapy was accessible. The aim of this study was to assess the pregnancy effect on HIV acquisition where antiretroviral therapy was widely available in a high HIV prevalence setting. This is a retrospective cohort study nested within a population-based surveillance to determine HIV incidence in HIV-uninfected women from 15 to 49 years from 2010 through 2015 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. HIV incidence per 100 person-years according to pregnancy status (not pregnant, pregnant, to eight weeks postpartum) were measured in 5260 HIV-uninfected women. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression with pregnancy included as a time varying variable. Overall, pregnancy HIV incidence was 4.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.4-5.8), higher than non-pregnancy (4.0; 95% CI 3.7-4.3) and postpartum incidences (4.2 per 100 person-years; 95% CI 2.3-7.6). However, adjusting for age, and demographic factors, pregnant women had a lower risk of acquiring HIV (HR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9, P = 0.032) than non-pregnant women; there were no differences between postpartum and non-pregnant women (HR 1.2; 95% CI 0.4-3.2; P = 0.744). In models adjusting for the interaction of age and gravidity, pregnant women under 25 years with two or more pregnancies had a 2.3 times greater risk of acquiring HIV than their older counterparts (95% CI 1.3-4.3; P = 0.008). Pregnancy had a protective effect on HIV acquisition. Elevated HIV incidence in younger women appeared to be driven by those with higher gravidity. The sexual and biological factors in younger women should be explored further in order to design appropriate HIV prevention interventions.

  6. Associations between intrauterine bacterial infection, reproductive tract inflammation, and reproductive performance in pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Melvin; Buddle, Bryce M; Heuer, Cord; Hussein, Hassan; Zheng, Tao; LeBlanc, Stephen J; McDougall, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive tract bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, can have a negative impact on reproductive performance. It has been hypothesized that the presence of E coli early postpartum may increase the risk of isolation of T pyogenes later postpartum. The objective of the present study was to examine associations between intrauterine bacterial infections with E coli and T pyogenes and any bacterial growth (irrespective of bacterial species), purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), cytologic evidence of endometritis (an increased proportion of polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]), and reproductive performance. Dairy cows (n = 272) from six herds were examined at Days 0 (median, 2 days in milk), 21 and 42 postpartum. From each cow two intrauterine samples were collected via triple-guarded cytobrush at Days 0 and 21. The first cytobrush was used for bacteriologic culture. Escherichia coli and T pyogenes were isolated by culture, and E coli isolates were assigned to one of four phylogenetic groups using a two-step triplex polymerase chain reaction. In addition, T pyogenes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The second cytobrush was used to prepare a cytology slide. Nucleated cells (n = 200) were categorized as epithelial cells, PMNs, or macrophages. Cows were also assessed for body condition score, PVD score, the presence of a CL, and pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariable models. There was no association between the presence of E coli at Day 0 and probability of isolation of T pyogenes 3 weeks later; however, E coli positive cows at Day 0 were more likely to be diagnosed with E coli at Day 21 (relative risk [RR] = 2.0, P < 0.01). Escherichia coli at Day 0 or T pyogenes at Day 21 increased the risk of PVD diagnosis 3 weeks later (RR = 1.9; P = 0.04 and RR = 3.0; P = 0.05, respectively). Cows with any bacterial growth at Day 21, irrespective of species, were less likely to conceive within 3

  7. Unmet Social Support for Healthy Behaviors Among Overweight and Obese Postpartum Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Rebecca J.N.; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Østbye, Truls

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the United States, about two thirds of women of reproductive age are overweight or obese. Postpartum is a transitional period. Life changes during this time can put mothers under high levels of stress when interpersonal support is inadequate. This study sought to explore predictors of unmet social support (support inadequacy) for healthy behaviors among postpartum women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy. Methods Potential predictors of unmet social support for healthy behaviors were derived from baseline and 6-month postpartum data from the Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP) study. The Postpartum Support Questionnaire queried three dimensions of social support: (1) informational support, (2) emotional support, and (3) instrumental support. The main outcome, the overall Unmet Social Support Score (USSS), was the sum of the differences between the perceived need of support and perceived receipt of support in all three dimensions. Subscores were defined for each of the three support dimensions. Results One hundred ninety women completed the 6-month Postpartum Support Questionnaire. Depression (p=0.018), unmarried status (p=0.049), and postpartum weight gain (p=0.003) were crude predictors for the overall USSS. After controlling for covariates, depression (p=0.009) and living with a spouse (p=0.040) were significant predictors for overall USSS. In adjusted analysis, depression remained a significant predictor for unmet emotional (p=0.035) and instrumental (p=0.001) social support. Conclusions Certain psychosocial factors predict support inadequacy expectations among postpartum women. Targeting the factors related to unmet social support may be a helpful way to promote healthy behaviors among overweight postpartum women. PMID:21916619

  8. Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

  9. Early postpartum breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy in Turkish mothers undergoing vaginal birth or cesarean birth with different types of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Alus Tokat, Merlinda; Serçekuş, Pinar; Yenal, Kerziban; Okumuş, Hülya

    2015-04-01

    To compare the breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy, in the first 24 postpartum hours, of mothers who underwent vaginal birth, cesarean birth with epidural anesthesia, and cesarean birth with general anesthesia. A comparative study was conducted in Turkey. A total of 334 mothers participated. Data were evaluated through descriptive data form, breast-feeding outcomes form, and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale. It was observed that the mothers who had cesarean birth with general anesthesia experienced more breast-feeding problems. With regard to breast-feeding self-efficacy, all the groups were similar. For reducing breast-feeding problems, nurses should provide more care and support to mothers undergoing cesarean birth. Therefore, the fact that the breast-feeding self-efficacy was similar among the groups might be related to culture. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  10. Llama reproduction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L W

    1989-03-01

    The reproductive anatomy, physiology, and breeding behavior of the llama is unique enough to make familiarity with it imperative. Female puberty averages 12 months, while many males are not reproductively functional until after 3 years. Proper management of a breeding pair or herd is necessary to maintain maximum reproductive performance. Proof of pregnancy is suggested by rejection of the male and may/should be confirmed by progesterone assay, rectal palpation, or ultrasound techniques. The postpartum female is notable for breeding back rapidly, with high pregnancy rates resulting. Both male and female factors enter into llama infertility, with each gender having significant incidence of reproductive anatomical abnormalities. Management as well as acquired infertility problems (heat factors, trauma, infection, neoplasia, and hormonal imbalances) contribute to the bulk of infertility cases investigated. Techniques used to diagnose infertility in llamas are quite comparable to the equine species; however, female body size and semen analysis in the male present significant challenges. The approach to therapy has been quite empirical to date, owing to lack of consistent problems and numbers to afford conclusive trials. Alterations of pregnancy include resorption, abortions, and stillbirths. Resorption between 30 to 60 days of gestation is reported regularly. Abortions caused by stress occur regularly. Infection abortions caused by leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, and chlamydiosis are to be expected. Ponderosa pine-related abortions are suspected. In summary, I find use for a broad background in large animal theriogenology to apply to llama infertility. There no doubt are additional diagnostic techniques and therapeutic regimens that have application, and it is up to us all to keep good records and share the information.

  11. Suppression of male reproduction in rats after exposure to sodium fluoride during early stages of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Sreedhar; Pushpalatha, T.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2007-07-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF), a widespread natural pollutant was given to sperm-positive female rats throughout gestation and lactation at a dose of 4.5 and 9.0 ppm via drinking water. The neonates were allowed to grow up to 90 days on tap water, and then sperm parameters, testicular steroidogenic marker enzyme activity levels, and circulatory hormone levels were studied. The sperm count, sperm motility, sperm coiling (hypoosmotic swelling test), and sperm viability were decreased in experimental rats when compared with controls. The activity levels of testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) were significantly decreased in experimental animals indicating decreased steroidogenesis. The serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were also significantly altered in experimental animals. Our data indicate that exposure to NaF during gestation and lactation affects male reproduction in adult rats by decreasing spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis.

  12. L-Arginine supplementation 0.5% of diet during the last 90 days of gestation and 14 days postpartum reduced uterine fluid accumulation in the broodmare.

    PubMed

    Mesa, A M; Warren, L K; Sheehan, J M; Kelley, D E; Mortensen, C J

    2015-08-01

    L-Arginine is an essential amino acid in many species that has been shown to influence reproduction. However, in horses a dose of 1% L-arginine of total dietary intake impaired absorption of other amino acids, whereas a dose of 0.5% did not. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate postpartum parameters on mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine through the last 90d of gestation and 14d postpartum. Sixteen light-horse mares were randomly divided in two groups: 8 mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine and 8 mares fed an isonitrogenous equivalent. Gestation length, days to uterine clearance and days to first ovulation were compared. Uterine body depth, diameter of uterine horns, and length of largest pocket of uterine fluid were recorded daily via transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foal weight, height, and cannon bone circumference were recorded for 9 weeks. Arginine treatment had no effect on gestation length (P=0.58). Supplemented mares cleared fluid quicker postpartum (6.8±0.53d; P=0.026) compared to control (9.0±0.38d). Mares supplemented with L-arginine had smaller diameter of fluid present in the postpartum uterus (P≤0.05). Days to first postpartum ovulation were not affected by treatment nor any influence on uterine involution. Finally, treatment had no effect on any foal's measured parameters. L-Arginine supplementation fed at 0.5% of daily intake during the last 90d of gestation and early postpartum in mares decreased uterine fluid accumulation, yet did not appear to have any effect on any other parameters measured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention with postpartum HbA1c among women with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, T.; Brown, F. M.; Curran, A.; James-Todd, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention with postpartum HbA1c levels in women with Type 1 diabetes. Methods We longitudinally evaluated 136 women with Type 1 diabetes who received prenatal and postpartum care through the Joslin Diabetes Center’s Diabetes and Pregnancy Program between 2004 and 2009. Weight, BMI and HbA1c concentration were assessed before the index pregnancy and repeatedly monitored after delivery until 12 months postpartum. We used a linear mixed model to assess the association of postpartum HbA1c with pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention. Results The mean HbA1c concentration increased from 49 mmol/mol (6.6%) at 6 weeks postpartum to 58 mmol/mol (7.5%) by 10 months postpartum, a level similar to the mean pre-pregnancy HbA1c concentration. Postpartum weight retention showed a linearly decreasing trend of 0.06 kg/week (P<0.0001), with −0.1 kg average postpartum weight retention by 1 year postpartum. Compared with women with a pre-pregnancy BMI≥25 kg/m2, women with a lower pre-pregnancy BMI maintained a 3.4 mmol/mol (0.31%) lower HbA1c concentration, after adjusting for several sociodemographic, reproductive and diabetes-related factors (P=0.03). There was a suggestion of a time-varying positive association between HbA1c and postpartum weight retention, with the most significant difference of 3.7 mmol/mol (0.34%; P=0.05) at 30 weeks postpartum among women with postpartum weight retention ≥5 kg vs those with postpartum weight retention <5 kg. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention were positively associated with HbA1c during the first postpartum year in women with Type 1 diabetes. Interventions to modify the behaviours associated with these body weight factors before pregnancy and after delivery may help women with Type 1 diabetes maintain good glycaemic control after pregnancy. PMID:25346003

  14. Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.

  15. Global warming and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

    2012-10-01

    The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of early life nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Curtis, G; McGregor Argo, C; Jones, D; Grove-White, D

    2018-01-01

    Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100) were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR) ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age. Group R calves were initially housed in individual pens and received 2.5 litres of MR twice daily via a bucket until 21 days of age when they were group housed and fed 3 litres of MR twice daily via a group trough with weaning commencing at 56 days. From 12 weeks of age onwards, calves in both dietary groups were subject to common nutritional and husbandry protocols. All breeding of heifers was via artificial insemination with no hormonal intervention. Calves were weighed, body condition scored and morphometric measures recorded weekly up till 12 weeks of age then monthly until conception. Pre-weaning growth rates (kg/day) were significantly higher in Group A calves compared to Group R (0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.93 vs 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.6 kg/day P < 0.001) with the most marked differences observed during the first three weeks of life (0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.82 vs 0.17, 95% CI 0.08-0.26 P < 0.001). Whilst Group A calves gained body condition score (BCS) throughout the pre-weaning phase, Group R calves lost BCS during the first 4 weeks of life. Data suggested that Group R calves supported skeletal growth during this period by catabolising body tissue. Group A calves had a greater risk of disease than group R calves during the pre-weaning phase (diarrhoea: odds ratio 3.86, 95% CI 1.67-8.9; pneumonia: odds ratio 5.80, 95% CI 2.33-14.44) although no calves died

  17. The impact of early life nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D.

    2018-01-01

    Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100) were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3–4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR) ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age. Group R calves were initially housed in individual pens and received 2.5 litres of MR twice daily via a bucket until 21 days of age when they were group housed and fed 3 litres of MR twice daily via a group trough with weaning commencing at 56 days. From 12 weeks of age onwards, calves in both dietary groups were subject to common nutritional and husbandry protocols. All breeding of heifers was via artificial insemination with no hormonal intervention. Calves were weighed, body condition scored and morphometric measures recorded weekly up till 12 weeks of age then monthly until conception. Pre-weaning growth rates (kg/day) were significantly higher in Group A calves compared to Group R (0.89, 95% CI 0.86–0.93 vs 0.57, 95% CI 0.54–0.6 kg/day P < 0.001) with the most marked differences observed during the first three weeks of life (0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.82 vs 0.17, 95% CI 0.08–0.26 P < 0.001). Whilst Group A calves gained body condition score (BCS) throughout the pre-weaning phase, Group R calves lost BCS during the first 4 weeks of life. Data suggested that Group R calves supported skeletal growth during this period by catabolising body tissue. Group A calves had a greater risk of disease than group R calves during the pre-weaning phase (diarrhoea: odds ratio 3.86, 95% CI 1.67–8.9; pneumonia: odds ratio 5.80, 95% CI 2.33–14.44) although no

  18. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  19. Integrating TeamSTEPPS® into ambulatory reproductive health care: Early successes and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Paul, Maureen E; Dodge, Laura E; Intondi, Evelyn; Ozcelik, Guzey; Plitt, Ken; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-04-01

    Most medical teamwork improvement interventions have occurred in hospitals, and more efforts are needed to integrate them into ambulatory care settings. In 2014, Affiliates Risk Management Services, Inc. (ARMS), the risk management services organization for a large network of reproductive health care organizations in the United States, launched a voluntary 5-year initiative to implement a medical teamwork system in this network using the TeamSTEPPS model. This article describes the ARMS initiative and progress made during the first 2 years, including lessons learned. The ARMS TeamSTEPPS program consists of the following components: preparation of participating organizations, TeamSTEPPS master training, implementation of teamwork improvement programs, and evaluation. We used self-administered questionnaires to assess satisfaction with the ARMS program and with the master training course. In the first 2 years, 20 organizations enrolled. Participants found the preparation phase valuable and were highly satisfied with the master training course. Although most attendees felt that the course imparted the knowledge and tools critical for TeamSTEPPS implementation, they identified time restraints and competing initiatives as potential barriers. The project team has learned valuable lessons about obtaining buy-in, consolidating the change teams, making the curriculum relevant, and evaluation. Ambulatory care settings require innovative approaches to integration of teamwork improvement systems. Evaluating and sharing lessons learned will help to hone best practices as we navigate this new frontier in the field of patient safety. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  20. Postpartum stressors: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Jevitt, Cecilia M; Groer, Maureen W; Crist, Nancy F; Gonzalez, Lois; Wagner, V Doreen

    2012-05-01

    A qualitative content analysis was conducted on narratives written by 127 mothers at four to six weeks postpartum. This study aimed to identify and compare postpartum stressors to the Tennessee Postpartum Stress Scale (TPSS). The TPSS is a guide to common postpartum stressors and an instrument to assess postpartum stress. Most participants in this study were white (91%), married (72%), and not working (70%). Eighteen stressor categories aggregated into two themes: Stressors Arising within the Maternal-Newborn Dyad and Stressors External to the Maternal-Newborn Dyad. Sixteen of 20 items on the TPSS were identified in the narratives. No stressor categories outside the TPSS were identified.

  1. Reproductive Toxicity of T Cells in Early Life: Abnormal Immune Development and Postnatal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-Xiao; Jiang, Aifang; Chen, Ting; Qu, Wen; Yan, Hui-Yi; Ping, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Immunity is a balanced status with adequate biological defenses to recognize and fight "non-self", as well as adequate tolerance to recognize "self". To maintain this immune homeostasis, a well-organized T cell immune network is required, which in part depends on the well-controlled development of alternative effector T cells, with different cytokine repertoires. Recent researches have pointed that developing fetal T cells network is a remarkably sensitive toxicological target for adverse factors in early life. Epidemiological and experimental studies showed an inseparable relationship between T cell developmental toxicity and immune diseases in adults. Considering that the inflammatory and immune disorders have become a growing health problem worldwide, increasing attention is now being paid to the T cell developmental toxicity. We propose that adverse factors may have programming effects on the crucial functions of immune system during early life which is critical for fetal T cell development and the establishment of the distinct T cell repertoires balance. The permanently disturbed intrathymic or peripheral T cell development may in turn lead to the immune disorders in later life. In this manuscript, we reviewed how adverse factors affected T cell development in early-life with the consequence of the immune dysfunction and immune diseases, and further elucidate the mechanisms. These mechanisms will be helpful in prevention and treatment of the increased prevalence of immune diseases by interfering those pathways. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, from shallow to mesophotic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Wong, Kevin H.; Becker, Danielle M.; Glennon, Keegan; de Putron, Samantha J.

    2018-06-01

    Early life history traits of brooding corals are often affected by the environmental conditions experienced by parental colonies. Such parental effects can impact offspring survival, which influences the overall success of a population as well as resilience to environmental challenges. This study examines the reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral Porites astreoides across a depth gradient in Bermuda. Fecundity, larval size, larval Symbiodinium density, and settlement success, as well as post-metamorphic juvenile survival, growth, and Symbiodinium density were compared across three reef sites representing an inshore patch reef (2-5 m), an offshore rim reef (8-10 m), and an upper-mesophotic reef (30-33 m). Although fecundity did not differ across sites, larvae produced by colonies on the patch reef site were smaller, had lower Symbiodinium densities, and had lower rates of settlement and juvenile survival compared to larvae from colonies on the rim and upper-mesophotic reef sites. Larvae produced by colonies from the rim and upper-mesophotic sites did not differ in size or Symbiodinium densities; however, rates of settlement, growth, and survival were higher for larvae from the upper-mesophotic site compared to those from the rim reef site. These results indicate that offspring quality and success vary among sites with differing environmental conditions and may imply higher recruitment potential and resilience for upper-mesophotic corals.

  3. Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    2017-05-27

    Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries. We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15 000 women with a composite primary endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore increased the sample size from 15 000 to 20 000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283. Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20 060 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (n=10 051) or placebo (n=10

  4. Postpartum bonding: the role of perinatal depression, anxiety and maternal-fetal bonding during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dubber, S; Reck, C; Müller, M; Gawlik, S

    2015-04-01

    Adverse effects of perinatal depression on the mother-child interaction are well documented; however, the influence of maternal-fetal bonding during pregnancy on postpartum bonding has not been clearly identified. The subject of this study was to investigate prospectively the influence of maternal-fetal bonding and perinatal symptoms of anxiety and depression on postpartum mother-infant bonding. Data from 80 women were analyzed for associations of symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as maternal bonding during pregnancy to maternal bonding in the postpartum period using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R), the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ-16). Maternal education, MFAS, PRAQ-R, EPDS and STAI-T significantly correlated with the PBQ-16. In the final regression model, MFAS and EPDS postpartum remained significant predictors of postpartum bonding and explained 20.8 % of the variance. The results support the hypothesized negative relationship between maternal-fetal bonding and postpartum maternal bonding impairment as well as the role of postpartum depressive symptoms. Early identification of bonding impairment during pregnancy and postpartum depression in mothers plays an important role for the prevention of potential bonding impairment in the early postpartum period.

  5. Parturition effects on reproductive health in the gilt and sow.

    PubMed

    Peltoniemi, Oat; Björkman, S; Oliviero, C

    2016-10-01

    In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of the piglets, complete expulsion of the placenta, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. Abnormal incidents during any phase of parturition can cause subsequent problems. Duration of the expulsion phase of foetuses can be used as a simple measure of whether parturition is considered successful. Prolonged parturition can impair health of the sow and piglet and fertility after weaning. New insights, such as adding more fibre to sow diets during pregnancy, and especially during the period prior to farrowing, may prevent constipation, increase water intake of the sow around parturition and increase milk intake and performance of piglets. Maternal characteristics, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production and piglet quality parameters, may be utilized to improve success rate of reproductive management during farrowing and early lactation. Additionally, we share some of the recent developments in methods, including ultrasonography in evaluation of post-partum uterine health. In conclusion, successful farrowing is of the greatest importance for reproductive health of the sow and survival of the piglets. We suggest connections exist among prolonged farrowing and yield of colostrum, retained placenta, development of PDS, and impaired involution of the

  6. Infiltration of myeloid cells into decidua is a critical early event in the labour cascade and post-partum uterine remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Shynlova, Oksana; Nedd-Roderique, Tamara; Li, Yunqing; Dorogin, Anna; Nguyen, Tina; Lye, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Leucocyte infiltration in the decidua (maternal–foetal interface) before, during and after term (TL) and preterm labour (PTL) was studied in mouse. We also investigated the mechanism of peripheral leucocyte recruitment into decidua by analysing the tissue cytokine profiles. Decidual tissues were collected during late gestation, TL and post-partum (PP). PTL was initiated on gestational day 15 by intrauterine injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 125 μg) or progesterone signalling antagonism by RU486. Animals were killed during PTL or PP. Decidua basalis was analysed using FACS and immunohistochemistry. Markers of myeloid cell differentiation (Gr1, Ly6G, Neu7/4, F4/80) were assessed to define tissue monocytes (M), neutrophils (N) and macrophages (Macs). Flow cytometry revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in decidual Macs prior to TL; M and N numbers increased during TL and further increased during PP, which correlated with immunohistochemistry data. Massive influx of N, but not Macs and M, was detected by FACS during LPS-PTL (P < 0.05) but not RU486-PTL. Highest levels of N infiltration into the decidua occurred PP in both LPS and RU486 groups. Decidual infiltration during TL and RU486-PTL was accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1b and IL6) and CCL2 chemokine; LPS-PTL showed increases in multiple cytokines. PP period following TL and PTL was associated with further up-regulation of multiple cytokines/chemokines (P < 0.05). Our data suggest a programme of myeloid cells involvement in parturition with the pre-partum influx of Macs into the decidua contributing to the progression of labour, whereas the later influx of M and N contribute to PP decidual involution. PMID:23379349

  7. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ow, Maria C.; Nichitean, Alexandra M.; Dorus, Steve; Hall, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite (“seesaw”) transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome. PMID:29447162

  8. Effect of dysfunctional attitudes and postpartum state on vulnerability to depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Dowlati, Yekta; Segal, Zindel V; Ravindran, Arun V; Steiner, Meir; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2014-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbearing with a 13% prevalence. Vulnerability to depressed mood has an important role in the onset of major depressive episodes (MDE), but has not been investigated in postpartum. The aim is to assess whether day-5 postpartum blues and severity of dysfunctional attitudes predicts vulnerability to depressed mood. About 45 healthy women were recruited: group 1 (n=12) was day-5 postpartum during the typical peak of postpartum blues. Group 2 (n=11) was within 18 months postpartum and reported a vulnerability to cry (and had elevated dysfunctional attitudes but no MDE). Group 3 (n=11) was within 18 months postpartum and no vulnerability to cry. Group 4 (n=11) was not recently postpartum. Vulnerability to depressed mood was measured by the change in the visual analog scale from the sad mood induction procedure (MIP). Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated that day-5 postpartum blues and level of dysfunctional attitudes were highly predictive of change in sad mood (postpartum blues: F(1,41)=12.9, p<0.005, dysfunctional attitudes scale score: F(1,41)=11.49, p<0.005). Although the effects were robust, sample sizes were 11-12 within each group. Two factors (day-5 postpartum and severity of dysfunctional attitudes) predicted vulnerability to sad mood. Since the severity of postpartum blues predicts PPD, MIP on day-5 postpartum represents a quantitative measure that can be applied to screen novel, early interventions for preventing PPD. Interventions to prevent PPD through increasing resilience against mood induction should target postpartum women with greater severity of dysfunctional attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reproductive phenology of a food-hoarding mast-seed consumer: resource- and density-dependent benefits of early breeding in red squirrels.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cory T; Lane, Jeffrey E; Humphries, Murray M; McAdam, Andrew G; Boutin, Stan

    2014-03-01

    The production of offspring by vertebrates is often timed to coincide with the annual peak in resource availability. However, capital breeders can extend the energetic benefits of a resource pulse by storing food or fat, thus relaxing the need for synchrony between energy supply and demand. Food-hoarding red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) breeding in the boreal forest are reliant on cones from a masting conifer for their nutrition, yet lactation is typically completed before the annual crop of cones is available for consumption such that peaks in energy supply and demand are not synchronized. We investigated the phenological response of red squirrels to annual variation in environmental conditions over a 20-year span and examined how intra- and inter-annual variation in the timing of reproduction affected offspring recruitment. Reproductive phenology was strongly affected by past resource availability with offspring born earlier in years following large cone crops, presumably because this affected the amount of capital available for reproduction. Early breeders had higher offspring survival and were more likely to renest following early litter loss when population density was high, perhaps because late-born offspring are less competitive in obtaining a territory when vacancies are limited. Early breeders were also more likely to renest after successfully weaning their first litter, but renesting predominantly occurred during mast years. Because of their increased propensity to renest and the higher survival rates of their offspring, early breeders contribute more recruits to the population but the advantage of early breeding depends on population density and resource availability.

