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Sample records for early posttransplantation period

  1. Prediction of acute renal allograft rejection in early post-transplantation period by soluble CD30.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wang; Shunliang, Yang; Weizhen, Wu; Qinghua, Wang; Zhangxin, Zeng; Jianming, Tan; He, Wang

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of serum sCD30 for prediction of acute graft rejection, we analyzed clinical data of 231 patients, whose serum levels of sCD30 were detected by ELISA before and after transplantation. They were divided into three groups: acute rejection group (AR, n = 49), uncomplicated course group (UC, n = 171) and delayed graft function group (DGF, n = 11). Preoperative sCD30 levels of three groups were 183 +/- 74, 177 +/- 82 and 168 +/- 53 U/ml, respectively (P = 0.82). Significant decrease of sCD30 was detected in three groups on day 5 and 10 post-transplantation respectively (52 +/- 30 and 9 +/- 5 U/ml respectively, P < 0.001). Compared with Group UC and DGF, patients of Group AR had higher sCD30 values on day 5 post-transplantation (92 +/- 27 U/ml vs. 41 +/- 20 U/ml and 48 +/- 18 U/ml, P < 0.001). However, sCD30 levels on day 10 post-transplantation were virtually similar in patients of three groups (P = 0.43). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that sCD30 level on day 5 post-transplantation could differentiate patients who subsequently suffered acute allograft rejection from others (area under ROC curve 0.95). According to ROC curve, 65 U/ml may be the optimal operational cut-off level to predict impending graft rejection (specificity 91.8%, sensitivity 87.1%). Measurement of soluble CD30 on day 5 post-transplantation might offer a noninvasive means to recognize patients at risk of impending acute graft rejection during early post-transplantation period.

  2. [Comparison of clinical and histological diagnosis in kidney post-transplantation period].

    PubMed

    de Castro, M C; Chocair, P R; Saldanha, L B; Nahas, W; Arap, S; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the agreement between clinical and histopathological diagnosis in a renal transplantation center, 40 episodes of acute renal failure were studied. Kidney biopsies were performed at the moment that a clinical diagnosis was made by the staff. Nineteen episodes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), eighteen episodes of acute cellular rejection (ACR), 2 humoral rejections and 1 acute cyclosporin nephrotoxicity episodes were diagnosed. ATN episodes were confirmed by renal biopsy in 84.21%, ACR episodes in 83.33%, humoral rejections in 100%. Renal biopsy showed ATN in the occurrence of clinical cyclosporin nephrotoxicity. Total agreement was 82.5%. There is a good relationship between clinical and histopathological diagnosis in the post-transplantation period. Diagnostic mistakes occurred mainly when oliguria was present.

  3. Impact of antiviral prophylaxis in adults Epstein-Barr Virus-seronegative kidney recipients on early and late post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder onset: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ville, Simon; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Garandeau, Claire; Meurette, Aurélie; Cantarovitch, Diego; Giral, Magali; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Blancho, Gilles; Dantal, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) pathogenesis is related to EBV infection. Mismatch with the donor (EBV D+/R-) is the main risk factor for both early PTLD (<1 year post-transplantation) and late (>1 year). In these at-risk patients, the role of antiviral prophylaxis for preventing PTLD remains controversial. We analyzed the impact of antiviral drugs given to prevent CMV disease in a monocentric retrospective cohort of 73 adult kidney or kidney-pancreas EBV-seronegative recipients, transplanted between 01/01/2000 and 01/01/2016. Thirty-seven (50.7%, prophylaxis group) received (val-)aciclovir or (val-)ganciclovir for 3-6 months and 36 (49.3%, no-prophylaxis group) received no-prophylaxis. Mean follow-up was 69 ± 7.2 months in the prophylaxis group and 91 ± 10.3 months in the no-prophylaxis group. Monitoring of EBV PCR revealed that prophylaxis delayed primary infection at 100 days (43% vs. 84%, P = 0.02). Early PTLD incidence was not different between groups (4/37 vs. 4/36, P = 0.99). Concerning late events, EBV-related neoplasia incidence was significantly lower in treated patients among whom no cases were observed, while in the no-prophylaxis group 6 cases were reported (P = 0.02). Despite a weak level of evidence our study suggests that antiviral prophylaxis could prevent late onset PTLD. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. A Metabolomic Approach (1H HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy) Supported by Histology to Study Early Post-transplantation Responses in Islet-transplanted Livers.

    PubMed

    Vivot, Kevin; Benahmed, Malika A; Seyfritz, Elodie; Bietiger, William; Elbayed, Karim; Ruhland, Elisa; Langlois, Allan; Maillard, Elisa; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Sigrist, Séverine; Reix, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic transplantation of islets requires a lot of islets because more than 50% of the graft is lost during the 24 hours following transplantation. We analyzed, in a rat model, early post-transplantation inflammation using systemic inflammatory markers, or directly in islet-transplanted livers by immunohistochemistry. 1 H HRMAS NMR was employed to investigate metabolic responses associated with the transplantation. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, α2-macroglobulin) are not suitable to follow islet reactions as they are not islet specific. To study islet specific inflammatory events, immunohistochemistry was performed on sections of islet transplanted livers for thrombin (indicator of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR)) and granulocytes and macrophages. We observed a specific correlation between IBMIR and granulocyte and macrophage infiltration after 12 h. In parallel, we identified a metabolic response associated with transplantation: after 12 h, glucose, alanine, aspartate, glutamate and glutathione were significantly increased. An increase of glucose is a marker of tissue degradation, and could be explained by immune cell infiltration. Alanine, aspartate and glutamate are inter-connected in a common metabolic pathway known to be activated during hypoxia. An increase of glutathione revealed the presence of antioxidant protection. In this study, IBMIR visualization combined with 1 H HRMAS NMR facilitated the characterization of cellular and molecular pathways recruited following islet transplantation.

  5. A Metabolomic Approach (1H HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy) Supported by Histology to Study Early Post-transplantation Responses in Islet-transplanted Livers

    PubMed Central

    Vivot, Kevin; Benahmed, Malika A.; Seyfritz, Elodie; Bietiger, William; Elbayed, Karim; Ruhland, Elisa; Langlois, Allan; Maillard, Elisa; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Sigrist, Séverine; Reix, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic transplantation of islets requires a lot of islets because more than 50% of the graft is lost during the 24 hours following transplantation. We analyzed, in a rat model, early post-transplantation inflammation using systemic inflammatory markers, or directly in islet-transplanted livers by immunohistochemistry. 1H HRMAS NMR was employed to investigate metabolic responses associated with the transplantation. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, α2-macroglobulin) are not suitable to follow islet reactions as they are not islet specific. To study islet specific inflammatory events, immunohistochemistry was performed on sections of islet transplanted livers for thrombin (indicator of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR)) and granulocytes and macrophages. We observed a specific correlation between IBMIR and granulocyte and macrophage infiltration after 12 h. In parallel, we identified a metabolic response associated with transplantation: after 12 h, glucose, alanine, aspartate, glutamate and glutathione were significantly increased. An increase of glucose is a marker of tissue degradation, and could be explained by immune cell infiltration. Alanine, aspartate and glutamate are inter-connected in a common metabolic pathway known to be activated during hypoxia. An increase of glutathione revealed the presence of antioxidant protection. In this study, IBMIR visualization combined with 1H HRMAS NMR facilitated the characterization of cellular and molecular pathways recruited following islet transplantation. PMID:27766032

  6. Evaluation of posttransplantation soluble CD30 for diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Pelzl, Steffen; Opelz, Gerhard; Daniel, Volker; Wiesel, Manfred; Süsal, Caner

    2003-02-15

    Posttransplantation measurement of soluble CD30 (sCD30) may be useful for identifying kidney graft recipients at risk of impending graft rejection in the early posttransplantation period. We measured plasma sCD30 levels and evaluated the levels in relation to the diagnosis of rejection. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that on posttransplantation days 3 to 5, sCD30 allowed a differentiation of recipients who subsequently developed acute allograft rejection (n=25) from recipients with an uncomplicated course (n=20, P<0.0001) (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.96, specificity 100%, sensitivity 88%) and recipients with acute tubular necrosis in the absence of rejection (n=11, P=0.001) (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.85, specificity 91%, sensitivity 72%). sCD30 measured on posttransplantation days 3 to 5 offers a noninvasive means for differentiating patients with impending acute allograft rejection from patients with an uncomplicated course or with acute tubular necrosis.

  7. Prognostic impact of posttransplantation iron overload after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sara C; O'Meara, Alix; Buser, Andreas S; Tichelli, André; Passweg, Jakob R; Stern, Martin

    2013-03-01

    In patients referred for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), iron overload is frequent and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Both the evolution of iron overload after transplantation and its correlation with late posttransplantation events are unknown. We studied 290 patients undergoing myeloablative allogeneic HSCT between 2000 and 2009. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, transferrin, iron, and soluble transferrin receptor were determined regularly between 1 and 60 months after HSCT, and values were correlated with transplantation outcome. Ferritin levels peaked in the first 3 months posttransplantation and then decreased to normal values at 5 years. Transferrin saturation and iron behaved analogously, whereas transferrin and soluble transferrin receptor increased after an early nadir. Landmark survival analysis showed that hyperferritinemia had a detrimental effect on survival in all periods analyzed (0 to 6 months P < .001; 6 to 12 months P < .001; 1 to 2 years P = .02; 2 to 5 years P = .002). This effect was independent of red blood cell transfusion dependency and graft-versus-host disease. Similar trends were seen for other iron parameters. These data show the natural dynamics of iron parameters in the setting of allogeneic HSCT and provide evidence for a prognostic role of iron overload extending beyond the immediate posttransplantation period. Interventions to reduce excessive body iron might therefore be beneficial both before and after HSCT. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus in kidney recipients].

    PubMed

    Dubois-Laforgue, Danièle

    2017-04-01

    Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is defined as diabetes that is diagnosed in grafted patients. It affects 20 to 30 % of kidney transplant recipients, with a high incidence in the first year. The increasing age at transplantation and the rising incidence of obesity may increase its prevalence in the next years. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is associated with poor outcomes, such as mortality, cardiovascular events or graft dysfunction. Its occurrence is mainly related to immunosuppressive agents, affecting both insulin secretion and sensibility. Immunosuppressants may be iatrogenic, and as such, induce an early and transient diabetes. They may also precociously determine a permanent diabetes, acting here as a promoting factor in patients proned to the development of type 2 diabetes. Lastly, they may behave, far from transplantation, as an additional risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The screening, management and prognosis of these different subtypes of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus will be different. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adverse effects of meglumine diatrizoate on renal function in the early post-transplant period.

    PubMed

    Light, J A; Perloff, L J; Etheredge, E E; Hill, G; Spees, E K

    1975-11-01

    Thirty-four renal transplant recipients received drip infusion urograms from 2-24 days post-transplantation. Twenty-two patients exhibited changes in renal function within 1-4 days of the urogram that were indistinguishable from allograft rejection: a tender, swollen kidney, elevation of serum creatinine, oliguria, decreased urine sodium concentration, weight gain, and hypertension. Two patients developed acute tubular necrosis and required hemodialysis, but renal function in the remaining 20 patients improved after therapy for "graft rejection" with i.v. methyprednisolone sodium succinnate. Kidneys from older-age donors that were functioning suboptimally and kidneys which exhibited subsequent clinical allograft rejection were more at risk for contrast media toxicity. This suggests that occult vascular lesions may have been present in the allograft which were exacerbated when exposed to the irritant vascular effects of contrast media, producing a mild, reversible toxic nephritis. However, several kidneys with normal function and several kidneys which never exhibited rejection activity were also adversely affected by exposure to contrast media. It appears these agents should be used cautiously, if at all, in the early post-transplant period.

  11. Early Adolescence: Celestial Meetings - Synodic Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Rather than memorize numbers for sidereal periods of planets (time to orbit the sun), students can learn to determine these times through simple calculations. Comparison of a planet's synodic period to earth's year of 365 days is made, then multiplication to derive a full circle of 360 degrees establishes the sidereal period. (DH)

  12. Identification of patients at risk of acute rejection by pretransplantation and posttransplantation monitoring of soluble CD30 levels in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Sule; Keven, Kenan; Gormez, Ulku; Kutlay, Sim; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Erbay, Bulent

    2006-04-27

    In this study, we investigated the impact of pre- and posttransplantation sCD30 monitoring on early (<6 months) acute rejection (AR) risk and analyzed the effect of different immunosuppressive regimens on posttransplantation sCD30 levels in kidney recipients. Fifty patients receiving kidney allograft and 10 healthy donors were included in this retrospective cohort study. Eight patients developed biopsy-proven AR (19%). In pretransplantation samples, patients showed a significantly higher sCD30 than healthy controls. The pretransplantation and posttransplantation (day-15) sCD30 levels were significantly elevated in rejecting patients compared to non-rejecting patients. No significant differences among immunosuppressive regimens were found in posttransplantation sCD30 levels. High pretransplantation and posttransplantation (day 15) sCD30 levels are associated with increased risk of early AR, and sCD30 can be another tool to evaluate immunological risk prior to kidney transplantation. There was no difference in immunosuppressive regimens used in this study on posttransplantation sCD30 levels at the first month.

  13. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    Over 26 years, we found 46 infectious episodes in 350 kidney transplant recipients. Fifteen were urinary tract infections, recurrent in 4 patients. There were 8 cytomegalovirus infections, three of them fatal when intravenous (IV) ganciclovir was not available. Seven patients had a reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) in the pleura, cervical spine, lumbar spine, knee, ankle, skin and peritoneum, respectively, and were all resolved satisfactorily with conventional anti-TB therapy. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of acyclovir developed an extensive herpes zoster infection in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was resolved with the use of oral acyclovir, and 1 had a disseminated herpes simplex infection resolved with the use of IV acyclovir. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with trimethoprim sulfa developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was fatal in one of them. In 2 patients, we found a Nocardia infection, confined to the lung, which was cured in one of the cases and systemic and fatal in the other. Two patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of nystatin developed esophageal candidiasis in the 1st 6 months after transplantation. One patient developed infective endocarditis in a stenotic bicuspid aortic valve and died 10 years later after another incident of infective endocarditis at the prosthetic aortic valve. Two patients developed an extensive condyloma at the penis, perianal region, and perineum owing to human papillomavirus, requiring extensive surgical resection and podophyllin applications. Another patient developed fatal post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease due to Epstein-Barr virus infection 15 years after transplantation. One patient developed a severe and fatal mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with no response to conventional antimonial therapy. It is interesting to note that despite Chagas disease being endemic

  14. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  15. Keep in Mind Quality of Life: Outcome of a Ten-Year Series of Post-Transplantation Early Relapses in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-A Report from the Grand Ouest Oncology Study Group for Children in France.

    PubMed

    Haro, Sophie; Tavenard, Aude; Rialland, Fanny; Taque, Sophie; Guillerm, Gaelle; Blouin, Pascale; Esvan, Maxime; Pellier, Isabelle; Gandemer, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Relapses of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in children are uncommon but associated with a very poor prognosis. Whereas there are no current recommendations for the management of these relapses, the children's quality of life is an important issue. We studied the outcomes, including 1-year overall survival, complete remission, and quality of life, of 19 children with ALL who relapsed within the first year after their transplantation treated in the 5 participating centers between 2000 and 2011 Patients were distributed as follows: supportive care only (group A), outpatient treatment (mainly steroid and vincristine, group B), or intensive inpatient treatment (group C). There were no significant differences in 1-year overall survival (31.5% for the entire cohort) or remission rate for time between transplantation and relapse (< 6 months or 6 to 12 months), transplantation or disease characteristics, or treatment group. However, time spent in hospital (for treatment and complications) significantly differed between treatment groups B and C (20.8% ± 13.0 versus 59.1% ± 32.9, respectively; P < .05). No differences in organ toxicities, school attendance, or Lansky scores were found between treatment groups. Our sample size-limited data indicate, in a prepersonalized medicine era, that children treated with steroid and vincristine have the same prognosis as those treated with intensive therapy, but they may benefit from improved quality of life. Nevertheless, new therapeutic strategies are required and future prospective trials would help to establish recommendations. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Liver Graft Injury on Cancer Recurrence Posttransplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Xian; Man, Kwan; Lo, Chung-Mau

    2017-11-01

    Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, cancer recurrence, posttransplantation, remains to be the critical issue that affects the long-term outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma recipients. In addition to tumor biology itself, increasing evidence demonstrates that acute-phase liver graft injury is a result of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (which is an inevitable consequence during liver transplantation) and may promote cancer recurrence at late phase posttransplantation. The liver grafts from living donors, donors after cardiac death, and steatotic donors have been considered as promising sources of organs for liver transplantation and are associated with high incidence of liver graft injury. The acute-phase liver graft injury will trigger a series of inflammatory cascades, which may not only activate the cell signaling pathways regulating the tumor cell invasion and migration but also mobilize the circulating progenitor and immune cells to facilitate tumor recurrence and metastasis. The injured liver graft may also provide the favorable microenvironment for tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion through the disturbance of microcirculatory barrier function, induction of hypoxia and angiogenesis. This review aims to summarize the latest findings about the role and mechanisms of liver graft injury resulted from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury on tumor recurrence posttransplantation, both in clinical and animal cohorts.

  17. [Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in childhood].

    PubMed

    Stréhn, Anita; Szőnyi, László; Kriván, Gergely; Kovács, Lajos; Reusz, György; Szabó, Attila; Rényi, Imre; Kovács, Gábor; Dezsőfi, Antal

    2014-02-23

    Among possible complications of transplantation the post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease due to immunosuppressive therapy is of paramount importance. In most cases the direct modulating effect of Epstein-Barr virus on immune cells can be documented. The aim of the authors was to evaluate the incidence os post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases in pediatric transplant patients in Hungary. The study group included kidney, liver and lung transplant children followed up at the 1st Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest and stem cell transplant children at Szent László Hospital, Budapest. Data were collected from 78 kidney, 109 liver and 17 lung transplant children as well as from 243 children who underwent allogenic stem cell transplantation. Between 1998 and 2012, 13 children developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (8 solid organ transplanted and 5 stem cell transplanted children). The diagnosis was based on histological findings in all cases. Mortality was 3 out of the 8 solid organ transplant children and 4 out of the 5 stem cell transplant children. The highest incidence was observed among lung transplant children (17.6%). These data indicate that post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is a rare but devastating complication of transplantation in children. The most important therapeutic approaches are reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, chemotherapy and rituximab. Early diagnosis may improve clinical outcome and, therefore, routine polymerase chain reaction screening for Epstein-Barr virus of high risk patients is recommended.

