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Sample records for early postradition recovery

  1. Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M.; Romano, Carlo; Jenks, Jim; Bucher, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent. PMID

  2. Early Triassic marine biotic recovery: the predators' perspective.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Romano, Carlo; Jenks, Jim; Bucher, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent.

  3. Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Andreas J; Homola, György; Biller, Armin; Smith, Stephen M; Weijers, Heinz-Gerd; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Jenkinson, Mark; De Stefano, Nicola; Solymosi, László; Bendszus, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse results in morphological, metabolic, and functional brain damage which may, to some extent, be reversible with early effects upon abstinence. Although morphometric, spectroscopic, and neuropsychological indicators of cerebral regeneration have been described previously, the overall amount and spatial preference of early brain recovery attained by abstinence and its associations with other indicators of regeneration are not well established. We investigated global and local brain volume changes in a longitudinal two-timepoint study with T1-weighted MRI at admission and after short-term (6-7 weeks) sobriety follow-up in 15 uncomplicated, recently detoxified alcoholics. Volumetric brain gain was related to metabolic and neuropsychological recovery. On admission and after short-term abstinence, structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy (SIENA), its voxelwise statistical extension to multiple subjects, proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and neuropsychological tests were applied. Upon short-term sobriety, 1H-MRS levels of cerebellar choline and frontomesial N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly augmented. Automatically detected global brain volume gain amounted to nearly two per cent on average and was spatially significant around the superior vermis, perimesencephalic, periventricular and frontal brain edges. It correlated positively with the percentages of cerebellar and frontomesial choline increase, as detected by 1H-MRS. Moreover, frontomesial NAA gains were associated with improved performance on the d2-test of attention. In 10 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, no significant brain volume or metabolite changes were observed. Although cerebral osmotic regulations may occur initially upon sobriety, significant increases of cerebellar choline and frontomesial NAA levels detected at stable brain water integrals and creatine concentrations, serum electrolytes and red blood cell indices in our patient sample

  4. Strong Start Wraparound: Addressing the Complex Needs of Mothers in Early Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teel, M. Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Strong Start Study tested an innovative, High-Fidelity Wraparound intervention with families in early recovery from substance use. The Strong Start Wraparound model addressed the complex needs of pregnant and parenting women who were in early recovery to increase the protective factors of parental resilience, social connections, concrete…

  5. Exercise therapy and recovery after SCI: evidence that shows early intervention improves recovery of function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, AK; Woller, SA; Moreno, G; Grau, JW; Hook, MA

    2011-01-01

    Study design This was designed as an experimental study. Objectives Locomotor training is one of the most effective strategies currently available for facilitating recovery of function after an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there is still controversy regarding the timing of treatment initiation for maximal recovery benefits. To address this issue, the present study compares the effects of exercise initiated in the acute and secondary phase of SCI. Setting Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. Methods Rats received a moderate spinal contusion injury and began an exercise program 1 (D1-EX) or 8 days (D8-EX) later. They were individually placed into transparent exercise balls for 60 min per day, for 14 consecutive days. Control rats were placed in exercise balls that were rendered immobile. Motor and sensory recovery was assessed for 28 days after injury. Results The D1-EX rats recovered significantly more locomotor function (BBB scale) than controls and D8-EX rats. Moreover, analyses revealed that rats in the D8-EX group had significantly lower tactile reactivity thresholds compared with control and D1-EX rats, and symptoms of allodynia were not reversed by exercise. Rats in the D8-EX group also had significantly larger areas of damage across spinal sections caudal to the injury center compared with the D1-EX group. Conclusion These results indicate that implementing an exercise regimen in the acute phase of SCI maximizes the potential for recovery of function. PMID:21242998

  6. Early oral feeding after pancreatoduodenectomy enhances recovery without increasing morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, Arja; Wennink, Roos A W; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Tseng, Dorine S J; Steenhagen, Elles; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a change in the routine feeding strategy applied after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) from nasojejunal tube (NJT) feeding to early oral feeding improved clinical outcomes. Methods An observational cohort study was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing PD. In period 1 (n = 51, historical controls), the routine postoperative feeding strategy was NJT feeding. This was changed to a protocol of early oral feeding with on-demand NJT feeding in period 2 (n = 51, consecutive prospective cohort). The primary outcome was time to resumption of adequate oral intake. Results The baseline characteristics of study subjects in both periods were comparable. In period 1, 98% (n = 50) of patients received NJT feeding, whereas in period 2, 53% (n = 27) of patients did so [for delayed gastric empting (DGE) (n = 20) or preoperative malnutrition (n = 7)]. The time to resumption of adequate oral intake significantly decreased from 12 days in period 1 to 9 days in period 2 (P = 0.015), and the length of hospital stay shortened from 18 days in period 1 to 13 days in period 2 (P = 0.015). Overall, there were no differences in the incidences of complications of Clavien–Dindo Grade III or higher, DGE, pancreatic fistula, postoperative haemorrhage and mortality between the two periods. Conclusions The introduction of an early oral feeding strategy after PD reduced the time to resumption of adequate oral intake and length of hospital stay without negatively impacting postoperative morbidity. PMID:24308458

  7. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    PubMed Central

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of <13 had resolution of their symptoms within 28 days of injury. Conclusions: The only independent predictor of prolonged symptoms after sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  8. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C; Stein, Cynthia J; Bachur, Richard G

    2014-12-09

    To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of <13 had resolution of their symptoms within 28 days of injury. The only independent predictor of prolonged symptoms after sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. FGF-2 induces behavioral recovery after early adolescent injury to the motor cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-11-20

    Motor cortex injuries in adulthood lead to poor performance in behavioral tasks sensitive to limb movements in the rat. We have shown previously that motor cortex injury on day 10 or day 55 allow significant spontaneous recovery but not injury in early adolescence (postnatal day 35 "P35"). Previous studies have indicated that injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) enhances behavioral recovery after neonatal cortical injury but such effect has not been studied following motor cortex lesions in early adolescence. The present study undertook to investigate the possibility of such behavioral recovery. Rats with unilateral motor cortex lesions were assigned to two groups in which they received FGF-2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were tested in a number of behavioral tests (postural asymmetry, skilled reaching, sunflower seed manipulation, forepaw inhibition in swimming). Golgi-Cox analysis was used to examine the dendritic structure of pyramidal cells in the animals' parietal (layer III) and forelimb (layer V) area of the cortex. The results indicated that rats injected with FGF-2 (but not BSA) showed significant behavioral recovery that was associated with increased dendritic length and spine density. The present study suggests a role for FGF-2 in the recovery of function following injury during early adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Literacy Learning of At-Risk First-Grade Students in the Reading Recovery Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of the Reading Recovery early intervention. At-risk 1st-grade students were randomly assigned to receive the intervention during the 1st or 2nd half of the school year. High-average and low-average students from the same classrooms provided additional comparisons. Thirty-seven teachers from…

  11. The Effects of Varying Group Size on the Reading Recovery Approach to Preventive Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Sandra; Tunmer, William E.; Chapman, James W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an early intervention program based on the Reading Recovery (RR) format could be developed for pairs of struggling readers that would allow them to make accelerated progress similar to that experienced in the 1-to-1 RR tutorial. A preliminary pilot study showed that the RR lesson format could be…

  12. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale: An assessment of four dimensions in early recovery after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-02-13

    The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using the 2 instruments. The Rasch analysis was based on the assessment of 408 adult patients at admission to sub-acute rehabilitation in Copenhagen, Denmark after traumatic brain injury. The Early Functional Abilities scale provides valid and objective measurement of vegetative (autonomic), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which the Functional Independence Measurement™ has a floor effect. The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the early recovery of important aspects of brain function after traumatic brain injury, but is not unidimensional. We recommend removal of the "standing" item and calculation of summary subscales for the separate dimensions.

  13. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Focus on Early Optimized Treatment.

    PubMed

    Habert, Jeffrey; Katzman, Martin A; Oluboka, Oloruntoba J; McIntyre, Roger S; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Khullar, Atul; Milev, Roumen V; Kjernisted, Kevin D; Chokka, Pratap R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the case that a more rapid, individualized approach to treating major depressive disorder (MDD) may increase the likelihood of achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery for individual patients and that studies show it is possible to make earlier decisions about appropriateness of treatment in order to rapidly optimize that treatment. A PubMed search was conducted using terms including major depressive disorder, early improvement, predictor, duration of untreated illness, and function. English-language articles published before September 2015 were included. Additional studies were found within identified research articles and reviews. Thirty antidepressant studies reporting predictor criteria and outcome measures are included in this review. Studies were reviewed to extract definitions of predictors, outcome measures, and results of the predictor analysis. Results were summarized separately for studies reporting effects of early improvement, baseline characteristics, and duration of untreated depression. Shorter duration of the current depressive episode and duration of untreated depression are associated with better symptomatic and functional outcomes in MDD. Early improvement of depressive symptoms predicts positive symptomatic outcomes (response and remission), and early functional improvement predicts an increased likelihood of functional remission. The approach to treatment of depression that exhibits the greatest potential for achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery is early optimized treatment: early diagnosis followed by rapid individualized treatment. Monitoring symptoms and function early in treatment is crucial to ensuring that patients do not remain on ineffective or poorly tolerated treatment, which may delay recovery and heighten the risk of residual functional deficits. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Understanding time use, stress and recovery practices among early career physicians: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cranley, Nicole M; Cunningham, Christopher J L; Panda, Mukta

    2016-01-01

    Early career physicians (ECPs) work an average of 80 h per week, and at times may approach 24 continuous hours working. These hours, combined with a stressful work environment, and an inability to physically and psychologically detach from work make ECPs likely to experience burnout and other negative health-related consequences. This study provides insight into the stress and recovery challenges faced by ECPs in a typical hospital environment. Rich qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from participants regarding daily time usage, and recovery practices and needs. ECPs report longer working hours, less leisure time and shorter amounts of sleep than average working adults. ECPs do not participate in many resource-replenishing activities while at work, and when out of work, they tend to participate in more passive than active forms of recovery. Resource-draining activities were identified as requiring much of ECP's nonwork time, further limiting recovery. The prevention of burnout and other negative health consequences among ECPs requires the building of a workplace and educational culture that supports regular resource replenishment. This includes the need for a curriculum of medical education that teaches ECPs to identify the signs of stress and recovery needs, and how to effectively address these needs.

  15. Characteristics of long recovery early VLF events observed by the North African AWESOME Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitamor, S.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Ghalila, H.; Alabdoadaim, M. A.; Graf, K.

    2013-08-01

    Lightning strokes are capable of initiating disturbances in the lower ionosphere, whose recoveries persist for many minutes. These events are remotely sensed via monitoring subionospherically propagating very low frequency (VLF) transmitter signals, which are perturbed as they pass through the region above the lightning stroke. In this paper we describe the properties and characteristics of the early VLF signal perturbations, which exhibit long recovery times using subionospheric VLF transmitter data from three identical receivers located at Algiers (Algeria), Tunis (Tunisia), and Sebha (Libya). The results indicate that the observation of long recovery events depends strongly on the modal structure of the signal electromagnetic field and the distance from the disturbed region and the receiver or transmitter locations. Comparison of simultaneously collected data at the three sites indicates that the role of the causative lightning stroke properties (e.g., peak current and polarity), or that of transient luminous events may be much less important. The dominant parameter which determines the duration of the recovery time and amplitude appears to be the modal structure of the subionospheric VLF probe signal at the ionospheric disturbance, where scattering occurs, and the subsequent modal structure that propagates to the receiver location.

  16. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  17. Early Functional Connectome Integrity and 1-Year Recovery in Comatose Survivors of Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Sair, Haris I; Hannawi, Yousef; Li, Shanshan; Kornbluth, Joshua; Demertzi, Athena; Di Perri, Carol; Chabanne, Russell; Jean, Betty; Benali, Habib; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pekar, James; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Galanaud, Damien; Velly, Lionel; Puybasset, Louis; Laureys, Steven; Caffo, Brian; Stevens, Robert D

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess whether early brain functional connectivity is associated with functional recovery 1 year after cardiac arrest (CA). Materials and Methods Enrolled in this prospective multicenter cohort were 46 patients who were comatose after CA. Principal outcome was cerebral performance category at 12 months, with favorable outcome (FO) defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. All participants underwent multiparametric structural and functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging less than 4 weeks after CA. Within- and between-network connectivity was measured in dorsal attention network (DAN), default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) by using seed-based analysis of resting-state functional MR imaging data. Structural changes identified with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences were analyzed by using validated morphologic scales. The association between connectivity measures, structural changes, and the principal outcome was explored with multivariable modeling. Results Patients underwent MR imaging a mean 12.6 days ± 5.6 (standard deviation) after CA. At 12 months, 11 patients had an FO. Patients with FO had higher within-DMN connectivity and greater anticorrelation between SN and DMN and between SN and ECN compared with patients with unfavorable outcome, an effect that was maintained after multivariable adjustment. Anticorrelation of SN-DMN predicted outcomes with higher accuracy than fluid-attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weighted imaging scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, respectively, 0.88, 0.74, and 0.71). Conclusion MR imaging-based measures of cerebral functional network connectivity obtained in the acute phase of CA were independently associated with FO at 1 year, warranting validation as early markers of long-term recovery potential in patients with anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. © RSNA, 2017.

  18. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  19. Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-18

    S66-15802 (18 Dec. 1965) --- A camera on a recovery helicopter captured this scene as the Gemini-7 spacecraft slowly descends to the surface of the Atlantic Ocean to conclude a record-breaking 14-day mission in space. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Frank Borman, command pilot, and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot. Splashdown was at 9:05 a.m. (EST), Dec. 18, 1965. The two astronauts were hoisted from the water by a helicopter crew and flown to the aircraft carrier. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Influence of Dopamine-Related Genes on Neurobehavioral Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury during Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Wade, Shari L; Martin, Lisa J; Pilipenko, Valentina; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3.5 and 7 years after injury. Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dopamine-related genes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], solute carrier family 6 member 3 [SLC6A3], solute carrier family 18 member A2 [SLC18A2], catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT], and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1]) were examined in association with short- and long-term executive function and behavioral adjustment, as well as their trajectories over time. After controlling for premorbid child functioning, genetic variation within the SLC6A3 (rs464049 and rs460000) gene was differentially associated with neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time following TBI relative to OI, with rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. In addition, genetic variation within the ANKK1 (rs1800497 and rs2734849) and SLC6A3 (rs464049, rs460000, and rs1042098) genes was differentially associated with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery following TBI, with rs460000 and rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. The findings provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in genes involved in DRD2 expression and density (ANKK1) and dopamine transport (SLC6A3) plays a role in neurobehavioral recovery following pediatric TBI.

  1. A three-item scale for the early prediction of stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Baird, A E; Dambrosia, J; Janket, S; Eichbaum, Q; Chaves, C; Silver, B; Barber, P A; Parsons, M; Darby, D; Davis, S; Caplan, L R; Edelman, R E; Warach, S

    2001-06-30

    Accurate assessment of prognosis in the first hours of stroke is desirable for best patient management. We aimed to assess whether the extent of ischaemic brain injury on magnetic reasonance diffusion-weighted imaging (MR DWI) could provide additional prognostic information to clinical factors. In a three-phase study we studied 66 patients from a North American teaching hospital who had: MR DWI within 36 h of stroke onset; the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score measured at the time of scanning; and the Barthel Index measured no later than 3 months after stroke. We used logistic regression to derive a predictive model for good recovery. This logistic regression model was applied to an independent series of 63 patients from an Australian teaching hospital, and we then developed a three-item scale for the early prediction of stroke recovery. Combined measurements of the NIHSS score (p=0.01), time in hours from stroke onset to MR DWI (p=0.02), and the volume of ischaemic brain tissue on MR DWI (p=0.04) gave the best prediction of stroke recovery. The model was externally validated on the Australian sample with 0.77 sensitivity and 0.88 specificity. Three likelihood levels for stroke recovery-low (0-2), medium (3-4), and high (5-7)-were identified on the three-item scale. The combination of clinical and MR DWI factors provided better prediction of stroke recovery than any factor alone, shortly after admission to hospital. This information was incorporated into a three-item scale for clinical use.

  2. Early effect of intra-arterial treatment in ischemic stroke on aphasia recovery in MR CLEAN.

    PubMed

    Crijnen, Yvette S; Nouwens, Femke; de Lau, Lonneke M L; Visch-Brink, Evy G; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Fransen, Puck S S; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Lingsma, Hester F; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; van Zwam, Wim H; Majoie, Charles B L M; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2016-05-31

    To investigate the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) on early recovery from aphasia in acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that the early effect of IAT on aphasia is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. We included patients with aphasia from the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), in which 500 patients with a proximal anterior circulation stroke were randomized to usual care plus IAT (<6 hours after stroke, mainly stent retrievers) or usual care alone. We estimated the effect of IAT on the shift on the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) item language and the NIHSS item motor arm at 24 hours and 1 week after stroke with multivariable ordinal logistic regression as a common odds ratio, adjusted for prognostic variables (acOR). Differences between the effect of IAT on aphasia and on motor deficits were tested in a multilevel model with a multiplicative interaction term. Of the 288 patients with aphasia, 126 were assigned to IAT and 162 to usual care alone. The acOR for improvement of language score at 24 hours was 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.60), and at 1 week 1.86 (95% CI 1.18-2.94). The acOR for improvement of motor deficit at 24 hours was 2.44 (95% CI 1.54-3.88), and at 1 week 2.32 (95% CI 1.43-3.77). The effect of IAT on language deficits was significantly different from the effect on motor deficits at 24 hours and 1 week (p = 0.005 and p = 0.011). IAT results in better early recovery from aphasia than usual care alone. The early effect of IAT on aphasia is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with acute ischemic stroke IAT increases early recovery from aphasia and that the early effect on aphasia, as measured by the NIHSS, is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Music and speech listening enhance the recovery of early sensory processing after stroke.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Pihko, Elina; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2010-12-01

    Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients who had middle cerebral artery stroke were randomly assigned to a music listening group, an audio book listening group, or a control group. Auditory sensory memory, as indexed by the magnetic MMN (MMNm) response to changes in sound frequency and duration, was measured 1 week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke with whole-head magnetoencephalography recordings. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that the amplitude of the frequency MMNm increased significantly more in both music and audio book groups than in the control group during the 6-month poststroke period. In contrast, the duration MMNm amplitude increased more in the audio book group than in the other groups. Moreover, changes in the frequency MMNm amplitude correlated significantly with the behavioral improvement of verbal memory and focused attention induced by music listening. These findings demonstrate that merely listening to music and speech after neural damage can induce long-term plastic changes in early sensory processing, which, in turn, may facilitate the recovery of higher cognitive functions. The neural mechanisms potentially underlying this effect are discussed.

  4. Modeling carbon-nutrient interactions during the early recovery of tundra after fire.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rastetter, Edward B; Rocha, Adrian V; Pearce, Andrea R; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie L; Shaver, Gaius R

    2015-09-01

    Fire frequency has dramatically increased in the tundra of northern Alaska, USA, which has major implications for the carbon budget of the region and the functioning of these ecosystems, which support important wildlife species. We investigated the postfire succession of plant and soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) fluxes and stocks along a burn severity gradient in the 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire scar in northern Alaska. Modeling results indicated that the early regrowth of postfire tundra vegetation was limited primarily by its canopy photosynthetic potential, rather than nutrient availability, because of the initially low leaf area and relatively high inorganic N and P concentrations in soil. Our simulations indicated that the postfire recovery of tundra vegetation was sustained predominantly by the uptake of residual inorganic N (i.e., in the remaining ash), and the redistribution of N and P from soil organic matter to vegetation. Although residual nutrients in ash were higher in the severe burn than the moderate burn, the moderate burn recovered faster because of the higher remaining biomass and consequent photosynthetic potential. Residual nutrients in ash allowed both burn sites to recover and exceed the unburned site in both aboveground biomass and production five years after the fire. The investigation of interactions among postfire C, N, and P cycles has contributed to a mechanistic understanding of the response of tundra ecosystems to fire disturbance. Our study provided insight on how the trajectory of recovery of tundra from wildfire is regulated during early succession.

  5. The effect of vertebral fracture on the early neurologic recovery in patients with central cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Hjelm, Nik; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Weinstein, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    To compare early changes in the ASIA Motor Score (AMS) between patients with central cord syndrome (CCS) from an acute fracture to patients without a fracture. Patients with CCS were identified and stratified based on the presence of a fracture. The AMS through the first week of the patients' hospitalization was obtained. Initial injury severity as well as early neurologic recovery was measured using the AMS. Analysis of variance was performed to determine if age, gender, rectal tone at presentation, congenital stenosis, or surgery within 24 h significantly effected the change in AMS. A strong trend (p = 0.0504) towards a more severe initial neurologic injury in patients with a fracture (AMS 59.7) than in patients without a fracture (AMS 70.2) was identified. However, in the week after injury, patients with a fracture had an improvement in their neurologic function (ΔAMS +4.8) while patients without a fracture demonstrated neurologic decline (ΔAMS -5.9). The change in AMS between patients with and without a fracture was nearly significant (p = 0.06). Patients with central cord syndrome present with similar symptoms, but injuries with and without a fracture may be associated with a different early neurologic recovery. Patients with a fracture have a more severe injury at initial presentation, but tend to have neurologic improvement in the first week; conversely patients without a fracture have a less severe initial neurologic injury, but tend to have a slight decline in neurologic function over the first week.

  6. Modulation of early functional recovery of Achilles tendon to bone unit after transection by BPC 157 and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Krivic, A; Majerovic, M; Jelic, I; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2008-05-01

    In the presented study we compared the effect of stable peptide BPC 157 and methylprednisolone on early functional recovery after Achilles tendon to bone transection in a rat model before collagen healing started. Surgical transection of the right Achilles tendon to bone area was performed in seventy two Wistar Albino male rats. Healing Achilles tendon edges were harvested at days 1-4 following the transection. Using Achilles functional index (AFI), myeloperoxidase activity, histological inflammatory cell influx and vascular index early functional recovery was evaluated. Agents (stable peptide BPC 157 10 microg methylprednisolone 5 mg, normal saline 5 ml) were given alone (/kg b.w., intraperitoneally, once daily, first 30 min after surgery, last 24 h before analysis). Control group received normal saline 5 ml/kg. BPC 157 improved functional recovery (AFI values increased at all time points, p <0.05) by anti-inflammatory (decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological inflammatory cell influx, p <0.05) and increased new blood vessel formation (increased vascular index, p <0.05). Methyprednisolone decreased MPO activity and histological inflammatory cell influx, (p <0.05) but also decreased new blood vessel formation and did not affect early functional recovery. Stable peptide BPC 157 with combined anti-inflammatory action and induction of early new blood vessel formation facilitates early functional recovery in Achilles tendon to bone healing.

  7. Early Phase Contingency Trajectory Design for the Failure of the First Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver: Direct Recovery Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the successful launch of the Korea pathfinder lunar orbiter (KPLO) mission, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is now performing extensive trajectory design and analysis studies. From the trajectory design perspective, it is crucial to prepare contingency trajectory options for the failure of the first lunar brake or the failure of the first lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver. As part of the early phase trajectory design and analysis activities, the required time of flight (TOF) and associated delta-V magnitudes for each recovery maneuver (RM) to recover the KPLO mission trajectory are analyzed. There are two typical trajectory recovery options, direct recovery and low energy recovery. The current work is focused on the direct recovery option. Results indicate that a quicker execution of the first RM after the failure of the first LOI plays a significant role in saving the magnitudes of the RMs. Under the conditions of the extremely tight delta-V budget that is currently allocated for the KPLO mission, it is found that the recovery of the KPLO without altering the originally planned mission orbit (a 100 km circular orbit) cannot be achieved via direct recovery options. However, feasible recovery options are suggested within the boundaries of the currently planned delta-V budget. By changing the shape and orientation of the recovered final mission orbit, it is expected that the KPLO mission may partially pursue its scientific mission after successful recovery, though it will be limited.

  8. Impact of early incentive spirometry in an enhanced recovery program after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Rollins, K E; Aggarwal, S; Fletcher, A; Knight, A; Rigg, K; Williams, A R; Bhattacharjya, S

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of early incentive spirometry on the incidence of chest infection in patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A retrospective review on all consecutive laparoscopic donor nephrectomies (LDN) performed at a single institution from January 2008 to August 2012 was performed. We performed 84 LDN. Seventy patients had epidural analgesia continued for 48 hours postoperatively and 14 had a combination of spinal followed by oral analgesia. Incentive spirometry was introduced from July 2010 and 45 of the 84 donors used the spirometer as taught, both pre- and postoperatively. We performed 84 LDN; 39 patients did not receive incentive spirometers and had postoperative chest physiotherapy started on postoperative day 1. Of the 45 patients given incentive spirometers, 44 started using their spirometers as taught, after recovery once they were settled in the ward, 1 patient started the exercises the following day. In the group who received no spirometer, 5 patients had a chest infection. In the group of patients who started using their spirometers in the early perioperative period (44/45), no patient developed a chest infection. One patient in this group was excluded from the analysis because he started spirometer exercises on postoperative day 1. This patient did develop a chest infection. Our results suggest that early introduction of incentive spirometry after LDN significantly reduces the incidence of chest infection (P < .05); however, this benefit may be lost if the introduction of spirometry is delayed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient.

    PubMed

    Oluboka, Oloruntoba J; Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  11. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Impact of metabolic syndrome on early recovery of continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masatomo; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Toshifumi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The present study included a total of 302 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. In this study, postoperative urinary continence was defined as no leak or the use of a security pad. The continence status was assessed by interviews before and 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Metabolic syndrome was defined as follows: body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and two or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The effect of the presence of metabolic syndrome on the continence status of these patients was retrospectively examined. A total of 116 (38.4%) and 203 (67.2%) of the 302 patients were continent at 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, respectively. A total of 31 (10.3%) patients were judged to have metabolic syndrome. Despite the operative time being longer in patients with metabolic syndrome, no significant differences were observed in the remaining preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative variables between patients with or without metabolic syndrome. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome and the duration of hospitalization were significantly correlated with the 1-month continence status. Similarly, metabolic syndrome and estimated blood loss during surgery were independent predictors of continence rates at 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. These findings suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome could have a significant impact on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Early Validation of Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Design Using Heterogeneous Modelling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, Peter; Guerriero, Suzanne; Cristiano, Leorato; Rugina, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Modelling and simulation can support a number of use cases across the spacecraft development life-cycle. Given the increasing complexity of space missions, the observed general trend is for a more extensive usage of simulation already in the early phases. A major perceived advantage is that modelling and simulation can enable the validation of critical aspects of the spacecraft design before the actual development is started, as such reducing the risk in later phases.Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) is one of the areas with a high potential to benefit from early modelling and simulation. With the increasing level of required spacecraft autonomy, FDIR specifications can grow in such a way that the traditional document-based review process soon becomes inadequate.This paper shows that FDIR modelling and simulation in a system context can provide a powerful tool to support the FDIR verification process. It is highlighted that FDIR modelling at this early stage requires heterogeneous modelling tools and languages, in order to provide an adequate functional description of the different components (i.e. FDIR functions, environment, equipment, etc.) to be modelled.For this reason, an FDIR simulation framework is proposed in this paper. This framework is based on a number of tools already available in the Avionics Systems Laboratory at ESTEC, which are the Avionics Test Bench Functional Engineering Simulator (ATB FES), Matlab/Simulink, TASTE, and Real Time Developer Studio (RTDS).The paper then discusses the application of the proposed simulation framework to a real case-study, i.e. the FDIR modelling of a satellite in support of actual ESA mission. Challenges and benefits of the approach are described. Finally, lessons learned and the generality of the proposed approach are discussed.

  14. Novel approach to repair of acute achilles tendon rupture: early recovery without postoperative fixation or orthosis.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Tadahiko; Miyamoto, Wataru; Uchio, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    Immobilization or orthosis is required after conventional Achilles tendon surgery. Hypothesis This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early rehabilitation without any postoperative immobilization or orthosis. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty consecutive patients (14 men and 6 women; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 16-70 years) who had acute subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture were treated by the new method, with an average follow-up of 2.9 years (range, 2-4.8 years). Among them, 15 injuries were sports-related and 5 were work-related. The authors applied a side-locking loop technique of their own design for the core suture, using braided polyblend suture thread, with peripheral cross-stitches added. The patients started active and passive ankle mobilization from the next day, partial weightbearing walking from 1 week, full-load walking from 4 weeks, and double-legged heel raises from 6 weeks after surgery. The range of motion recovery equal to the intact side averaged 3.2 weeks. Double-legged heel raises and 20 continuous single-legged heel raise exercises were possible at an average of 6.3 weeks and 9.9 weeks, respectively. T2-weighted magnetic resonance signal intensity recovered to equal that of the intact portion of the same tendon at 12 weeks. The patients resumed sports activities or heavy labor at an average of 14.4 weeks. The Achilles tendon rupture score averaged 98.3 at 24 weeks. There were no complications. This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early mobilization exercise without costly specialized orthosis or immobilization and allows an early return to normal life and sports activities, reducing the physical and economic burden on patients.

  15. Rapid Recovery of Vesicular Dopamine Levels in Methamphetamine Users in Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Isabelle; McCluskey, Tina; Tong, Junchao; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported very low levels of dopamine in post-mortem striatum of chronic methamphetamine users, raising the possibility that restoration of normal dopamine levels could help in this addiction and perhaps prevent early relapse. To establish relevance of this finding to the living brain, we tested whether striatal [11C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding, a vesicular monoamine transporter probe sensitive to changes in (stored) vesicular dopamine, is elevated in methamphetamine users. Chronic methamphetamine users underwent [11C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine positron emission tomography scans during early (mean 2.6 days) and later (~10 days) abstinence. Striatal [11C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding was elevated (suggesting low stored dopamine) in methamphetamine users (n=28; 2.6 days after last use) relative to controls (n=22) (+28%, p<0.0001) and correlated with severity and recency of drug use and with cognitive impairment and withdrawal symptoms. Mean [11C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding levels in the subgroup of methamphetamine users who could remain abstinent ~10 days following last use (n=17) were normal at the follow-up scan. Our imaging data support post-mortem findings and suggest that chronic methamphetamine users have low brain levels of stored dopamine during very early abstinence from MA, which could contribute to behavioral and cognitive deficits. Findings also suggest a rapid recovery of stored dopamine in some methamphetamine users who become abstinent and who therefore might not benefit from dopamine replacement medication (eg, levodopa). Further study is necessary to establish whether those users who could not maintain abstinence for the second scan might have a more severe and persistent dopamine deficiency and who could benefit from this medication. PMID:26321315

  16. Rapid Recovery of Vesicular Dopamine Levels in Methamphetamine Users in Early Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; McCluskey, Tina; Tong, Junchao; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported very low levels of dopamine in post-mortem striatum of chronic methamphetamine users, raising the possibility that restoration of normal dopamine levels could help in this addiction and perhaps prevent early relapse. To establish relevance of this finding to the living brain, we tested whether striatal [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding, a vesicular monoamine transporter probe sensitive to changes in (stored) vesicular dopamine, is elevated in methamphetamine users. Chronic methamphetamine users underwent [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine positron emission tomography scans during early (mean 2.6 days) and later (~10 days) abstinence. Striatal [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding was elevated (suggesting low stored dopamine) in methamphetamine users (n=28; 2.6 days after last use) relative to controls (n=22) (+28%, p<0.0001) and correlated with severity and recency of drug use and with cognitive impairment and withdrawal symptoms. Mean [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding levels in the subgroup of methamphetamine users who could remain abstinent ~10 days following last use (n=17) were normal at the follow-up scan. Our imaging data support post-mortem findings and suggest that chronic methamphetamine users have low brain levels of stored dopamine during very early abstinence from MA, which could contribute to behavioral and cognitive deficits. Findings also suggest a rapid recovery of stored dopamine in some methamphetamine users who become abstinent and who therefore might not benefit from dopamine replacement medication (eg, levodopa). Further study is necessary to establish whether those users who could not maintain abstinence for the second scan might have a more severe and persistent dopamine deficiency and who could benefit from this medication.

  17. Recovery vs. Restructuring: Establishing Ecologic Patterns in Early and Middle Triassic Paleocommunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiser, M.; Dineen, A.; Sheehan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Published data has been interpreted as indicating that marine ecological devastation following the end-Permian mass extinction was protracted and may have lasted 5 million years into the Middle Triassic (Anisian). However, a review of previous literature shows that understanding of biotic recovery is typically based on only a few components of the ecosystem, such as on taxonomic diversity, a single genus/phylum, or facies. Typically, paleocommunities are considered fully recovered when dominance and diversity are regained and normal ecosystem functioning has resumed. However, in addition to the biodiversity crash at the end of the Permian, taxonomic and ecologic structure also changed,with the extinction marking the faunal shift from brachiopod-rich Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna (EF) to the mollusc-rich Modern EF. This suggests that the extreme reorganizational nature of the Triassic does not adhere to the standard definition of recovery, which is a return to previous conditions. Thus, we propose the term 'restructuring' to describe this interval, as Early and Middle Triassic communities might not exhibit the typical characteristics of a 'normal' Permian one. To more fully characterize Triassic ecologic restructuring, paleoecologists should take into account functional diversity and redundancy. We quantified functional richness and regularity in four different paleocommunities from classic Permian and Triassic sections. Functional richness was low in paleocommunities after the end-Permian mass extinction, but increased to high levels by the Middle Triassic. In contrast, functional regularity was low in the Middle Permian, but high in all the Triassic paleocommunities. The change from low to high functional regularity/redundancy at the P/T boundary may be a factor of the highly stressful Triassic environmental conditions (i.e. anoxia, hypercapnia), as high regularity in a community can boost survival in harsh environments. Parameters such as these will more

  18. Randomized trial of subfascial infusion of ropivacaine for early recovery in laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Go Eun; Kim, Hee Cheol; Jun, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jin Young; Shin, Byung-Seop; Yoo, Heejin; Jung, Sin-Ho; Kim, Joungyoun; Lee, Seung Hyeon; Yo, Deok Kyu; Na, Yu Ri

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a need for investigating the analgesic method as part of early recovery after surgery tailored for laparoscopic colorectal cancer (LCRC) surgery. In this randomized trial, we aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of an inverse ‘v’ shaped bilateral, subfascial ropivacaine continuous infusion in LCRC surgery. Methods Forty two patients undergoing elective LCRC surgery were randomly allocated to one of two groups to receive either 0.5% ropivacaine continuous infusion at the subfascial plane (n = 20, R group) or fentanyl intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV PCA) (n = 22, F group) for postoperative 72 hours. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scores (VAS) when coughing at postoperative 24 hours. Secondary end points were the VAS at 1, 6, 48, and 72 hours, time to first flatus, time to first rescue meperidine requirement, rescue meperidine consumption, length of hospital stay, postoperative nausea and vomiting, sedation, hypotension, dizziness, headache, and wound complications. Results The VAS at rest and when coughing were similar between the groups throughout the study. The time to first gas passage and time to first rescue meperidine at ward were significantly shorter in the R group compared to the F group (P = 0.010). Rescue meperidine was administered less in the R group; however, without statistical significance. Other study parameters were not different between the groups. Conclusions Ropivacaine continuous infusion with an inverse ‘v ’ shaped bilateral, subfascial catheter placement showed significantly enhanced bowel recovery and analgesic efficacy was not different from IV PCA in LCRC surgery. PMID:27924202

  19. Long-Term Effectiveness of the Reading Recovery Early Reading Intervention Program in a Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Adam Warren

    2011-01-01

    There are many programs that specialize in teaching students the necessary strategies for reading. But which ones will have the greatest impact and provide lasting skills to struggling students? The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Reading Recovery early intervention program on the lowest performing first grade students…

  20. Early Intervention to Support the Academic Recovery of First-Year Students at Risk of Non-Continuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia

    2013-01-01

    The widening participation agenda and related concerns about student retention require a more systematic focus on supporting student success. This paper describes a process designed with the dual goals of supporting the short-term academic recovery of students at risk of non-continuation due to early difficulties with assessment and developing…

  1. Early exercise in critically ill patients enhances short-term functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Burtin, Chris; Clerckx, Beatrix; Robbeets, Christophe; Ferdinande, Patrick; Langer, Daniel; Troosters, Thierry; Hermans, Greet; Decramer, Marc; Gosselink, Rik

    2009-09-01

    : To investigate whether a daily exercise session, using a bedside cycle ergometer, is a safe and effective intervention in preventing or attenuating the decrease in functional exercise capacity, functional status, and quadriceps force that is associated with prolonged intensive care unit stay. A prolonged stay in the intensive care unit is associated with muscle dysfunction, which may contribute to an impaired functional status up to 1 yr after hospital discharge. No evidence is available concerning the effectiveness of an early exercise training intervention to prevent these detrimental complications. : Randomized controlled trial. : Medical and surgical intensive care unit at University Hospital Gasthuisberg. : Ninety critically ill patients were included as soon as their cardiorespiratory condition allowed bedside cycling exercise (starting from day 5), given they still had an expected prolonged intensive care unit stay of at least 7 more days. : Both groups received respiratory physiotherapy and a daily standardized passive or active motion session of upper and lower limbs. In addition, the treatment group performed a passive or active exercise training session for 20 mins/day, using a bedside ergometer. : All outcome data are reflective for survivors. Quadriceps force and functional status were assessed at intensive care unit discharge and hospital discharge. Six-minute walking distance was measured at hospital discharge. No adverse events were identified during and immediately after the exercise training. At intensive care unit discharge, quadriceps force and functional status were not different between groups. At hospital discharge, 6-min walking distance, isometric quadriceps force, and the subjective feeling of functional well-being (as measured with "Physical Functioning" item of the Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire) were significantly higher in the treatment group (p < .05). : Early exercise training in critically ill intensive care unit

  2. Strength Training to Enhance Early Recovery after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Collins, Eileen; Park, Chang; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cancer treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) results in moderate to severe fatigue and physical inactivity, leading to diminished functional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an exercise intervention, strength training to enhance early recovery (STEER), on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life after HCT. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared strength training (n = 33) to usual care plus attention control with health education (UC + AC with HE) (n = 34). Subjects were stratified by type of transplantation and age. STEER consisted of a comprehensive program of progressive resistance introduced during hospitalization and continued for 6 weeks after hospital discharge. Fatigue, physical activity, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life were assessed before HCT hospital admission and after intervention completion. Data were analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance. Significant time × group interactions effects were noted for fatigue (P = .04). The STEER group reported improvement in fatigue from baseline to after intervention whereas the UC + AC with HE group reported worsened fatigue from baseline to after intervention. Time (P < .001) and group effects (P = .05) were observed for physical activity. Physical activity declined from baseline to 6 weeks after hospitalization. The STEER group was more physically active. Functional ability tests (timed stair climb and timed up and go) resulted in a significant interaction effect (P = .03 and P = .05, respectively). Subjects in the UC + AC with HE group were significantly slower on both tests baseline to after intervention, whereas the STEER group's time remained stable. The STEER group completed both tests faster than the UC + AC with HE group after intervention. Study findings support the use of STEER after intensive cancer treatment and HCT

  3. Unexpected recovery of function after severe traumatic brain injury: the limits of early neuroimaging-based outcome prediction.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Brian L; Giacino, Joseph T; Hirschberg, Ronald E; Gerrard, Jason; Wu, Ona; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2013-12-01

    Prognostication in the early stage of traumatic coma is a common challenge in the neuro-intensive care unit. We report the unexpected recovery of functional milestones (i.e., consciousness, communication, and community reintegration) in a 19-year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. The early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, at the time, suggested a poor prognosis. During the first year of the patient's recovery, MRI with diffusion tensor imaging and T2*-weighted imaging was performed on day 8 (coma), day 44 (minimally conscious state), day 198 (post-traumatic confusional state), and day 366 (community reintegration). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy values in the corpus callosum, cerebral hemispheric white matter, and thalamus were compared with clinical assessments using the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Extensive diffusion restriction in the corpus callosum and bihemispheric white matter was observed on day 8, with ADC values in a range typically associated with neurotoxic injury (230-400 × 10(-6 )mm(2)/s). T2*-weighted MRI revealed widespread hemorrhagic axonal injury in the cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Despite the presence of severe axonal injury on early MRI, the patient regained the ability to communicate and perform activities of daily living independently at 1 year post-injury (DRS = 8). MRI data should be interpreted with caution when prognosticating for patients in traumatic coma. Recovery of consciousness and community reintegration are possible even when extensive traumatic axonal injury is demonstrated by early MRI.

  4. Promoting recovery: service user and staff perceptions of resilience provided by a new Early Intervention in Psychosis service.

    PubMed

    Morton, Adrian; Fairhurst, Alicia; Ryan, Rebecca

    2010-02-01

    The principles and practice of recovery are guiding many changes in mental health service provision. As a new Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) service, we were interested in finding out if both staff and users perceive the service as promoting resilience and in turn, recovery. A naturalistic sample of service users and staff completed the Organizational Climate questionnaire to assess the degree to which the service promotes resilience in overcoming a first episode psychosis. The results indicated that both staff and service users similarly perceive the service as positively supporting resilience. The one exception was the staff rated the 'available resources to meet people's needs' as less than service users. The positive rating of resilience indicated that the service is working in a manner consistent with a recovery orientation. The results will act as a benchmark to compare with both other EIP services and future performance.