  10. Impact of forced separation policy on incarcerated postpartum mothers.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Angelina N

    2009-08-01

    The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies. Qualitative data analysis produced four relational themes: (a) "a love connection," (b) "everything was great until I birthed," (c) "feeling empty and missing a part of me," and (d) "I don't try to think too far in advance." Results of this qualitative study provide information to professionals exploring gender-sensitive prison policies for the growing female population.

  11. Genetic parameters of ovarian and uterine reproductive traits in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate genetic parameters of detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract as well as their genetic correlations with traditional reproductive traits. A total of 226,141 calving and insemination records as well as 74,134 ultrasound records from Irish dairy cows were used. Traditional reproductive traits included postpartum interval to first service, conception, and next calving, as well as the interval from first to last service; number of inseminations, pregnancy rate to first service, pregnant within 42 d of the herd breeding season, and submission in the first 21 d of the herd breeding season were also available. Detailed reproductive traits included resumed cyclicity at the time of ultrasound examination, incidence of multiple ovulations, incidence of early postpartum ovulation, heat detection, ovarian cystic structures, embryo loss, and uterine score; the latter was a subjectively assessed on a scale of 1 (little fluid with normal uterine tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid uterine tone). Variance (and covariance) components were estimated using repeatability animal linear mixed models. Heritability for all reproductive traits were generally low (0.001-0.05), with the exception of traits related to cyclicity postpartum, regardless if defined traditionally (0.07; calving to first service) or from ultrasound examination [resumed cyclicity at the time of examination (0.07) or early postpartum ovulation (0.10)]. The genetic correlations among the detailed reproductive traits were generally favorable. The exception was the genetic correlation (0.29) between resumed cyclicity and uterine score; superior genetic merit for cyclicity postpartum was associated with inferior uterine score. Superior genetic merit for most traditional reproductive traits was associated with superior genetic merit for resumed cyclicity (genetic correlations ranged from -0.59 to -0.36 and from 0

  12. Postpartum female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2009-08-01

    Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being.

  13. [Prevalence and severity of lameness in early lactation in dairy cows and the effect on reproductive performance].

    PubMed

    Orgel, Corina; Ruddat, Inga; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2016-08-17

    To examine the impact of different degrees of lameness on the fertility of dairy cows. Seven dairy herds housed in free stall barns with cubicles were visited at 4-week intervals and all cows were examined for locomotion characteristics using a locomotion scoring system. The cows received scores from 1 (normal gait) to 5 (severely lame). During the study period of 18 months, 893 cows in the first month of lactation and 944 cows in the second, third and fourth months of lactation were evaluated. Reproductive measures between non-lame cows (score 1), mild lame cows (score 2) and cows with clear lameness (score ≥ 3) were compared. Independent of parity and herd effects, cows with scores ≥ 3 in the first month of lactation displayed a 6 days longer calving to first service interval (CFSI) (86.2 ± 35.6 vs. 80.2 ± 34.1 days; p = 0.002) and a 16 days longer calving to conception interval (CCI) (119.7 ± 51.4 vs. 103.8 ± 55.5 days; p = 0.048) than non-lame cows. Additionally, the risk for non-conception was significantly higher in cows suffering from lameness in the first month of lactation (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.095, 4.040; p = 0.026). Cows affected by mild lameness in the third month of lactation had a 4 days longer CFSI (84.7 ± 35.6 vs. 80.1 ± 30.5 days; p = 0.026) and a 18 days longer CCI (120.1 ± 55.4 vs. 102.3 ± 47.6 days; p = 0.016) than non-lame cows, while the CSFI in distinct lame cows was extended by 7 days compared to non-lame cows (87.2 ± 34.9 vs. 80.1 ± 30.5 days; p = 0.002). Cows with the score 1 in the first month and score 3 in the third month of lactation showed the longest CSFI (94.3 ± 33.9 vs. 76.5 ± 16.0 days in non-lame cows; p = 0.046). This study suggests that both distinct and mild lameness in early lactation lead to a decline in reproduction in dairy herds. A regular determination of the lameness prevalence in dairy herds and optimizing claw health management

  14. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E.

    2017-01-01

    How many human embryos die between fertilisation and birth under natural conditions? It is widely accepted that natural human embryo mortality is high, particularly during the first weeks after fertilisation, with total prenatal losses of 70% and higher frequently claimed. However, the first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period, and establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging. Calculations are additionally hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are used to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i) a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no practical quantitative value; (ii) life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii) studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv) the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data concluded that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, natural human embryo mortality is lower than often claimed and widely accepted. Estimates for total prenatal mortality of 70% or higher are exaggerated and not supported by the available data. PMID:28580126

  15. Utilization of early soybeans for food and reproduction by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the delta of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, G L; Jackson, R E; Abel, C A; Perera, O P

    2010-08-01

    Commercially produced maturity group (MG) IV soybeans, Glycine max L., were sampled during bloom for tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), during May and June 1999 (3 fields) and 2001 (18 fields). The adults and nymphs were found primarily in single population peaks in both years, indicating a single new generation was produced during each year. The peak mean numbers of nymphs were 0.61 and 0.84 per drop cloth sample in 1999 and 2001, respectively. Adults peaked at 3.96 (1999) and 3.76 (2001) per sweep net sample (25 sweeps). Tests using laboratory-reared and field-collected tarnished plant bugs resulted in very poor survival of nymphs on 16 different soybean varieties (MG III, one; IV, four; V, nine; VI, two). A large cage (0.06 ha) field test found that the number of nymphs produced on eight soybean varieties after mated adults were released into the cages was lower than could be expected on a suitable host. These results indicated that soybean was a marginal host for tarnished plant bugs. However, the numbers of adults and nymphs found in the commercially produced fields sampled in the study may have been high enough to cause feeding damage to the flowering soybeans. The nature of the damage and its possible economic importance were not determined. Reproduction of tarnished plant bugs in the commercially produced early soybean fields showed that the early soybeans provided tarnished plant bugs with a very abundant host at a time when only wild hosts were previously available.

  16. Heat-induced phytohormone changes are associated with disrupted early reproductive development and reduced yield in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cui, Kehui; Wang, Wencheng; Li, Qian; Fahad, Shah; Hu, Qiuqian; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Peng, Shaobing

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress causes morphological and physiological changes and reduces crop yield in rice (Oryza sativa). To investigate changes in phytohormones and their relationships with yield and other attributes under heat stress, four rice varieties (Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, Liangyoupeijiu, and Shanyou 63) were grown in pots and subjected to three high temperature treatments plus control in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 d during the early reproductive phase. Yield reductions in Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, and Liangyoupeijiu were attributed to reductions in spikelet fertility, spikelets per panicle, and grain weight. The adverse effects of high temperature were alleviated by application of exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in the heat-susceptible Liangyoupeijiu. High temperature stress reduced active cytokinins, gibberellin A1 (GA1), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but increased abscisic acid (ABA) and bound cytokinins in young panicles. Correlation analyses and application of exogenous 6-BA revealed that high temperature-induced cytokinin changes may regulate yield components by modulating the differentiation and degradation of branches and spikelets, panicle exsertion, pollen vigor, anther dehiscence, and grain size. Heat-tolerant Shanyou 63 displayed minor changes in phytohormones, panicle formation, and grain yield under high temperature compared with those of the other three varieties. These results suggest that phytohormone changes are closely associated with yield formation, and a small reduction or stability in phytohormone content is required to avoid large yield losses under heat stress. PMID:27713528

  17. Impact of early season apical meristem injury by gall inducing tipworm (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on reproductive and vegetative growth of cranberry.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Buonaccorsi, J P; Averill, A L

    2013-06-01

    Larvae of cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, disrupt early season growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) uprights or shoots by feeding on apical meristem tissue. A 2-yr field study was carried out at three different locations to determine the impact of tipworm feeding injury on the reproductive and vegetative growth of two cranberry cultivars ('Howes' and 'Stevens') in Massachusetts. In addition to tipworm-injured and intact control uprights, an artificial injury treatment simulating tipworm feeding was also included. Individual uprights of cranberry exhibited tolerance to natural (tipworm) and simulated apical meristem injury in the current growing season (fruit production) and results were corroborated by a greenhouse study. In the field study, weight of fruit was higher in tipworm-injured uprights as compared with intact control uprights at the sites with Howes. However, majority of injured uprights (tipworm and simulated) did not produce new growth from lateral buds (side-shoots) before the onset of dormancy. In the next growing season, fewer injured uprights resumed growth and produced flowers as compared with intact uprights at two of the three sites. We suggest that multiple-year studies focusing on whole plant response to tipworm herbivory will be required to determine the costs of chronic feeding injury over time.

  18. [Postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation: Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Deffieux, X; Vieillefosse, S; Billecocq, S; Battut, A; Nizard, J; Coulm, B; Thubert, T

    2015-12-01

    Provide guidelines for clinical practice concerning postpartum rehabilitation. Systematically review of the literature concerning postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation. Pelvic-floor rehabilitation using pelvic floor muscle contraction exercises is recommended to treat persistent urinary incontinence at 3 months postpartum (grade A), regardless of the type of incontinence. At least 3 guided sessions with a therapist is recommended, associated with pelvic floor muscle exercises at home. This postpartum rehabilitation improves short-term urinary incontinence (1 year) but not long-term (6-12 years). Early pelvic-floor rehabilitation (within 2 months following childbirth) is not recommended (grade C). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation in women presenting with anal incontinence, is associated with a lower prevalence of anal incontinence symptoms in short-term (1 year) (EL3) but not long-term (6 and 12) (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is recommended to treat anal incontinence (grade C) but results are not maintained in medium or long term. No randomized trials have evaluated the pelvic-floor rehabilitation in asymptomatic women in order to prevent urinary or anal incontinence in medium or long term. It is therefore not recommended (expert consensus). Rehabilitation supervised by a therapist (physiotherapist or midwife) is not associated with better results than simple advice for voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles to prevent/correct, in short term (6 months), a persistent prolapse 6 weeks postpartum (EL2), whether or not with a levator ani avulsion (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is not associated with a decrease in the prevalence of dyspareunia at 1-year follow-up (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation guided by a therapist is therefore not recommended to treat or prevent prolapse (grade C) or dyspareunia (grade C). No randomized trials have evaluated the effect of pelvic

  19. Association of Prenatal and Early Life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Other Reproductive Disorders in the Cape Cod Health Study: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Winter, Michael R.; Aschengrau, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is an organic lipophilic solvent with possible neuroendocrine toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the association of prenatal and early childhood exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water and development of adult-onset Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, difficulty conceiving and miscarriage. Methods Five-hundred exposed and 331 unexposed female participants born between 1969 and 1983 completed questionnaires on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, and reproductive disorders. Residential locations from the prenatal period through five years of age were used to estimate early life PCE exposure with water modeling software. Results For any early life exposure to PCE, the adjusted risk ratio for PCOS was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5–1.6). No statistically significant associations were observed for increasing levels of exposure with PCOS or the other reproductive disorders. Conclusion No meaningful associations were found among adult women with early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water and adult-onset reproductive disorders. PMID:27412368

  20. Redesigned community postpartum care to prevent and treat postpartum depression in women--a one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Glavin, Kari; Smith, Lars; Sørum, Ragnhild; Ellefsen, Bodil

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of a redesigned follow-up care programme on prevention and treatment of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression may have negative consequences on child development, maternal health and the relationship between parents. Early identification and treatment might prevent longer-term depression. A quasi-experimental post-test design with non-equivalent groups. The study population was postpartum women with a live-born child, residing in one of two municipalities in Norway. A total of 2247 women were enrolled: 1806 in the experimental municipality and 441 in the comparison municipality. Public health nurses (26) in the experimental municipality were trained to identify postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and clinical assessment and to provide supportive counselling. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at six weeks, three, six and 12 months postpartum and the Parenting Stress Index at 12 months postpartum. The redesigned postpartum care programme yielded a significant group difference in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score at six weeks (p < 0.01), odds ratio (OR) 0.6, three months (p < 0.01), OR 0.4, six months (p < 0.01), OR 0.5 and 12 months postpartum (p < 0.01), OR 0.6. Women who had been depressed at least once during the first postpartum year reported significantly higher levels of parenting stress at 12 months. The findings of this study suggest that redesigned postpartum care comprising training of health professionals, increased focus on mental health problems and support for the parents is a useful approach to managing postpartum depression in the community. Public health nurses are well positioned to identify and treat depressed mothers and provide referrals when needed. A small investment in training nurses to identify and treat postpartum depression can be cost-effective in the longer term. These findings have implications for service delivery in public health. © 2010 Blackwell

  1. Predictors of Postpartum Exercise According to Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Leonard, Krista S; Beiler, Jessica S; Paul, Ian M

    2017-10-01

    The study purposes were to examine (1) differences in postpartum exercise (EX) and related personal/psychological correlates in women according to prepregnancy weight and pregnancy gestational weight gain (GWG) status and (2) predictors of EX at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months postpartum. Participants (N = 891) were recruited at maternity hospitalization and completed interviews to assess EX (Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire) and personal correlates (demographics, anxiety/depressive symptoms) before/during pregnancy. Telephone interviews were conducted to assess postpartum EX/psychological correlates. Women were categorized according to prepregnancy weight (normal and overweight) and pregnancy GWG status (above or within weight gain guidelines): normal-above, normal-within, overweight-above, and overweight-within. Low levels of EX minutes were observed in all women with significant differences for strenuous EX minutes (overweight-within women had the lowest strenuous EX; normal-weight women had more strenuous EX than overweight women regardless of GWG). Correlates explained 14%-37% of the variance in postpartum EX; prepregnancy EX and pregnancy EX were strong determinants of early postpartum EX, and early postpartum EX predicted 6-month postpartum EX. Unique predictors of EX also emerged (eg, depressive symptoms for women with GWG above guidelines). These study findings highlight the benefits of EX before/during pregnancy for promoting postpartum EX and suggest tailoring postpartum EX interventions based on personal/psychological correlates to maximize effectiveness.

  2. Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Toffoletto, Simone; Wikström, Johan; Engman, Jonas; Bannbers, Elin; Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-03-08

    Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

  3. Impact of Maternal HIV Seroconversion during Pregnancy on Early Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) Measured at 4-8 Weeks Postpartum in South Africa 2011-2012: A National Population-Based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Thu-Ha; Delaney, Kevin P.; Goga, Ameena; Jackson, Debra; Lombard, Carl; Woldesenbet, Selamawit; Mogashoa, Mary; Pillay, Yogan; Shaffer, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) depends on the timing of HIV infection. We estimated HIV-seroconversion during pregnancy (HSP) after having a HIV-negative result antenatally, and its contribution to early MTCT in South Africa (SA). Methods and Findings Between August 2011 and March 2012, we recruited a nationally representative sample of mother-infant pairs with infants aged 4-to-8 weeks from 578 health facilities. Data collection included mother interviews, child health-card reviews, and infant dried-blood-spots sample (iDBS). iDBS were tested for HIV antibodies and HIV-deoxyribonucleic-acid (HIV-DNA). HSP was defined as maternal self-report of an HIV-negative test during this pregnancy, no documented use of antiretroviral drugs and a matched HIV sero-positive iDBS. We used 20 imputations from a uniform distribution for time from reported antenatal HIV-negative result to delivery to estimate time of HSP. Early MTCT was defined based on detection of HIV-DNA in iDBS. Estimates were adjusted for clustering, nonresponse, and weighted by SA’s 2011 live-births. Results Of 9802 mother-infant pairs, 2738 iDBS were HIV sero-positive, including 212 HSP, resulting in a nationally weighted estimate of 3.3% HSP (95% Confidence Interval: 2.8%-3.8%). Median time of HIV-seroconversion was 32.8weeks gestation;28.3% (19.7%- 36.9%) estimated to be >36 weeks. Early MTCT was 10.7% for HSP (6.2%-16.8%) vs. 2.2% (1.7%-2.8%) for mothers with known HIV-positive status. Although they represent 2.2% of all mothers and 6.7% of HIV-infected mothers, HSP accounted for 26% of early MTCT. Multivariable analysis indicated the highest risk for HSP was among women who knew the baby’s father was HIV-infected (adjusted-hazard ratio (aHR) 4.71; 1.49-14.99), or who had been screened for tuberculosis (aHR 1.82; 1.43-2.32). Conclusions HSP risk is high and contributes significantly to early MTCT. Identification of HSP by repeat-testing at 32 weeks gestation, during labor, 6

  4. Barriers to employment for drug dependent postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Kelley; Goodman, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Employment represents the key to independence for women, and equal opportunity has been an elusive goal. For women with substance dependence, employment is strongly linked to the ability to sustain recovery. Unfortunately, for postpartum mothers with substance use disorders, gender-based barriers are magnified. A case analysis is provided to illustrate the interaction of multiple barriers to employment success in one postpartum woman's experience. To elucidate the complex factors involved in return to employment for postpartum women being treated for substance use disorders. A review of the current literature on employment, substance use, and the postpartum period was performed. Themes identified in the literature were applied to analyze a representative case. Postpartum women with substance use disorders face a variety of challenges to employment success. Lack of education and job skills are common barriers to successful employment of women in addiction recovery. These barriers may be complicated by emotional or logistical challenges, or related to external factors such as stigma and/or previous criminal history. Assessment of employment history, marketable skills, and barriers should be an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs. Professionals working to increase employment opportunities for postpartum women with substance use disorders should be particularly aware of the multiple barriers they face and integrate employment assessment and skills training into the early stages of treatment programs.

  5. Prostaglandins and reproduction in female farm animals.

    PubMed

    Weems, C W; Weems, Y S; Randel, R D

    2006-03-01

    Prostaglandins impact on ovarian, uterine, placental, and pituitary function to regulate reproduction in female livestock. They play important roles in ovulation, luteal function, maternal recognition of pregnancy, implantation, maintenance of gestation, microbial-induced abortion, parturition, postpartum uterine and ovarian infections, and resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. Prostaglandins have both positive and negative effects on reproduction; they are used to synchronize oestrus, terminate pseudopregnancy in mares, induce parturition, and treat retained placenta, luteinized cysts, pyometra, and chronic endometritis. Improved therapeutic uses for prostaglandins will be developed when we understand better their involvement in implantation, maintenance of luteal function, and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  6. Effects of reproductive status on behavioral and endocrine responses to acute stress in a biparental rodent, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chauke, Miyetani; Malisch, Jessica L.; Robinson, Cymphonee; de Jong, Trynke R.; Saltzman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In several mammalian species, lactating females show blunted neural, hormonal, and behavioral responses to stressors. It is not known whether new fathers also show stress hyporesponsiveness in species in which males provide infant care. To test this possibility, we determined the effects of male and female reproductive status on stress responsiveness in the biparental, monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).Breeding (N=8 females, 8 males), nonbreeding (N=10 females, 10 males) and virgin mice (N=12 females, 9 males) were exposed to a 5-min predator-urine stressor at two time points, corresponding to the early postpartum (5–7 days postpartum) and mid/late postpartum (19–21 days postpartum) phases, and blood samples were collected immediately afterwards. Baseline blood samples were obtained 2 days prior to each stress test. Baseline plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations did not differ among male or female groups. CORT responses to the stressor did not differ among female reproductive groups, and all three groups showed distinct behavioral responses to predator urine. Virgin males tended to increase their CORT response from the first to the second stress test, while breeding and nonbreeding males did not. Moreover, virgin and nonbreeding males showed significant behavioral changes in response to predator urine, whereas breeding males did not. These results suggest that adrenocortical responses to a repeated stressor in male California mice may be modulated by cohabitation with a female, whereas behavioral responses to stress may be blunted by parental status. PMID:21557946

  7. Effects of reproductive status on behavioral and endocrine responses to acute stress in a biparental rodent, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Chauke, Miyetani; Malisch, Jessica L; Robinson, Cymphonee; de Jong, Trynke R; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-06-01

    In several mammalian species, lactating females show blunted neural, hormonal, and behavioral responses to stressors. It is not known whether new fathers also show stress hyporesponsiveness in species in which males provide infant care. To test this possibility, we determined the effects of male and female reproductive status on stress responsiveness in the biparental, monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Breeding (N=8 females, 8 males), nonbreeding (N=10 females, 10 males) and virgin mice (N=12 females, 9 males) were exposed to a 5-min predator-urine stressor at two time points, corresponding to the early postpartum (5-7 days postpartum) and mid/late postpartum (19-21 days postpartum) phases, and blood samples were collected immediately afterwards. Baseline blood samples were obtained 2 days prior to each stress test. Baseline plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations did not differ among male or female groups. CORT responses to the stressor did not differ among female reproductive groups, and all three groups showed distinct behavioral responses to predator urine. Virgin males tended to increase their CORT response from the first to the second stress test, while breeding and nonbreeding males did not. Moreover, virgin and nonbreeding males showed significant behavioral changes in response to predator urine, whereas breeding males did not. These results suggest that adrenocortical responses to a repeated stressor in male California mice may be modulated by cohabitation with a female, whereas behavioral responses to stress may be blunted by parental status. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Postpartum depression in older women.

    PubMed

    Strelow, Brittany; Fellows, Nicole; Fink, Stephanie R; OʼLaughlin, Danielle J; Radke, Gladys; Stevens, Joy; Tweedy, Johanna M

    2018-03-01

    Postpartum depression, which affects 10% to 20% of women in the United States, can significantly harm the health and quality of life for mother, child, and family. This article reviews the risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of postpartum depression with specific focus on women of advanced maternal age.