  18. [Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations in early Byzantine period].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, R Vedat; Ataç, Adnan

    Early Byzantine Period includes between A.D. 330 when Constantinople was established and A.D. 518 when Justinus I became emperor. In this time period, a lot of philanthropic foundations such as hospitals, hospices, orphanages, rest homes and soup kitchens are established. Many of patriarchs and religious men opened them. In some of them, it refers to there was patients' care. The oldest hospital in Constantinople was established by Hasios Marcianos, and was next to Saint Irene Church. In addition to this Empress Flacilla wife of Theodosius the Great made hospitals restored and visited patients regularly. Hospitals were not limited in the center of Empire. Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations were established in Antiochia, Alexandria, Nikea, Adrianopolis, Castoria and Jerusalem. The concept of the modern hospital (the actual care, 'hospitality' and treatment of visitors) for the civilian masses in Europe didn't come to fruition until post Constantine and the rise of Christianity. While these early Christian hospitals were grossly over their heads regarding medical capability (they essentially served as last stops for the dying or quarantine centers), the concept of providing care to the public was the actual intent. In this regard, the first civilian hospitals were developed.

  19. Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Szrek, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Katarzyna; Narkiewicz, Marek; Ahlberg, Per E

    2010-01-07

    The fossil record of the earliest tetrapods (vertebrates with limbs rather than paired fins) consists of body fossils and trackways. The earliest body fossils of tetrapods date to the Late Devonian period (late Frasnian stage) and are preceded by transitional elpistostegids such as Panderichthys and Tiktaalik that still have paired fins. Claims of tetrapod trackways predating these body fossils have remained controversial with regard to both age and the identity of the track makers. Here we present well-preserved and securely dated tetrapod tracks from Polish marine tidal flat sediments of early Middle Devonian (Eifelian stage) age that are approximately 18 million years older than the earliest tetrapod body fossils and 10 million years earlier than the oldest elpistostegids. They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish-tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record.

  20. Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Yonemoto, Naohiro; Dowswell, Therese; Nagai, Shuko; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-08-02

    Maternal complications including psychological and mental health problems and neonatal morbidity have been commonly observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following the birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic with long-term effects on women, their babies, and their families. To assess outcomes for women and babies of different home-visiting schedules during the early postpartum period. The review focuses on the frequency of home visits, the duration (when visits ended) and intensity, and on different types of home-visiting interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2013) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (including cluster-RCTs) comparing different types of home-visiting interventions enrolling participants in the early postpartum period (up to 42 days after birth). We excluded studies in which women were enrolled and received an intervention during the antenatal period (even if the intervention continued into the postnatal period) and studies recruiting only women from specific high-risk groups. (e.g. women with alcohol or drug problems). Study eligibility was assessed by at least two review authors. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias were carried out independently by at least two review authors. Data were entered into Review Manager software. We included data from 12 randomised trials with data for more than 11,000 women. The trials were carried out in countries across the world, and in both high- and low-resource settings. In low-resource settings women receiving usual care may have received no additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge.The interventions and control conditions varied considerably across studies with trials focusing on three broad types of comparisons: schedules involving more versus fewer postnatal home visits (five studies), schedules

  1. Post-transplantation diabetes in kidney transplant recipients: an update on management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Conte, Caterina; Secchi, Antonio

    2018-04-04

    Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) may severely impact both short- and long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients in terms of graft and patient survival. However, PTDM often goes undiagnosed is underestimated or poorly managed. A diagnosis of PTDM should be delayed until the patient is on stable maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs, with stable kidney graft function and in the absence of acute infections. Risk factors for PTDM should be assessed during the pre-transplant evaluation period, in order to reduce the likelihood of developing diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test is considered as the gold standard for diagnosing PTDM, whereas HbA1c is not reliable during the first months after transplantation. Glycaemic targets should be individualised, and comorbidities such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension should be treated with drugs that have the least possible impact on glucose metabolism, at doses that do not interact with immunosuppressants. While insulin is the preferred agent for treating inpatient hyperglycaemia in the immediate post-transplantation period, little evidence is available to guide therapeutic choices in the management of PTDM. Metformin and incretins may offer some advantage over other glucose-lowering agents, particularly with respect to risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Tailoring immunosuppressive regimens may be of help, although maintenance of good kidney function should be prioritised over prevention/treatment of PTDM. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the available evidence on management and prevention of PTDM, with a focus on the available therapeutic options.

  2. [Intrauterine devices in the immediate, early and late postabortion period].

    PubMed

    Nun, S

    1971-01-01

    2146 cases of IUD insertions after hospitalization for abortion at a hospital in Chile were studied. In 1514 cases the IUDs were inserted immediately after abortion, in 430 cases between 1-5 days after the operation, and in 202 cases between 5-40 days after. It is concluded that immediate or early insertion results in a somewhat lower retention rate, but offers the advantage of making it possible to treat a greater number of patients, many of whom would not return later to have the IUD inserted. The incidence of removal for medical causes was very low and immediate insertion was found to be harmless. The medical causes of removal were the usual ones of bleeding, pain, and infection; the most frequent cause of interruption of use was expulsion, which tends to occur during the 1st few months of use and among younger women. The probability of failure due to pregnancy was somewhat higher than in the case of insertion during the intermenstrual period. Cases of voluntary removal tend to increase after prolonged use, and a study to analyze the actual reasons for this fact is necessary.

  3. 78 FR 22918 - Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notification of extension of public comment period..., seeking comments on establishing the Early Career Doctorates Survey. The document contained an incorrect...

  4. Benefits of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of labeled islets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets.

  5. Critical Learning Periods and Programs of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Richard A.

    In an effort to clarify understanding of the concept of critical learning periods, this paper discusses problems that people concerned with the motor development of children have had determining relationships between critical periods and learning, and a "readiness model" is offered as a solution that could enhance understanding of critical…

  6. A Rare Presentation of Isolated CNS Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Casey; Streicher, Andrew; Magnuson, Allison; Newman, Susan; Bertoli, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a recognized and extremely morbid complication of solid organ transplantation, but central nervous system involvement, particularly in isolation, is rare. There are no standardized treatment strategies for PTLD, though commonly used strategies include reduction of immunosuppression, chemotherapy, rituximab, radiation, and surgery. We present a case of an unusual morphologic variant of primary central nervous system PTLD with successful response to rituximab and cranial radiation. A 69-year-old Asian male, who underwent postrenal transplant nine years earlier, presented with a one-month history of new onset seizure activity. His evaluation revealed multiple brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as serologic and cerebrospinal fluid studies which were positive for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. Ultimately, he underwent craniotomy with tissue biopsy with the final pathology report showing posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, polymorphic type. The patient was managed with reduction in immunosuppression, rituximab therapy, and cranial radiation treatments. He had demonstrated marked improvement in his neurologic function and was ultimately discharged to inpatient rehabilitation facility. PMID:28116196

  7. A Rare Presentation of Isolated CNS Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jaime; Smith, Casey; Streicher, Andrew; Magnuson, Allison; Newman, Susan; Bertoli, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a recognized and extremely morbid complication of solid organ transplantation, but central nervous system involvement, particularly in isolation, is rare. There are no standardized treatment strategies for PTLD, though commonly used strategies include reduction of immunosuppression, chemotherapy, rituximab, radiation, and surgery. We present a case of an unusual morphologic variant of primary central nervous system PTLD with successful response to rituximab and cranial radiation. A 69-year-old Asian male, who underwent postrenal transplant nine years earlier, presented with a one-month history of new onset seizure activity. His evaluation revealed multiple brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as serologic and cerebrospinal fluid studies which were positive for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. Ultimately, he underwent craniotomy with tissue biopsy with the final pathology report showing posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, polymorphic type. The patient was managed with reduction in immunosuppression, rituximab therapy, and cranial radiation treatments. He had demonstrated marked improvement in his neurologic function and was ultimately discharged to inpatient rehabilitation facility.

  8. Forensic DNA expertise of incest in early period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jakovski, Zlatko; Jankova, Renata; Nikolova, Ksenija; Spasevska, Liljana; Jovanovic, Rubens; Janeska, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Proving incest from tissue obtained by abortion early in pregnancy can be a challenge. Problems include the small quantity of embryonic tissue in the products of conception, and the mixing of DNA from mother and embryo. In many cases, this amorphous material cannot be grossly segregated into maternal and fetal components. Thus, morphological discrimination requires microscopy to select relevant tissue particles from which DNA can be typed. This combination of methods is reliable and efficient. In this article, we present two cases of incest discovered by examination of products of conception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors and prognosis in T-cell posttransplantation lymphoproliferative diseases: reevaluation of 163 cases.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Christina; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Klein, Christoph; Kreipe, Hans; Hussein, Kais

    2013-02-15

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLD) are mainly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated disorders of B-cell origin. Due to the rarity of monomorphic T-cell PTLD (T-PTLD), knowledge about pathogenesis, risk factors, therapy, and prognosis relies predominantly on case reports and small series. Therefore, we aimed to provide an overview and a retrospective analysis of this rare PTLD subtype. We analyzed all available articles on T-PTLD in the PubMed database as well as in our own databases (Institute of Pathology/Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Hannover Medical School) from 1988 to 2010. Reevaluated parameters were gender, age, transplanted organ, immunosuppressant regimen, time between transplantation and T-PTLD manifestation, T-PTLD subtype, virus positivity, localization, therapy, and follow-up. A total of 163 cases were evaluated. We found that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was associated with early-onset T-PTLD, whereas late onset occurred after immunosuppression with steroids and azathioprine without administration of calcineurin inhibitors. The major independent favorable prognostic factors were T-PTLD of the large granular lymphocytic leukemia subtype, young age, and a combination of radiotherapy/radiochemotherapy and reduced immunosuppression, whereas the hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma subtype and cases with involvement of bone marrow, the central nervous system, or graft had an adverse prognosis. T-PTLD is a heterogeneous group of different aberrant T-cell proliferations and represents a significant complication following transplantation, showing a uniformly poor prognosis.

  10. Critical Thinking about Critical Periods. A Series from the National Center for Early Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr., Ed.; Bruer, John T., Ed.; Symons, Frank J., Ed.; Lichtman, Jeff W., Ed.

    The concept of critical or sensitive periods in child development provides an example around which to organize discussion of what is known and not known about brain development and the implications of brain science on early childhood policy and practice. This book reviews the early history of critical periods and evidence for their existence in…

  11. 78 FR 21979 - Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notification of Extension of Public Comment Period. SUMMARY... on establishing the Early Career Doctorates Survey. The original comment date was to end on May 9...

  12. Unperturbed vs. post-transplantation hematopoiesis: both in vivo but different

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Katrin; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has yielded tremendous information on experimental properties of HSCs. Yet, it remains unclear whether transplantation reflects the physiology of hematopoiesis. A limitation is the difficulty in accessing HSC functions without isolation, in-vitro manipulation and readout for potential. New genetic fate mapping and clonal marking techniques now shed light on hematopoiesis under physiological conditions. Recent findings Transposon-based genetic marks were introduced across the entire hematopoietic system to follow the clonal dynamics of these tags over time. A polyclonal source downstream from stem cells was found responsible for the production of at least granulocytes. In independent experiments, HSCs were genetically marked in adult mice, and the kinetics of label emergence throughout the system was followed over time. These experiments uncovered that during physiological steady-state hematopoiesis large numbers of HSCs yield differentiated progeny. Individual HSCs were active only rarely, indicating their very slow periodicity of differentiation rather than quiescence. Summary Noninvasive genetic experiments in mice have identified a major role of stem and progenitor cells downstream from HSCs as drivers of adult hematopoiesis, and revealed that post-transplantation hematopoiesis differs quantitatively from normal steady-state hematopoiesis. PMID:27213498

  13. Unperturbed vs. post-transplantation hematopoiesis: both in vivo but different.

    PubMed

    Busch, Katrin; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has yielded tremendous information on experimental properties of HSCs. Yet, it remains unclear whether transplantation reflects the physiology of hematopoiesis. A limitation is the difficulty in accessing HSC functions without isolation, in-vitro manipulation and readout for potential. New genetic fate mapping and clonal marking techniques now shed light on hematopoiesis under physiological conditions. Transposon-based genetic marks were introduced across the entire hematopoietic system to follow the clonal dynamics of these tags over time. A polyclonal source downstream from stem cells was found responsible for the production of at least granulocytes. In independent experiments, HSCs were genetically marked in adult mice, and the kinetics of label emergence throughout the system was followed over time. These experiments uncovered that during physiological steady-state hematopoiesis large numbers of HSCs yield differentiated progeny. Individual HSCs were active only rarely, indicating their very slow periodicity of differentiation rather than quiescence. Noninvasive genetic experiments in mice have identified a major role of stem and progenitor cells downstream from HSCs as drivers of adult hematopoiesis, and revealed that post-transplantation hematopoiesis differs quantitatively from normal steady-state hematopoiesis.

  14. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in lung transplant recipients: a 15-year single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Muchtar, Eli; Kramer, Mordechai R; Vidal, Liat; Ram, Ron; Gurion, Ronit; Rosenblat, Yivgenia; Bakal, Ilana; Shpilberg, Ofer

    2013-10-15

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-recognized complication after solid-organ transplantation. Historically, most cases of PTLD among lung transplant recipients occurred within the first year from transplantation and were associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, there are increasing reports on a late-onset form of PTLD. We reviewed all charts of patients undergoing either lung or heart-lung transplantation in a tertiary transplantation center between the years 1997 and 2012 and compared clinical and pathologic parameters between early- and late-onset PTLD. Ten patients with PTLD were identified. Median (range) time from transplantation to PTLD diagnosis was 41 (4-128) months. Three patients developed early PTLD. All were pretransplantation EBV seronegative and asymptomatic when diagnosed during surveillance chest imaging. In contrast, the seven patients with late-onset PTLD were all EBV seropositive before transplantation and were symptomatic at diagnosis. Although early-onset PTLD uniformly involved the transplanted lung, this was relatively rare in late-onset PTLD (3 of 3 vs. 1 of 7). All patients were initially treated with reduction of immunosuppression, with at least one additional treatment modality used, mainly chemoimmunotherapy. Eight patients attained complete remission. With a median follow-up of 17 months, 8 patients died, mainly from treatment-related causes rather than disease progression. Our cohort of lung transplant recipients demonstrates a trend of late-onset PTLD with the majority of patients who died of treatment-related causes rather than disease progression. Therefore, substantial efforts should be focused on treatment-related mortality reduction.

  15. Do mature forest birds prefer early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period?

    Treesearch

    Carlin C. Chandler; David I. King; Richard B. Chandler

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the post-fledging period to bird populations, suggesting that the importance of this portion of the life cycle is equal to or greater than the nesting period. Nevertheless, few studies have compared abundance of forest nesting species between mature forest and early-successional habitats while controlling for...

  16. Early extubation after cardiac surgery: emotional status in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Silbert, B S; Santamaria, J D; Kelly, W J; O'brien, J L; Blyth, C M; Wong, M Y; Allen, N B

    2001-08-01

    To compare the emotional state during the first 3 days after coronary artery surgery of patients who had undergone early versus conventional extubation. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. University hospital, single center. Eligible patients (n = 100) presenting for elective coronary artery surgery, randomized to an early extubation group or a conventional extubation group. Emotional status was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM), and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R). Tests were administered preoperatively and on the 1st and 3rd days postoperatively. Of patients in the conventional extubation group, 30% showed moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (HAD score >10) on day 3 postoperatively compared with 8% of patients in the early extubation group (p = 0.02). There was a clinically insignificant increase in MAACL-R depression score on the 1st postoperative day within both groups but no other differences within or between groups in SAM or MAACL-R scores. Early extubation results in fewer patients displaying depressive symptoms on the 3rd postoperative day but appears to have little effect on other measurements of emotional status. Anesthetic management during coronary artery bypass graft surgery may play an important role in the overall well-being of the patient by decreasing the incidence of postoperative depression. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  17. Early alcohol exposure impairs ocular dominance plasticity throughout the critical period.

    PubMed

    Medina, Alexandre E; Ramoa, Ary S

    2005-06-09

    Animal models of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have revealed an impairment of sensory neocortex plasticity. Here, we examine whether early alcohol exposure leads to a permanent impairment of ocular dominance plasticity (OD) or to an alteration in the timing of the critical period. Ferrets were exposed to alcohol during a brief period of development prior to eye opening and effects of monocular deprivation examined during early, mid and late critical period. Single-unit electrophysiology revealed markedly reduced OD plasticity at every age examined. This finding provides evidence that early alcohol exposure does not affect the timing or duration of the critical period of OD plasticity and suggests an enduring impairment of neural plasticity in FAS.

  18. Continuity and Change From Full-Inclusion Early Childhood Programs Through the Early Elementary Period

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    A large and well-characterized group of children with mild developmental delays initially enrolled in full-inclusion preschool or kindergarten programs was followed for 3 years. Changes in the type of inclusive placements as children transitioned to first and second grades were monitored, and associations between placement type and child and family characteristics were examined. Results revealed a high level of continuity in that most children remained in partial or full inclusion settings over time. However, a substantial reduction in full-inclusion placements occurred between the 2nd and 3rd year when children were completing the transition to first and second grades. Placements in less inclusive settings were associated with children’s levels of cognitive and language development but not their adaptive, social, or behavioral characteristics. A hypothesis was put forward that placement in full-inclusion programs during the early childhood years creates a momentum to continue maximum participation in inclusive settings over time. PMID:20890373

  19. Sensitive periods of substance abuse: Early risk for the transition to dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Chloe J.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescent substance use dramatically increases the risk of lifelong substance use disorder (SUD). An adolescent sensitive period evolved to allow the development of risk-taking traits that aid in survival; today these may manifest as a vulnerability to drugs of abuse. Early substance use interferes with ongoing neurodevelopment to induce neurobiological changes that further augment SUD risk. Although many individuals use drugs recreationally, only a small percentage transition to SUD. Current theories on the etiology of addiction can lend insights into the risk factors that increase vulnerability from early recreational use to addiction. Building on the work of others, we suggest individual risk for SUD emerges from an immature PFC combined with hyper-reactivity of reward salience, habit, and stress systems. Early identification of risk factors is critical to reducing the occurrence of SUD. We suggest preventative interventions for SUD that can be either tailored to individual risk profiles and/or implemented broadly, prior to the sensitive adolescent period, to maximize resilience to developing substance dependence. Recommendations for future research include a focus on the juvenile and adolescent periods as well as on sex differences to better understand early risk and identify the most efficacious preventions for SUD. PMID:27840157

  20. Marketing EPSDT to Clients: A Self-Instructional Module for Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, John L.; McArdle, Patricia

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) is a program of preventive health services available to individuals under 21 years of age who are eligible for Medicaid benefits. As of July 1, 1973, all states operating a Medicaid program were required to provide EPSDT services to all those eligible. The purpose of this module is to…

  1. Parents' Views on the Use of Technology in the Early Childhood Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine parents' views on technology use in the early childhood period. Survey method was used in this research. The research population consists of the parents, whose children go to the pre-school education institutions in Istanbul province. The research sample consists of 477 parents chosen by the random…

  2. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  3. PERIOD].