  5. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber’s oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  6. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in patients over 59 years: early recovery and 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Leivonen, Marja Kaarina; Juuti, Anne; Jaser, Nabil; Mustonen, Harri

    2011-08-01

    Bariatric surgery has shown to be safe for patients over 60 years with good results especially considering resolving of comorbidities. Sleeve gastrectomy is considered to be safer than gastric bypass (GBP) and more effective than gastric banding with less adverse symptoms. Weight loss may be more modest than after GBP, but the effect on vitamins may also be milder. Since 2007, we collected prospectively 12-month follow-up data from 55 sleeve gastrectomy patients of whom 12 were over 59 years of age. Vitamin and calcium supplements were used postoperatively. The recovery from the operation was recorded during hospital stay, at 1- and 12-month follow-up visits using a standard protocol including laboratory tests. The results between patients over and under 59 years were compared. The preoperative weight and weight loss were comparable between the groups. Operation time was shorter and hospital stay was longer for older patients, p = ns. There was no operative mortality. Early major complications were seen more often in the older age group, 42% vs 9% (p = 0.02), but late complications were more common in younger patients, 17% vs 44%, p = ns. Early complications were mostly bleedings, which did not lengthen the hospital stay, neither were re-operations nor endoscopic procedures needed. Excess weight loss and resolving of comorbidities after 12 months was comparable between the groups. However, vitamin deficiencies and hypoalbuminemia were more common in the older age group, 42% and 23% for vitamins and 44% and 29% for proteins, p = ns. The older patients had more adverse effects related to surgery, 25% vs 9%, and younger had more adverse psychiatric effects, p = ns. Sleeve gastrectomy is effective and safe for older bariatric patients. Weight loss is comparable to younger patients and enough to resolve the comorbidities in most of the patients. With standardized nutritional supplementation, the older patients had more often vitamin deficiencies and

  7. Social recovery therapy in combination with early intervention services for enhancement of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis (SUPEREDEN3): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Marshall, Max; Freemantle, Nick; McCrone, Paul; Everard, Linda; Lavis, Anna; Jones, Peter B; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max

    2018-01-01

    Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery. We did this single-blind, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (SUPEREDEN3) at four specialist early intervention services in the UK. We included participants who were aged 16-35 years, had non-affective psychosis, had been clients of early intervention services for 12-30 months, and had persistent and severe social disability, defined as engagement in less than 30 h per week of structured activity. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (sizes of four to six), to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services or early intervention services alone. Randomisation was stratified by sex and recruitment centre (Norfolk, Birmingham, Lancashire, and Sussex). By necessity, participants were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity at 9 months, as measured by the Time Use Survey. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN61621571. Between Oct 1, 2012, and June 20, 2014, we randomly assigned 155 participants to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services (n=76) or early intervention services alone (n=79); the intention-to-treat population comprised 154 patients. At 9 months, 143 (93%) participants had data for the primary outcome. Social recovery therapy plus early intervention services was associated with an increase in structured

  8. Propofol and sevoflurane during epidural/general anesthesia: comparison of early recovery characteristics and pain relief.

    PubMed

    Hepağuşlar, Hasan; Ozzeybek, Deniz; Ozkardeşler, Sevda; Taşdöğen, Aydin; Duru, Seden; Elar, Zahide

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the early recovery characteristics and pain relief of adult patients during combined anesthesia with (epidural and general), either with propofol or sevoflurane for maintenance in major abdominal surgery. Twenty-two patients (ASA I-III) were enrolled in this randomized, prospective study. After fluid preloading, 10 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% + 5 ml of prilocaine 0.5% + 1 ml of fentanyl 50 microg mL(-1) were administered via an epidural catheter. General anesthesia was induced with fentanyl and propofol after T6 sensorial blockade. Propofol group (n = 11) received propofol (2-5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), sevoflurane group (n = 11) received sevoflurane (1-2%) for maintenance. Anesthesia was supplemented with N2O in O2 and intravenous fentanyl. Continuous epidural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine + 1 microg fentanyl (5-7 mL h(-1)) was started forty-five min after the epidural bolus dose and 5 ml of it was given at the start of the wound closure. All anesthetics were discontinued except epidural infusion during the last suture. After emergence time was determined, the patients were transferred to the PACU. They were observed for orientation times of person and place. The pain scores (verbal analogue scale, 0-10) were assessed with 30 min intervals. When the patient's pain score was >3, rescue analgesic protocol (diclofenac Na 75 mg im followed by meperidine HCI approximately 0.25 mg kg(-1) iv at the latter period) was applied. In the case of inadequate pain relief during the latter assessment periods, meperidine HCI approximately 0.25 mg kg(-1) was administered. Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test were used for the statistical analysis. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. Between the groups no statistical differences were observed in the emergence time (5 vs. 6 min, median) and in the orientation time to person (6 vs. 10 min). Recovery of orientation to place was found faster in propofol group (7 vs. 12 min, p = 0.041). Pain scores of the patients

  9. Early stages of the recovery stroke in myosin II studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Baumketner, Andrij; Nesmelov, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The recovery stroke is a key step in the functional cycle of muscle motor protein myosin, during which pre-recovery conformation of the protein is changed into the active post-recovery conformation, ready to exersice force. We study the microscopic details of this transition using molecular dynamics simulations of atomistic models in implicit and explicit solvent. In more than 2 μs of aggregate simulation time, we uncover evidence that the recovery stroke is a two-step process consisting of two stages separated by a time delay. In our simulations, we directly observe the first stage at which switch II loop closes in the presence of adenosine triphosphate at the nucleotide binding site. The resulting configuration of the nucleotide binding site is identical to that detected experimentally. Distribution of inter-residue distances measured in the force generating region of myosin is in good agreement with the experimental data. The second stage of the recovery stroke structural transition, rotation of the converter domain, was not observed in our simulations. Apparently it occurs on a longer time scale. We suggest that the two parts of the recovery stroke need to be studied using separate computational models. PMID:21922589

  10. Modeling long recovery early events (LOREs) produced by lightning-induced ionization of the nighttime upper mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    We present results of a cylindrically symmetric, coupled electrodynamic, and photochemical model which simulates diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150 kA). Scattering of subionospherically propagating, very low frequency radio waves is then evaluated using the Long-Wave Propagation Capability code. Some modeled sprite halos exhibit continued electron density growth up to timescales of seconds due to O- detachment, though it is not yet clear how this might relate to the slower onset durations (>20 ms) of some early VLF events. Modeled electron density enhancements in sprite halos, capable of strong VLF scattering, can persist for long periods of time (greater than hundreds of seconds) even at lower altitudes where their recovery is initially controlled by fast attachment processes. Consequently, our modeling results indicate that both typical recovery (20 to 240 s) and long recovery (LOREs, >300 s) VLF scattering events can be explained by scattering from conductivity changes associated with sprite halos. In contrast, modeled scattered fields resulting from elve-associated conductivity changes, though exhibiting long recovery times, are too weak to sufficiently explain typical LORE observations. Theoretical scattering from structured ionization events (e.g., sprites columns and gigantic jets) is not considered in this work.

  11. Daily MODIS data trends of hurricane-induced forest impact and early recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Spruce, Joseph; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Smoot, James; Gasser, Jerry; Bannister, Terri

    2011-01-01

    We studied the use of daily satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors to assess wetland forest damage and recovery from Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005 landfall). Processed MODIS daily vegetation index (VI) trends were consistent with previously determined impact and recovery patterns provided by the "snapshot" 25 m Landsat Thematic Mapper optical and RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar satellite data. Phenological trends showed high 2004 and 2005 pre-hurricane temporal correspondence within bottomland hardwood forest communities, except during spring green-up, and temporal dissimilarity between these hardwoods and nearby cypress-tupelo swamp forests (Taxodium distichum [baldcypress] and Nyssa aquatica [water tupelo]). MODIS VI trend analyses established that one year after impact, cypress-tupelo and lightly impacted hardwood forests had recovered to near pre-hurricane conditions. In contrast, canopy recovery lagged in the moderately and severely damaged hardwood forests, possibly reflecting regeneration of pre-hurricane species and stand-level replacement by invasive trees.

  12. Daily MODIS Data Trends of Hurricane-Induced Forest Impact and Early Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Elijah, III; Spruce, Joseph; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Smoot, James; Gasser, Jerry; Bannister, Terri

    2011-01-01

    We studied the use of daily satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors to assess wetland forest damage and recovery from Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005 landfall). Processed MODIS daily vegetation index (VI) trends were consistent with previously determined impact and recovery patterns provided by the "snapshot" 25 m Landsat Thematic Mapper optical and RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar satellite data. Phenological trends showed high 2004 and 2005 pre-hurricane temporal correspondence within bottomland hardwood forest communities, except during spring green-up, and temporal dissimilarity between these hardwoods and nearby cypress-tupelo swamp forests (Taxodium distichum [baldcypress] and Nyssa aquatica [water tupelo]). MODIS VI trend analyses established that one year after impact, cypress-tupelo and lightly impacted hardwood forests had recovered to near prehurricane conditions. In contrast, canopy recovery lagged in the moderately and severely damaged hardwood forests, possibly reflecting regeneration of pre-hurricane species and stand-level replacement by invasive trees.

  13. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  14. ‘Nature Concocts & Expels’: The Agents and Processes of Recovery from Disease in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The ‘golden saying’ in early modern medicine was ‘Nature is the healer of disease’. This article uncovers the meaning and significance of this forgotten axiom by investigating perceptions of the agents and physiological processes of recovery from illness in England, c.1580–1720. Drawing on sources such as medical texts and diaries, it shows that doctors and laypeople attributed recovery to three agents—God, Nature and the practitioner. While scholars are familiar with the roles of providence and medicine, the vital agency of Nature has been overlooked. In theory, the agents operated in a hierarchy: Nature was ‘God's instrument’, and the physician, ‘Nature's servant’; but in practice the power balance was more ambivalent. Nature was depicted both as a housewife who cooked and cleaned the humours, and as a warrior who defeated the disease. Through exploring these complex dynamics, the article sheds fresh light on concepts of gender, disease and bodies. PMID:26217069

  15. Symbolic healing of early psychosis: psychoeducation and sociocultural processes of recovery.

    PubMed

    Larsen, John Aggergaard

    2007-09-01

    This article analyzes sociocultural processes of recovery in a Danish mental health service providing two years of integrated biopsychosocial treatment following first-episode psychosis. The study is based on ethnographic research in the service and person-centered involvement with 15 clients. The analysis applies Dow's [1986 American Anthropologist 88:56-69] model of universal components of symbolic healing to elucidate sociocultural aspects of therapeutic efficacy that are alternatively disregarded as placebo or nonspecific effects. It is demonstrated how staff engaged with clients to deliver "psychoeducation" that provided scientific and biomedical theories about mental illness, constituting a shared "mythic world" that was accepted as an experiential truth and used to explain clients' illness experiences. The analysis highlights the need to supplement attention in Dow's model to the healing procedure with consideration of variability in the healing process. Depending on individual responses to the intervention, the staff's professional backgrounds and staff-client relationships different recovery models were applied. One suggested "episodic psychosis" and full recovery, and the other suggested "chronic schizophrenia" and the necessity of comprehensive life adjustments to the mental illness. The recovery models influenced clients' perspectives on illness and self as they engaged in identity work, negotiating future plans and individual life projects by including also alternative systems of explanation from the wider cultural repertoire.

  16. Early State Implementation of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Dietz, Shelby; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    Over the next three years, states will dedicate an unprecedented amount of federal funding to school improvement efforts at approximately 5,000 of the nation's lowest achieving schools. The $100 billion for education appropriated by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the stimulus package, included an…

  17. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    Treesearch

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Walter C. Shortle; Mark B. David; Kevin T. Smith; Richard A. Warby; Andrei G. Lapenis

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in...

  18. Effect of early supervised physiotherapy on recovery from acute ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Day, Andrew G; Pelland, Lucie; Pickett, William; Johnson, Ana P; Aiken, Alice; Pichora, David R; Brouwer, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of a programme of supervised physiotherapy on the recovery of simple grade 1 and 2 ankle sprains. Design A randomised controlled trial of 503 participants followed for six months. Setting Participants were recruited from two tertiary acute care settings in Kingston, ON, Canada. Participants The broad inclusion criteria were patients aged ≥16 presenting for acute medical assessment and treatment of a simple grade 1 or 2 ankle sprain. Exclusions were patients with multiple injuries, other conditions limiting mobility, and ankle injuries that required immobilisation and those unable to accommodate the time intensive study protocol. Intervention Participants received either usual care, consisting of written instructions regarding protection, rest, cryotherapy, compression, elevation, and graduated weight bearing activities, or usual care enhanced with a supervised programme of physiotherapy. Main outcome measures The primary outcome of efficacy was the proportion of participants reporting excellent recovery assessed with the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS). Excellent recovery was defined as a score ≥450/500 at three months. A difference of at least 15% increase in the absolute proportion of participants with excellent recovery was deemed clinically important. Secondary analyses included the assessment of excellent recovery at one and six months; change from baseline using continuous scores at one, three, and six months; and clinical and biomechanical measures of ankle function, assessed at one, three, and six months. Results The absolute proportion of patients achieving excellent recovery at three months was not significantly different between the physiotherapy (98/229, 43%) and usual care (79/214, 37%) arms (absolute difference 6%, 95% confidence interval −3% to 15%). The observed trend towards benefit with physiotherapy did not increase in the per protocol analysis and was in the opposite direction by six months

  19. The lower Triassic microbiolites in Chaohu region, East China and their contribution to the early Triassic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhihai; Zhang, Liwei; Hong, Tianqiu

    2010-05-01

    been found in the middle and upper Nanlinghu Formation. The macro fossil association of the lower Triassic in Chaohu region is quite different in different Formations. Ammonoids and bivalves can be found in the whole lower Triassic strata, and they are especially dominant in the Yinkeng Formation and lower Helongshan Formaiton, worms and borrowing animals can be found in the middle Helongshan Formation, fishes can be found in the uppermost Helongshan Formation and the lower Nanlinghu Formation, and the oldest ichthyosaurus in the world can be found in the upper Nanlinghu Formation. According to the changing characters of the fossil association in this area, it is indicated that the high-level ecosystem had been formed in this area in the late early Triassic, and the appearance of the microbiolites in the Helongshan Formation might be the milestone for the early Triassic recovery. Though the global recovery process after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction might be postponed to the end of the early Triassic, regional recovery process in Chaohu region might start at the end Smithian and actualized at the middle Spathian. The microbioilites might be the original impetus for the early Triassic recovery. Key words: microbiolites, early Triassic, regional recovery, Chaohu region Acknowledgments This work is supported by the grants from National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 40902096 and No.J0830522) and the IGCP 572 program. * Corresponding author: zhihai.jia@gmail.com

  20. Early corneal nerve damage and recovery following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Riau, Andri K; Lwin, Nyein C; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Tan, Donald T; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-03-25

    We compared early corneal nerve changes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). A total of 12 rabbits underwent LASIK in one eye and SMILE in the fellow eye. Baseline and follow-up evaluations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively were performed with in vivo confocal microscopy to evaluate 5 different areas within the treated zone: center, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal. Cryosections of the corneas and whole mount of the extracted SMILE lenticules were analyzed with immunostaining of βIII-tubulin. One week after SMILE and LASIK, a decrease in nerve length and density was observed in all evaluated areas. A trend toward greater subbasal nerve length and density (SLD), more eyes with subbasal nerves (ESN), more eyes with subbasal nerves longer than 200 μm (SNL), and higher mean number of subbasal nerves by frame (NSN) in SMILE than in LASIK groups was observed at subsequent follow-up time points. Only the SMILE group showed a recovery of SLD, ESN, and NSN by week 4 (P > 0.05). A trend toward more eyes with sprouting subbasal nerves and greater mean number of sprouting nerves was observed in LASIK than in SMILE, indicating that more subbasal nerves were disrupted and undergoing regeneration after LASIK. Immunostaining at postoperative week 4 revealed a faster stromal nerve recovery in post-SMILE eyes compared to post-LASIK eyes. Our findings suggest that SMILE results in less nerve damage and faster nerve recovery than LASIK.

  1. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  3. Influence of aerobic exercise intensity on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis in young men during early and late postexercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Danielle M; West, Daniel W D; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic exercise is typically associated with expansion of the mitochondrial protein pool and improvements in muscle oxidative capacity. The impact of aerobic exercise intensity on the synthesis of specific skeletal muscle protein subfractions is not known. We aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on rates of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis over an early (0.5-4.5 h) and late (24-28 h) period during postexercise recovery. Using a within-subject crossover design, eight males (21 ± 1 yr, Vo2peak 46.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two work-matched cycle ergometry exercise trials (LOW: 60 min at 30% Wmax; HIGH: 30 min at 60% Wmax) in the fasted state while undergoing a primed constant infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 0.5, 4.5, 24, and 28 h postexercise to determine both the "early" and "late" response of MyoPS and MitoPS and the phosphorylation status of selected proteins within both the Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Over 24-28 h postexercise, MitoPS was significantly greater after the HIGH vs. LOW exercise trial (P < 0.05). Rates of MyoPS were increased equivalently over 0.5-4.5 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05) but remained elevated at 24-28 h postexercise only following the HIGH trial. In conclusion, an acute bout of high- but not low-intensity aerobic exercise in the fasted state resulted in a sustained elevation of both MitoPS and MyoPS at 24-28 h postexercise recovery.

  4. New Early Triassic trace fossil records from South China: implications for biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M.; George, A. D.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    New Early Triassic trace fossil assemblages are documented from the Susong and Tianshengqiao areas in South China to evaluate the mode and tempo of biotic recovery of epifaunal and infaunal organisms following the end-Permian mass extinction. The Susong succession is exposed in Anhui area of the Lower Yangtze region and comprises mudstone and carbonate facies that record overall shallowing from offshore to supratidal settings. The Tianshengqiao succession crops out in the Luoping area, Yuannan Province of the Upper Yangtze region, and consists of mixed carbonate and siliciclastic facies which were deposited in shallow marine to offshore settings. Bivalve and conodont biostratigraphy helps constrain the chronostratigraphic framework of the Lower Triassic successions in these two sections. Griesbachian to Dieneria ichnological records in both successions are characterized by low ichnodiversity, low ichnofabric indices (ii=1-2) and low bedding plane bioturbation indices (bpbi=1-2). Higher ii (ii= 3 and 4) corresponding to densely populated diminutive Skolithos in the Tianshengqiao succession suggest an opportunistic strategy during earliest Triassic deposition. Ichnological data from the Susong succession show an increase in ichnodiversity during the Smithian. A total of 12 ichnogenera including Arenicolites, Chondrites, Gyrochorte, Laevicyclus, Monocraterion, Palaeophycus, Phycodes, Plaolites, Thalassinoides, Treptichnus, Trichichnus and one problematic trace are identified. Ichnofabric indices (ii) and bpbi increase to moderate to high levels (ii = 4-5, bpbi= 3-5). Although complex traces such as Rhizocorallium are in Spathian strata in this section, the low levels of ichnodiversity, ichnofabric indices and diminutive Planolites suggest a decline in recovery. In the Tianshengqiao succession, ichnofabric indices exhibit a moderate to high value (ii= 3 to 5), however, only six ichnogenera are found and Planolites burrows are consistently small (average diameter at 3

  5. Early Recovery of an Eastern Sierra Nevada Riparian System After 40 Years of Stream Diversion

    Treesearch

    Julie C. Stromberg; Duncan T. Patten

    1989-01-01

    Rush Creek, which feeds Mono Lake, has been diverted below Grant Lake, totally or in part, for over 40 years. In the early 1980's, because of above normal snow packs, runoff was released into the creek. Minimum flow releases have also been established. The riparian vegetation has responded to these releases. In a few areas, riparian trees and shrubs (e.g., black...

  6. [Influence of early kinesitherapy on rehabilitation postoperative recovery in case of low extremity operations].

    PubMed

    Tanović, Edina

    2009-01-01

    Arteriosclerosis is a disease effecting large elastic, elastic muscular and large muscular arteries. The primary pathological changes are found inside the arteries. Salient feature is atherosclerotic plaque. The main purpose of this paper is to determine whether early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization can give better rehabilitation results with patients after lower extremities operation, in comparison to patients which were not mobilized early in this stage. In this paper we have analyzed two groups of 40 patients that were operatively treated for circulation obstruction to lower extremities. The first, tested group was treated with early kinesiotherapy with early verticalization and mobilization. The second, controlled group was treated with kinesitherapy in bed. All the patients were analyzed according to their gender, age, primary diagnosis, postoperative complications, as well as capabilities for everyday activities. For the evaluation of the everyday life activities we used the Barthel index at hospital admission and discharge. Both groups of patients were equable in gender and age. The most common age group within the tested groups was between 61-70 for males and 51-60 for woman.The most common type of obstruction in both groups was occlusion of femoral artery. The complications which occurred among the tested patients were thrombosis, ileus and contracture in 7.5% of cases, while 85% of patients did not have any complications. Within the controlled group, decubitus occurred in 7.5% of cases, as well as gangrene and ileus. Ulcus occurred in 5% of patients, thrombosis in 10%, and contracture in 4% of cases. 40% of patients in this group were without complications. Based on the results stated above we can conclude that early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization of patients in postoperative phase after the treatment of lower extremities obstruction, have shown much better results in comparison to the patients which were only

  7. Early visual analysis tool using magnetoencephalography for treatment and recovery of neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Waqas; Neoh, Yee Yik; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham; Reza, Faruque; Idris, Zamzuri; Tang, Tong Boon

    2017-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging modalities play an important role in deciding the diagnosis and course of treatment of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. This article presents an analytical tool with visualization by exploiting the strengths of the MEG (magnetoencephalographic) neuroimaging technique. The tool automates MEG data import (in tSSS format), channel information extraction, time/frequency decomposition, and circular graph visualization (connectogram) for simple result inspection. For advanced users, the tool also provides magnitude squared coherence (MSC) values allowing personalized threshold levels, and the computation of default model from MEG data of control population. Default model obtained from healthy population data serves as a useful benchmark to diagnose and monitor neuronal recovery during treatment. The proposed tool further provides optional labels with international 10-10 system nomenclature in order to facilitate comparison studies with EEG (electroencephalography) sensor space. Potential applications in epilepsy and traumatic brain injury studies are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Joseph's Story: A Case Study of Late-Onset Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Early Birth to Recovery.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Sheila M; Martin, Laura B; Kijewski, Amy; Johnson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Although necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is often catastrophic among premature infants, most cases occur in the first month after birth. This case study presents Joseph's story about a 24-week surviving twin who developed severe NEC at 5 months of age just days before he was to go home. The purpose of this case study report is to place Joseph and his parents' experience in the context of what is known about NEC risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment, and then to offer recommendations to healthcare professionals to support families from NEC diagnosis to recovery. Now 5 years old, Joseph continues to manage consequences of NEC including deafness, developmental delay, multiple food allergies, and recurrent gastrointestinal challenges from short gut syndrome. Although NEC struck late and kept Joseph in the neonatal intensive care unit for 228 days, its consequences remain with this resilient child and his family.

  9. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeanette H; Conley, Lene N; Hedegaard, Jakob; Nielsen, Mathilde; Young, Jette F; Oksbjerg, Niels; Hornshøj, Henrik; Bendixen, Christian; Thomsen, Bo

    2012-07-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact of unaccustomed exercise on global transcriptional profiles in porcine skeletal muscles. Using a combined microarray and candidate gene approach, we identified a suite of genes that are differentially expressed in muscles during postexercise recovery. Several members of the heat shock protein family and proteins associated with proteolytic events, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1, were significantly upregulated, suggesting that protein breakdown, prevention of protein aggregation and stabilization of unfolded proteins are important processes for restoration of cellular homeostasis. We also detected an upregulation of genes that are associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, including MUSTN1, ASB5 and CSRP3, possibly reflecting activation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to facilitate repair of muscle damage. In addition, exercise increased expression of the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NR4A3, which regulates metabolic functions associated with lipid, carbohydrate and energy homeostasis. Finally, we observed an unanticipated induction of the long non-coding RNA transcript NEAT1, which has been implicated in RNA processing and nuclear retention of adenosine-to-inosine edited mRNAs in the ribonucleoprotein bodies called paraspeckles. These findings expand the complexity of pathways affected by acute contractile activity of skeletal muscle, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular processes that occur in muscle tissue in the recovery phase.

  10. Early prediction of coma recovery after cardiac arrest with blinded pupillometry.

    PubMed

    Solari, Daria; Rossetti, Andrea O; Carteron, Laurent; Miroz, John-Paul; Novy, Jan; Eckert, Philippe; Oddo, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Prognostication studies on comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients are limited by lack of blinding, potentially causing overestimation of outcome predictors and self-fulfilling prophecy. Using a blinded approach, we analyzed the value of quantitative automated pupillometry to predict neurological recovery after CA. We examined a prospective cohort of 103 comatose adult patients who were unconscious 48 hours after CA and underwent repeated measurements of quantitative pupillary light reflex (PLR) using the Neurolight-Algiscan device. Clinical examination, electroencephalography (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), and serum neuron-specific enolase were performed in parallel, as part of standard multimodal assessment. Automated pupillometry results were blinded to clinicians involved in patient care. Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) at 1 year was the outcome endpoint. Survivors (n = 50 patients; 32 CPC 1, 16 CPC 2, 2 CPC 3) had higher quantitative PLR (median = 20 [range = 13-41] vs 11 [0-55] %, p < 0.0001) and constriction velocity (1.46 [0.85-4.63] vs 0.94 [0.16-4.97] mm/s, p < 0.0001) than nonsurvivors. At 48 hours, a quantitative PLR < 13% had 100% specificity and positive predictive value to predict poor recovery (0% false-positive rate), and provided equal performance to that of EEG and SSEP. Reduced quantitative PLR correlated with higher serum neuron-specific enolase (Spearman r = -0.52, p < 0.0001). Reduced quantitative PLR correlates with postanoxic brain injury and, when compared to standard multimodal assessment, is highly accurate in predicting long-term prognosis after CA. This is the first prognostication study to show the value of automated pupillometry using a blinded approach to minimize self-fulfilling prophecy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:804-810. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  11. Influence of aerobic exercise intensity on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis in young men during early and late postexercise recovery

    PubMed Central

    Di Donato, Danielle M.; West, Daniel W. D.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is typically associated with expansion of the mitochondrial protein pool and improvements in muscle oxidative capacity. The impact of aerobic exercise intensity on the synthesis of specific skeletal muscle protein subfractions is not known. We aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on rates of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis over an early (0.5–4.5 h) and late (24–28 h) period during postexercise recovery. Using a within-subject crossover design, eight males (21 ± 1 yr, V̇o2peak 46.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed two work-matched cycle ergometry exercise trials (LOW: 60 min at 30% Wmax; HIGH: 30 min at 60% Wmax) in the fasted state while undergoing a primed constant infusion of l-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 0.5, 4.5, 24, and 28 h postexercise to determine both the “early” and “late” response of MyoPS and MitoPS and the phosphorylation status of selected proteins within both the Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Over 24–28 h postexercise, MitoPS was significantly greater after the HIGH vs. LOW exercise trial (P < 0.05). Rates of MyoPS were increased equivalently over 0.5–4.5 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05) but remained elevated at 24–28 h postexercise only following the HIGH trial. In conclusion, an acute bout of high- but not low-intensity aerobic exercise in the fasted state resulted in a sustained elevation of both MitoPS and MyoPS at 24–28 h postexercise recovery. PMID:24595306

  12. The effect of early relearning on sensory recovery 4 to 9 years after nerve repair: a report of a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vikström, Pernilla; Rosén, Birgitta; Carlsson, Ingela K; Björkman, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Twenty patients randomized to early sensory relearning (nine patients) or traditional relearning (11 patients) were assessed regarding sensory recovery 4 to 9 years after median or ulnar nerve repair. Outcomes were assessed with the Rosen score, questionnaires, and self-reported single-item questions regarding function and activity. The patients with early sensory relearning had significantly better sensory recovery in the sensory domain of the Rosen score, specifically, discriminative touch or tactile gnosis and dexterity. They had significantly less self-reported problems in gripping, clumsiness, and fine motor skills. No differences were found in questionnaires between the two groups. We conclude that early sensory relearning improves long-term sensory recovery following nerve repair. I.

  13. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimising recovery after surgery: Predictors of early discharge and hospital readmission.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jonathan; Philp, Shannon; Wan, King M

    2016-10-01

    Fast track surgery (FTS) programs minimise the stress response after surgery and allow for enhanced recovery. To document the frequency and incidence of adverse events in patients enrolled on a FTS program and to investigate factors associated with shorter length of stay and readmission to hospital. A seven-year updated surgical audit of patients undergoing laparotomy for suspected or confirmed malignancy on a FTS program. Five hundred and fifty patients comprise the study group. Average age and body mass index (BMI) were 55 years and 28, respectively. Mean length of stay (LOS) was 3.4 days with 194 (35%) patients discharged on day 2. Six (1%) patients had confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE), three of whom were diagnosed on pre-operative imaging. Overall, transfusion rate was 5%. Adverse events in decreasing frequency were hospital readmission (4%) and significant wound infection (3%). All other adverse events were uncommon with rates <0.5%. Factors associated with a discharge on or after day 3 include age, pathology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, incision type, operating time, blood transfusion and cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors. Factors associated with hospital readmission include longer operating time, performance of lymph node sampling/dissection, longer LOS, development of wound infection, febrile morbidity, return to the operating room, unplanned intensive care unit admission and presence of other complications. Patients managed by a FTS protocol can expect enhanced outcomes when compared to historical controls. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Early signs of recovery of Acropora palmata in St. John, US Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, E.M.; Rogers, Caroline S.; van Woesik, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, diseases have caused significant declines in the population of the threatened Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. Yet it is largely unknown whether the population densities have recovered from these declines and whether there have been any recent shifts in size-frequency distributions toward large colonies. It is also unknown whether colony size influences the risk of disease infection, the most common stressor affecting this species. To address these unknowns, we examined A. palmata colonies at ten sites around St. John, US Virgin Islands, in 2004 and 2010. The prevalence of white-pox disease was highly variable among sites, ranging from 0 to 53 %, and this disease preferentially targeted large colonies. We found that colony density did not significantly change over the 6-year period, although six out of ten sites showed higher densities through time. The size-frequency distributions of coral colonies at all sites were positively skewed in both 2004 and 2010, however, most sites showed a temporal shift toward more large-sized colonies. This increase in large-sized colonies occurred despite the presence of white-pox disease, a severe bleaching event, and several storms. This study provides evidence of slow recovery of the A. palmata population around St. John despite the persistence of several stressors.

  16. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-11-09

    Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering (CWS-ePersisted) from those who will recover from stuttering (CWS-eRecovered). Fifty-six 5-year-old children with normal receptive language listened to naturally spoken sentences in a story context. ERP components elicited for semantic processing (N400, late positive component [LPC]) were compared for CWS-ePersisted, CWS-eRecovered, and children who do not stutter (CWNS). The N400 elicited by semantic violations had a more focal scalp distribution (left lateralized and less anterior) in the CWS-eRecovered compared with CWS-ePersisted. Although the LPC elicited in CWS-eRecovered and CWNS did not differ, the LPC elicited in the CWS-ePersisted was smaller in amplitude compared with that in CWNS. ERPs elicited in 5-year-old CWS-eRecovered compared with CWS-ePersisted suggest that future recovery from stuttering may be associated with earlier maturation of semantic processes in the preschool years. Subtle differences in ERP indices offer a window into neural maturation processes for language and may help distinguish the course of stuttering development.

  17. Preoperative Gabapentin Decreases Anxiety and Improves Early Functional Recovery From Knee Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ménigaux, Christophe; Adam, Frédéric; Guignard, Bruno; Sessler, Daniel I.; Chauvin, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Gabapentin has antihyperalgesic and anxiolytic properties. We thus tested the hypothesis that premedication with gabapentin would decrease preoperative anxiety and improve postoperative analgesia and early postoperative knee mobilization in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair under general anesthesia. Forty patients were randomly assigned to receive 1200 mg oral gabapentin or placebo 1-2 h before surgery; anesthesia was standardized. Patients received morphine, 0.1 mg/kg, 30 min before the end of surgery and postoperatively via a patient-controlled pump. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded over 48 hours. Degrees of active and passive knee flexion and extension were recorded during physiotherapy on days 1 and 2. Preoperative anxiety scores were less in the Gabapentin than Control group (visual analog [VAS] score of 28 ± 16 mm versus 66 ± 15 mm; P < 0.001). The Gabapentin group required less morphine than the Control group (29 ± 22 mg versus 69 ± 40 mg; P < 0.001). VAS pain scores at rest and after mobilization were significantly reduced in the Gabapentin group. First and maximal passive and active knee flexions at 24 and 48 hours were significantly more extensive in the Gabapentin than in the Control group. In conclusion, premedication with 1200 mg gabapentin improved preoperative anxiolysis, postoperative analgesia, and early knee mobilization after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair. PMID:15845693

  18. Early Recovery of Aphasia through Thrombolysis: The Significance of Spontaneous Speech.

    PubMed

    Furlanis, Giovanni; Ridolfi, Mariana; Polverino, Paola; Menichelli, Alina; Caruso, Paola; Naccarato, Marcello; Sartori, Arianna; Torelli, Lucio; Pesavento, Valentina; Manganotti, Paolo

    2018-07-01

    Aphasia is one of the most devastating stroke-related consequences for social interaction and daily activities. Aphasia recovery in acute stroke depends on the degree of reperfusion after thrombolysis or thrombectomy. As aphasia assessment tests are often time-consuming for patients with acute stroke, physicians have been developing rapid and simple tests. The aim of our study is to evaluate the improvement of language functions in the earliest stage in patients treated with thrombolysis and in nontreated patients using our rapid screening test. Our study is a single-center prospective observational study conducted at the Stroke Unit of the University Medical Hospital of Trieste (January-December 2016). Patients treated with thrombolysis and nontreated patients underwent 3 aphasia assessments through our rapid screening test (at baseline, 24 hours, and 72 hours). The screening test assesses spontaneous speech, oral comprehension of words, reading aloud and comprehension of written words, oral comprehension of sentences, naming, repetition of words and a sentence, and writing words. The study included 40 patients: 18 patients treated with thrombolysis and 22 nontreated patients. Both groups improved over time. Among all language parameters, spontaneous speech was statistically significant between 24 and 72 hours (P value = .012), and between baseline and 72 hours (P value = .017). Our study demonstrates that patients treated with thrombolysis experience greater improvement in language than the nontreated patients. The difference between the 2 groups is increasingly evident over time. Moreover, spontaneous speech is the parameter marked by the greatest improvement. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, D.H.

    The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms,more » represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.« less

  20. Early intervention and recovery among children with failure to thrive: follow-up at age 8.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dubowitz, Howard; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Starr, Raymond H

    2007-07-01

    problems. Children in the clinical-intervention-plus-home-intervention group had fewer teacher-reported internalizing problems and better work habits than the clinical-intervention-only group. Early failure to thrive increased children's vulnerability to short stature, poor arithmetic performance, and poor work habits. Home visiting attenuated some of the negative effects of early failure to thrive, possibly by promoting maternal sensitivity and helping children build strong work habits that enabled them to benefit from school. Findings provide evidence for early intervention programs for vulnerable infants.

  1. The Carmat Bioprosthetic Total Artificial Heart Is Associated With Early Hemostatic Recovery and no Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome in Calves.

    PubMed

    Smadja, David M; Susen, Sophie; Rauch, Antoine; Cholley, Bernard; Latrémouille, Christian; Duveau, Daniel; Zilberstein, Luca; Méléard, Denis; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Belle, Eric Van; Gaussem, Pascale; Capel, Antoine; Jansen, Piet; Carpentier, Alain

    2017-10-01

    To determine hemostasis perturbations, including von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, after implantation of a new bioprosthetic and pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH). Preclinical study SETTING: Single-center biosurgical research laboratory. Female Charolais calves, 2-to-6 months old, weighing 102-to-122 kg. Surgical implantation of TAH through a mid-sternotomy approach. Four of 12 calves had a support duration of several days (4, 4, 8, and 10 days), allowing for the exploration of early steps of hemostasis parameters, including prothrombin time; coagulation factor levels (II, V, VII+X, and fibrinogen); and platelet count. Multimeric analysis of VWF was performed to detect a potential loss of high-molecular weight (HMW) multimers, as previously described for continuous flow rotary blood pumps. Despite the absence of anticoagulant treatment administered in the postoperative phase, no signs of coagulation activation were detected. Indeed, after an immediate postsurgery decrease of prothrombin time, platelet count, and coagulation factor levels, most parameters returned to baseline values. HMW multimers of VWF remained stable either after initiation or during days of support. Coagulation parameters and platelet count recovery in the postoperative phase of the Carmat TAH (Camat SA, Velizy Villacoublay Cedex, France) implantation in calves, in the absence of anticoagulant treatment and associated with the absence of decrease in HMW multimers of VWF, is in line with early hemocompatibility that is currently being validated in human clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Marshall, Peter J; Smyke, Anna T; Guthrie, Donald

    2007-12-21

    In a randomized controlled trial, we compared abandoned children reared in institutions to abandoned children placed in institutions but then moved to foster care. Young children living in institutions were randomly assigned to continued institutional care or to placement in foster care, and their cognitive development was tracked through 54 months of age. The cognitive outcome of children who remained in the institution was markedly below that of never-institutionalized children and children taken out of the institution and placed into foster care. The improved cognitive outcomes we observed at 42 and 54 months were most marked for the youngest children placed in foster care. These results point to the negative sequelae of early institutionalization, suggest a possible sensitive period in cognitive development, and underscore the advantages of family placements for young abandoned children.

  3. Acute cardiac support with intravenous milrinone promotes recovery from early brain injury in a murine model of severe subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2017-04-01

    Early brain injury/ischaemia (EBI) is a serious complication early after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) that contributes to development of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI). This study aimed to determine the role of inotropic cardiac support using milrinone (MIL) on restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion attributable to EBI and improving outcomes after experimental SAH. Forty-three male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham), SAH induced by endovascular perforation plus postconditioning with 2% isoflurane (Control), or SAH plus isoflurane combined with MIL with and without hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor (HIF-I) pretreatment. Cardiac output (CO) during intravenous MIL infusion (0.25-0.75 μg/kg/min) between 1.5 and 2.5 hours after SAH induction was monitored with Doppler echocardiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-continuous arterial spin labelling was used for quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. Neurobehavioral function was assessed daily by neurological score and open field test. DCI was analyzed 3 days later by determining infarction on MRI. Mild reduction of cardiac output (CO) and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) depression were notable early after SAH. MIL increased CO in a dose-dependent manner (P<.001), which was accompanied by improved hypoperfusion, incidence of DCI and functional recovery than Control (P<.05). The neuroprotective effects afforded by MIL or Control were attenuated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) inhibition (P<.05). These results suggest that MIL improves acute hypoperfusion by its inotropic effect, leading to neurobehavioral improvement in mice after severe SAH, in which HIF may be acting as a critical mediator. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Association of pain ratings with the prediction of early physical recovery after general and orthopaedic surgery-A quantitative study with repeated measures.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kerstin; Wikström, Lotta; Fridlund, Bengt; Årestedt, Kristofer; Broström, Anders

    2017-11-01

    To compare different levels of self-rated pain and determine if they predict anticipated early physical recovery in patients undergoing general and orthopaedic surgery. Previous research has indicated that average self-rated pain reflects patients' ability to recover the same day. However, there is a knowledge gap about the feasibility of using average pain ratings to predict patients' physical recovery for the next day. Descriptive, quantitative repeated measures. General and orthopaedic inpatients (n = 479) completed a questionnaire (October 2012-January 2015) about pain and recovery. Average pain intensity at rest and during activity was based on the Numeric Rating Scale and divided into three levels (0-3, 4-6, 7-10). Three out of five dimensions from the tool "Postoperative Recovery Profile" were used. Because few suffered severe pain, general and orthopaedic patients were analysed together. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that average pain intensity postoperative day 1 significantly predicted the impact on recovery day 2, except nausea, gastrointestinal function and bladder function when pain at rest and also nausea, appetite changes, and bladder function when pain during activity. High pain ratings (NRS 7-10) demonstrated to be a better predictor for recovery compared with moderate ratings (NRS 4-6), day 2, as it significantly predicted more items in recovery. Pain intensity reflected general and orthopaedic patients' physical recovery postoperative day 1 and predicted recovery for day 2. By monitoring patients' pain and impact on recovery, patients' need for support becomes visible which is valuable during hospital stays. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Accelerated Recovery Within Standardized Recovery Pathways After Esophagectomy: A Prospective Cohort Study Assessing the Effects of Early Discharge on Outcomes, Readmissions, Patient Satisfaction, and Costs.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Henner M; El Lakis, Mustapha A; Markar, Sheraz R; Hubka, Michal; Low, Donald E

    2016-09-01

    After esophagectomy, some patients exceed targeted discharge goal within enhanced recovery after surgery programs. This study reviews the demographics, outcomes, cost, readmission rates, and patient satisfaction for the accelerated recovery (AR) group. Between 2010 and 2013, 137 consecutive esophagectomy patients were compared according to the length of hospital stay: AR 5 to 6 days, targeted recovery (TR) 7 to 8 days, and delayed recovery (DR) 9 days or more. The AR patients increased from 3% to 46% during the study period. The AR patients were younger, but all groups were comparable regarding comorbidities (Charlson, American Society of Anesthesiologists, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score), cancer stage, and treatment approach. The AR patients were more likely to have neoadjuvant therapy, shorter operations, and less blood loss. The DR patients were more likely to have complications (40% AR versus 45% TR versus 90% DR, p < 0.001). Inhospital and 90-day mortality was 1.5%. All AR patients were discharged home (100% AR versus 87% TR versus 63% DR, p < 0.001), and 30-day readmission rates were comparable between groups (14% AR versus 19% TR versus 5% DR, p = 0.122). Overall mean costs ($38,385 AR versus $41,607 TR versus $61,199 DR, p < 0.001) as well as readmission costs ($7,470 AR versus $27,695 TR versus $33,398 DR, p = 0.202) were lower in the AR group. Patient satisfaction scores were comparable between groups. Accelerated recovery is achievable in a significant proportion of patients undergoing esophagectomy. Accelerated recovery is associated with decreased treatment costs but does not lead to increased readmissions or decreased patient satisfaction. Enhanced recovery after surgery programs should be designed to accommodate patients appropriate for AR. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional recovery following early mobilization after middle third clavicle osteosynthesis for acute fractures or nonunion: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lädermann, A; Abrassart, S; Denard, P J; Tirefort, J; Nowak, A; Schwitzguebel, A J

    2017-10-01

    Good outcomes have been reported after surgical treatment for acute or nonunion of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. However, the postoperative rehabilitation and timeline for a complete functional recovery are poorly documented. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of an immediate motion protocol following plate fixation of a midshaft clavicle fracture and to compare functional recovery between acute and nonunion cases. Between October 2011 and July 2015, all patients above the age of 18, having either an acute or a nonunion of the midshaft clavicle fracture, were considered as potentially eligible for inclusion in this prospective case-control study. Postoperatively, no immobilization was recommended and patients were to undergo rehabilitation protocol consisting of hourly stretching. Forty-two patients were included (31 with acute and 11 with delayed fixation) at a mean follow-up of 33months (range, 12 to 78months). Surgical complications consisted of one transient frozen shoulder, one delayed union, and two superficial infections. All patients returned to work, retrieved full shoulder range of motion (ROM), and returned to heavy sports and activities. Function returned faster in the acute group compared to the nonunion group based on the SANE score at 2weeks (73±21 vs. 45±26 respectively, P=0.01), SANE score at 6weeks (89±15 vs. 66±23 respectively, P=0.01), SANE score at 3months (96±10 vs. 85±14 respectively, P=0.03), and based on return of full ROM (17±25 vs. 44±31 days respectively, P=0.01). A trend was observed for nonunion cases needing more time to return to work and sports activities. Functional outcome is excellent following the treatment of both acute and non-united clavicle fractures, but recovery occurs earlier following acute treatment. An early mobilization rehab protocol can be safely recommended for both types of conditions and may result in substantial healthcare cost-savings, without increasing

  7. Thrombopoietin treatment of one graft in a double cord blood transplant provides early platelet recovery while contributing to long-term engraftment in NSG mice.