  9. Sequelae of postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, B L; Taskin, O; Kafkashli, A; Rosenfeld, M L; Chuong, C J

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the menstrual, psychosexual, psychological and somatic sequelae in a group of women who may be more prone to express regret following postpartum sterilization. The follow-up was conducted by questionnaire at six months and five years following the procedure. Data were available from 242 patient; 76.8% were below the age of 30. Of all patients, 21.9% expressed regrets. About one third had various menstrual disturbances. Patients rated their sex life as generally more enjoyable in many aspects. The most common psychological symptoms were irritability, nervousness and depression; while the common somatic symptoms were pelvic/abdominal pain and backache and tiredness.

  10. Gestational stress induces persistent depressive-like behavior and structural modifications within the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Haim, Achikam; Sherer, Morgan; Leuner, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Pregnancy stress enhances vulnerability to PPD and has also been shown to increase depressive-like behavior in postpartum rats. Thus, gestational stress may be an important translational risk factor that can be used to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying PPD. Here we examined the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior during the early/mid and late postpartum periods and evaluated whether this was accompanied by altered structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region that has been linked to PPD. We show that early/mid (PD8) postpartum female rats exhibited more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test as compared to late postpartum females (PD22). However, two weeks of restraint stress during pregnancy increased depressive-like behavior regardless of postpartum timepoint. In addition, dendritic length, branching, and spine density on medium spiny neurons in the NAc shell were diminished in postpartum rats that experienced gestational stress although stress-induced reductions in spine density were evident only in early/mid postpartum females. In the NAc core, structural plasticity was not affected by gestational stress but late postpartum females exhibited lower spine density and reduced dendritic length. Overall, these data not only demonstrate structural changes in the NAc across the postpartum period, they also show that postpartum depressive-like behavior following exposure to gestational stress is associated with compromised structural plasticity in the NAc and thus may provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to PPD. PMID:25359225

  11. Predictors of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Katon, Wayne; Russo, Joan; Gavin, Amelia

    2014-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, prepregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression (PPD). A prospective cohort study screened women at 4 and 8 months of pregnancy and used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine predictors of PPD. The study sample include 1,423 pregnant women at a university-based high risk obstetrics clinic. A score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) indicated clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women without significant postpartum depressive symptoms, women with PPD were significantly younger (p<0.0001), more likely to be unemployed (p=0.04), had more pregnancy associated depressive symptoms (p<0.0001) and psychosocial stress (p<0.0001), were more likely to be smokers (p<0.0001), were more likely to be taking antidepressants (ADs) during pregnancy (p=0.002), were less likely to drink any alcohol during pregnancy (p=0.02), and were more likely to have prepregnancy medical illnesses, including diabetes (p=0.02) and neurologic conditions (p=0.02). Specific sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for PPD were identified that could help physicians target depression case finding for pregnant women.

  12. When stress predicts a shrinking gene pool, trading early reproduction for longevity can increase fitness, even with lower fecundity.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Travisano, Michael; Denison, R Ford

    2009-06-25

    Stresses like dietary restriction or various toxins increase lifespan in taxa as diverse as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and rats, by triggering physiological responses that also tend to delay reproduction. Food odors can reverse the effects of dietary restriction, showing that key mechanisms respond to information, not just resources. Such environmental cues can predict population trends, not just individual prospects for survival and reproduction. When population size is increasing, each offspring produced earlier makes a larger proportional contribution to the gene pool, but the reverse is true when population size is declining. We show mathematically that natural selection can favor facultative delay in reproduction when environmental cues predict a decrease in total population size, even if lifetime fecundity decreases with delay. We also show that increased reproduction from waiting for better conditions does not increase fitness (proportional representation) when the whole population benefits similarly. We conclude that the beneficial effects of stress on longevity (hormesis) in diverse taxa are a side-effect of delaying reproduction in response to environmental cues that population size is likely to decrease. The reversal by food odors of the effects of dietary restriction can be explained as a response to information that population size is less likely to decrease, reducing the chance that delaying reproduction will increase fitness.

  13. Transtheoretical model-based postpartum sexual health education program improves women's sexual behaviors and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jian-Tao; Tsai, Jia-Ling

    2012-04-01

    Postpartum sexual health education was once routinely administered to postpartum women, but few interventions were specifically described or clearly based on theory, and few sexual interventions affected women's sexual behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of a refined theory-based interactive postpartum sexual health education program (IPSHEP) in enhancing postpartum women's sexual behavior and health. For this prospective, randomized controlled trial, 250 participants were randomized to three groups. Experimental group A received our refined theory-based IPSHEP. Experimental group B received only an interactive, self-help pamphlet. The control group received routine education (a 10- to 15-minute educational talk and a sexual health pamphlet without an interactive design). Data were collected at baseline, 3 days, 2 months, and 3 months postpartum. Postpartum women's sexual self-efficacy (SSE), diversity of sexual activity (DSA), return to sexual activity, and sexual satisfaction (SS). Women who received our theory-based postpartum sexual health education program had significantly greater SSE (P < 0.05) and greater DSA (P < 0.05), and tended to resume their sexual life earlier than women in the routine teaching and interactive pamphlet-only groups (P < 0.05). However, the SS levels of postpartum women who received our program did not differ significantly from those of women who received routine teaching or the interactive pamphlet only.   Our findings suggest that a theory-based postpartum sexual health education program improved women's sexual health and sexual behavior and that the transtheoretical model can be translated into practice, supporting its use to enhance the sexual health of postpartum women. Despite the lack of a significant effect on SS, women who received our theory-based postpartum sexual health education program tended to maintain their prepregnancy level of SS in early postpartum. © 2011 International Society for Sexual

  14. [Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder; Bülow, Hans Henrik

    2015-11-23

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood pressure test.

  15. The effects of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnancy and postpartum on growth and neurodevelopment in early childhood: Study Protocol for a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Kvestad, Ingrid; Shrestha, Merina; Ranjitkar, Suman; Basnet, Sudha; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin B12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. Pregnant mothers in resource poor settings are at risk for poor vitamin B12 status. Poor vitamin B12 status in infancy is linked to poor growth and neurodevelopment. Brain development starts from conception, and pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and development for the brain. Methods and analysis The study is an individually randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial in 800 pregnant Nepalese women randomised in a 1:1 ratio. A daily dose of 50 µg of vitamin B12 or placebo is given to women from early pregnancy, not later than week 15, until 6 months after birth. Weekly visits are conducted in order to record compliance, growth and morbidity. The primary outcomes are scores on the cognitive, language and motor subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, measured at 6 and 12 months of age, and growth (length and weight) measured at 6 and 12 months of age. Ethics and dissemination National Health and Research Council, Nepal (NHRC 253/2016) and Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics of Western Norway (2016/1620/REK vest) have approved the study. Investigators who have contributed to the conceptualising, conducting, as well as being involved in the data analyses and manuscript writing will be eligible for authorship and be responsible to share outcomes with different stakeholders through publications and workshops. The results from this study may support new dietary guidelines for Nepalese and possibly South Asian pregnant women that can lead to improved pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment and cognitive functioning in children. Trial registration number Universal Trial Number: U1111-1183-4093. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03071666. Protocol date: version 1.2, 1 June 2017. PMID:28851784

  16. Responses of two understory herbs, Maianthemum canadense and Eurybia macrophylla, to experimental forest warming: early emergence is the key to enhanced reproductive output.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Marie-Hélène; Lapointe, Line; Rice, Karen; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Stefanski, Artur; Reich, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    Understory herbs might be the most sensitive plant form to global warming in deciduous forests, yet they have been little studied in the context of climate change. A field experiment set up in Minnesota, United States simulated global warming in a forest setting and provided the opportunity to study the responses of Maianthemum canadense and Eurybia macrophylla in their natural environment in interaction with other components of the ecosystem. Effects of +1.7° and +3.4°C treatments on growth, reproduction, phenology, and gas exchange were evaluated along with treatment effects on light, water, and nutrient availability, potential drivers of herb responses. Overall, growth and gas exchanges of these two species were modestly affected by warming. They emerged up to 16 (E. macrophylla) to 17 d (M. canadense) earlier in the heated plots than in control plots, supporting early-season carbon gain under high light conditions before canopy closure. This additional carbon gain in spring likely supported reproduction. Eurybia macrophylla only flowered in the heated plots, and both species had some aspect of reproduction that was highest in the +1.7°C treatment. The reduced reproductive effort in the +3.4°C plots was likely due to reduced soil water availability, counteracting positive effects of warming. Global warming might improve fitness of herbaceous species in deciduous forests, mainly by advancing their spring emergence. However, other impacts of global warming such as drier soils in the summer might partly reduce the carbon gain associated with early emergence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Critical views on postpartum care expressed by new mothers

    PubMed Central

    Rudman, Ann; Waldenström, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    Background Women's evaluation of hospital postpartum care has consistently been more negative than their assessment of other types of maternity care. The need to further explore what is wrong with postpartum care, in order to stimulate changes and improvements, has been stressed. The principal aim of this study was to describe women's negative experiences of hospital postpartum care, expressed in their own words. Characteristics of the women who spontaneously gave negative comments about postpartum care were compared with those who did not. Methods Data were taken from a population-based prospective longitudinal study of 2783 Swedish-speaking women surveyed at three time points: in early pregnancy, at two months, and at one year postpartum. At the end of the two follow-up questionnaires, women were asked to add any comment they wished. Content analysis of their statements was performed. Results Altogether 150 women gave negative comments about postpartum care, and this sample was largely representative of the total population-based cohort. The women gave a diverse and detailed description of their experiences, for instance about lack of opportunity to rest and recover, difficulty in getting individualised information and breastfeeding support, and appropriate symptom management. The different statements were summarised in six categories: organisation and environment, staff attitudes and behaviour, breastfeeding support, information, the role of the father and attention to the mother. Conclusion The findings of this study underline the need to further discuss and specify the aims of postpartum care. The challenge of providing high-quality follow-up after childbirth is discussed in the light of a development characterised by a continuous reduction in the length of hospital stay, in combination with increasing public demands for information and individualised care. PMID:17983479

  18. Postpartum weight trajectories in overweight and lean women.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Annick; De Baetselier, Elyne; Ameye, Lieveke; Dilles, Tinne; Van Rompaey, Bart; Devlieger, Roland

    2017-06-01

    overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age are increasing and are often linked with excessive weight gain in pregnancy and weight retention after birth. Studies on spontaneous maternal weight trajectory after childbirth are scarce. we describe women's spontaneous weight trajectory during the first six weeks of the postpartum period and its relationship between Body Mass Index and socio-demographical, behavioural and psychological variables. data from 212 women who gave birth in three regional hospitals were collected prospectively between December 2015 and February 2016. Potential determinants were examined during pregnancy and the postpartum period at four and six weeks after childbirth. Descriptive statistics and a linear multivariate regression model were used. Early postnatal weight retention (PWR) was defined as the difference between the maternal weight six weeks after childbirth and the pre-pregnancy weight (kg). mean PWR at six weeks after childbirth was 3.3kg (SD 4.1), with a range between -7 and +16.2kg; 81% reported some weight retention (PWR>0kg), and 36% showed a high weight retention (PWR≥5kg). Women with a BMI <25kg/m 2 showed a significantly higher mean PWR six weeks after childbirth compared to women with a BMI ≥25kg/m 2 (4.0kg versus 1.6kg, p=0.002). There was a significant correlation between maternal weight retention and gestational weight gain (GWG) (B=0.65, p<0.001) and pre-pregnancy body mass index <25kg/m 2 (B=1.12, p=0.017), six weeks after childbirth. weight retention six weeks after childbirth is associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG, but contrary to expectations, lean women with excessive GWG tended to retain most weight after childbirth. No significant associations with several socio-demographical, behavioural and psychological variables were found. weight management strategies around pregnancy should not be limited to overweight and obese mothers. Women with pre-pregnancy BMI <25kg/m 2 require equal attention to

  19. The effects of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnancy and postpartum on growth and neurodevelopment in early childhood: Study Protocol for a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Kvestad, Ingrid; Shrestha, Merina; Ranjitkar, Suman; Basnet, Sudha; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Laxman; Strand, Tor A

    2017-08-29

    Vitamin B 12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. Pregnant mothers in resource poor settings are at risk for poor vitamin B 12 status. Poor vitamin B 12 status in infancy is linked to poor growth and neurodevelopment. Brain development starts from conception, and pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and development for the brain. The study is an individually randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial in 800 pregnant Nepalese women randomised in a 1:1 ratio. A daily dose of 50 µg of vitamin B 12 or placebo is given to women from early pregnancy, not later than week 15, until 6 months after birth. Weekly visits are conducted in order to record compliance, growth and morbidity. The primary outcomes are scores on the cognitive, language and motor subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, measured at 6 and 12 months of age, and growth (length and weight) measured at 6 and 12 months of age. National Health and Research Council, Nepal (NHRC 253/2016) and Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics of Western Norway (2016/1620/REK vest) have approved the study. Investigators who have contributed to the conceptualising, conducting, as well as being involved in the data analyses and manuscript writing will be eligible for authorship and be responsible to share outcomes with different stakeholders through publications and workshops. The results from this study may support new dietary guidelines for Nepalese and possibly South Asian pregnant women that can lead to improved pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment and cognitive functioning in children. Universal Trial Number: U1111-1183-4093. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03071666. Protocol date: version 1.2, 1 June 2017. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  20. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    RUPP, HEATHER A.; JAMES, THOMAS W.; KETTERSON, ELLEN D.; SENGELAUB, DALE R.; DITZEN, BEATE; HEIMAN, JULIA R.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman’s sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women’s neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli. PMID:23085496

  1. The Associations of Maternal Weight Change with Breastfeeding, Diet and Physical Activity During the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Neufeld, Lynnette M; García-Guerra, Armando; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To determine the association between breastfeeding practices, diet and physical activity and maternal postpartum weight. This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized community trial on beneficiaries of the Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades, recently renamed Prospera (n = 314 pregnant women), without any diseases that could affect body weight. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between postpartum weight change and changes in diet, physical activity and type of breastfeeding. The mean postpartum weight change from the first to the third month was 0.6 ± 2.2 kg. Women who breastfed exclusively for 3 months had a 4.1 (SE = 1.9) kg weight reduction in comparison with women who did not provide exclusive breastfeeding or who discontinued breastfeeding before 3 months (p = 0.04). There was no association between postpartum weight change and physical activity (p = 0.24) or energy intake (p = 0.06). Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with maternal postpartum weight reduction. These results reinforce the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in order to reduce the risk of weight retention or weight gain in postpartum women. It has been well established that exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for both infants and mothers, but promoting breastfeeding as a strategy to promote postpartum weight loss is of paramount importance, especially in countries like Mexico where excessive weight in women of reproductive age is a public health problem.

  2. Postpartum management of diabetes pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Nazli

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has assumed the role of an epidemic. Previously considered a disease of affluent developed countries, it has become more common in developing countries. Pakistan is included among the countries with a high prevalence of diabetes. In this scenario, postpartum management of a woman with diabetes mellitus becomes more important as in this period counseling and educating a woman is essential. Counselling includes life style modifications to prevent future risks involving all the systems of the body. This review article discusses management of diabetes mellitus in postpartum period, guidelines for postpartum screening of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, risks involved in future life and stresses upon the need of local population based studies. Primary care providers and gynaecologists must realize the importance of postpartum screening for diabetes mellitus and provide relevant information to women as well.

  3. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  4. Four Cases of Parkinson Disease Diagnosed During the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Maltête, David; Grangeon, Lou; Le Goff, Floriane; Ozel, Gulden; Fetter, Damien; Ahtoy, Patrick; Temgoua, Olivier; Rouillé, Audrey; Lefaucheur, Romain

    2017-07-01

    There is little experience with the effect of pregnancy on Parkinson disease because the number of women with Parkinson disease who are of childbearing age is small. We report four cases beginning during the postpartum period and discuss the potential contribution of different factors that may influence the occurrence of Parkinson disease in this time period. Four women aged 29-35 years developed arm tremor, shoulder pain, dizziness, or decreased dexterity of the hand in the first few days or months after childbirth. They were initially diagnosed with postpartum depression or psychogenic parkinsonism. Finally, dopamine transporter imaging confirmed the diagnosis of young-onset Parkinson disease. Early-onset Parkinson disease may present in postpartum women. In women with atypical motor symptoms in addition to depression, this diagnosis should be considered.

  5. Postpartum surveillance of bacteriuria in term vaginal deliveries.

    PubMed Central

    Orrett, F. A.; Premanand, N.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of bacteriuria in early postpartum period after term vaginal delivery in Trinidad, West Indies. Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurred in 58 (34.5%) of 168 patients tested. The prevalence of bacteriuria was significantly higher in non-catheterized patients than in catheterized patients and occurred more commonly in patients who were 20 to 29 years old and who were primigravida rather than multigravida. Forty-four patients had a history of urinary tract infection; 18 (40.9%) of these patients had positive urine cultures. Although 10 patients had a vaginal discharge in the late third trimester, none presented with postpartum bacteriuria. Because of the high prevalence of postpartum bacteriuria and the potential to progress to pyelonephritis and chronic renal disease, quantitative urine cultures for all postnatal patients and curative treatment for all positive cultures are recommend. PMID:9549982

  6. Postpartum psychiatric illness in Arab culture: prevalence and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Ghubash, R; Abou-Saleh, M T

    1997-07-01

    There have been numerous studies of the prevalence of postpartum depression and its putative risk factors in Western Europe and North America, but very few studies in developing countries including the Arab world. Ninety-five women admitted to the New Dubai Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for childbirth were studied. All subjects were assessed in the postpartum period using clinical and socio-cultural instruments: the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ) at day 2, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at day 7, and the Present State Examination (PSE) at week 8 +/- 2 and week 30 +/- 2 after delivery. The prevalence rate of psychiatric morbidity was 24.5% by the SRQ, 17.8% by the EPDS, and 15.8% by the PSE. A number of psychosocial factors emerged as putative risk factors for postpartum depression. The prevalence rates of postpartum psychiatric morbidity and its risk factors in this Arab culture are similar to the results obtained in numerous previous studies in industrialised countries. These findings have implications for the early detection and care of women at risk for postpartum depression.

  7. Active Ghrelin and the Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jessica H.; Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Brownley, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 10%–15% of women. The appetite hormone ghrelin, which fluctuates during pregnancy, is associated with depression in nonpregnant samples. Here, we examine the association between PPD and active ghrelin from pregnancy to postpartum. We additionally examine whether ghrelin changes from pregnancy to postpartum and differs between breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women. Methods Sixty women participated in a survey examining PPD and had information in regard to ghrelin concentrations were included in the study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of PPD. Raw ghrelin levels and ghrelin levels adjusted for creatinine were included as outcomes. Results Women screening positive for PPD at 12-weeks postpartum had higher pregnancy ghrelin concentrations. Ghrelin concentrations significantly decreased from pregnancy to 6-weeks postpartum and this change differed based on pregnancy depression status. Finally, ghrelin levels were lower in women who breastfed compared with women who were bottle-feeding. No significant findings remained once ghrelin levels were adjusted for creatinine. Conclusions Although results do not suggest an association between PPD and ghrelin after adjusting for creatinine, future research should continue to explore this possibility extending further across the postpartum period with larger sample sizes. PMID:26424410

  8. Implementation of a Hydrotherapy Protocol to Improve Postpartum Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Batten, Meghann; Stevenson, Eleanor; Zimmermann, Deb; Isaacs, Christine

    2017-03-01

    A growing number of women are seeking alternatives to traditional pharmacologic pain management during birth. While there has been an extensive array of nonpharmacologic options developed for labor, there are limited offerings in the postpartum period. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement a hydrotherapy protocol in the early postpartum period to improve pain management for women choosing a nonmedicated birth. The postpartum hydrotherapy protocol was initiated in a certified nurse-midwife (CNM) practice in an urban academic medical center. All women who met criteria were offered a 30-minute warm water immersion bath at one hour postpartum. Pain scores were assessed prior to the bath, at 15 minutes after onset, and again at the conclusion (30 minutes). Women who completed the bath were also asked to complete a brief survey on their experience with postpartum hydrotherapy. In women who used the bath (N = 45), there was a significant reduction in pain scores (P < .001) between the onset of the bath and scores at both 15 minutes and 30 minutes. There was no significant difference between pain scores at 15 minutes and 30 minutes (P = .97). Of those women who completed a survey (n = 43), 97.7% reported both that the bath reduced their pain and improved their birth experience. One hundred percent reported they would use it again in another birth. This project demonstrated successful implementation of a hydrotherapy protocol as an alternative or adjunct to medication for early postpartum pain management that significantly reduced pain and improved the birth experience for those who used it. It offers a nonpharmacologic alternative where there have traditionally been limited options. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Moes, Harmen; Engman, Jonas; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4–6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD. PMID:26061879

  10. Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing; Shu, Wei-qun

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy.

  11. Experimental Comparison of the Reproductive Outcomes and Early Development of the Offspring of Rats Given Five Common Types of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague–Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

  12. Does ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influence conception date in young postpartum range beef cows?

    Cows in negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of these studies was to determine the association of serum metabolites, days to first postpartum ovulation, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and calf ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Principles of Management.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabrina J; Fersh, Madeleine E; Ernst, Carrie; Klipstein, Kim; Albertini, Elizabeth Streicker; Lusskin, Shari I

    2016-02-01

    Pregnancy and postpartum represent times of increased vulnerability for women with bipolar disorder, yet this condition remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. As 50 % of pregnancies are unplanned, the risks associated with the illness and the potential risks associated with treatment should be considered when a woman of reproductive age first presents for evaluation. This article reviews the epidemiology of perinatal bipolar disorder, screening recommendations, and treatment with pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). An overview of the data in pregnancy and lactation is presented for lithium, lamotrigine, valproic acid, newer antipsychotics, and ECT. General principles of management include close monitoring in pregnancy and postpartum, careful adjustment of the treatment regimen to attenuate the risk of relapse, and avoidance of valproic acid when possible. Thoughtful consideration of these issues will minimize the risks to the mother and baby.

  14. Psychosocial risk and protective factors for postpartum depression in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Aisha; Tamim, Hani

    2011-04-01

    Limited research has been conducted in the United Arab Emirates in relation to postpartum depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk and protective factors of postpartum depression in women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. We carried out a prospective study in which we followed women from the second trimester of pregnancy until 4 months postpartum. Data were collected during the second and third trimesters and then at 2- and 4- months postpartum. The risk/protective factors that were investigated included: depression and anxiety during pregnancy, stressful life events, breastfeeding, employment status following delivery, religiosity, and socio-demographic variables. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (screening) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (diagnostic) were used as outcome variables. Using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (diagnostic), 10% of the 137 participants in the study were diagnosed with postpartum depression. The following variables were found to be predictive of postpartum depression: depression during pregnancy in both the second and third trimesters: number of children, religion, and use of formula for feeding. Several factors were of borderline significance including educational level of mother, lack of breastfeeding, personal stressful life events, and employment status following delivery. These risk factors are important as they indicate potential areas for early identification. Screening of pregnant women during pregnancy and in the postpartum phase would be important. This study forms the foundation for further research and development related to prevention and intervention for postpartum depression in this Arab context.

  15. Maternal expectations and postpartum emotional adjustment in first-time mothers: results of a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Erin J; Fried, Rachel; Teeters, Jenni Beth; Siskind, Emily E

    2014-09-01

    Several predictors of postpartum mood have been identified in the literature, but the role of maternal expectations in postpartum mental health remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether maternal expectations during the postpartum hospital stay predict adjustment and depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum. The sample included 233 first-time mothers recruited from the postpartum unit of a Midwestern hospital. Participants completed measures of maternal expectations and depressive symptoms (EPDS) at Time 1 (2 d postpartum) and completed EPDS and an Emotional Adjustment Scale (BaM-13) at Time 2 (6 weeks postpartum). A conditional relationship between the expectation that an infant's behavior will reflect maternal skill and Time 2 outcomes (BaM-13 and EPDS) was found, such that endorsing this belief predicted increased depression and poorer adjustment in those with higher (but not lower) Time 1 EPDS scores. Time 2 BaM-13 scores were also negatively predicted by expectations of self-sacrifice and positively predicted by expectations that parenthood would be naturally fulfilling. The expectations that new mothers hold about parenting soon after delivery are predictive of emotional adjustment in the early postpartum period, suggesting a role for discussion of expectations in future preventive strategies.