    PubMed

    Budi, S; Žic, R; Martić, K; Rudman, F; Vlajčić, Z; Milanović, R; Roje, Z; Munjiza, A; Rajković, I; Gorjanc, B; Held, R; Maletić, A; Tucaković, H; Stanec, Z

    2016-01-01

    Results of this clinical study on surgical treatment of pressure ulcers at Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Dubrava University Hospital showed that there was no difference between the 2011-2016 and 2003-2008 periods, indicating continuation of good surgical treatment planning and appropriate postoperative care. Despite the smaller number of hospitalized patients in the 2011-2016 period (31 patients and 42 reconstructive procedures), the number of reconstructive procedure was similar to the recent 2003-2008 period (47 patients and 57 reconstructive procedures). The best results of reconstruction of sacral region pressure ulcer were achieved with fasciocutaneous and musculocutaneous flaps. Whenever possible, depending on the extent of the defect, musculocutaneous flaps should be preferred for reconstruction. It is especially suitable for pressure ulcer recurrence. For ischial region reconstruction, good results can be obtained by mobilizing the semimembranosus and/or semitendinosus in defect gap. For trochanteric region, the tensor fascia lata flap is a good choice. For maximal functional and reconstructive results, a multidisciplinary approach in pressure ulcer treatment has the leading role in the modern concept of wound healing. Surgical treatment should always include radical debridement, ostectomy and well planned defect reconstruction. Conservative treatment should be support to surgical treatment with a focus on patient health care and high hygiene measures. In recent years (2011-2016), the usage of better conservative treatment led to reduction of patient hospital stay and surgical treatment of pressure ulcer. Further ‘wound care’ nurses training in Croatia can lead the trend towards advanced practice nursing in pressure ulcer prevention and conservative treatment.

  4. Insights from Australian parents into educational experiences in the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Lois V; Pincombe, Jan I; Henderson, Ann M

    2006-12-01

    to investigate the provision of parent education during the early postnatal period in order to gain insight that, through stakeholder collaboration, will contribute to the development of innovative strategies to enhance the provision of postnatal education in a contemporary health-care environment. the study comprises the first stage of an action-research project. The first stage of research sought to explore the experiences of mothers and fathers in the early postnatal period by conducting a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the birth of their baby. The data obtained from the questionnaire is to inform an action-research group for stage two of the project. The Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, a large city maternity hospital in South Australia, covering a range of socio-economic strata. 85 parents completed and returned the questionnaire, comprising 52 mothers and 33 fathers. an anonymous self-report questionnaire was purpose designed to provide each parent with an opportunity to reflect on their own experience, with particular emphasis given to the provision of education and support during the early postnatal period. a number of themes emerged, including a window of opportunity during the postnatal hospital stay to provide education and support, despite the reduction in the length of stay; the need for a family-centred approach to maternity services; and the significance of self and social network in the early transition to parenthood. The findings from this stage of the research, combined with a review of the literature, provide insight that will contribute to stage two of the study. At this stage, an action-research group will continue planning to develop specific actions to enhance the provision of education to parents in the early postnatal period. These actions will subsequently be implemented and assessed.

  5. Thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during early postpartum period: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Munetoshi; Nishida, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Thromboembolic events are one of the leading causes of maternal death during the postpartum period. Postpartum thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is controversial because the treatment may lead to massive bleeding. Data centralization may be beneficial for analyzing the safety and effectiveness of systemic thrombolysis during the early postpartum period. We performed a computerized MEDLINE and EMBASE search. We collected data for 13 cases of systemic thrombolytic therapy during the early postpartum period, when limiting the early postpartum period to 48 hours after delivery. Blood transfusion was necessary in all cases except for one (12/13; 92%). In seven cases (7/13; 54%), a large amount of blood was required for transfusion. Subsequent laparotomy to control bleeding was required in five cases (5/13; 38%), including three cases of hysterectomy and two cases of hematoma removal, all of which involved cesarean delivery. In cases of transvaginal delivery, there was no report of laparotomy. The occurrence of severe bleeding was high in relation to cesarean section, compared with vaginal deliveries. Using rt-PA in relation to cesarean section might be worth avoiding. However, the paucity of data in the literature makes it difficult to assess the ultimate outcomes and safety of this treatment. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Early Period of Modern Architecture in Turkey - A Case Study of Eskisehir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasozen, Rana

    2017-10-01

    Modern architecture in the Western World bore fruit at the beginning of the 20th Century in consequence of the process of modernity and seeking of the proper architecture for it. It was formed firstly towards the end of the 1920s. The main reason of this nonsynchronous development was the inadequacy of enlightenment and industrial revolution during the Ottoman Empire and the lack of formation of an intellectual infrastructure which provides the basis of modernity. However, the Ottoman Westernization occurring in the 19th century constituted the foundations of the Republic modernity founded in 1923. The earliest modern architectural designs in Turkey were first practised by European architects after the foundation of the Republic and internalised and practised extensively by the native architects afterwards. The early modern architecture of Turkey, named as “1930s Modernism”, continued until the beginning of the World War II. This period was formed in between the periods of first and second nationalist architecture movements. The early modern architecture period of Turkey was a period which high-quality designs were made. It was practised and internalised not only in big cities such as Ankara and in Istanbul, but also in the medium and small cities of the country. This situation was not just about a formal exception but about the internalisation of modernity by the society. Eskisehir is one of the most important pioneering cities of the Republic period in terms of industrial and educational developments. The earliest modern buildings were built as the public buildings by the state and non-citizen architects in the inadequate conditions of the country in terms of economy and professional people. The earliest modern houses of the city designed by these architects were the prototypes for the later practices which offered the citizens a new lifestyle. The modern houses were the symbols of prestige and status for the owners and the dwellers. The features of early

  7. Acclimation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to water stress through exposure to differing periods of early season drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is able to withstand periods of water scarcity either in the early or late periods of the growing season, but suffers significant stress and yield loss during drought periods in mid-season, or the period coinciding with peak flower production and pod maturation. In fact...

  8. Mode of Birth Influences Preterm Infant Intestinal Colonization with Bacteroides Over the Early Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Katherine E.; LaPlante, Rose D.; Shan, Gururaj; Kumar, Deepak Vijaya; Gregas, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal colonization during infancy is important to short and long term health outcomes. Bacteroides, an early member of the intestinal microbiome, are necessary for breaking down complex molecules within the intestine and function to assist the body’s immune system in fighting against potentially harmful pathogens. Little is known about the colonization pattern of Bacteroides in preterm infants during the early neonatal period. Purpose This study measured Bacteroides colonization during the early neonatal period in a population of preterm infants based on clinical factors including mode of birth, antibiotics, and nutrition. Methods Bacterial DNA was isolated from 144 fecal samples from 29 preterm infants and analyzed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analyses included liner mixed models to determine which clinical factors affect Bacteroides colonization of the infant gut. Results We found that infants born via vaginal canal had a higher rate of increase in Bacteroides than infants born via Cesarean section (p<.001). We did not find significant associations between antibiotic administration and differences in nutritional exposures with Bacteroides colonization. Implications for Practice These findings highlight the significant influence of mode of birth on Bacteroides colonization. While mode of birth is not always modifiable, these study findings may help develop interventions for preterm infants born via Cesarean section aimed at overcoming delayed Bacteroides colonization. Implications for Research Greater study of the intestinal microbiome and the clinical factors relevant to the preterm infant is needed so that interventions may be developed and tested, resulting in optimal microbial and immune health. PMID:26551793

  9. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  10. An Early Sensitive Period Induces Long-Lasting Plasticity in the Honeybee Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Juan P.; Barneto, Jesica A.; Velarde, Rodrigo A.; Pagano, Eduardo A.; Zavala, Jorge A.; Farina, Walter M.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera, the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age. Bees were able to retain a food-odor association acquired 5–8 days after emergence, but not before, and showed better retention than those exposed to an odor at 9–12 days. In the brain, the odor-rewarded experiences that occurred at 5–8 days of age boosted the expression levels of the cell adhesion proteins neurexin 1 (Nrx1) and neuroligin 2 (Nlg2) involved in synaptic strength. At the antennae, the experiences increased the electrical response to a novel odor but not to the one experienced. Therefore, a sensitive period that induces long-lasting behavioral, functional and structural changes is found in adult honeybees. PMID:29449804

  11. An Early Sensitive Period Induces Long-Lasting Plasticity in the Honeybee Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Juan P; Barneto, Jesica A; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Pagano, Eduardo A; Zavala, Jorge A; Farina, Walter M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera , the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age. Bees were able to retain a food-odor association acquired 5-8 days after emergence, but not before, and showed better retention than those exposed to an odor at 9-12 days. In the brain, the odor-rewarded experiences that occurred at 5-8 days of age boosted the expression levels of the cell adhesion proteins neurexin 1 ( Nrx1 ) and neuroligin 2 ( Nlg2 ) involved in synaptic strength. At the antennae, the experiences increased the electrical response to a novel odor but not to the one experienced. Therefore, a sensitive period that induces long-lasting behavioral, functional and structural changes is found in adult honeybees.

  12. Early Seizures Prematurely Unsilence Auditory Synapses to Disrupt Thalamocortical Critical Period Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyu; Takesian, Anne E; Wang, Ting Ting; Lippman-Bell, Jocelyn J; Hensch, Takao K; Jensen, Frances E

    2018-05-29

    Heightened neural excitability in infancy and childhood results in increased susceptibility to seizures. Such early-life seizures are associated with language deficits and autism that can result from aberrant development of the auditory cortex. Here, we show that early-life seizures disrupt a critical period (CP) for tonotopic map plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). We show that this CP is characterized by a prevalence of "silent," NMDA-receptor (NMDAR)-only, glutamate receptor synapses in auditory cortex that become "unsilenced" due to activity-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR) insertion. Induction of seizures prior to this CP occludes tonotopic map plasticity by prematurely unsilencing NMDAR-only synapses. Further, brief treatment with the AMPAR antagonist NBQX following seizures, prior to the CP, prevents synapse unsilencing and permits subsequent A1 plasticity. These findings reveal that early-life seizures modify CP regulators and suggest that therapeutic targets for early post-seizure treatment can rescue CP plasticity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early and late hot extremes, and elongation of the warm period over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, Dimitra; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Pierros, Fragiskos

    2017-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean has been assigned as one of the most responsive areas in climate change, mainly with respect to the occurrence of warmer and drier conditions. In Greece in particular, observations suggest prominent increases in the summer air temperature which in some areas amount to approximately 1 0C/decade since the mid 1970s, while Regional Climate Models simulate further increases in the near and distant future. These changes are coupled with simultaneous increase in the occurrence of hot extremes. In addition to changes in the frequency and intensity of hot extrems, timing of occurrence is also of special interest. Early heat waves in particular, have been found to increase thermal risk in humans. The study explores variations and trends in timing, namely the date of first and last occurrence of hot extremes within the year, and subsequently the hot extremes period (season), defined as the time interval (number of days) between first and last hot extremes occurrence, over Greece. A case study for the area of Athens covering a longer than 100-years period (1897-2015) was conducted first, which will be extended to other Greek areas. Several heat related climatic indices were used, based either on predefined temperature thresholds such as 'tropical days' (daily maximum air temperature, Tmax >30 0C), 'tropical nights' (daily minimum air temperature, Tmin >20 0C), 'hot days' (Tmax >35 0C), or on local climate statistics such as days with Tmax (or Tmin) > 95th percentile. The analysis revealed significant changes in the period of hot extremes and specifically elongation of the period, attributed to early rather than late hot extremes occurrence. An earlier shift of the first tropical day and the first tropical night occurrence by approximately 2 days/decade was found over the study period. An overall elongation of the 'hot days' season by 2.6 days/decade was also observed, which is more prominent since the early 1980s. Over the last three decades, earlier

  14. Serum and saliva cortisol relations in adolescents during pregnancy and the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Dorn, L D; Susman, E J

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine: (1) relations between serum and saliva cortisol in adolescents in pregnancy and early postpartum and (2) short-term consistency of serum and saliva cortisol across three samples, 20 minutes apart, as well as the long-term consistency from pregnancy to early postpartum. Pregnant adolescents (n = 40), ages 14 to 19 years, were enrolled in this study. Subjects were seen at 20 weeks gestation or earlier (T1), 34-36 weeks gestation (T2), and 2-3 weeks postpartum (T3). Blood samples were drawn at T1 and T3, at 0, 20, and 40 minutes. Saliva samples were collected across the same 40-minute period at T1, T2, and T3. Spearman rho (rs) correlation coefficients between serum and saliva ranged from 0.72 to 0.77 (T1), and 0.42 to 0.60 (T3) (p < or = 0.05). Short-term consistency between serum cortisol samples was 0.86-0.97 at T1 and 0.60-0.82 at T3. Short-term consistency for saliva cortisol samples was 0.70-0.96 at T1, 0.91-0.95 at T2, and 0.64-0.89 at T3. Long-term consistency (T1 to T3) for serum and saliva cortisol was low. Individual differences as well as dramatic changes in the endocrine environment in pregnancy and the early postpartum period may explain the more moderate serum-saliva correlations in the postpartum period.

  15. Treponemal disease in the middle Archaic to early Woodland periods of the western Tennessee River Valley.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maria Ostendorf

    2006-10-01

    The high frequency of late prehistoric New World treponemal disease is attributable to the demographic changes concomitant with the adoption of agriculture. However, these demographic changes in group mobility and site density episodically preceded intensive plant domestication, suggesting possible staggered temporal change in observed treponemal disease case frequency. Thirteen convincing and an additional two probable (N = 581) cases of treponemal disease were identified in an eight-site skeletal sample spanning the Middle (6,000-3,000 BCE) to Late (2,500-ca. 1,000 to 500 BCE) Archaic and Early Woodland (500 BCE-0 CE) periods from the western Tennessee River Valley. Treponemal disease cases are infrequent in both the Middle (3/115, 2.6%) and Late (2 to 4 cases, Early Woodland horizon. As the subsistence economy across the Archaic-Woodland temporal boundary in the western Tennessee River Valley remained, as elsewhere, based on intensive hunting and collecting, the demographic corollaries of treponemal disease would apparently not be met. However, the traditional horizon marker of the Woodland period is the adoption of pottery, an activity associated with sedentism.

  16. Prediction of rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns and seizures on continuous EEG with early epileptiform discharges.

    PubMed

    Koren, J; Herta, J; Draschtak, S; Pötzl, G; Pirker, S; Fürbass, F; Hartmann, M; Kluge, T; Baumgartner, C

    2015-08-01

    Continuous EEG (cEEG) is necessary to document nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), as well as rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' (RPPIIU) including periodic discharges, rhythmic delta activity, and spike-and-wave complexes in neurological intensive care patients. However, cEEG is associated with significant recording and analysis efforts. Therefore, predictors from short-term routine EEG with a reasonably high yield are urgently needed in order to select patients for evaluation with cEEG. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of early epileptiform discharges (i.e., within the first 30 min of EEG recording) on the following: (1) incidence of ictal EEG patterns and RPPIIU on subsequent cEEG, (2) occurrence of acute convulsive seizures during the ICU stay, and (3) functional outcome after 6 months of follow-up. We conducted a separate analysis of the first 30 min and the remaining segments of prospective cEEG recordings according to the ACNS Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology as well as NCS criteria and review of clinical data of 32 neurological critical care patients. In 17 patients with epileptiform discharges within the first 30 min of EEG (group 1), electrographic seizures were observed in 23.5% (n = 4), rhythmic or periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' in 64.7% (n = 11), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 11.8% (n = 2). In 15 patients with no epileptiform discharges in the first 30 min of EEG (group 2), no electrographic seizures were recorded on subsequent cEEG, RPPIIU were seen in 26.7% (n = 4), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 73.3% (n = 11). The incidence of EEG patterns on cEEG was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.008). Patients with early epileptiform discharges developed acute seizures more frequently than patients without early epileptiform discharges (p = 0.009). Finally, functional

  17. Medicinal exploitation of inorganic substances in the Levant in the Medieval and early Ottoman periods.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2002-11-01

    Various minerals, metals, clays, and rocks were among the natural medicinal substances used by physicians and pharmacists in early times in different cultures, for example, the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Classical physicians such as Hippocrates and Dioscorides mention tens of inorganic medicinal substances in their writings. Many references to minerals and chemicals are also found in the Muslim medical literature of the Eastern and Western Caliphates. The historical research presented in this article focuses on the inorganic substances applied as remedies by the medieval and early Ottoman (7th-17th) inhabitants of the Levant. The article is based upon a literature review covering tens of different historical sources, from the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Relevant information was found in the works of physicians such as al-Tamimi, Benevenutus, Ibn al-Baytar, Daud al-Antaki, and Hayyim Vital. The research revealed evidences of the medicinal uses of fifteen inorganic substances: Alum, Arsenic, Sulphide, Asphalt, Jew's stone, Earth sp., Galena, Haematite, iron, Lead, Pyrite, Salt, Sulphur, Thermal water, Green Vitriol, and Zinc. Inorganic materials comprise 5.2% of the list of medicinal substances. The geographic origin of most of these substances is the Levant, in which two geo-historical centers have been recorded: the Rift Valley and the northern region of the Levant, including upper Galilee, Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon. A notable tendency to use these substances for treating diseases of the skin, the eyes, the sexual organs, and haemorrhoids was detected.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder in the perinatal period: early infant and maternal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blankley, Gaynor; Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine; Lewis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    This study examines pregnancy and early infant outcomes of pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder presenting for obstetric services to a major metropolitan maternity hospital in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective case review of pregnancy and early infant outcomes on 42 women who had been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder via psychiatric assessment using DSM-IV-R criteria was undertaken. Outcomes were compared with a control group of 14,313 consisting of women and infants of non-affected women from the same hospital over the same period of time. Women presenting for obstetric services with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder experienced considerable psychosocial impairment. They anticipated birth as traumatic and frequently requested early delivery. High comorbidity with substance abuse was found and high rates of referral to child protective services. Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder were significantly more likely to have negative birth outcomes such as lowered Apgar scores, prematurity and special care nursery referral when compared with controls. These findings offer preliminary evidence to be considered by clinicians in developing treatments and services for the perinatal care of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. Further research is required in order to develop evidence informed clinical guidelines for the management of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P < 0.05). In multiparous cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P < 0.01). The double ovulators experienced more anovulatory repeated waves of follicles before their first ovulations than the single ovulators, which resulted in an extension of the period from parturition to third ovulation (81.5 days vs. 64.2 days, P < 0.05). In the multiparous cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P < 0.01) with lower milk lactose concentration (P < 0.05), indicating the prevalence of a more severe negative energy balance during the postpartum 3-month compared to the multiparous single ovulators. Our results showed that, regardless of their parity, double ovulation had no impact on the reproductive performance of the cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early

  20. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene.