    PubMed

    van der Garde, Mark; van Hensbergen, Yvette; Brand, Anneke; Slot, Manon C; de Graaf-Dijkstra, Alice; Mulder, Arend; Watt, Suzanne M; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Human cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants demonstrate delayed early neutrophil and platelet recovery and delayed longer term immune reconstitution compared to bone marrow and mobilized peripheral blood transplants. Despite advances in enhancing early neutrophil engraftment, platelet recovery after CB transplantation is not significantly altered when compared to contemporaneous controls. Recent studies have identified a platelet-biased murine HSC subset, maintained by thrombopoietin (TPO), which has enhanced capacity for short- and long-term platelet reconstitution, can self-renew, and can give rise to myeloid- and lymphoid-biased HSCs. In previous studies, we have shown that transplantation of human CB CD34(+) cells precultured in TPO as a single graft accelerates early platelet recovery as well as yielding long-term repopulation in immune-deficient mice. In this study, using a double CB murine transplant model, we investigated whether TPO cultured human CB CD34(+) cells have a competitive advantage or disadvantage over untreated human CB CD34(+) cells in terms of (1) short-term and longer term platelet recovery and (2) longer term hematological recovery. Our studies demonstrate that the TPO treated graft shows accelerated early platelet recovery without impairing the platelet engraftment of untreated CD34(+) cells. Notably, this was followed by a dominant contribution to platelet production through the untreated CD34(+) cell graft over the intermediate to longer term. Furthermore, although the contribution of the TPO treated graft to long-term hematological engraftment was reduced, the TPO treated and untreated grafts both contributed significantly to long-term chimerism in vivo.

  8. Integrative stratigraphy during extreme environmental changes and biotic recovery time: The Early Triassic in Indian Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Algeo, Thomas; Bhargava, Om

    2014-05-01

    The understanding of extreme environmental changes as major extinction events, perturbations of global biogeochemical cycles or rapid climate shifts is based on a precise timing of the different events. But especially in such moving environments exact correlations are difficult to establish what underlines the necessity of an integrated stratigraphy by using all tools at disposition. A Lower Triassic section at Mud in the Spiti Valley (Western Himalaya, India) is a candidate section for the GSSP of the Induan-Olenekian Boundary (IOB). The succession was deposited in a deep-shelf setting on the southern margin of the Neotethys Ocean. The section contains abundant fossils allowing a very precise regional biostratigraphy and displays no signs of sedimentary breaks. Analysis of pelagic faunas proves a significant, two-step radiation phase in ammonoids and conodonts close to the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These diversifications are coupled with a short-termed positive δ13Ccarb excursion of global evidence. The Spiti δ13Ccarb excursion displays, however, different amplitude and biostratigraphic position than in other relevant sections for this time interval. In this study, we analyzed δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, and δ15Norg as well as major, trace, and REE concentrations for a 16-m-thick interval spanning the mid-Griesbachian to early Spathian substages, to better constrains the chain of events. Prior to the first radiation step, high difference gradient between the δ13Ccarb values of tempestite beds with shallow carbonate and carbonate originated in deeper water is interpreted as a sign of a stratified water column. This effect disappears with the onset of better oxygenated conditions at the time of the ammonoid-conodont radiation, which correspond as well to δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg and δ15Norg positive excursions. A decrease in Mo and U concentrations occurring at the same point suggests a shift toward locally less reducing conditions. The second step coincided with the

  9. Evaluating an early intervention in psychosis service for 'high-risk' adolescents: symptomatic and social recovery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lower, Rebecca; Wilson, Jonathan; Medin, Evelina; Corlett, Emma; Turner, Ruth; Wheeler, Karen; Fowler, David

    2015-06-01

    This study presents client characteristics and treatment outcomes for a group of young people seen by Central Norfolk Early Intervention Team (CNEIT). The team offers an intensive outreach model of treatment to young people with complex co-morbid emotional, behavioural and social problems, as well as the presence of psychotic symptoms. Outcomes include both client self-report and clinician-rated measures. Data are routinely collected at acceptance into service, after 12 months of service and at point of discharge. Data show that clients seen by the CNEIT youth team are a group of young people at high risk of developing long-term mental illness and social disability. Outcomes show significant reductions in not only psychotic symptomatology, but also co-morbid anxiety and depression, as well as improvements in social recovery. At the end of their time with the service, the majority of clients are discharged back to the care of their general practitioner, which indicates that the team successfully managed to reduce the complexity of needs and difficulties associated with this client group. Outcomes support the use of an intensive outreach approach for young people at high risk of developing psychotic disorders. It has been suggested that this model may be successfully broadened to young people with other emerging, potentially severe or complex mental disorders. Norfolk and Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust has built on the success of its youth early intervention team and innovatively redesigned its services in line with this model by developing a specific youth mental health service. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Steps to Enhance Early Recovery After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Lessons Learned From a Physical Activity Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    This pilot study tested and refined a free-living physical activity intervention. The investigators evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determined preliminary effects on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life. This pilot study used a 1-group, pretest-posttest design. The free-living physical activity intervention consisted of an education component and 6 weeks of gradually increasing physical activity after discharge from the hospital. The intervention was designed to increase steps by 10% weekly. Subjects were assessed before transplantation and during the seventh week after discharge from the hospital after completing the intervention. Pretest-posttest scores were analyzed with paired t tests. Subject wore the physical activity tracker for an average of 38 of 42 days and met their physical activity goals 57% of the time. Subjects reported significantly less physical fatigue after the free-living physical activity intervention compared with baseline (P = .05). Improvements in quality of life approached significance (P = .06). The findings demonstrate that the free-living physical activity intervention implemented during the very early recovery period after transplantation is feasible and acceptable. The intervention potentially reduces fatigue and improves quality of life. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously given the pilot nature of the study. The evidence supports continued investigation.

  11. Accelerated recovery from Candida peritonitis of enteric origin by early surgical drainage in a peritoneal dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Muto, Shigeaki; Inoue, Makoto; Fukui, Taro; Kotoda, Atsushi; Takemura, Katsumi; Kimura, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Nobuo; Yagisawa, Takashi; Yumura, Wako; Kusano, Eiji

    2011-12-01

    A 62-year-old man on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was transferred to our hospital with recurrent abdominal pain and a cloudy peritoneal effluent. Three weeks before the transfer, his symptoms were successfully treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, their effectiveness was lost for his recurrent symptoms. Fungal peritonitis was diagnosed because of an increased white blood cell count in the peritoneal fluid on admission and isolation of Candida albicans from a peritoneal fluid culture. Intravenous fos-fluconazole was immediately started, although it was ineffective for his deteriorating symptoms. The concomitant isolation of Candida albicans in a stool culture suggested that fungal peritonitis had an enteric origin. An emergency laparotomy revealed multiple diverticulosis and sigmoid colon diverticulitis. A surgical drainage was performed in addition to peritoneal catheter removal. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly and there were no signs of recurrence with continuous administration of fos-fluconazole. Surgical drainage accelerated the recovery from fungal peritonitis. This patient is the first case showing the usefulness of stool culture in the diagnosis of fungal peritonitis secondary to prior bacterial peritonitis. This case also demonstrated the importance of laparotomy to confirm the enteric origin of the fungus, and the efficacy of early surgical drainage for the treatment.

  12. The effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for class III correction. Part II: electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can targeted early intervention improve functional recovery in psychosis? A historical control evaluation of the effectiveness of different models of early intervention service provision in Norfolk 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; Howells, Lawrence; Millward, Melanie; Ivins, Annabel; Taylor, Gavin; Hackmann, Corinna; Hill, Katherine; Bishop, Nick; Macmillan, Iain

    2009-11-01

    This paper assesses the impact of different models of early intervention (EI) service provision on functional recovery and inpatient hospital admission. The study compares the outcome of a comprehensive EI team with a partial model (community mental health team (CMHT) plus specialist support) and traditional care (generic CMHT) over a 10-year period. The design is in comparison with historical control. The study compares the functional recovery outcomes of three cohorts from the same geographical area over the period 1998-2007. The primary outcomes were partial and full functional recovery defined with respect to readily identifiable UK benefit system thresholds and psychiatric inpatient admission days at 1 and 2 years post-referral. Only 15% of individuals made a full or partial functional recovery at 2 years under the care of a traditional generic CMHT in 1998. In 2007, 52% of the cases were making a full or partial functional recovery under the care of the comprehensive EI team. A large reduction in inpatient admissions was associated with the EI strategy. The implementation of comprehensive EI teams can have a major impact in improving functional recovery outcomes in psychosis and reducing inpatient admissions. Partial implementation using limited funding of specialist workers in collaboration with traditional care appeared to have a more limited effect on these recovery dimensions. The implementation of targeted EI in psychosis strategies can result in substantive functional benefits. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. The effect of tourniquet and knee position during wound closure after total knee arthroplasty on early recovery of range of motion: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Şükür, Erhan; Öztürkmen, Yusuf; Akman, Yunus Emre; Senel, Ahmet; Azboy, İbrahim

    2016-12-01

    There is no consensus on the position of the knee joint while performing wound closure after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Further, there are no studies focusing on the association between early functional outcomes and different wound closure strategies. Therefore, we investigated the effects of tourniquet and knee position during wound closure on early recovery of range of motion (ROM) after primary TKA. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the influence of both tourniquet and knee position during wound closure in primary TKA. One hundred-twenty eligible patients were consecutively enrolled in this study and randomly divided into four groups according to wound closure strategy. Wound closure was either performed with the knee in flexion at 90° or in full extension, with the combination of an inflated or deflated tourniquet. Visual analogue score (VAS), knee ROM, ROM recovery, knee society score (KSS), and wound complications were evaluated in the early postoperative period. After the first postoperative week, ROM recovery in the group with knee in extension and inflated tourniquet was significantly lesser than the two groups with deflated tourniquets. Between the first and fourth postoperative weeks, ROM recovery in the group with knee inflection and deflated tourniquet was significantly higher than the two groups with knee in extension. After the first postoperative week, the visual analog score (VAS) for pain in the group with knee inflection and deflated tourniquet was significantly lesser than the two groups with inflated tourniquets. The differences in the outcomes between the four groups were not significant after the fourth postoperative week. The incidence of wound complications and KSS were not significantly different between the four groups. Following TKA, wound closure with the knee in flexion and after deflating the tourniquet significantly decreased postoperative pain and promoted the recovery of ROM in the early postoperative

  15. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-stage Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J.; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Wampfler, Jason A.; Limper, Andrew H.; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary emphysema is a common comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on patient’s overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and pulmonary function recovery in stage I–II lung cancer. Methods Between 1997 and 2009, 1,073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups (cancer in emphysematous [group 1, n=565] and non-emphysematous [group 2, n=435] region) and one non-surgical group (group 3, n=73). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized into mild (≤5%), moderate (6–24%) and severe (25–60%). Results In group 1, patients with moderate and severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative FEV1, but increases in FEV1/FVC, compared to those with mild RES (p<0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Post-treatment QOL was lower in patients with greater RES in all groups mainly due to dyspnea (p<0.05). Cox-regression analysis revealed that patients with higher RES had a significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted HRs of 1.41 and 1.43 for moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the non-surgical group (adjusted HR of 0.99 for moderate/severe RES). Conclusions In surgically-treated patients with cancer in emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of post-treatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. PMID:28126539

  16. The influence of burn severity on postfire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goetz, Scott J.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Loranty, Michael M.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2012-03-01

    Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Database. We used the MODIS-derived difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and initial changes in spring albedo as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) in the first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover. By 5-8 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90%-108% of prefire levels. Spring and summer albedo progressively increased during the first 7 years after fire, with more severely burned areas showing considerably larger postfire albedo increases during spring and more rapid increases during summer as compared with moderate- and low-severity burns. After 5-7 years, increases in spring albedo above prefire levels were considerably larger in high-severity burns (0.20 ± 0.06; defined by dNBR percentiles greater than 75%) as compared to changes observed in moderate- (0.16 ± 0.06; for dNBR percentiles between 45% and 75%) or low-severity burns (0.13 ± 0.06; for dNBR percentiles between 20% and 45%). The sensitivity of spring albedo to dNBR was similar in all ecozones and for all vegetation types along gradients of burn severity. These results suggest carbon losses associated with increases in burn severity observed in some areas of boreal forests may be at least partly offset, in terms of climate impacts, by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early postoperative recovery of dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

    PubMed

    Bennaim, Michael; Porato, Mathilde; Jarleton, Astrid; Hamon, Martin; Carroll, James D; Gommeren, Kris; Balligand, Marc

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of postoperative photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early recovery variables for dogs after hemilaminectomy for treatment of intervertebral disk disease. ANIMALS 32 nonambulatory client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs received standard postoperative care with photobiomodulation therapy (n = 11), physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment (11), or sham photobiomodulation treatment only (10) after surgery. Neurologic status at admission, diagnostic and surgical variables, duration of postoperative IV analgesic administration, and recovery grades (over 10 days after surgery) were assessed. Time to reach recovery grades B (able to support weight with some help), C (initial limb movements present), and D (ambulatory [≥ 3 steps unassisted]) was compared among groups. Factors associated with ability to ambulate on day 10 or at last follow-up were assessed. RESULTS Time to reach recovery grades B, C, and D and duration of postoperative IV opioid administration did not differ among groups. Neurologic score at admission and surgeon experience were negatively associated with the dogs' ability to ambulate on day 10. The number of disk herniations identified by diagnostic imaging before surgery was negatively associated with ambulatory status at last follow-up. No other significant associations and no adverse treatment-related events were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study found no difference in recovery-related variables among dogs that received photobiomodulation therapy, physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment, or sham photobiomodulation treatment only. Larger studies are needed to better evaluate effects of these postoperative treatments on dogs treated surgically for intervertebral disk disease.

  18. Do postoperative platelet-rich plasma injections accelerate early tendon healing and functional recovery after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan; McCann, Philip; Colliver, Jess; Koh, Eamon; Ackland, Timothy; Joss, Brendan; Zheng, Minghao; Breidahl, Bill

    2015-06-01

    Tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair directly correlates with a successful outcome. Biological therapies that elevate local growth-factor concentrations may potentiate healing after surgery. To ascertain whether postoperative and repeated application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to the tendon repair site improves early tendon healing and enhances early functional recovery after double-row arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 patients underwent arthroscopic double-row supraspinatus tendon repair. After randomization, half the patients received 2 ultrasound-guided injections of PRP to the repair site at postoperative days 7 and 14. Early structural healing was assessed with MRI at 16 weeks, and cuff appearances were graded according to the Sugaya classification. Functional scores were recorded with the Oxford Shoulder Score; Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; visual analog scale for pain; and Short Form-12 quality-of-life score both preoperatively and at postoperative weeks 6, 12, and 16; isokinetic strength and active range of motion were measured at 16 weeks. PRP treatment did not improve early functional recovery, range of motion, or strength or influence pain scores at any time point after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. There was no difference in structural integrity of the supraspinatus repair on MRI between the PRP group (0% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 77% intact) and the control group (7% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 70% intact) at 16 weeks postoperatively (P = .35). After arthroscopic supraspinatus tendon repair, image-guided PRP treatment on 2 occasions does not improve early tendon-bone healing or functional recovery. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life, and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J; Stoddard, Shawn M; Wampfler, Jason A; Limper, Andrew H; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a frequent comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on a patient's overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and recovery of pulmonary function in stage I to II lung cancer. Between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups-cancer in the emphysematous (group 1 [n = 565]) and nonemphysematous (group 2 [n = 435]) regions-and one nonsurgical group (group 3 [n = 73]). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized as mild (≤5%), moderate (6%-24%), or severe (25%-60%). In group 1, patients with a moderate or severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, but increases in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity compared with those with a mild RES (p < 0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Posttreatment QOL was lower in patients with higher RESs in all groups, mainly owing to dyspnea (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with a higher RES had significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.41 and 1.43 for a moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for a severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the nonsurgical group (adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 for a moderate or severe RES). In surgically treated patients with cancer in the emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of posttreatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Good practices for the operational safety management in the early recovery phase of a seismic event using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Alani, Amir M.; Tosti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This study deals with a case report about the planning and the performance of GPR surveys carried out in the town of Amatrice, in the district of Rieti, Italy. As sadly known, the town has been hit by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in the nighttime of August 24th 2016. The strength of the seism, along with the age and the deterioration rate of the structural asset, have caused the razing to the ground and the critical damaging of the majority of the buildings within the "red zone area", corresponding to the historical town center. In the early recovery phase taking place afterwards, the strong seismic swarm subsequent the main shake has sensitively slowed down the rescue and rehabilitation operations. Moreover, the main issue was related to the unsafety operational conditions of volunteers and firemen. To this effect, the geotechnical stability of the roads and the large operational areas represented critical issues, as up to 40 tons crane trucks were needed to put in safety the highest buildings, such as three-floor buildings and historical towers. In this framework, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) provided a valuable help in preliminary assessing the stability of the areas where the crane trucks were planned to operate as well as to be parked over. The main objective of the GPR tests was to verify the absence of possible cavities beneath the ground surface that could undermine the strength of the surface under heavy loadings. To that effect, a multi-frequency ground-coupled GPR system was used. This radar system can simultaneously collect data at both the frequencies of 600 MHz and 1600 MHz. Four different sites were surveyed, namely, two sections of the main road passed on by the cranes, and two machinery depot areas down by the towers. In the former case, the surveys were performed by parallel longitudinal scans, due to the significant longitudinal length of the sections, whereas in the latter, two grids with differing sizes were realized and scanned for producing

  1. Sex differences in perceived stress and early recovery in young and middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; D'Onofrio, Gail; Spatz, Erica; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy P; Bueno, Héctor; Beltrame, John F; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-02-17

    Younger age and female sex are both associated with greater mental stress in the general population, but limited data exist on the status of perceived stress in young and middle-aged patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. We examined sex difference in stress, contributing factors to this difference, and whether this difference helps explain sex-based disparities in 1-month recovery using data from 3572 patients with acute myocardial infarction (2397 women and 1175 men) 18 to 55 years of age. The average score of the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale at baseline was 23.4 for men and 27.0 for women (P<0.001). Higher stress in women was explained largely by sex differences in comorbidities, physical and mental health status, intrafamily conflict, caregiving demands, and financial hardship. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, women had worse recovery than men at 1 month after acute myocardial infarction, with mean differences in improvement score between women and men ranging from -0.04 for EuroQol utility index to -3.96 for angina-related quality of life (P<0.05 for all). Further adjustment for baseline stress reduced these sex-based differences in recovery to -0.03 to -3.63, which, however, remained statistically significant (P<0.05 for all). High stress at baseline was associated with significantly worse recovery in angina-specific and overall quality of life, as well as mental health status. The effect of baseline stress on recovery did not vary between men and women. Among young and middle-aged patients, higher stress at baseline is associated with worse recovery in multiple health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Women perceive greater psychological stress than men at baseline, which partially explains women's worse recovery. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early Days: Correlation between Passive Activation and Motor Recovery After Unilateral Striatocapsular Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long-Jiang; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Chun-Feng; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Liu, Zhen-Sheng; Li, Hua-Dong

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pattern and the motor function recovery of an affected limb during the passive movement of the affected limb at an early stage of the striatocapsular infarction (SCI). A total of 17 patients with an acute stage of SCI and 3 healthy volunteers as controls were included in this study. fMRI scans of passive movement were performed on the affected limbs of stroke patients within 1 week of onset. Follow-ups were carried out for the motor functions of the affected limbs (before fMRI scan, 1 month, and 3 months after the scan). The control group showed that the activation was mainly located in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and the bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA). The fMRI scan region of interest for stroke patients can be divided into 3 types: type I includes mainly the affected side, bilateral SMC, and SMA with activation; type II includes SMC on the affected side and SMA with activation; type III includes only SMC on the affected side or M1 with activation. The recovery of type I patients was better and faster, while the recovery of type II patients was better but slower, but recovery of type III patients was poorer and slower. Multiple cortical activation patterns were noted during the passive movement of the affected limbs at an early stage of SCI, and a correlation was found between the different activation patterns and the clinical prognosis of patients. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: The potential for early stage recovery of North American ash trees

    Treesearch

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of North America, ash (Fraxinus) stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees, saplings, basal sprouts, and seedlings. Without a soil seed bank for Fraxinus spp., tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these...

  4. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  5. Early recovery of T-cell function predicts improved survival after T-cell depleted allogeneic transplant.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jenna D; Zheng, Junting; Ratan, Ravin; Small, Trudy N; Lai, Kuan-Chi; Boulad, Farid; Castro-Malaspina, Hugo; Giralt, Sergio A; Jakubowski, Ann A; Kernan, Nancy A; O'Reilly, Richard J; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B; Young, James W; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Heller, Glenn; Perales, Miguel-Angel

    2017-08-01

    Infection, relapse, and GVHD can complicate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Although the effect of poor immune recovery on infection risk is well-established, there are limited data on the effect of immune reconstitution on relapse and survival, especially following T-cell depletion (TCD). To characterize the pattern of immune reconstitution in the first year after transplant and its effects on survival and relapse, we performed a retrospective study in 375 recipients of a myeloablative TCD allo-HSCT for hematologic malignancies. We noted that different subsets recover sequentially, CD8 + T cells first, followed by total CD4 + and naïve CD4 + T cells, indicating thymic recovery during the first year after HSCT. In the multivariate model, a fully HLA-matched donor and recovery of T-cell function, assessed by PHA response at 6 months, were the only factors independently associated with OS and EFS. In conclusion, T-cell recovery is an important predictor of outcome after TCD allo-HSCT.

  6. Low fat-containing elemental formula is effective for postoperative recovery and potentially useful for preventing chyle leak during postoperative early enteral nutrition after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Moro, Kazuki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Miura, Kohei; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Nakajima, Masato; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Junko; Toshikawa, Chie; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-12-01

    Transthoracic esophagectomy using 3-field lymphadenectomy (TTE-3FL) for esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal surgeries. Early enteral nutrition (EN) for TTE-3FL patients is useful and valid for early recovery; however, EN using a fat-containing formula risks inducing chyle leak. In the present study, we retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients treated byTTE-3FL and administered postoperative EN to elucidate the validity of lowering the fat levels in elemental formulas to prevent postoperative chyle leak and improve postoperative recovery. A total of 74 patients who received TTE-3FL for esophageal cancer were retrospectively examined. Patients were classified into two groups according to the type of postoperative EN: Group LF patients received a low-fat elemental formula, and Group F patients received a standard fat-containing polymeric formula. The following clinical factors were compared between the groups: EN start day, maximum EN calories administered, duration of respirator use, length of ICU stay, incidence of postoperative infectious complications, use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and incidence of postoperative chyle leak. Patients in Group LF were started on EN significantly earlier after surgery and they consumed significantly higher maximum EN calories compared to Group F patients (P < 0.01). Duration of respirator use and length of ICU stay were also significantly shorter, and TPN was used significantly less in Group LF compared to Group F (P < 0.05). Postoperative chyle leak was observed in six patients in total (8.1%); five patients in Group F and one patient in Group LF, although there was no significant difference in frequency of chyle leak per patient between Group LF and Group F. Early EN using low-fat elemental formula after esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy was safe and valid for postoperative recovery and potentially useful in preventing chyle leak. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published

  7. Early-phase dynamics in coral recovery following cyclone disturbance on the inshore Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yui; Bell, Sara C.; Nichols, Cassandra; Fry, Kent; Menéndez, Patricia; Bourne, David G.

    2018-06-01

    Coral recovery (the restoration of abundance and composition of coral communities) after disturbance is a key process that determines the resilience of reef ecosystems. To understand the mechanisms underlying the recovery process of coral communities, colony abundance and size distribution were followed on reefs around Pelorus Island, located in the inshore central region of the Great Barrier Reef, following a severe tropical cyclone in 2011 that caused dramatic loss of coral communities. Permanent quadrats (600 m2) were monitored biannually between 2012 and 2016, and individual coral colonies were counted, sized and categorized into morphological types. The abundance of coral recruits and coral cover were also examined using permanent quadrats and random line intercept transects, respectively. The number of colonies in the smallest size class (4-10 cm) increased substantially during the study period, driving the recovery of coral populations. The total number of coral colonies 5 yr post-cyclone reached between 73 and 122% of pre-cyclone levels though coral cover remained between 16 and 31% of pre-cyclone levels, due to the dominance of small coral colonies in the recovering communities. Temporal transitions of coral demography (i.e., colony-size distributions) illustrated that the number of recently established coral populations overtook communities of surviving colonies. Coral recruits (< 4 cm in size) also showed increasing patterns in abundance over the study period, underscoring the importance of larval supply in coral recovery. A shift in morphological composition of coral communities was also observed, with the relative abundance of encrusting corals reduced post-cyclone in contrast to their dominance prior to the disturbance. This study identifies the fine-scale processes involved in the initial recovery of coral reefs, providing insights into the dynamics of coral demography that are essential for determining coral reef resilience following major

  8. Selective T-cell depletion targeting CD45RA reduces viremia and enhances early T-cell recovery compared with CD3-targeted T-cell depletion.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Brandon M; Muller, Brad; Kang, Guolian; Li, Ying; Cross, Shane J; Moen, Joseph; Cunningham, Lea; Janssen, William; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Shook, David R; Srinivasan, Ashok; Choi, John; Hayden, Randall T; Leung, Wing

    2018-02-01

    T-cell depletion (TCD) effectively reduces severe graft-versus-host disease in recipients of HLA-mismatched allografts. However, TCD is associated with delayed immune recovery and increased infections. We hypothesized that specific depletion of CD45RA+ naive T cells, rather than broad depletion of CD3+ T cells, can preserve memory-immunity in the allografts and confer protection against important viral infections in the early post-transplant period. Sixty-seven patients who received TCD haploidentical donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy on 3 consecutive trials were analyzed. Patients receiving CD45RA-depleted donor grafts had 2000-fold more donor T cells infused, significantly higher T-cell counts at Day +30 post transplant (550/μL vs 10/μL; P < .001), and higher T-cell diversity by Vbeta spectratyping at Day +100 (P < .001). Importantly, these recipients experienced a significant reduction in both the incidence (P = .002) and duration (P = .02) of any viremia (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or adenovirus) in the first 6 months post transplant. Specifically, recipients of CD3-depleted grafts were more likely to experience adenovirus viremia (27% vs 4%, P = .02). CD45RA-depletion provided a large number of donor memory T cells to the recipients and was associated with enhanced early T-cell recovery and protection against viremia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reduced Social Network Drinking is Associated with Improved Response Inhibition in Women During Early Recovery from Alcohol Use Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Vivia V; Luke, Douglas A; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N

    2016-01-01

    Social support for recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is associated with improvements in self-reported impulsive behavior in individuals treated for AUDs. We build on these findings using a behavioral task-based measure of response inhibition, a well-defined component of impulsivity, to examine the association of disinhibition with alcohol-specific social network characteristics during early recovery. Women (n = 28) were recruited from treatment for AUD within 3 to 4 weeks of their last drink and were assessed at baseline and again 3 months later. Outcome measures were level of disinhibition at baseline and change in disinhibition from baseline to follow-up, measured using a computer-based continuous performance test. The primary independent variables were level of drinking in the social network at baseline and change in network drinking from baseline to follow-up. The sample [50% black, age M (SD) = 42.3 (9.5)] reported high rates of physical and sexual abuse before age 13 (43%), psychiatric disorder (71%), drug use disorder (78%), and previous treatment (71%). More drinking in participants' social networks was associated with greater disinhibition at baseline (β = 12.5, 95% CI = 6.3, 18.7). A reduction in network drinking from baseline to follow-up was associated with reduced disinhibition (β = -6.0, 95% CI = -11.3, -0.78) independent of IQ, recent alcohol consumption, and self-reported negative urgency. This study extends previous findings of an association between social networks and self-reported impulsivity to a neurobehavioral phenotype, response inhibition, suggesting that abstinence-supporting social networks may play a role in cognitive change during early recovery from AUDs. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ellen; D’haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P.; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  11. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world.

    PubMed

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J; Thomas, Ellen; D'haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  12. Proceedings of the Rural Early Childhood Forum on Hurricane Recovery and Emergency Preparedness (Mobile, Alabama, December 5, 2005). Rural Early Childhood Report No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Elizabeth F., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August and September 2005, it was arguably the worst calamity to strike the region in history. Less well known than the loss in life or property from these storms are the effects on early care and education. Those who work with or on behalf of young children found in…

  13. Early mobilization and recovery in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU: a bi-national, multi-centre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Carol; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Berney, Susan; Bailey, Michael; Buhr, Heidi; Denehy, Linda; Harrold, Megan; Higgins, Alisa; Presneill, Jeff; Saxena, Manoj; Skinner, Elizabeth; Young, Paul; Webb, Steven

    2015-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate current mobilization practice, strength at ICU discharge and functional recovery at 6 months among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. This was a prospective, multi-centre, cohort study conducted in twelve ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Patients were previously functionally independent and expected to be ventilated for >48 hours. We measured mobilization during invasive ventilation, sedation depth using the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS), co-interventions, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) at ICU discharge, mortality at day 90, and 6-month functional recovery including return to work. We studied 192 patients (mean age 58.1 ± 15.8 years; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) (IQR) II score, 18.0 (14 to 24)). Mortality at day 90 was 26.6% (51/192). Over 1,351 study days, we collected information during 1,288 planned early mobilization episodes in patients on mechanical ventilation for the first 14 days or until extubation (whichever occurred first). We recorded the highest level of early mobilization. Despite the presence of dedicated physical therapy staff, no mobilization occurred in 1,079 (84%) of these episodes. Where mobilization occurred, the maximum levels of mobilization were exercises in bed (N = 94, 7%), standing at the bed side (N = 11, 0.9%) or walking (N = 26, 2%). On day three, all patients who were mobilized were mechanically ventilated via an endotracheal tube (N = 10), whereas by day five 50% of the patients mobilized were mechanically ventilated via a tracheostomy tube (N = 18). Early mobilization of patients receiving mechanical ventilation was uncommon. More than 50% of patients discharged from the ICU had developed ICU-acquired weakness, which was associated with death between ICU discharge and day-90. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01674608. Registered 14 August 2012.

  14. Eccentricity and obliquity paced carbon cycling in the Early Triassic and implications for post-extinction ecosystem recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wanlu; Jiang, Da-yong; Montañez, Isabel P.; Meyers, Stephen R.; Motani, Ryosuke; Tintori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The timing of marine ecosystem recovery following the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) remains poorly constrained given the lack of radiometric ages. Here we develop a high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb) record for 3.20 million years of the Olenekian in South China that defines the astronomical time-scale for the critical interval of major evolutionary and oceanic events in the Spathian. δ13Ccarb documents eccentricity modulation of carbon cycling through the period and a strong obliquity signal. A shift in phasing between short and long eccentricity modulation, and amplification of obliquity, is nearly coincident with a 2% decrease in seawater δ13CDIC, the last of a longer-term stepped decrease through the Spathian. The mid-Spathian shift in seawater δ13CDIC to typical thermocline values is interpreted to record a major oceanic reorganization with global climate amelioration. Coincidence of the phasing shift with the first occurrence of marine reptiles (248.81 Ma), suggests that their invasion into the sea and the onset of a complex ecosystem were facilitated by restoration of deep ocean ventilation linked mechanistically to a change in the response of the oceanic carbon reservoir to astronomical forcing. Together these records place the first constraints on the duration of the post-extinction recovery to 3.35 myr. PMID:27292969

  15. Eccentricity and obliquity paced carbon cycling in the Early Triassic and implications for post-extinction ecosystem recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wanlu; Jiang, Da-Yong; Montañez, Isabel P.; Meyers, Stephen R.; Motani, Ryosuke; Tintori, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The timing of marine ecosystem recovery following the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) remains poorly constrained given the lack of radiometric ages. Here we develop a high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb) record for 3.20 million years of the Olenekian in South China that defines the astronomical time-scale for the critical interval of major evolutionary and oceanic events in the Spathian. δ13Ccarb documents eccentricity modulation of carbon cycling through the period and a strong obliquity signal. A shift in phasing between short and long eccentricity modulation, and amplification of obliquity, is nearly coincident with a 2% decrease in seawater δ13CDIC, the last of a longer-term stepped decrease through the Spathian. The mid-Spathian shift in seawater δ13CDIC to typical thermocline values is interpreted to record a major oceanic reorganization with global climate amelioration. Coincidence of the phasing shift with the first occurrence of marine reptiles (248.81 Ma), suggests that their invasion into the sea and the onset of a complex ecosystem were facilitated by restoration of deep ocean ventilation linked mechanistically to a change in the response of the oceanic carbon reservoir to astronomical forcing. Together these records place the first constraints on the duration of the post-extinction recovery to 3.35 myr.

  16. Eccentricity and obliquity paced carbon cycling in the Early Triassic and implications for post-extinction ecosystem recovery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wanlu; Jiang, Da-Yong; Montañez, Isabel P; Meyers, Stephen R; Motani, Ryosuke; Tintori, Andrea

    2016-06-13

    The timing of marine ecosystem recovery following the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) remains poorly constrained given the lack of radiometric ages. Here we develop a high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope (δ(13)Ccarb) record for 3.20 million years of the Olenekian in South China that defines the astronomical time-scale for the critical interval of major evolutionary and oceanic events in the Spathian. δ(13)Ccarb documents eccentricity modulation of carbon cycling through the period and a strong obliquity signal. A shift in phasing between short and long eccentricity modulation, and amplification of obliquity, is nearly coincident with a 2% decrease in seawater δ(13)CDIC, the last of a longer-term stepped decrease through the Spathian. The mid-Spathian shift in seawater δ(13)CDIC to typical thermocline values is interpreted to record a major oceanic reorganization with global climate amelioration. Coincidence of the phasing shift with the first occurrence of marine reptiles (248.81 Ma), suggests that their invasion into the sea and the onset of a complex ecosystem were facilitated by restoration of deep ocean ventilation linked mechanistically to a change in the response of the oceanic carbon reservoir to astronomical forcing. Together these records place the first constraints on the duration of the post-extinction recovery to 3.35 myr.

  17. On ozone trend detection: using coupled chemistry-climate simulations to investigate early signs of total column ozone recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeble, James; Brown, Hannah; Abraham, N. Luke; Harris, Neil R. P.; Pyle, John A.

    2018-06-01

    Total column ozone values from an ensemble of UM-UKCA model simulations are examined to investigate different definitions of progress on the road to ozone recovery. The impacts of modelled internal atmospheric variability are accounted for by applying a multiple linear regression model to modelled total column ozone values, and ozone trend analysis is performed on the resulting ozone residuals. Three definitions of recovery are investigated: (i) a slowed rate of decline and the date of minimum column ozone, (ii) the identification of significant positive trends and (iii) a return to historic values. A return to past thresholds is the last state to be achieved. Minimum column ozone values, averaged from 60° S to 60° N, occur between 1990 and 1995 for each ensemble member, driven in part by the solar minimum conditions during the 1990s. When natural cycles are accounted for, identification of the year of minimum ozone in the resulting ozone residuals is uncertain, with minimum values for each ensemble member occurring at different times between 1992 and 2000. As a result of this large variability, identification of the date of minimum ozone constitutes a poor measure of ozone recovery. Trends for the 2000-2017 period are positive at most latitudes and are statistically significant in the mid-latitudes in both hemispheres when natural cycles are accounted for. This significance results largely from the large sample size of the multi-member ensemble. Significant trends cannot be identified by 2017 at the highest latitudes, due to the large interannual variability in the data, nor in the tropics, due to the small trend magnitude, although it is projected that significant trends may be identified in these regions soon thereafter. While significant positive trends in total column ozone could be identified at all latitudes by ˜ 2030, column ozone values which are lower than the 1980 annual mean can occur in the mid-latitudes until ˜ 2050, and in the tropics and high

  18. The VLF fingerprint of elves: Step-like and long-recovery early VLF perturbations caused by powerful ±CG lightning EM pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Cohen, Morris; Arnone, Enrico; Cotts, Benjamin; Dietrich, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    Subionospheric VLF recordings are investigated in relation with intense cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data. Lightning impacts the lower ionosphere via heating and ionization changes which produce VLF signal perturbations known as early VLF events. Typically, early events recover in about 100 s, but a small subclass does not recover for many minutes, known as long-recovery early events (LORE). In this study, we identify LORE as a distinct category of early VLF events, whose signature may occur either on its own or alongside the short-lived typical early VLF event. Since LORE onsets coincide with powerful lightning strokes of either polarity (±), we infer that they are due to long-lasting ionization changes in the uppermost D region ionosphere caused by electromagnetic pulses emitted by strong ± CG lightning peak currents of typically > 250 kA, which are also known to generate elves. The LORE perturbations are detected when the discharge is located within ~250 km from the great circle path of a VLF transmitter-receiver link. The probability of occurrence increases with stroke intensity and approaches unity for discharges with peak currents ≥ ~300 kA. LOREs are nighttime phenomena that occur preferentially, at least in the present regional data set, during winter when strong ± CG discharges are more frequent and intense. The evidence suggests LORE as a distinct signature representing the VLF fingerprint of elves, a fact which, although was predicted by theory, it escaped identification in the long-going VLF research of lightning effects in the lower ionosphere.

  19. Early physiological flood tolerance is followed by slow post-flooding root recovery in the dryland riparian tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens.

    PubMed

    Argus, R E; Colmer, T D; Grierson, P F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated physiological and morphological responses to flooding and recovery in Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens, a riparian tree species from a dryland region prone to intense episodic floods. Seedlings in soil flooded for 88 d produced extensive adventitious roots, displayed stem hypertrophy (stem diameter increased by 93%) and increased root porosity owing to aerenchyma formation. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gs) were maintained for at least 2 weeks of soil flooding, contrasting with previous studies of other subspecies of E. camaldulensis. Gradual declines followed in both gs (30% less than controls) and Pn (19% less). Total leaf soluble sugars did not differ between flooded and control plants. Root mass did not recover 32 d after flooding ceased, but gs was not lower than controls, suggesting the root system was able to functionally compensate. However, the limited root growth during recovery after flooding was surprising given the importance of extensive root systems in dryland environments. We conclude that early flood tolerance could be an adaptation to capitalize on scarce water resources in a water-limited environment. Overall, our findings highlight the need to assess flooding responses in relation to a species' fitness for particular flood regimes or ecological niches. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Redox chemistry changes in the Panthalassic Ocean linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed Early Triassic biotic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guijie; Zhang, Xiaolin; Hu, Dongping; Li, Dandan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Farquhar, James; Henderson, Charles M.; Qin, Liping; Shen, Megan; Shen, Danielle; Schoepfer, Shane D.; Chen, Kefan; Shen, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction represents the most severe biotic crisis for the last 540 million years, and the marine ecosystem recovery from this extinction was protracted, spanning the entirety of the Early Triassic and possibly longer. Numerous studies from the low-latitude Paleotethys and high-latitude Boreal oceans have examined the possible link between ocean chemistry changes and the end-Permian mass extinction. However, redox chemistry changes in the Panthalassic Ocean, comprising ˜85-90% of the global ocean area, remain under debate. Here, we report multiple S-isotopic data of pyrite from Upper Permian-Lower Triassic deep-sea sediments of the Panthalassic Ocean, now present in outcrops of western Canada and Japan. We find a sulfur isotope signal of negative Δ33S with either positive δ34S or negative δ34S that implies mixing of sulfide sulfur with different δ34S before, during, and after the end-Permian mass extinction. The precise coincidence of the negative Δ33S anomaly with the extinction horizon in western Canada suggests that shoaling of H2S-rich waters may have driven the end-Permian mass extinction. Our data also imply episodic euxinia and oscillations between sulfidic and oxic conditions during the earliest Triassic, providing evidence of a causal link between incursion of sulfidic waters and the delayed recovery of the marine ecosystem.

  1. Impact of intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Takashi; Arai, Natsuko; Nagasaka, Tomoaki; Asano, Masaya; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Not only increasing body carbohydrate (CHO) stores before exercise but also suppressing CHO oxidation during exercise is important for improving endurance performance. We tested the hypothesis that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training (ET) for 2 d would suppress CHO oxidation during exercise by increasing whole body lipolysis and/or fat oxidation. In a randomized crossover design, on days 1 and 2, six male subjects performed cycle ET at 50% peak oxygen consumption (VO(2 peak)) for 60-90 min, and consumed a control diet (CON: 1,224 kcal, 55% carbohydrate, 30% fat) or the same diet supplemented with high fat (HF: 1,974 kcal, 34% carbohydrate, 56% fat) 1 h after ET, with the diet other than post-ET similar in both trials. On day 3, subjects performed cycle exercise at 65% VO(2 peak) until exhaustion. Exercise time to exhaustion was longer in the HF trial than in the CON trial (CON: 48.9 ± 6.7 vs. HF: 55.8 ± 7.7 min, p<0.05). In the HF trial, total fat oxidation until exhaustion was higher, accompanied by higher post-exercise plasma glycerol concentration, than in the CON trial (CON: 213 ± 54 vs. HF: 286 ± 63 kcal, p<0.05), whereas total carbohydrate oxidation until exhaustion was not different between trials. These results suggest that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from ET for a few days until the day before exercise was an effective means of eliciting a CHO-sparing effect during exercise by enhancing fat metabolism.