  16. Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Clements, A R; Ireland, F A; Freitas, T; Tucker, H; Shike, D W

    2017-12-01

    Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets including 10 g MHA supplied as MFP (Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO; = 6). Treatments were fed 23 ± 7 d prepartum through 73 ± 7 d postpartum. Cow BW was collected at postcalving (27 ± 7 d postpartum), end of supplementation (73 ± 7 d postpartum), AI, pregnancy check, and end of trial (192 and 193 ± 7 d postpartum). At 73 ± 7 d postpartum, a subset of cow-calf pairs was used in a weigh-suckle-weigh procedure to determine milk production, and milk samples were taken to determine milk composition ( = 45·treatment). Serum from blood was collected at 73 ± 7 and 83 ± 7 d postpartum to determine cow cyclicity and concentrations of 2-hydroxy4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBa) and L-Methionine. After supplementation, all cow-calf pairs were managed as a common group until weaning (193 ± 7 d of age). Cows were bred via AI at 97 ± 7 d postpartum and clean-up bulls were turned out 11 d post-AI for a 55-d breeding season. Cows fed MHA had greater ( < 0.01) serum concentrations of HMTBa. Cow BW and BCS were not different ( ≥ 0.10) at any time points between treatments. There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.17) on calf birth BW, calf weaning BW (193 ± 7 d of age), or calf ADG. Calculated 24-h milk production, milk composition and component production did not differ ( ≥ 0.21). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in percentage of cows cycling

  17. The effects of maternal folic acid and vitamin C nutrition in early pregnancy on reproductive performance in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Habibzadeh, N; Schorah, C J; Smithells, R W

    1986-01-01

    1. The effect of different intakes of folic acid (FA) and vitamin C on pregnancy in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea-pig was examined. Female guinea-pigs were subjected to three graded intakes of FA and vitamin C ('deficient', 'intermediate' similar to recommended daily intakes (RDI), and 'supplemented') during early gestation and up to the time of neural tube closure (17th day of gestation), and then returned to the RDI of these vitamins. 2. Plasma and blood cell concentrations of these vitamins were measured once before and at the end of the dietary treatments. Reproductive performance was assessed in terms of the number of resorbed and aborted embryos and weight and size of the live fetuses on the 36th day of gestation. 3. The short-term deficiency of either of these two vitamins, insufficient to affect maternal health, had a dramatic effect on the reproductive performance. 4. The RDI of FA was significantly less effective than the supplemented intake in preventing embryonic deaths. The RDI of vitamin C produced lighter and smaller live fetuses than the supplemented intake. 5. The implications of these findings with regard to vitamin status in early pregnancy in man are discussed.

  18. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life-history data are important for understanding the ecology of fishes. In 2008, we conducted captive propagation studies on 3 species of darters of the subgenus Nothonotus: Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter). The length of spawning period and associated range of water temperatures for the Wounded Darter exceeded that of the Spotted Darter and Boulder Darter. The mean number of eggs produced per female was lowest for Boulder Darter and highest in the Wounded Darter. The Boulder Darter had the highest percent of eggs hatched, the lowest percent larval to juvenile stage survivorship, and the lowest mean number of juveniles produced per female. Egg diameters at deposition and prior to hatch were smallest for the Spotted Darter. If reproductive biology and early lifehistory information from captive fishes represent that of wild populations, then the data obtained during this study are relevant to development and implementation of conservation and management plans for these closely related darter species.

  19. Effects of pre-reproductive maternal enrichment on maternal care, offspring's play behavior and oxytocinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Berretta, Erica; Caporali, Paola; Sampedro-Piquero, Patricia; De Bartolo, Paola; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Gelfo, Francesca; Pesoli, Matteo; Foti, Francesca; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2018-02-17

    Potentiating social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations the Environmental Enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity experienced by individuals. Growing evidence demonstrates that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects behavioral and neural developmental trajectories of the offspring. To discover how the accumulation of early maternal complex experiences may inform and shape the social behavior of the following generation, we examined the effects of pre-reproductive enrichment of dams (post-natal days 21-72) on the play performances of their male and female adolescent offspring. Furthermore, we examined the effects of pre-reproductive enrichment on maternal behavior (during post-partum days 1-10) and male intruder aggression (on post-partum day 11). Since oxytocin modulates maternal care, social bonding, and agonistic behavior, the number of oxytocinergic neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei was examined in both dams and offspring. Results revealed that enriched females exhibited higher levels of pup-oriented behaviors, especially Crouching, and initiated pup-retrieval more quickly than standard females after the maternal aggression test. Such behavioral peculiarities were accompanied by increased levels of oxytocinergic neurons in PVN and SON. Moreover, pre-reproductive maternal EE cross-generationally influenced the offspring according to sex. Indeed, male pups born to enriched females exhibited a reduced play fighting associated with a higher number of oxytocinergic neurons in SON in comparison to male pups born to standard-housed females. In conclusion, pre-reproductive EE to the mothers affects their maternal care and has a cross-generational impact on the social behavior of their offspring that do not directly experiences EE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  1. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blues: Partners Interview with Wade Bowen Coping with Suicide & Loss Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners Pregnancy and postpartum mood and anxiety disorders affect the whole family. Here are some tips ...

  2. Modifiable factors associated with changes in postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Mora, Pablo A; DiBonaventura, Marco D; Leventhal, Howard

    2009-04-01

    Up to 50% of mothers report postpartum depressive symptoms yet providers do a poor job predicting and preventing their occurrence. Our goal was to identify modifiable factors (situational triggers and buffers) associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. Observational prospective cohort telephone study of 563 mothers interviewed at 2 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Mothers reported on demographic factors, physical and emotional symptoms, daily function, infant behaviors, social support, and skills in managing infant and household. Mothers were categorized into four groups based on the presence of depressive symptoms at 2 weeks and at 6 months postpartum: never, always, late onset, and remission groups. Fifty-two percent did not have depressive symptoms at 2 weeks or at 6 months (never group), 14% had symptoms at both time points (always group), 10% had late onset, and 24% had early onset of symptoms with remission. As compared with women in the never group, women in the always and late onset groups had high-risk characteristics (e.g., past history of depression), more situational triggers (e.g., physical symptoms), and less robust social and personal buffers (i.e., social support and self-efficacy). As compared with the never group, mothers in the remission group had more situational triggers and fewer buffers initially. Changes in situational triggers and buffers were different for the four groups and were correlated with group membership. Situational triggers such as physical symptoms and infant colic, and low levels of social support and self-efficacy in managing situational demands are associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. Further research is needed to investigate whether providing education about the physical consequences of childbirth, providing social support, and teaching skills to enhance self-efficacy will reduce the incidence of postpartum symptoms of depression.

  3. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vafai, Yassaman; Steinberg, Julia R; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2016-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (p<0.0001) for externalizing behaviors and 10.5% (p<0.01) for internalizing behaviors; the only significant predictor of externalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effective size of subpopulations in early-run sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Azabach'e Lake (Kamchatka): the effect of relative reproductive success of different-year cohorts].

    PubMed

    Efremov, V V

    2004-05-01

    The effect of variation in reproductive success of cohorts of different year of birth (within generation) on the effective subpopulation (breeding group) size in early-run sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Azabach'e Lake (Kamchatka). The annual variation in census size and overlapping of year classes reduced the ratio of the effective subpopulation size to the census size by 7 to 88% in different subpopulations. The total effect of the variance of reproductive success in individual years and the variance of reproductive success of different cohorts reduced the effective size/census size ratio by 68-96%.

  5. Breast-feeding and postpartum ovulation.

    PubMed

    Howie, P W; Mcneilly, A S

    1982-04-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding on postpartum ovulation. In developing countries breastfeeding prevents more pregnancies than all the other methods of contraception. In a detailed Edinburgh longitudinal study of 27 breastfeeding and 10 bottlefeeding mothers, the return of ovarian follicular development and ovulation was determined by several estimations of total urinary estrogen and pregnanedial excretion, respectively. In the bottlefeeding mothers the patterns of events after delivery was consistent. Basal prolactin levels fell to non-pregnant levels within 2-3 weeks postpartum. By 15 weeks all bottlefeeding mothers had resumed ovulation and menstruation. By contrast, all breastfeeding mothers who breastfed for a mean of 40 weeks maintained elevated basal prolactin levels for longer than the bottlefeeders. The mean time to 1st ovulation was 36 weeks with a range between 15-66 weeks postpartum. The infant feeding patterns showed striking differences between these mothers (33% of the whole group) who suppressed ovulation for more than 40 weeks postpartum and the rest of the mothers (67%) who ovulated before that time. The mothers who suppressed ovulation for more than 40 weeks not only maintained breastfeeding for the greatest number of weeks, but also suckled more frequently, breastfed for a longer total time each day, and maintained 1 or more night feeds for a longer time. After supplementary food was given there was a rapid increase in the number of mothers with evidence of ovarian activity and within 16 weeks of starting, 71% had evidence of follicular activity and 52% had ovulated. Mothers who introduce weaning food abruptly and reduce sucking rapidly will be more likely to experience an early return of ovulation and potential fertility. The mechanism of lactational infertility is not clearly understood. 45% of the completed menstrual cycles during lactation were anovular and of the 55% which were ovular, many were

  6. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jennifer L; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L; Lissner, Lauren; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2008-12-01

    Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding duration is long. We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). GWG was positively (P < 0.0001) associated with PPWR at both 6 and 18 mo postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those in the heaviest category of prepregnancy BMI at 6 (P < 0.0001) and 18 (P < 0.05) mo postpartum. When modeled together with adjustment for possible confounding, these associations were marginally attenuated. We calculated that, if women exclusively breastfed for 6 mo as recommended, PPWR could be eliminated by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, breastfeeding as recommended could eliminate weight retention by 6 mo postpartum in many women.

  7. Counseling postpartum women about contraception.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K

    1992-10-01

    Only 5 studies have examines resumption of intercourse after childbirth and coital frequency. These studies conducted in Chile, England, the Philippines, Scotland, and Thailand found that 4 to almost 8 weeks is the average duration between childbirth and resumption of intercourse. Yet, they also showed sizable variation in this duration. In Thailand, the first postpartum intercourse occurred between 3 and 21 weeks. Further, during this study, one mother had not yet resumed intercourse. A study in metropolitan Cebu, in the Philippines, included 3080 women. The mean intercourse resumption interval was 4-6 weeks, yet at 2 years 80 women still had not had postpartum intercourse. This study found 10 factors predicting resumption of intercourse: husband present, not breast feeding, resumption of menstruation, young age, some education, children younger than 7 years old, uncrowded home, nuclear family, urba residence, and trained health worker delivering baby. Mean coital frequency among the Thai women was once per week, but this does not indicate typical frequency. In fact, one woman averaged intercourse 3 times/week, while another had her first postpartum intercourse 6 weeks after delivery and not gain until 8 weeks later. Family planning counselors can use coital frequency studies to guide them when advising postpartum women. For example, a women who does not have intercourse frequently and is at 6-12 months postpartum could use the lactational amenorrhea method and condoms. More frequent intercourse and resumption of menstruation requires a more reliable family planning method. A 1988 study found that for the first 6 months postpartum women who breast feed have a lower coital frequency, longer delay before intercourse resumption, reduced sexual interest and enjoyment, more pain during intercourse, and are somewhat more depressed than those who bottle feed.

  8. The socio-political context of migration and reproductive health disparities: The case of early sexual initiation among Mexican-origin immigrant young women

    PubMed Central

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative “traditional Latino culture.” This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes. I integrate data from qualitative interviews with 21 first and second generation Mexican-origin women in 2013–2014 with data from discrete time hazard models with 798 Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Qualitative results demonstrate that gender inequality and sexual expectations in Mexican-origin immigrant households are associated with structural factors. Gender inequality occurs more often in households with family instability, greater poverty, and among parents who migrated independently. Qualitative data also demonstrate that parental gendered expectations are sometimes at odds to what parents are actually doing in the household. Finally, contrary to assumptions that a patriarchal “traditional Latino culture” protects against early sexual initiation, qualitative and multivariate quantitative data suggest that household gender inequality increases risk of early sexual initiation. These findings challenge the utility of a culturalist approach that views culture as determining behavior to explain health disparities among immigrants and demonstrate the need to incorporate an intersectional framework that includes structural factors. This approach may reduce stereotypes and identify meaningful interventions to reduce reproductive health disparities. PMID:28324794

  9. Timing and Variability of Postpartum Sleep in Relation to Daytime Performance

    PubMed Central

    McBean, Amanda L.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum women have highly disturbed sleep, also known as sleep fragmentation. Fragmentation extends their total sleep period, also disrupting sleep timing. A stable and earlier sleep period among non-postpartum populations are related to better performance, physical health, and mental health. However, sleep timing has not been examined among postpartum women who are also vulnerable to daytime impairment. The study objective was to examine how the timing and regularity of sleep during the early postpartum period are related to daytime functioning across postpartum weeks 2-13. In this field-based study, 71 primiparous women wore an actigraph, a small wrist-worn device that monitors sleep and sleep timing, for the 12-week study period. Mothers self-administered a 5-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) each morning to evaluate the number of >500ms response lapses. They also completed a Morningness-Eveningness scale at the beginning of the study to identify chronotype. After controlling for maternal age, earlier sleep timing was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 9,12; a more stable sleep midpoint was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 2,5-13. Earlier sleep midpoints were related to more stable sleep midpoints at postpartum week 2 and a morning-type chronotype. An earlier sleep midpoint was also associated with a reduced slope of worsening PVT lapses across weeks. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, women with earlier or more stable sleep periods had less daytime impairment than women with later or more variable sleep midpoints. Postpartum women with earlier sleep midpoints also showed less severe decrements in performance across time, which has been attributed to cumulative impacts of sleep disturbance. These data suggest the sleep period, in addition to sleep duration and fragmentation, should be more closely examined, particularly among vulnerable women, as it may affect the neurobehavioral

  10. Postpartum depressive symptoms and the combined load of paid and unpaid work: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E; Lundberg, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effects of total workload and other work-related factors on postpartum depression in the first 6 months after childbirth, utilizing a hybrid model of health and workforce participation. We utilized data from the Maternal Postpartum Health Study collected in 2001 from a prospective cohort of 817 employed women who delivered in three community hospitals in Minnesota. Interviewers collected data at enrollment and 5 weeks, 11 weeks, and 6 months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale measured postpartum depression. Independent variables included total workload (paid and unpaid work), job flexibility, supervisor and coworker support, available social support, job satisfaction, infant sleep problems, infant irritable temperament, and breastfeeding. Total average daily workload increased from 14.4 h (6.8 h of paid work; 7.1% working at 5 weeks postpartum) to 15.0 h (7.9 h of paid work; 87% working at 6 months postpartum) over the 6 months. Fixed effects regression analyses showed worse depression scores were associated with higher total workload, lower job flexibility, lower social support, an infant with sleep problems, and breastfeeding. Working mothers of reproductive years may find the study results valuable as they consider merging their work and parenting roles after childbirth. Future studies should examine the specific mechanisms through which total workload affects postpartum depressive symptoms.

  11. Determinants of postpartum weight variation in a cohort of adult women; a hierarchical approach.

    PubMed

    Monteiro da Silva, Maria da Conceição; Marlúcia Oliveira, Ana; Pereira Magalhães de Oliveira, Lucivalda; Silva dos Santos Fonseca, Dra Nedja; Portela de Santana, Mônica Leila; de Araújo Góes Neto, Edgar; Rodrigues Porto da Cruz, Thomaz

    2013-01-01

    Retention of the weight gained during pregnancy or the weight gain postpartum has been associated with increased prevalence of obesity in women of childbearing age. To identify determinants of weight variation at 24 months postpartum in women from 2 towns in Bahia, Brazil. Dynamic cohort data of 325 adult women were collected for 24 months postpartum. Weight variation at 24 months postpartum was considered a response variable. Socioeconomic, demographic, reproductive, related with childbirth variables and lifestyle conditions were considered exposure variables. A linear mixed-effects regression model with a hierarchical approach was used for data analysis. Suitable sanitary conditions in the household (2.175 kg; p = 0.001) and participation social programs for income transfer (1.300 kg; p = 0.018) contributed to weight gain in distal level of determinants, while at intermediate level, pre gestational overweight and surgical delivery had effects on postpartum weight, causing an average increase of 3.380 kg (p < 0.001) and loss of 2.451 kg (p < 0.001), respectively. At proximal level, a score point increase for breastfeeding yielded an average postpartum loss of 70 g (p = 0.002). Our results indicate the need to promote weight control during and after pregnancy, encourage extended breastfeeding, and improve living conditions through intersectoral interventions. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. What works to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gay, Jill; Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Hall, Carolina

    2011-11-18

    It is critical to include a sexual and reproductive health lens in HIV programming as most HIV transmission occurs through sexual intercourse. As global attention is focusing on the sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV, identifying which interventions work becomes vitally important. What evidence exists to support sexual and reproductive health programming related to HIV programmes?This article reviews the evidence of what works to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV in developing countries and includes 35 studies and evaluations of eight general interventions using various methods of implementation science from 15 countries. Data are primarily from 2000-2009. Searches to identify effective evaluations used SCOPUS, Popline, Medline, websites and consultations with experts. Evidence was ranked using the Gray Scale.A range of successful and promising interventions to improve the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women living with HIV include: providing contraceptives and family planning counselling as part of HIV services; ensuring early postpartum visits providing family planning and HIV information and services; providing youth-friendly services; supporting information and skills building; supporting disclosure; providing cervical cancer screening; and promoting condom use for dual protection against pregnancy and HIV. Provision of antiretrovirals can also increase protective behaviours, including condom use.While many gaps in programming and research remain, much can be done now to operationalize evidence-based effective interventions to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV.

  13. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  14. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  15. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Orally Administered Botanical Composition, UP446-Part III: Effects on Fertility and Early Embryonic Development to Implantation in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jia, Qi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, high prevalence of adverse effects associated to the use of traditional medicines during pregnancy is becoming alarming due to the self-medication of oral supplements by expecting mothers without supervision. Many expectant mothers use alternative and complementary medicines as a supplement to conventional pregnancy management with an inherent belief of considering herbal remedies as harmless. To the contrary, herbal remedies could incur a potential teratogenic risk both to the child bearing mother and the developing fetuses when consumed before or at the time of gestation. Here, we describe the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, on fertility and early embryonic development to implantation in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. Besides body weight and food consumption, reproductive functions, sperm motility and morphology, estrus cycle, and fertility rate were monitored. There were no statistically significant differences in reproductive function in all UP446 treated groups in both genders. Test substance impacts on reproductive parameters were very minimal. Neither sperm motility nor morphology was affected as a result of oral UP446 administrations in males. There were no treatment-related effects on estrus cycle stages in females. No significant changes in necropsy or histopathology were observed for all the groups. Therefore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 1000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, in both genders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Pérez-Dïaz, Ricardo; Pérez-Castro, Ramón; Tapia, Jaime; Casaretto, José A; González, Sebastián; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2012-07-23

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for reproductive development.

  17. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  18. Application of syndromic surveillance on routinely collected cattle reproduction and milk production data for the early detection of outbreaks of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Anouk; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine; Welby, Sarah; Wever, Paul; van Schaik, Gerdien

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of routinely collected reproductive and milk production data for the early detection of emerging vector-borne diseases in cattle in the Netherlands and the Flanders region of Belgium (i.e., the northern part of Belgium). Prospective space-time cluster analyses on residuals from a model on milk production were carried out to detect clusters of reduced milk yield. A CUSUM algorithm was used to detect temporal aberrations in model residuals of reproductive performance models on two indicators of gestation length. The Bluetongue serotype-8 (BTV-8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 and the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic of 2011 were used as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity and timeliness of these methods. The methods investigated in this study did not result in a more timely detection of BTV-8 and SBV in the Netherlands and BTV-8 in Belgium given the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. This could be due to (i) the large geographical units used in the analyses (country, region and province level), and (ii) the high level of sensitivity of the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. Nevertheless, it might be worthwhile to use a syndromic surveillance system based on non-specific animal health data in real-time alongside regular surveillance, to increase the sense of urgency and to provide valuable quantitative information for decision makers in the initial phase of an emerging disease outbreak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early stress, parental motivation, and reproductive decision-making: applications of life history theory to parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Ellis, Bruce J

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions. We review evidence to suggest that parental behavior (1) is strategic and contingent on environmental opportunities and constraints and (2) influences child life history strategies across behavioral, cognitive, and physiological domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryo-survival, fertilization and early embryonic development of vitrified oocytes derived from mice of different reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Suzuki, Joao; Yu, Xiaomin; Kan, Frederick W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of female reproductive age on oocyte cryo-survival, fertilization and the subsequent embryonic development following vitrification using the mouse model in order to address the question of how maternal reproductive age is related to fertility preservation. Methods Oocytes were collected from mice of different reproductive age: (1) 8–10 weeks, (2) 16–20 weeks, (3) 32–36 weeks, and (4) 44–48 weeks. Following vitrification and warming, the oocytes in each group were assessed for cryo-survival, fertilization and embryonic development as well as for the quality of blastocysts. Fresh oocytes without undergoing vitrification were used in each age group as controls. Results The mean number of oocytes retrieved following superovulation was found to reduce significantly (P < 0.05) in mice from 32–36 weeks of age (18.1 ± 8.5) compared with 8–10 weeks of age (26.8 ± 9.8) and 16–20 weeks of age (23.9 ± 4.2) respectively. The cryo-survival rate of oocytes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in mice of 44–48 weeks of age (90.4% ± 7.9) compared with the other 3 groups (98.8% ± 2.1, 98.0% ± 3.3 and 98.5% ± 2.2, respectively). The cleavage rate of vitrified oocytes declined significantly following the increase in maternal age in mice of 32–36 weeks of age (69.7% ± 20.8) forward (63.6% ± 9.2). However, no significant difference in the cleavage rate was found among the control groups of different maternal ages. The rate of embryo development to the blastocyst stage in the vitrified oocytes also significantly declined following the increase in maternal age (71.8% ± 8.8, 66.4% ± 10.7, 64.2% ± 17.4 and 4.1% ± 8.3 respectively). There were no such differences in the rates of embryo development to the blastocyst stage among the control groups following the increase in maternal age (75.9% ± 12.2, 79.5% ± 28.9, 70.2% ± 17.4 and 69.3% ± 19

  1. Efficacy of Warm Showers on Postpartum Fatigue Among Vaginal-Birth Taiwanese Women: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hsing; Chen, Chien-Lan; Chung, Feng-Fang; Lin, Su-Ying

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum fatigue is one of the most common complaints among women following childbirth. As a postpartum ritual practice, Taiwanese women refrain from taking showers while "doing the month." However, warm showers are the systemic application of moist heat, and they maintain physical hygiene, stimulate blood circulation, mitigate discomfort, and provide relaxation. As Taiwanese society becomes increasingly receptive to scientific and contemporary health care practice, more and more women choose to take warm showers after childbirth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of warm showers on postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women in Taiwan. This was a two-group quasi-experimental design. Women took showers in warm water with temperatures ranging between 40 °C and 43 °C for approximately 20 minutes. Postpartum women's fatigue is measured using the 10-item Postpartum Fatigue Scale (PFS). The intervention effect was analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. The study population consisted of 358 vaginal-birth postpartum Taiwanese women aged 20-43 years. Postpartum women who took warm showers showed improvements from their pretest to posttest mean scores of postpartum fatigue compared to postpartum women who did not take warm showers. Warm showers helped to reduce postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women during the study period. Nurses have the unique opportunity to provide the intervention to Taiwanese women who have vaginal birth to help them relieve postpartum fatigue with warm showers while "doing the month" without the taboo of no-showering customary practices in the early postpartum period.