  1. Evaluation of right ventricular function in early period following transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Ağaç, Mustafa Tarık; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Acar, Zeydin; Akdemir, Ramazan; Korkmaz, Levent; Kırış, Abdülkadir; Erkuş, Emre; Erkan, Hakan; Celik, Sükrü

    2012-03-01

    There is limited data on alterations in novel right ventricular (RV) function indices like tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid annular systolic velocity (TASV) after transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. We aimed to evaluate RV function by echocardiography (ECG) with these novel indices in early period in patients with secundum-type ASD that was closed percutaneously. Patients were enrolled to study if they had secundum-type ASD that was suitable for percutaneous closure. Patient population consisted of 4 men and 16 women. Echocardiography was performed before and 1 month after closure. Mean age was 37 ± 16. Mean diameter of ASD and total atrial septum length measured by ECG were 19 ± 6 mm and 49 ± 7 mm, respectively. Mean diameter of defect in transesophageal echocardiography was 20 ± 6 mm. Stretched mean diameter in catheterization was 23 ± 6 mm. One month after closure, there were statistically significant decreases in RV end-diastolic diameters (43.3 ± 10.7 mm vs. 34.9 ± 5.5 mm; P < 0.001), RV/left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter ratio (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.87 ± 0.1; P < 0.001), TASV (16.9 ± 3.2 cm/sec vs. 14.3 ± 3.3 cm/sec; P < 0.05), early diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (15.3 ± 3.1 cm/sec vs. 13.4 ± 2.4 cm/sec P <0.05), late diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (16.2 ± 5.4 cm/sec vs. 14.3 ± 6.3 cm/sec; P < 0.05), and TAPSE (29.9 ± 6.2 mm vs. 22.4 ± 7.4 mm; P < 0.001). LV end-diastolic diameter (38.0 ± 6.9 mm and 40.0 ± 4.5 P < 0.05) was increased, whereas there was no change in LV ejection fraction. Closure of ASD by using Amplatzer devices led to decrease in right heart chamber size, tissue Doppler-derived tricuspid annular velocities and TAPSE in early period. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Clinical efficiency of Vasonat in neurometabolic therapy of patients with ischemic stroke at early rehabilitation period].

    PubMed

    Abasova, G B; Tyksanbaeva, G U; Orazalieva, D B; Kasymova, S K

    2011-01-01

    Research of efficiency and safety of Vasonat has been carried out. 31 patients aged 46-75 years who had had hemispheric athero- thrombotic or hemodynamic schemic stroke with moderate severity and being treated in 2-5-month of early rehabilitation period have been observed. The control group of patients received placebo. Results of the study, 4 weeks treatment using Vasonat in the dosage of 500 mg/day have shown positive effect on common signs of the disease by decreasing headache intensity, dizziness, a nausea, and on focal neurological symptoms by decreasing hemiparesis degree; psychoemotional and mnestic activity (main memory and attention) improved as well. It was more distinct in patients with localization of the stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain. It was also noted more rapid improvement of motion function and quality of life of patients.

  3. [Angiopoietins predict long-term outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage during an early period].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Dong; Wei, Huijie; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Rongcai; Yue, Shuyuan; Zhang, Jianning

    2015-05-19

    To evaluate the association between serum levels of angiopoietins (Ang) during an early period (within 72 h) and clinical outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). This prospective study was conducted at Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Blood samples from 37 aSAH patients were collected at 8 h (or < 8 h), 24 h, 72 h after an onset of SAH. The serum levels of Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). They were followed up for 3 months by Glasgow outcome score extended (GOSE). Those with GOSE > 5 were counted as a good outcome while those with GOSE ≤ 5 had a poor outcome. A total of 37 patients with aSAH and 39 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. The aSAH patients showed a significant rise of Ang-1 within 8 h as compared with HC. The outcomes were good (n = 15) and poor (n = 22). Serum Ang-1 at 8 h (or < 8 h), 24 h and 72 h in good outcomers showed significantly higher than that in poor outcomers [(52 ± 24) vs (37 ± 17) mg/L, (62 ± 26) vs (45 ± 17) mg/L, (107 ± 27) vs (72 ± 18) mg/L]. The serum level of Ang-1 at 8 h and 24 h was one of independent risk factors for aSAH patients by multiariable Logistic regression analysis [adjected OR (95% CI) 1.095 (1.015-1.181) and 1.109 (1.016-1.211)] (P < 0.05). High serum level of Ang-1 during an early period (within 72 h) was associated with good outcomers (r = 0.627, P < 0.001). The serum levels of angiopoietins are significantly altered in aSAH patients, especially higher in good outcomers. And abnormal levels of angiopoietins may affect early brain injury (EBI) after SAH, structural integrity and recovery of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and long-term outcomes in aSAH patients.

  4. [Determination of nosocomial infection incidence in mothers and newborns during the early postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Malavaud, S; Bou-Segonds, E; Berrebi, A; Castagno, R; Assouline, C; Connan, L

    2003-04-01

    We wished to determine the incidence of nosocomial infections in the mother and the newborn during the early postpartum period. Over a three-month period, the same investigator collected 50 different clinical and microbiological, standardized data related to infectious diseases in parturients and their newborns. Data were collected on 804 deliveries. The overall rate of nosocomial infection was 2.9% (23/804). For vaginal deliveries, the rate was 1.9% (12/615) and for deliveries by Cesarean section, the rate was 5.8% (11/189). Of 745 newborns followed until discharge from hospital, 0.7% (5/745) had a nosocomial infection. These results are in line with previously published rates of nosocomial infections, which varied between 0.2% to 2.3% for vaginal deliveries, 1.6% to 18.9% for Cesarean section, and 0.2 to 4% in newborns. Regular surveys of the incidence or the prevalence of nosocomial infections are necessary to monitor the effectiveness of educational programs, aimed to reduce hospital acquired infections.

  5. Incidence, etiology, and significance of acute kidney injury in the early post-kidney transplant period.

    PubMed

    Panek, Romuald; Tennankore, Karthik K; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence, causes, and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the early transplant period. This study used a definition as >26 μmol/L increase in creatinine within 48 h or >50% increase over a period >48 h. In 326 adult consecutive recipients of a solitary kidney transplant from 2006 to 2014 followed at this center, 21% developed AKI within the first six months. Most etiologies were CNI toxicity (33%) or unknown (26%), whereas acute rejection accounted for 17% and urinary tract obstruction for 10%. Those with AKI had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at one-yr post-transplant (adjusted beta coefficient -5.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95% CI: -10.4, -0.7, p = 0.025) in a multivariable linear regression model. However, the AKI definition missed 6 of 19 episodes of acute rejection and 4 of 10 episodes of urinary tract obstruction. When acute rejection (including those that did not satisfy AKI criteria) was included in the model, other causes of AKI were not significantly associated with GFR at year 1. Although AKI, using current criteria, is likely to be a significant predictor of later outcomes, important causes are missed and the criteria are not sensitive for clinical decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Early MRI changes in glioblastoma in the period between surgery and adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; Amelio, Dante; Ricciardi, Giuseppe K; Zoccatelli, Giada; Magon, Stefano; Pizzini, Francesca; Alessandrini, Franco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Amichetti, Maurizio; Beltramello, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the increase in MRI contrast enhancement (CE) occurring in glioblastoma during the period between surgery and initiation of chemo-radiotherapy, thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were analyzed by early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) imaging within three days of surgery and by pre-adjuvant magnetic resonance (PAMR) examination before adjuvant therapy. Areas of new CE were investigated by use of EPMR diffusion-weighted imaging and PAMR perfusion imaging (by arterial spin-labeling). PAMR was acquired, on average, 29.9 days later than EPMR (range 20-37 days). During this period an increased area of CE was observed for 17/37 patients. For 3/17 patients these regions were confined to areas of reduced EPMR diffusion, suggesting postsurgical infarct. For the other 14/17 patients, these areas suggested progression. For 11/17 patients the co-occurrence of hyperperfusion in PAMR perfusion suggested progression. PAMR perfusion and EPMR diffusion did not give consistent results for 3/17 patients for whom small new areas of CE were observed, presumably because of the poor spatial resolution of perfusion imaging. Before initiation of adjuvant therapy, areas of new CE of resected glioblastomas are frequently observed. Most of these suggest tumor progression, according to EPMR diffusion and PAMR perfusion criteria.

  7. Vision-Based Sensor for Early Detection of Periodical Defects in Web Materials

    PubMed Central

    Bulnes, Francisco G.; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Molleda, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the production of web materials such as plastic, textiles or metal, where there are rolls involved in the production process, periodically generated defects may occur. If one of these rolls has some kind of flaw, it can generate a defect on the material surface each time it completes a full turn. This can cause the generation of a large number of surface defects, greatly degrading the product quality. For this reason, it is necessary to have a system that can detect these situations as soon as possible. This paper presents a vision-based sensor for the early detection of this kind of defects. It can be adapted to be used in the inspection of any web material, even when the input data are very noisy. To assess its performance, the sensor system was used to detect periodical defects in hot steel strips. A total of 36 strips produced in ArcelorMittal Avilés factory were used for this purpose, 18 to determine the optimal configuration of the proposed sensor using a full-factorial experimental design and the other 18 to verify the validity of the results. Next, they were compared with those provided by a commercial system used worldwide, showing a clear improvement. PMID:23112629

  8. Quantifying the medication burden of kidney transplant recipients in the first year post-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Low, Jac Kee; Crawford, Kimberley; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison

    2018-06-28

    Background Kidney transplantation is an effective treatment, but it is not a cure. Since the risk of graft rejection and the presence of comorbid conditions remain for a lifetime, medications are necessary. Objective To examine the prescription medication burden of adult kidney transplant recipients from 3- to 12-months post-transplantation. Setting All five adult kidney transplant units in Victoria, Australia. Method As part of a larger intervention study, we conducet a retrospective review of prescription refill records and medical records containing the history of medication changes of 64 participants who completed the study was undertaken. The complexity of the medication management was studied, and we looked at the burden of maintaining the medications supply. Outcome measures Pill burden, administration frequency, dose changes frequency, immunosuppressive medication changes, the estimated out-of-pocket costs of medications and frequency of pharmacy visits. Results At 3 months, the average daily pill burden was 22 (SD = 9) whilst at 12 months, it was 23 (SD = 10). Some participants required long-term prophylaxis of fungal infections up to 4 times a day whilst those with diabetes had to manage up to 4 insulin doses a day. The average out-of-pocket cost per person and the frequency of pharmacy visits at 6, 9 and 12 months post-transplantation remained relatively unchanged. Conclusion The medication regimen prescribed for kidney transplant recipients is complex and for most patients, it did not simplify over time post transplantation. Strategies are needed to support patients in managing the complexity of their medication regimen following kidney transplantation.

  9. Augmenting the post-transplantation growth and survivorship of juvenile scleractinian corals via nutritional enhancement.

    PubMed

    Toh, Tai Chong; Ng, Chin Soon Lionel; Peh, Jia Wei Kassler; Toh, Kok Ben; Chou, Loke Ming

    2014-01-01

    Size-dependent mortality influences the recolonization success of juvenile corals transplanted for reef restoration and assisting juvenile corals attain a refuge size would thus improve post-transplantation survivorship. To explore colony size augmentation strategies, recruits of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis were fed with live Artemia salina nauplii twice a week for 24 weeks in an ex situ coral nursery. Fed recruits grew significantly faster than unfed ones, with corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 (control) nauplii/L groups exhibiting volumetric growth rates of 10.65 ± 1.46, 4.69 ± 0.9, 3.64 ± 0.55 and 1.18 ± 0.37 mm3/week, respectively. Corals supplied with the highest density of nauplii increased their ecological volume by more than 74 times their initial size, achieving a mean final volume of 248.38 ± 33.44 mm3. The benefits of feeding were apparent even after transplantation to the reef. The corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L groups grew to final sizes of 4875 ± 260 mm3, 2036 ± 627 mm3, 1066 ± 70 mm3 and 512 ± 116 mm3, respectively. The fed corals had significantly higher survival rates than the unfed ones after transplantation (63%, 59%, 56% and 38% for the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L treatments respectively). Additionally, cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that the costs per unit volumetric growth were drastically reduced with increasing feed densities. Corals fed with the highest density of nauplii were the most cost-effective (US$0.02/mm3), and were more than 12 times cheaper than the controls. This study demonstrated that nutrition enhancement can augment coral growth and post-transplantation survival, and is a biologically and economically viable option that can be used to supplement existing coral mariculture procedures and enhance reef restoration outcomes.

  10. Acceptance of Illness after Surgery in Patients with Breast Cancer in the Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Andrzej; Krzemkowska, Elżbieta; Rhone, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, both in Poland and in the world. Consequences entail a disruption in the physical, psychological and social functioning. The aim of the study was to assess the acceptance of illness by patients treated for breast cancer in the early postoperative period. The research was conducted on the group of 100 consecutive patients aged 32-80 years (median 56 years) who underwent surgery for breast cancer in the Centre of Oncology in Bydgoszcz w 2014 roku. 68 of women had mastectomy, 32 of women had conservative surgery. Polling was conducted in the early period after surgery. The original questionnaire containing closed questions the scale of acceptance of the disease (AIS) as well as mental adaptation to cancer (Mini-Mac) was used in the study. 38% of patients had high acceptance of the disease, 48% average and 14% had low acceptance. Patients after conservative surgery had a higher average values for the mental strategies to cope with the disease, for the fighting spirit (23.1), helplessness and hopelessness (13.5), positive revaluation (23), the patients had a lower average (16.5) in the strategy to absorb anxiety. Patients after conservative surgery had a higher average for constructive style (2.6) but lower for destructive style (1.5). High level of mental coping with the disease was observed in 53%of patients with constructive style and 4% of patients with destructive style. While, a low level of mental coping with the dosease was observed in 5% of patients with constructive style and 46% of patients with destructive style. Almost half of women after mastectomy or conservative surgery had an average acceptance of the disease. The disease was accepted best by educated women living in the cities, white-collar workers with a good economic situation. The following factors were affected the better management of the disease, in order: age, education, current occupation and economic situation, while the type of surgery did

  11. Sea Surface Temperatures in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool During the Early Pliocene Warm Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekens, P. S.; Ravelo, A. C.; Griffith, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) plays an important role in both regional and global climate, but the response of this region to anthropogenic climate change is not well understood. While the early Pliocene is not a perfect analogue for anthropogenic climate change, it is the most recent time in Earth history when global temperatures were warmer than they are today for a sustained period of time. SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific was 2-4○C warmer in the early Pliocene compared to today. A Mg/Ca SST at ODP site 806 in the western equatorial Pacific indicates that SST were stable through the last 5Ma (Wara et al., 2005). We generated a G. sacculifer Mg/Ca record in the Indian Ocean (ODP sit 758) for the last 5 Ma, which also shows that IPWP SST has remained relatively stable through the last 5 Ma and was not warmer in the early Pliocene compared today. A recent paper suggests that the Mg/Ca of seawater may have varied through the last 5 Ma and significantly affected Mg/Ca SST estimates (Medina-Elizalde et al., 2008). However, there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of seawater Mg/Ca variations through time. We will present a detailed examination of these uncertainties to examine the possible range of seawater Mg/Ca through the last 5 Ma. Due to the lack of culturing work of foraminifera at different Mg/Ca ratios in the growth water there is also uncertainty in how changes in seawater Mg/Ca will affect the temperatures signal in the proxy. We will explore how uncertainties in the record of seawater Mg/Ca variations through time and its effect on the Mg/Ca SST proxy potentially influence the interpretation of the Mg/Ca SST records at ODP sites 806 and 758 in the IPWP, and ODP site 847 in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We will also explore how adjustment of the Mg/Ca SST estimates (due to reconstructed Mg/Ca seawater variations) affects the δ18O of water when adjusted Mg/Ca SST estimates are paired with δ18O measurements of the same samples.

  12. Fuels, Hormones, and Liver Metabolism at Term and during the Early Postnatal Period in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Girard, J. R.; Cuendet, G. S.; Marliss, E. B.; Kervran, A.; Rieutort, M.; Assan, R.

    1973-01-01

    hepatic glycogen content and blood lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol levels but of stable or increasing amino acid concentrations. Hepatic gluconeogenesis in this phase of depleted glycogen stores was insufficient to maintain euglycemia. Substrates derived from fat showed early changes of smaller magnitude. The rise in free fatty acids which occurred was less than twofold the value at birth, though this rise persisted up to 6 h. Whereas glycerol rose transiently, acetoacetate did not change and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration fell. Both ketone bodies showed a marked rise at 16 h. at a time of diminished free fatty acid levels. Plasma growth hormone, though higher in the fetal than the maternal circulation, showed no consistent change during the period of observation. The changes in levels of the endocrine pancreatic hormones at birth were appropriate in time, magnitude, and direction to be implicated as prime regulators of the metabolic response during the neonatal period in the rat. PMID:4750449

  13. A magnificent circumcision carnival in the early 18th century Ottoman period.

    PubMed

    Verit, Ayhan; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yeni, Ercan; Unal, Dogan

    2005-01-01

    Circumcision has always been regarded as both an important social event and a milestone of a young man's life in Turkish culture, especially in the Ottoman period. Herein we study an exceptional circumcision festivity which lasted 15 days in the early autumn of the year 1720, for the 4 princes of Sultan III Ahmed, some sons of two high-ranking Ottoman officials and thousands of male children of poor citizens of Istanbul as representing the beneficent of the Sultan. All the organizations of the Empire participated in this huge event, including many shows and a feast, and the preparations were initiated months before. Traditionally, this kind of important social event of Ottoman culture had been described in a literary manner, and Surname-i Vehbi was the special name for the book of this circumcision festivity with 137 colored paintings and a total of 175 pages. The original of this work, which is in the library of Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, was written by Vehbi and illustrated by Levni. The importance of this antique book is that it is the last important example of the illustrated festivity books of Ottoman literature.