  2. Rapid recovery from the effects of early monocular deprivation is enabled by temporary inactivation of the retinas.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ming-Fai; Mitchell, Donald E; Duffy, Kevin R; Bear, Mark F

    2016-12-06

    A half-century of research on the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in animals has revealed a great deal about the pathophysiology of amblyopia. MD initiates synaptic changes in the visual cortex that reduce acuity and binocular vision by causing neurons to lose responsiveness to the deprived eye. However, much less is known about how deprivation-induced synaptic modifications can be reversed to restore normal visual function. One theoretically motivated hypothesis is that a period of inactivity can reduce the threshold for synaptic potentiation such that subsequent visual experience promotes synaptic strengthening and increased responsiveness in the visual cortex. Here we have reduced this idea to practice in two species. In young mice, we show that the otherwise stable loss of cortical responsiveness caused by MD is reversed when binocular visual experience follows temporary anesthetic inactivation of the retinas. In 3-mo-old kittens, we show that a severe impairment of visual acuity is also fully reversed by binocular experience following treatment and, further, that prolonged retinal inactivation alone can erase anatomical consequences of MD. We conclude that temporary retinal inactivation represents a highly efficacious means to promote recovery of function.

  3. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  4. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  5. Four-year outcomes from the Early Re-Intervention (ERI) experiment using Recovery Management Checkups (RMCs).

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michael L; Scott, Christy K

    2012-02-01

    While drug abuse is the 10th leading cause of mortality in the US, the public health care system has been slow to adopt a chronic disease approach with aggressively timed monitoring and interventions. Drug abuse remains isolated from adoption into the "chronic condition" model of care. This paper evaluates the efficacy of quarterly Recovery Management Checkups (RMCs) on treatment reentry and long-term substance use in the context of chronic substance use disorders. 446 adult substance users were randomly assigned to RMC or a control group and assessed quarterly for 4 years (94% completion). The main outcome measures were: time from need of treatment to treatment reentry, frequency of treatment reentry, days of treatment, number of substance use related problems per month, and total days abstinent. Participants in the RMC condition were significantly more likely than participants in the control group to return to treatment sooner, to return at all, to return more times, and to receive more total days of treatment. They subsequently had significantly fewer quarters in need of treatment, fewer substance related problems per month, and more total days of abstinence. Effects were larger for those with earlier onset and higher crime/violence scores. RMC is an effective method of monitoring and re-intervening with chronic substance users and is associated with improved long-term outcomes. A subgroup of people for whom RMC did not appear to be "enough," signals a need to explore more intensive models to address chronicity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. The effect of donepezil on the cognitive ability early in the course of recovery from traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kelsey A; Kennedy, Richard E; Brunner, Robert C; Hollis, Sean D; Lumsden, Ross A; Novack, Thomas A

    2018-05-08

    To investigate the effect of donepezil on cognitive ability in patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, would enhance cognitive recovery beyond that of usual care in an acute rehabilitation facility. This retrospective, longitudinal analysis included 55 patients who were non-randomly prescribed donepezil during acute care and compared them to 74 patients who received usual rehabilitation treatment. All 129 patients completed neuropsychological assessment at two time points. Donepezil was increased from 5 to 10 mg 7-10 days after initiation and maintained until follow-up cognitive assessment. Primary cognitive abilities of interest included processing speed, attention and memory. Cognitive and functional abilities were assessed by a standard neuropsychological battery for TBI. Propensity scores were used to adjust for differences between groups. Mixed effect model analysis showed no significant differences between treatment and control groups on all neuropsychological subtests over time. Acute administration of donepezil did not significantly improve measures of cognitive or functional ability beyond that of treatment as usual in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI.

  7. Safety and efficacy of Cerebrolysin in early post-stroke recovery: a meta-analysis of nine randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Natan M; Guekht, Alla; Vester, Johannes; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Gusev, Eugene; Hömberg, Volker; Rahlfs, Volker W; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O; Muresanu, Dafin

    2018-04-01

    This meta-analysis combines the results of nine ischemic stroke trials, assessing efficacy of Cerebrolysin on global neurological improvement during early post-stroke period. Cerebrolysin is a parenterally administered neuropeptide preparation approved for treatment of stroke. All included studies had a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. The patients were treated with 30-50 ml Cerebrolysin once daily for 10-21 days, with treatment initiation within 72 h after onset of ischemic stroke. For five studies, original analysis data were available for meta-analysis (individual patient data analysis); for four studies, aggregate data were used. The combination by meta-analytic procedures was pre-planned and the methods of synthesis were pre-defined under blinded conditions. Search deadline for the present meta-analysis was December 31, 2016. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney (MW) effect size for National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on day 30 (or 21), combining the results of nine randomized, controlled trials by means of the robust Wei-Lachin pooling procedure (maximin-efficient robust test), indicated superiority of Cerebrolysin as compared with placebo (MW 0.60, P < 0.0001, N = 1879). The combined number needed to treat for clinically relevant changes in early NIHSS was 7.7 (95% CI 5.2 to 15.0). The additional full-scale ordinal analysis of modified Rankin Scale at day 90 in moderate to severe patients resulted in MW 0.61 with statistical significance in favor of Cerebrolysin (95% CI 0.52 to 0.69, P = 0.0118, N = 314). Safety aspects were comparable to placebo. Our meta-analysis confirms previous evidence that Cerebrolysin has a beneficial effect on early global neurological deficits in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  8. Role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological function after early ischemic stroke in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Zhi; Wang, Chun; Wang, Qian; Lin, Yong-Zhong; Ge, Yu-Song; Li, Dong-Mei; Mao, Geng-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to explore the role of fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological functioning after an early ischemic stroke in rats. After establishment of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) models, 50 rats were divided into blank, sham, model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Neurological impairment, walking and grip abilities, and cortical and hippocampal infarctions were evaluated by Zea Longa scoring criterion, beam-walking assay and grip strength test, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expressions. ELISA was conducted to measure concentration of sFractalkine (sFkn), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNF-α. The recovery rate of neurological functioning impairment and reduced walking and grip abilities was faster in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups than the model group. The model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups showed increased mRNA and protein expression of chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions while decreased expression of NGF and BDNF compared with the blank and sham groups. Compared with the model group, the mRNA and protein expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions decreased while expression of NGF and BDNF increased in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Thus, the study suggests that inhibition of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway promotes the recovery of neurological functioning after the occurrence of an early ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Antibody Response Contributes to the Virus Eradication and Clinical Recovery of H7N9 Influenza Infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Yang, Zheng; Yuan, Jing; Liao, Jian; Duan, Lian; Wang, Wenfei; Zhang, Fuping; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping

    2017-09-01

    A new type of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H7N9, has been a great threat to public health since its 2013 outbreak. The humoral immune response plays a critical role in protection from the influenza virus, but its role and kinetics in H7N9-infected patients remain to be determined. In this study, we performed a retrospective investigation of the antibody response in plasma samples from 37 cases of hospitalized patients and analysed the relationship between the antibody response and the clinical outcomes. Our results showed that the HA7-binding antibody was generated earlier than the neutralizing antibody. Higher titer of HA7-binding antibody during the first 14 days after disease onset were associated with a shorter virus-positive continuation period, which is an important risk predictor ( P <0.05). Additionally, the titers of HA7-binding antibody were consistently and significantly lower in patients who died than those who recovered from the severe disease. Unexpectedly, no correlation between the titer of neutralizing antibody and the resulting clinical outcomes was found, suggesting that a neutralizing antibody-independent mechanism also contributed to virus control. In summary, our data suggests that an early antibody response against H7N9 influenza virus contributes to the eradication of the virus. A higher, early HA7-binding antibody response is associated with better clinical outcomes in H7N9 patients. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  10. The power metric: a new statistically robust enrichment-type metric for virtual screening applications with early recovery capability.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias; Dos Santos, Fábio Mendes; Martins-José, Andrelly; Augustyns, Koen; De Winter, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A new metric for the evaluation of model performance in the field of virtual screening and quantitative structure-activity relationship applications is described. This metric has been termed the power metric and is defined as the fraction of the true positive rate divided by the sum of the true positive and false positive rates, for a given cutoff threshold. The performance of this metric is compared with alternative metrics such as the enrichment factor, the relative enrichment factor, the receiver operating curve enrichment factor, the correct classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient and Cohen's kappa coefficient. The performance of this new metric is found to be quite robust with respect to variations in the applied cutoff threshold and ratio of the number of active compounds to the total number of compounds, and at the same time being sensitive to variations in model quality. It possesses the correct characteristics for its application in early-recognition virtual screening problems.

  11. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as early markers of anastomotic leak after laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, José Luis; Alvarez, María Oliva; Cuquerella, Vicent; Miranda, Elena; Picó, Carlos; Flores, Raquel; Resalt-Pereira, Marta; Moya, Pedro; Pérez, Ana; Arroyo, Antonio

    2018-03-08

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) have been described as good predictors of anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery, obtaining the highest diagnostic accuracy on the 5th postoperative day. However, if an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program is performed, early predictors are needed in order to ensure a safe and early discharge. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CRP, PCT, and white blood cell (WBC) count determined on first postoperative days, in predicting septic complications, especially anastomotic leak, after laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed within an ERAS program. We conducted a prospective study including 134 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program between 2015 and 2017. The primary endpoint investigated was anastomotic leak. CRP, PCT, and WBC count were determined in the blood sample extracted on postoperative day 1 (POD 1), POD 2 and POD 3. Anastomotic leak (AL) was detected in 6 patients (4.5%). Serum levels of CRP and PCT, but not WBC, determined on POD 1, POD 2, and POD 3 were significantly higher in patients who had AL in the postoperative course. Using ROC analysis, the best AUC of the CRP and PCT levels was on POD 3 (0.837 and 0.947, respectively). A CRP cutoff level at 163 mg/l yielded 85% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 99% negative predictive value (NPV). A PCT cutoff level at 2.5 ng/ml achieved 85% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 44% positive predictive value, and 99% NPV. CRP and PCT are relevant markers for detecting postoperative AL after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Furthermore, they can ensure an early discharge with a low probability of AL when an ERAS program is performed.

  12. Early PTSD Symptom Trajectories: Persistence, Recovery, and Response to Treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS)

    PubMed Central

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Ankri, Yael; Freedman, Sara; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Roitman, Pablo; Gilad, Moran; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2013-01-01

    Context Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Objectives To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. Design Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. Setting Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. Participants Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. Approach We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8±5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8±42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. Main Outcome Measure Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. Results Three trajectories were identified: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. Conclusions The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder

  13. Human amygdala engagement moderated by early life stress exposure is a biobehavioral target for predicting recovery on antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Green, Erin; Suppes, Trisha; Schatzberg, Alan F; Hastie, Trevor; Nemeroff, Charles B; Williams, Leanne M

    2016-10-18

    Amygdala circuitry and early life stress (ELS) are both strongly and independently implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Importantly, animal models have revealed that the contribution of ELS to the development and maintenance of depression is likely a consequence of structural and physiological changes in amygdala circuitry in response to stress hormones. Despite these mechanistic foundations, amygdala engagement and ELS have not been investigated as biobehavioral targets for predicting functional remission in translational human studies of depression. Addressing this question, we integrated human neuroimaging and measurement of ELS within a controlled trial of antidepressant outcomes. Here we demonstrate that the interaction between amygdala activation engaged by emotional stimuli and ELS predicts functional remission on antidepressants with a greater than 80% cross-validated accuracy. Our model suggests that in depressed people with high ELS, the likelihood of remission is highest with greater amygdala reactivity to socially rewarding stimuli, whereas for those with low-ELS exposure, remission is associated with lower amygdala reactivity to both rewarding and threat-related stimuli. This full model predicted functional remission over and above the contribution of demographics, symptom severity, ELS, and amygdala reactivity alone. These findings identify a human target for elucidating the mechanisms of antidepressant functional remission and offer a target for developing novel therapeutics. The results also offer a proof-of-concept for using neuroimaging as a target for guiding neuroscience-informed intervention decisions at the level of the individual person.

  14. The Fate of Nephrons in Congenital Obstructive Nephropathy: Adult Recovery is Limited by Nephron Number Despite Early Release of Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sergio, Maria; Galarreta, Carolina I.; Thornhill, Barbara A.; Forbes, Michael S.; Chevalier, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary tract obstruction and reduced nephron number often occur together as a result of maldevelopment of kidneys and urinary tract. We wished to determine the role of nephron number on the adaptation of remaining nephrons of mice subjected to neonatal partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and followed through adulthood. Materials and Methods Wild-type (WT) and Os/+ mice (with 50% fewer nephrons) were subjected to sham operation or partial UUO in the first 2 days of life. Additional mice underwent release of UUO at 7 days. All kidneys were harvested at 3 weeks (weaning) or 6 weeks (adulthood). Glomerular number and area, glomerulotubular junction integrity, proximal tubular volume fraction, and interstitial fibrosis were measured by histomorphometry. Results In the obstructed kidney, UUO caused additional nephron loss in Os/+ but not WT mice. Glomerular growth from 3 to 6 weeks was impaired by ipsilateral UUO and was not preserved by release in WT or Os/+. Proximal tubular growth was impaired and interstitial collagen was increased by ipsilateral UUO in all mice. These were attenuated by release of UUO in WT mice, but were not restored in Os/+ mice. UUO increased interstitial collagen in the contralateral kidney; release of UUO enhanced tubular growth and reduced interstitial collagen. Conclusions We conclude that UUO in early postnatal development impairs adaptation to reduced nephron number and induces additional nephron loss despite release of obstruction. Premature and low birth weight infants with congenital obstructive nephropathy are likely at increased risk for progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:25912494

  15. Exploring the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on executive function, working memory, and processing speed during the early recovery period following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Christine R; Summers, Mathew J; Vickers, James C; McCormack, Graeme H; Skilbeck, Clive E

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is detrimental to cognitive function, but results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) populations are mixed. A possible explanation is that APOEe2 carriers have routinely been incorporated into APOEe4 and non-e4 groups, despite APOEe2 being proposed to have an ameliorative effect. Our primary aim was to investigate the influence of APOEe4 on cognitive impairment during early recovery following TBI, excluding the potential confound of APOEe2 possession. A secondary objective was to explore whether APOEe4 displays more pronounced effects in moderate to severe TBI and to consider the potential postinjury protective influence of the APOEe2 allele. Participants who recently sustained a TBI (posttraumatic amnesia > 5 minutes) were assessed on measures of information processing speed, executive function, and working memory upon remission of posttraumatic amnesia. APOE genotype was determined by buccal saliva DNA extraction (APOEe4 n = 37, APOEe3 n = 92, APOEe2 n = 13). Stepwise multiple regressions were performed to compare APOEe4 carriers to APOEe3 homozygotes, with injury severity, age, and estimated premorbid IQ included in the first step. This model was found to significantly predict performance on all tasks, accounting for 17.3-24.3% of the variance. When APOEe4 status was added for the second step, there were no significant changes on any tasks (additional variance <1%). The effect of APOEe4 in moderate to severe TBI and the effect of APOEe2 were explored by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with no significant effects revealed. It is unlikely that APOE genotype influences cognitive function in the initial recovery period following TBI, regardless of injury severity. However, a more nuanced and long-term exploration of the effect of APOE genotype in the TBI population is warranted.

  16. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-09-01

    The benefits of preoperative training programmes compared with alternative treatment are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-intensity preoperative resistance training programme in patients waiting for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3) and finally 3 months after TKA (T4). The intervention group completed an 8-week training programme 3 days per week prior to surgery. Isometric knee flexion, isometric hip abduction, VAS, WOMAC, ROM extension and flexion and all the functional assessments were greater for the intervention group at T2, T3 and T4, whereas isometric knee extension was greater for this group at T2 and T4 compared with control. The present study supports the use of preoperative training in end-stage OA patients to improve early postoperative outcomes. High-intensity strength training during the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up recovery after TKA. I.

  17. Cryopreservation of cord blood CD34+ cells before or after thrombopoietin expansion differentially affects early platelet recovery in NOD SCID mice.

    PubMed

    van Hensbergen, Yvette; van der Garde, Mark; Brand, Anneke; Slot, Manon C; de Graaf-Dijkstra, Alice; Watt, Suzanne; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of human cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells with thrombopoietin (TPO) can accelerate delayed platelet (PLT) recovery after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Clinical implementation, however, will depend on practical and effective protocols. The best timing of TPO expansion in relation to cryopreservation in this respect is unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether the order of cryopreservation and TPO expansion affected the expansion rate and numbers of clonogenic hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro or PLT and longer-term hematopoietic repopulation in NOD SCID mice in vivo. Our results demonstrate higher expansion rates and the generation of higher numbers of multilineage and megakaryocytic progenitors (granulocyte, erythrocyte, monocyte, megakaryocyte colony-forming units and megakaryocyte colony-forming units) in vitro when freshly isolated CB CD34+ cells are first cultured with TPO and then cryopreserved and thawed as compared to TPO expansion after CD34+ cell cryopreservation. In contrast, the cells produced with the latter strategy showed higher expression of CD62L and a superior stromal cell-derived factor-1α-mediated migration. This might play a role in an also observed superior early PLT recovery after transplantation of these cells into NOD SCID mice. The hematopoietic engraftment in the marrow 6 weeks after transplantation was not different between the two strategies. Although TPO expansion before cryopreservation would yield higher nucleated cell and clonogenic myeloid and megakaryocyte cell numbers and enable earlier availability, CB TPO expansion after cryopreservation is likely to be clinically more effective, despite the lower number of cells obtained after expansion. Moreover, the latter strategy is logistically more feasible. © 2015 AABB.

  18. The Fate of Nephrons in Congenital Obstructive Nephropathy: Adult Recovery is Limited by Nephron Number Despite Early Release of Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Maria; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A; Forbes, Michael S; Chevalier, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract obstruction and reduced nephron number often occur together as a result of maldevelopment of the kidneys and the urinary tract. We determined the role of nephron number on adaptation of the remaining nephrons of mice subjected to neonatal partial unilateral ureteral obstruction followed through adulthood. Wild-type and Os/+ mice (the latter with 50% fewer nephrons) underwent sham operation or partial unilateral ureteral obstruction in the first 2 days of life. Additional mice underwent release of unilateral ureteral obstruction at 7 days. All kidneys were harvested at 3 weeks (weaning) or 6 weeks (adulthood). Glomerular number and area, glomerulotubular junction integrity, proximal tubular volume fraction and interstitial fibrosis were measured by histomorphometry. In the obstructed kidney unilateral ureteral obstruction caused additional nephron loss in Os/+ but not in wild-type mice. Glomerular growth from 3 to 6 weeks was impaired by ipsilateral obstruction and not preserved by release in wild-type or Os/+ mice. Proximal tubular growth was impaired and interstitial collagen was increased by ipsilateral obstruction in all mice. These conditions were attenuated by release of unilateral ureteral obstruction in wild-type mice but were not restored in Os/+ mice. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased interstitial collagen in the contralateral kidney while release of obstruction enhanced tubular growth and reduced interstitial collagen. Unilateral ureteral obstruction in early postnatal development impairs adaptation to reduced nephron number and induces additional nephron loss despite release of obstruction. Premature and low birth weight infants with congenital obstructive nephropathy are likely at increased risk for progression of chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er ( Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints in the early detection of spondyloarthritis: no added value of gadolinium compared with short tau inversion recovery sequence.

    PubMed

    de Hooge, Manouk; van den Berg, Rosaline; Navarro-Compán, Victoria; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom; Reijnierse, Monique

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the additional value of T1 fat-saturated after gadolinium (T1/Gd) compared with T1 and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence in detecting active lesions of the SI joints typical of axial SpA (axSpA) in a prospective cohort study, the SpondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort, and to assess its influence on final MRI diagnosis of the SI joint (MRI-SIJ) based on the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) definition of active sacroiliitis. Patients in the SPACE cohort received baseline and 3-month follow-up MRI-SIJ with coronal oblique T1, STIR and T1/Gd sequences. Bone marrow oedema (BME), capsulitis/enthesitis and synovitis and active sacroiliitis according to the ASAS definition were evaluated by three blinded readers. A total of 127 patients received an MRI-SIJ at baseline and 67 patients also received an MRI-SIJ at 3 months follow-up since the Gd protocol was added some months after the start of the SPACE project. Twenty-five of the 127 patients (19.7%) with a baseline MRI-SIJ and 14 of 67 patients (20.6%) with a follow-up MRI-SIJ presented BME on the STIR sequence sufficient to fulfill the ASAS definition for a positive MRI-SIJ. In eight patients, additional synovitis and/or capsulitis/enthesitis was observed; however, no additional BME was visualized on T1/Gd. One patient, without clinical diagnosis of axSpA, showed synovitis as an isolated finding. Synovitis and capsulitis/enthesitis are detectable with the administration of Gd. However, they are always observed in the presence of BME. Therefore T1 and STIR sequence alone are sufficient in the MRI assessment that, among others, is used for diagnosing patients with early axSpA.

  1. A comparative study of the usefulness of color vision, photostress recovery time, and visual evoked potential tests in early detection of ocular toxicity from hydroxychloroquine.

    PubMed

    Heravian, Javad; Saghafi, Massoud; Shoeibi, Naser; Hassanzadeh, Samira; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Sharepoor, Maria

    2011-08-01

    Ocular toxicity from hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is rare, but its potential permanence and severity makes it imperative to employ measures and screening protocols to minimize its occurrence. This study was performed to assess the usefulness of color vision, photo stress recovery time (PSRT), and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in early detection of ocular toxicity of HCQ, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 86 patients were included in the study and divided into three groups: (1) with history of HCQ use: interventional 1 (Int.1) without fundoscopic changes and Int.2 with fundoscopic changes; and (2) without history of HCQ use, as control. Visual field, color vision, PSRT and VEP results were recorded for all patients and the effect of age, disease duration, treatment duration and cumulative dose of HCQ on each test was assessed in each group. There was a significant relationship among PSRT and age, treatment duration, cumulative dose of HCQ and disease duration (P<0.001 for all). Color vision was normal in all the cases. P100 amplitude was not different between the three groups (P=0.846), but P100 latency was significantly different (P=0.025) and for Int.2 it was greater than the others. The percentage of abnormal visual fields for Int.2 was more than Int.1 and control groups (P=0.002 and P=0.005 respectively), but Int.1 and control groups were not significantly different (P>0.50). In the early stages of maculopathy, P100 latencies of VEP and PSRT are useful predictors of HCQ ocular toxicity. In patients without ocular symptoms and fundoscopic changes, the P100 latency of VEP predicts more precisely than the others.

  2. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  3. FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: neural correlates and prognostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Valerie M; Ward, Nick S; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; van Vliet, Paulette; Burridge, Jane; Hunter, Susan M; Lemon, Roger N; Rothwell, John; Weir, Christopher J; Wing, Alan; Walker, Andrew A; Kennedy, Niamh; Barton, Garry; Greenwood, Richard J; McConnachie, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stroke more than movement performance therapy plus conventional physical therapy. To determine (a) the relative clinical efficacy of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy for upper limb recovery; (b) the neural correlates of response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy; (c) whether any one or combination of baseline measures predict motor improvement in response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Randomized, controlled, observer-blind trial. The sample will consist of 288 participants with upper limb paresis resulting from a stroke that occurred within the previous 60 days. All will be allocated to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy will be undertaken for up to 1·5 h/day, five-days/week for six-weeks. Measurements will be undertaken before randomization, six-weeks thereafter, and six-months after stroke. Primary efficacy outcome will be the Action Research Arm Test. Explanatory measurements will include voxel-wise estimates of brain activity during hand movement, brain white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy), and brain-muscle connectivity (e.g. latency of motor evoked potentials). The primary clinical efficacy analysis will compare treatment groups using a multilevel normal linear model adjusting for stratification variables and for which therapist administered the treatment. Effect of conventional physical therapy combined

  4. The effects of short-term preoperative physical therapy and education on early functional recovery of patients younger than 70 undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vukomanović, Aleksandra; Popović, Zoran; Durović, Aleksandar; Krstić, Ljiljana

    2008-04-01

    Hip arthroplasty is a routine operation which relieves pain in patients with osteoarthritis. The role of physical therapy after hip arthroplasty was recognized, but the importance of preoperative physical therapy and education is still to be judged. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term preoperative program of education and physical therapy on patients' early functional recovery immediately after total hip arthroplasty (THA). This prospective study included 45 patients with hip osteoarthritis scheduled to undergo primary THA and admitted to the Department of Orthopedics of Military Medical Academy. They were randomized into 2 groups: study and control one (with and without preoperative education and physical therapy). Preoperative education was conducted through conversation (1 appointment with physiatrist) and brochure. The study group was instructed to perform exercises and basic activities from the postoperative rehabilitation program (2 practical classes with physiotherapist). Effects were measured with questionnaires (Harris, Oxford and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip scores), range of motion and visual analog scale of pain. Marks showing ability to perform basic activities and endurance were from 0 (did not perform activity) to 5 (independent and secure). Analyses examined differences between the groups over the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods and 15 months after the operation. There were no differences between the groups at discharge according to pain, range of motion, Harris hip score and JOA hip score. Oxford hip score did not differ between the groups 15 months after the operation. The groups started to walk at the same time, but the study group walked up and down stairs (3.7+/-1.66 vs 5.37+/-1.46, p< or =0.002), used toilet (2.3+/-0.92 vs 3.2+/-1.24, p< or =0.02) and chair (2.2+/-1.01 vs 3.25+/-1.21, p< or =0.006) significantly earlier than the control group. On the third day after the operation the

  5. The influence of burn severity on post-fire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goetz, S. J.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Goulden, M.

    2011-12-01

    Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Data Base (LFDB). We used the difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and changes in spring albedo derived from MODIS 500m albedo product as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer EVI in first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover immediately following fire. By 5-7 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90-110% of pre-fire levels. Burn severity had a positive effect on the increase of post-fire spring albedo during the first 7 years after fire, and a shift from low to moderate or moderate to severe fires led to amplification of the post-fire albedo increase by approximately 30%. Fire-induced increases in both spring and summer albedo became progressively larger with stand age from years 1-7, with the trend in spring albedo likely driven by continued losses of needles and branches from trees killed by the fire (and concurrent losses of black carbon coatings on remaining debris), and the summer trend associated with increases in leaf area of short-stature herbs and shrubs. Our results suggest that increases in burn severity and carbon losses observed in some areas of boreal forests (e.g., Turetsky et al., 2011) may be at least partly offset by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

  6. Late-onset Epstein-Barr virus-related disease in acute leukemia patients after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with impaired early recovery of T and B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangying; Yan, Chenhua; Zhang, Chunli; Xu, Lanping; Liu, Yanrong; Huang, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related disease (EBVD) is a serious clinical complication in patients who have undergone haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT). Some recipients develop EBVD relatively late after haploHSCT, and most of these patients suffer a poor outcome. This retrospective cohort study characterized the early adaptive immune recovery of patients with acute leukemia presenting with EBVD more than 100 d after haploHSCT. Patients with acute leukemia who received haploHSCT and developed EBVD 100 d later (n = 8) were compared with a matched control group without EBVD (n = 24) with regard to peripheral WBC, lymphocytes, and neutrophils (at 30, 60, and 90 d) and recoveries of B and T lymphocytes (at 30 and 90 d, via immunophenotyping/flow cytometry). Ninety days after haploHSCT, the median values of WBCs and lymphocytes, and the recoveries of CD19(+) B cells and CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and CD4(+) CD45RO(+) T cells, were significantly lower in patients who developed EBVD, relative to the control group. These results suggest a significant association between deficient early recovery of B and T lymphocytes and the development of late-onset EBVD after haploHSCT. Our observation could facilitate clinical intervention and the improvement of overall survival of patients undergoing haploHSCT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Inflammatory cytokine levels in synovial fluid 3, 4 days postoperatively and its correlation with early-phase functional recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makiko; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Nakamura, Kaori; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-12-01

    Synovial fluid was collected prior to and at 3 to 4 days after ACL reconstruction to investigate the correlation between inflammatory cytokine levels in the acute phase after surgery and physical functional recovery at 3 months postoperatively.  For this purpose, 79 patients with ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus tendons were included in the study. Median days from injury to surgery were 80 days (13-291 days). Synovial fluid was obtained just before surgery and at 3 to 4 days after surgery. Physical activity of each patient was evaluated at 3 months postoperatively, and scored from 0 (hard to walk) to 5 (run). Patients able to jog (score 4) or run (score 5) were considered as the "quick recovery" group and others (scores 1-3) as the "delayed recovery" group. Physical activity recovery scores in the early surgery group (preoperative period less than 60 days; Group I) were significantly better than those in the delayed surgery group (Group II). Among the cytokines tested, TNF-alpha and IL10 levels in synovial fluid were significantly higher in Group II at 3 to 4 days postoperatively, while levels of these cytokines were quite comparable preoperatively between the groups. Increased IL1-beta expression was noted in the delayed recovery group at 3 to 4 days postoperatively. In addition, levels of IL6, IL10 and IFN-gamma also tended to increase in patients with delayed recovery. Delayed ACL reconstruction increases levels of inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid after surgery and correlates with a prolonged recovery of short-period physical activity of the patients.

  8. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  9. Development of an e-supported illness management and recovery programme for consumers with severe mental illness using intervention mapping, and design of an early cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Beentjes, Titus A A; van Gaal, Betsie G I; Goossens, Peter J J; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2016-01-19

    E-mental health is a promising medium to keep mental health affordable and accessible. For consumers with severe mental illness the evidence of the effectiveness of e-health is limited. A number of difficulties and barriers have to be addressed concerning e-health for consumers with severe mental illness. One possible solution might be to blend e-health with face-to-face delivery of a recovery-oriented treatment, like the Illness Management & Recovery (IMR) programme. This paper describes the development of an e-health application for the IMR programme and the design of an early clustered randomized controlled trial. We developed the e-IMR intervention according to the six-step protocol of Intervention Mapping. Consumers joined the development group to address important and relevant issues for the target group. Decisions during the six-step development process were based on qualitative evaluations of the Illness Management & Recovery programme, structured interviews, discussion in the development group, and literature reviews on qualitative papers concerning consumers with severe mental illness, theoretical models, behavioural change techniques, and telemedicine for consumers with severe mental illness. The aim of the e-IMR intervention is to help consumers with severe mental illness to involve others, manage achieving goals, and prevent relapse. The e-IMR intervention consists of face-to-face delivery of the Illness Management & Recovery programme and an e-health application containing peer-testimonials on videos, follow up on goals and coping strategies, monitoring symptoms, solving problems, and communication opportunities. We designed an early cluster randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the e-IMR intervention. In the control condition the Illness Management & Recovery programme is provided. The main effect-study parameters are: illness management, recovery, psychiatric symptoms severity, self-management, quality of life, and general health. The

  10. Recovery in remitted first-episode psychosis at 7 years of follow-up of an early dose reduction/discontinuation or maintenance treatment strategy: long-term follow-up of a 2-year randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wunderink, Lex; Nieboer, Roeline M; Wiersma, Durk; Sytema, Sjoerd; Nienhuis, Fokko J

    2013-09-01

    Short-term outcome studies of antipsychotic dose-reduction/discontinuation strategies in patients with remitted first-episode psychosis (FEP) showed higher relapse rates but no other disadvantages compared with maintenance treatment; however, long-term effects on recovery have not been studied before. To compare rates of recovery in patients with remitted FEP after 7 years of follow-up of a dose reduction/discontinuation (DR) vs maintenance treatment (MT) trial. Seven-year follow-up of a 2-year open randomized clinical trial comparing MT and DR. One hundred twenty-eight patients participating in the original trial were recruited from 257 patients with FEP referred from October 2001 to December 2002 to 7 mental health care services in a 3.2 million-population catchment area. Of these, 111 patients refused to participate and 18 patients did not experience remission. PARTICIPANTS After 7 years, 103 patients (80.5%) of 128 patients who were included in the original trial were located and consented to follow-up assessment. After 6 months of remission, patients were randomly assigned to DR strategy or MT for 18 months. After the trial, treatment was at the discretion of the clinician. Primary outcome was rate of recovery, defined as meeting the criteria of symptomatic and functional remission. Determinants of recovery were examined using logistic regression analysis; the treatment strategy (MT or DR) was controlled for baseline parameters. The DR patients experienced twice the recovery rate of the MT patients (40.4% vs 17.6%). Logistic regression showed an odds ratio of 3.49 (P = .01). Better DR recovery rates were related to higher functional remission rates in the DR group but were not related to symptomatic remission rates. Dose reduction/discontinuation of antipsychotics during the early stages of remitted FEP shows superior long-term recovery rates compared with the rates achieved with MT. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing long-term gains of an early

  11. A Short and Distinct Time Window for Recovery of Arm Motor Control Early After Stroke Revealed With a Global Measure of Trajectory Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Juan C; Goldsmith, Jeff; Harran, Michelle D; Xu, Jing; Kim, Nathan; Schambra, Heidi M; Luft, Andreas R; Celnik, Pablo; Krakauer, John W; Kitago, Tomoko

    2017-06-01

    Studies demonstrate that most arm motor recovery occurs within three months after stroke, when measured with standard clinical scales. Improvements on these measures, however, reflect a combination of recovery in motor control, increases in strength, and acquisition of compensatory strategies. To isolate and characterize the time course of recovery of arm motor control over the first year poststroke. Longitudinal study of 18 participants with acute ischemic stroke. Motor control was evaluated using a global kinematic measure derived from a 2-dimensional reaching task designed to minimize the need for antigravity strength and prevent compensation. Arm impairment was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE), activity limitation with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and strength with biceps dynamometry. Assessments were conducted at: 1.5, 5, 14, 27, and 54 weeks poststroke. Motor control in the paretic arm improved up to week 5, with no further improvement beyond this time point. In contrast, improvements in the FMA-UE, ARAT, and biceps dynamometry continued beyond 5 weeks, with a similar magnitude of improvement between weeks 5 and 54 as the one observed between weeks 1.5 and 5. Recovery after stroke plateaued much earlier for arm motor control, isolated with a global kinematic measure, compared to motor function assessed with clinical scales. This dissociation between the time courses of kinematic and clinical measures of recovery may be due to the contribution of strength improvement to the latter. Novel interventions, focused on the first month poststroke, will be required to exploit the narrower window of spontaneous recovery for motor control.

  12. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  13. Acute Nicotine Enhances Spontaneous Recovery of Contextual Fear and Changes "c-fos" Early Gene Expression in Infralimbic Cortex, Hippocampus, and Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlu, Munir G.; Tumolo, Jessica M.; Holliday, Erica; Garrett, Brendan; Gould, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure therapy, which focuses on extinguishing fear-triggering cues and contexts, is widely used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, PTSD patients who received successful exposure therapy are vulnerable to relapse of fear response after a period of time, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery (SR). Increasing evidence…

  14. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Methods Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. Inclusion criteria: complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Results Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Conclusion Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer. PMID:24884793

  15. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  16. Early recovery following lower limb arthroplasty: Qualitative interviews with patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery. Initial phase in the development of a patient-reported outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Louise H; Kelly, Laura; Hamilton, Thomas W; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant G; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2017-09-27

    To explore the patients' perspective of surgery and early recovery when undergoing lower limb (hip or knee) arthroplasty. Lower limb arthroplasty is a commonly performed procedure for symptomatic arthritis, which has not responded to conservative medical treatment. Each patient's perspective of the surgical process and early recovery period impacts on their quality of life. Open, semistructured qualitative interviews were used to allow for a deeper understanding of the patient perspective when undergoing a hip or knee arthroplasty. Following ethical approval, 30 patients were interviewed between August and November 2016 during the perioperative period while undergoing an elective hip or knee arthroplasty (n = 30). The interviews were performed between the day of surgery and a nine-week postoperative clinic appointment. Data were analysed using an in-depth narrative thematic analysis method. NVivo qualitative data analysis software was used. Seven main themes evolved from the interviews: "improving function and mobility", "pain", "experiences of health care", "support from others", "involvement and understanding of care decisions", "behaviour and coping" and "fatigue and sleeping". The early postoperative recovery period is of vital importance to all surgical patients. This is no different for the orthopaedic patient. However, identifying key self-reported areas of importance from patients can guide clinical focus for healthcare professionals. To have specific patient-reported information regarding key areas of importance during the perioperative phase is invaluable when caring for the orthopaedic surgical patient. It gives insight and understanding in to this increasing population group. This study has also served as a starting point in the development of a questionnaire which could be used to assess interventions in the lower limb arthroplasty population. These results will influence both items and content of the questionnaire. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Recovery issues of fertility-preserving surgery in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and a model for survivorship: the physician checklist.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jeanne; Raviv, Leigh; Sonoda, Yukio; Chi, Dennis S; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R

    2011-01-01

    To present a qualitative data analysis of items exploring the treatment, adjustment, and recovery of 33 patients who underwent radical trachelectomy (RT), and to determine the feasibility of using a physician checklist (PCL) as a model for survivorship assessment. This prospective study was approved by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's Institutional Review Board. Participants completed a survey including exploratory items focused on fertility issues and reproductive concerns, treatment, adjustment, and recovery over 2 years. All responses to the exploratory questions were transcribed verbatim; thematic analysis was used to identify, evaluate, and show patterns within the data set; and descriptive statistics were calculated for thematic categories. A limited waiver of authorization was obtained for medical chart review of these patients (who underwent RT) for 2 years before (January 2006 to December 2007) and 2 years after (January 2008 to December 2009) implementation of the checklist to evaluate its feasibility. In response to "how successful you feel you will be at conceiving in the future?" on a scale of 0% to 100%, scores ranged from 54% to 60%. Approximately 70% of the patients reported concerns about conceiving; however, these lessened with time-88% at 6 months to 73% at 24 months. Six percent of women were trying to conceive by 12 months; this increased to 21% by 24 months. Five primary themes emerged from the qualitative analysis that were found to be prevalent across all exploratory items inquiring about difficulties or the hardest adjustment to treatment, recovery, and problems associated with RT; these included menstrual/vaginal issues, emotional impact, life interruptions/return to normalcy, general pain, and recovery process. The PCL identified higher rates of neocervical stenosis (58%), encroachment (54%), vaginal scarring (50%), and dyspareunia (33%) than medical charts, and increased documentation of reproductive consults (54%) and

  18. Multi-decadal shoreline changes on Takú Atoll, Papua New Guinea: Observational evidence of early reef island recovery after the impact of storm waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Thomas; Westphal, Hildegard

    2016-03-01

    Hurricanes, tropical cyclones and other high-magnitude events are important steering mechanisms in the geomorphic development of coral reef islands. Sandy reef islands located outside the storm belts are strongly sensitive to the impact of occasional high-magnitude events and show abrupt, commonly erosive geomorphic change in response to such events. Based on the interpretation of remote sensing data, it is well known that the process of landform recovery might take several decades or even longer. However, despite the increasing amount of scientific attention towards short- and long-term island dynamics, the lack of data and models often prevent a robust analysis of the timing and nature of recovery initiation. Here we show how natural island recovery starts immediately after the impact of a high-magnitude event. We analyze multi-temporal shoreline changes on Takú Atoll, Papua New Guinea and combine our findings with a unique set of published field observations (Smithers and Hoeke, 2014). Trends of shoreline change since 1943 and changes in planform island area indicate a long-term accretionary mode for most islands. Apparent shoreline instability is detected for the last decade of analysis, however this can be explained by the impact of storm waves in December 2008 that (temporarily?) masked the long-term trend. The transition from negative to positive rates of change in the aftermath of this storm event is indicative of inherent negative feedback processes that counteract short-term changes in energy input and represent the initiation of island recovery. Collectively, our results support the concept of dynamic rather than static reef islands and clearly demonstrate how short-term processes can influence interpretations of medium-term change.