  2. Postpartum adolescents' contraceptive counselling preferences.

    PubMed

    Sober, Stephanie; Shea, Judy A; Shaber, Allison G; Whittaker, Paul G; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-04-01

    The optimal approach for provision and timing of postpartum contraceptive counselling for adolescents has not been established. To reduce repeat pregnancies from current USA levels of nearly 20%, a better understanding is needed of postpartum adolescent females' preferences regarding contraceptive counselling and delivery. Semi-structured interviews with 30 USA postpartum teens (97% Black) explored pregnancy prevention and contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were independently coded by two researchers and inter-rater reliability calculated using Kappa coefficients. With a standard content analysis approach, common themes were identified, coded and summarized. Findings indicated pregnancy prevention was important - two thirds of subjects reported becoming pregnant 'too soon', almost all did not desire another child for at least 6 years and most indicated that pregnancy prevention was either 'very' or 'extremely' important right now. The subjects described doctors and their prenatal clinic as their most accurate sources of contraception information, but stated that doctors and parents were the most helpful sources. All were comfortable discussing contraception with providers and had a desire for shared decision making. While many had received written materials, most preferred in-person contraceptive counselling. Optimally, participants suggested that contraceptive counselling would be provided by a physician, begin antepartum and almost all preferred to leave the hospital with their chosen method of contraception. Pregnancy prevention is important for postpartum adolescents as most desired to delay future childbearing. In-person contraceptive counselling should begin in the antepartum period and include provision of contraception prior to discharge.

  3. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  4. Postpartum Adjustment in Primiparous Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. Kathleen; Rickel, Annette U.

    Within the framework of the social stress and behavioral theories of depression, this study investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. Seventy-eight primiparous married couples (N=156, 78 men and 78 women) volunteered to…

  5. Predictors of Postpartum Relapse to Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Laura J.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2007-01-01

    Postpartum relapse is common among women who stop smoking during pregnancy. We examined predictors of postpartum relapse in 87 women who quit smoking during pregnancy, 48% of whom relapsed by six months postpartum. We also explored the circumstances surrounding their first postpartum cigarette. Multivariate analyses revealed that having more friends/family members who smoke, smoking more heavily pre-pregnancy, and having higher depression scores and less concern about weight at the end of pregnancy were associated with increased risk of relapse postpartum. Most women’s first postpartum cigarettes were unplanned, in the presence of another smoker, and while experiencing negative affect. The findings suggest targets for interventions to reduce postpartum relapse. PMID:17475418

  6. Effects of spray-dried Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A (Zequanox®) on reproduction and early development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The biopesticide, Zequanox®, is registered for dreissenid mussel control in open water systems. Previous toxicity trials with nontarget organisms, including young-of-the year of several fish species and invertebrates, demonstrated selectivity of Zequanox for dreissenids. However, data are lacking on its safety to reproductive and early life stages of fish. The present study evaluated the effects of Zequanox on spawning and early life stages of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, at the maximum approved concentration (100 mg Zequanox active ingredient /L) and exposure duration (8 h) for open water application. The results showed no significant effect of Zequanox on survival, condition, or cumulative egg deposition (21 d) in adult fathead minnow. Eggs (<24-h old) exposed to Zequanox developed to the eyed-stage at a similar rate to that of unexposed eggs. Additionally, Zequanox did not have a significant effect on survival and growth (90 d) of newly hatched fry (<24-h old). The results indicate that Zequanox treatment will not affect survival, spawning, and early life development of fathead minnows when applied at the recommended treatment regime.

  7. Prepartum supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) increased milk energy output and decreased serum fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rafael Caputo; Pralle, Ryan S.; de Resende, Lucas C.; Nova, Carlos Henrique P. C.; Caprarulo, Valentina; Jendza, Joshua A.; Troescher, Arnulf

    2018-01-01

    Prepartum supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may influence lipolysis and hyperketonemia in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prepartum CLA supplementation on lactation performance and serum fatty acids (FA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in early lactation dairy cows, and secondarily on reproductive performance. Multiparous cows were enrolled in the study at 18 days prior to expected calving date, and randomly assigned 100 g/day of Lutrell Pure (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 75% FA), providing 10 g/day of each CLA isomer (trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 CLA) or equivalent amount of rumen inert fatty acids as control (78 g/day of Energy Booster 100; Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN). Treatments were top dressed daily to individual cows from enrollment to calving and all cows were offered the same ration. Blood samples were collected on the first day of supplementation, 10 days prepartum, and 1, 7, 14, and 30 days postpartum. Hyperketonemia was defined as serum BHB ≥ 1.2 mM. Milk yield was recorded daily until 60 days postpartum and averaged weekly. Milk samples were obtained weekly for component analysis. Prepartum CLA supplementation tended to increase serum concentration of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and increased trans-10, cis-12 CLA prepartum. Cows supplemented with CLA had increased milk protein yield and tended to have increased milk fat yield and milk yield, which together resulted in greater energy content of milk. Cows supplemented with CLA had lower serum FA on day 1 and 7 postpartum and overall lower serum BHB postpartum, which resulted in decreased prevalence of hyperketonemia on day 14 postpartum. There were no differences in body condition score change, other health disorders, or reproductive outcomes by treatment. Together, these findings indicate that prepartum CLA supplementation may be a plausible strategy to positively influence postpartum performance. PMID:29772023

  8. Severe postpartum hemorrhage from uterine atony: a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Montufar-Rueda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Laritza; Jarquin, José Douglas; Barboza, Alejandra; Bustillo, Maura Carolina; Marin, Flor; Ortiz, Guillermo; Estrada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is an important cause of maternal mortality (MM) around the world. Seventy percent of the PPH corresponds to uterine atony. The objective of our study was to evaluate multicenter PPH cases during a 10-month period, and evaluate severe postpartum hemorrhage management. The study population is a cohort of vaginal delivery and cesarean section patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. The study was designed as a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and multicenter study, during 10 months in 13 teaching hospitals. Total live births during the study period were 124,019 with 218 patients (0.17%) with severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPHH). Total maternal deaths were 8, for mortality rate of 3.6% and a MM rate of 6.45/100,000 live births (LB). Maternal deaths were associated with inadequate transfusion therapy. In all patients with severe hemorrhage and subsequent hypovolemic shock, the most important therapy is intravascular volume resuscitation, to reduce the possibility of target organ damage and death. Similarly, the current proposals of transfusion therapy in severe or massive hemorrhage point to early transfusion of blood products and use of fresh frozen plasma, in addition to packed red blood cells, to prevent maternal deaths.

  9. Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage from Uterine Atony: A Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Montufar-Rueda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Laritza; Jarquin, José Douglas; Barboza, Alejandra; Bustillo, Maura Carolina; Marin, Flor; Ortiz, Guillermo; Estrada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is an important cause of maternal mortality (MM) around the world. Seventy percent of the PPH corresponds to uterine atony. The objective of our study was to evaluate multicenter PPH cases during a 10-month period, and evaluate severe postpartum hemorrhage management. Study Design. The study population is a cohort of vaginal delivery and cesarean section patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. The study was designed as a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and multicenter study, during 10 months in 13 teaching hospitals. Results. Total live births during the study period were 124,019 with 218 patients (0.17%) with severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPHH). Total maternal deaths were 8, for mortality rate of 3.6% and a MM rate of 6.45/100,000 live births (LB). Maternal deaths were associated with inadequate transfusion therapy. Conclusions. In all patients with severe hemorrhage and subsequent hypovolemic shock, the most important therapy is intravascular volume resuscitation, to reduce the possibility of target organ damage and death. Similarly, the current proposals of transfusion therapy in severe or massive hemorrhage point to early transfusion of blood products and use of fresh frozen plasma, in addition to packed red blood cells, to prevent maternal deaths. PMID:24363935

  10. Antenatal diet and postpartum depressive symptoms: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Rivkah; Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; Bailey, Cate

    2018-03-22

    Postnatal depression is a critical public health concern, and gaining a better understanding of possible causes is paramount. Recently, diet quality during pregnancy has emerged as a possible preventative measure in ameliorating postnatal depression, however the evidence-base exploring this association is immature. The aim of this study was to examine the association between consumption of food groups characteristic of a quality diet during pregnancy (that is fruit, vegetable and fish intake) and postnatal depressive symptoms at 12 months postpartum. Pregnant women were recruited at 10-18 weeks gestation via advertising on online pregnancy forums, pregnancy and parenting magazines, and two Australian maternity clinics. Participants (n = 253) completed self-report questionnaires assessing fruit, vegetable and fish intake as well as depressive symptoms at early- to mid- pregnancy. Path analyses were conducted to examine whether fruit, vegetable and fish intake during pregnancy were associated with depressive symptom scores at 12 months postpartum. There were no associations between fruit, vegetable or fish intake in pregnancy and postnatal depressive symptoms. Antenatal diet quality as measured by intake of food groups associated with a healthy diet was not associated with postpartum depressive symptoms at 12 months postpartum. Future research should consider the exploration of dietary quality as a measure of overall adherence to evidence-based dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are menopausal hot flashes an evolutionary byproduct of postpartum warming?

    PubMed

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Masley, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Hot flashes are commonly associated with menopause, and some researchers have questioned whether the widespread phenomenon may somehow be adaptive. It has been hypothesized that hot flashes were selected to occur during the hypoestrogenic postpartum period as a mechanism to warm infants. The purpose of this study was to test whether postpartum hot flashes are similar to hot flashes associated with menopause and whether postpartum hot flashes are concordant with breast-feeding episodes. Women who gave birth within the past year (n = 20) and a comparison group of women who had not given birth in the past 2 years (n = 14) participated in interviews and anthropometric measures. All wore ambulatory skin conductance monitors for a mean of 6.5 hours during afternoons and early evenings. New mothers also recorded breast-feeding episodes. Objectively measured and subjectively reported hot flashes were compared between groups and in relation to breast-feeding and other variables. Age of infants ranged from 4 days to 11 months. New mothers were more likely to report feeling warmer than the comparison group (100% vs 7%) but were not significantly more likely to demonstrate hot flashes (35% vs 50%) or to report hot flashes (30% vs 21%) during the study period. Of 75 breast-feeding episodes, only 4% were concurrent with an objective hot flash, and only 9% were concurrent with a subjective hot flash. This study does not support the hypothesis that menopausal-like hot flashes evolved to warm infants during the postpartum period.

  12. Effect of postpartum suppression of ovulation on uterine involution in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heppelmann, M; Brömmling, A; Weinert, M; Piechotta, M; Wrenzycki, C; Bollwein, H

    2013-09-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of time of first postpartum ovulation after calving on uterine involution in dairy cows with and without uterine puerperal disease. Transvaginal follicular puncture (FP) of follicles >6 mm suppressed ovulation and development of a CL until Day 42 after calving. Fifty-three lactating Holstein Friesian cows (3.4 ± 1.2 years old, parity 2.5 ± 1.0 [median ± mean absolute deviation]) were divided into groups on the basis of the presence (UD+) or absence (UD-) of uterine disease and whether FP was carried out (FP+) or not (FP-). Uterine disease was defined as the occurrence of retained fetal membranes and/or metritis. This resulted in the following groups: UD-FP- (n = 15), UD-FP+ (n = 13), UD+FP- (n = 13), and UD+FP+ (n = 12). A general examination, vaginoscopy, transrectal palpation, and transrectal B-mode sonography of the reproductive organs were conducted on Days 8, 11, 18, and 25 and then every 10 days until Day 65 after calving. After hormonal synchronization of ovulation (cloprostenol between Days 55 and 60 postpartum and GnRH 2 days later), cows were inseminated in the next spontaneous estrus. On average, the cows ovulated on Day 21.0 ± 6.0 (UD-FP-), 50.0 ± 4.0 (UD-FP+), 16.0 ± 3.0 (UD+FP-), and 48.0 ± 2.0 (UD+FP+) postpartum. Calving-to-conception interval and first-service conception rates were not affected by FP (P > 0.05). Healthy cows with FP had smaller (P < 0.05) uterine horn and cervical diameters assessed sonographically than cows without FP. FP reduced the prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge and uterine size assessed transrectally in UD+ cows (P < 0.05). The results showed that suppression of an early ovulation by transvaginal FP improved uterine involution in cows with and without uterine disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  14. Pumping human milk in the early postpartum period: its impact on long-term practices for feeding at the breast and exclusively feeding human milk in a longitudinal survey cohort1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most American mothers who feed human milk (HM) now use pumps to produce some of the HM they feed. Pumping is nationally recommended, but associations between pumping and HM-feeding durations are unknown. Objectives: We examined whether and how the pumping frequency and types of reasons for pumping between 1.5 and 4.5 mo postpartum are associated with HM-feeding durations. We classified pumping reasons as nonelective [e.g., because of a difficulty feeding at the breast (FAB)] or elective (e.g., to produce HM to mix with solids). We hypothesized that women who pumped more frequently or nonelectively would have shorter HM-feeding durations. Design: We used data from 1116 mothers in a longitudinal cohort who fed and pumped HM 1.5–4.5 mo postpartum. We used χ2 and Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine the survival of any HM feeding, exclusive HM feeding, and FAB. Results: Compared with mothers who pumped for elective reasons, mothers who reported one nonelective reason had greater hazards of stopping feeding any HM (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.21) or exclusive HM (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.20) and of stopping FAB (HR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.77, 2.42). Mothers who pumped most frequently had the highest mean hazards of stopping feeding any HM (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.68, 1.93) and feeding exclusive HM (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.26). Hazards of stopping FAB varied across the year. Compared with the least-frequent pumpers, the most-frequent pumpers had a 2.6-fold higher hazard of stopping FAB at 3 mo postpartum and a 1.7-fold higher hazard at 6 mo postpartum. Conclusions: Nonelective pumping reasons and higher pumping frequency were associated with shorter HM-feeding durations. Mothers who report that they use a breast pump for reasons related to either employment or FAB difficulty and their infants may be more vulnerable to risks associated with a shorter HM-feeding duration. PMID:27009751

  15. Pumping human milk in the early postpartum period: its impact on long-term practices for feeding at the breast and exclusively feeding human milk in a longitudinal survey cohort.

    PubMed

    Felice, Julia P; Cassano, Patricia A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2016-05-01

    Most American mothers who feed human milk (HM) now use pumps to produce some of the HM they feed. Pumping is nationally recommended, but associations between pumping and HM-feeding durations are unknown. We examined whether and how the pumping frequency and types of reasons for pumping between 1.5 and 4.5 mo postpartum are associated with HM-feeding durations. We classified pumping reasons as nonelective [e.g., because of a difficulty feeding at the breast (FAB)] or elective (e.g., to produce HM to mix with solids). We hypothesized that women who pumped more frequently or nonelectively would have shorter HM-feeding durations. We used data from 1116 mothers in a longitudinal cohort who fed and pumped HM 1.5-4.5 mo postpartum. We used χ(2) and Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine the survival of any HM feeding, exclusive HM feeding, and FAB. Compared with mothers who pumped for elective reasons, mothers who reported one nonelective reason had greater hazards of stopping feeding any HM (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.21) or exclusive HM (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.20) and of stopping FAB (HR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.77, 2.42). Mothers who pumped most frequently had the highest mean hazards of stopping feeding any HM (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.68, 1.93) and feeding exclusive HM (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.26). Hazards of stopping FAB varied across the year. Compared with the least-frequent pumpers, the most-frequent pumpers had a 2.6-fold higher hazard of stopping FAB at 3 mo postpartum and a 1.7-fold higher hazard at 6 mo postpartum. Nonelective pumping reasons and higher pumping frequency were associated with shorter HM-feeding durations. Mothers who report that they use a breast pump for reasons related to either employment or FAB difficulty and their infants may be more vulnerable to risks associated with a shorter HM-feeding duration. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Early effects of equine FSH (eFSH) treatment on hormonal and reproductive parameters in mares intended to carry their own pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Raz, Tal; Gray, Allister; Hunter, Barbara; Card, Claire

    2009-10-01

    Superovulatory treatment may potentially increase the embryo recovery rate and the per-cycle pregnancy rate in normal or subfertile mares that are managed properly. However, some studies suggest a possible negative effect of superovulatory treatment on ovarian follicular maturation and embryo viability. Objectives of the present study were to investigate the early effects of eFSH treatment in reproductively normal mares in terms of: folliculogenesis, pregnancy rate, early embryonic development, reproductive tract parameters (tone and edema), and serum estradiol-17beta and progesterone concentrations. Reproductively sound mares (n=26) were evaluated daily by transrectal palpation and ultrasonography. Five days after spontaneous ovulation, mares were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. In the eFSH group, mares (n=16 estrous cycles) were administered eFSH twice daily; beginning when a follicle > or =20mm was detected, and continuing until at least one follicle reached a diameter of > or =35 mm. PGF2alpha was administered 2 days following initiation of eFSH therapy, and hCG was administered approximately 36h after cessation of eFSH therapy. In the control group, mares (n=26 estrous cycles) were administered PGF2alpha 7 days after spontaneous ovulation, and hCG when a follicle > or =35 mm was detected. All mares were bred with fresh semen, monitored for ovulation (Day 0), and evaluated for pregnancy on Days 11-16. Serum estradiol-17beta and progesterone concentrations were analyzed using radioimmunoassay on the Day of hCG administration, and Days 8, 11 and 16. Mares treated with eFSH had more follicles > or =30 mm at the time of hCG administration (2.6+/-0.4 compared with 1.1+/-0.1; P<0.01), and more ovulations (2.3+/-0.5 compared with 1.1+/-0.3; P<0.01). However, pregnancy rates were not significantly different between groups (50%; 8/16 compared with 62%; 16/26). Mean overall daily growth rate of embryonic vesicles from Day 11 to 16 was not statistically

  17. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  18. A novel double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the nucleocapsid protein for early detection of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Venteo, A; Rebollo, B; Sarraseca, J; Rodriguez, M J; Sanz, A

    2012-04-01

    Precise and rapid detection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in swine farms is critical. Improvement of control procedures, such as testing incoming gilt and surveillance of seronegative herds requires more rapid and sensitive methods. However, standard serological techniques detect mainly IgG antibodies. A double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DR-ELISA) was developed for detection of antibodies specific to European PRRSV. This new assay can recognize both IgM and IgG antibodies to PRSSV which might be useful for detecting in routine surveillance assays pigs that are in the very early stages of infection and missed by conventional assays detecting only IgG antibodies. DR-ELISA is based on the double recognition of antigen by antibody. In this study, the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N) of PRRSV was used both as the coating and the enzyme-conjugated antigen. To evaluate the sensitivity of the assay at early stages of the infection, sera from 69 pigs infected with PRRSV were collected during successive days post infection (pi) and tested. While standard methods showed low sensitivity rates before day 14 pi, DR-ELISA detected 88.4% seropositive samples at day 7 showing greater sensitivity at early stages of the infection. Further studies were carried out to assess the efficiency of the new assay, and the results showed DR-ELISA to be a sensitive and accurate method for early diagnosis of EU-PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Disparities in reproductive outcomes according to the endometrial preparation protocol in frozen embryo transfer : The risk of early pregnancy loss in frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    PubMed

    Hatoum, I; Bellon, L; Swierkowski, N; Ouazana, M; Bouba, S; Fathallah, K; Paillusson, B; Bailly, M; Boitrelle, F; Alter, L; Bergère, M; Selva, J; Wainer, R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stimulated and artificial endometrial preparation protocols on reproductive outcomes in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. We performed a retrospective study of 1926 FET cycles over a 3.5-year period in the Fertility Unit at a University Hospital. Stimulated and artificial protocols were used for endometrial preparation. The embryos for FET were obtained from either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Live birth rate and early pregnancy loss rates were retrospectively compared. In artificial protocols, oral or vaginal administration of oestradiol 2 mg two or three times a day was followed by vaginal supplementation with progesterone 200 mg two or three times a day. In stimulated protocols, recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone was administered from day 4 onward. Vaginal ultrasound was used for endometrial and ovarian monitoring. A pregnancy test was performed 14 days after FET. If it was positive, oestradiol and progesterone were administered up until the 12th week of gestation in artificial cycles. We defined early pregnancy losses as biochemical pregnancies (preclinical losses) and miscarriages. Data on 865 artificial cycles (45% of the total) and 1061 stimulated cycles (55%) were collected. Early pregnancy loss rate was significantly lower for stimulated cycles (34.2%) than for artificial cycles (56.9%), and the live birth rate was significantly higher for stimulated cycles (59.7%) than for artificial cycles (29.1%). In frozen embryo transfer, artificial cycles were associated with more early pregnancy loss and lower live birth rate than stimulated cycles.

  20. Return of ovulation and menses in postpartum nonlactating women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Emily; Glasier, Anna

    2011-03-01

    To estimate, from the literature, when nonlactating postpartum women regain fertility. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for all articles (in all languages) published in peer-reviewed journals from database inception through May 2010 for evidence related to the return of ovulation and menses in nonlactating postpartum women. Search terms included "Fertility" (Mesh) OR "Ovulation" (Mesh) OR "Ovulation Detection" (Mesh) OR "Ovulation Prediction" (Mesh) OR fertility OR ovulat* AND "Postpartum Period" (Mesh) OR postpartum OR puerperium AND Human AND Female. We included articles assessing nonlactating women's first ovulation postpartum. Studies in which women breastfed for any period of time or in whom lactation was suppressed with medications were excluded. We identified 1,623 articles; six articles reported four studies met our inclusion criteria. In three studies utilizing urinary pregnanediol levels to measure ovulation, mean day of first ovulation ranged from 45 to 94 days postpartum; 20%-71% of first menses were preceded by ovulation and 0%-60% of these ovulations were potentially fertile. In one study that used basal body temperature to measure ovulation, mean first ovulation occurred on day 74 postpartum; 33% of first menses were preceded by ovulation and 70% of these were potentially fertile. Most nonlactating women will not ovulate until 6 weeks postpartum. A small number of women will ovulate earlier, potentially putting them at risk for pregnancy sooner, although the fertility of these early ovulations is not well-established. The potential risk of pregnancy soon after delivery underscores the importance of initiating postpartum contraception in a timely fashion.

  1. Hormonal effects on women's facial masculinity preferences: the influence of pregnancy, post-partum, and hormonal contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Cobey, Kelly D; Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigate changes in women's facial masculinity preferences across pregnancy and the post-partum period. The majority of previous research demonstrating changes in women's masculinity preferences has examined the impact of hormonal variation across the female menstrual cycle. Hormonal changes experienced during pregnancy and the post-partum period, critical periods in women's reproductive life histories, are considerably more extreme than the variation that occurs across the menstrual cycle, suggesting that differences in preferences may also be displayed during these times. We find that women's preference for masculinity in men's faces, but not women's faces, decreases in the post-partum period relative to pregnancy. Furthermore, when compared to a sample of nulliparous control participants, post-partum participants showed different masculinity preferences compared with women who were using hormonal contraception, with the direction of this difference dependent upon the sex of the face assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.