  14. Illustrations of neurosurgical techniques in early period of Ottoman Empire by Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu.

    PubMed

    Turgut, M

    2007-10-01

    Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu (A.D. 1385-1468) was the author of the first illustrated surgery atlas Cerrahiyyetü'l Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), which was written in Turkish in 1465. The purpose of this report is to present his unique contribution to modern neurological surgery. Cerrahiyyetü'l Haniyye consists of 412 pages in three chapters, in which there are a total of 191 sections dealing with a variety of surgical specialties, including neurosurgery. In each section of the book, a sentence written in rhyme and meter gives the diagnosis, classification and surgical technique in detail. Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu describes medical and surgical management of neurological diseases such as spinal trauma, epilepsy, migraine, facial palsy, hemiplegia, low back pain, cranial fracture, hydrocephalus and abscesses of the head in his textbook. Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu was a great surgeon in Turkish medical history and the sections on neurological diseases in Cerrahiyyetü'l Haniyye are of great importance in neurosurgery. Today, he is justified as a pioneer of surgery, an investigator and a medical illustrator in the early period of Ottoman Empire. His atlas is a modification of original contributions from earlier treatises.

  15. Early structural and functional plasticity alterations in a susceptibility period of DYT1 dystonia mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Marta; Stanic, Jennifer; Tassone, Annalisa; Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Ponterio, Giulia; Vanni, Valentina; Martella, Giuseppina; Imbriani, Paola; Bonsi, Paola; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Pisani, Antonio

    2018-03-05

    The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a +/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a +/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. BDNF regulates AMPAR expression during development. Accordingly, both proBDNF and BDNF levels were significantly higher in Tor1a +/Δgag mice. Consistently, antagonism of BDNF rescued synaptic plasticity deficits and AMPA currents. Our findings demonstrate that early loss of functional and structural synaptic homeostasis represents a unique endophenotypic trait during striatal maturation, promoting the appearance of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers. © 2018, Maltese et al.

  16. Early structural and functional plasticity alterations in a susceptibility period of DYT1 dystonia mouse striatum

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Marta; Stanic, Jennifer; Tassone, Annalisa; Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Ponterio, Giulia; Vanni, Valentina; Martella, Giuseppina; Imbriani, Paola; Bonsi, Paola; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2018-01-01

    The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a+/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a+/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. BDNF regulates AMPAR expression during development. Accordingly, both proBDNF and BDNF levels were significantly higher in Tor1a+/Δgag mice. Consistently, antagonism of BDNF rescued synaptic plasticity deficits and AMPA currents. Our findings demonstrate that early loss of functional and structural synaptic homeostasis represents a unique endophenotypic trait during striatal maturation, promoting the appearance of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers. PMID:29504938

  17. Trajectories of fathers' psychological distress across the early parenting period: Implications for parenting.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Brown, Stephanie; Christensen, Daniel; Kingston, Dawn; Liu, Cindy H; Wade, Catherine; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Fathers' parenting behavior is a likely key mechanism underlying the consistent associations between paternal mental health difficulties and poor emotional-behavioral outcomes for children. This study investigates the association between fathers' mental health trajectories and key parenting behaviors (warmth, hostility, consistency) spanning the first 8-9 years postpartum. Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data from 2,662 fathers participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. Latent growth class analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of fathers' distress (Kessler-6; Kessler et al., 2003), and latent growth models estimated parenting warmth, hostility, and consistency. Multiple group analyses were conducted to describe and compare the course of parenting behaviors for fathers assigned to the distress trajectories identified. Two distinct classes of fathers were identified based on the trajectories of distress: minimal distress (92%) and persistent and increasing distress (8%). The latter group reported significantly lower parenting warmth when their children were 8-9 years and lower consistency and higher hostility across all study intervals. The postnatal and early parenting period is a critical time for the development of parenting behaviors that are important for children's development. Engagement and support for fathers around well-being and parenting is vital for promoting optimal family and child developmental outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [Analgesic effect of TES therapy in the early postoperative period in patients who underwent tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Semënov, F V; Kade, A Kh; Banashek-Meshchiarkova, T V; Vartanian, M S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiarities of the analgesic action of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES therapy) in the early postoperative period in the patients who underwent tonsillectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for this surgery to the specialized otorhinolaryngological department were available for observation. They were divided into two groups depending on the pain relief strategy. The patients of the study group (n=30) underwent courses of transcranial electrical stimulation on a daily basis (from the onset of hospitalization) in addition to the administration of a standard analgetic. The standard dose of tramadol (2.0 ml) was given to the patients of the control group (n=30) who complained of strong pain. The results of the objective and subjective estimations indicate that the degree of pharyngeal pain in the patients treated with TES therapy and the standard analgetic was significantly different. The patients receiving TES therapy could sooner resume their habitual diet and required smaller amounts of the analgetic which makes this modality a cost-effective supplement to the standard postoperative treatment.

  19. [Pregnancy and labor associated with encephalopathy in neonates during the early neonatal period].

    PubMed

    Skrablin, S; Drazancić, A; Letica, N; Tadić, V

    1992-01-01

    Pregnancy complications, drugs and surgical interventions during pregnancy, fetal growth, medications and interventions during labor, labor complications as well as fetal heart activity during labor in a group of 114 term infants without malformations, but with signs of central nervous system (CNS) damage throughout early neonatal period are compared with paired group of term healthy infants born in the same presentation and mode of delivery. Among prelabor factors only maternal hypertension (found in 16.7% of encephalopathy children versus 0.8% in a control group) was significantly correlated with CNS damage. Fetal growth retardation and long term ritodrine administration were found more frequent in encephalopathy than in healthy group of infants, although statistical significance between the groups could not be demonstrated. A prolonged second stage of labor, high oxytocin dosage, too frequent uterine contractions and vacuum extractions were found significantly correlated with neonatal encephalopathy. CTG pattern during labor was normal in only 28.9% of children, with encepalopathy prepathologic in 46.4% and pathologic in 24.7%. The respective percentages for healthy newborns were: 82.5%, 16.25% and 1.2%. All differences between the groups were statistically significant. Mean duration of prepathologic CTG score in the group of infants with encephalopathy (78.8 minutes) as well as of pathologic score (51.7 minutes) was significantly longer than in healthy infants (23.7 minutes prepathologic and 7 minutes pathologic).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  1. Cardiac allograft prolongation in mice treated with combined posttransplantation total-lymphoid irradiation and anti-L3T4 antibody therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trager, D.K.; Banks, B.A.; Rosenbaum, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    Neonatal cardiac allograft survival was examined in mice treated with anti-L3T4 antibody, posttransplantation total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) or a combination of both therapies. Independently, both posttransplantation TLI and short-course antibody treatment allowed minimal prolongation. However, synergistic prolongation in graft survival was observed with the combination (synergistic) therapy. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from animals treated with combined anti-L3T4 and posttransplantation TLI additionally revealed ''synergy'' with respect to the degree of peripheral lymphocyte depletion.

  2. Quasi-Periodic Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan

    2015-08-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a class of Algol-type binaries in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies from > 1 to <1 on a time scale of about 100-400 days. The behavior pattern is quasi-periodic. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Although L/T inequality in eclipsing binaries has been noted from ground-based photometry by several observers since the early 1950s, the regular or quasi-regular switching between maxima is new. Twenty L/T systems have so far been found in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. In this presentation I will give an update on the L/T phenomenon gleaned from the Kepler and K2 databases. The Kepler and K2 light curves are being analyzed with the 2015 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). The prototype L/T variable is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 Tphot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  3. The Relationship of Novel Plasma Proteins in the Early Neonatal Period With Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Anne M.; Wagner, Brandie D.; Mandava, Naresh; Palestine, Alan G.; Mourani, Peter M.; McCourt, Emily A.; Oliver, Scott C. N.; Abman, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease associated with abnormal retinal vascular development. Proteins from the insulin-like growth factor pathway are related to ROP. However, there is a paucity of research on the role of other proteins in ROP. The aim of this study was to identify plasma proteins related to clinically significant ROP. Methods We measured 1121 plasma proteins in the early neonatal period in infants at risk for ROP using an aptamer-based proteomic technology. The primary aim of the study was to compare plasma protein concentrations in infants who did (n = 12) and did not (n = 23) subsequently develop clinically significant ROP using logistic regression. As a secondary aim, we examined patterns in the proteins across categories of clinically significant, low-grade, and no ROP groups. Results Lower levels of 16 proteins were associated with an increased risk of clinically significant ROP. In this group, superoxide dismutase (Mn), mitochondrial (MnSOD), and chordin-like protein 1 (CRDL1) were highly ranked. Other proteins in this group included: C-C motif chemokine 14 (HCC-1), prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7), and eotaxin. Higher levels of 12 proteins were associated with a higher risk for ROP. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) was the top-ranked protein target followed by hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (MSP), luteinizing hormone (LH), cystatin M, plasminogen, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). We also noted different patterns in the trend of concentrations of proteins across the clinically significant, low-grade, and no ROP groups. Conclusions We discovered plasma proteins with novel associations with clinically significant ROP (MnSOD, CRDL1, PCSK9), proteins with links to established ROP signaling pathways (IGFBP-7), and proteins such as MnSOD that may be a target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:27679852

  4. The lived experience of autologous stem cell-transplanted patients: Post-transplantation and before discharge.

    PubMed

    Alnasser, Qasem; Abu Kharmah, Salahel Deen; Attia, Manal; Aljafari, Akram; Agyekum, Felicia; Ahmed, Falak Aftab

    2018-04-01

    To explore the lived experience of the patients post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and specifically after engraftment and before discharge. Patients post-stem cell transplantation experience significant changes in all life aspects. Previous studies carried out by other researchers focused mainly on the postdischarge experience, where patients reported their perceptions that have always been affected by the life post-transplantation and influenced by their surroundings. The lived experience of patients, specifically after engraftment and prior to discharge (the "transition" phase), has not been adequately explored in the literature. Doing so might provide greater insight into the cause of change post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study is a phenomenological description of the participants' perception about their lived experience post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study used Giorgi's method of analysis. Through purposive sampling, 15 post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients were recruited. Data were collected by individual interviews. Data were then analysed based on Giorgi's method of analysis to reveal the meaning of a phenomenon as experienced through the identification of essential themes. The analysis process revealed 12 core themes covered by four categories that detailed patients lived experience post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The four categories were general transplant experience, effects of transplantation, factors of stress alleviation and finally life post-transplantation. This study showed how the haematopoietic stem cell transplantation affected the patients' physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Transplantation also impacted on the patients' way of thinking and perception of life. Attending to patients' needs during transplantation might help to alleviate the severity of the effects and therefore improve experience. Comprehensive information about transplantation needs

  5. [The effect of breast massage at different time in the early period after cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Chu, J Y; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y J; Yang, M J; Li, X W; Sun, L L

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of breast massage at different time in the early period on maternal lactation after cesarean section. Methods: 80 women delivered by cesarean section were randomly selected from maternity ward of a hospital in Shandong province during Jan. 2013 to Jan. 2015; which were divided into four groups, with 20 patients in each. Three groups received 3 times of breast massage every 24 hoursbeginning from 2, 12 and 24 h after cesarean section, respectively. The control group didn't receive any breast massage. The starting time and status of lactation were observed and recorded after cesarean section. 5 ml venous blood sample was drawn from each patient respectively at 2 h before cesarean, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean to test the level of serum prolactin. The lactation status of each group was compared. Results: The P (50) ( P (25)- P (75)) of starting time of lactation of the three massage groups and control group were 3 (2-6) h, 4 (2-8) h, 4 (3-12) h and 4 (2-12) h, respectively, whose differences showed no statistical significance ( H =3.32, P= 0.345).The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 24 hours after cesarean was 10 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was only 2 in the control group. The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 48 hours after cesarean was 18 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was 8 in the control group. The differences showed statistical significances ( P values were 0.021 and 0.008, respectively). The serum prolactin level in the group of delivered women who received massage from 2 h after cesarean was separately (195.9±78.5), (176.0±96.5), (216.4±110.0), (190.0±56.8) and (184.8±69.6) μg/L at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (which were (128.8±40.6), (127.3±66.8), (162.2±58.8), (145.1±64.7) and (141.7±49

  6. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  7. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.
METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.
CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has

  8. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn’t differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic. PMID:29338022

  9. Comparison of glycemic control and variability in patients with type 2 and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Werzowa, Johannes; Pacini, Giovanni; Hecking, Manfred; Fidler, Catharina; Haidinger, Michael; Brath, Helmut; Thomas, Andreas; Säemann, Marcus D; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after renal transplantation leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increased glycemic variability and poor glycemic control have been associated with cardiovascular complications. We therefore aimed at determining glycemic variability and glycemic control in subjects with PTDM in comparison to T2DM subjects. In this observational study we analyzed 10 transplanted subjects without diabetes (Control), 10 transplanted subjects with PTDM, and 8 non-transplanted T2DM subjects using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM). Several indices of glycemic control quality and variability were computed. Many indices of both glycemic control quality and variability were different between control and PTDM subjects, with worse values in PTDM. The indices of glycemic control, such as glucose mean, GRADE and M-value, were similar in PTDM and T2DM, but some indices of glycemic variability, that is CONGA, lability index and shape index, showed a markedly higher (i.e., worse) value in T2DM than in PTDM (P value range: 0.001-0.035). Although PTDM and T2DM subjects showed similar glycemic control quality, glycemic variability was significantly higher in T2DM. These data underscore potential important pathophysiological differences between T2DM and PTDM indicating that increased glycemic variability may not be a key factor for the excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with PTDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low immunosuppressive burden after HLA-matched related or unrelated BMT using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Kanakry, Christopher G; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Kasamon, Yvette L; Zahurak, Marianna; Durakovic, Nadira; Furlong, Terry; Mielcarek, Marco; Medeot, Marta; Gojo, Ivana; Smith, B Douglas; Kanakry, Jennifer A; Borrello, Ivan M; Brodsky, Robert A; Gladstone, Douglas E; Huff, Carol Ann; Matsui, William H; Swinnen, Lode J; Cooke, Kenneth R; Ambinder, Richard F; Fuchs, Ephraim J; de Lima, Marcos J; Andersson, Borje S; Varadhan, Ravi; O'Donnell, Paul V; Jones, Richard J; Luznik, Leo

    2017-03-09

    The intensive and prolonged immunosuppressive therapy required to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) puts patients at substantial risk for life-threatening infections, organ toxicity, and disease relapse. Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) can function as single-agent GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative, HLA-matched related (MRD), or HLA-matched unrelated (MUD) donor T-cell-replete bone marrow allografting, obviating the need for additional prophylactic immunosuppression. However, patients who develop GVHD require supplemental treatment. We assessed the longitudinal requirement for immunosuppressive therapy in 339 patients treated with this transplantation platform: 247 receiving busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BuCy) conditioning (data collected retrospectively) and 92 receiving busulfan/fludarabine (BuFlu) conditioning (data collected prospectively). Approximately 50% of MRD patients and 30% of MUD patients never required immunosuppression beyond PTCy. In patients requiring further immunosuppression, typically only 1 to 2 agents were required, and the median durations of systemic pharmacologic immunosuppression for the BuCy MRD, BuFlu MRD, BuCy MUD, and BuFlu MUD groups all were 4.5 to 5 months. For these 4 groups, 1-year probabilities of being alive and off all systemic immunosuppression were 61%, 53%, 53%, and 51% and 3-year probabilities were 53%, 48%, 49%, and 56%, respectively. These data suggest that PTCy minimizes the global immunosuppressive burden experienced by patients undergoing HLA-matched alloBMT.

  11. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  12. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  13. A Guide to Dental Care for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Roy L.; Young, Wesley O.

    This guide has been developed to assist administrators, providers of dental care, and others involved in carrying out the dental care provisions of the EPSDT program (Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program). It is intended to assist in the development of programs concerned with the unique characteristics of dental diseases…

  14. Bone histomorphometry in de novo renal transplant recipients indicates a further decline in bone resorption 1 year posttransplantation.