  19. Early experience with laparoscopic extralevator abdominoperineal excision within an enhanced recovery setting: analysis of short-term outcomes and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan-Shaw, PG; King, AT; Cheung, T; Beck, NE; Knight, JS; Nichols, PH; Nugent, KP; Pilkington, SA; Smallwood, JA; Mirnezami, AH

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Conventional abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancer has a higher local recurrence and reduced survival compared to anterior resection. An extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) may improve outcome through removal of increased tissue in the distal rectum. Experience with ELAPE is limited and no studies have reported on quality of life (QOL) following this procedure. We describe a minimally invasive approach to ELAPE within an enhanced recovery programme, and present short-term results and QOL analyses. METHODS All laparoscopic ELAPEs were included in a prospective database. Demographics, intra-operative and post-operative outcomes were evaluated. Postoperative QOL was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29. RESULTS Thirteen laparoscopic ELAPEs were performed over a two-year period. All were enrolled in an enhanced recovery programme. The median age was 76. The median tumour height was 20mm (range: 0–50mm) from the dentate line and all patients received neoadjuvant treatment. The median duration of surgery was 300 minutes (range: 120–488 minutes), the mean blood loss was 150ml and one procedure was converted to open surgery. There was no circumferential resection margin involvement or tumour perforation. The median duration of use of intravenous fluid, patient controlled analgesia and urinary catheterisation was 2, 2 and 2.5 days respectively and the median length of hospital stay was 7.5 days. Two patients developed perineal wound dehiscence. QOL analysis revealed high global health status (90.8), physical (91.3), emotional (98.3) and social functioning (100) scores, which compared favourably with EORTC reference values and published QOL scores following conventional abdominoperineal excision. CONCLUSIONS Laparoscopic ELAPE within an enhanced recovery setting is a feasible and safe approach with acceptable short-term outcomes and post

  20. The effect of early psychological symptom severity on long-term functional recovery: A secondary analysis of data from a cohort study of minor injury patients.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Sara F; Shults, Justine; Richmond, Therese S

    2017-01-01

    The mental health consequences of injuries can interfere with recovery to pre-injury levels of function and long term wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological symptoms after minor injury and long-term functional recovery and disability. This exploratory study uses secondary data derived from a longitudinal cohort study of psychological outcomes after minor injury. Participants were recruited from the Emergency Department of an urban hospital in the United States. A cohort of 275 patients was randomly selected from 1100 consecutive emergency department admissions for minor injury. Potential participants were identified as having sustained minor injury by the combination of three standard criteria including: presentation to the emergency department for medical care within 24h of a physical injury, evidence of anatomical injury defined as minor by an injury severity score between 2 and 8 and normal physiology as defined by a triage-Revised Trauma Score of 12. Patients with central nervous system injuries, injury requiring medical care in the past 2 years and/or resulting from domestic violence, and those diagnosed with major depression or psychotic disorders were excluded. Psychological symptom severity was assessed within 2 weeks of injury, and outcome measures for functional limitations and disability were collected at 3, 6 and 12 months. A quasi-least squares approach was used to examine the relationship between psychological symptom scores at intake and work performance and requirement for bed rest in the year after injury. Adjusting for demographic and injury covariates, depression symptoms at the time of injury predicted (p≤0.05) both poorer work performance and increased number of days in bed due to health in the year after injury. Anxiety symptoms predicted (p≤0.05) bed days at 3, 6, and 12 months and work performance at 3 months. Depression and anxiety soon after minor injury may help predict important

  1. The effect of early psychological symptom severity on long-term functional recovery: A secondary analysis of data from a cohort study of minor injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, Sara F.; Shults, Justine; Richmond, Therese S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health consequences of injuries can interfere with recovery to pre-injury levels of function and long term wellbeing. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological symptoms after minor injury and long-term functional recovery and disability. Design This exploratory study uses secondary data derived from a longitudinal cohort study of psychological outcomes after minor injury. Setting Participants were recruited from the Emergency Department of an urban hospital in the United States. Participants A cohort of 275 patients was randomly selected from 1100 consecutive emergency department admissions for minor injury. Potential participants were identified as having sustained minor injury by the combination of three standard criteria including: presentation to the emergency department for medical care within 24 hours of a physical injury, evidence of anatomical injury defined as minor by an injury severity score between 2 and 8 and normal physiology as defined by a triage-Revised Trauma Score of 12. Patients with central nervous system injuries, injury requiring medical care in the past 2 years and/or resulting from domestic violence, and those diagnosed with major depression or psychotic disorders were excluded. Methods Psychological symptom severity was assessed within 2 weeks of injury, and outcome measures for functional limitations and disability were collected at 3, 6 and 12 months. A quasi-least squares approach was used to examine the relationship between psychological symptom scores at intake and work performance and requirement for bed rest in the year after injury. Results Adjusting for demographic and injury covariates, depression symptoms at the time of injury significantly predicted (p≤0.05) both poorer work performance and increased number of days in bed due to health in the year after injury. Anxiety symptoms significantly predicted (p≤0.05) bed days at 3, 6, and 12 months and work

  2. Poor CMV-specific CD8+ T central memory subset recovery at early stage post-HSCT associates with refractory and recurrent CMV reactivation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chang, Ying-Jun; Yan, Chen-Hua; Xu, Lan-Ping; Jiang, Zheng-Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Refractory and recurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation were independent risk factors of CMV disease and transplant-related mortality post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aims were to identify the recovery of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells with a central memory phenotype (TCM) associated with refractory and recurrent CMV reactivation. We analyzed findings in a prospective study comprising (n = 107) post allo-HSCT. CMV-specific CD8+ T cells were determined using HLA class I pentamers together with extended phenotypic analyses. The patients with lower level of CMV-specific CD8+ TCM at day 30 post-HSCT had an increased risk of refractory and recurrent CMV (68.5%) comparing with the higher one (13.2%) (p < 0.001) and poorer long term CMV-specific CD8+ T cell reconstitution post-HSCT (p = 0.026). Multivariate analysis revealed that CMV-specific CD8+ TCM at day 30 was an independent prognostic factor for refractory and recurrent reactivation (p = 0.002). The CMV-specific CD8+ TCM subset at day 30 post-HSCT is associated with CMV-specific T cell immunity recovery as well as the refractory and recurrent CMV reactivation post-HSCT. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  4. Early Recovery of Salmonella from Food Using a 6-Hour Non-selective Pre-enrichment and Reformulation of Tetrathionate Broth.

    PubMed

    Daquigan, Ninalynn; Grim, Christopher J; White, James R; Hanes, Darcy E; Jarvis, Karen G

    2016-01-01

    Culture based methods are commonly employed to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples. These methods are time consuming and complex, requiring multiple non-selective and selective enrichment broths, and usually take at least 1 week to recover and identify pathogens. Improving pathogen detection in foods is a primary goal for regulatory agencies and industry. Salmonella detection in food relies on a series of culture steps in broth formulations optimized to resuscitate Salmonella and reduce the abundance of competitive bacteria. Examples of non-selective pre-enrichment broths used to isolate Salmonella from food include Lactose, Universal Pre-enrichment, BPW, and Trypticase Soy broths. Tetrathionate (TT) and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broths are employed after a 24-h non-selective enrichment to select for Salmonella and hamper the growth of competitive bacteria. In this study, we tested a new formulation of TT broth that lacks brilliant green dye and has lower levels of TT . We employed this TT broth formulation in conjunction with a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment period and determined that Salmonella recovery was possible one day earlier than standard food culture methods. We tested the shortened culture method in different non-selective enrichment broths, enumerated Salmonella in the non-selective enrichments, and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the proportional abundances of Salmonella in the TT and RV selective enrichments. Together these data revealed that a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment reduces the levels of competitive bacteria inoculated into the selective TT and RV broths, enabling the recovery of Salmonella 1 day earlier than standard culture enrichment methods.

  5. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on upper extremity motor recovery in the early period after stroke: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Aliye; Türe, Sabiha; Askin, Ayhan; Yardimci, Engin Ugur; Demirdal, Secil Umit; Kurt Incesu, Tülay; Tosun, Ozgur; Kocyigit, Hikmet; Akhan, Galip; Gelal, Fazıl Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on upper extremity motor function in patients with acute/subacute ischemic stroke. Twenty-five ischemic acute/subacute stroke subjects were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Experimental group 1 received low frequency (LF) rTMS to the primary motor cortex of the unaffected side + physical therapy (PT) including activities to improve strength, flexibility, transfers, posture, balance, coordination, and activities of daily living, mainly focusing on upper limb movements; experimental group 2 received the same protocol combined with NMES to hand extensor muscles; and the control group received only PT. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan was used to evaluate the activation or inhibition of the affected and unaffected primary motor cortex. No adverse effect was reported. Most of the clinical outcome scores improved significantly in all groups, however no statistically significant difference was found between groups due to the small sample sizes. The highest percent improvement scores were observed in TMS + NMES group (varying between 48 and 99.3%) and the lowest scores in control group (varying between 13.1 and 28.1%). Hand motor recovery was significant in both experimental groups while it did not change in control group. Some motor cortex excitability changes were also observed in fMRI. LF-rTMS with or without NMES seems to facilitate the motor recovery in the paretic hand of patients with acute/subacute ischemic stroke. TMS or the combination of TMS + NMES may be a promising additional therapy in upper limb motor training. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish their effectiveness in upper limb motor rehabilitation of stroke.

  6. Preservation of the smooth muscular internal (vesical) sphincter and of the proximal urethra for the early recovery of urinary continence after retropubic radical prostatectomy: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Schiavina, Riccardo; Pultrone, Cristian Vincenzo; Borghesi, Marco; Rossi, Martina; Cevenini, Matteo; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of preservation of the muscular internal sphincter and proximal urethra on continence recovery after radical prostatectomy. This was a prospective single-center, case-control study. A total of 40 consecutive patients with organ-confined prostate cancer were submitted to radical prostatectomy with the preservation of the muscular internal sphincter and the proximal urethra (group 1), and their outcomes were compared with those of 40 patients submitted to a standard procedure (group 2). Continence rates were assessed using a self-administrated questionnaire at 3, 7 and 30 days, and 3 and 12 months after removal of the catheter. Group 1 had a faster recovery of early continence than group 2 at day 3 (45% vs 22%; P = 0.029) and at day 7 (75% vs 50%; P = 0.018). Considering the number of pads, group 1 had a faster recovery of continence at 3, 7 and 30 days, and also had less incidence of severe incontinence. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of continence at 3 and 12 months among the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that surgical technique and young age were significantly associated with earlier time to continence at 3 and 7 days. The two groups had no significant differences in terms of surgical margins. Our modified technique of radical retropubic prostatectomy with preservation of the smooth muscular internal sphincter, as well as of the proximal urethra during bladder neck dissection, results in a significantly increased urinary continence at 3, 7 and 30 days after catheter removal, with a minor incidence of severe incontinence. The technique is also oncologically safe, and it does not increase the operative duration of the procedure. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Impact of empiric nesiritide or milrinone infusion on early postoperative recovery after Fontan surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Costello, John M; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Allan, Catherine K; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Newburger, Jane W; McGowan, Francis X; Wessel, David L; Mayer, John E; Salvin, Joshua W; Dionne, Roger E; Laussen, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether empirical nesiritide or milrinone would improve the early postoperative course after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that compared with milrinone or placebo, patients assigned to receive nesiritide would have improved early postoperative outcomes. In a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-arm parallel-group clinical trial, patients undergoing primary Fontan surgery were assigned to receive nesiritide, milrinone, or placebo. A loading dose of study drug was administered on cardiopulmonary bypass followed by a continuous infusion for ≥12 hours and ≤5 days after cardiac intensive care unit admission. The primary outcome was days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included measures of cardiovascular function, renal function, resource use, and adverse events. Among 106 enrolled subjects, 35, 36, and 35 were randomized to the nesiritide, milrinone, and placebo groups, respectively, and all were analyzed based on intention to treat. Demographics, patient characteristics, and operative factors were similar among treatment groups. No significant treatment group differences were found for median days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery (nesiritide, 20 [minimum to maximum, 0-24]; milrinone, 18 [0-23]; placebo, 20 [0-23]; P=0.38). Treatment groups did not significantly differ in cardiac index, arrhythmias, peak lactate, inotropic scores, urine output, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care or chest tube drainage, or adverse events. Compared with placebo, empirical perioperative nesiritide or milrinone infusions are not associated with improved early clinical outcomes after Fontan surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00543309. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Early Application of High Cut-Off Haemodialysis for de-Novo Myeloma Nephropathy is Associated with Long-Term Dialysis-Independency and Renal Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Khalafallah, Alhossain A.; Loi, Sie Wuong; Love, Sarah; Mohamed, Muhajir; Mace, Rose; Khalil, Ramy; Girgs, Miriam; Raj, Rajesh; Mathew, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC). It has been demonstrated that early reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD) combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases with MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a medial follow up of 26 months, (range, 13–36) our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early in the treatment and became dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis-dependent. Conclusion In summary, our study suggests that in myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain MM, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further randomized trials to confirm our results are warranted. PMID:23350020

  9. Impact of 9/11-related chronic conditions and PTSD comorbidity on early retirement and job loss among World Trade Center disaster rescue and recovery workers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengchao; Brackbill, Robert M; Locke, Sean; Stellman, Steven D; Gargano, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    The economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks has rarely been studied. We examined the association between 9/11-related chronic health conditions with or without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and one important aspect of the economic impact, retirement, and job loss before age 60. A total of 7,662 workers who participated in the World Trade Center Health Registry surveys were studied. Logistic regression models examined the association of 9/11-related health and labor force exit. Workers with chronic conditions were more likely to experience early retirement and job loss, and the association was stronger in the presence of PTSD comorbidity: the odds ratios for reporting early retirement or job loss were increased considerably when chronic conditions were comorbid with PTSD. Disaster-related health burden directly impacts premature labor force exit and income. Future evaluation of disaster outcome should include its long-term impact on labor force. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:731-741, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sugammadex facilitates early recovery after surgery even in the absence of neuromuscular monitoring in patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery: a single-center retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Park, Eui-Seok; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Il Ok

    2016-08-02

    times as well as recovery time in the PACU and reduce postoperative hemodynamic complications in a clinical setting in the absence of neuromuscular monitoring. This may enhance the patients' recovery in the operating room and PACU while improving the postoperative condition of patients. The trial was registered in the UMIN clinical trials registry ( www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm ; unique trial number: UMIN000016602; registration number: R000019266 ; principal investigator's name: Byung Gun Lim; date of registration: February 22, 2015).

  11. Development of a Climate Record of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Column Ozone from Satellite Remote Sensing: Evidence of an Early Recovery of Global Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil

    2012-01-01

    Ozone data beginning October 2004 from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the Cloud Slicing technique in effort to develop long data records of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and for studying their long-term changes. Using this technique, we have produced a 32-yr (1979-2010) long record of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone from the combined Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and OMI. Analyses of these time series suggest that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is the dominant source of inter-annual variability of stratospheric ozone and is clearest in the Southern Hemisphere during the Aura time record with related inter-annual changes of 30- 40 Dobson Units. Tropospheric ozone for the long record also indicates a QBO signal in the tropics with peak-to-peak changes varying from 2 to 7 DU. The most important result from our study is that global stratospheric ozone indicates signature of a recovery occurring with ozone abundance now approaching the levels of year 1980 and earlier. The negative trends in stratospheric ozone in both hemispheres during the first 15 yr of the record are now positive over the last 15 yr and with nearly equal magnitudes. This turnaround in stratospheric ozone loss is occurring about 20 yr earlier than predicted by many chemistry climate models. This suggests that the Montreal Protocol which was first signed in 1987 as an international agreement to reduce ozone destroying substances is working well and perhaps better than anticipated.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation and work therapy in the early phase of substance use disorder recovery for older veterans: Neurocognitive and substance use outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bell, Morris D; Laws, Holly B; Petrakis, Ismene B

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is reported to improve neurocognitive and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes in residential treatments. This National Institute of Drug Abuse funded pilot study reports on CRT as an augmentation to outpatient treatment for SUD. Recovering outpatient veterans were randomized into CRT + Work Therapy (n = 24) or work therapy (n = 24) with treatment-as-usual. Blind assessments of neurocognition and substance use were performed at baseline, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6-month follow-up. Baseline assessments revealed high rates of cognitive impairment with 87.5% showing significant decline from premorbid IQ on at least 1 measure (median = 3/14 measures). Adherence to treatment was excellent. Follow-up rates were 95.7% at 3 months and 87.5% at 6 months. Mixed effects models of cognitive change over time revealed significant differences favoring CRT + Work Therapy on working memory (WM) and executive function indices. Global index of cognition showed a nonsignificant trend (effect size [ES] = .37) favoring CRT + Work Therapy. SUD outcomes were excellent for both conditions. CRT + Work Therapy had a mean of 97% days of abstinence at 3 months, 94% in the 30 days prior to 6-month follow-up, and 24/26 weeks of total abstinence; differences between conditions were not significant. CRT was well accepted by outpatient veterans with SUDs and led to significant improvements in WM and executive functions beyond that of normal cognitive recovery. No difference between conditions was found for SUD outcomes, perhaps because work therapy obscured the benefits of CRT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Multiscale Mathematical Modeling in Dental Tissue Engineering: Toward Computer-Aided Design of a Regenerative System Based on Hydroxyapatite Granules, Focussing on Early and Mid-Term Stiffness Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Scheiner, Stefan; Komlev, Vladimir S.; Gurin, Alexey N.; Hellmich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We here explore for the very first time how an advanced multiscale mathematical modeling approach may support the design of a provenly successful tissue engineering concept for mandibular bone. The latter employs double-porous, potentially cracked, single millimeter-sized granules packed into an overall conglomerate-type scaffold material, which is then gradually penetrated and partially replaced by newly grown bone tissue. During this process, the newly developing scaffold-bone compound needs to attain the stiffness of mandibular bone under normal physiological conditions. In this context, the question arises how the compound stiffness is driven by the key design parameters of the tissue engineering system: macroporosity, crack density, as well as scaffold resorption/bone formation rates. We here tackle this question by combining the latest state-of-the-art mathematical modeling techniques in the field of multiscale micromechanics, into an unprecedented suite of highly efficient, semi-analytically defined computation steps resolving several levels of hierarchical organization, from the millimeter- down to the nanometer-scale. This includes several types of homogenization schemes, namely such for porous polycrystals with elongated solid elements, for cracked matrix-inclusion composites, as well as for assemblies of coated spherical compounds. Together with the experimentally known stiffnesses of hydroxyapatite crystals and mandibular bone tissue, the new mathematical model suggests that early stiffness recovery (i.e., within several weeks) requires total avoidance of microcracks in the hydroxyapatite scaffolds, while mid-term stiffness recovery (i.e., within several months) is additionally promoted by provision of small granule sizes, in combination with high bone formation and low scaffold resorption rates. PMID:27708584

  14. Reading Recovery Executive Summary, 1984 to 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This Executive Summary provides information and details about Reading Recovery, an early intervention program for young readers who are experiencing difficulty in their first year of reading instruction. The summary first explains that Reading Recovery is a one-to-one tutoring program designed to serve the lowest achieving readers in which…

  15. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  16. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  17. Detecting recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Martyn P; Bekki, Slimane; Dhomse, Sandip; Harris, Neil R P; Hassler, Birgit; Hossaini, Ryan; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Thiéblemont, Rémi; Weber, Mark

    2017-09-13

    As a result of the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, the atmospheric loading of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances is decreasing. Accordingly, the stratospheric ozone layer is expected to recover. However, short data records and atmospheric variability confound the search for early signs of recovery, and climate change is masking ozone recovery from ozone-depleting substances in some regions and will increasingly affect the extent of recovery. Here we discuss the nature and timescales of ozone recovery, and explore the extent to which it can be currently detected in different atmospheric regions.

  18. Detecting recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Bekki, Slimane; Dhomse, Sandip; Harris, Neil R. P.; Hassler, Birgit; Hossaini, Ryan; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Thiéblemont, Rémi; Weber, Mark

    2017-09-01

    As a result of the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, the atmospheric loading of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances is decreasing. Accordingly, the stratospheric ozone layer is expected to recover. However, short data records and atmospheric variability confound the search for early signs of recovery, and climate change is masking ozone recovery from ozone-depleting substances in some regions and will increasingly affect the extent of recovery. Here we discuss the nature and timescales of ozone recovery, and explore the extent to which it can be currently detected in different atmospheric regions.

  19. Cognitive performance and aphasia recovery.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, José; Raposo, Ana; Martins, Isabel Pavão

    2018-03-01

    Objectives This study assessed cognitive performance of subjects with aphasia during the acute stage of stroke and evaluated how such performance relates to recovery at 3 months. Materials & methods Patients with aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke were evaluated during the first (baseline) and the fourth-month post onset. Assessment comprised non-verbal tests of attention/processing speed (Symbol Search, Cancelation Task), executive functioning (Matrix Reasoning, Tower of Hanoi, Clock Drawing, Motor Initiative), semantic (Camel and Cactus Test), episodic and immediate memory (Memory for Faces Test, 5 Objects Memory Test, and Spatial Span. Recovery was measured by the Token Test score at 3 months. The impact of baseline performance on recovery was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for age, education, severity of aphasia and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score. Results Thirty-nine subjects (with a mean of 66.5 ± 10.6 years of age, 17 men) were included. Average baseline cognitive performance was within normal range in all tests except in memory tests (semantic, episodic and immediate memory) for which scores were ≤-1.5sd. Subjects with poor aphasia recovery (N = 27) were older and had fewer years of formal education but had identical ASPECT score compared to those with favorable recovery. Considering each test individually, the score obtained on the Matrix Reasoning test was the only one to predict aphasia recovery (Exp(B)=24.085 p = 0.038). Conclusions The Matrix Reasoning Test may contribute to predict aphasia recovery. Cognitive performance is a measure of network disruption but may also indicate the availability of recovery strategies.

  20. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors' studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg & Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg & Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high…

  1. DWI-ASPECTS (Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Scores) and DWI-FLAIR (Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) Mismatch in Thrombectomy Candidates: An Intrarater and Interrater Agreement Study.

    PubMed

    Fahed, Robert; Lecler, Augustin; Sabben, Candice; Khoury, Naim; Ducroux, Célina; Chalumeau, Vanessa; Botta, Daniele; Kalsoum, Erwah; Boisseau, William; Duron, Loïc; Cabral, Dominique; Koskas, Patricia; Benaïssa, Azzedine; Koulakian, Hasmik; Obadia, Michael; Maïer, Benjamin; Weisenburger-Lile, David; Lapergue, Bertrand; Wang, Adrien; Redjem, Hocine; Ciccio, Gabriele; Smajda, Stanislas; Desilles, Jean-Philippe; Mazighi, Mikaël; Ben Maacha, Malek; Akkari, Inès; Zuber, Kevin; Blanc, Raphaël; Raymond, Jean; Piotin, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to study the intrarater and interrater agreement of clinicians attributing DWI-ASPECTS (Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Scores) and DWI-FLAIR (Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) mismatch in patients with acute ischemic stroke referred for mechanical thrombectomy. Eighteen raters independently scored anonymized magnetic resonance imaging scans of 30 participants from a multicentre thrombectomy trial, in 2 different reading sessions. Agreement was measured using Fleiss κ and Cohen κ statistics. Interrater agreement for DWI-ASPECTS was slight (κ=0.17 [0.14-0.21]). Four raters (22.2%) had a substantial (or higher) intrarater agreement. Dichotomization of the DWI-ASPECTS (0-5 versus 6-10 or 0-6 versus 7-10) increased the interrater agreement to a substantial level (κ=0.62 [0.48-0.75] and 0.68 [0.55-0.79], respectively) and more raters reached a substantial (or higher) intrarater agreement (17/18 raters [94.4%]). Interrater agreement for DWI-FLAIR mismatch was moderate (κ=0.43 [0.33-0.57]); 11 raters (61.1%) reached a substantial (or higher) intrarater agreement. Agreement between clinicians assessing DWI-ASPECTS and DWI-FLAIR mismatch may not be sufficient to make repeatable clinical decisions in mechanical thrombectomy. The dichotomization of the DWI-ASPECTS (0-5 versus 0-6 or 0-6 versus 7-10) improved interrater and intrarater agreement, however, its relevance for patients selection for mechanical thrombectomy needs to be validated in a randomized trial. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin as Early Markers of Septic Complications after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in Morbidly Obese Patients Within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, José Luis; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Miranda, Elena; Berrio, Diana Lorena; Moya, Pedro; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Flores, Raquel; Picó, Carlos; Pérez, Ana

    2016-05-01

    The performance of most bariatric procedures within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs has resulted in considerable advantages, including a reduction in the length of hospital stay to 2 to 3 days. However, some postoperative complications can appear after the patient has been discharged. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of various acute-phase parameters determined 24 and 48 hours after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as bariatric procedure, for predicting septic complications, such a surgical site infection (SSI), in the postoperative course. A prospective study of 115 morbidly obese patients who underwent LSG within an ERAS program between 2012 and 2015 was conducted. Blood analysis was performed 24 and 48 hours after surgery. Acute-phase parameters (C-reactive protein [CRP], procalcitonin, and fibrinogen) and WBC count were investigated. Septic complications were observed in 13 patients (11.3%). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis at 24 hours postoperatively, a cutoff level of CRP at 70 mg/L achieved 85% sensitivity and 90% specificity for predicting SSI, and a cutoff level of procalcitonin at 0.2 ng/mL achieved 70% sensitivity and 90% specificity. At 48 hours postoperatively, a cutoff level of CRP at 150 mg/L and procalcitonin at 0.95 ng/mL achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for predicting SSI. The use of CRP and procalcitonin in the first day and especially in the second day postoperative can predict septic complications after LSG. This is most useful for patients within an ERAS program who will be discharged early. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The manufacture of recovery.

    PubMed

    Braslow, Joel Tupper

    2013-01-01

    Recovery (also known as the "recovery orientation," "recovery vision," or "recovery philosophy") has been the dominant paradigm shaping current mental health policy for the past decade. It is claimed to be a revolutionary departure from the past and a guide to policy that will transform outcomes of severe mental illness. This review looks critically at the history of recovery and examines the ways in which this history has shaped the values, beliefs, and practices of current recovery-based policies. Recovery is a treatment philosophy that emerged from the ruins of deinstitutionalization and the psychopharmaceutical revolution. Yet paradoxically, recovery reflects many of the same ideas that made deinstitutionalization and the era of psychopharmacology possible. Further, history reveals how the recovery movement is deeply indebted to and embedded within the sociocultural values of neoliberalism that have shaped public policy since the presidential election of Ronald Reagan in 1980.

  4. Surgery-Induced Changes and Early Recovery of Hip-Muscle Strength, Leg-Press Power, and Functional Performance after Fast-Track Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits. Objective(s) Firstly, to quantify changes (compared to pre-operative values) in hip muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance in the first week after THA, and secondly, to explore relationships between the muscle strength changes, and changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, and thigh swelling. Design Prospective, cohort study. Setting Convenience sample of patients receiving a THA at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, between March and December 2011. Participants Thirty-five patients (65.9±7.2 years) undergoing THA. Main outcome measures Hip muscle strength, leg-press power, performance-based function, and self-reported disability were determined prior to, and 2 and 8 days after, THA (Day 2 and 8, respectively). Hip pain, thigh swelling, and C-Reactive Protein were also determined. Results Five patients were lost to follow-up. Hip muscle strength and leg press power were substantially reduced at Day 2 (range of reductions: 41–58%, P<0.001), but less pronounced at Day 8 (range of reductions: 23–31%, P<0.017). Self-reported symptoms and function (HOOS: Pain, Symptoms, and ADL) improved at Day 8 (P<0.014). Changes in hip pain, C-Reactive Protein, and thigh swelling were not related to the muscle strength and power losses. Conclusion(s) Hip muscle strength and leg-press power decreased substantially in the first week after THA – especially at Day 2 – with some recovery at Day 8. The muscle strength loss and power loss were not related to changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, or thigh swelling. In contrast, self-reported symptoms and function improved. These data on surgery-induced changes in muscle strength may help design impairment-directed, post

  5. VLF Observation of Long Ionospheric Recovery Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotts, B. R.; Inan, U. S.

    2006-12-01

    On the evening of 20 November 1992, three early/fast events were observed on the great circle path (GCP) from the NAU transmitter in Puerto Rico to Gander (GA), Newfoundland. These events were found to have significantly longer recovery times (up to 20 minutes) than any previously documented events. Typical early/fast events and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events affect the D-region ionosphere near the night-time VLF-reflection height of ~85 km and exhibit recovery to pre-event levels of < 180 seconds [e.g., Sampath et al., 2000]. These lightning-associated long recovery VLF events resemble the observed long ionospheric recovery of the VLF signature of the 27 December 2004 galactic gamma-ray flare event [Inan et al., 2006], which was interpreted to be due to the unusually high electron detachment rates at low (below 40 km) altitudes, The region of the ionosphere affected in these long recovery VLF events may thus also include the altitude range < 40 km, and may possibly be related to gigantic jets. In this context, preliminary results indicate that the lightning-associated VLF long recovery events appear to be more common in oceanic thunderstorms. In this paper, we present occurrence statistics and other measured properties of VLF long recovery events, observed on all-sea based and land based VLF great circle paths.

  6. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    PubMed

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  7. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  8. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2018-05-11

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  9. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  10. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  11. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  12. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  13. Accelerated recovery after cardiac operations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Kut, Mustafa Sinan; Yurtseven, Nurgul; Cimen, Serdar; Demirtas, Mahmut Murat

    2002-01-01

    The accelerated-recovery approach, involving early extubation, early mobility, decreased duration of intensive care unit stay, and decreased duration of hospitalization has recently become a controversial issue in cardiac surgery. We investigated timing of extubation, length of intensive care unit stay, and duration of hospitalization in 225 consecutive cardiac surgery patients. Of the 225 patients, 139 were male and 86 were female; average age was 49.73 +/- 16.95 years. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 127 patients; 65 patients underwent aortic and/or mitral or pulmonary valvular operations; 5 patients underwent valvular plus coronary artery operations; and in 28 patients surgical interventions for congenital anomalies were carried out. The accelerated-recovery approach could be applied in 169 of the 225 cases (75.11%). Accelerated-recovery patients were extubated after an average of 3.97 +/- 1.59 hours, and the average duration of stay in the intensive care unit was 20.93 +/- 2.44 hours for these patients. Patients were discharged if they met all of the following criteria: hemodynamic stability, cooperativeness, ability to initiate walking exercises within wards, lack of pathology in laboratory investigations, and psychological readiness for discharge. Mean duration of hospitalization for accelerated-recovery patients was 4.24 +/- 0.75 days. Two patients (1.18%) who were extubated within the first 6 hours required reintubation. Four patients (2.36%) who were sent to the wards returned to intensive care unit due to various reasons and 6 (3.55%) of the discharged patients were rehospitalized. Approaches for decreasing duration of intubation, intensive care unit stay and hospitalization may be applied in elective and uncomplicated cardiac surgical interventions with short duration of aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, without risking patients. Frequencies of reintubation, return to intensive care unit, and rehospitalization are quite

  14. EPA Recovery Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) award that EPA has funded for six programs. By integrating data reported by the recipients of Recovery Act funding and data created by EPA, this application delivers a level of transparency and public accessibility to users interested in EPA's use of Recovery Act monies. The application is relatively easy to use and builds on the same mapping model as Google, Bing, MapQuest and other commonly used mapping interfaces. EPA Recovery Mapper tracks each award made by each program and gives basic Quick Facts information for each award including award name, location, award date, dollar amounts and more. Data Summaries for each EPA program or for each state are provided displaying dollars for Total Awarded, Total Received (Paid), and Total Jobs This Quarter by Recovery for the latest quarter of data released by Recovery.gov. The data are reported to the government and EPA four times a year by the award recipients. The latest quarterly report will always be displayed in the EPA Recovery Mapper. In addition, the application provides many details about each award. Users will learn more about how to access and interpret these data later in this document. Data shown in the EPA Recovery Mapper are derived from information reported back to FederalReporting.gov from the recipients of Recovery Act funding. EPA

  15. Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Education in emergencies comprises learning opportunities for all ages. It encompasses early childhood development, primary, secondary, non-formal, technical, vocational, higher and adult education. In emergency situations through to recovery, quality education provides physical, psychosocial and cognitive protection that can sustain and save…

  16. Reading Recovery[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Reading Recovery"[R] is a short-term tutoring intervention program intended to serve the lowest achieving (bottom 20%) first-grade students. Students are chosen for "Reading Recovery"[R] by school staff, and selection is based on prior reading achievement, diagnostic testing (the Clay Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement), and teacher…

  17. Recovery and money management.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Recovery and Money Management

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L.; Ablondi, Karen; Wilbur, Charles; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Methods Twenty-five transcripts out of forty-nine total qualitative interviews with persons receiving SSI or SSDI who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. Results The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Money management interventions should incorporate peoples’ recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one’s finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client’s recovery-related goals. PMID:23750764

  19. Recovery in involuntary psychiatric care: is there a gender difference?

    PubMed

    Schön, Ulla-Karin

    2013-10-01

    Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals' recovery processes. To explore women's and men's perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness. Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants' recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes. The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process.

  20. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  1. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  2. Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salut, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Graf, K. L.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-08-01

    Long D-region ionospheric recovery perturbations are a recently discovered and poorly understood subcategory of early VLF events, distinguished by exceptionally long ionospheric recovery times of up to 20 min (compared to more typical ˜1 min recovery times). Characteristics and occurrence rates of long ionospheric recovery events on the NWC transmitter signal recorded at Malaysia are presented. 48 long recovery events were observed. The location of the causative lightning discharge for each event is determined from GLD360 and WWLLN data, and each discharge is categorized as being over land or sea. Results provide strong evidence that long recovery events are attributed predominately to lightning discharges occurring over the sea, despite the fact that lightning activity in the region is more prevalent over land. Of the 48 long recovery events, 42 were attributed to lightning activity over water. Analysis of the causative lightning of long recovery events in comparison to all early VLF events reveals that these long recovery events are detectable for lighting discharges at larger distances from the signal path, indicating a different scattering pattern for long recovery events.

  3. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a

  4. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Paul; Baldwin, Helen

    2013-01-30

    The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. 'human capital', provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a 'normal' life i.e. 'social and physical

  5. Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community.

    PubMed

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie

    2017-11-01

    This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all 'likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery- Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-13

    S69-27467 (13 March 1969) --- The Apollo 9 spacecraft, with astronauts James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. Schweickart aboard, approaches touchdown in the Atlantic recovery area. Splashdown occurred at 12:00:53 p.m. (EST), March 13, 1969, only 4.5 nautical miles from the prime recovery ship, USS Guadalcanal. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Cross-Validating Chinese Language Mental Health Recovery Measures in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John; Chan, Tiffany Hill Ching; Chen, Eric HY; Ng, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting recovery in mental health services is hampered by a shortage of reliable and valid measures, particularly in Hong Kong. We seek to cross validate two Chinese language measures of recovery and one of recovery-promoting environments. Method: A cross-sectional survey of people recovering from early episode psychosis (n = 121)…

  8. Recovery - Apollo 10

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-05-26

    S69-36593 (26 May 1969) --- The Apollo 10 astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (center), John W. Young (left) and Eugene A. Cernan (waving) are greeted by Donald E. Stullken (lower left) of the Manned Space Center's (MSC) recovery operations team. The Apollo 10 crew splashed down in the South Pacific recovery area to conclude a successful eight-day lunar orbit mission. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m. (CDT), May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa and about four miles from the prime recovery ship, USS Princeton.

  9. Hydrocarbon recovery from diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Scinta, J.

    1984-05-15

    Supercritical extraction of diatomaceous earth results in a much more significant improvement in hydrocarbon recovery over Fischer retorting than achievable with tar sands. Process and apparatus for supercritical extraction of diatomaceous earth are disclosed.

  10. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  11. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ljungqvist, Olle; Scott, Michael; Fearon, Kenneth C

    2017-03-01

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is a paradigm shift in perioperative care, resulting in substantial improvements in clinical outcomes and cost savings. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery is a multimodal, multidisciplinary approach to the care of the surgical patient. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery process implementation involves a team consisting of surgeons, anesthetists, an ERAS coordinator (often a nurse or a physician assistant), and staff from units that care for the surgical patient. The care protocol is based on published evidence. The ERAS Society, an international nonprofit professional society that promotes, develops, and implements ERAS programs, publishes updated guidelines for many operations, such as evidence-based modern care changes from overnight fasting to carbohydrate drinks 2 hours before surgery, minimally invasive approaches instead of large incisions, management of fluids to seek balance rather than large volumes of intravenous fluids, avoidance of or early removal of drains and tubes, early mobilization, and serving of drinks and food the day of the operation. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocols have resulted in shorter length of hospital stay by 30% to 50% and similar reductions in complications, while readmissions and costs are reduced. The elements of the protocol reduce the stress of the operation to retain anabolic homeostasis. The ERAS Society conducts structured implementation programs that are currently in use in more than 20 countries. Local ERAS teams from hospitals are trained to implement ERAS processes. Audit of process compliance and patient outcomes are important features. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery started mainly with colorectal surgery but has been shown to improve outcomes in almost all major surgical specialties. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery is an evidence-based care improvement process for surgical patients. Implementation of ERAS programs results in major improvements in clinical outcomes and cost

  12. Interdependent Network Recovery Games.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew M; González, Andrés D; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2017-10-30

    Recovery of interdependent infrastructure networks in the presence of catastrophic failure is crucial to the economy and welfare of society. Recently, centralized methods have been developed to address optimal resource allocation in postdisaster recovery scenarios of interdependent infrastructure systems that minimize total cost. In real-world systems, however, multiple independent, possibly noncooperative, utility network controllers are responsible for making recovery decisions, resulting in suboptimal decentralized processes. With the goal of minimizing recovery cost, a best-case decentralized model allows controllers to develop a full recovery plan and negotiate until all parties are satisfied (an equilibrium is reached). Such a model is computationally intensive for planning and negotiating, and time is a crucial resource in postdisaster recovery scenarios. Furthermore, in this work, we prove this best-case decentralized negotiation process could continue indefinitely under certain conditions. Accounting for network controllers' urgency in repairing their system, we propose an ad hoc sequential game-theoretic model of interdependent infrastructure network recovery represented as a discrete time noncooperative game between network controllers that is guaranteed to converge to an equilibrium. We further reduce the computation time needed to find a solution by applying a best-response heuristic and prove bounds on ε-Nash equilibrium, where ε depends on problem inputs. We compare best-case and ad hoc models on an empirical interdependent infrastructure network in the presence of simulated earthquakes to demonstrate the extent of the tradeoff between optimality and computational efficiency. Our method provides a foundation for modeling sociotechnical systems in a way that mirrors restoration processes in practice. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2018-05-09

    Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  14. Recovery capital pathways: Modelling the components of recovery wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Cano, Ivan; Best, David; Edwards, Michael; Lehman, John

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, there has been recognition that recovery is a journey that involves the growth of recovery capital. Thus, recovery capital has become a commonly used term in addiction treatment and research yet its operationalization and measurement has been limited. Due to these limitations, there is little understanding of long-term recovery pathways and their clinical application. We used the data of 546 participants from eight different recovery residences spread across Florida, USA. We calculated internal consistency for recovery capital and wellbeing, then assessed their factor structure via confirmatory factor analysis. The relationships between time, recovery barriers and strengths, wellbeing and recovery capital, as well as the moderating effect of gender, were estimated using structural equations modelling. The proposed model obtained an acceptable fit (χ 2 (141, N=546)=533.642, p<0.001; CMIN/DF=3.785; CFI=0.915; TLI=0.896; RMSEA=0.071). Findings indicate a pathway to recovery capital that involves greater time in residence ('retention'), linked to an increase in meaningful activities and a reduction in barriers to recovery and unmet needs that, in turn, promote recovery capital and positive wellbeing. Gender differences were observed. We tested the pathways to recovery for residents in the recovery housing population. Our results have implications not only for retention as a predictor of sustained recovery and wellbeing but also for the importance of meaningful activities in promoting recovery capital and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength.

    PubMed

    Gumbley, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities.

  16. Recovery - Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-13

    S69-27746 (13 March 1969) --- The Apollo 9 crew awaits the arrival of a recovery helicopter from the USS Guadalcanal, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 9 10-day Earth-orbital space mission. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, commander, stands in hatch of spacecraft. Already in life raft are astronauts Russell L. Schweickart (foreground), lunar module pilot, and David R. Scott, command module pilot. Scott is taking a picture of McDivitt. Splashdown occurred at 12:00:53 p.m. (EST), March 13, 1969, only 4.5 nautical miles from the USS Guadalcanal. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations.

  17. GT-7 RECOVERY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-18

    S65-61830 (18 Dec. 1965) --- Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini-7 pilot, and Frank Borman, command pilot, are shown just after they arrived aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Greeting the astronauts are Donald Stullken (at Lovell's right), Recovery Operations Branch, Landing and Recovery Division, Dr. Howard Minners (standing beside Borman), Flight Medicine Branch, Center Medical Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, and Bennett James (standing behind Borman), a NASA Public Affairs Officer. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft splashed down in the western Atlantic recovery area at 9:05 a.m. (EST), Dec. 18, 1965, to conclude a record-breaking 14-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Recovery of personal neglect.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  19. Phonics and Semiotics for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lucia Y.

    2010-01-01

    Clay's Reading Recovery has been one of the most effective one-to-one tutorial sessions. To make the daily lesson more interesting and fully engage the at-risk readers, the author modified Clay's Reading Recovery Program by conceptualizing phonics and semiotics into early intervention. In this case study, three at-risk first graders formed an…

  20. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    U.S. Navy personnel aboard the USS Anchorage prepare for recovery of NASA's Orion spacecraft from the Pacific Ocean about 600 miles off the coast of San Diego, California. Orion splashed down after its first flight test in Earth orbit. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  1. Rockets for spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

  2. Recovery- Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-13

    S69-27468 (13 March 1969) --- U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist the Apollo 9 crew during recovery operations just after splashdown. They have already attached a flotation collar to the Command Module (CM). Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, is about to climb into raft. In background is astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot. Still inside the spacecraft is astronaut James A. McDivitt, commander. Splashdown occurred at 12:00:53 p.m. (EST), March 13, 1969, only 4.5 nautical miles from the prime recovery ship, USS Guadalcanal, to conclude a successful 10-day Earth-orbital mission in space.

  3. Recovery- Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-13

    S69-27920 (13 March 1969) --- The Apollo 9 crew men walk on a red carpet after arriving aboard the prime recovery ship, USS Guadalcanal. Left to right, are astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, David R. Scott, and James A. McDivitt. They are walking from the recovery helicopter which picked them up from the splashdown area. Splashdown occurred at 12:00:53 p.m. (EST), March 13, 1969, only 4.5 nautical miles from the USS Guadalcanal to conclude a successful 10-day Earth-orbital space mission.

  4. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  5. C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and procalcitonin levels as early markers of staple line leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Gonzalez, Juan; Garcia, Alejandro; Ferrigni, Carlos; Jimenez, Montiel; Duran, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    The performance of most bariatric procedures within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program has resulted in significant advantages, including a reduction in the length of hospital stay to 2-3 days. However, some postoperative complications may appear after the patient has been discharged. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of various acute-phase parameters determined 24 h after a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for predicting staple line leak in the postoperative course. A prospective study of 208 morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between 2012 and 2015 was performed. Blood analysis was performed 24 h after surgery. Acute-phase parameters (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, and White Blood Cell count) were investigated. Staple line leak appeared in eight patients (3.8%). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis at 24 h postoperatively, a cutoff level of CRP at 9 mg/dL achieved 85% sensitivity and 90% specificity for predicting staple line leak, a cutoff level of procalcitonin at 0.85 ng/mL achieved 70% sensitivity and 90% specificity, and a cutoff level of fibrinogen at 600 mg/dL achieved 80% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. An elevation of CRP > 9 mg/dL, procalcitonin > 0.85 ng/mL and fibrinogen > 600 mg/dL should alert the surgeon the possibility of occurrence of postoperative staple line leak.