    PubMed

    Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

    2013-04-01

    A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Bipolar disorder in the postpartum period: management strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pope, Carley J; Sharma, Verinder; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Bipolar I and II disorder are chronic and severe psychiatric illnesses that affect many women. Furthermore, women are at increased risk for mood episodes during the postpartum period compared with non-postpartum periods. Unfortunately, identification of clinically significant depressive or (hypo)manic episodes can be challenging. Delays in detection, as well as misdiagnosis, put women at risk of many negative consequences, such as symptom exacerbation and treatment refractoriness. Early and accurate detection of bipolar I or II disorder in the postpartum period is critical to improve prognosis. At this time, limited recommendations can be made due to a paucity of research. Further research on postpartum bipolar I or II disorder focusing on its identification, consequences and treatment is urgently needed to allow for empirically informed clinical decision-making.

  4. Pinaceae-like reproductive morphology in Schizolepidopsis canicularis sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Glasspool, Ian; Herendeen, Patrick S; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Knopf, Patrick; Takahashi, Masamichi; Crane, Peter R

    2013-12-01

    Seed cone scales assigned to the genus Schizolepidopsis are widespread in Late Triassic to Cretaceous Eurasian deposits. They have been linked to the conifer family Pinaceae based on associated vegetative remains, but their exact affinities are uncertain. Recently discovered material from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia reveals important new information concerning Schizolepidopsis cone scales and seeds, and provides support for a relationship between the genus and extant Pinaceae. Specimens were collected from Early Cretaceous (probable Aptian-Albian) lignite deposits in central Mongolia. Lignite samples were disaggregated, cleaned in hydrofluoric acid, and washed in water. Specimens were selected for further study using light and electron microscopy. Schizolepidopsis canicularis seed cones consist of loosely arranged, bilobed ovulate scales subtended by a small bract. A single inverted seed with an elongate micropyle is borne on each lobe of the ovulate scale. Each seed has a wing formed by the separation of the adaxial surface of the ovulate scale. Schizolepidopsis canicularis produced winged seeds that formed in a manner that is unique to Pinaceae among extant conifers. We do not definitively place this species in Pinaceae pending more complete information concerning its pollen cones and vegetative remains. Nevertheless, this material suggests that Schizolepidopsis may be important for understanding the early evolution of Pinaceae, and may potentially help reconcile the appearance of the family in the fossil record with results based on phylogenetic analyses of molecular data.

  5. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Schmidt, Peter J; Rubinow, David R

    2016-06-13

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficient pre- and post-natal nutrition. Postpartum issues including eating disorder symptom relapse, weight loss, breastfeeding, and risk of perinatal depression and anxiety are also discussed. PMID:22003362

  7. Depression During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Becker, Madeleine; Weinberger, Tal; Chandy, Ann; Schmukler, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Depression is a common complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. There are multiple risk factors for peripartum mood disorders, most important of which is a prior history of depression. Both depression and antidepressant medications confer risk upon the infant. Maternal depression has been associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, fetal growth restriction, and postnatal cognitive and emotional complications. Antidepressant exposure has been associated with preterm birth, reductions in birth weight, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and postnatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS) as well as a possible connection with autism spectrum disorder. Paroxetine has been associated with cardiac malformations. Most antidepressant medications are excreted in low levels in breast milk and are generally compatible with breastfeeding. The use of antidepressants during pregnancy and postpartum must be weighed against the risk of untreated depression in the mother.

  8. Associations Between Postpartum Depression, Breastfeeding, and Oxytocin Levels in Latina Mothers.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; McKenney, Kathryn; Di Florio, Arianna; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD), often comorbid with anxiety, is the leading medical complication among new mothers. Latinas have elevated risk of PPD, which has been associated with early breastfeeding cessation. Lower plasma oxytocin (OT) levels have also been associated with PPD in non-Latinas. This pilot study explores associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding, and OT in Latinas. Thirty-four Latinas were enrolled during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed through 8 weeks postpartum. Demographic data were collected at enrollment. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at each time point (third trimester of pregnancy, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum). The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered postpartum and EPDS anxiety subscale was used to assess anxiety at each time point. Breastfeeding status was assessed at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. At 8 weeks, OT was collected before, during, and after a 10-minute breast/bottle feeding session from 28 women who completed the procedures. Descriptive statistics are provided and comparisons by mood and breastfeeding status were conducted. Analyses of variance were used to explore associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding status, and OT. Just under one-third of women were depressed at enrollment. Prenatal depression, PPD, and anxiety were significantly associated with early breastfeeding cessation (i.e., stopped breastfeeding before 2 months) (p < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between early breastfeeding cessation and depression status on OT at 8 weeks postpartum (p < 0.05). Lower levels of OT were observed in women who had PPD at 8 weeks and who had stopped breastfeeding their infant by 8 weeks postpartum. Future studies should investigate the short- and long-term effects of lower OT levels and early breastfeeding cessation on maternal and child well-being.

  9. Oxytocin increases VTA activation to infant and sexual stimuli in nulliparous and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Rebecca; Cheng, Hu; Rupp, Heather A.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    After giving birth, women typically experience decreased sexual desire and increased responsiveness to infant stimuli. These postpartum changes may be viewed as a trade-off in reproductive interests, which could be due to alterations in brain activity including areas associated with reward. The goal of this study was to describe the roles of oxytocin and parity on reward area activation in response to reproductive stimuli, specifically infant and sexual images. Because they have been shown to be associated with reward, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) were targeted as areas of expected alterations in activity. Oxytocin was chosen as a potential mediator of reproductive trade-offs because of its relationship to both mother–infant interactions, including breastfeeding and bonding, and sexual responses. We predicted that postpartum women would show higher reward area activation to infant stimuli and nulliparous women would show higher activation to sexual stimuli and that oxytocin would increase activation to infant stimuli in nulliparous women. To test this, we measured VTA and NAc activation using fMRI in response to infant photos, sexual photos, and neutral photos in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Participants completed the Sexual Inhibition (SIS) and Sexual Excitation (SES) Scales and the Brief Index of Sexual Function for Women (BISF-W), which includes a sexual desire dimension, and received either oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before viewing crying and smiling infant and sexual images in an fMRI scanner. For both groups of women, intranasal oxytocin administration increased VTA activation to both crying infant and sexual images but not to smiling infant images. We found that postpartum women showed lower SES, higher SIS, and lower sexual desire compared to nulliparous women. Across parity groups, SES scores were correlated with VTA activation and subjective arousal ratings to sexual images. In postpartum women, sexual

  10. POSTPARTUM BONDING DIFFICULTIES AND ADULT ATTACHMENT STYLES: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AND CHILDBIRTH-RELATED PTSD.

    PubMed

    S Hairston, Ilana; E Handelzalts, Jonathan; Assis, Chen; Kovo, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Despite decades of research demonstrating the role of adult attachment styles and early mother-infant bonding in parenting behaviors and maternal mental health, these constructs have seldom been studied together. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment styles and specific bonding difficulties of mothers. In addition, as postpartum depression and childbirth-related posttraumatic stress symptoms have been associated with both constructs, we explored their possible mediation effect. One hundred fourteen mothers, 4 to 12 weeks' postpartum, completed a demographic questionnaire, the Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (M. Mikulincer, V. Florian, & A. Tolmacz, 1990), the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (L.F. Brockington, C. Fraser, & D. Wilson, 2006), the Modified Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire (J.L. Callahan, S.E. Borja, & M.T. Hynan, 2006), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J.L. Cox, G. Chapman, D. Murray, & P. Jones, 1996), using an online survey system. As predicted, insecure attachment styles were associated with bonding difficulties wherein anxious/ambivalent attachment was associated with greater infant-focused anxiety, mediated by postpartum depression but not childbirth-related PTSD symptoms. In contrast, greater avoidant attachment style was associated with greater rejection and anger, mediated by childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not depression symptoms. The current study confirmed the association of different attachment styles with bonding as well as the mediating roles of childbirth-related PTSD and postpartum depression symptoms. Future psychological interventions may utilize such evidence to target interventions for bonding disorders in accordance with individual differences. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Postpartum anxiety and breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between postpartum anxiety and lactation experience, knowledge, confidence and performance. State anxiety was measured among breast-feeding women by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory before hospital discharge and at 1 month postpartum. Breast-feeding experience and knowledge were assessed by focused questions and confidence by the Breastfeeding Confidence Scale. Breast-feeding performance measures included breast-feeding immediately after delivery; formula supplementation in the hospital; full, exclusive breast-feeding; and breast-feeding termination at 1 month postpartum. Predischarge anxiety correlated inversely with breast-feeding confidence (r [339] = -0.27, p = 0.000) but not with experience or knowledge. As compared to low-anxiety mothers, those with high anxiety were less likely to breast-feed after delivery (53.0% vs. 65.1%, p = 0.049) and more likely to give their infants formula (43.9% vs. 29.1%, p = 0.022). In logistic regression models adjusting for demographic and social factors, high-anxiety mothers were less likely to practice full, exclusive breast-feeding (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.20, 0.74; p < 0.005) and more likely to have terminated breastfeeding at 1 month (AOR = 4.40; 95% CI 1.70, 11.33; p < 0.005). Postpartum anxiety may be associated with reduced breast-feeding confidence and lactation performance. Awareness of this association may be helpful in identifying women at risk for lactation failure and targeting efforts to promote breast-feeding.

  12. A Review of Postpartum Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    SIT, DOROTHY; ROTHSCHILD, ANTHONY J.; WISNER, KATHERINE L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective is to provide an overview of the clinical features, prognosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of postpartum psychosis. Methods The authors searched Medline (1966–2005), PsycInfo (1974–2005), Toxnet, and PubMed databases using the key words postpartum psychosis, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, organic psychosis, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. A clinical case is used to facilitate the discussion. Results The onset of puerperal psychosis occurs in the first 1–4 weeks after childbirth. The data suggest that postpartum psychosis is an overt presentation of bipolar disorder that is timed to coincide with tremendous hormonal shifts after delivery. The patient develops frank psychosis, cognitive impairment, and grossly disorganized behavior that represent a complete change from previous functioning. These perturbations, in combination with lapsed insight into her illness and symptoms, can lead to devastating consequences in which the safety and well-being of the affected mother and her offspring are jeopardized. Therefore, careful and repeated assessment of the mothers’ symptoms, safety, and functional capacity is imperative. Treatment is dictated by the underlying diagnosis, bipolar disorder, and guided by the symptom acuity, patient’s response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. The somatic therapies include antimanic agents, atypical antipsychotic medications, and ECT. Estrogen prophylaxis remains purely investigational. Conclusions The rapid and accurate diagnosis of postpartum psychosis is essential to expedite appropriate treatment and to allow for quick, full recovery, prevention of future episodes, and reduction of risk to the mother and her children and family. PMID:16724884

  13. SMAD Signaling Is Required for Structural Integrity of the Female Reproductive Tract and Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Amanda; Tripurani, Swamy K.; Burton, Jason C.; Clementi, Caterina; Larina, Irina; Pangas, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a complex physiological process tightly controlled by the interplay among hormones, morphogens, transcription factors, and signaling pathways. Although recent studies using genetically engineered mouse models have revealed that ligands and receptors of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways are essential for multiple reproductive events during pregnancy, the functional role of SMAD transcription factors, which serve as the canonical signaling platform for the TGFbeta/BMP pathways, in the oviduct and uterus is undefined. Here, we used a mouse model containing triple conditional deletion of the BMP receptor signaling Smads (Smad1 and Smad5) and Smad4, the central mediator of both TGFbeta and BMP signaling, to investigate the role of the SMADs in reproductive tract structure and function in cells from the Amhr2 lineage. Unlike the respective single- or double-knockouts, female Smad1flox/flox Smad5flox/flox Smad4flox/flox Amhr2cre/+conditional knockout (i.e., Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO) mice are sterile. We discovered that Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females have malformed oviducts that subsequently develop oviductal diverticuli. These oviducts showed dysregulation of multiple genes essential for oviduct and smooth muscle development. In addition, uteri from Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females exhibit multiple defects in stroma, epithelium, and smooth muscle layers and fail to assemble a closed uterine lumen upon embryo implantation, with defective uterine decidualization that led to pregnancy loss at early to mid-gestation. Taken together, our study uncovers a new role for the SMAD transcription factors in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of oviduct and uterus, required for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:27335065

  14. Differentiation of postpartum Graves' thyrotoxicosis from postpartum destructive thyrotoxicosis using antithyrotropin receptor antibodies and thyroid blood flow.

    PubMed

    Ide, Akane; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kang, Shino; Yoshioka, Waka; Kudo, Takumi; Nishihara, Eijun; Ito, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-06-01

    Postpartum thyroid dysfunction occurs in approximately 5-10% of women in the general population within one year of delivery. Differentiation of postpartum Graves' thyrotoxicosis (PPGr) from postpartum destructive thyrotoxicosis (PPDT) is essential because of the difference in treatment measures between the two. However, it is sometimes difficult because radioactive iodine uptake is contraindicated when patients are lactating. We examined the usefulness of determining the time of onset postpartum and measurement of antithyrotropin (anti-TSH) receptor antibodies and thyroid blood flow. Forty-two patients with newly developed thyrotoxicosis after delivery were examined: 18 had Graves' disease and 24 had destructive thyrotoxicosis. Serum free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and TSH were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassays. Anti-TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) were measured by the Elecsys electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Thyroid volume and blood flow (TBF) were measured quantitatively by color flow Doppler ultrasonography. Onset of thyrotoxicosis was distributed from 2 to 12 months postpartum. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients who developed thyrotoxicosis at three months or earlier after delivery had PPDT. On the other hand, all 11 patients who developed thyrotoxicosis at 6.5 months or later had PPGr. All patients with PPGr had positive TRAb (14.9±14.9 IU/L, mean±standard deviation (SD)) and all patients with PPDT had negative TRAb (0.1±0.3 IU/L, p<0.0001). Fifteen (83.3%) of 18 PPGr patients had high TBF of more than 4.0% (8.9±4.4), and all PPDT patients had low TBF of <4.0% (1.6±1.0, p<0.0001). The fT3/fT4 ratio was higher in PPGr (64.0±23.9) than in PPDT (38.9±13.1, p<0.0002), but absolute values overlapped between the two. Early onset of thyrotoxicosis postpartum was associated mainly with PPDT, and a late onset was suggestive of PPGr. Positive TRAb and

  15. Predictors of mothers' postpartum body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Fontaine, Patricia; Crow, Scott; McGovern, Patricia; Center, Bruce; Miner, Michael

    2009-09-01

    To investigate changes in mothers' body dissatisfaction from delivery to 9 months postpartum, and the relationship of postpartum body dissatisfaction to weight, other health, and social characteristics. In this prospective longitudinal study, 506 mothers completed surveys at 0-1 and 9 months postpartum. Postpartum changes in body dissatisfaction and weight were evaluated by paired t-tests, and predictors of postpartum body dissatisfaction were identified by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Mothers' body dissatisfaction increased significantly from 0-1 to 9 months postpartum (mean scores of 15.2 and 18.2, respectively, p < .001). Although women lost an average of 10.1 pounds (sd = 16.3) or 4.6 kg. (sd = 7.4) between 0-1 and 9 months postpartum (p < .001), their weight at 9 months postpartum remained an average of 5.4 pounds (sd = 15.6) or 2.5 kg (sd = 7.1) above their pre-pregnancy weights (p < .001). Body dissatisfaction at 9 months postpartum was associated with overeating or poor appetite, higher current weight, worse mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale), race other than black, bottle-feeding (vs. breastfeeding), being single (vs. married), and having fewer children. Mothers' body satisfaction worsened from 1 to 9 months postpartum, and 9-month body dissatisfaction was associated with eating/appetite abnormalities, greater weight, worse mental health, non-black race, non-breastfeeding status, and fewer immediate family relationships. Given these relationships, it is important to educate women about expected postpartum weight and body changes, and to find ways to enhance mothers' postpartum self-esteem and body satisfaction.

  16. The obstetrical and postpartum benefits of continuous support during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Scott, K D; Klaus, P H; Klaus, M H

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding the effectiveness of continuous support provided by a trained laywoman (doula) during childbirth on obstetrical and postpartum outcomes. Twelve individual randomized trials have compared obstetrical and postpartum outcomes between doula-supported women and women who did not receive doula support during childbirth. Three meta-analyses, which used different approaches, have been performed on the results of the clinical trials. Emotional and physical support significantly shortens labor and decreases the need for cesarean deliveries, forceps and vacuum extraction, oxytocin augmentation, and analgesia. Doula-supported mothers also rate childbirth as less difficult and painful than do women not supported by a doula. Labor support by fathers does not appear to produce similar obstetrical benefits. Eight of the 12 trials report early or late psychosocial benefits of doula support. Early benefits include reductions in state anxiety scores, positive feelings about the birth experience, and increased rates of breastfeeding initiation. Later postpartum benefits include decreased symptoms of depression, improved self-esteem, exclusive breastfeeding, and increased sensitivity of the mother to her child's needs. The results of these 12 trials strongly suggest that doula support is an essential component of childbirth. A thorough reorganization of current birth practices is in order to ensure that every woman has access to continuous emotional and physical support during labor.

  17. Body condition and suckling as factors influencing the duration of postpartum anestrus in cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Montiel, F; Ahuja, C

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anestrus is a main factor limiting reproductive efficiency in cattle, particularly in Bos indicus and Bos taurus/Bos indicus cows from tropical regions, because it prevents achievement of a 12 month calving interval. During anestrus, ovulation does not occur despite ovarian follicular development, because growing follicles do not mature. Although many factors affect postpartum anestrus, nutrition and suckling are the major factors influencing the resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles, as they affect hypothalamic, pituitary and ovarian activity and thus inhibit follicular development. Under-nutrition contributes to prolonged postpartum anestrus, particularly among cows dependent upon forages to meet their feed requirements and it apparently interacts with genetic, environmental or management factors to influence the duration of anestrus. The nutritional status or balance of an animal is evaluated through body condition score (BCS), as it reflects the body energy reserves available for metabolism, growth, lactation and activity. There is a converse relationship between energy balance and time to resumption of postpartum ovarian activity; inadequate nutrient intake results in loss of weight and BCS and finally cessation of estrous cycles. Suckling interferes with hypothalamic release of GnRH, provoking a marked suppression in pulsatile LH release, resulting in extended postpartum anestrus. The effects of suckling on regulation of tonic LH release are determined by the ability of the cow to identify a calf as her own or as unrelated. Vision and olfaction play critical roles in the development of the maternal-offspring bond, allowing the cow to identify her own calf, and abolition of both senses attenuates the negative effects of suckling on LH secretion. Thus, the maternal-offspring bond is essential for prolonged postpartum suckling-induced anovulation, and the suppressive influence of suckling is independent of neurosensory pathways within the

  18. Correlates and Predictors of New Mothers' Responses to Postpartum Thoughts of Accidental and Intentional Harm and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Thordarson, Dana S; Challacombe, Fiona L; Sakaluk, John K

    2018-07-01

    Unwanted, intrusive thoughts of infant-related harm are a normal, albeit distressing experience for most new mothers. The occurrence of these thoughts can represent a risk factor for the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). As the early postpartum period represents a time of increased risk for OCD development, the transition to parenthood provides a unique opportunity to better understand OCD development. The purpose of this study was to assess components of cognitive behavioural conceptualizations of postpartum OCD in relation to new mothers' thoughts of infant-related harm. English-speaking pregnant women (n = 100) participated. Questionnaires were completed at approximately 36 weeks of gestation, and at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. An interview to assess postpartum harm thoughts was administered at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires assessed OC symptoms, OC-related beliefs, fatigue, sleep difficulties and negative mood. Prenatal OC-related beliefs predicted postpartum OC symptoms, as well as harm thought characteristics and behavioural responses to harm thoughts. The severity of behavioural responses to early postpartum harm thoughts did not predict later postpartum OC symptoms, but did predict frequency and time occupation of accidental harm thoughts, and interference in parenting by intentional harm thoughts. Strong relationships between OC symptoms and harm thought characteristics, and concurrent sleep difficulties, negative mood and fatigue were also found. Findings provide support for cognitive behavioural conceptualizations of postpartum OCD and emphasize the importance of maternal sleep, fatigue and negative mood in the relationship between OC-related beliefs and maternal cognitive and behavioural responses to postpartum harm thoughts.

  19. Lymphocyte responses to stress in postpartum women: relationship to vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Redwine, L S; Altemus, M; Leong, Y M; Carter, C S

    2001-04-01

    Although women spend their lives in various phases of the reproductive cycle, including menstrual, pregnancy, postpartum, lactation and menopause, few studies have examined immune responses to stress in women as a function of events associated with reproduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate differential effects of breastfeeding (n = 16), bottlefeeding (n = 10) and non-postpartum (n = 10) status on lymphocyte responses to stressful tasks (public speaking and mental arithmetic). To measure cellular immune responses, lymphocyte proliferation to plant lectins, poke weed mitogen (PWM) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were used. The autonomic measures, heart rate, vagal tone, blood pressure and the hormones of the HPA axis, ACTH and cortisol, were measured and their possible roles in mediating lymphocyte proliferation responses were examined. Recently parturient women who were breastfeeding or bottlefeeding had attenuated stress-induced change in lymphocyte responses to PWM compared with non-postpartum women, tested in the follicular phase of their cycle (P < 0.05). Also, lymphocyte responses to PHA were higher in the breastfeeding group compared with non-postpartum controls (P < 0.05). Regression analyses revealed that an index of cardiac vagal tone, but not other autonomic or endocrine measures, was positively predictive of lymphocyte proliferation to PWM. To summarize, these findings suggest that lactation and parturition can influence lymphocyte proliferation and that activity in the vagal system may influence lymphocyte responses to stress.

  20. Obstetric Emergencies: Shoulder Dystocia and Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Joshua D; Bhalwal, Asha; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage represent two of the most common emergencies faced in obstetric clinical practice, both requiring prompt recognition and management to avoid significant morbidity or mortality. Shoulder dystocia is an uncommon, unpredictable, and unpreventable obstetric emergency and can be managed with appropriate intervention. Postpartum hemorrhage occurs more commonly and carries significant risk of maternal morbidity. Institutional protocols and algorithms for the prevention and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage have become mainstays for clinicians. The goal of this review is to summarize the diagnosis, incidence, risk factors, and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The postpartum period in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Autumn

    2012-08-01

    For women with epilepsy (WWE), the postpartum period is a vulnerable time owing to medication alterations, disrupted sleep, increased stress, and the challenges of breastfeeding. Sleep deprivation and the stress of having a new child can be challenging for WWE. Concerns over antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in breast milk and sleep disruption associated with breastfeeding leads some WWE to discontinue breastfeeding. Adjustment of AEDs in the postpartum period can lead to difficulties in seizure control. Postpartum depression is increased in WWE, and patient education about newborn safety remains a concern. This article covers these important topics in postpartum WWE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Postpartum depression: a chronicle of health policy development.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee

    2010-01-01

    The current report presents an example of the path taken from identification of a public health problem at the primary health service level, to conducting research documenting the scope of the problem and nature of the risk factors, disseminating the findings, and fostering development and application of relevant policy. The example presented is the case of postpartum depression, an issue with bio-psycho-social implications. Public health nurses identified the problem, prompting epidemiological research. The findings encouraged the Ministry of Health (MOH) to conduct a pilot program for screening and early intervention among pregnant and postpartum women reporting depressive symptoms. Based on the results of the pilot program, the MOH is expanding the program to all Mother-Child Health (MCH) clinics. Israel?s largest Health Maintenance Organization has followed suit and is including this program in its own clinics. This Israeli experience may serve as an instructive example of a locally identified problem evolving into a national policy.