    PubMed

    Evenepoel, Pieter; Behets, Geert J; Viaene, Liesbeth; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2017-02-01

    Renal transplantation is believed to have a major impact on bone health. The present prospective observational bone biopsy study aimed to define the natural history of bone histomorphometry parameters in contemporaneous de novo renal transplant recipients. Paired bone biopsies were performed at the time of transplantation and at one-year posttransplantation in an unselected cohort of 36 patients referred for deceased kidney replacement. Parameters of mineral metabolism and circulating bone turnover markers were monitored as well. Static parameters of bone formation and especially bone resorption being already low-normal in the majority of patients at the time of renal transplantation, further declined during the first posttransplant year. However, interindividual variation was substantial, and significance was reached only for bone resorption parameters. Bone mineralization and trabecular bone volume were within the normal range at the time of transplantation (83.3% and 91.7% of graft recipients, respectively) and showed little change one-year posttransplantation. Changes in osteoclast number were paralleled by changes in circulating tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels. Finally, cumulative glucocorticoid dose, but not the posttransplantation parathyroid hormone level, associated with trabecular bone loss. Thus, the impact of renal transplantation on bone histomorphometry is limited with only bone resorption, being already low at the time of transplantation, showing a further decline. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interceptive orthopedics for the correction of maxillary transverse and sagittal deficiency in the early mixed dentition period

    PubMed Central

    Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Karnati Praveen; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    Dentofacial Orthopedics directed to a hypoplastic maxilla in the prepubertal period redirects growth of the maxilla in the vertical, transverse and sagittal planes of space. The orthopedic correction of maxillary hypoplasia in the early mixed dentition period thus intercepts the establishment of permanent structural asymmetry in the mandible and helps in the achievement of optimal dentofacial esthetics. This paper presents the growth redirection in a hypoplastic maxilla of an 8-year-old girl with simultaneous rapid maxillary expansion and protraction headgear therapy for a period of 11 months which corrected the posterior unilateral cross-bite, the positional asymmetry of the mandible and established an orthognathic profile in the individual. PMID:22346162

  16. Temporal trends of latency period and perinatal survival after very early preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Herrera, José A; Urgal, Amaya; Lazarraga, Cristina; Benítez, María J; Gómez, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    This paper shows temporal trends of latency period and perinatal survival after preterm premature rupture of membranes at or before 28 weeks (very early PPROM). We have studied retrospectively medical records of all cases of very early PPROM attended in our Obstetric Department from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. A total of 327 cases of very early PPROM were attended, representing 0.4 % of all deliveries, 3.68 % of all preterm births and 15 % of cases all of PPROM. The mean gestational age at delivery was 27 weeks (range 20-34). The mean duration of latency period for the total of 327 cases was 12.1 days (range 0-83, SD 13.3), with a clear trend to its increase from 2005 (p < 0.05). The mean duration of latency period was largest in 2010 (p < 0.05). For the whole period 2000-2010, perinatal deaths reached 30.6 % of all cases, with a clear trend to decrease as gestational age at diagnosis increased, and over the years of study. We have also found a high rate of obstetric complications and a high rate of cesarean deliveries. The upward trend in the duration of latency period in all groups over the years of study and the encouraging perinatal survival observed, even in previable PPROM, are incentives to follow expectant/conservative management in these cases.

  17. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2007-05-11

    The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1) analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2) when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  18. Pedoarchaeology of Early Agricultural Period Irrigation Systems in the Tucson Basin of the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homburg, Jeffrey; Nials, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Pedoarchaeological studies were conducted at the Las Capas and Sunset Road sites in the Tucson Basin of Arizona in order to document and evaluate soil productivity and hydraulic soil properties of ancient agricultural irrigation systems. These ancient irrigated fields are on the margin of the Santa Cruz River floodplain, between two alluvial fans where high water tables and stable to aggrading geomorphic conditions facilitated diverting water from drainages and directing it to fields by gravity-fed canal irrigation. Archaeological investigations at these sites recently provided opportunities for documenting the configuration and evolution of the oldest irrigation systems yet identified in the United States, the earliest dating to more than three millennia in age. This research is significant archaeologically because of: (1) the antiquity ( 575-1225 B.C.) of the Early Agricultural period irrigation systems at these sites, (2) the fact that irrigation systems dated to different times are separated stratigraphically within the sites, and (3) the fact that extensive, well-preserved gridded irrigation features were identified using mechanical stripping, with nearly 100 ancient footprints preserved on a buried agricultural surface at Sunset Road. The stratigraphic separation of buried surfaces that were irrigated and the abundant cultivated irrigation plots facilitated soil sampling so that field, border, and uncultivated control samples could be compared in order to measure the anthropogenic effects of agriculture on soil quality in the irragric soils. Long-term indicators of agricultural soil quality such as organic carbon, nutrient content, and hydraulic soil water properties such as available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, indicate that soil changes were generally favorable for agricultural production and that these ancient irrigation systems were sustainable. Canals regularly supplied water to the fields, but they also supplied nutrient

  19. Aspirin (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Molakatalla, Sujana; Shepherd, Emily; Grivell, Rosalie M

    2017-02-09

    Perineal trauma (due to spontaneous tears, surgical incision (episiotomy) or in association with operative vaginal birth) is common after vaginal birth, and is often associated with postpartum perineal pain. Birth over an intact perineum may also lead to perineal pain. There are adverse health consequences associated with perineal pain for the women and their babies in the short- and long-term, and the pain may interfere with newborn care and the establishment of breastfeeding. Aspirin has been used in the management of postpartum perineal pain and its effectiveness and safety should be assessed. To determine the efficacy of a single dose of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), including at different doses, in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (30 August 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing single dose aspirin compared with placebo, no treatment, a different dose of aspirin, or single dose paracetamol/acetaminophen for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We planned to include cluster-RCTs but none were identified. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included RCTs. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence for the main comparison (aspirin versus placebo) was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included 17 RCTs, with 16 involving 1132 women randomised to aspirin or placebo (one RCT did not report numbers of women). Two RCTs (of 16) did not contribute data to review meta-analyses. All women had perineal pain post-episiotomy, and were not breastfeeding. Studies were published between 1967 and 1997, and the risk of bias was often unclear due to poor

  20. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-11-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure-ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure-ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure-ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96-119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236-259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure-ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure-ground segregation such as surface segregation.

  1. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure–ground segregation

    PubMed Central

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-01-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure–ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure–ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure–ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure–ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96–119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236–259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure–ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure–ground segregation such as surface segregation. PMID:23170239

  2. Individuals' Life Structures in the Early Adulthood Period Based on Levinson's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktu, Yahya; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Early adulthood is one of the important milestones considered within lifelong development in the relevant literature. Adulthood is examined through various theories; however, universality of many of these is still being discussed. One of these theories is Levinson's theory of life structure. Thus, the current research aims to examine the extent to…

  3. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher

    Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late Cretaceous Indian tetrapod fauna is cosmopolitan with both Gondwanan and Laurasian elements. Throughout most of the Cretaceous, India was separated from the rest of Gondwana, but in the latest Cretaceous it reestablished contact with Africa through Kohistan-Dras (K-D) volcanic arc, and maintained biotic link with South America via Ninetyeast Ridge-Kerguelen-Antarctica corridor. These two geodispersal routes allowed exchanges of "pan-Gondwana" terrestrial tetrapods from Africa, South America, and Madagascar. During that time India also maintained biotic connections with Laurasia across the Neotethys via Kohistan-Dras Arc and Africa. During the Palaeocene, India, welded to the K-D Arc, rafted like a "Noah's Ark" as an island continent and underwent rapid cladogenesis because of allopatric speciation. Although the Palaeocene fossil record is blank, Early Eocene tetrapods contain both endemic and cosmopolitan elements, but Middle Eocene faunas have strong Asian character. India collided with Asia in Early and Middle Eocene time and established a new northeast corridor for faunal migration to facilitate the bidirectional "Great Asian Interchange" dispersals.

  4. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  5. Evaluation of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus After Liver Transplantation: Assessment of Insulin Administration as a Risk Factor.

    PubMed

    Linder, Kristin E; Baker, William L; Rochon, Caroline; May, Scott T; Sheiner, Patricia A; Martin, Spencer T

    2016-05-01

    Impaired glucose regulation posttransplantation can affect allograft survival and may lead to the development of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). The primary purpose of this study is to assess the difference in insulin burden between liver transplant patients who develop PTDM and patients who do not. This was a single-center, retrospective study. Adult liver transplant recipients transplanted between January 1, 2005, and August 1, 2013, were included. PTDM was defined as: (1) use of an oral antihyperglycemic agent for ≥30 consecutive days after transplant, (2) use of insulin ≥30 consecutive days after transplant, or (3) hemoglobin A1C≥6.5 any time after transplant. Of the 114 patients included, 48 (42%) developed PTDM. The average 24-hour insulin requirement on the medical floors was 17.2 ± 14.5 units in the PTDM group and 11.3 ± 12.2 units in the PTDM-free group;P= 0.02. The average blood glucose level on the medical floor was 184.7 ± 31.5 mg/dL in the PTDM group and 169.3 ± 31.4 mg/dL in the PTDM-free group;P= 0.013. Multivariate analysis revealed that experiencing rejection was positively associated with the development of PTDM: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.237; 95% CI = 1.214-8.633. Basiliximab was negatively associated with the development of PTDM: AOR = 0.182; 95% CI = 0.040-0.836. Univariate analyses suggest that insulin burden is a positive risk factor for the development of PTDM; this association is lost in multivariate analyses. Rejection was a positive predictor, and use of basiliximab was a negative predictor for the development of PTDM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. First Look at a Major Transition Period in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    New Observations of Intergalactic Helium Absorption Observations of the bright southern quasar HE 2347-4342 with telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided a group of European astronomers [1] with an exceptional glimpse into an early, still unexplored transition period of the Universe. At that time, many billions of years ago, some of the enormous gaseous clouds of hydrogen and helium left over from the Big Bang had not yet been fully ionized by the increasingly strong radiation from emerging galaxies and stars. In recent years astronomers have successfully `looked back' towards this period, but the new observations of HE 2347-4342 have now homed in on an important transitionary epoch during the evolution of the young Universe. Searching for clear views towards bright quasars As has been the case for many other important scientific achievements, this observational breakthrough was preceded by a long and tedious period of careful preparatory work. It began in 1989, when Dieter Reimers and his collaborators from the University of Hamburg (Germany) initiated a spectral survey of the entire southern sky with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The aim was to find bright quasars , a rare class of remote galaxies with unusually bright and energetic centres. They would then be studied in greater detail with other, larger telescopes. For this programme, a large objective prism is placed in front of the telescope, allowing the simultaneous recording on a large photographic plate of spectra of about 40,000 celestial objects in a 5 o x 5 o sky field. The plates are sent to Hamburg where they are scanned (digitized) in a microphotometer and automatically searched for spectra of quasars. Until now, more than 400 plates have been obtained. One of the main goals of this vast programme is to find bright and distant quasars, in particular those whose light reaches us along relatively unobstructed paths. Or

  7. The critical period of infant feeding for the development of early disparities in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem, particularly among minority infants and young children. Disparities in overweight prevalence persist and widen with age, highlighting the need to identify factors contributing to early excess weight gain. We review the behavioral, social and macro-environmental factors contributing to the development of obesogenic early feeding practices among African-American infants and young children. We then examine the sociodemographic, household factors, feeding beliefs and infant characteristics associated with age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids (inappropriate feeding) among mothers and infants participating the U.S. Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 low-income, first-time mothers and infants followed from 3 to 18 months of age. Maternal and infant anthropometry, infant diet, and maternal and household characteristics were collected at home visits at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. Mixed logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal and infant characteristics and inappropriate feeding. Rates of age-inappropriate feeding are high; over 75% of infants received solids or juice by 3 months of age. The odds of age-inappropriate feeding were higher among mothers who were single, depressed or believed that their infant is a “greedy” baby. Inappropriate feeding was associated with higher daily energy intake in infants (β = 109.28 calories, p = 0.01) and with increased odds of high infant weight-for-length (WFL; OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.01–3.01). Our findings suggest that age-inappropriate complementary feeding influences current energy intakes and infant WFL, factors that may increase long-term obesity risk by shaping infant appetite, food preferences, and metabolism. Given the intractability of pediatric obesity, understanding the role of early feeding in shaping long-term health disparities is critical for developing prevention strategies to stem

  8. Maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum periods and psychosocial risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peixia; Ren, Hui; Li, Hong; Dai, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Maternal depression has been intensively explored; however, less attention has been paid to maternal suicide. No studies to date have observed maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum stages. In total, 213 Chinese women were recruited in hospitals after they were admitted for childbirth. All completed a short-term longitudinal survey at perinatal stages. Women reported lower depression scores (6.65) and higher suicidal ideation incidence (11.74%) after childbirth. Prenatal depression raised the possibility of prenatal suicidal ideation, while prenatal depression and suicidal ideation increased postpartum depression and suicidal ideation. At immediate prenatal stage, marital satisfaction protected women from depression, while miscarriage experiences and self-esteem increased the risk. At early postpartum stage, in contrast, being first-time mother, marital satisfaction, and harmony with mother-in-law prevented them from depression. Our study is among the first to confirm that women have decreased depression but increased suicidal ideation at early postpartum, and a causal relationship between them, which are worthy of public attention. Potential protective (marital satisfaction, being first-time mother, and harmony with mother-in-law) or risk factors (miscarriage experiences and self-esteem) of maternal depression and suicidal ideation are identified at perinatal stages. This offers reliable guidance for clinical practice of health care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  10. Formation of the Periotic Space During the Early Fetal Period in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Aoi; Ohtsuki, Sae; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2018-04-01

    The inner ear is a very complicated structure, composed of a bony labyrinth (otic capsule; OC), membranous labyrinth, with a space between them, named the periotic labyrinth or periotic space. We investigated how periotic tissue fluid spaces covered the membranous labyrinth three-dimensionally, leading to formation of the periotic labyrinth encapsulated in the OC during human fetal development. Digital data sets from magnetic resonance images and phase-contrast X-ray tomography images of 24 inner ear organs from 24 human fetuses from the Kyoto Collection (fetuses in trimesters 1 and 2; crown-rump length: 14.4-197 mm) were analyzed. The membranous labyrinth was morphologically differentiated in samples at the end of the embryonic period (Carnegie stage 23), and had grown linearly to more than eight times in size during the observation period. The periotic space was first detected at the 35-mm samples, around the vestibule and basal turn of the cochlea, which elongated rapidly to the tip of the cochlea and semicircular ducts, successively, and almost covered the membranous labyrinth at the 115-mm CRL stage or later. In those samples, several ossification centers were detected around the space. This article thus demonstrated that formation of the membranous labyrinth, periotic space (labyrinth), and ossification of the OC occurs successively, according to an intricate timetable. Anat Rec, 301:563-570, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Is flow cytometric evaluation of DNA degradation a reliable method to investigate the early postmortem period?

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, N R; Costantinides, F; Bernasconi, P; Bottin, C; Melato, M

    1998-03-01

    The time of death can be established by determining the length of the postmortem interval. Many methods have been proposed to achieve this goal. Flow cytometric evaluation of DNA degradation seems to be reliable for the first 72 hours after death. Our study evaluated the correspondence of the corruption process between in vitro and corpse tissues. We chose spleen tissue to perform our investigation because it is rich in nucleated cells. Results showed a precise correspondence between the two kinds of samples in the time period between 24 and 36 hours. The period from 36 to 72 hours is characterized by a much looser correspondence than that found in the first period. After the first 72 hours, DNA denaturation is massive and does not allow useful cytofluorimetric readings. The spleen does not seem to be the most suitable organ for this type of investigation because it tends to colliquate very rapidly. We therefore are evaluating other organs to identify a more suitable tissue source for the investigation of longer postmortem period using flow cytometry.

  12. Estimation of abbreviated mycophenolic acid area under the concentration-time curve during early posttransplant period by limited sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, A-H; Nazemian, F; Abtahi, B; Naghibi, M; Gholami, K; Rezaee, S; Nazari, M-R A; Rajabi, O

    2008-12-01

    Area under the concentration curve (AUC) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) could help to optimize therapeutic drug monitoring during the early post-renal transplant period. The aim of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate an abbreviated MPA AUC within the first month after renal transplantation. In this study we selected 19 patients in the early posttransplant period with normal renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate > 70 mL/min). Plasma MPA concentrations were measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MPA AUC(0-12h) was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the minimal and convenient time points of MPA levels that could be used to derive model equations best fitted to MPA AUC(0-12h). The regression equation for AUC estimation that gave the best performance was AUC = 14.46 C(10) + 15.547 (r(2) = .882). The validation of the method was performed using the jackknife method. Mean prediction error of this model was not different from zero (P > .05) and had a high root mean square prediction error (8.06). In conclusion, this limited sampling strategy provided an effective approach for therapeutic drug monitoring during the early posttransplant period.

  13. Early-onset neonatal sepsis is associated with a high heart rate during automatically selected stationary periods.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga; Vandenbroucke, Laurent; Hernández, Alfredo; Pham, Tu; Beuchée, Alain; Pladys, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the heart rate variability characteristics associated with early-onset neonatal sepsis in a prospective, observational controlled study. Eligible patients were full-term neonates hospitalised with clinical signs that suggested early-onset sepsis and a C-reactive protein of >10 mg/L. Sepsis was considered proven in cases of symptomatic septicaemia, meningitis, pneumonia or enterocolitis. Heart rate variability parameters (n = 16) were assessed from five-, 15- and 30-minute stationary sequences automatically selected from electrocardiographic recordings performed at admission and compared with a control group using the U-test with post hoc Benjamini-Yekutieli correction. Stationary sequences corresponded to the periods with the lowest changes of heart rate variability over time. A total of 40 full-term infants were enrolled, including 14 with proven sepsis. The mean duration of the cardiac cycle length was lower in the proven sepsis group than in the control group (n = 11), without other significant changes in heart rate variability parameters. These durations, measured in five-minute stationary periods, were 406 (367-433) ms in proven sepsis group versus 507 (463-522) ms in the control group (p < 0.05). Early-onset neonatal sepsis was associated with a high mean heart rate measured during automatically selected stationary periods. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. First look at a major transition period in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    In recent years astronomers have successfully `looked back' towards this period, but the new observations of HE 2347-4342 have now homed in on an important transitionary epoch during the evolution of the young Universe. Searching for clear views towards bright quasars As has been the case for many other important scientific achievements, this observational breakthrough was preceded by a long and tedious period of careful preparatory work. It began in 1989, when Dieter Reimers and his collaborators from the University of Hamburg (Germany) initiated a spectral survey of the entire southern sky with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The aim was to find bright quasars, a rare class of remote galaxies with unusually bright and energetic centres. They would then be studied in greater detail with other, larger telescopes. For this programme, a large objective prism is placed in front of the telescope, allowing the simultaneous recording on a large photographic plate of spectra of about 40,000 celestial objects in a 5o x 5o sky field. The plates are sent to Hamburg where they are scanned (digitized) in a microphotometer and automatically searched for spectra of quasars. Until now, more than 400 plates have been obtained. One of the main goals of this vast programme is to find bright and distant quasars, in particular those whose light reaches us along relatively unobstructed paths. Or, in other words, those intrinsically bright and remote quasars which are located in directions where the Universe is unusually transparent for ultraviolet light. With a 'clear view' thus ensured, it would subsequently be possible to study such far-away objects and the intergalactic gas out there in unprecedented detail with large telescopes. The greater the distance, the longer has the light been underway, the longer is the 'look-back' time and the earlier is the epoch about which we then obtain new information. Discovery of a unique quasar Altogether, more than 650 bright

  15. Evaluation of hyperketonemia risk period and screening protocols for early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, A; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the onset of hyperketonemia, the number of positive hyperketonemia test results, and the duration of the longest hyperketonemic period during the first 42 d in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Furthermore, we set out to evaluate test characteristics of single and repeated measurements of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) during this period to diagnose hyperketonemia. Using an electronic handheld meter, 252 cows from 3 farms were tested twice weekly for hyperketonemia (blood BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L) during the first 42 DIM, resulting in 12 test results per cow (i.e., in lactation wk 0.5 to 6). Prevalence and incidence of hyperketonemia were calculated for the 12 examination days and the 42-d period, respectively. Test characteristics for the diagnosis of hyperketonemia were calculated for 4 different testing scenarios (testing all cows 1, 2, 3, or 6 times during the first 42 DIM) and 2 different gold-standard definitions (BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L at least once during the observation period or BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L at least twice during the observation period). Mean prevalence of hyperketonemia was 11.8%, ranging from 9.6% in lactation wk 0.5 and 2.0 to 14.6% in lactation wk 5.5. In total, 134 cows (53.2%) had at least 1 positive hyperketonemia test result during the whole 42-d period. Of these cows, 46.3% had only 1 positive result. The median first positive hyperketonemia test result was in lactation wk 2.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.0-3.5]. Median frequency of positive test results in cows affected by hyperketonemia was 2 positive test results (IQR 1-3). Median duration of the longest hyperketonemic period per cow affected was 1 examination interval (3-4 d; IQR 1-2). Considering a minimum of 1 positive hyperketonemia test result during the first 42 DIM as the gold standard, sensitivity of a single BHBA measurement during this period to diagnose hyperketonemia was 21%. A weekly testing protocol had a sensitivity of 72%. Specificity was 100

  16. [Recent advances of monitoring and glycaemia control during early postoperative period in patients after pancreas surgery].