  6. Recovery-oriented perceptions as predictors of reincarceration.

    PubMed

    De Leon, George; Melnick, Gerald; Cao, Yan; Wexler, Harry K

    2006-07-01

    The present prospective study explored whether a specific class of client subjective assessments predicts later recovery. Measures of client perceptions of self-change in substance abusers were obtained a year after release from a prison-based therapeutic community. Analyses assessed the contribution of these perceptions-along with motivation, age, and risk index of social deviancy-in predicting reincarceration at 3-year follow-up. Results showed that two factors (Individual Growth and Socialization) significantly differentiated reincarceration and nonreincarceration at 1-year postrelease and significantly predicted reincarceration at 3-year follow-up. Findings underscore the relevance of perceptions of self-change early in recovery to later recovery behaviors. Research on recovery factors needs a uniform assessment protocol, which organizes client perceptions, beliefs, and attributions in accordance with a recovery stage framework.

  7. Computer Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Orvin R.

    Arguing that complete, reliable, up-to-date system documentation is critical for every data processing environment, this paper on computer disaster recovery planning begins by discussing the importance of such documentation both for recovering from a systems crash, and for system maintenance and enhancement. The various components of system…

  8. Heat Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.

  9. Recovery Systems Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    analysis. retrieval parachute concepts are being investigated. The development of recovery systems for fast flying, possible out-of-control missiles proved...system. 21 •, . , r, _ . .. , . " , , . : . .. . " . , ,- Reference 32 suggests certain applications (speed/ Fast Opening. An emergency escape...operation, physiological aspect of flying and escape. fast parachute opening., Low Rate of Descent. A sea level rate of descent low parachute opening

  10. Recovery High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses recovery high schools which are designed specifically to serve students who have been through a professional substance abuse treatment program and are working to stay away from drugs and alcohol. The schools typically serve multiple districts and are funded from both the per-pupil state funds that follow a student and what…

  11. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  12. Collegiate Recovery Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kitty S.; Kimball, Thomas G.; Casiraghi, Ann M.; Maison, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    More than ever, people are seeking substance use disorder treatment during the adolescent and young adult stages of development. Developmentally, many of these young adults new to recovery are in the process of making career decisions that may require attendance at a college or university. However, the collegiate environment is not conducive to a…

  13. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  14. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  15. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  16. Recovery of EUVL substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S.P.; Baker, S.L.

    1995-01-19

    Mo/Si multilayers, were removed from superpolished zerodur and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  17. Tailoring nutrition therapy to illness and recovery.

    PubMed

    Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2017-12-28

    Without doubt, in medicine as in life, one size does not fit all. We do not administer the same drug or dose to every patient at all times, so why then would we live under the illusion that we should give the same nutrition at all times in the continuum of critical illness? We have long lived under the assumption that critical illness and trauma lead to a consistent early increase in metabolic/caloric need, the so-called "hypermetabolism" of critical illness. What if this is incorrect? Recent data indicate that early underfeeding of calories (trophic feeding) may have benefits and may require consideration in well-nourished patients. However, we must confront the reality that currently ICU nutrition delivery worldwide is actually leading to "starvation" of our patients and is likely a major contributor to poor long-term quality of life outcomes. To begin to ascertain the actual calorie and protein delivery required for optimal ICU recovery, an understanding of "starvation" and recovery from starvation and lean body mass (LBM) loss is needed. To begin to answer this question, we must look to the landmark Minnesota Starvation Study from 1945. This trial defines much of the world's knowledge about starvation, and most importantly what is required for recovery from starvation and massive LBM loss as occurs in the ICU. Recent and historic data indicate that critical illness is characterized by early massive catabolism, LBM loss, and escalating hypermetabolism that can persist for months or years. Early enteral nutrition during the acute phase should attempt to correct micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies, deliver adequate protein, and moderate nonprotein calories in well-nourished patients, as in the acute phase they are capable of generating significant endogenous energy. Post resuscitation, increasing protein (1.5-2.0 g/kg/day) and calories are needed to attenuate LBM loss and promote recovery. Malnutrition screening is essential and parenteral nutrition can be safely

  18. [Accelerated postoperative recovery after colorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, P; Schaack, E

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated recovery programs are clinical pathways which outline the stages, and streamline the means, and techniques aiming toward the desired end a rapid return of the patient to his pre-operative physical and psychological status. Recovery from colo-rectal surgery may be slowed by the patient's general health, surgical stress, post-surgical pain, and post-operative ileus. Both surgeons and anesthesiologists participate throughout the peri-operative period in a clinical pathway aimed at minimizing these delaying factors. Key elements of this pathway include avoidance of pre-operative colonic cleansing, early enteral feeding, and effective post-operative pain management permitting early ambulation (usually via thoracic epidural anesthesia). Pre-operative information and motivation of the patient is also a key to the success of this accelerated recovery program. Studies of such programs have shown decreased duration of post-operative ileus and hospital stay without an increase in complications or re-admissions. The elements of the clinical pathway must be regularly re-evaluated and updated according to local experience and published data.

  19. Implementing enhanced recovery in gynaecology oncology.

    PubMed

    Rooth, Carolyn; Sidhu, Amar

    Enhanced recovery involves the adoption of a selected number of evidence-based interventions used together and implemented in a 'fast track' care pathway during preoperative management, surgery itself and throughout the immediate postoperative period. Aimed at promoting effective patient recovery after surgery, this has been shown to improve the patient experience and facilitate early patient discharge following major surgery in some clinical areas (Department of Health, 2010). Applied to the clinical management and nursing care of women affected by gynaecological malignancies in one London tertiary referral centre hospital, enhanced recovery has been seen to improve patient experience and shorten the length of overall hospital stay. Implementation requires careful planning, appointment of key practitioners and commitment of the multidisciplinary team to realise successful outcomes. The authors' experience suggests that challenges are associated with changing practice and that while careful planning is essential, successes are to be gained, which significantly benefit patients, staff and the NHS Trust. In sharing this experience of implementing enhanced recovery, the authors hope to encourage others to consider application of this innovative strategy.

  20. Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve; Schauffler, Sue; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS and OMI instruments. The severity of the hole has been assessed using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), the average size during the September-October period, and the ozone mass deficit. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. We use two methods to estimate ozone hole recovery. First, we use projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates in a parametric model. Second, we use a coupled chemistry climate model to assess recovery. We find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. Furthermore, full recovery to 1980 levels will not occur until approximately 2068. We will also show some error estimates of these dates and the impact of climate change on the recovery.

  1. Enhanced recovery after surgery in gastric resections.

    PubMed

    Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Vorwald, Peter; Ortega Lucea, Sonia; Ramírez Rodríguez, Jose Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a modality of perioperative management with the purpose of improving results and providing a faster recovery of patients. This kind of protocol has been applied frequently in colorectal surgery, presenting less available experience and evidence in gastric surgery. According to the RICA guidelines published in 2015, a review of the bibliography and the consensus established in a multidisciplinary meeting in Zaragoza on the 9th of October 2015, we present a protocol that contains the basic procedures of fast-track for resective gastric surgery. The measures to be applied are divided in a preoperative, perioperative and postoperative stage. This document provides recommendations concerning the appropriate information, limited fasting and administration of carbohydrate drinks 2hours before surgery, specialized anesthetic strategies, minimal invasive surgery, no routine use of drainages and tubes, mobilization and early oral tolerance during the immediate postoperative period, as well as criteria for discharge. The application of a protocol of enhanced recovery after surgery in resective gastric surgery can improve and accelerate the functional recovery of our patients, requiring an appropriate multidisciplinary coordination, the evaluation of obtained results with the application of these measures and the investigation of controversial topics about which we currently have limited evidence. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of forensic anthropology in the recovery and analysis of Branch Davidian Compound victims: recovery procedures and characteristics of the victims.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, D H; Owsley, D W; Houck, M M; Craig, E; Grant, W; Woltanski, T; Fram, R; Sandness, K; Peerwani, N

    1995-05-01

    Anthropological contributions to the investigation of the events at the Branch Davidian Compound near Waco, Texas in early 1993, were of two major types: the recovery of human remains from the site and the analysis of most of those individuals at the Medical Examiner's Office in Fort Worth, Texas. This paper describes the role of forensic anthropology in the recovery and analysis of Branch Davidian Compound victims and the recovery procedures and characteristics of the victims.

  3. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  4. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  5. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  6. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  7. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  8. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    DOE PAGES

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  9. Process gas hear recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.M.; Thurner, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    In considering the use of regenerative and recuperative heat exchangers for process-gas heat recovery general information regarding heat-exchanger effectiveness versus initial capital investment and operating costs is discussed. Specific examples for preheating combustion air for process furnaces and for using primary and secondary heat exchangers in conjunction with an air-pollution-control system for drying and curing ovens cover basic heat-exchanger design and application considerations as well as investment-payback factors.

  10. Evaluation of the i3 Scale-up of Reading Recovery: Year One Report, 2011-12. RR-76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Gray, Abigail; Gillespie, Jessica N.; Sirinides, Philip; Sam, Cecile; Goldsworthy, Heather; Armijo, Michael; Tognatta, Namrata

    2013-01-01

    Reading Recovery (RR) is a short-term early intervention designed to help the lowest-achieving readers in first grade reach average levels of classroom performance in literacy. Students identified to receive Reading Recovery meet individually with a specially trained Reading Recovery (RR) teacher every school day for 30-minute lessons over a…

  11. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  12. School Food Recovery Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Petri, Thomas E. [R-WI-6

    2011-01-06

    House - 02/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. School Food Recovery Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wolf, Frank R. [R-VA-10

    2009-03-09

    House - 04/29/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Recovery definitions: Do they change?

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “recovery” is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The “What Is Recovery?” project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. Methods To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n = 1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was estimated. Results Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Conclusions Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent “What Is Recovery?” survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. PMID:26166666

  15. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft floats in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown from its first flight test in Earth orbit. In the background is the USNS Salvor. This U.S. Navy salvage ship was there as a backup in case it was needed. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  16. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft floats in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown from its first flight test in Earth orbit. An H60-S Seahawk helicopter hovers above to communicate the spacecraft's location back to the USS Anchorage, in the distance. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  17. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft floats in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown from its first flight test in Earth orbit. An H60-S Seahawk helicopter hovers above to communicate the spacecraft's location back to the USS Anchorage. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  18. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft floats in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown from its first flight test in Earth orbit. The USS Anchorage is nearby. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  19. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft floats in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown from its first flight test in Earth orbit. The spacecraft completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half-hour mission in Earth orbit. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion, the forward bay cover and main parachutes. Orion will be towed in and secure in the well deck of the nearby USS Anchorage. Orion's mission tested systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  20. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  1. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft is on rubber bumpers in the flooded well deck of the USS Anchorage in the Pacific Ocean about 600 miles off the coast of San Diego, California. Orion splashed down after its first flight test in Earth orbit. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  2. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after its first flight test atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. U.S. Navy divers in Zodiac boats prepare to recover Orion and tow her in to the well deck of the USS Anchorage. NASA's Orion spacecraft completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  3. Pyrolysis with staged recovery

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1979-03-20

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.

  4. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    U.S. Navy personnel aboard a rigid hull inflatable boat help recover NASA's Orion spacecraft following its splashdown in the Pacific Ocean after its first flight test in Earth orbit. Orion is towed into the flooded well deck of the USS Anchorage. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin coordinated efforts to recover Orion, the forward bay cover and main parachutes. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  5. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    U.S. Navy personnel aboard a rigid hull inflatable boat help recover NASA's Orion spacecraft following its splashdown in the Pacific Ocean after its first flight test in Earth orbit. The USS Anchorage is in the background. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. Prediction of motor recovery after stroke: advances in biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Stinear, Cathy M

    2017-10-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult disability, and the recovery of motor function after stroke is crucial for the patient to regain independence. However, making accurate predictions of a patient's motor recovery and outcome is difficult when based on clinical assessment alone. Clinical assessment of motor impairment within a few days of stroke can help to predict subsequent recovery, while neurophysiological and neuroimaging biomarkers of corticomotor structure and function can help to predict both motor recovery and motor outcome after stroke. The combination of biomarkers can provide clinically useful information when planning the personalised rehabilitation of a patient. These biomarkers can also be used for patient selection and stratification in trials investigating rehabilitation interventions that are initiated early after stroke. Ongoing multicentre trials that incorporate motor biomarkers could help to bring their use into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual role of starvation signaling in promoting growth and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Leshkowitz, Dena; Barkai, Naama

    2017-01-01

    Growing cells are subject to cycles of nutrient depletion and repletion. A shortage of nutrients activates a starvation program that promotes growth in limiting conditions. To examine whether nutrient-deprived cells prepare also for their subsequent recovery, we followed the transcription program activated in budding yeast transferred to low-phosphate media and defined its contribution to cell growth during phosphate limitation and upon recovery. An initial transcription wave was induced by moderate phosphate depletion that did not affect cell growth. A second transcription wave followed when phosphate became growth limiting. The starvation program contributed to growth only in the second, growth-limiting phase. Notably, the early response, activated at moderate depletion, promoted recovery from starvation by increasing phosphate influx upon transfer to rich medium. Our results suggest that cells subject to nutrient depletion prepare not only for growth in the limiting conditions but also for their predicted recovery once nutrients are replenished. PMID:29236696

  10. Reading Recovery and ESEA Chapter 1: Issues and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajano, Nancy C.

    The simultaneous implementation of Reading Recovery (an early intervention program designed to help children "at risk" of failure in their first year of reading instruction) and Chapter 1 programs in schools raises a number of issues as educators attempt to provide effective reading instruction within the policies and guidelines of both…

  11. Is Reading Recovery Sustainable Two to Four Years after Discontinuation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Karen; Parkhill, Faye

    2014-01-01

    The Reading Recovery programme has been a key early literacy intervention in many international contexts for over two decades. As a consequence, there have been numerous investigations into its efficacy for short-term gains, but only a few on long-term sustainability. This study examines the progress of 95 Year 4-6 students from seven schools in…

  12. Rapid recovery from the Late Ordovician mass extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, A. Z.; Patzkowsky, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary role of mass extinctions requires detailed knowledge of postextinction recoveries. However, most models of recovery hinge on a direct reading of the fossil record, and several recent studies have suggested that the fossil record is especially incomplete for recovery intervals immediately after mass extinctions. Here, we analyze a database of genus occurrences for the paleocontinent of Laurentia to determine the effects of regional processes on recovery and the effects of variations in preservation and sampling intensity on perceived diversity trends and taxonomic rates during the Late Ordovician mass extinction and Early Silurian recovery. After accounting for variation in sampling intensity, we find that marine benthic diversity in Laurentia recovered to preextinction levels within 5 million years, which is nearly 15 million years sooner than suggested by global compilations. The rapid turnover in Laurentia suggests that processes such as immigration may have been particularly important in the recovery of regional ecosystems from environmental perturbations. However, additional regional studies and a global analysis of the Late Ordovician mass extinction that accounts for variations in sampling intensity are necessary to confirm this pattern. Because the record of Phanerozoic mass extinctions and postextinction recoveries may be compromised by variations in preservation and sampling intensity, all should be reevaluated with sampling-standardized analyses if the evolutionary role of mass extinctions is to be fully understood.

  13. More Than One Million Children Served: Reading Recovery Results, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    A key premise of Reading Recovery is that early intervention in first grade is critical in long-term literacy achievement because the gap between lowest- and highest-achieving children is narrow in lower grades but widens in later elementary school. Reading Recovery closes this gap at the critical time in children's literacy learning before the…

  14. Recovery from a psychiatrist's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Ronald J

    2006-09-01

    Recovery is not the same as cure. Recovery from mental illness is the process of having more to life than just illness. It is an ongoing process rather than simply a goal that can be achieved. Recovery from the stigma of mental illness may be as difficult as recovery from the illness itself. Several common, but incorrect, beliefs can interfere with the recovery process. Myths include the belief that the illness has an inherently downhill course, that rehabilitation is useful only after stabilization, and that people with schizophrenia can only work at low-level jobs. People who have schizophrenia have reported that their own process of recovery was helped by their determination to get better, an understanding of the illness, taking personal responsibility, having friends who accept them, an optimistic attitude, and spiritual beliefs that help them find meaning in life.

  15. Bladder Cancer Recovery Pathways: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Ian; Parker, Daniel C.; Cookson, Michael S.; Patel, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Enhanced recovery pathways, also known as fast-track protocols, have been adopted since the early 2000s by various surgical specialties with the goal of improving patient outcomes and reducing the cost burden of major surgery on the health care system. Objective: To review the scientific literature on the origin of enhanced recovery pathways, track the contemporary utilization of such practices for patients undergoing radical cystectomy, and analyze the available data regarding their effect on morbidity, mortality, and treatment cost. Methods: A literature search of multiple electronic databases was undertaken. Manuscripts including patients undergoing radical cystectomy were chosen based on predefined criteria with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Strength of evidence for each study that met inclusion criteria was assessed based on the risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Results: Database searches resulted in 1,236 potentially relevant articles. A total of 485 articles were selected for full-text dual review and 106 studies in 52 publications met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: The utilization of enhanced recovery pathways with the goal of improving overall patient morbidity and mortality is well supported in the literature, however standardization of implementation and adherence across institutions is lacking, and their direct efficacy on reducing preventable treatment related expenditures is unconfirmed. PMID:29152551

  16. Brain Aneurysm: Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... people, but they are growing larger as medical technology continues to grow and early detection and treatment becomes more prevalent. Read More “I’ve met many people through The Brain Aneurysm Foundation. Each one with their own unique story. Of survival, of appreciation for what we still ...

  17. Business recovery: an assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Joanne R; Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2018-07-01

    This paper presents a Business Recovery Assessment Framework (BRAF) to help researchers and practitioners design robust, repeatable, and comparable studies of business recovery in various post-disruption contexts. Studies assessing business recovery without adequately considering the research aims, recovery definitions, and indicators can produce misleading findings. The BRAF is composed of a series of steps that guide the decisions that researchers need to make to ensure: (i) that recovery is indeed being measured; (ii) that the indicators of recovery that are selected align with the objectives of the study and the definition of recovery; and, where necessary, (iii) that appropriate comparative control variables are in place. The paper draws on a large dataset of business surveys collected following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, on 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 to demonstrate the varied conclusions that different recovery indicators can produce and to justify the need for a systematic approach to business recovery assessments. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  18. Superdiffusive gas recovery from nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haiyi; He, Yadong; Qiao, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining the gas recovery behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. These interactions cause the total diffusion coefficients of the gas molecules in nanopores to be smaller than those predicted by kinetic theories, hence slowing down the rate of gas recovery. These interactions also lead to significant adsorption of gas molecules on the pore walls. Because of the desorption of these gas molecules during gas recovery, the gas recovery from the nanopore does not exhibit the usual diffusive scaling law (i.e., the accumulative recovery scales as R ˜t1 /2 ) but follows a superdiffusive scaling law R ˜tn (n >0.5 ), which is similar to that observed in some field experiments. For the system studied here, the superdiffusive gas recovery scaling law can be captured well by continuum models in which the gas adsorption and desorption from pore walls are taken into account using the Langmuir model.

  19. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  20. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  1. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-06

    The Orion crew module is recovered after splashdown in the Pacific Ocean about 600 miles off the coast of San Diego, California. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin coordinated efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft inside the well deck of the USS Anchorage. After lifting off at 7:05 a.m. EST atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, NASA's Orion spacecraft completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  2. RECOVERY - APOLLO 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-07

    S71-43542 (7 Aug. 1971) --- The Apollo 15 Command Module (CM), with astronauts David R. Scott, commander; Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, aboard safely touches down in the mid-Pacific Ocean to conclude a highly successful lunar landing mission. Although causing no harm to the crew men, one of the three main parachutes failed to function properly. The splashdown occurred at 3:45:53 p.m. (CDT), Aug. 7, 1971, some 330 miles north of Honolulu, Hawaii. The three astronauts were picked up by helicopter and flown to the prime recovery ship, USS Okinawa, which was only 6 1/2 miles away.

  3. RECOVERY - APOLLO 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-07

    S71-43543 (7 Aug. 1971) --- The Apollo 15 Command Module (CM), with astronauts David R. Scott, commander; Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, aboard safely touches down in the mid-Pacific Ocean to conclude a highly successful lunar landing mission. Although causing no harm to the crew men, one of the three main parachutes failed to function properly. The splashdown occurred at 3:45:53 p.m. (CDT), Aug. 7, 1971, some 330 miles north of Honolulu, Hawaii. The three astronauts were picked up by helicopter and flown to the prime recovery ship, USS Okinawa, which was only 6 1/2 miles away.

  4. Speech recovery device

    DOEpatents

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  5. Recovery - Apollo 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-24

    S69-21698 (24 July 1969) --- The three Apollo 11 crew men await pickup by a helicopter from the USS Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The fourth man in the life raft is a United States Navy underwater demolition team swimmer. All four men are wearing biological isolation garments. Apollo 11, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, onboard, splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

  6. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assistedmore » person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.« less

  7. Energy recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.

  8. Waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuitmore » into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.« less

  9. Hurricane Recovery Report 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Joseph P.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2004, four hurricanes tested the mettle of Space Coast residents and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) leadership and workforce. These threats underscored two important points: the very real vulnerability of KSC and its valuable space program assets to the devastating power of a hurricane, and the planning required to effectively deal with such threats. The damage was significant even though KSC did not experience sustained hurricane-force winds. To better understand and appreciate these points, this report provides an overview of the meteorological history of the Space Coast and what is involved in the planning, preparation, and recovery activities, as well as addressing the impacts of the 2004 hurricane season.

  10. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  11. Concerns for Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Strahan, Susan E.; Fleming, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive halogen gases containing chlorine (Cl) or bromine (Br) can destroy stratospheric ozone via catalytic cycles. The main sources of atmospheric reactive halogen are the long-lived synthetic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), and bromine-containing halons, all of which persist in the atmosphere for years. These ozone-depleting substances are now controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Natural methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) emissions are also important long-lived sources of atmospheric reactive halogen. Rising concentrations of very-short-lived substances (VSLSs) with atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year may also contribute to future stratospheric ozone depletion. A greater concern for ozone layer recovery is incomplete compliance with the Montreal Protocol, which will impact stratospheric ozone for many decades, as well as rising natural emissions as a result of climate change.

  12. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within themore » range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.« less

  13. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  14. Hurricane Matthew Recovery Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-11

    In the Press Site auditorium of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, NASA officials speak to media about efforts to recover from Hurricane Matthew. From the left are Mike Curie of NASA Communications, Center Director Bob Cabana and Bob Holl, chief of the Kennedy Damage Assessment and Recovery Team. Officials determined that the center received some isolated roof damage, damaged support buildings, a few downed power lines, and limited water intrusion. Beach erosion also occurred, although the storm surge was less than expected. NASA closed the center ahead of the storm’s onset and only a small team of specialists known as the Ride-out Team was on the center as the storm approached and passed.

  15. Hurricane Matthew Recovery Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-11

    In the Press Site auditorium of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, NASA officials speak to media about efforts to recover from Hurricane Matthew. From the left are Bob Holl, chief of the Kennedy Damage Assessment and Recovery Team, Center Director Bob Cabana and Mike Curie of NASA Communications. Officials determined that the center received some isolated roof damage, damaged support buildings, a few downed power lines, and limited water intrusion. Beach erosion also occurred, although the storm surge was less than expected. NASA closed the center ahead of the storm’s onset and only a small team of specialists known as the Ride-out Team was on the center as the storm approached and passed.

  16. AMPA receptor-induced local brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mediates motor recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Andrew N; Overman, Justine J; Zhong, Sheng; Mueller, Rudolf; Lynch, Gary; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2011-03-09

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery after stroke shares similar molecular and cellular properties with learning and memory. A main component of learning-induced plasticity involves signaling through AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We systematically tested the role of AMPAR function in motor recovery in a mouse model of focal stroke. AMPAR function controls functional recovery beginning 5 d after the stroke. Positive allosteric modulators of AMPARs enhance recovery of limb control when administered after a delay from the stroke. Conversely, AMPAR antagonists impair motor recovery. The contributions of AMPARs to recovery are mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in periinfarct cortex, as blocking local BDNF function in periinfarct cortex blocks AMPAR-mediated recovery and prevents the normal pattern of motor recovery. In contrast to a delayed AMPAR role in motor recovery, early administration of AMPAR agonists after stroke increases stroke damage. These findings indicate that the role of glutamate signaling through the AMPAR changes over time in stroke: early potentiation of AMPAR signaling worsens stroke damage, whereas later potentiation of the same signaling system improves functional recovery.

  17. Early recovery of subtropical dry forest in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    2011-01-01

    Tree cover and species composition were surveyed in 1998, 2003, and 2010 after the elimination of grazing and fire on the lower 32 hectares of the Tinaja tract at Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuge in south-western Puerto Rico. Surveys of the secondary subtropical dry forest showed that stems increased 3.9 times, trees 6.7 times, basal area 3.3 times, and...

  18. A rapid recovery program: early home and pain free.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Adams, Joanne B

    2010-09-07

    Enhancement of our perioperative pain management protocols has resulted in accelerated rehabilitation. At our facility, the majority of patients undergoing total and partial knee arthroplasty are treated with a single-shot spinal anesthetic consisting of a combination of bupivacaine and duramorph. The bupivacaine affords the immediate perioperative anesthetic while the duramorph results in sustained analgesia for a period of 12 to 24 hours. We use intra-articular injections delivered directly into the soft tissue of the knee. Our current intra-articular injection is 60 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine with 0.5 mg of epinephrine. In patients with a normal renal function, 30 mg of ketorolac is added. The injection is administered throughout all of the soft tissues in and around the knee. Prophylactic antiemetics are administered in the form of dexamethasone, ondansetron, and a scopolamine patch. The use of this perioperative anesthesia provides effective pain relief with no motor blockade. Patients are able to participate in physiotherapy within several hours of the operative procedure, performing active range of motion and ambulating with assistive devices. Patients with no significant cardiovascular history are given celecoxib preoperatively, which is continued for approximately 2 weeks postoperatively. Additionally, all patients are treated with oxycodone, either preoperatively or within 2 hours of arrival to the floor postoperatively. Patients younger than 70 years are given 20 mg of oxycodone while those older than 70 years are given 10 mg of oxycodone. The oxycodone is continued for the first 24 hours of the hospital stay. Patients are then managed with oxycodone and hydrocodone. Length of stay has decreased and currently averages <2 days. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  20. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke's area.

    PubMed

    Yagata, Stephanie A; Yen, Melodie; McCarron, Angelica; Bautista, Alexa; Lamair-Orosco, Genevieve; Wilson, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Speech samples were acquired daily between 2 and 16 days post stroke, and also at 1 month and 3 months. Speech samples were transcribed and coded using the CHAT system, in order to quantify multiple language domains. A brief aphasia battery was also administered at a subset of five time points during the 3 months. Both patients showed substantial recovery of language function over this time period. Most, but not all, language domains showed improvements, including fluency, lexical access, phonological retrieval and encoding, and syntactic complexity. The time course of recovery was logarithmic, with the greatest gains taking place early in the course of recovery. There is considerable potential for amelioration of language deficits when damage is relatively circumscribed to the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples proved to be an effective, albeit time-consuming, approach to tracking day-by-day recovery in the acute/subacute post-stroke period.

  1. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke's area

    PubMed Central

    Yagata, Stephanie A.; Yen, Melodie; McCarron, Angelica; Bautista, Alexa; Lamair-Orosco, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Background Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. Aims The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? Methods & Procedures We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Speech samples were acquired daily between 2 and 16 days post stroke, and also at 1 month and 3 months. Speech samples were transcribed and coded using the CHAT system, in order to quantify multiple language domains. A brief aphasia battery was also administered at a subset of five time points during the 3 months. Outcomes & Results Both patients showed substantial recovery of language function over this time period. Most, but not all, language domains showed improvements, including fluency, lexical access, phonological retrieval and encoding, and syntactic complexity. The time course of recovery was logarithmic, with the greatest gains taking place early in the course of recovery. Conclusions There is considerable potential for amelioration of language deficits when damage is relatively circumscribed to the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples proved to be an effective, albeit time-consuming, approach to tracking day-by-day recovery in the acute/subacute post-stroke period. PMID:29051682

  2. Functional recovery in the avian ear after hair cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Smolders, J W

    1999-01-01

    Trauma to the inner ear in birds, due to acoustic overstimulation or ototoxic aminoglycosides, can lead to hair cell loss which is followed by regeneration of new hair cells. These processes are paralleled by hearing loss followed by significant functional recovery. After acoustic trauma, functional recovery is rapid and nearly complete. The early and major part of functional recovery after sound trauma occurs before regenerated hair cells become functional. Even very intense sound trauma causes loss of only a proportion of the hair cell population, mainly so-called short hair cells residing on the abneural mobile part of the avian basilar membrane. Uncoupling of the tectorial membrane from the hair cells during sound overexposure may serve as a protection mechanism. The rapid functional recovery after sound trauma appears not to be associated with regeneration of the lost hair cells, but with repair processes involving the surviving hair cells. Small residual functional deficits after recovery are most likely associated with the missing upper fibrous layer of the tectorial membrane which fails to regenerate after sound trauma. After aminoglycoside trauma, functional recovery is slower and parallels the structural regeneration more closely. Aminoglycosides cause damage to both types of hair cells, starting at the basal (high frequency) part of the basilar papilla. However, functional hearing loss and recovery also occur at lower frequencies, associated with areas of the papilla where hair cells survive. Functional recovery in these low frequency areas is complete, whereas functional recovery in high frequency areas with complete hair cell loss is incomplete, despite regeneration of the hair cells. Permanent residual functional deficits remain. This indicates that in low frequency regions functional recovery after aminoglycosides involves repair of nonlethal injury to hair cells and/or hair cell-neural synapses. In the high frequency regions functional recovery

  3. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  4. Global patterns of drought recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.

    Drought has major impacts on natural and human systems, and is especially important for land carbon sink variability due to its influence on terrestrial biosphere climate regulation. While 20th Century trends in drought regimes have been varied, “more extreme extremes”, including more frequent and severe droughts, are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the factors influencing drought recovery and its spatiotemporal patterns are largely unknown. Here we use three independent global data products of gross primary productivitymore » to show that, across diverse terrestrial ecosystems, drought recovery times are strongly associated with climate and carbon cycle dynamics, with biodiversity and CO 2 fertilization as secondary factors. Our analysis also provides two key insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of drought recovery time: (1) Across the globe, recovery is longest in the tropics and high northern latitudes—critical tipping elements in Earth’s climate system. (2) Drought impacts, the area of ecosystems under active recovery and recovery times, have increased over the 20th century. If future droughts become more frequent, time between droughts may become shorter than drought recovery time, leading to chronically impacted ecosystems.« less

  5. Global patterns of drought recovery

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; ...

    2017-08-09

    Drought has major impacts on natural and human systems, and is especially important for land carbon sink variability due to its influence on terrestrial biosphere climate regulation. While 20th Century trends in drought regimes have been varied, “more extreme extremes”, including more frequent and severe droughts, are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the factors influencing drought recovery and its spatiotemporal patterns are largely unknown. Here we use three independent global data products of gross primary productivitymore » to show that, across diverse terrestrial ecosystems, drought recovery times are strongly associated with climate and carbon cycle dynamics, with biodiversity and CO 2 fertilization as secondary factors. Our analysis also provides two key insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of drought recovery time: (1) Across the globe, recovery is longest in the tropics and high northern latitudes—critical tipping elements in Earth’s climate system. (2) Drought impacts, the area of ecosystems under active recovery and recovery times, have increased over the 20th century. If future droughts become more frequent, time between droughts may become shorter than drought recovery time, leading to chronically impacted ecosystems.« less

  6. Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…

  7. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) RECOVERY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the seminar was to bring researchers, technology developers, and industry representatives together to discuss recovery technologies and techniques for VOCs. The seminar focused on the specific VOC recovery needs of industry and on case studies that summarize effective VOC product recovery techniques applicable to air, water, and solid waste. The case studies highlighted examples in which existing and new recovery technologies resulted in significant cost savings to industry. The seminar focused on the following key issues:. Status and future direction of EPA< DOE, and other major research programs.. What are the latest technology innovations in VOC treatment and recovery?. Performance and cost effectiveness of VOC recovery techniques.. How are recovery techniques applied to air, water, and solid waste?Presenters were from industry, academia, EPA, and various consulting firms. The presentations were followed by several facilitated breakout sessions; these sessions allowed participants an opportunity to discuss their needs and opinions on VOC recovery trends, research, and other issues.This document contains summaries of the presentations and discussions during the seminar. It does not constitute an actual proceedings, since the presentations were informal and no written versions were required. The list of participants and contact information are included in Appendix A. Information

  8. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  9. Improving Early Reading: A Resource Guide for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Loescher, Siri Ann

    Indiana's Early Intervention Grant Program (EIGP) provides funding for Reading Recovery and other early interventions focused on improvement in early reading programs (Grades 1-5). This resource guide provides information that schools in Indiana can use to plan for proposals for EIGP and other grant programs, such as comprehensive school reform…

  10. Conceptualizing Social Recovery: Recovery Routes of Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam; Gibson, David; Boshears, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our qualitative study was to gain a phenomenological understanding of routes to recovery from problematic drug use. In-depth interviews and drug histories were collected from 50 former methamphetamine users recruited from a U.S. metropolitan suburb who identified as having had problematic use of this drug in the past. Transcripts of the audio-recorded interviews were coded for common themes regarding types of recovery strategies or tools employed on the route to recovery. The common strategies used for recovery from problematic methamphetamine use in all routes were social in nature and did not necessarily include cessation of all substances. Based on our findings, we suggest a conceptualization of social recovery that focuses on reducing the social harms caused by problematic drug use rather than focusing primarily on cessation of all drug use. Social recovery may be employed as both a treatment strategy and analytical tool. More research is needed to advance the concept of social recovery for intervention, drug policy, and criminal justice implications. PMID:25574504

  11. [Present situation and prospect of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery].

    PubMed

    Feng, Mengyu; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2017-05-25

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multimodal perioperative strategy according to the evidence-based medicine and multidisciplinary collaboration, aiming to improve the restoration of functional capacity after surgery by reducing surgical stress, optimal control of pain, early oral diet and early mobilization. Compared with other sub-specialty in general surgery, pancreatic surgery is characterized by complex disease, highly difficult procedure and more postoperative complications. Accordingly, pancreatic surgery shares a slow development in enhanced recovery after surgery. In this review, the feasibility, safety, application progress, prospect and controversy of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery are discussed.

  12. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-05-28

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  13. Enhanced recovery pathways in pancreatic surgery: State of the art

    PubMed Central

    Pecorelli, Nicolò; Nobile, Sara; Partelli, Stefano; Cardinali, Luca; Crippa, Stefano; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Beretta, Luigi; Falconi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is being offered to an increasing number of patients every year. Although postoperative outcomes have significantly improved in the last decades, even in high-volume centers patients still experience significant postoperative morbidity and full recovery after surgery takes longer than we think. In recent years, enhanced recovery pathways incorporating a large number of evidence-based perioperative interventions have proved to be beneficial in terms of improved postoperative outcomes, and accelerated patient recovery in the context of gastrointestinal, genitourinary and orthopedic surgery. The role of these pathways for pancreatic surgery is still unclear as high-quality randomized controlled trials are lacking. To date, non-randomized studies have shown that care pathways for pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy are safe with no difference in postoperative morbidity, leading to early discharge and no increase in hospital readmissions. Hospital costs are reduced due to better organization of care and resource utilization. However, further research is needed to clarify the effect of enhanced recovery pathways on patient recovery and post-discharge outcomes following pancreatic resection. Future studies should be prospective and follow recent recommendations for the design and reporting of enhanced recovery pathways. PMID:27605881

  14. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  15. Transcontinental mourning dove recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Brian

    1971-01-01

    A Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) banded in New York has been reported shot in California. On 25 August 1969, near Palmyra (43°00' N, 77°10' W), New York Department of Environmental Conservation personnel placed U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service band 883-97279 on the leg of a hatching-year Mourning Dove of unknown sex. During the first weekend of the dove season in September 1970, Stan Solus (P.O. Box 594, Seiad Valley, California) recovered the band from a dove he shot in the Shasta Valley, Siskiyou County, California (41°30' N, 122°20' W). As Mr. Solus included the band with his reporting letter and, in response to my asking him for verification, reaffirmed his original information, the recovery has been accepted as authentic. I suggest this vagrancy may be explained by assuming that the inexperienced New York bird got emotionally involved with a western bird with which it shared winter quarters, perhaps in Mexico, and thus the following year ended up a flower child in California.

  16. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.

    1959-07-01

    The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.

  17. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  18. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  19. Energy recovery ventilator

    DOEpatents

    Benoit, Jeffrey T.; Dobbs, Gregory M.; Lemcoff, Norberto O.

    2015-06-23

    An energy recovery heat exchanger (100) includes a housing (102). The housing has a first flowpath (144) from a first inlet (104) to a first outlet (106). The housing has a second flowpath (146) from a second inlet (108) to a second outlet (110). Either of two cores may be in an operative position in the housing. Each core has a number of first passageways having open first and second ends and closed first and second sides. Each core has a number of second such passageways interspersed with the first passageways. The ends of the second passageways are aligned with the sides of the first passageways and vice versa. A number of heat transfer member sections separate adjacent ones of the first and second passageways. An actuator is coupled to the carrier to shift the cores between first and second conditions. In the first condition, the first core (20) is in the operative position and the second core (220) is not. In the second condition, the second core is in the operative position and the first core is not. When a core is in the operative position, its first passageways are along the first flowpath and the second passageways are along the second flowpath.

  20. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C

    2015-09-01

    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Global patterns of drought recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-01

    Drought, a recurring phenomenon with major impacts on both human and natural systems, is the most widespread climatic extreme that negatively affects the land carbon sink. Although twentieth-century trends in drought regimes are ambiguous, across many regions more frequent and severe droughts are expected in the twenty-first century. Recovery time—how long an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state—is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the factors influencing drought recovery and its spatiotemporal patterns at the global scale are largely unknown. Here we analyse three independent datasets of gross primary productivity and show that, across diverse ecosystems, drought recovery times are strongly associated with climate and carbon cycle dynamics, with biodiversity and CO2 fertilization as secondary factors. Our analysis also provides two key insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of drought recovery time: first, that recovery is longest in the tropics and high northern latitudes (both vulnerable areas of Earth’s climate system) and second, that drought impacts (assessed using the area of ecosystems actively recovering and time to recovery) have increased over the twentieth century. If droughts become more frequent, as expected, the time between droughts may become shorter than drought recovery time, leading to permanently damaged ecosystems and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink.

  2. Confusion of recovery: one solution.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    This paper questions the current mental health discourse that offers new definitions of the concept of 'recovery' and offers a different perspective that aims to clarify its meaning. Confusion is caused when medical language continues to be used in discussions that aim to challenge traditional medical understanding of the term 'recovery' (meaning cure). Medical and non-medical concepts of recovery are referred to interchangeably in many narratives and the common references to and acceptance of the Harding et al. papers and similar that report on how people can 'get better' from schizophrenia perpetuates this confusion. In this paper, it is suggested that 'recovery' should not be viewed as having new meaning, but that two different concepts have been confused, with the same word having been used to describe two completely different things altogether. This means that what is referred to in this paper as 'medical' recovery (traditional definitions of recovery that aims for cure), becomes subordinate to 'life' recovery (personal development and change) in which psychiatric classification might have no part in a person's understanding of their experience and where improving 'symptoms' could be irrelevant in the personal process of growth and discovery.

  3. Global patterns of drought recovery.

    PubMed

    Schwalm, Christopher R; Anderegg, William R L; Michalak, Anna M; Fisher, Joshua B; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-09

    Drought, a recurring phenomenon with major impacts on both human and natural systems, is the most widespread climatic extreme that negatively affects the land carbon sink. Although twentieth-century trends in drought regimes are ambiguous, across many regions more frequent and severe droughts are expected in the twenty-first century. Recovery time-how long an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state-is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the factors influencing drought recovery and its spatiotemporal patterns at the global scale are largely unknown. Here we analyse three independent datasets of gross primary productivity and show that, across diverse ecosystems, drought recovery times are strongly associated with climate and carbon cycle dynamics, with biodiversity and CO 2 fertilization as secondary factors. Our analysis also provides two key insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of drought recovery time: first, that recovery is longest in the tropics and high northern latitudes (both vulnerable areas of Earth's climate system) and second, that drought impacts (assessed using the area of ecosystems actively recovering and time to recovery) have increased over the twentieth century. If droughts become more frequent, as expected, the time between droughts may become shorter than drought recovery time, leading to permanently damaged ecosystems and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink.

  4. Course of Recovery from Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Venner, Kamilla L.; Matzger, Helen; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Feldstein, Sarah W.; Willenbring, Mark L.; Weisner, Constance

    2010-01-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Santa Barbara, California, organized and chaired by Kamilla L. Venner. This symposium integrated current empirical research on the course of recovery from alcoholism from multiple perspectives, an aim that is consistent with NIAAA's new focus on the process of recovery. The presentations and presenters were as follows: (1) The Role of Community Services and Informal Support on 7-Year Drinking Outcomes in Treated and Untreated Drinkers, by Helen Matzger; (2) The Sequence of Recovery Events in a Native American Sample, by Kamilla L. Venner; (3) Transformational Change in Recovery, by Alyssa A. Forcehimes; (4) Social Settings and Substance Use: Contextual Factors in Recovery, by Rudolf H. Moos; and (5) A Broader View of Change in Drinking Behavior, by discussant Mark L. Willenbring. A theme connecting the presentations was that treatment is but one discrete aspect to recovery and that sustained recovery is often influenced by an individual interaction with others within a social context. Collectively, presentations underscored the need to think more broadly about factors contributing to the remission of alcohol dependence. PMID:16737468

  5. [Recovery in aphasia (Part 1)].