  3. Early pregnancy diagnosis in bovines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Ashok K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  4. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949

  5. Thyroid hormones and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo F; Ocarino, Natália M; Serakides, Rogéria

    2018-05-14

    Thyroid hormones are vital for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system, since they modulate the metabolism and development of ovarian, uterine and placental tissues. Therefore, hypo- and hyperthyroidism may result in subfertility or infertility in both women and animals. Other well-documented sequelae of maternal thyroid dysfunctions include menstrual/estral irregularity, anovulation, abortion, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, postpartum thyroiditis, and mental retardation in children. Several studies have been carried out involving prospective and retrospective studies of women with thyroid dysfunction, as well as in vivo and in vitro assays of hypo- and hyperthyroidism using experimental animal models and/or ovarian, uterine and placental cell culture. These studies have sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which thyroid hormones influence reproduction to better understand the physiology of the reproductive system and to provide better therapeutic tools for reproductive dysfunctions that originate from thyroid dysfunctions. Therefore, this review aims to summarize and update the available information related to the role of thyroid hormones in the morphophysiology of the ovary, uterus and placenta in women and animals and the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the female reproductive system.

  6. Implementing at-scale, community-based distribution of misoprostol tablets to mothers in the third stage of labor for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Early results and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Orobaton, Nosakhare; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Abegunde, Dele; Shoretire, Kamil; Maishanu, Abubakar; Ikoro, Nnenna; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Balami, Wapada; Beal, Katherine; Ganiyu, Akeem; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Austin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in Sokoto State, Nigeria, where 95% of women give birth outside of a health facility. Although pilot schemes have demonstrated the value of community-based distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH, none have provided practical insight on taking such programs to scale. Methods A community-based system for the distribution of misoprostol tablets (in 600ug) and chlorhexidine digluconate gel 7.1% to mother-newborn dyads was introduced by state government officials and community leaders throughout Sokoto State in April 2013, with the potential to reach an estimated 190,467 annual births. A simple outcome form that collected distribution and consumption data was used to assess the percentage of mothers that received misoprostol at labor through December 2014. Mothers’ conditions were tracked through 6 weeks postpartum. Verbal autopsies were conducted on associated maternal deaths. Results Misoprostol distribution was successfully introduced and reached mothers in labor in all 244 wards in Sokoto State. Community data collection systems were successfully operational in all 244 wards with reliable capacity to record maternal deaths. 70,982 women or 22% of expected births received misoprostol from April 2013 to December 2014. Between April and December 2013, 33 women (< 1%) reported that heavy bleeding persisted after misoprostol use and were promptly referred. There were a total of 11 deaths in the 2013 cohort which were confirmed as maternal deaths by verbal autopsies. Between January and December of 2014, a total 434 women (1.25%) that ingested misoprostol reported associated side effects. Conclusion It is feasible and safe to utilize government guidelines on results-based primary health care to successfully introduce community distribution of life saving misoprostol at scale to reduce PPH and improve maternal outcomes. Lessons from Sokoto State’s at-scale program implementation

  7. Help-seeking patterns in women with postpartum severe mental illness: a report from southern India.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, Harish; Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha

    2018-03-21

    Postpartum severe mental illness (SMI) often presents with risks to mother-infant dyad and requires early assessment and interventions. The access to psychiatric care in low and middle income countries is complex. Help-seeking patterns in women with postpartum SMI has not been studied adequately. Hence, the present study was undertaken to examine the help-seeking pattern and reasons for delay in seeking psychiatry services among postpartum women with SMI. Successive patients with a diagnosis of postpartum SMI were recruited over a period of 2 years. Clinical variables including the risk evaluation, perceived delay in seeking care along with the reasons were assessed through clinical interviews using a proforma. Severity of illness was assessed using BPRS and "encounter" form was used to assess the help-seeking pattern. One hundred twenty-three women with postpartum SMI participated in the study. Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder was the most common clinical presentation. Psychiatrists were the most commonly (52.8%) sought care providers followed by faith healers (26%) and general medical practitioners (GMP) (21.1%) at the first level of help seeking. A past history of psychiatric illness was significantly higher among those who first contacted a psychiatrist, and BPRS scores were significantly high among those who contacted a GMP. Forty-four percent of subjects perceived a delay in seeking care from psychiatry services and the most common reason was lack of resources. There is a need to enhance awareness about postpartum SMI in the community. Faith healers need to be sensitized about the associated risks and the need for early referrals. Addressing the barriers to psychiatric care would help in early detection and treatment of postpartum SMI.

  8. Integrating Optimal Screening, Intervention, and Referral for Postpartum Depression in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Booth, Leigh; Wedgeworth, Monika; Turner, Adeline

    2018-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 10% to 13% of postpartum women develop a mental disorder, mainly depression. This number is higher in developing countries. This percentage increases in adolescents and symptoms in adolescents tend to be overlooked. These disorders can be treated successfully if detected early, which will in turn prevent more severe symptoms from developing. This article provides evidence-based clinical best practices for the assessment and early recognition of postpartum depression, specifically in adolescents. In addition, suggestions for integration into practice and recommendations for interprofessional collaboration are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress induces equivalent remodeling of hippocampal spine synapses in a simulated postpartum environment and in a female rat model of major depression.

    PubMed

    Baka, Judith; Csakvari, Eszter; Huzian, Orsolya; Dobos, Nikoletta; Siklos, Laszlo; Leranth, Csaba; MacLusky, Neil J; Duman, Ronald S; Hajszan, Tibor

    2017-02-20

    Stress and withdrawal of female reproductive hormones are known risk factors of postpartum depression. Although both of these factors are capable of powerfully modulating neuronal plasticity, there is no direct electron microscopic evidence of hippocampal spine synapse remodeling in postpartum depression. To address this issue, hormonal conditions of pregnancy and postpartum period were simulated in ovariectomized adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=76). The number of hippocampal spine synapses and the depressive behavior of rats in an active escape task were investigated in untreated control, hormone-withdrawn 'postpartum', simulated proestrus, and hormone-treated 'postpartum' animals. After 'postpartum' withdrawal of gonadal steroids, inescapable stress caused a loss of hippocampal spine synapses, which was related to poor escape performance in hormone-withdrawn 'postpartum' females. These responses were equivalent with the changes observed in untreated controls that is an established animal model of major depression. Maintaining proestrus levels of ovarian hormones during 'postpartum' stress exposure did not affect synaptic and behavioral responses to inescapable stress in simulated proestrus animals. By contrast, maintaining pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone during 'postpartum' stress exposure completely prevented the stress-induced loss of hippocampal spine synapses, which was associated with improved escape performance in hormone-treated 'postpartum' females. This protective effect appears to be mediated by a muted stress response as measured by serum corticosterone concentrations. In line with our emerging 'synaptogenic hypothesis' of depression, the loss of hippocampal spine synapses may be a novel perspective both in the pathomechanism and in the clinical management of postpartum affective illness. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of atrazine and chlorothalonil on the reproductive success, development, and growth of early life stage sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Du Gas, Lindsay M; Ross, Peter S; Walker, Janessa; Marlatt, Vicki L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    The effects of 2 currently used commercial pesticide formulations on Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), from fertilization to emergence, were evaluated in a gravel-bed flume incubator that simulated a natural streambed. Embryos were exposed to atrazine at 25 µg/L (low atrazine) or atrazine at 250 µg/L (high atrazine) active ingredient (a.i.), and chlorothalonil at 0.5 µg/L (low chlorothalonil) or chlorothalonil at 5 µg/L a.i. (high chlorothalonil) and examined for effects on developmental success and timing, as well as physical and biochemical growth parameters. Survival to hatch was reduced in the high chlorothalonil group (55% compared with 83% in controls), accompanied by a 24% increase in finfold deformity incidence. Reduced alevin condition factor (2.9-5.4%) at emergence and elevated triglyceride levels were seen in chlorothalonil-exposed fish. Atrazine exposure caused premature hatch (average high atrazine time to 50% hatch [H50] = 100 d postfertilization [dpf]), and chlorothalonil exposure caused delayed hatch (high chlorothalonil H50 = 108 dpf; controls H50 = 102 dpf). All treatments caused premature emergence (average time to 50% emergence [E50]: control E50 = 181 dpf, low chlorothalonil E50 = 175 dpf, high chlorothalonil E50 = 174 dpf, high atrazine E50 = 175 dpf, low atrazine E50 = 174 dpf), highlighting the importance of using a gravel-bed incubator to examine this subtle, but critical endpoint. These alterations indicate that atrazine and chlorothalonil could affect survival of early life stages of sockeye salmon in the wild. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1354-1364. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Pollen donor composition during the early phases of reproduction revealed by DNA genotyping of pollen grains and seeds of Castanea crenata.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoichi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Seiwa, Kenji

    2009-06-01

    In plants, pollen donor composition can differ during the early phases of reproduction through various selection mechanisms favouring self, related or nonrelated pollen donors, but such differences have not been examined under natural conditions because paternity is difficult to analyse in a natural setting. Here, we performed paternity analyses based on microsatellite genotyping of individual pollen grains deposited on female flowers (n = 773) and seeds (n = 304) to evaluate pollen donor composition from three individuals of the insect-pollinated monoecious tree Castanea crenata in a natural forest. Spatial genetic structure was also investigated. A mean self-pollen rate of 90.2% was observed at the pollination stage, but a low selfing rate of 0.3% was observed at the seed stage. In outcross events, however, pairwise distance and relatedness between maternal and paternal parents were not different between pollination and seed stages. We also observed significant positive relatedness, based on clear fine-scale genetic structure of individual trees within 80 m of one another, and 71% of seeds were derived using pollen grains of related trees within 80 m. The results suggest that the mechanism of self-incompatibility strongly avoids self-pollen before seed production. However, the avoidance of biparental inbreeding was not obvious between pollination and seed stages.

  12. A systematic review of interventions to improve postpartum retention of women in PMTCT and ART care

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Yapa, H Manisha N; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes after birth, (2) transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3) retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks) postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum. PMID:27118443

  13. Can we identify mothers at-risk for postpartum anxiety in the immediate postpartum period using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory?

    PubMed

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Coghlan, Michelle; Vigod, Simone

    2013-09-25

    This study assessed the stability of maternal anxiety and concordance between State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores in the immediate postpartum period to 8 weeks postpartum. A population-based sample of 522 mothers completed the STAI at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the 1-week STAI in relation to identifying mothers with elevated STAI scores at 4 and 8 weeks was determined. Predictive power of the STAI was further assessed using odds ratios and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. At 1 week postpartum, 22.6% of mothers scored >40 on the STAI, decreasing to 17.2% at 4 weeks and 14.8% at 8 weeks. Using the cut-off score of >40, the 1-week STAI accurately classified 84.0% mothers at 4 weeks and 83.6% at 8 weeks with or without anxiety symptomatology. The 1-week STAI was significantly correlated to the 4-week (r=0.68, p<0.001) and 8-week (r=0.64, p<0.001) STAI. Mothers with a 1-week STAI score >40 were 15.2 times more likely at 4 weeks (95% CI=8.9-26.1) and 14.0 times more likely at 8 weeks (95% CI=7.9-24.8) to exhibit postpartum anxiety symptomatology. Psychiatric interviews were not completed in collaboration with the STAI and specific types of anxiety disorders were not identified. A cut-off score of >40 on the STAI administered early in the postpartum period is recommended in a 2-phase identification program in order to not miss mothers with postpartum anxiety. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Traditional Postpartum Practices Among Malaysian Mothers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Fadzil, Fariza; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2016-07-01

    To briefly describe the postpartum practices among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia and to identify commonalities in their traditional postpartum beliefs and practices. This narrative review collated information on traditional postpartum practices among Malaysian mothers through a literature search for published research papers on traditional postpartum practices in Malaysia. This review shows that Malaysian mothers have certain postpartum practices that they considered to be important for preventing future ill health. Despite the perceived differences in intra-ethnic postpartum practices, most Malaysian mothers, although from different ethnicities, share similarities in their postpartum regimens and practices in terms of beliefs and adherence to food taboos, use of traditional postpartum massage and traditional herbs, and acknowledgment of the role of older female family members in postpartum care. Health care providers should be aware of multiethnic traditional postpartum practices and use the commonalities in these practices as part of their postpartum care regimen.

  15. Use of postpartum care: predictors and barriers.

    PubMed

    DiBari, Jessica N; Yu, Stella M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (N = 4,075) were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women's health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women's health care.

  16. Effect of reproductive disorders on productivity and reproductive efficiency of dromedary she-camels in relation to cytokine concentration.

    PubMed

    El-Malky, O M; Mostafa, T H; Abd El-Salaam, A M; Ayyat, M S

    2018-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of reproductive disorders on reproductive efficiency and milk production in relation with pro-inflammatory cytokines in dromedary she-camels. Total of 20 late pregnant Maghrabi she-camels, aging 6-9 years, weighing 420-550 kg, and between the second and third parities were divided into two groups. Animals in the first group (n = 12) showed normal reproductive status (G 1 ) at parturition, while those in the second one (n = 8) were suffered from reproductive disorders after parturition (G 2 ). Results showed that during pre-partum, red blood cells (RBCs) count decreased (P ≤ 0.05), while white blood cells (WBCs), packed cell volume (PCV) value, and neutrophils percentage increased (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Percentages of monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils as well as hemoglobin concentration did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05) in G1 and G2. During postpartum period, the same results were noticed in addition to increase (P ≤ 0.05) in eosinophil and decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in basophils percentages. During prepartum period, concentration of total proteins, albumin (AL) and IGF-1decreased (P ≤ 0.05), cholesterol concentration, and activity of AST and ALT were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Globulin (GL), AL: GL ratio, glucose, urea-N, creatinine, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ significantly in G 1 and G 2 . During postpartum period, the same results were noticed with decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in GL and glucose concentrations in G 2 as compared to G 1 . Concentration of all pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ, was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 at different peri-parturient times. Milk yield, days in milk, protein and lactose percentages, and IgG concentration were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 1 than in G 2 . Fat, total solids, solid non-fat, and ash percentages did not show any significant differences

  17. Best Practices in Management of Postpartum Pain.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jenifer O

    Pain has been documented as a major concern for women in the postpartum period. Management of postpartum pain, however, is a relatively neglected area of clinical research. As a result, evidence to support interventions to alleviate the discomforts associated with childbirth is sparse. This paucity of research on postpartum pain management is particularly surprising given that in the United States alone nearly 4 million women give birth each year. Inadequate pain relief in the hours to months following childbirth can interfere with maternal-newborn bonding and feeding and, by impeding mobility, can increase the risk of postpartum complications. In addition, pain that is not adequately managed may increase the risk of chronic pain that lasts beyond the postpartum period. In this article, the more common causes of pain following childbirth are reviewed and recommendations for pain management based on available evidence are outlined. Considerations for pain management in lactating women and for hospital discharge are discussed.

  18. Postpartum smoking relapse and becoming a mother.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Kathleen F

    2006-01-01

    To propose an innovative, theoretically-derived conceptual framework for studies of postpartum smoking relapse including concepts of smoking abstinence self-efficacy and becoming a mother. Presentation of an existing research paradigm followed by evidence from intervention research and studies of factors associated with postpartum smoking behavior, leading to a new approach to postpartum smoking relapse. Effectiveness of current interventions to prevent relapse is limited. Variables associated with becoming a mother are missing from studies of postpartum smoking relapse. Context-specific variables that influence a woman's progression through the stages of becoming a mother might include protective or risk factors that should be incorporated into the design of postpartum smoking relapse studies.

  19. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... sexual intercourse. The male reproductive system also produces sex hormones, which help a boy develop into a sexually mature man during puberty . ... Understanding Early Sexual Development Questions and Answers About Sex Talking to Your ... Torsion For Boys: Trouble "Down There" Boys and Puberty All About ...

  20. Measurement of blood loss during postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lilley, G; Burkett-St-Laurent, D; Precious, E; Bruynseels, D; Kaye, A; Sanders, J; Alikhan, R; Collins, P W; Hall, J E; Collis, R E

    2015-02-01

    We set out to validate the accuracy of gravimetric quantification of blood loss during simulated major postpartum haemorrhage and to evaluate the technique in a consecutive cohort of women experiencing major postpartum haemorrhage. The study took part in a large UK delivery suite over a one-year period. All women who experienced major postpartum haemorrhage were eligible for inclusion. For the validation exercise, in a simulated postpartum haemorrhage scenario using known volumes of artificial blood, the accuracy of gravimetric measurement was compared with visual estimation made by delivery suite staff. In the clinical observation study, the blood volume lost during postpartum haemorrhage was measured gravimetrically according to our routine institutional protocol and was correlated with fall in haemoglobin. The main outcome measure was the accuracy of gravimetric measurement of blood loss. Validation exercise: the mean percentage error of gravimetrically measured blood volume was 4.0±2.7% compared to visually estimated blood volume with a mean percentage error of 34.7±32.1%. Clinical observation study: 356 out of 6187 deliveries were identified as having major postpartum haemorrhage. The correlation coefficient between measured blood loss and corrected fall in haemoglobin for all patients was 0.77; correlation was stronger (0.80) for postpartum haemorrhage >1500mL, and similar during routine and out-of-hours working. The accuracy of the gravimetric method was confirmed in simulated postpartum haemorrhage. The clinical study shows that gravimetric measurement of blood loss is correlated with the fall in haemoglobin in postpartum haemorrhage where blood loss exceeds 1500mL. The method is simple to perform, requires only basic equipment, and can be taught and used by all maternity services during major postpartum haemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Lauren B; Murtaza, Sarah; Whiteman, Maura K; Jamieson, Denise J; Robbins, Cheryl L; Marchbanks, Polly A; D'Angelo, Denise V; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the associations between prenatal and postpartum contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2004-2008 data were analyzed from Missouri, New York state, and New York City (n = 9536). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations between prenatal and postpartum contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use, defined as any method and more effective methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, or hormonal methods). The majority of women received prenatal (78%) and postpartum (86%) contraceptive counseling; 72% received both. Compared with those who received no counseling, those counseled during 1 time period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-2.67) and both time periods (AOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.87-2.89) had significantly increased odds of postpartum use of a more effective contraceptive method (32% vs 49% and 56%, respectively; P for trend < .0001). Results for counseling during both time periods differed by type of health insurance before pregnancy, with greater odds of postpartum use of a more effective method observed for women with no insurance (AOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.18-5.66) and Medicaid insurance (AOR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.98-7.06) than for those with private insurance (AOR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44-2.43) before pregnancy. Findings were similar for postpartum use of any contraceptive method, except that no differences by insurance status were detected. The prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use, including the use of more effective methods, was highest when contraceptive counseling was provided during both prenatal and postpartum time periods. Women with Medicaid or no health insurance before pregnancy benefited the most. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma diminish with child age.

    PubMed

    Kozyrskyj, A L; Letourneau, N L; Kang, L J; Salmani, M

    2017-03-01

    Affecting 19% of women, postpartum depression is a major concern to the immediate health of mothers and infants. In the long-term, it has been linked to the development of early-onset asthma at school entry, but only if the depression persists beyond the postnatal period. No studies have tested whether associations with postpartum depressive symptoms and early-onset asthma phenotypes persist into later school age. To determine associations between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma between the ages of 5-10 by using a nested longitudinal design. Data were drawn from the 1994-2004 administrations of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which tracks the health of a nationally representative sample of children in Canada. Child asthma was diagnosed by a health professional, and maternal depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Analyses were conducted by using a multilevel modelling approach, in which longitudinal assessments of asthma in 1696 children were nested within the exposure of postpartum depression. Postpartum depressive symptoms had a 1.5-fold significant association with childhood asthma between the ages 6-8. This was independent of male sex, maternal asthma, non-immigrant status, low household socioeconomic status, being firstborn, low birthweight, low family functioning and urban-rural residence, of which the first 4 covariates elevated the risk of asthma. Statistical significance was lost at age 8 when maternal prenatal smoking replaced urban-rural residence as a covariate. At ages 9-10, an association was no longer evident. Women affected by postpartum depressive symptoms are concerned about long-term health effects of their illness on their infants. Although postpartum depressive symptoms were associated with school-age asthma at ages 6 and 7, this association diminished later. Both home and school life stress should be considered in future studies

  3. Onset and duration of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on first insemination conception rate in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of different types of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on reproductive performance were studied in 21 postpartum dairy cows. Progesterone concentrations in defatted milk collected 3 times a week were determined by EIA. Reproductive tract examination was undertaken every other week postpartum. Body weight and body condition score (BCS) were measured before and after calving and the average 100-day milk yield was calculated. Nine (42.9%) cows had normal ovarian activity (first luteal activity < or = 50 days postpartum followed by regular cycles), 5 (23.8%) had prolonged luteal phase (PLP; ovarian cycle with luteal activity > or = 20 days pre-service) and in 7 (33.3%) cows the first luteal activity was shown later than 50 days postpartum (DOV). When compared with normal cows, both PLP and DOV had longer interval to first insemination (63.1 +/- 22.0 days versus 77.6 +/- 21.6 and 93.0 +/- 22.3 days, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), lower first insemination conception rate (88.9% versus 0.0% and 57.1%, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and greater BCS loss (0.81 +/- 0.2 versus 1.05 +/- 0.21 and 1.04 +/- 0.10, respectively, P<0.01). Cows with PLP showed longer interval to uterine involution than normal and DOV groups (54.0 +/- 8.3 days versus 42.4 +/- 5.5 and 43.3 +/- 8.3 days, respectively, P<0.01) and higher 100-day milk yield (38.8 +/- 2.7 kg versus 33.6 +/- 4.7 and 29.9 +/- 6.1 kg, respectively, P<0.01). In conclusion, more than half of the cows had abnormal luteal activity postpartum, which adversely affected reproductive performance.

  4. "When You're a Baby You Don't Have Puberty": Understanding of Puberty and Human Reproduction in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hightower, Brianna; Sroka, Iris; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their…

  5. Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in preconception, pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Cucó, G; Fernández-Ballart, J; Sala, J; Viladrich, C; Iranzo, R; Vila, J; Arija, V

    2006-03-01

    To identify dietary patterns in women who are planning immediate pregnancy in preconception, weeks 6, 10, 26 and 38 of pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum, and to describe how particular lifestyles, the body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic factors are associated to these patterns. Longitudinal study throughout the reproductive cycle of food consumption carried out in a Spanish Mediterranean city. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rovira i Virgili University. In total, 80 healthy female volunteers who were planning immediate pregnancy. A seven-consecutive-day dietary record was used to evaluate the dietary intake. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the main dietary patterns in each of the periods. Fitted multiple linear regression models were used to study the associations between the lifestyle and sociodemographic variables, and each dietary pattern. The 'sweetened beverages and sugars' pattern was identified from preconception to 6 months postpartum and the 'vegetables and meat' pattern to the end of pregnancy. The 'sweetened beverages and sugars' pattern is positively associated with smoking and negatively associated with physical activity before conception and in the first trimester of pregnancy. The 'vegetables and meat' pattern is negatively associated with the BMI during the preconception period and positively associated with age in weeks 10 and 38 of pregnancy. It is shown that the patterns do not change significantly throughout the period studied. We have identified two stable dietary patterns from preconception to postpartum. The 'sweetened beverages and sugars' pattern is associated with habits of risk for the health of the pregnant woman and her offspring. 'Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología' (CICYT: ALI89-0388) and 'Instituto de Salud Carlos III', RCMN (C03/08), Madrid, Spain'.