    PubMed

    Lishova, E A; Nikoda, V V; Bondarenko, A V; Ragozin, A K; Skipenko, O G

    2013-01-01

    Recently new technologies of diagnostics and correction of carbohydrates metabolism disturbances are introduced in the ICU to improve the safety for patients during intensive care. 33 patients after pancreas surgery were included into the study 13 patients (39%) had underlying diabetes mellitus. Glucose level changes in the interstitial liquid of the subcutaneous fat during postoperative period were monitored by system of CGM Medtronic MiniMed Guardian RT, MiniMed Paradigm Real-time. Valid values of glucose were from 4.1 to 10.1 mmol/L. Episodes of glucose level increasing occurred in 94% of patients in postoperative period after pancreas surgery. Average level of glucose was within the limits of valid values. However in 64% of cases patients needed insulin therapy Used systems of continuous glucose monitoring in the ICU allow improving the safety for patients receiving artificial nutrition and intravenous insulin therapy.

  17. Risk of Porphyromonas gingivalis recolonization during the early period of periodontal maintenance in initially severe periodontitis sites.

    PubMed

    Fujise, Osamu; Miura, Mayumi; Hamachi, Takafumi; Maeda, Katsumasa

    2006-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a critical pathogen of periodontal diseases including recurrent periodontitis. The profound effects of active periodontal treatment (APT) on P. gingivalis elimination were previously demonstrated and revealed that the subsequent P. gingivalis-free or -suppressed status seems to be maintained during early periodontal maintenance (PMT). The aim of the present study was to show the occurrence of microbial recolonization during this early PMT period. In total, 128 sites from 11 generalized chronic periodontitis patients and one generalized aggressive periodontitis patient underwent clinical and microbiologic examination at baseline (Exam-I), after APT (Exam-II), and in PMT (Exam-III). Exam-III was carried out an average of 4.5 +/- 3.5 months after Exam-II. Detection and quantification of putative pathogens were performed using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The PMT used was effective in maintaining the clinical conditions improved by APT. However, in microbiological examinations, Exam-III showed higher detection frequency and levels of P. gingivalis than Exam-II. This suggests that a P. gingivalis recolonization started in the early PMT period. P. gingivalis-increased sites then showed significantly more severe signs of periodontitis in Exam-I than P. gingivalis-stable sites (bleeding on probing frequency: 76.7% versus 56.5%; suppuration frequency: 41.9% versus 12.9%). On the other hand, in Exam-II, no significant differences of clinical parameters were noted between P. gingivalis-increased and -stable sites. Severe periodontitis sites before APT seemed to place them at risk of P. gingivalis recolonization in the early PMT period, and this microbial restoration could be a cause of recurrent periodontitis.

  18. Isolated post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the breast and axilla as peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Young; Cha, Eun Suk; Lee, Jee Eun; Sung, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that represent serious complications following immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ or hematopoietic-cell recipients. In contrast to B-cell PTLD, T-cell PTLD is less frequent and is not usually associated with Epstein Barr Virus infection. Moreover, to our knowledge, isolated T-cell PTLD involving the breast is extremely rare and this condition has never been reported previously in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of isolated T-cell PTLD of the breast that occurred after a patient had been treated for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation due to acute myeloblastic leukemia.

  19. Mitral restenosis in the early postoperative period of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, P M; Corrêa, J D; Brandão, C M; de Assis, R V; Jatene, A D

    1999-04-01

    A forty-eight year old woman, who had undergone mitral comissurotomy and subsequently developed early restenosis, presented with major comissural fusion and verrucous lesions on the cuspid edges of the mitral valve, with normal subvalvar apparatus. Patient did well for the first six months after surgery when she began to present dyspnea on light exertion. A clinical diagnosis of restenosis was made, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. She underwent surgery, and a stenotic mitral valve with verrucous lesions suggesting Libman-Sacks' endocarditis was found. Because the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had not been confirmed at that time, a bovine pericardium bioprosthesis (FISICS-INCOR) was implanted. The patient did well in the late follow-up and is now in NYHA Class I.

  20. [Laboratory evaluation of endogenous intoxication in patients with stomach cancer during early postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, A N; Evtushenko, V A

    2004-01-01

    The total and effective concentrations of albumin, albumin-binding reserve in blood and toxicity index were determined in 25 patients with gastric cancer pre- and postoperatively as well as in 30 minutes and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 after surgery. The albumin concentration was shown to be decreasing postoperatively with its effective concentration tresspassing the norm values. As for the albumin-binding reserve, it was found to be decreased by 20-30% during the whole follow-up. The studied parameters ensure an effective monitoring of the postoperative period with their significance being more important in a worsening condition of patients.

  1. Anterior Crossbite Correction in Early Mixed Dentition Period Using Catlan's Appliance: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Prashanth; Durgesh, B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Single tooth anterior dental crossbite is the commonly encountered malocclusion during the development of occlusion in children. Various treatment options such as removable and fixed appliances have been suggested by different authors in the past literature. This paper presents two cases of anterior crossbite corrected using the standard Catlan's appliance (Lower Inclined Bite Plane) in a short period of three weeks without any damage to the tooth or the periodontium. This fixed appliance is a simple and traditional method which does not depend on patient cooperation to reverse the bite. PMID:21991464

  2. Effect of bed exercises and gum chewing on abdominal sounds, flatulence and early discharge in the early period after caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Semra Akköz; Başer, Mürüvvet

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bed exercises and gum chewing on abdominal sounds, flatulence and early discharge on women who have given birth at the Cengiz Gökçek Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital surgery services in Gaziantep city centre. Caesarean operation is the most significant surgical intervention that affects central nervous system and decelerates bowel movements in the postoperative period. Conducted studies show that practices such as gum chewing ensure that bowel functions start in a short time through early feeding and mobilisation and shorten the duration of hospital stay. A randomised controlled experimental was used. A total of 120 women participated in the study in three groups of 40 for gum, exercise and control groups. Gum was given to the groups in the gum section two hours after the ceasarean, the women chewed gum for the first eight hours until flatulence for 15 minutes every two hours. However, the women in the exercise group started moving two hours after the caesarean for the first eight hours until flatulence for five minutes every two hours. The control group consisted of women under routine treatment and care of the hospital. All women were hourly evaluated in terms of abdominal sounds, flatulence and defaecation. It was determined that following caesarean, bowel functions started in three groups at the same time, there was no significant difference between three groups. It was determined that the gum group, exercise group and the control group were discharged earlier, there was no significant difference between three groups The study results show that spinal anaesthesia have positive effects on discharge time after caesarean section operation. This study provides useful information to clinician and researchers when determining practices such as postoperative standing up in early period, gum chewing and early liquid intake related to postoperative bowel functions after abdominal operations. © 2016 John

  3. Growth in early life and the development of obesity by age 9 years: are there critical periods and a role for an early life stressor?

    PubMed

    Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Rumbold, A R; Davies, C E; de Stavola, B; Pitcher, J B; Davies, M J; Moore, V M

    2013-04-01

    Rapid growth, possibly occurring in critical periods in early life, may be important for the development of obesity. It is unknown whether this is influenced by postnatal exposures such as age-relevant sources of stress. Frequent house moves may be one such stressor. We aimed to examine if there is a period of growth in early life critical for the development of child obesity by age 9 years and assess the role of house moves in modifying any relationships between early life growth and obesity at age 9 years. Prospective Australian birth cohort study. In all, 392 children with serial body size measurements from birth to age 9 years. Standardized body mass index (z-BMI) was available for six time points (spanning birth to 3½ years), and the total number of house moves between birth and 3½ years. The outcomes considered were z-BMI and % body fat (%BF) at age 9 years. Linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of serial measurements of z-BMI and number of house moves on the outcomes. Life-course plots showed that z-BMI at 3½ years was a statistically significant predictor of z-BMI at 9 years (β=0.80; standard error (s.e.), 0.04), whereas z-BMI at 9 months (β=-1.13; s.e., 0.40) and 3½ years (β=4.82; s.e., 0.42) were significant predictors of %BF at age 9 years. There were statistically significant interactions between the number of house moves and change in z-BMI between 9 and 12 months, such that ≥ 3 house moves in early life amplified the detrimental effects of earlier rapid growth on both body size and composition at age 9 years. In the absence of evidence for a single critical period, efforts to prevent overweight and obesity are required throughout childhood. In addition, modifiable postnatal stressors may exacerbate effects of early growth on obesity in later childhood.

  4. Early-life factors affect risk of pain and fever in infants during teething periods.

    PubMed

    Un Lam, Carolina; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen; Yee, Robert; Koh, David; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Cai, Meijin; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-11-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of teething-related pain and fever and the early-life factors that may affect the risk of experiencing these disturbances within the first 1.5 years of life. Participants were recruited (n = 1033) through the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort (n = 1237). Interviews were performed tri-monthly regarding the prevalence of teething pain and fever in children from 6 to 18 months of age. Crude and multivariable analyses were conducted using Poisson-log regression models. Prevalence rates for teething pain and fever were 35.5 and 49.9 % respectively. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis showed maternal second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure to increase the risk of both pain (mean ratio = 1.35; p = 0.006) and fever (mean ratio = 1.22; p = 0.025), whereas SHS exposure plus active smoking further increased risk of teething pain in the children (mean ratio = 1.89; p = 0.029). Delivery via Caesarean section increased risk of teething pain (mean ratio = 1.27; p = 0.033), while prenatal plasma vitamin D insufficiency lowered such a risk (mean ratio = 0.62; p = 0.012). Compared to Chinese infants, Indian babies exhibited lower risk of teething pain and fever (both p ≤ 0.001). Early-life factors such as tobacco smoke exposure and vitamin insufficiency during pregnancy, ethnicity and childbirth via Caesarean section may significantly affect the child's susceptibility to teething-related pain and fever. Knowledge of prevalence and risk factors of teething disturbances may better equip primary caregivers and healthcare professionals to accurately detect teething-related local and/or systemic signs/symptoms and effectively facilitate tobacco cessation among pregnant women.

  5. Paracetamol/acetaminophen (single administration) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Chou, Doris; Abalos, Edgardo; Gyte, Gillian M L; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2013-01-31

    Perineal pain is a common but poorly studied adverse outcome following childbirth. Pain may result from perineal trauma due to bruising, spontaneous tears, surgical incisions (episiotomies), or in association with operative births (ventouse or forceps assisted births). To determine the efficacy of a single administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) systemic drugs used in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain We updated the search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register on 6 November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a single dose compared with placebo for women with early postpartum perineal pain. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Two review authors assessed each paper for inclusion and extracted data. One review author reviewed the decisions and confirmed calculations for pain relief scores. We did not identify any new trials from the updated search so the results remain unchanged as follows.We have included 10 studies describing two dosages of paracetamol. Of these, five studies (526 women) assessed 500 mg to 650 mg and six studies (841 women) assessed 1000 mg of paracetamol. We chose to use random-effects meta-analyses because of the heterogeneity in dosage used. Studies were from the 1970s to the early 1990s, and there was insufficient information to assess the risk of bias adequately, hence the findings need to be interpreted within this context.More women experienced pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (average risk ratio (RR) 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59 to 2.89, 10 studies, 1279 women). In addition, there were significantly fewer women having additional pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, eight studies, 1132 women). Both the 500 mg to 650 mg and 1000 mg doses were effective in providing more pain relief than placebo.Maternal and neonatal potential adverse drug effects were not assessed in

  6. Response of marine biota to a period of oceanic anoxia during the Toarcian (Early Jurassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, B. A.; Coe, A. L.; Cohen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE; 183 Ma) was associated with a species level extinction of marine fauna and a crisis in the marine phytoplankton. The event lasted c. 250 ka and was characterised by a large, negative C-isotope excursion (CIE) of ~-7 per mil in marine organic matter, marine carbonates and fossilized wood. Geochemical evidence suggests that there was a contemporaneous increase in seawater temperature of 6-13° C that was accompanied by a large increase in the rate of global weathering. The present study documents changes in marine macrofauna in the early Toarcian at a high resolution and explores how species composition and biometric measurements are linked to geochemical changes. Reanalysis of the published palaeontological data for the Toarcian OAE suggests three apparent extinction horizons on a global and regional scale. The youngest of these horizons coincides exactly with the initial decrease in δ13C, and with the initial increases in sea surface temperature, continental weathering rates and seawater anoxia. New species range data were collected during this study from Toarcian sections in N Yorkshire, England. The results show distinct relationships with high resolution geochemical datasets (Cohen et al. 2007; Pearce et al. 2008). For example, there was an almost complete absence of fauna for 1750-12500 years immediately after each of the four abrupt shifts that make up the overall CIE. Only one bivalve species, Pseudomytiloides dubius, occurs in high abundance throughout the event, except within these discrete horizons. Increased epifaunal bivalve diversity and the reappearance of infauna indicate a brief return to relatively oxygenated conditions towards the end of the CIE. Biometric data were obtained for the two dominant bivalve species P. dubius and Bositra radiata from over 226 stratigraphic levels across the event. The data show that shell size is related to fluctuating seawater anoxia as recorded from Mo abundance and Mo

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Early-type EBs with intermediate orbital periods (Moe+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, M.; Di Stefano, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we select the NB~96000 systems in the OGLE-I catalog (Udalski et al. 2008AcA....58...89U) with mean magnitudes 16.0periods P=20-50 days (Graczyk et al. 2011, J/AcA/61/103). (2 data files).

  8. Early postpartum: a critical period in setting the path for breastfeeding success.

    PubMed

    Gross, Susan M; Resnik, Amy K; Nanda, Joy P; Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Augustyn, Marycatherine; Kelly, Linda; Paige, David M

    2011-12-01

    In the United States, most mothers who initiate breastfeeding will either stop or begin supplementing with formula before their infants are 3 months old. Routine breastfeeding education and support following hospital discharge are critical to breastfeeding success. The purpose of this article is to identify this critical period for supporting and reinforcing breastfeeding. We will use data from participants enrolled in the Maryland State Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). This cross-sectional study will explore whether breastfeeding patterns during the period between birth and postnatal WIC certification differ by participation in a local WIC agency that provides breastfeeding peer counselor support (PC) versus two comparison groups, the lactation consultant (LC) and standard care (SC) groups. During 2007, 33,582 infants were enrolled in the Maryland State WIC program. Infant breastfeeding status was categorized as exclusively breastfeeding, partially breastfeeding, or not breastfeeding. At certification, 30.4% of infants were breastfeeding, 25.3% had been breastfed but had stopped before certification in WIC, and 44.3% never breastfed. The breastfeeding initiation rate was higher for the PC group compared with the LC and SC groups (61.6% vs. 54.4% and 47.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Participants in the PC group were more likely to certify as exclusively and partially breastfeeding compared with the LC and SC groups (36.0% vs. 24.8% and 25.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). Our analysis identifies a window of opportunity during which targeted contact with breastfeeding mothers could enhance longer-term breastfeeding rates.

  9. Prediction of Late Postoperative Hemorrhage after Whipple Procedure Using Computed Tomography Performed During Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Han, Ga Jin; Kim, Suk; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Seo, Hyeong Il; Kim, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Un

    2018-01-01

    Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is an uncommon but serious complication of Whipple surgery. To evaluate the radiologic features associated with late PPH at the first postoperative follow up CT, before bleeding. To evaluate the radiological features associated with late PPH at the first follow-up CT, two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the initial postoperative follow-up CT images of 151 patients, who had undergone Whipple surgery. Twenty patients showed PPH due to vascular problem or anastomotic ulcer. The research compared CT and clinical findings of 20 patients with late PPH and 131 patients without late PPH, including presence of suggestive feature of pancreatic fistula (presence of air at fluid along pancreaticojejunostomy [PJ]), abscess (fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas), fluid along hepaticojejunostomy or PJ, the density of ascites, and the size of visible gastroduodenal artery (GDA) stump. CT findings including pancreatic fistula, abscess, and large GDA stump were associated with PPH on univariate analysis ( p ≤ 0.009). On multivariate analysis, radiological features suggestive of a pancreatic fistula, abscess, and a GDA stump > 4.45 mm were associated with PPH ( p ≤ 0.031). Early postoperative CT findings including GDA stump size larger than 4.45 mm, fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas, and air at fluid along PJ, could predict late PPH.

  10. [Usefulness of upper gastrointestinal series to detect leaks in the early postoperative period of bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Medina, Francisco J; Miranda-Merchak, Andrés; Martínez, Alonso; Sánchez, Felipe; Bravo, Sebastián; Contreras, Juan Eduardo; Alliende, Isabel; Canals, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative leaks are the most undesirable complication of bariatric surgery and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series are routinely ordered to rule them out. Despite the published literature recommending against its routine use, it is still being customarily used in Chile. To examine the usefulness of routine upper GI series using water-soluble iodinated contrast media for the detection of early postoperative leaks in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A cohort of 328 patients subjected to bariatric surgery was followed from October 2012 to October 2013. Most of them underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Upper GI series on the first postoperative day were ordered to 308 (94%) patients. Postoperative leaks were observed in two patients, with an incidence of 0.6%. The sensitivity for upper GI series detection of leak was 0% and the negative predictive value was 99%. Routine upper GI series after bariatric surgery is not useful for the diagnosis of postoperative leak, given the low incidence of this complication and the low sensitivity of the technique.