    PubMed

    Hojo, K; Watanabe, S; Tasaki, H; Sato, T; Metoki, H; Saito, M

    1985-08-01

    In order to elucidate the factors which have an influence on the prognosis of aphasia, a correlation was studied in 76 right-handed aphasic patients between recovery rates and various factors: i.e. aphasia type, age, educational level, time between onset of aphasia and institution of therapy and initial severity. Initial evaluations on Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) were obtained within 5 months after the cerebrovascular accident and reevaluations were obtained 3 months after the initial evaluation. Recovery rates were determined by comparing scores of these 2 tests in order to coincide with clinical impression. The results obtained were as follows: Aphasia type: The highest recovery rates were seen in conduction aphasics, followed by amnestic, Wernicke, and Broca aphasics. Global aphasics had significantly lower recovery rates. It was suggested that anarthria in Broca's aphasia and jargon in Wernicke's aphasia had a significant ratarding effect on recovery rates. Age: Age and recovery rates showed a significant negative correlation: younger patients recovered better, and this trend was remarkable in Wernicke aphasics but not Broca aphasics. Education: Patients with more education tended to improve more, and this trend was most remarkable in amnestic aphasics. Time between onset of aphasia and institution of therapy: Time elapsed from onset and recovery rates showed a significant negative correlation; recovery rates decreased as the time interval from onset increased. Initial severity: Correlation between the initial severity of aphasia, measured by the initial SLTA scores and recovery rates was very high; severily affected aphasics recovered to a lesser extent than mildly affected ones and this trend was remarkable in Wernicke and Broca aphasics.

  6. Damage Recovery in Carrara Marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G.; Brantut, N.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effect of confining pressure on the recovery of elastic wave velocities following deformation episodes in Carrara Marble. Dry Carrara Marble cores were deformed in the ductile regime (Pc = 40 MPa) up to 3% axial strain. After deformation, samples were held at constant stress conditions for extended periods of time (5-8 days) whilst continuously recording volumetric strain and seismic wave velocities. The velocity data were used to invert for microcrack densities using an effective medium approach. Finally, thin sections were produced to characterise the microstructures after recovery. During deformation, elastic wave speeds decreased with increasing strain by more than 30% of the value for the intact rock due to the formation of distributed microcracks. Under constant hydrostatic pressure, wave speeds progressively recovered 12-90% of the initial drop, depending on the applied confining pressure. In contrast, the strain recovery (deformation towards the initial shape of the sample) during holding time is negligible (of the order of 10-4). Tests performed under nonhydrostatic (triaxial) stress conditions during recovery showed some time-dependent creep deformation together with very significant recovery of wave velocities. The recovery is interpreted as a progressive reduction in crack density within the sample. The process is highly dependent on confining pressure, which favours it. We propose that the driving process for wave speed recovery is the time-dependent increase of contact area between crack surfaces due to the formation and growth of asperity contacts. We develop a micromechanical model for crack closure driven by asperity creep, which shows a good fit to the experimental data. Most of the recovery is achieved in the initial few hours, implying it is the fastest recovery or healing process, and thus occurs prior to any chemical healing or mineral precipitation. Our data corroborate field observations of post-seismic fault behavior.

  7. Whooping crane recovery plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, David L.; Blankenship, David R.; Irby, Harold D.; Erickson, Ray C.; Lock, Ross; Drewien, Roderick C.; Smith, Lawrence S.; Derrickson, Scott R.

    1980-01-01

    This plan has been prepared under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 and subsequent amendments. The Plan is designed to provide decision makers with an orderly set of events which, if carried out to a successful completion, will result in changing the status of the species from the endangered to the threatened level. It must be recognized that this Plan has been prepared 40 years after attempts to preserve the species began. As such, it covers events that have taken place, that are taking place, and that need to take place. The Plan, therefore, not only compiles in one place all whooping crane management and research efforts which are underway, but also proposes additional efforts needed for the recovery of the whooping crane. The Plan also establishes funding evels, time schedules, and priorities for each management and research effort.The Plan is organized into three parts. the first part includes an account of the whooping crane's history, biology, present status, and the factors believed to have resulted in its endangered status. Also included in this part is a synopsis of research and management activities that have taken place through 1978.The second part is a step-down pan wherein all existing and needed research and management efforts are organized into an orderly set of events. The prime objective is to move the whooping crane to non-endangered status. Minimum requirements for the attainment of this objective are the increase of the historical Wood Buffalo-Aransas population to at least 40 nesting pairs and the establishment of at least two additional, separate, and self-sustaining populations consisting of at least 20 nesting pairs each.the third part identifies the responsibility, time schedule, and cost for each element of the step-down plan.

  8. General introduction and recovery factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compared methods for estimating an incremental recovery factor (RF) for the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process involving the injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs. This chapter first provides some basic information on the RF, including its dependence on various reservoir and operational parameters, and then discusses the three development phases of oil recovery—primary, second­ary, and tertiary (EOR). It ends with a brief discussion of the three approaches for estimating recovery factors, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.

  9. SpaceX Recovery Training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-28

    On February 28, SpaceX completed a demonstration of their ability to recover the crew and capsule after a nominal water splashdown. This marks an important recovery milestone and joint test. The timeline requirement from splashdown to crew egress onboard the ship is one hour, and the recovery team demonstrated that they can accomplish this operation under worst-case conditions in under 45 minutes. Further improvements are planned to shorten the recovery time even more as the team works to build a process that is safe, repeatable, and efficient.

  10. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurry, Jane; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the long-term effectiveness of two differing models of early intervention for children with reading difficulties: Reading Recovery and a specific phonological training. Approximately 400 children were pre-tested, 95 were assigned to Reading Recovery, 97 to Phonological Training and the remainder acted as controls. In the short…

  11. Literacy, Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Literacy, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Adria F., Ed.; Swartz, Stanley L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the special inaugural issue on Reading Recovery are: "Reading Recovery: An Overview" (Stanley L. Swartz and…

  12. Ratepayer Recovery Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2009-05-19

    Senate - 06/09/2009 Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs referred to Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. ON-SITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and low-emission vapor degreasing. The atmospheric and vacuum ...

  14. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael J [Aurora, IL; Lee, Guang-Chung [Houston, TX; Eng, Wayne W. Y. [League City, TX; Sinclair, Iain [Warrington, GB; Lodgson, Jeffery S [Naperville, IL

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  15. Positioning and early mobilisation in stroke.

    PubMed

    Keating, Moira; Penney, Maree; Russell, Petra; Bailey, Emma

    Stroke unit care, providing early rehabilitation, improves long-term outcomes for patients following a stroke. Early mobilisation and good positioning are recognised as key aspects of care in stroke units. Nurses working on stroke units have an important role because they are able to implement positioning and early mobilisation strategies 24 hours a day, reducing the risk of complications and improving functional recovery. Patients benefit if nurses work effectively with the therapy team in positioning and early mobilisation. Nurses also need appropriate training and expertise to make best use of specialist equipment.

  16. Relapse Prevention and the Five Rules of Recovery.

    PubMed

    Melemis, Steven M

    2015-09-01

    There are four main ideas in relapse prevention. First, relapse is a gradual process with distinct stages. The goal of treatment is to help individuals recognize the early stages, in which the chances of success are greatest. Second, recovery is a process of personal growth with developmental milestones. Each stage of recovery has its own risks of relapse. Third, the main tools of relapse prevention are cognitive therapy and mind-body relaxation, which are used to develop healthy coping skills. Fourth, most relapses can be explained in terms of a few basic rules. Educating clients in these rules can help them focus on what is important: 1) change your life (recovery involves creating a new life where it is easier to not use); 2) be completely honest; 3) ask for help; 4) practice self-care; and 5) don't bend the rules.

  17. Relapse Prevention and the Five Rules of Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Melemis, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    There are four main ideas in relapse prevention. First, relapse is a gradual process with distinct stages. The goal of treatment is to help individuals recognize the early stages, in which the chances of success are greatest. Second, recovery is a process of personal growth with developmental milestones. Each stage of recovery has its own risks of relapse. Third, the main tools of relapse prevention are cognitive therapy and mind-body relaxation, which are used to develop healthy coping skills. Fourth, most relapses can be explained in terms of a few basic rules. Educating clients in these rules can help them focus on what is important: 1) change your life (recovery involves creating a new life where it is easier to not use); 2) be completely honest; 3) ask for help; 4) practice self-care; and 5) don’t bend the rules. PMID:26339217

  18. Data warehousing methods and processing infrastructure for brain recovery research.

    PubMed

    Gee, T; Kenny, S; Price, C J; Seghier, M L; Small, S L; Leff, A P; Pacurar, A; Strother, S C

    2010-09-01

    In order to accelerate translational neuroscience with the goal of improving clinical care it has become important to support rapid accumulation and analysis of large, heterogeneous neuroimaging samples and their metadata from both normal control and patient groups. We propose a multi-centre, multinational approach to accelerate the data mining of large samples and facilitate data-led clinical translation of neuroimaging results in stroke. Such data-driven approaches are likely to have an early impact on clinically relevant brain recovery while we simultaneously pursue the much more challenging model-based approaches that depend on a deep understanding of the complex neural circuitry and physiological processes that support brain function and recovery. We present a brief overview of three (potentially converging) approaches to neuroimaging data warehousing and processing that aim to support these diverse methods for facilitating prediction of cognitive and behavioral recovery after stroke, or other types of brain injury or disease.

  19. Contemporary Strategies for Rapid Recovery Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Stambough, Jeffrey B; Beaulé, Paul E; Nunley, Ryan M; Clohisy, John

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, rapid recovery protocols for total hip arthroplasty have evolved in parallel with advancements in pain management, regional anesthesia, focused rehabilitation, and the patient selection process. As fiscal pressures from payers of health care increase, surgical outcomes and complications are being scrutinized, which evokes a sense of urgency for arthroplasty surgeons as well as hospitals. The implementation of successful accelerated recovery pathways for total hip arthroplasty requires the coordinated efforts of surgeons, practice administrators, anesthesiologists, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, case managers, and postacute care providers. To optimize performance outcomes, it is important for surgeons to select patients who are eligible for rapid recovery. The fundamental tenets of multimodal pain control, regional anesthesia, prudent perioperative blood management, venous thromboembolic prophylaxis, and early ambulation and mobility should be collectively addressed for all patients who undergo primary total hip replacement.

  20. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other criticalmore » infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.« less

  1. Global patterns of drought recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.

    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of grossmore » primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.« less

  2. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  3. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevantmore » to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  4. Magnetoencephalography in Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Paggiaro, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels; Cavinato, Marianna; Turco, Cristina; Formaggio, Emanuela; Del Felice, Alessandra; Masiero, Stefano; Piccione, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive neurophysiological technique used to study the cerebral cortex. Currently, MEG is mainly used clinically to localize epileptic foci and eloquent brain areas in order to avoid damage during neurosurgery. MEG might, however, also be of help in monitoring stroke recovery and rehabilitation. This review focuses on experimental use of MEG in neurorehabilitation. MEG has been employed to detect early modifications in neuroplasticity and connectivity, but there is insufficient evidence as to whether these methods are sensitive enough to be used as a clinical diagnostic test. MEG has also been exploited to derive the relationship between brain activity and movement kinematics for a motor-based brain–computer interface. In the current body of experimental research, MEG appears to be a powerful tool in neurorehabilitation, but it is necessary to produce new data to confirm its clinical utility. PMID:27065338

  5. Spontaneous splenic rupture during the recovery phase of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    de Silva, W T T; Gunasekera, M

    2015-07-02

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but known complication of dengue fever. Previously reported cases have occurred early during the course of the disease and most cases have led to a fatal outcome. Here we report a case of spontaneous splenic rupture in a patient with dengue fever, which occurred during the recovery phase of the illness. A 28-year-old Sinhalese, Sri Lankan man presented with a history of fever, myalgia and vomiting of 4 days duration. Investigations revealed a diagnosis of dengue fever with no signs of plasma leakage. He was managed in the ward as per local protocol. During the recovery phase the patient developed severe abdominal distention with circulatory failure. Radiology revealed splenic rupture with massive amounts of abdominal free fluid. The patient was resuscitated and Emergency laparotomy with splenectomy was performed. The outcome was excellent with the patient making a complete recovery. Although splenic rupture is a known complication of dengue fever it may be manifested late in the disease process. A high degree of suspicion should be maintained and patients must be monitored even during the recovery phase of dengue fever. Early diagnosis and intervention can prevent mortality.

  6. Methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy: patterns and predictors of recovery.

    PubMed

    Voskoboinik, A; Ihle, J F; Bloom, J E; Kaye, D M

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is a growing public health problem, and increasing numbers of patients are admitted with methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MAC). We sought to characterise the patterns of this disease and identify predictors of recovery. We retrospectively studied consecutive patients diagnosed with MAC between January 2006 and July 2015. We identified 20 patients (14 males, 6 females) with mean age 35 ± 9 years. Most had very severe systolic dysfunction (mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 19.7 ± 11.4%) at presentation with 14 requiring inotropes and 5 requiring mechanical support. The pattern of systolic dysfunction was global in 14 patients, while 6 patients had a 'reverse Takotsubo' (RT) pattern with severely hypokinetic basal-mid segments and apical preservation. RT patients were predominantly female, had a short history of methamphetamine abuse and had higher cardiac enzyme levels. Patients with global dysfunction tended to have mid-wall fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. On follow-up transthoracic echocardiography, 6 out of 19 (32%) had normalisation of LVEF (LVEF ≥ 50%) within 6 weeks. Smaller left ventricular and left atrial size, shorter duration of methamphetamine use and RT pattern appeared to predict early recovery. A subset of MAC patients, particularly those with a RT pattern and lesser ventricular dilatation have the potential for early recovery of ventricular function. By contrast, those with evidence of myocardial fibrosis and ventricular enlargement have limited scope for recovery. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  8. Citizenship and recovery: two intertwined concepts for civic-recovery.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Briand, Catherine; Corrigan, Patrick; Davidson, Larry; Rowe, Michael

    2015-03-04

    Validation of the psychometric properties of a new measure of citizenship was required for a research project in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study was meant to study the interplay between recovery- and citizenship-oriented supportive employment. As recovery and citizenship were expected to be two related concepts, convergent validity between the Citizenship Measure (CM) and the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was tested. Study objectives were to: 1) conduct exploratory factor analyses on the CM and confirmatory factor analysis on the RAS tools (construct validity), 2) calculate Cronbach's alphas for each dimension emerging from objective 1 (reliability), and 3) calculate correlations between all dimensions from both tools (convergent validity). Data were collected from 174 individuals with serious mental illness, working in social firms. Serious mental illnesses include major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder. Five factors emerged from the exploratory factor analysis of the CM, with good reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the short and the long versions of the RAS present satisfactory results. Finally, the correlation matrix indicated that all dimensions from both tools are significantly correlated, thus confirming their convergent validity. This study confirms the validity and reliability of two tools, CM and RAS. These tools can be used in combination to assess citizenship and recovery, both of which may be combined in the new concept of civic-recovery.

  9. Genealogies of recovery: The framing of therapeutic ambitions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian; Manning, Nick

    2018-04-01

    The notion of recovery has become prominent in mental healthcare discourse in the UK, but it is often considered as if it were a relatively novel notion, and as if it represented an alternative to conventional treatment and intervention. In this paper, we explore some of the origins of the notion of recovery in the early 20th century in movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Recovery Inc. Whilst these phenomena are not entirely continuous with recovery in the present day, some important antecedents of the contemporary notion can be detected. These include the focus on the sufferers' interior space as a key theatre of operations and the reinforcement and consolidation of medical ways of seeing the condition without any immediate medical supervision of the actors being necessary. This has resonance with many contemporary examples of recovery in practice where the art of living with a mental health condition is emphasised without the nature of the psychopathological condition itself being challenged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 32 CFR 537.10 - Recovery procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Recovery procedures. 537.10 Section 537.10... BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.10 Recovery procedures. (a) Recovery personnel have three means of enforcing recovery following initial assertion. (1) Referral to litigation pursuant to § 537.11; (2) The...

  11. 32 CFR 537.10 - Recovery procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recovery procedures. 537.10 Section 537.10... BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.10 Recovery procedures. (a) Recovery personnel have three means of enforcing recovery following initial assertion. (1) Referral to litigation pursuant to § 537.11; (2) The...

  12. 32 CFR 537.10 - Recovery procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovery procedures. 537.10 Section 537.10... BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.10 Recovery procedures. (a) Recovery personnel have three means of enforcing recovery following initial assertion. (1) Referral to litigation pursuant to § 537.11; (2) The...

  13. 32 CFR 537.10 - Recovery procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovery procedures. 537.10 Section 537.10... BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.10 Recovery procedures. (a) Recovery personnel have three means of enforcing recovery following initial assertion. (1) Referral to litigation pursuant to § 537.11; (2) The...

  14. 32 CFR 537.10 - Recovery procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Recovery procedures. 537.10 Section 537.10... BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.10 Recovery procedures. (a) Recovery personnel have three means of enforcing recovery following initial assertion. (1) Referral to litigation pursuant to § 537.11; (2) The...

  15. Enhanced Recovery after Urological Surgery: A Contemporary Systematic Review of Outcomes, Key Elements, and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Raed A; Bochner, Bernard; Catto, James; Goh, Alvin C; Kelly, John; Patel, Hiten D; Pruthi, Raj S; Thalmann, George N; Desai, Mihir

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) programs are multimodal care pathways that aim to decrease intra-operative blood loss, decrease postoperative complications, and reduce recovery times. To overview the use and key elements of ERAS pathways, and define needs for future clinical trials. A comprehensive systematic MEDLINE search was performed for English language reports published before May 2015 using the terms "postoperative period," "postoperative care," "enhanced recovery after surgery," "enhanced recovery," "accelerated recovery," "fast track recovery," "recovery program," "recovery pathway", "ERAS," and "urology" or "cystectomy" or "urologic surgery." We identified 18 eligible articles. Patient counseling, physical conditioning, avoiding excessive alcohol and smoking, and good nutrition appeared to protect against postoperative complications. Fasting from solid food for only 6h and perioperative liquid-carbohydrate loading up to 2h prior to surgery appeared to be safe and reduced recovery times. Restricted, balanced, and goal-directed fluid replacement is effective when individualized, depending on patient morbidity and surgical procedure. Decreased intraoperative blood loss may be achieved by several measures. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, antibiotic prophylaxis, and thermoregulation were found to help reduce postsurgical complications, as was a multimodal approach to postoperative nausea, vomiting, and analgesia. Chewing gum, prokinetic agents, oral laxatives, and an early resumption to normal diet appear to aid faster return to normal bowel function. Further studies should compare anesthetic protocols, refine analgesia, and evaluate the importance of robot-assisted surgery and the need/timing for drains and catheters. ERAS regimens are multidisciplinary, multimodal pathways that optimize postoperative recovery. This review provides an overview of the use and key elements of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery programs, which are multimodal

  16. Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fuglø, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

  17. Helping Low-Achieving First-Grade Readers: A Program Combining Reading Recovery Tutoring and Small-Group Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Linda; Allen, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates an approach that supplemented existing Reading Recovery programs with small-group, early literacy instruction in 28 Arkansas public schools. The program enabled many children to receive timely support. When space became available in Reading Recovery, these children made accelerated progress and were discontinued earlier than children who…

  18. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  19. Claus sulfur recovery unit startups

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, D.C.

    1973-08-01

    Because of the recent emphasis on reducing sulfur emissions to the atmosphere, Claus-type sulfur recovery units are becoming more prevalent throughout the industry. Many plants, including refinery, chemical, and natural gasoline units, are being required to install Claus sulfur recovery facilities to meet pollution requirements. Although Claus units in some cases cannot alone meet the most rigid air pollution codes currently being enforced, they are still the most economical and practical method for recovering about 94 to 97% of the sulfur from hydrogen sulfide rich gases. For best operation and longer service life, proper startup and shutdown procedures for thesemore » sulfur recovery units should be followed. On all startups and shutdowns, these units require considerable operator attention; improper operation during these critical phases can affect overall plant efficiency.« less

  20. Teaching Resource Recovery in Science. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (see SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level science classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that sufficient technology exists to recover a greater segment of the…

  1. Road to Recovery: Bringing Recovery to Small Town America

    ScienceCinema

    Nettamo, Paivi

    2018-01-08

    The Recovery Act hits the road to reach out to surrounding towns of the Savannah River Site that are struggling with soaring unemployment rates. This project helps recruit thousands of people to new jobs in environmental cleanup at the Savannah River Site.

  2. Recovery- Cooper smiles at recovery crew on Kearsarge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    S63-07852 (16 May 1963)--- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) mission, has a smile for the recovery crew of the USS Kearsarge, after he is onboard from a successful 22-orbit mission of Earth in his spacecraft "Faith 7". Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Teaching Resource Recovery in Social Studies. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (see SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level social studies classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to explore the impact of our society on the problem of solid waste and the need for…

  4. Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

  5. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  6. Recovery and rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Brown, Allen W; Schultz, Billie A

    2010-11-01

    Most individuals survive stroke and age with its consequences. Rehabilitation becomes the dominant medical need soon after onset, and coordinated rehabilitation services using evidence-based interventions determined by patient need are of primary importance in affecting outcome and quality of life. This discussion will focus on the natural history of recovery after stroke and the changes in brain organization that support behavioral improvement during recovery, then review established and emerging therapeutic approaches directed at improving independent functional performance and quality of life. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Energy recovery with turboexpander processes

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.

    1985-07-01

    Although the primary function of turboexpanders has been to provide efficient, low-temperature refrigeration, the energy thus extracted has also been an important additional feature. Today, turboexpanders are proven reliable and used widely in the following applications discussed in this article: industrial gases; natural gas (NG) processing; production of liquefied natural gas (LNG); flashing hydrocarbon liquids; NG pressure letdown energy recovery; oilfield cogeneration; and recovery of energy from waste heat. Turboexpander applications for energy conservation resulted because available turboexpanders have the required high-performance capabilities and reliability. At the same time, the development of these energy conservation practices and processes helped furthermore » improve turboexpanders.« less

  8. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  9. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  10. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  11. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  12. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  13. Notification: Lessons Learned from Implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY12-0360, March 5, 2012. The Recovery Funds Working Group of the Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board has initiated a project to capture lessons learned from Recovery Act implementation.

  14. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Özcan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Altun, Deniz Utku; Çimencan, Murat; Özen, Banu; Aydın, Bengü Gülhan; Okyay, Rahşan Dilek; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S) or the Neostigmine group (Group N). The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After baseline assessment 12-24h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p>0.05). The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19min in Group S and 6.47min in Group N (p<0.0001). Recovery time was 8.26min in Group S and 16.93min in Group N (p<0.0001). We showed that the surgical procedure and/or accompanying anesthetic procedure may cause a temporary or permanent regression in cognitive function in the early postoperative period. However, better cognitive performance could not be proved in the Sugammadex compared to the Neostigmine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Iowa Statewide Disaster Recovery Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Barry L., Ed.

    The purpose in developing a statewide disaster recovery plan for libraries is to encourage librarians at the local level to develop their own plans to be used in time of disaster and to provide information about resources which can be used in an emergency. This manual provides self-assessment forms for identifying staff members and sources of…

  16. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Treesearch

    Christopher R. Schwalm; William R. L. Anderegg; Anna M. Michalak; Joshua B. Fisher; Franco Biondi; George Koch; Marcy Litvak; Kiona Ogle; John D. Shaw; Adam Wolf; Deborah N. Huntzinger; Kevin Schaefer; Robert Cook; Yaxing Wei; Yuanyuan Fang; Daniel Hayes; Maoyi Huang; Atul Jain; Hanqin Tian

    2017-01-01

    Drought, a recurring phenomenon with major impacts on both human and natural systems is the most widespread climatic extreme that negatively affects the land carbon sink. Although twentieth-century trends in drought regimes are ambiguous, across many regions more frequent and severe droughts are expected in the twenty-first century. Recovery time - how long an...

  17. Parachute Recovery Systems Design Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    CUTTER BLADE ’S ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY ASSEMBL WELDED CLOSURE DISK LINE BORON/CALCIUM CHROMATE 1OHM BRIDGE -. (47gm Dia. Wire Tophet C) DAP RING POLVIMIDE...8.124 J. A. Buckley. "Missile Recovery System for High-Speed Small-Caliber Missiles." AIAA Paper, October 1986. (AIAA 86-2462.) 8.125 S. K. Ibrahim

  18. Reading Recovery and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Sherrie Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a skill, which is essential for a child's school success. The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to investigate the effects of the Reading Recovery (RR) Program. The data utilized were from two groups of students at-risk in the area of reading, first-grade students involved in at least 12 weeks of Reading…

  19. Transuranic sealed source recovery project.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, J A; Pearson, M W

    2001-11-01

    If you have transuranic sealed sources (239Pu, 238Pu, or 241Am) that have no potential for recycle or commercial disposal, the Off Site Source Recovery Project at LANL can assist in recovering the sealed sources from your facility to a DOE storage site.

  20. Biosurfactant and enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.; Menzie, Donald E.

    1985-06-11

    A pure culture of Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 (ATCC No. 39307) and a process for using said culture and the surfactant lichenysin produced thereby for the enhancement of oil recovery from subterranean formations. Lichenysin is an effective surfactant over a wide range of temperatures, pH's, salt and calcium concentrations.

  1. Credit Recovery Hits the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In communities including New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago, educators are creating alternative schools for struggling students that employ online credit-recovery programs as a core portion, or all, of their curriculum. The growth in online learning generally, including blended learning, has fueled the proliferation of computer-based credit…

  2. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  3. Contractors on road to recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Stremel, K.

    1984-06-01

    Ravaged by two years of spotty markets and minimal profits, the well service industry is on the road to recovery. A discussion of the increase and decrease of drilling rigs and drilling activity in the Rocky Mountain region is given. It also discusses the current trend of well service costs and the direction it should take in the future.

  4. Recovery Time for Sports Concussions

    MedlinePlus

    ... can safely return to play. Scientists continue to study this and other ways to track concussion recovery. Keeping athletes safer from long-term consequences of concussions is important to players, coaches, parents, and fans,” says Dr. Patricia A. ...

  5. Recovery collapse coincident with ongoing carbon cycle perturbations following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsios, E.; Bottjer, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic mass extinction, the largest extinction of the Phanerozoic, is attributed to volcanic outgassing from the Siberian Traps and the resulting climate change. Ongoing volcanism in the Early Triassic is implicated for continued carbon cycle instability following the initial event, reflected in large inorganic carbon isotope excursions throughout the 5 Mya interval. Recent paleoecological studies have shown that timing of recovery from the extinction in the Early Triassic is highly complex, differing between regions, with documented cases of "early" recovery in some environments. The importance of specific environmental factors, such as oxygen levels and sea surface temperatures, in aiding or hindering recovery following the extinction is the topic of ongoing study. Here we present an ecological survey of marine benthic communities from the Lower Triassic Blacktail Creek outcrop of the Dinwoody Formation, correlated bed-for-bed with inorganic carbon isotope values. We observe incipient recovery as communities show increasing richness and evenness throughout the section, followed by a `collapse' with a return of high dominance, low richness fauna coincident with large δ13Ccarb shifts. We observe a statistically significant correlation between the magnitude of δ13Ccarb excursions and benthic community complexity over a stratigraphic section, implying a shared causal mechanism acting at the local scale. The globally correlatable nature of these observed carbon isotope shifts, as well as an absence of lithologic evidence for oxygen limitation, points to thermal stress brought on by pulses of volcanism as the shared cause between recovery collapse and carbon cycle perturbations. We propose that the "early" recovery at Blacktail Creek was truncated by recurrent greenhouse gas induced thermal spikes, highlighting the interplay of local and global environmental conditions in expediting or hindering Early Triassic recovery.

  6. Surviving ICU: Stories of recovery.

    PubMed

    Ewens, Beverley A; Hendricks, Joyce M; Sundin, Deborah

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate stories of recovery through the lens of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Survival from ICUs is increasing, as are associated physical and psychological complications. Despite the significant impact on survivors, there is inadequate support provision in Australia and world-wide for this population. An interpretive biographical approach of intensive care survivors' experiences of recovery. Data were collected during 2014-2015 from diaries, face to face interviews, memos and field notes. Six participants diarized for 3 months commencing 2 months after hospital discharge. At 5 months, participants were interviewed about the content of their diaries and symbols and signifiers in them to create a shared meaning. Analysis of diaries and interviews were undertaken using two frameworks to identify themes throughout participants' stories and provides a unique portrait of recovery through their individual lens. Participants considered their lives had irreparably changed and yet felt unsupported by a healthcare system that had "saved" them. This view through their lens identified turmoil, which existed between their surface and inner worlds as they struggled to conform to what recovery "should be". The novel biographical methods provided a safe and creative way to reveal survivors' inner thoughts and feelings. Participants' considered creating their stories supported their recovery process and in particular enabled them to reflect on their progress. Findings from this study may lead to increased awareness among health care providers about problems survivors face and improved support services more broadly, based on frameworks appropriate for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Recovery technologies for building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karu, Veiko; Nurme, Martin; Valgma, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Mining industry provides building materials for construction. Civil engineers have settled the quality parameters for construction materials. When we produce high quality building materials from carbonate rock (limestone, dolostone), then the estimated waste share is 25% to 30%, depending on crushing principles and rock quality. The challenge is to find suitable technology for waste recovery. During international mining waste related cooperation project MIN-NOVATION (www.min-novation.eu), partners mapped possibilities for waste recovery in mining industry and pointed out good examples and case studies. One example from Estonia showed that when we produce limestone aggregate, then we produce up to 30% waste material (fines with size 0-4mm). This waste material we can see as secondary raw material for building materials. Recovery technology for this fine grained material has been achieved with CDE separation plant. During the process the plant washes out minus 63 micron material from the limestone fines. This technology allows us to use 92% of all limestone reserves. By-product from 63 microns to 4 mm we can use as filler in concrete or as fine limestone aggregate for building or building materials. MIN-NOVATION project partners also established four pilot stations to study other mineral waste recovery technologies and solutions. Main aims on this research are to find the technology for recovery of mineral wastes and usage for new by-products from mineral mining waste. Before industrial production, testing period or case studies are needed. This research is part of the study of Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  8. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  9. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  10. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  11. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.; Lindner, H.

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution andmore » purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)« less

  12. Elements That Define Recovery: The Experiential Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. Method: An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Results: Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Conclusions: Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here—e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use. PMID:25343658

  13. Myocardial recovery during mechanical circulatory support: long-term outcome and elective ventricular assist device implantation to promote recovery as a treatment goal.

    PubMed

    Dandel, Michael; Hetzer, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Even after incomplete myocardial recovery during mechanical circulatory support, long-term survival rates after ventricular assist device (VAD) explantation can be better than those expected after heart transplantation even for patients with chronic non-ischemic cardiomyopathy as the underlying cause for VAD implantation. The elective therapeutic use of ventricular assist devices for heart failure reversal in its early stage is a future goal. It may be possible to achieve it by developing tools to predict heart failure reversibility even before ventricular assist device implantation and increasing the number of weaning candidates by improvement of adjunctive therapies to optimize unloading-promoted recovery.  Special attention is focused on the long-term stability of cardiac remission after VAD removal, the clinical relevance unloading-promoted myocardial recovery and on the current knowledge about a potential prediction of myocardial recovery during long-term VAD support already before VAD implantation.

  14. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  15. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits

    PubMed Central

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  16. PDL Progenitor-Mediated PDL Recovery Contributes to Orthodontic Relapse.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; He, D; Gan, Y; Kou, X; Zhou, Y

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal ligament (PDL) is subjected to mechanical force during physiologic activities. PDL stem /: progenitor cells are the main mesenchymal stem cells in PDL. However, how PDL progenitors participate in PDL homeostasis upon and after mechanical force is largely unknown. In this study, force-triggered orthodontic tooth movement and the following relapse were used as models to demonstrate the response of PDL progenitors and their role in PDL remodeling upon and after mechanical force. Upon orthodontic force, PDL collagen on the compression side significantly degraded, showing a broken and disorganized pattern. After force withdrawal, the degraded PDL collagen recovered during the early stage of relapse. Correspondingly, increased CD90(+) PDL progenitors with suppressed expression of type I collagen (Col-I) were observed upon orthodontic force, whereas these cells accumulated at the degradation regions and regained Col-I expression after force withdrawal during early relapse. Our results further showed that compressive force altered cell morphology and repressed collagen expression in cultured PDL progenitors, which both recovered after force withdrawal. Force withdrawal-induced recovery of collagen expression in cultured PDL progenitors could be regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a key molecule for tissue homeostasis and extracellular matrix remodeling. More interesting, inhibiting the regained Col-I expression in CD90(+) PDL progenitors by blocking TGF-β interrupted PDL collagen recovery and partially inhibited the early relapse. These data suggest that PDL progenitors can respond to mechanical force and may process intrinsic stability to recover to original status after force withdrawal. PDL progenitors with intrinsic stability are required for PDL recovery and consequently contribute to early orthodontic relapse, which can be regulated by TGF-β signaling. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  17. Prognostic factors for recovery in Portuguese patients with Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Margarida; Firmino-Machado, João; Marques, Elisa A; Santos, Paula C; Simões, Ana Daniela; Duarte, José A

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that contribute to complete recovery at 6 weeks and 6 months in patients with Bell's palsy. This is a prospective, longitudinal, and descriptive study that included 123 patients diagnosed with facial nerve palsy (FNP) at a hospital in Guimarães, Portugal. However, only 73 patients with Bell's palsy (BP) were included in the assessment of recovery at 6 weeks and 6 months. We analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, including sex, age, paralyzed side, occupation, previous and associated symptoms, seasonal occurrence, familial facial palsy, patient perception, intervention options, and baseline grade according to the House-Brackmann facial grading system (HB-FGS). Of the 123 cases with FNP, 79 (64.2%) patients had BP. Age, sex, and baseline HB-FGS grades were significant predictors of complete recovery at 6 weeks. Patients with HB-FGS grade III or lower (6 weeks baseline) had significant recovery of function at 6 months. Baseline severity of BP, elderly patients, and male sex were early predictors of poor prognosis. Patients with mild and moderate dysfunction according to the HB-FGS achieved significant normal facial function at 6 months. Further prospective studies with longer observation periods and larger samples are needed to verify the results.

  18. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  19. Traumatic Stress: New Roads to Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress: New Roads to Recovery Follow us Traumatic Stress: New Roads to Recovery NIH research looks for ... do not develop long-lasting disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the more common ...

  20. Logic design for dynamic and interactive recovery.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. C.; Jessep, D. C.; Wadia, A. B.; Schneider, P. R.; Bouricius, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    Recovery in a fault-tolerant computer means the continuation of system operation with data integrity after an error occurs. This paper delineates two parallel concepts embodied in the hardware and software functions required for recovery; detection, diagnosis, and reconfiguration for hardware, data integrity, checkpointing, and restart for the software. The hardware relies on the recovery variable set, checking circuits, and diagnostics, and the software relies on the recovery information set, audit, and reconstruct routines, to characterize the system state and assist in recovery when required. Of particular utility is a handware unit, the recovery control unit, which serves as an interface between error detection and software recovery programs in the supervisor and provides dynamic interactive recovery.

  1. Addiction recovery: its definition and conceptual boundaries.

    PubMed

    White, William L

    2007-10-01

    The addiction field's failure to achieve consensus on a definition of "recovery" from severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems undermines clinical research, compromises clinical practice, and muddles the field's communications to service constituents, allied service professionals, the public, and policymakers. This essay discusses 10 questions critical to the achievement of such a definition and offers a working definition of recovery that attempts to meet the criteria of precision, inclusiveness, exclusiveness, measurability, acceptability, and simplicity. The key questions explore who has professional and cultural authority to define recovery, the defining ingredients of recovery, the boundaries (scope and depth) of recovery, and temporal benchmarks of recovery (when recovery begins and ends). The process of defining recovery touches on some of the most controversial issues within the addictions field.

  2. Hurricane IKE Recovery Efforts - MOD Volunteers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-18

    Hurricane IKE Recovery Efforts - MOD Volunteers Location: Clear LAke Area Subject: MOD Volunteers assist fellow employees at their homes during the recovery from hurricane IKE. Photographer: Tom Murray (USA Photographer)

  3. Underway Recovery Test 6 (URT-6)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-21

    NASA's Recovery Team worked with the U.S. Navy during Underway Recovery Test 6 (URT-6) aboard the USS Anchorage off the coast of San Diego California -- First official release day with Captain and Astronaut interviews.

  4. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment.

  5. Social identity, social networks and recovery capital in emerging adulthood: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mawson, E; Best, D; Beckwith, M; Dingle, G A; Lubman, D I

    2015-11-11

    It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on 'personal identity'. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Twenty participants aged 18-21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment services - three detoxification facilities and one psychosocial rehabilitation facility in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a detailed social network interview exploring the substance use of groups in their social networks and measures of quality of life, recovery capital, and social identity. Lower group substance use was associated with higher recovery capital, stronger identification with non-using groups, and greater importance of non-using groups in the social network. Additionally, greater identification with and importance of non-using groups were associated with better environmental quality of life, whereas greater importance conferred on using groups was associated with reduced environmental quality of life. Support was found for the role of social identity processes in reported recovery capital and quality of life. Future research in larger, longitudinal samples is required to improve understanding of social identity processes during treatment and early recovery and its relationship to recovery stability.

  6. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Catalytic distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Rasouli, F.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine based on the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal was designed, fabricated and tested. Unlike other evaporative methods, this process catalytically oxidizes ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons vaporizing with water to innocuous products; therefore, no pretreatment of urine is required. Since the subsystem is fabricated from commercially available components, its volume, weight and power requirements are not optimized; however, it is suitable for zero-g operation. The testing program consists of parametric tests, one month of daily tests and a continuous test of 168 hours duration. The recovered water is clear, odorless, low in ammonia and organic carbon, and requires only an adjustment of its pH to meet potable water standards. The obtained data indicate that the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal process, if further developed, would also be competitive with other water recovery systems in weight, volume and power requirements.

  8. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    PubMed

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  9. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  10. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1989-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  11. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1986-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  12. Anelastic Strain Recovery Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    ASR4 is a nonlinear least-squares regression of Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) data for the purpose of determining in situ stress orientations and magnitudes. ASR4 fits the viscoelastic model of Warpinski and Teufel to measure ASR data, calculates the stress orientations directly, and stress magnitudes if sufficient input data are available. The code also calculates the stress orientation using strain-rosette equations, and it calculates stress magnitudes using Blanton''s approach, assuming sufficient input data are available.

  13. APOLLO SPACECRAFT 017 - RECOVERY - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1967-11-09

    S67-49447 (9 Nov. 1967) --- Close-up view of the charred heat shield of the Apollo Spacecraft 017 Command Module aboard the USS Bennington. The damage was caused by the extreme heat of reentry. The carrier Bennington was the prime recovery ship for the Apollo 4 (Spacecraft 017/Saturn 501) unmanned, Earth-orbital space mission. Splashdown occurred at 3:37 p.m. (EST), Nov. 9, 1967, 934 nautical miles northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii.

  14. Effects of log defects on lumber recovery.

    Treesearch

    James M. Cahill; Vincent S. Cegelka

    1989-01-01

    The impact of log defects on lumber recovery and the accuracy of cubic log scale deductions were evaluated from log scale and product recovery data for more than 3,000 logs. Lumber tally loss was estimated by comparing the lumber yield of sound logs to that of logs containing defects. The data were collected at several product recovery studies; they represent most of...

  15. Young People in Recovery: Building a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2012-01-01

    The newly formed national group, Young People in Recovery, is comprised of young people, roughly 17-28 years old, who are in long term recovery. Their goal is to increase awareness amongst social service providers about the needs of youth in recovery, increase services, and facilitate partnerships which support young people in finding and…

  16. ACHP | Recovery Act Section 106 Training

    Science.gov Websites

    Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Training and Education arrow Recovery Act Section 106 Training RECOVERY ACT SECTION 106 TRAINING 2009 Recovery Act Section 106 Seminar Schedule Registration Forms General

  17. Product Recovery From Hemlock "Pulpwood" From Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey

    1983-01-01

    A total of 363 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) logs from Alaska were sawn to compare recovery at a stud mill and at a dimension mill. Recovery at both mills varied by log diameters and by log scaling system. Lumber grade recovery was primarily in Stud grade at the stud mill and in Standard and Construction grade at the dimension...

  18. Polarization recovery through scattering media.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Gigan, Sylvain; Brasselet, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    The control and use of light polarization in optical sciences and engineering are widespread. Despite remarkable developments in polarization-resolved imaging for life sciences, their transposition to strongly scattering media is currently not possible, because of the inherent depolarization effects arising from multiple scattering. We show an unprecedented phenomenon that opens new possibilities for polarization-resolved microscopy in strongly scattering media: polarization recovery via broadband wavefront shaping. We demonstrate focusing and recovery of the original injected polarization state without using any polarizing optics at the detection. To enable molecular-level structural imaging, an arbitrary rotation of the input polarization does not degrade the quality of the focus. We further exploit the robustness of polarization recovery for structural imaging of biological tissues through scattering media. We retrieve molecular-level organization information of collagen fibers by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation, a topic of wide interest for diagnosis in biomedical optics. Ultimately, the observation of this new phenomenon paves the way for extending current polarization-based methods to strongly scattering environments.

  19. Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A little more than two years ago, Hurricane Katrina set its sights on the New Orleans area, and the storm and flooding that followed killed more than 1,400 Louisiana residents, destroyed billions of dollars of property, and sent more than 1 million people fleeing the storm's devastation. Many of those displaced in the days following the storm were…

  20. The family living the child recovery process after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Júlia Peres; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida; Ribeiro, Circéa Amalia

    2015-01-01

    to understand the meaning attributed by the family to its experience in the recovery process of a child affected by an acute disease after discharge, and to develop a theoretical model of this experience. Symbolic interactionism was adopted as a theoretical reference, and grounded theory was adopted as a methodological reference. data were collected through interviews and participant observation with 11 families, totaling 15 interviews. A theoretical model consisting of two interactive phenomena was formulated from the analysis: Mobilizing to restore functional balance and Suffering from the possibility of a child's readmission. the family remains alert to identify early changes in the child's health, in an attempt to avoid rehospitalization. the effects of the disease and hospitalization continue to manifest in family functioning, causing suffering even after the child's discharge and recovery.

  1. Enhanced recovery in total hip replacement: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M S; Twaij, H; Giebaly, D E; Nizam, I; Haddad, F S

    2013-12-01

    The outcome after total hip replacement has improved with the development of surgical techniques, better pain management and the introduction of enhanced recovery pathways. These pathways require a multidisciplinary team to manage pre-operative education, multimodal pain control and accelerated rehabilitation. The current economic climate and restricted budgets favour brief hospitalisation while minimising costs. This has put considerable pressure on hospitals to combine excellent results, early functional recovery and shorter admissions. In this review we present an evidence-based summary of some common interventions and methods, including pre-operative patient education, pre-emptive analgesia, local infiltration analgesia, pre-operative nutrition, the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields, peri-operative rehabilitation, wound dressings, different surgical techniques, minimally invasive surgery and fast-track joint replacement units.