  6. Obstetric risk factors for depression during the postpartum period in South Korea: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Youn, HyunChul; Lee, Suji; Han, Sung Won; Kim, Log Young; Lee, Tae-Seon; Oh, Min-Jeong; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Cho, Geum Joon

    2017-11-01

    Postpartum depression is related to many adverse effects in both mothers and their children; therefore, proper screening and early interventions are needed. This study aims to identify the risk factors of postpartum depression. Our primary focus is on obstetric risk factors. This study is a cross-sectional study which we extracted the data of women who gave birth between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2012 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service (HIRA) database. We analyzed the data using multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 17,483 (1.4%) women suffered from depression during the postpartum period. Younger (<20years) and advanced maternal age (≥35years), primiparity, previous depression, peripartum hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization, preterm delivery, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, induced labor, and preeclampsia were found to increase the likelihood of having depression after delivery. Our findings suggest that there are several risk factors that lead women to postpartum depression. Therefore, early detection and well-management of the symptoms and risk factors for postpartum depression along with social support can help both physical and psychological conditions of women after childbirth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. “When You’re a Baby You Don’t Have Puberty”: Understanding of Puberty and Human Reproduction in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hightower, Brianna; Sroka, Iris; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their current understanding of, and beliefs and misconceptions about, human reproduction, and to determine their needs for additional reproductive health education. We held qualitative focus group interviews with local children. Participants primarily reported learning about these topics from their parents prior to receiving school-based education in fifth grade. Their level of understanding was relatively low. They had little knowledge of internal sexual organs, expressed a range of beliefs about conception ranging from inaccurate to accurate but incomplete, and voiced concerns about transitioning into adolescence. This suggests a need for additional resources that provide comprehensible descriptions of reproductive health processes and mitigate puberty-related concerns. PMID:28931963

  8. Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.

    PubMed

    Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the

  9. Effects of body condition and leptin on the reproductive performance of Lusitano mares on extensive systems.

    PubMed

    Fradinho, M J; Correia, M J; Grácio, V; Bliebernicht, M; Farrim, A; Mateus, L; Martin-Rosset, W; Bessa, R J B; Caldeira, R M; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of body condition (BC), BC changes, and plasma leptin concentrations on the reproductive performance of Lusitano broodmares on extensive systems. Data from 119 mares (ranging from 4 to 22 years of age) were collected over a period of four consecutive breeding seasons. Each case was considered as one foaled mare bred in 1 year. Body condition changes at conception (ΔBCScon) showed a strong effect on fertility at the first two postpartum estrous cycles and a significant interaction with body condition score at conception (BCScon) was observed (P < 0.01). The best fertility results were obtained with positive and greater ΔBCScon. The best predictive value of fertility (91%) was achieved when the BCScon was 3.0 and ΔBCScon was 0.375. Global foaling rate for the 4-year period was 74.5%. Mean foaling interval and gestation length were, respectively, 368.0 ± 2.8 and 340.3 ± 1.0 days. Gestation length was influenced by the month of foaling (P < 0.05) and decreased as mares got older (P < 0.01). The number of estimated estrous cycles per live foal was 1.78 ± 0.12, including foal heat ovulation. Leptin was correlated with BCS (0.41; P < 0.001), but in the present study, plasma leptin concentrations on late gestation and early lactation did not influence fertility results. At 90 days of age, lower growth performances were obtained in foals which dams presented negative BCS changes on the first 3 months of lactation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BC changes at early postpartum period influence the reproductive efficiency of broodmares and the growth of their suckling foals. These findings are important to help breeders on management options concerning feeding strategies in the Lusitano production systems and others under similar conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of equine chorionic gonadotropin to control reproduction of the dairy cow: a review.

    PubMed

    De Rensis, F; López-Gatius, F

    2014-04-01

    Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a member of the glycoprotein family of hormones along with LH, FSH and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In non-equid species, eCG shows high LH- and FSH-like activities and has a high affinity for both FSH and LH receptors in the ovaries. On the granulosa and thecal cells of the follicle, eCG has long-lasting LH- and FSH-like effects that stimulate oestradiol and progesterone secretion. Thus, eCG administration in dairy cattle results in fewer atretic follicles, the recruitment of more small follicles showing an elevated growth rate, the sustained growth of medium and large follicles and improved development of the dominant and pre-ovulatory follicle. In consequence, the quality of the ensuing CL is improved, and thereby progesterone secretion increased. Based on these characteristics, eCG treatment is utilized in veterinary medicine to control the reproductive activity of the cow by i) improving reproductive performance during early post-partum stages; ii) increasing ovulation and pregnancy rates in non-cyclic cows; iii) improving the conception rate in cows showing delayed ovulation; and finally, iv) eCG is currently included in protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination since after inducing the synchrony of ovulation using a progesterone-releasing device, eCG has beneficial effects on embryo development and survival. The above effects are not always observed in cyclic animals, but they are evident in animals in which LH secretion and ovarian activity are reduced or compromised, for instance, during the early post-partum period, under seasonal heat stress, in anoestrus animals or in animals with a low body condition score. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Family planning practices and pregnancy intentions among HIV-positive and HIV-negative postpartum women in Swaziland: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Warren, Charlotte E; Abuya, Timothy; Askew, Ian

    2013-07-15

    In settings where sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevalence is high, the postpartum period is a time of increased biological susceptibility to pregnancy related sepsis. Enabling women living with HIV to avoid unintended pregnancies during the postpartum period can reduce vertical transmission and maternal mortality associated with HIV infection. We describe family planning (FP) practices and fertility desires of HIV-positive and HIV-negative postpartum women in Swaziland. Data are drawn from a baseline survey of a four-year multi country prospective cohort study under the Integra Initiative, which is measuring the benefits and costs of providing integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in Kenya and Swaziland. We compare data from 386 HIV-positive women and 483 HIV-negative women recruited in Swaziland between February and August 2010. Data was collected on hand-held personal digital assistants (PDAs) covering fertility desires, mistimed or unwanted pregnancies and contraceptive use prior to their most recent pregnancy. Data were analysed using Stata 10.0. Descriptive statistics were conducted using the chi square test for categorical variables. Measures of effect were assessed using multivariate fixed effects logistic regression model accounting for clustering at facility level and the results are presented as adjusted odds ratios. Majority (69.2%) of postpartum women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unintended with no differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women: OR: 0.96 (95% CI) (0.70, 1.32). Although, there were significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who reported that their previous pregnancy was unwanted, (20.7% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.004), when adjusted this was not significant OR: 1.43 (0.92, 1.91). 47.2% of HIV-positive women said it was mistimed compared to 52.5%, OR: 0.79 (0.59, 1.06). 37.9% of all women said they do not want another child. Younger women were more

  12. Breastfeeding and maternal weight changes during 24 months post-partum: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria da Conceição M; Oliveira Assis, Ana Marlúcia; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria C; de Oliveira, Lucivalda Pereira Magalhães; da Cruz, Thomaz Rodrigues P

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between breastfeeding and the loss of weight gained during pregnancy remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding and maternal weight changes during 24 months post-partum. We studied a dynamic cohort comprising 315 women living in two cities in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The outcome variable was change in the post-partum weight; the exposure variable was the duration and intensity of breastfeeding. Demographic, socio-economic, environmental, reproductive and lifestyle factors were integrated in the analysis as covariates. The data were analysed using multiple linear regression and linear mixed-effects models. The average cumulative weight loss at 6 months post-partum was 2.561 kg (SD 4.585), increasing at 12 months (3.066 kg; SD 5.098) and decreasing at 18 months (1.993 kg; SD 5.340), being 1.353 kg (SD, 5.574) at 24 months post-partum. After adjustment, the data indicated that for every 1-point increase in breastfeeding score, the estimated average post-partum weight loss observed was 0.191 kg at 6 months (P = 0.03), 0.090 kg at 12 months (P = 0.043), 0.123 kg at 18 months (P < 0.001) and 0.077 kg at 24 months (P = 0.001). Based on these results, we concluded that despite the low expressiveness, the intensity and duration of breastfeeding was associated with post-partum weight loss at all stages of the study during the 24-month follow-up. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Association between infertility treatment and symptoms of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Courtney D; Prasad, Mona R

    2014-11-01

    To examine the association between infertility treatment and subsequent symptoms of postpartum depression. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Women who delivered live-born infants from 2009-2010. None. Odds of symptoms of postpartum depression. Data were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). Data on infertility treatment were available for 16 states in which mothers were sampled 2 to 4 months after delivery to complete the standardized PRAMS questionnaire. Infertility treatment status was as reported on the birth certificate. Maternal mental health was obtained via the maternal questionnaire. Data were analyzed in Stata 12.0 with sample weights to produce population-based estimates. Among the 42,614 women who resided in states in which infertility treatment data were collected, infertility treatment status was missing for 2,277 (5.3%) women. Among the 40,337 eligible women, 12.9% reported feeling down, depressed or sad, and 6.0% reported feeling hopeless. These women were considered to have symptoms of postpartum depression. Even after adjustment for confounders, there was no independent association between infertility treatment status and symptoms of postpartum depression. In contrast, having a child admitted to neonatal intensive care, smoking, experiencing a higher number of stressors in the 12 months before delivery, and a history of having prepregnancy mental health care were associated with an increased odds of having symptoms of postpartum depression. In a population-based sample of U.S. women, conceiving with the help of infertility treatment did not increase the odds of experiencing symptoms of postpartum depression. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postpartum Depression Among Asian Indian Mothers.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Deepika; Park, Van Ta; McNiesh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To explore Asian Indian mothers' perspectives of postpartum depression (PPD) and mental health help-seeking behavior. Qualitative exploratory design. Using convenience sampling, postpartum mothers were recruited through flyers posted in public places and on social media sites. Postpartum depression risk was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) prior to qualitative interviews. Content analysis methods were used to extract themes from participant narratives. Twelve self-identified, married, Asian Indian mothers, aged between 29 and 40 years, living in Northern California, who gave birth to a healthy infant within the last 12 months, took part in this study. Scores on the EPDS indicated two participants were at an increased risk for developing PPD. Content analysis revealed two emerging themes: (1) Culture-specific postpartum practices and ceremonies and their role in maternal-infant postpartum recovery; and (2) Maternal mental health help-seeking behavior. Nurses taking care of women during the extended prenatal and postpartum period have the unique opportunity to build rapport with their patients which can offer a window of opportunity to educate and help dispel myths about PPD symptoms and treatment. To promote successful maternal-infant outcomes, PPD education should be initiated at the first prenatal appointment, continue during the pregnancy, and be incorporated into well-baby visits through the first postpartum year. Education should include signs and symptoms of PPD as well as importance of timely mental-health help-seeking.

  15. Bangladesh women report postpartum health problems.

    PubMed

    Goodburn, L

    1994-02-01

    The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee conducted operational research in Bangladesh to examine postpartum health problems. Researchers conducted focus groups, indepth interviews, and observation. More than 40% of the postpartum women had a delivery-related health problem by 2 weeks after delivery. 52% had signs or symptoms of anemia. Body needs after pregnancy, lactation, and blood loss during delivery exacerbate the nutritional anemia common to Bangladeshi women. 17% of the postpartum women had signs of infections. More than 50% had severe malnutrition, worsened by food taboos during the postpartum period. 60% of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. The mortality risk is elevated in low birth weight (LBW) infants. In this study, more than 50% of the newborns were LBW infants. Many Bangladeshi mothers discard the colostrum and begin breast feeding several days after delivery. 11% of the postpartum women had breast problem (e.g., cracked nipples). Women believed that susceptibility to evil spirits accounted for their being more vulnerable to health problems during the postpartum. They feared leaving the household. These findings show a need for home visits to provide valuable postpartum care.

  16. Prenatal exposure to chromium induces early reproductive senescence by increasing germ cell apoptosis and advancing germ cell cyst breakdown in the F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Stanley, Jone A; Arosh, Joe A; Pepling, Melissa E; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2014-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries such as chrome plating, welding, wood processing and tanneries. As one of the world's leading producers of chromium compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against multiple adverse effects of CrVI. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and can induce apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous studies demonstrated postnatal exposure to CrVI results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and puberty. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from gestational day (GD) 9.5 to 14.5 through drinking water, placentae were removed on GD 20, and total Cr was estimated in the placentae; ovaries were removed from the F1 offspring on postnatal day (PND)-1 and various analyses were performed. Our results show that gestational exposure to CrVI resulted in (i) increased Cr concentration in the placenta, (ii) increased germ cell apoptosis by up-regulating p53/p27-Bax-caspase-3 proteins and by increasing p53-SOD-2 co-localization; (iii) accelerated germ cell cyst (GCC) breakdown; (iv) advanced primordial follicle assembly and primary follicle transition and (v) down regulation of p-AKT, p-ERK and XIAP. As a result of the above events, CrVI induced early reproductive senescence and decrease in litter size in F1 female progeny. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Prenatal exposure to chromium induces early reproductive senescence by increasing germ cell apoptosis and advancing germ cell cyst breakdown in the F1 offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Pepling, Melissa E.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries such as chrome plating, welding, wood processing and tanneries. As one of the world’s leading producers of chromium compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against multiple adverse effects of CrVI. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and can induce apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous studies demonstrated postnatal exposure to CrVI results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and puberty. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from gestational day (GD) 9.5 to 14.5 through drinking water, placentae were removed on GD 20, and total Cr was estimated in the placentae; ovaries were removed from the F1 offspring on postnatal day (PND)-1 and various analyses were performed. Our results show that gestational exposure to CrVI resulted in (i) increased Cr concentration in the placenta, (ii) increased germ cell apoptosis by up-regulating p53/p27–Bax–caspase-3 proteins and by increasing p53–SOD-2 co-localization; (iii) accelerated germ cell cyst (GCC) breakdown; (iv) advanced primordial follicle assembly and primary follicle transition and (v) down regulation of p-AKT, p-ERK and XIAP. As a result of the above events, CrVI induced early reproductive senescence and decrease in litter size in F1 female progeny. PMID:24530425

  18. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.

  19. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first six months postpartum: The primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the contexts of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. Method In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect (CA) histories (CA+, n=97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n=53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infant at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and postpartum psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6 months postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. Results We found that all women independent of risk status increased in bonding to their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and PTSD) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all times points. Moreover, we found that at the 6 months assessment bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. Conclusion These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Parenting Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors. PMID:23064898

  20. Bilateral pheochromocytoma during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Wattanachanya, Lalita; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Plengpanich, Wanee; Houngngam, Natnicha; Buranasupkajorn, Patinut; Sunthornyothin, Sarat; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk; Snabboon, Thiti

    2009-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma manifesting during pregnancy is uncommon but it is responsible for a high maternal and fetal mortality rate, especially when unrecognized. Most cases of pheochromocytoma are sporadic but they can be part of hereditary autosomal dominant syndromes. We describe a case of bilateral pheochromocytoma in a term-pregnant patient with a previous history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Her genetic study revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.1900T>C, in the RET proto-oncogene which confirmed the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A). Unrecognized, the tumors caused a crisis with fatal outcome in the mother during the postpartum period. This event might have been prevented if the tumor had been detected previously. MEN2A affected pregnancy is an unusual condition. This syndrome should be suspected when a pregnant patient has a history of MTC. Early detection and appropriate management can prevent serious maternal and fetal complications. We also reviewed the literature of MEN2A-affected pregnancies.

  1. Relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive disorders and performance in dairy cows. Blood samples from 213 dairy cows were collected at 4 and 2 weeks prepartum, just after calving, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum to measure serum β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and progesterone concentrations. Cows were grouped on the basis of the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration at 1 and/or 2 weeks postpartum into two groups: the ketotic group (≥1200 μmol/L, n = 59) and the nonketotic group (<1200 μmol/L, n = 154). The body condition score (BCS) was assessed simultaneously with blood collection. Clinical endometritis was diagnosed by observation of vaginal discharges (>50% pus), and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (>18% neutrophils) at 4 weeks postpartum. Ovarian cysts were diagnosed by ultrasonography, and resumption of postpartum cyclicity was evaluated by progesterone concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. In the ketotic group, NEFA levels were higher (P ≤ 0.0005), whereas glucose (P < 0.05-0.0005) and urea nitrogen levels (P < 0.05-0.01) were lower than those in the nonketotic group during the postpartum period. Aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher (P < 0.01) in the ketotic group than those in the nonketotic group at 2 weeks postpartum. The BCS of the ketotic group was higher than the nonketotic group during the prepartum (P < 0.001) and postpartum (P < 0.05-0.001) periods. The probabilities of clinical endometritis (odds ratio = 2.55) and ovarian cysts (odds ratio = 2.80) were higher (P < 0.05) in the ketotic group than those in the nonketotic group. The hazards of resumption of postpartum cyclicity by 8 weeks postpartum (hazard ratio = 0.67) and pregnancy by 360 days postpartum (hazard ratio = 0.68) were lower (P < 0

  2. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Pooja R; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-09-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period.

  3. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women.

  4. Maternal weight in the postpartum: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts trial

    Objective: The primary objective was to determine if women enrolled in a lifestyle enhanced maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting (MIECHV) program had more favorable weight outcomes through 12 months postpartum compared to women randomized to a standard MIECHV program. Design: Delta...

  5. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  6. Developing content for a mHealth intervention to promote postpartum retention in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs and early infant diagnosis of HIV: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Odeny, Thomas A; Newman, Maya; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; McClelland, R Scott; Cohen, Craig R; Camlin, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal attendance at postnatal clinic visits and timely diagnosis of infant HIV infection are important steps for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We aimed to use theory-informed methods to develop text messages targeted at facilitating these steps. We conducted five focus group discussions with health workers and women attending antenatal, postnatal, and PMTCT clinics to explore aspects of women's engagement in postnatal HIV care and infant testing. Discussion topics were informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prior empirical research. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed according to the construct of the HBM to which they related. Themes were extracted and used to draft intervention messages. We carried out two stages of further messaging development: messages were presented in a follow-up focus group in order to develop optimal phrasing in local languages. We then further refined the messages, pretested them in individual cognitive interviews with selected health workers, and finalized the messages for the intervention. Findings indicated that brief, personalized, caring, polite, encouraging, and educational text messages would facilitate women bringing their children to clinic after delivery, suggesting that text messages may serve as an important "cue to action." Participants emphasized that messages should not mention HIV due to fear of HIV testing and disclosure. Participants also noted that text messages could capitalize on women's motivation to attend clinic for childhood immunizations. Applying a multi-stage content development approach to crafting text messages--informed by behavioral theory--resulted in message content that was consistent across different focus groups. This approach could help answer "why" and "how" text messaging may be a useful tool to support maternal and child health. We are evaluating the effect of these messages on improving postpartum PMTCT retention and infant HIV testing in a

  7. Massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kiracofe, H L; Peterson, N

    1975-06-01

    All reported cases of massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage have involved healthy young primigravidas and blacks have predominated (4 of 7 women). Coagulopathies and underlying renal disease have been absent. Hematuria was painless in 5 of 8 cases. Hemorrhage began within 24 hours in 1 case, within 48 hours in 4 cases and 4 days post partum in 3 cases. Our first case is the only report in which hemorrhage has occurred in a primipara. Failure of closure or reopening of pyelovenous channels is suggested as the pathogenesis. The hemorrhage has been self-limiting, requiring no more than 1,500 cc whole blood replacement. Bleeding should stop spontaneously, and rapid renal pelvic clot lysis should follow with maintenance of adequate urine output and Foley catheter bladder decompression. To date surgical intervention has not been necessary.

  8. Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G; Greco, L F; Cerri, R L A; Vieira-Neto, A; Monteiro, P L J; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this series of studies was to investigate the effects of inflammatory diseases occurring before breeding on the developmental biology and reproductive responses in dairy cows. Data from 5 studies were used to investigate different questions associating health status before breeding and reproductive responses. Health information for all studies was composed of the incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and respiratory and digestive problems from parturition until the day of breeding. Retained placenta and metritis were grouped as uterine disease (UTD). Mastitis, lameness, digestive and respiratory problems were grouped as nonuterine diseases (NUTD). Study 1 evaluated the effect of disease before artificial insemination (AI), anovulation before synchronization of the estrous cycle, and low body condition score at AI on pregnancy per AI, as well as their potential interactions or additive effects. Study 2 investigated the effect of site of inflammation (UTD vs. NUTD) and time of occurrence relative to preantral or antral stages of ovulatory follicle development, and the effect of UTD and NUTD on fertility responses of cows bred by AI or by embryo transfer. Study 3 evaluated the effect of disease on fertilization and embryonic development to the morula stage. Study 4 evaluated the effect of disease on preimplantation conceptus development as well as secretion of IFN-τ and transcriptome. Study 5 investigated the effect of diseases before AI on the transcript expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes during peri-implantation stages of conceptus development after first AI postpartum. Altogether, these studies demonstrated that inflammatory disease before breeding reduced fertilization of oocytes and development to morula, and impaired early conceptus development to elongation stages and secretion of IFN-τ in the uterine lumen. Diseases caused inflammation-like changes in transcriptome of

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Giri, Rajendra Kumar; Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Gartoula, Ritu Prasad

    2015-03-31

    Post-partum depression is a common complication of women after childbirth. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers attending a child immunization clinic at a maternity hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 post-partum mothers at six to ten weeks after delivery using systematic random sampling. Mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the association of post-partum depressive symptoms with socio-demographic and maternal factors. The prevalence of post-partum depressive symptoms among mothers was 30%. Mothers aged 20 to 29 years were less likely to have depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.21-0.76) compared to older mothers. Similarly, mothers with a history of pregnancy-induced health problems were more likely to have depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.16; CI: 1.00-4.66) and subjective feelings of stress (aOR = 3.86; CI: 1.84-4.66) than mothers who did not. The number of post-partum mothers experiencing depressive symptoms was high; almost one-third of the participants reported having them. Pregnancy-induced health problems and subjective feelings of stress during pregnancy in the post-partum period were found to be associated with depressive symptoms among these women. Screening of depressive symptoms should be included in routine antenatal and postnatal care services for early identification and prevention.

  10. Gestational Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Biomarker Screening Models and Lack of Postpartum Resolution.

    PubMed

    Street, Linda M; Aschenbrenner, Carol A; Houle, Timothy T; Pinyan, Clark W; Eisenach, James C

    2018-04-15

    To measure prevalence and severity of third trimester obstructive sleep apnea and evaluate postpartum resolution. To assess a novel biomarker for screening for obstructive sleep apnea in pregnancy. This prospective observational study was performed at Wake Forest School of Medicine obstetrics clinics between April 2014 and December 2015. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements and sleep studies were obtained and compared at 32 0/7 to 35 6/7 weeks gestation and postpartum. Exhaled nitric oxide and risk factors for the development of gestational sleep apnea were evaluated for predictive ability independently and in screening models. Of 76 women enrolled, 73 performed valid sleep studies in pregnancy and 65 had an additional valid study 6 to 15 weeks postpartum. Twenty-four women (37%) had gestational sleep apnea compared with 23 (35%) with postpartum sleep apnea ( P > .99). Eight of 11 women (73%) retested 6 to 8 months postpartum had persistent sleep apnea. Exhaled nitric oxide had moderate discrimination screening for sleep apnea in pregnancy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.64). A model utilizing exhaled nitric oxide, pregnancy-specific screening, and Mallampati score improved ability to identify women at risk for gestational sleep apnea (sensitivity = 46%, specificity = 91% and likelihood ratio = 5.11, area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.75). Obstructive sleep apnea is common in the early postpartum period and often persisted at least 6 months. Exhaled nitric oxide as a sole biomarker to screen for sleep apnea in pregnancy has only modest discrimination. Combined with additional parameters sensitivity and specificity improved. Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02100943, Title: Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Biomarker of Gestational Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Persistence Postpartum, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02100943. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  11. Correlates of postpartum depression in first time mothers without previous psychiatric contact.

    PubMed

    Sylvén, S M; Thomopoulos, T P; Kollia, N; Jonsson, M; Skalkidou, A

    2017-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder after childbirth. The strongest known predictors are a history of depression and/or a history of PPD. However, for a significant proportion of women, PPD constitutes their first depressive episode. This study aimed to gain further insight into the risk factors for PPD in first time mothers without previ