  2. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  3. Early neuroprotection after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Dell'anna, Antonio M; Scolletta, Sabino; Donadello, Katia; Taccone, Fabio S

    2014-06-01

    Many efforts have been made in the last decades to improve outcome in patients who are successfully resuscitated from sudden cardiac arrest. Despite some advances, postanoxic encephalopathy remains the most common cause of death among those patients and several investigations have focused on early neuroprotection in this setting. Therapeutic hypothermia is the only strategy able to provide effective neuroprotection in clinical practice. Experimental studies showed that therapeutic hypothermia was even more effective when it was started immediately after the ischemic event. In human studies, the use of prehospital hypothermia was able to reduce the time to target temperature but did not result in higher survival rate or neurological recovery in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, when compared with standard in-hospital therapeutic hypothermia. Thus, intra-arrest hypothermia (i.e., initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation) may be a valid alternative to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in this setting; however, more clinical data are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit of such intervention on neurological outcome. Together with cooling, early hemodynamic optimization should be considered to improve cerebral perfusion in cardiac arrest patients and minimize any secondary brain injury. Nevertheless, only scarce data are available on the impact of early hemodynamic optimization on the development of organ dysfunction and neurological recovery in such patients. Some new protective strategies, including inhaled gases (i.e., xenon, argon, nitric oxide) and intravenous drugs (i.e., erythropoietin) are emerging in experimental studies as promising tools to improve neuroprotection, especially when combined with therapeutic hypothermia. Early cooling may contribute to enhance neuroprotection after cardiac arrest. Hemodynamic optimization is mandatory to avoid cerebral hypoperfusion in this setting. The combination of such

  4. Detection and Attribution of the Recovery of Polar Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Pawson, S.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early spring (late September - early October). The severity of the hole has been assessed from satellites using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), calculating the average area coverage during this September-October period, and by estimating ozone mass deficit. Profile information shows that ozone is completely destroyed in the 14-2 1 km layer by early October. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen (chlorine and bromine) catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Both models and projections of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) into the 21St century reveal that polar ozone levels should recover in the 2060- 2070 period. In this talk, we will review current projections of polar ozone recovery. Using models and ODs projections, we explore both the past, near future (2008-2025), and far future (> 2025) levels of polar ozone. Finally, we will discuss various factors that complicate recovery such as greenhouse gas changes (e.g., cooling in the upper stratosphere) and the acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  5. Prediction of recovery of motor function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Stinear, Cathy

    2010-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability. The ability to live independently after stroke depends largely on the reduction of motor impairment and the recovery of motor function. Accurate prediction of motor recovery assists rehabilitation planning and supports realistic goal setting by clinicians and patients. Initial impairment is negatively related to degree of recovery, but inter-individual variability makes accurate prediction difficult. Neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessments can be used to measure the extent of stroke damage to the motor system and predict subsequent recovery of function, but these techniques are not yet used routinely. The use of motor impairment scores and neuroimaging has been refined by two recent studies in which these investigations were used at multiple time points early after stroke. Voluntary finger extension and shoulder abduction within 5 days of stroke predicted subsequent recovery of upper-limb function. Diffusion-weighted imaging within 7 days detected the effects of stroke on caudal motor pathways and was predictive of lasting motor impairment. Thus, investigations done soon after stroke had good prognostic value. The potential prognostic value of cortical activation and neural plasticity has been explored for the first time by two recent studies. Functional MRI detected a pattern of cortical activation at the acute stage that was related to subsequent reduction in motor impairment. Transcranial magnetic stimulation enabled measurement of neural plasticity in the primary motor cortex, which was related to subsequent disability. These studies open interesting new lines of enquiry. WHERE NEXT?: The accuracy of prediction might be increased by taking into account the motor system's capacity for functional reorganisation in response to therapy, in addition to the extent of stroke-related damage. Improved prognostic accuracy could also be gained by combining simple tests of motor impairment with neuroimaging, genotyping, and

  6. The Stigma of Mental Illness and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2017-12-01

    Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.

  7. The significance of early post-exercise ST segment normalization.

    PubMed

    Chow, Rudy; Fordyce, Christopher B; Gao, Min; Chan, Sammy; Gin, Kenneth; Bennett, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of ST segment depression in recovery signifies a strongly positive exercise treadmill test (ETT). However, it is unclear if early recovery of ST segments portends a similar prognosis. We sought to determine if persistence of ST depression into recovery correlates with ischemic burden based on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This was a retrospective analysis of 853 consecutive patients referred for exercise MPI at a tertiary academic center over a 24-month period. Patients were stratified into three groups based on the results of the ETT: normal (negative ETT), persistence (positive ETT with >1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery) and early normalization (positive ETT with <1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery). Summed stress scores (SSSs) were calculated then for each patient, while the coronary anatomy was reported for the subset of patients who received coronary angiograms. A total of 513 patients had a negative ETT, 235 patients met criteria for early normalization, while 105 patients met criteria for persistence. The persistence group had a significantly greater SSS (8.48±7.77) than both the early normalization (4.34±4.98, p<0.001) and normal (4.47±5.31, p<0.001) groups. The SSSs of the early normalization and normal groups were not statistically different and met the prespecified non-inferiority margin (mean difference 0.12, -0.66=lower 95% CI, p<0.001). Among the 87 patients who underwent an angiogram, significant three-vessel or left main disease was seen in 39.3% of the persistence group compared with 5.9% of normal and 7.4% of early normalization groups. Among patients with an electrically positive ETT, recovery of ST segment depression within 1minute was associated with a lower SSS than patients with persistence of ST depression beyond 1minute. Furthermore, early ST segment recovery conferred a similar SSS to patients with a negative ETT. These results suggest that among patients evaluated for chest pain with

  8. [Accelerated recovery program after hip fracture surgery].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sten; Kristensen, Billy B; Foldager, Susanne; Myhrmann, Lis; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-12-30

    A multimodal approach to minimise the effect of the surgical stress response can reduce complications and hospital stay after abdominal surgery and hip arthroplasty. The aim of the study was to assess the results of a well-defined rehabilitation programme after hip fracture. In an open intervention study, we entered 200 consecutive patients with hip fracture allowing full weight-bearing after operative treatment. The effect of a revised, optimised perioperative care programme with continuous epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition, oxygen supplementation, restricted volume and transfusion therapy, and intensive physiotherapy and mobilisation was assessed (n = 100) and compared with the conventional perioperative treatment programme before the intervention (n = 100). The median age was 82 (56-96) years in the control group and 82 (63-101) years in the accelerated multimodal perioperative treatment group. The median hospital stay was reduced from 21 (range 1-162, mean 32) to 11 (range 1-100, mean 17) days. The total use of days in hospital was reduced from 3211 to 1667. There were fewer complications, whereas the need for home care after discharge was unchanged. An accelerated clinical pathway with focus on pain relief, oral nutrition, and rehabilitation may reduce hospital stay and improve recovery after hip fracture.

  9. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  10. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  11. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  12. Temporal Plasticity Involved in Recovery from Manual Dexterity Deficit after Motor Cortex Lesion in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Higo, Noriyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Nishimura, Yukio; Sugiyama, Yoko; Oishi, Takao; Tsukada, Hideo; Isa, Tadashi; Onoe, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    The question of how intensive motor training restores motor function after brain damage or stroke remains unresolved. Here we show that the ipsilesional ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and perilesional primary motor cortex (M1) of rhesus macaque monkeys are involved in the recovery of manual dexterity after a lesion of M1. A focal lesion of the hand digit area in M1 was made by means of ibotenic acid injection. This lesion initially caused flaccid paralysis in the contralateral hand but was followed by functional recovery of hand movements, including precision grip, during the course of daily postlesion motor training. Brain imaging of regional cerebral blood flow by means of H215O-positron emission tomography revealed enhanced activity of the PMv during the early postrecovery period and increased functional connectivity within M1 during the late postrecovery period. The causal role of these areas in motor recovery was confirmed by means of pharmacological inactivation by muscimol during the different recovery periods. These findings indicate that, in both the remaining primary motor and premotor cortical areas, time-dependent plastic changes in neural activity and connectivity are involved in functional recovery from the motor deficit caused by the M1 lesion. Therefore, it is likely that the PMv, an area distant from the core of the lesion, plays an important role during the early postrecovery period, whereas the perilesional M1 contributes to functional recovery especially during the late postrecovery period. PMID:25568105

  13. The Evolving Understanding of Recovery: What the Sociology of Mental Health has to Offer*

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Dennis P.

    2012-01-01

    The meaning of recovery from serious mental illness (SMI) has evolved over time. Whereas it was not even considered to be a primary goal of treatment thirty years ago, it is the main focus of mental health policy today. These changes are partially the result of the work of sociologists who were studying mental health during the time of institutional treatment and the early stages of community-based care. Despite these early influences, the sociology of mental health has largely overlooked the explicit study of recovery. This is because sociologists began shifting their focus from the study of SMI to the study of less severe mental health problems beginning in 1970s. In this paper I (a) discuss the evolving history of mental health recovery; (b) how recovery is defined today in policy, practice, and research; and (c) present an argument for why sociological perspectives and methods can help shed light on the tensions between the definitions while assisting to develop better understandings of the recovery process. In this argument I place particular attention on qualitative social psychological perspectives and methods because they hold the most potential for addressing some of the central concerns in the area of recovery research. PMID:23483849

  14. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  15. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal

    2010-01-01

    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  16. Sparse Recovery via Differential Inclusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    2242. [Wai09] Martin J. Wainwright, Sharp thresholds for high-dimensional and noisy spar- sity recovery using l1 -constrained quadratic programming...solution, (1.11) βt = { 0, if t < 1/y; y(1− e−κ(t−1/y)), otherwise, which converges to the unbiased Bregman ISS estimator exponentially fast. Let us ...are not given the support set S, so the following two prop- erties are used to evaluate the performance of an estimator β̂. 1. Model selection

  17. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  18. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  19. Understanding Recovery Barriers: Youth Perceptions About Substance Use Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M. Douglas; Beattie, Rebecca; Ong, Chris Angelo; Glik, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively explore how treatment-involved youth retrospectively contextualize relapse from substance use. Methods Fourteen focus groups were conducted with 118 youth (78.3% male; 66.1% Latino) enrolled in participating substance abuse treatment programs (4 young adult and 10 adolescent) throughout Los Angeles County. Transcripts were analyzed for relapse perception themes. Results Dominant relapse themes include emotional reasons (90%), life stressors (85%), cognitive factors (75%), socialization processes (65%), and environmental issues (55%). Conclusions Youth perceptions about relapse during treatment should be used to better inform clinical approaches and shape early-intervention recovery agendas for substance-abusing youth. PMID:22584088

  20. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  1. Recovery in Scotland: Beyond service development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the last ten years there has been significant activity related to the promotion and support of recovery in Scotland, much of it linked to the work of the Scottish Recovery Network. A range of government policies have consistently identified recovery as a guiding principle of both service design and mental health improvement efforts. New learning has been developed and shared, workforce competencies reviewed and training developed, and a range of national initiatives put in place. In Scotland, as elsewhere, these efforts have tended to focus primarily on ensuring that mental health services offer environments and practices that support personal recovery. While service improvement is crucial, a wider challenge is ensuring that opportunities and support for self-directed recovery are enhanced outside statutory services. Providing examples, this paper will look at the development of recovery in Scotland – including the work of the Scottish Recovery Network – and consider the potential for building on progress made by rebalancing efforts to support personal recovery, highlighting the importance of public attitudes and community-based learning approaches. We will also touch on the role of identity in personal recovery and consider cultural issues related to the promotion of recovery in Scotland. PMID:22385428

  2. Measuring individual disaster recovery: a socioecological framework.

    PubMed

    Abramson, David M; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Walsh, Lauren; Culp, Derrin

    2010-09-01

    Disaster recovery is a complex phenomenon. Too often, recovery is measured in singular fashion, such as quantifying rebuilt infrastructure or lifelines, without taking in to account the affected population's individual and community recovery. A comprehensive framework is needed that encompasses a much broader and far-reaching construct with multiple underlying dimensions and numerous causal pathways; without the consideration of a comprehensive framework that investigates relationships between these factors, an accurate measurement of recovery may not be valid. This study proposes a model that encapsulates these ideas into a single framework, the Socio-Ecological Model of Recovery. Using confirmatory factor analysis, an operational measure of recovery was developed and validated using the five measures of housing stability, economic stability, physical health, mental health, and social role adaptation. The data were drawn from a sample of displaced households following Hurricane Katrina. Measures of psychological strength, risk, disaster exposure, neighborhood contextual effects, and formal and informal help were modeled to examine their direct and indirect effects on recovery using a structural equation model. All five elements of the recovery measure were positively correlated with a latent measure of recovery, although mental health and social role adaptation displayed the strongest associations. An individual's psychological strength had the greatest association with positive recovery, followed by having a household income greater than $20,000 and having informal social support. Those factors most strongly associated with an absence of recovery included the time displaced since the hurricane, being disabled, and living in a community with substantial social disorder. The socio-ecological framework provides a robust means for measuring recovery, and for testing those factors associated with the presence or absence of recovery.

  3. Oil recovery by alkaline waterflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, C.E. Jr.; Williams, R.E.; Kolodzie, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    Flooding of oil containing organic acids with alkaline water under favorable conditions can result in recovery of around 50% of the residual oil left in a watered-out model. A high recovery efficiency results from the formation of a bank of viscous water-in-oil emulsion as surface active agents (soaps) are created by reactions of base in the water with the organic acids in the oil. The type and amount of organic acids in the oil, the pH and salt content of the water, and the amount of fines in the porous medium are the primary factors which determine the amount ofmore » additional oil recovered by this method. Interaction of alkaline water with reservoir rock largely determines the amount of chemical needed to flood a reservoir. Laboratory investigations using synthetic oils and crude oils show the importance of oil-water and liquid-solid interfacial properties to the results of an alkaline waterflood. A small field test demonstrated that emulsion banks can be formed in the reservoir and that chemical costs can be reasonable in selected reservoirs. Although studies have provided many qualitative guide lines for evaluating the feasibility of alkaline waterflooding, the economic attractiveness of the process must be considered on an individual reservoir.« less

  4. Gas engine heat recovery unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasco, A. J.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of Gas Engine Heat Recovery Unit was to design, fabricate, and test an efficient, compact, and corrosion resistant heat recovery unit (HRU) for use on exhaust of natural gas-fired reciprocating engine-generator sets in the 50-500 kW range. The HRU would be a core component of a factory pre-packaged cogeneration system designed around component optimization, reliability, and efficiency. The HRU uses finned high alloy, stainless steel tubing wound into a compact helical coil heat exchanger. The corrosion resistance of the tubing allows more heat to be taken from the exhaust gas without fear of the effects of acid condensation. One HRU is currently installed in a cogeneration system at the Henry Ford Hospital Complex in Dearborn, Michigan. A second unit underwent successful endurance testing for 850 hours. The plan was to commercialize the HRU through its incorporation into a Caterpillar pre-packaged cogeneration system. Caterpillar is not proceeding with the concept at this time because of a downturn in the small size cogeneration market.

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of First Grade Literacy Interventions: Reading Recovery and Leveled Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heidi Thomson

    2014-01-01

    This is a quantitative research project utilizing secondary data. Reading Recovery and Leveled Literacy Intervention are two early literacy interventions based on a whole language and phonetic approach to reading instruction. For the purposes of this study, the end-of-first-grade benchmark is a Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) 18 and the…

  6. Literacy Progress of Young Children from Poor Urban Settings: A Reading Recovery Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs-Lange, Sue; Douetil, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This naturalistic inquiry evaluated the impact of early literacy intervention on children in London schools. The progress, in the 2005-06 school year, was compared for 234 of the lowest-achieving children in 42 schools serving disadvantaged urban areas. The children, aged around 6 years who received Reading Recovery in their schools, were compared…

  7. Functional recovery is considered the most important target: a survey of dedicated professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to survey the relative importance of postoperative recovery targets and perioperative care items, as perceived by a large group of international dedicated professionals. Methods A questionnaire with eight postoperative recovery targets and 13 perioperative care items was mailed to participants of the first international Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) congress and to authors of papers with a clear relevance to ERAS in abdominal surgery. The responders were divided into categories according to profession and region. Results The recovery targets ‘To be completely free of nausea’, ‘To be independently mobile’ and ‘To be able to eat and drink as soon as possible’ received the highest score irrespective of the responder's profession or region of origin. Equally, the care items ‘Optimizing fluid balance’, ‘Preoperative counselling’ and ‘Promoting early and scheduled mobilisation’ received the highest score across all groups. Conclusions Functional recovery, as in tolerance of food without nausea and regained mobility, was considered the most important target of recovery. There was a consistent uniformity in the way international dedicated professionals scored the relative importance of recovery targets and care items. The relative rating of the perioperative care items was not dependent on the strength of evidence supporting the items. PMID:25089195

  8. Adaptive neuroplastic responses in early and late hemispherectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural recovery in children who undergo medically required hemispherectomy showcase the remarkable ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt and reorganize following insult early in life. Case study data suggest that lesions sustained early in childhood lead to better recovery compared to those that occur later in life. In these children, it is possible that neural reorganization had begun prior to surgery but was masked by the dysfunctional hemisphere. The degree of neural reorganization has been difficult to study systematically in human infants. Here we present a 20-year culmination of data on our nonhuman primate model (Chlorocebus sabeus) of early-life hemispherectomy in which behavioral recovery is interpreted in light of plastic processes that lead to the anatomical reorganization of the early-damaged brain. The model presented here suggests that significant functional recovery occurs after the removal of one hemisphere in monkeys with no preexisting neurological dysfunctions. Human and primate studies suggest a critical role for subcortical and brainstem structures as well as corticospinal tracts in the neuroanatomical reorganization which result in the remarkable behavioral recovery following hemispherectomy. The non-human primate model presented here offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavioral and functional neuroanatomical reorganization that underlies developmental plasticity.

  9. Through bleaching and tsunami: Coral reef recovery in the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Morri, Carla; Montefalcone, Monica; Lasagna, Roberta; Gatti, Giulia; Rovere, Alessio; Parravicini, Valeriano; Baldelli, Giuseppe; Colantoni, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2015-09-15

    Coral reefs are degrading worldwide, but little information exists on their previous conditions for most regions of the world. Since 1989, we have been studying the Maldives, collecting data before, during and after the bleaching and mass mortality event of 1998. As early as 1999, many newly settled colonies were recorded. Recruits shifted from a dominance of massive and encrusting corals in the early stages of recolonisation towards a dominance of Acropora and Pocillopora by 2009. Coral cover, which dropped to less than 10% after the bleaching, returned to pre-bleaching values of around 50% by 2013. The 2004 tsunami had comparatively little effect. In 2014, the coral community was similar to that existing before the bleaching. According to descriptors and metrics adopted, recovery of Maldivian coral reefs took between 6 and 15years, or may even be considered unachieved, as there are species that had not come back yet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  12. Recovery of a mining-damaged stream ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Eakins, Robert J.; Fraser, Brian G.; Adams, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to restore water quality began in 1995, and by 2002 Cu levels had been reduced by about 90%, with incremental declines since. Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were early colonizers, quickly expanding their range as areas became habitable when Cu concentrations dropped below about 3X the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's biotic ligand model (BLM) based chronic aquatic life criterion. Anadromous Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) have also reoccupied Panther Creek. Full recovery of salmonid populations occurred within about 12-years after the onset of restoration efforts and about 4-years after the Cu chronic criteria had mostly been met, with recovery interpreted as similarity in densities, biomass, year class strength, and condition factors between reference sites and mining-influenced sites. Shorthead Sculpin (Cottus confusus) were slower than salmonids to disperse and colonize. While benthic macroinvertebrate biomass has increased, species richness has plateaued at about 70 to 90% of reference despite the Cu criterion having been met for several years. Different invertebrate taxa had distinctly different recovery trajectories. Among the slowest taxa to recover were Ephemerella, Cinygmula and Rhithrogena mayflies, Enchytraeidae oligochaetes, and Heterlimnius aquatic beetles. Potential reasons for the failure of some invertebrate taxa to recover include competition, and high sensitivity to Co and Cu.

  13. White matter changes linked to visual recovery after nerve decompression

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David A.; Gaffin-Cahn, Elon; Hintz, Eric B.; Adeclat, Giscard J.; Zhu, Tong; Williams, Zoë R.; Vates, G. Edward; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the integrity of white matter tracts and cortical function in the human brain remains poorly understood. Here we use a model of reversible white matter injury, compression of the optic chiasm by tumors of the pituitary gland, to study the structural and functional changes that attend spontaneous recovery of cortical function and visual abilities after surgical tumor removal and subsequent decompression of the nerves. We show that compression of the optic chiasm leads to demyelination of the optic tracts, which reverses as quickly as 4 weeks after nerve decompression. Furthermore, variability across patients in the severity of demyelination in the optic tracts predicts visual ability and functional activity in early cortical visual areas, and pre-operative measurements of myelination in the optic tracts predicts the magnitude of visual recovery after surgery. These data indicate that rapid regeneration of myelin in the human brain is a significant component of the normalization of cortical activity, and ultimately the recovery of sensory and cognitive function, after nerve decompression. More generally, our findings demonstrate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging as an in vivo measure of myelination in the human brain. PMID:25504884

  14. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  15. Ejectable underwater sound source recovery assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irick, S. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An underwater sound source is described that may be ejectably mounted on any mobile device that travels over water, to facilitate in the location and recovery of the device when submerged. A length of flexible line maintains a connection between the mobile device and the sound source. During recovery, the sound source is located be particularly useful in the recovery of spent rocket motors that bury in the ocean floor upon impact.

  16. Late recovery in cerebral fat embolism

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, KP; Sundararajan, SR; Rajasekaran, S

    2014-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome presenting primarily with cerebral manifestations is rarely reported. We report here two such patients who showed complete recovery following initial deterioration. The aim of these reports is to highlight that prolonged intensive care and good rehabilitation can lead to normal neurologic recovery despite poor clinical picture initially. The importance of adequate oxygenation to prevent secondary brain damage is emphasized during prolonged recovery. PMID:24600071

  17. Literacy, Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Literacy, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Literacy, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the first issue of this second volume are: "Oral Language: Assessment and Development in Reading Recovery in the…

  18. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  19. Electrical Acupoint Stimulation for Postoperative Recovery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative Complications; Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting; Postoperative Infection; Postoperative Delirium; Postoperative Pneumonia; Deep Vein Thrombosis; Postoperative Retention of Urine; Postoperative Recovery

  20. Longitudinal predictors of subjective recovery in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Law, Heather; Shryane, Nick; Bentall, Richard P; Morrison, Anthony P

    2016-07-01

    Research has highlighted the importance of recovery as defined by the service user, and suggests a link to negative emotion, although little is known about the role of negative emotion in predicting subjective recovery. To investigate longitudinal predictors of variability in recovery scores with a focus on the role of negative emotion. Participants (n = 110) with experience of psychosis completed measures of psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, subjective recovery, depression, hopelessness and self-esteem at baseline and 6 months later. Path analysis was used to examine predictive factors for recovery and negative emotion. Subjective recovery scores were predicted by negative emotion, positive self-esteem and hopelessness, and to a lesser extent by symptoms and functioning. Current recovery score was not predicted by past recovery score after accounting for past symptoms, current hopelessness and current positive self-esteem. Psychosocial factors and negative emotion appear to be the strongest longitudinal predictors of variation in subjective recovery, rather than psychiatric symptoms. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  1. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  2. Molecular biology of myocardial recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyi; Narula, Jagat

    2004-02-01

    The use of LVADs that leads to a dramatic mechanical and hemodynamic unloading of the failing left ventricle offers a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of remodeling and reverse remodeling. Although it is being increasingly realized that the LVAD unloading results in regression of hypertrophy and improvement of myocyte function and LV geometry, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects remain undefined. The favorable alterations in geometry that occur in parallel fashion at the organ, cellular, and molecular levels are most likely caused by the reduced LV wall stress/stretch as a consequence of the mechanical support provided by LVAD. If it is confirmed that LVAD unloading can contribute significantly to reverse remodeling, the role of LVADs may graduate from bridge-to-transplantation or destination therapy to bridge-to-recovery.

  3. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to takemore » place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.« less

  4. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.

    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluidmore » circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.« less

  5. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  6. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  7. Organisational Pattern Driven Recovery Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomo, Valentina Di; Presenza, Domenico; Riccucci, Carlo

    The process of reaction to system failures and security attacks is strongly influenced by its infrastructural, procedural and organisational settings. Analysis of reaction procedures and practices from different domains (Air Traffic Management, Response to Computer Security Incident, Response to emergencies, recovery in Chemical Process Industry) highlight three key requirements for this activity: smooth collaboration and coordination among responders, accurate monitoring and management of resources and ability to adapt pre-established reaction plans to the actual context. The SERENITY Reaction Mechanisms (SRM) is the subsystem of the SERENITY Run-time Framework aimed to provide SERENITY aware AmI settings (i.e. socio-technical systems with highly distributed dynamic services) with functionalities to implement applications specific reaction strategies. The SRM uses SERENITY Organisational S&D Patterns as run-time models to drive these three key functionalities.

  8. Shell boosts recovery at Kernridge

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.

    1984-01-01

    Since acquiring the Kernridge property in December 1979, Shell Oil Co. has drilled more than 1,800 wells and steadily increased production from 42,000 to 89,000 b/d of oil. Currently, the Kernridge Production Division of Shell California Production Inc. (SCPI), a newly formed subsidiary of Shell Oil Co., is operator for the property. The property covers approximately 35,000 mostly contiguous net acres, with production concentrated mainly on about 5,500 net acres. SCPI's four major fields in the area are the North and South Belridge, Lost Hills, and Antelope Hills. Most of the production comes from the North and South Belridge fields,more » which were previously held by the Belridge Oil Co. Productive horizons in the fields are the Tulare, Diatomite, Brown Shale, Antelope Shale, 64 Zone, and Agua sand. The Tulare and Diatomite are the two major reservoirs SCPI is developing. The Tulare, encountered between 400 and 1,300 ft, is made up of fine- to coarse-grained, unconsolidated sands with interbedded shales and silt stones and contains 13 /sup 0/ API oil. Using steam drive as the main recovery method, SCPI estimates an ultimate recovery from the Tulare formation of about 60% of the original 1 billion barrels in place. The Diatomite horizon, found between 800 and 3,500 ft and containing light, 28 /sup 0/ API oil, has high porosity (more than 60%), low permeability (less than 1 md), and natural fractures. Because of the Diatomite's low permeability, fracture stimulation is being used to increase well productivity. SCPI anticipates that approximately 5% of the almost 2 billion barrels of oil originally in place will be recovered by primary production.« less

  9. Petz recovery versus matrix reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzäpfel, Milan; Cramer, Marcus; Datta, Nilanjana; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-04-01

    The reconstruction of the state of a multipartite quantum mechanical system represents a fundamental task in quantum information science. At its most basic, it concerns a state of a bipartite quantum system whose subsystems are subjected to local operations. We compare two different methods for obtaining the original state from the state resulting from the action of these operations. The first method involves quantum operations called Petz recovery maps, acting locally on the two subsystems. The second method is called matrix (or state) reconstruction and involves local, linear maps that are not necessarily completely positive. Moreover, we compare the quantities on which the maps employed in the two methods depend. We show that any state that admits Petz recovery also admits state reconstruction. However, the latter is successful for a strictly larger set of states. We also compare these methods in the context of a finite spin chain. Here, the state of a finite spin chain is reconstructed from the reduced states of a few neighbouring spins. In this setting, state reconstruction is the same as the matrix product operator reconstruction proposed by Baumgratz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 020401 (2013)]. Finally, we generalize both these methods so that they employ long-range measurements instead of relying solely on short-range correlations embodied in such local reduced states. Long-range measurements enable the reconstruction of states which cannot be reconstructed from measurements of local few-body observables alone and hereby we improve existing methods for quantum state tomography of quantum many-body systems.

  10. [On the University of Recovery].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Boisvert, Christine; Galipeau-Leduc, Marie-Claude; Ducasse, Christian; Pouliot-Morneau, Denis; Bordeleau, Julie

    Objectives Located at the heart of a mental health university institute in Montreal, Canada, the University of Recovery (UR) is a peer-run agency of service users who came together as a private non-profit organization to promote their experiential knowledge in science and public health, and to transform the academic milieu as an inclusive work environment conducive to recovery and full citizenship. UR students can thus have access to scientific conferences and classes on various topics and invite scientists or other professionals to further discuss new discoveries and techniques, and possible ways of improving healthcare from a patients' and service users' perspective. Our conversation with a scientist specialized in obsessive-compulsive disorders triggered this collective reflection on neuroimaging in terms of psychiatric diagnoses, prognoses, recovery opportunities and meta-cognition.Method At the core of the UR as a therapeutic education program is the Projet Citoyen, an adaptation and a transposition in Montreal of the Yale Citizens Project, which has been developed in New Haven, USA, over the past fifteen years. The Projet Citoyen is comprised of four main components: bi-weekly group discussions, individualized peer support, involvement and practicum in the community, and participation in public events and debates. UR students therefore evolve in the academic and scientific milieu, here regarded as a translational community and human laboratory towards social inclusion and full citizenship. UR students can be involved as auxiliaries of medical training to always promote and illustrate recovery opportunities when psychiatric 'dysfunctions' or 'disorders' are the topics of a medical class. In April 2016, UR students invited Dr Marc Lavoie to discuss is work on obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). The content of this group discussion is herein reported.Results UR students learned, among other things, that neuroimaging can be used to identify patterns of brain

  11. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  12. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatized in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier, This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKs) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance, However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  13. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  14. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Lightweight Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Dean; Runkle, Roy E.

    1995-01-01

    The cancellation of the Advanced Solid Rocket Booster Project and the earth-to-orbit payload requirements for the Space Station dictated that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) look at performance enhancements from all Space Transportation System (STS) elements (Orbiter Project, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project, External Tank Project, Solid Rocket Motor Project, & Solid Rocket Booster Project). The manifest for launching of Space Station components indicated that an additional 12-13000 pound lift capability was required on 10 missions and 15-20,000 pound additional lift capability is required on two missions. Trade studies conducted by all STS elements indicate that by deleting the parachute Recovery System (and associated hardware) from the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBS) and going to a lightweight External Tank (ET) the 20,000 pound additional lift capability can be realized for the two missions. The deletion of the parachute Recovery System means the loss of four SRBs and this option is two expensive (loss of reusable hardware) to be used on the other 10 Space Station missions. Accordingly, each STS element looked at potential methods of weight savings, increased performance, etc. As the SRB and ET projects are non-propulsive (i.e. does not have launch thrust elements) their only contribution to overall payload enhancement can be achieved by the saving of weight while maintaining adequate safety factors and margins. The enhancement factor for the SRB project is 1:10. That is for each 10 pounds saved on the two SRBS; approximately 1 additional pound of payload in the orbiter bay can be placed into orbit. The SRB project decided early that the SRB recovery system was a prime candidate for weight reduction as it was designed in the early 1970s and weight optimization had never been a primary criteria.

  15. Coaching for recovery: a quality improvement project in mental healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Burhouse, Anna; Rowland, Madeleine; Marie Niman, Heather; Abraham, Daisy; Collins, Elizabeth; Matthews, Helen; Denney, Joanna; Ryland, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one in four adults in the UK will experience a mental health difficulty at some point in their life. This figure is approximately 400 million people worldwide.[1] Depression alone is currently estimated to cost the UK 1.7% of GDP and is one of the largest causes of ill health in the world.[2] For conditions like psychosis, evidence tells us that people have poorer quality of life outcomes, are more likely to die early, become obese, smoke, be unemployed, and have long term physical conditions than average.[3] People's social situation is also likely to be more complex, with housing needs, social isolation, stigma, and poverty.[4] All of these factors can make it hard for a person with a long-term mental health condition, or those supporting them, to hold onto a sense of hope that positive change is possible or that “recovery” towards a life that holds optimum meaning to them is achievable. An innovative “pop up” Recovery College model was co-produced, delivered, and evaluated by a team of people with lived experience of mental health difficulties, known as peer trainers. The Recovery College offered courses containing the best evidence-based knowledge about recovery in mental health, self-care and self-management. Each learning session included theory, personal testament from peer trainers, and volunteers and demonstrations of practical self-care skills and techniques. The courses were open to people experiencing mental health difficulties, their families, friends, and professionals. After the college course finished each student was offered up to three individual coaching sessions to help support putting the lessons learnt from the college into practice. The project aimed to test whether this innovative educational and coaching model could offer hope, knowledge and practical skills in self-management to support resilience and recovery. The project was underpinned by quality improvement methodologies to develop, deliver, and refine the model

  16. Fatigue and Recovery in Rugby: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Francisco; Smith, Tiaki Brett; Driller, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The physical demands and combative nature of rugby lead to notable levels of muscle damage. In professional rugby, athletes only have a limited timeframe to recover following training sessions and competition. Through the implementation of recovery strategies, sport scientists, practitioners and coaches have sought to reduce the effect of fatigue and allow athletes to recover faster. Although some studies demonstrate that recovery strategies are extensively used by rugby athletes, the research remains equivocal concerning the efficacy of recovery strategies in rugby. Moreover, given the role of inflammation arising from muscle damage in the mediation of protein synthesis mechanisms, some considerations have been raised on the long-term effect of using certain recovery modalities that diminish inflammation. While some studies aimed to understand the effects of recovery modalities during the acute recovery phase (<48 h post-match), others investigated the effect of recovery modalities during a more prolonged timeframe (i.e. during a training week). Regarding the acute effectiveness of different recovery modalities, cold water immersion and contrast baths seem to provide a beneficial effect on creatine kinase clearance, neuromuscular performance and delayed onset of muscle soreness. There is support in the literature concerning the effect of compression garments on enhancing recovery from delayed onset of muscle soreness; however, conflicting findings were observed for the restoration of neuromuscular function with the use of this strategy. Using a short-duration active recovery protocol seems to yield little benefit to recovery from rugby training or competition. Given that cold modalities may potentially affect muscle size adaptations from training, their inclusion should be treated with caution and perhaps restricted to certain periods where athlete readiness is more important than increases in muscle size.

  17. Recovery from DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder in the WHO World Mental Health surveys.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, A J; Liu, H; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Borges, G; Bruffaerts, R; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; de Jonge, P; Fayyad, J; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Karam, E G; Kawakami, N; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Lépine, J P; Levinson, D; Navarro-Mateu, F; Oladeji, B D; O'Neill, S; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Stein, D J; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M; Kessler, R C

    2018-02-01

    Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors. The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD. 20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2-0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66-55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75-68% v. 39%). We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.

  18. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  19. Recovery of lotic macroinvertebrate communities from disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, J. Bruce

    1990-09-01

    Ecosystem disturbances produce changes in macrobenthic community structure (abundances, biomass, and production) that persist for a few weeks to many decades. Examples of disturbances with extremely long-term effects on benthic communities include contamination by persistent toxic agents, physical changes in habitats, and altered energy inputs. Stream size, retention, and local geomorphology may ameliorate the influence of disturbances on invertebrates. Disturbances can alter food webs and may select for favorable genotypes (e.g., insecticidal resistance). Introductions of pesticides into lotic ecosystems, which do not result in major physical changes within habitats, illustrate several factors that influence invertebrate recovery time from disturbance. These include: (1) magnitude of original contamination, toxicity, and extent of continued use; (2) spatial scale of the disturbance; (3) persistence of the pesticide; (4) timing of the contamination in relation to the life history stages of the organisms; (5) vagility of populations influenced by pesticides; and (6) position within the drainage network. The ability of macroinvertebrates to recolonize denuded stream habitats may vary greatly depending on regional life histories, dispersal abilities, and position within the stream network (e.g., headwaters vs larger rivers). Although downstream drift is the most frequently cited mechanism of invertebrate recolonization following disturbance in middle- and larger-order streams, evidence is presented that shows aerial recolonization to be potentially important in headwater streams. There is an apparent stochastic element operating for aerial recolonization, depending on the timing of disturbance and flight periods of various taxa. Available evidence indicates that recolonization of invertebrate taxa without an aerial adult stage requires longer periods of time than for those that possess winged, terrestrial adult stages (i.e., most insects). Innovative, manipulative

  20. 75 FR 53153 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council and the Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (the Councils) have adopted as final, with changes, an interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) with respect to the ``Buy American--Recovery Act'' provision, section 1605 in Division A.

  1. Diploma Recovery: High School Graduates' Perceptions of Online Credit Recovery Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Clay W.

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological case study explored student experiences in a technology-based credit recovery program at several central Texas high schools. Students shared their perceptions about utilizing technology-based credit recovery environments. Participants in this study were ten high school graduates who had completed credit recovery courses at…

  2. Relationship Between Magnitude of Applied Spin Recovery Moment and Ensuing Number of Recovery Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Ernie L.

    1967-01-01

    An analytical study has been made to investigate the relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moment and the ensuing number of turns made during recovery from a developed spin with a view toward determining how to interpolate or extrapolate spin recovery results with regard to determining the amount of control required for a satisfactory recovery. Five configurations were used which are considered to be representative of modern airplanes: a delta-wing fighter, a stub-wing research vehicle, a boostglide configuration, a supersonic trainer, and a sweptback-wing fighter. The results obtained indicate that there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moments and the ensuing number of recovery turns made and that this relationship can be expressed in either simple multiplicative or exponential form. Either type of relationship was adequate for interpolating or extrapolating to predict turns required for recovery with satisfactory accuracy for configurations having relatively steady recovery motions. Any two recoveries from the same developed spin condition can be used as a basis for the predicted results provided these recoveries are obtained with the same ratio of recovery control deflections. No such predictive method can be expected to give satisfactory results for oscillatory recoveries.

  3. δ 13C evidence that high primary productivity delayed recovery from end-Permian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Yu, M.; Jost, A. B.; Kelley, B. M.; Payne, J. L.

    2011-02-01

    Euxinia was widespread during and after the end-Permian mass extinction and is commonly cited as an explanation for delayed biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. This anoxic, sulfidic episode has been ascribed to both low- and high-productivity states in the marine water column, leaving the causes of euxinia and the mechanisms underlying delayed recovery poorly understood. Here we use isotopic analysis to examine the changing chemical structure of the water column through the recovery interval and thereby better constrain paleoproductivity. The δ 13C of limestones from 5 stratigraphic sections in south China displays a negative gradient of approximately 4‰ from shallow-to-deep water facies within the Lower Triassic. This intense gradient declines within Spathian and lowermost Middle Triassic strata, coincident with accelerated biotic recovery and carbon cycle stabilization. Model simulations show that high nutrient levels and a vigorous biological pump are required to sustain such a large gradient in δ 13C, indicating that Early Triassic ocean anoxia and delayed recovery of benthic animal ecosystems resulted from too much productivity rather than too little.

  4. Examining the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Lose, Mary K.; Kelly, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    Though the immediate effect of Reading Recovery (RR) is both strong and well established, the longer term or sustained effect has been less studied and the evidence regarding it has been less conclusive. Michigan Reading Recovery students (n = 328) were compared to control students (n = 264) while in first (2009-2010), third (2011), and fourth…

  5. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  6. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  7. Reframing Recovery: Developmental Considerations for Maintaining Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Gerard; Lambert, Simone F.; Gressard, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Lasting recovery for clients can be challenging to establish in addictions counseling. Through the combination of 2 approaches, motivational interviewing and developmental counseling and therapy, client treatment can be refined to promote transformative change and long-lasting recovery. (Contains 2 tables.)

  8. Viewing Reading Recovery as a Restructuring Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, James S.; Short, Paula Myrick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated components of Reading Recovery that relate to a restructuring paradigm. Specifically, Reading Recovery was analyzed as a way to redesign teachers' work, empower teachers, and affect the core technology of teaching. Data were collected by a survey that consisted of open-ended questions and of categorical response items.…

  9. Recovery After Stroke: Managing Life at Home

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Managing Life at Home Managing life at home is an important part of stroke recovery. Whether your “home” is a house, apartment, ... still want some independence in your everyday activities. Stroke affects each survivor differently. To live well after ...

  10. Reading Recovery: Success for How Many?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenn, Joseph F.

    Standard operating procedures of the Reading Recovery program allow for students to be dropped from the program if they have not met the criterion for success after 20 weeks of participation. This paper follows the actions of over 600 first-grade Reading Recovery students in a medium-sized school district over the course of a complete year of…

  11. Solid Waste: Resource Recovery and Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some of the processes involved in resource recovery (recycling) from municipal solid wastes. Provides specific examples of recovery of valuable resources, and suggests that the environmental consequences and technology related to solid waste treatment should be included in high school science courses. (JR)

  12. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  13. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  14. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  15. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  16. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  17. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  18. Contested understandings of recovery in mental health.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Rhiannah; Whittington, Richard; Cramond, Laura; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2018-05-17

    The concept of recovery is contested throughout the existing literature and in mental health services. Little research exists that gives voice to service user perspectives of recovery. This paper explores how service users in two recovery oriented services run by the National Health Service in North West England talked about recovery and what it meant to them. 14 service users accessing these services took part in semi-structured qualitative interviews focusing on the concept of recovery. Data were analysed using an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. Service users talked about recovery as a dynamic, day to day process as well as an outcome; specifically related to being discharged from inpatient settings. A number of factors including relationships and medication were cited to have the potential to make or break recovery. The study highlights the continued dominance of the biomedical model in mental health services. Service users appear to have internalised staff and services' understanding of recovery perhaps unsurprisingly given the power differential in these relationships. Implications for clinical practice are explored.

  19. 7 CFR 3555.356 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recovery. The lender must notify the Agency upon sale of an REO property. If the lender recovers additional... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future recovery. 3555.356 Section 3555.356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. Recovery of aboveground biomass in Ohio, 1978

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton

    1982-01-01

    Timber-use studies in Ohio show that multiproduct harvesting could be improved. The recovery rate from these operations, expressed as a ratio of the merchantable stem biomass estimate, is 103 percent. Although current methods of multiproduct harvesting have improved recovery of the merchantable stem, an estimated 1,539 thousand fresh tons of total residual biomass were...