  11. Infants Born with Down Syndrome: Burden of Disease in the Early Neonatal Period.

    PubMed

    Martin, Therese; Smith, Aisling; Breatnach, Colm R; Kent, Etaoin; Shanahan, Ita; Boyle, Michael; Levy, Phillip T; Franklin, Orla; El-Khuffash, Afif

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence of direct admission of infants with Down syndrome to the postnatal ward (well newborn nursery) vs the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and to describe the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH). This retrospective cohort study of Down syndrome used the maternal/infant database (2011-2016) at the Rotunda Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Admission location, early neonatal morbidities, outcomes, and duration of stay were evaluated and regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality. Of the 121 infants with Down syndrome, 54 (45%) were initially admitted to the postnatal ward, but 38 (70%) were later admitted to the NICU. Low oxygen saturation profile was the most common cause for the initial and subsequent admission to the NICU. Sixty-six percent of the infants (80/121) had CHD, 34% (41/121) had PH, and 6% died. Risk factors independently associated with primary NICU admission included antenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome, presence of CHD, PH, and the need for ventilation. Infants with Down syndrome initially admitted to the postnatal ward have a high likelihood of requiring NICU admission. Overall, high rates of neonatal morbidity were noted, including rates of PH that were higher than previously reported. Proper screening of all infants with Down syndrome for CHD and PH is recommended to facilitate timely diagnoses and potentially shorten the duration of the hospital stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The suppressive effect of immune stress on LH secretion is absent in the early neonatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-11-01

    Some physiological functions display weak responses to stress in the early neonatal period; i.e., they exhibit stress hyporesponse periods. In this study, we evaluated whether gonadotropin regulatory factors exhibit stress hyporesponsive periods in male and female rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (100μg/kg) (LPS group) or saline (control group) on postnatal day (PND) 5, 10, 15, or 25. Then, their serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hypothalamic mRNA levels of gonadotropin regulatory factors; i.e., kisspeptin (Kiss1), the kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), were measured at 2h after the injection. The hypothalamic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured because they suppress gonadotropin secretion. The serum LH concentration of the LPS group was lower than that of the control group at PND25 in both sexes, but no such difference was seen at PND5, 10, or 15 in either sex. In both sexes, the hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression levels of the LPS group were higher than those of the control group at PND25, but not at PND5 or 10. The hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA expression level of the LPS group was higher than that of the control group at all time points. The hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r, and GnRH mRNA expression levels of the LPS and control groups did not differ at any time point in either sex. These findings suggest that gonadotropin regulatory factors exhibit stress hyporesponse periods. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) might become responsive to immune stress between PND15 and 25, which could be related to enhanced hypothalamic cytokine expression. The avoidance of infectious stress during the early neonatal period might be important for normal development of the HPG axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of pre- or intraoperational use of tramadol (preemptive or preventive analgesia) on tramadol requirement in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Wordliczek, Jerzy; Banach, Marcin; Garlicki, Jarosław; Jakowicka-Wordliczek, Joanna; Dobrogowski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of iv tramadol on opioid requirement in the early postoperative period. The subjects were 90 patients scheduled for colon surgery (hemicolectomy) who received general anesthesia using the (N2O/O2) isoflurane technique. Thirty patients (group I) were administered 100 mg of tramadol iv before induction of general anesthesia (preemptive analgesia). Group II (30 patients) was administered 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after peritoneal closure (preventive analgesia) and control group (30 patients) received 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after operation. Following the operation, all patients were administered tramadol in the PCA-iv mode in order to treat postoperative pain. In the postoperative period, the following parameters were measured: pain intensity (using VAS), total consumption of tramadol, time until the first PCA activation, and frequency of side effects (drowsiness, nausea, vomiting). In patients of groups I and II who had received preemptive or preventive analgesia, a significantly lower total consumption of tramadol, as compared with control group, was observed in the early postoperative period. However, the time until the first PCA activation was significantly shorter in group I as compared to the other two groups. No significant differences between the groups were found regarding pain intensity and frequency of side effects.

  14. The Preboreal-like Asian monsoon climate in the early last interglacial period recorded from the Dark Cave, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiuyang; He, Yaoqi; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoshuang; Hong, Hui; Liu, Juan; Yu, Tsai-Luen; Li, Zhizhong; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2017-08-01

    Transitions of glacial-interglacial cycles are critical periods for Quaternary climate shifts. Here, we present new, decadal resolution Asian summer monsoon (ASM) record from three stalagmites obtained from the Dark Cave in southwestern China over 130-114 thousand years ago (ka, before CE 1950). Chronology was anchored by 28 230Th dates with typical uncertainties of ±0.3-1.0 kyr, allowing an assessment of timing and transition of climate changes during the onset and end of the last interglacial. An agreement between this new and previous stalagmite δ18O records supports that summer insolation predominates orbital-scale ASM evolution. A 2-3 kyr-long gradually increasing ASM period, analogous to the classical Preboreal episode in the early Holocene, follows the termination of a weak monsoon interval at 129.0 ± 0.8 ka. This finding suggests a strong influence of high-latitude ice-sheet dynamics on Asian monsoonal conditions during the early interglacial period. An abrupt end of the marine isotope stage 5e at 118.8 ± 0.6 ka was probably caused by the internal climate system threshold effects.

  15. Late Archaic–Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins. PMID:27849582

  16. Late Archaic-Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2016-11-29

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins.

  17. Worsened MRI findings during the early period of treatment with penicillin in a patient with general paresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, She-Qing; Wan, Bo; Ma, Xiao-Long; Zheng, Hui-Min

    2008-10-01

    A 52-year-old man was diagnosed with general paresis, whose HIV antibodies were negative. After initiation of treatment with penicillin on the first day, no obvious clinical Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction was found. However, 6 days after treatment, the patient was found more irritable and was unable to fall asleep at night. On the seventh day, worsened magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in the bilateral medial and anterior temporal lobes were unexpectedly discovered. These worsened MRI abnormalities improved quickly after the addition of dexamethasone treatment. We consider that these transient and slight mental symptoms may be associated with the transiently worsening phenomenon in cerebral MRI findings during the early period of treatment with penicillin. This indicates that some nonspecific inflammatory process has happened in the early stage of treatment, which necessitates the use of corticosteroids after the occurrence of systemic or mental symptoms.

  18. Development and morphogenesis of human wrist joint during embryonic and early fetal period

    PubMed Central

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Álvarez, Pablo; Prados, José C; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Aránega, Antonia; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mérida-Velasco, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    The development of the human wrist joint has been studied widely, with the main focus on carpal chondrogenesis, ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage. However, there are some discrepancies concerning the origin and morphogenetic time-table of these structures, including nerves, muscles and vascular elements. For this study we used serial sections of 57 human embryonic (n = 30) and fetal (n = 27) specimens from O’Rahilly stages 17–23 and 9–14 weeks, respectively. The following phases in carpal morphogenesis have been established: undifferentiated mesenchyme (stage 17), condensated mesenchyme (stages 18 and 19), pre-chondrogenic (stages 19 and 20) and chondrogenic (stages 21 and over). Carpal chondrification and osteogenic processes are similar, starting with capitate and hamate (stage 19) and ending with pisiform (stage 22). In week 14, a vascular bud penetrates into the lunate cartilaginous mold, early sign of the osteogenic process that will be completed after birth. In stage 18, median, ulnar and radial nerves and thenar eminence appear in the hand plate. In stage 21, there are indications of the interosseous muscles, and in stage 22 flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus and lumbrical muscles, transverse carpal ligament and collateral ligaments emerge. In stage 23, the articular disc, radiocarpal and ulnocarpal ligaments and deep palmar arterial arch become visible. Radiate carpal and interosseous ligaments appear in week 9, and in week 10, dorsal radiocarpal ligament and articular capsule are evident. Finally, synovial membrane is observed in week 13. We have performed a complete analysis of the morphogenesis of the structures of the human wrist joint. Our results present new data on nervous and arterial elements and provide the basis for further investigations on anatomical pathology, comparative morphology and evolutionary anthropology. PMID:22428933

  19. Predictors of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in the Early Postpartum Period in Patients with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeru; Shinagawa, Takaaki; Horinouchi, Takashi; Kozuma, Yutaka; Yonemoto, Koji; Hori, Daizo; Ushijima, Kimio

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical predictors of abnormal glucose tolerance 5-7 weeks after delivery. Subjects were 155 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between October 2005 and September 2013 whose pregnancy and delivery were managed at our center. Subjects were divided into a normal glucose tolerance group (NGT; n = 113), or abnormal glucose tolerance group (AGT; n = 42) with borderline or overt diabetes mellitus, based on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75 gOGTT) results 5-7 weeks after delivery. We extracted profiles by which abnormal glucose tolerance levels 5-7 weeks after delivery were predicted using a classification and regression tree (CART) from parameters measured at the time of GDM diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine prediction accuracy. Subjects with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥92 mg/dL and immuno-reactive insulin level <100 μU/mL 60 min after load (IRI60min) at time of diagnosis showed a significantly higher risk of developing abnormal glucose tolerance 5-7 weeks after delivery than subjects with FPG <92 mg/dL (p < 0.0001). Subjects with FPG ≥92 mg/dL and IRI60min ≥ 100 μU/mL had the same risk as those with FPG of <92 mg/dL. Patients with gestational diabetes who met the criteria specified above at diagnosis were at a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the future. By explaining this issue to patients, we expect to improve the rate of postpartum follow-up. This should facilitate early detection of diabetes, and help prevent associated complications.

  20. Comparison of early period results of blood use in open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Huseyin, Serhat; Yuksel, Volkan; Guclu, Orkut; Turan, Fatma Nesrin; Canbaz, Suat; Ege, Turan; Sunar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Various adverse effects of homologous blood transfusion detected particularly in open heart surgery, in which it is frequently used, lead researchers to study on autologous blood use and to evaluate the patient's blood better. Due to the complications of homologous blood transfusion, development of techniques that utilize less transfusion has become inevitable. We aimed to evaluate the effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in patients undergoing open heart surgery. In this study, 120 patients who underwent open heart surgery were included. Patients were grouped into three: Autologous transfusion group (Group 1), homologous transfusion group (Group 2), and those received autologous blood and homologous blood products (Group 3). Patient data regarding preoperative characteristics, biochemical parameters, drainage, extubation time, duration of stay at intensive care, atrial fibrillation (AF) development, and hospital stay were recorded. A statistically significant difference ( P < 0.005) was found in favor of autologous group (Group 1) with respect to gender, body surface area, European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, smoking, hematocrit levels, platelet counts, urea, C-reactive protein levels, protamine use, postoperative drainage, frequency of AF development, intubation period, stay at intensive care and hospital stay, and amount of used blood products. The use of autologous blood rather than homologous transfusion is not only attenuates side effects and complications of transfusion but also positively affects postoperative recovery process. Therefore, ANH can be considered as an easy, effective, and cheap technique during open heart surgery.

  1. Einstein-Home search for periodic gravitational waves in early S5 LIGO data

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.

    This paper reports on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from sources such as deformed isolated rapidly spinning neutron stars. The analysis uses 840 hours of data from 66 days of the fifth LIGO science run (S5). The data were searched for quasimonochromatic waves with frequencies f in the range from 50 to 1500 Hz, with a linear frequency drift f (measured at the solar system barycenter) in the range -f/{tau}

  2. Sexual behavior of Pecari tajacu (Cetartiodactyla: Tayassuidae) during periovulatory and early gestation periods.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Oba, Eunice; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; Mayor, Pedro; de Araujo Guimarães, Diva Anelie

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the sexual behavior in female and male collared peccary. Twenty females and twelve males were monitored in familiar and non-familiar units for two 60 days periods. During both phases, we recorded 2747 sexual interactions initiated by 20 different females toward males and 4461 sexual interactions initiated by 12 males toward females. The frequency of sexual interactions initiated per female significantly increased from proestrus to estrus, and they were significantly more frequently courted. Females initiated olfactory inspections 15.42 times more and were mounted 22.6 times more during estrus than during proestrus. Nulliparous and primiparous females copulated only when exposed to non-parental males. After estrus, the frequency of sexual interactions received by females sharply decreased. One mating event was recorded during the first gestation week and 31 mountings were observed after the second week. In conclusion, the behavioral monitoring is a useful procedure for the recognition of estrus. Our results suggest that ovulation may be associated with the end of the estrus, which will support future work in assisted reproduction in this species. To promote good handling practices, females of reproductive age should be removed from their family unit of origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracing sexual identities in "old age": gender and seniority in advice literature of the early-modern and modern periods.

    PubMed

    van Tilburg, Marja

    2009-10-01

    Thus far, historians have interpreted representations of elderly women with reference to women's roles or to women's positions in society. This article proposes a different approach toward gender: to relate representations of the aged to the sexual identities of both men and women. This article analyzes representations of old age in conduct books of the early-modern period and the nineteenth century. By drawing a comparison, the eighteenth-century change of "identity regime" in European culture is brought to the fore. The article points to the influence of sexual identities on the representations of senior persons in advice literature both in Dutch and translated into Dutch.

  4. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem, E-mail: ucaradem@yahoo.com; Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: aghakishi@yahoo.com; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: drhuseyin@yahoo.com

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  5. [The complex approach to the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients with movement disorders in the early rehabilitation period].

    PubMed

    Khabirov, F A; Khaĭbullin, T I; Grigor'eva, O V

    2011-01-01

    We studied 110 patients, aged 34-71 years, in the early rehabilitation period after stroke who were admitted to a rehabilitation neurologic department of Kazan. The rehabilitation approach was based on the combination of several methods: kinesitherapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and cerebrolysin treatment. This complex reanimation allowed to achieve the marked functional restoration of movement abilities in many cases that was correlated with the normalization of brain bioelectric activity (the increase of alpha-rhythm spectral power, the decrease of slow-wave EEG components). The combined use of these three methods was more effective than a combination of any two of them.

  6. State Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment guidelines: adherence to professionally recommended best oral health practices.

    PubMed

    Hom, Jacqueline M; Lee, Jessica Y; Silverman, Janice; Casamassimo, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    The authors evaluated the adherence of state Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) guidelines to recommended best oral health practices for infants and toddlers. The authors obtained state EPSDT guidelines via the Internet or from the Medicaid-CHIP State Dental Association, Washington. They identified best oral health practices through the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), Chicago. They evaluated each EPSDT dental periodicity schedule with regard to the timing and content of seven key oral health domains. Thirty-two states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) had EPSDT dental periodicity schedules. With the exception of the dentist referral domain, 29 states (88 percent) adhered to the content and timing of best oral health practices, as established by the AAPD guideline. For the dentist referral domain, 31 of the 32 states and D.C. (94 percent) required referral of children to a dentist, but only 11 states (33 percent) adhered to best oral health practices by requiring referral by age 1 year. With the exception of the timing of the first dentist referral, there was high adherence to best oral health practices for infants and toddlers among states with separate EPSDT dental periodicity schedules. States with low adherence to best oral health practices, especially regarding the dental visit by age 1 year, can strengthen the oral health content of their EPSDT schedules by complying with the AAPD recommendations.

  7. [Restoring of the speech functions in patients with aphasia in the early rehabilitation period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Kotov, S V; Belova, Yu A; Shcherbakova, M M; Chervinskaya, A D; Isakova, E V; Volchenkova, T V

    To study the efficacy of combined therapy including daily sessions and two 10-day injections of the drug cellex in patients with aphasia in the early rehabilitation period of ischemic stroke (II). Forty patients in the early rehabilitation period of II in the basin of the left middle cerebral artery with moderate to severe aphasia were studied. Twenty patients received combined therapy, including daily sessions with a speech therapist-aphasiologist within 10 days using the improved method, then a self-study using educational materials and two 10-day injections of cellex. Other 20 patients received only speech therapy. To assess the efficacy of therapy, the automated "Program of examination of patients with aphasia", Goodglass-Kaplan scale, modified Rankin scale were used. There was a significant improvement of speech functions, communicative abilities and functional recovery (p<0.01) in patients of both groups. However, a significantly greater level of rehabilitation (p<0.05) was noted in patients treated with combined therapy included two courses of cellex. The results allow to recommend the inclusion of cellex in the complex rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke speech disorders.

  8. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  9. Monkey primary somatosensory cortical activity during the early reaction time period differs with cues that guide movements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Denton, John M.; Nelson, Randall J.

    2009-01-01

    Vibration-related neurons in monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) discharge rhythmically when vibratory stimuli are presented. It remains unclear how functional information carried by vibratory inputs is coded in rhythmic neuronal activity. In the present study, we compared neuronal activity during wrist movements in response to two sets of cues. In the first, movements were guided by vibratory cue only (VIB trials). In the second, movements were guided by simultaneous presentation of both vibratory and visual cues (COM trials). SI neurons were recorded extracellularly during both wrist extensions and flexions. Neuronal activity during the instructed delay period (IDP) and the early reaction time period (RTP) were analyzed. A total of 96 cases from 48 neurons (each neuron contributed two cases, one each for extension and flexion) showed significant vibration entrainment during the early RTPs, as determined by circular statistics (Rayleigh test). Of these, 50 cases had cutaneous (CUTA) and 46 had deep (DEEP) receptive fields. The CUTA neurons showed lower firing rates during the IDPs and greater firing rate changes during the early RTPs when compared with the DEEP neurons. The CUTA neurons also demonstrated decreases in activity entrainment during VIB trials when compared with COM trials. For the DEEP neurons, the difference of entrainment between VIB and COM trials was not statistically significant. The results suggest that somatic vibratory input is coded by both the firing rate and the activity entrainment of the CUTA neurons in SI. The results also suggest that when vibratory inputs are required for successful task completion, the activity of the CUTA neurons increases but the entrainment degrades. The DEEP neurons may be tuned before movement initiation for processing information encoded by proprioceptive afferents. PMID:18288475

  10. Monkey primary somatosensory cortical activity during the early reaction time period differs with cues that guide movements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Denton, John M; Nelson, Randall J

    2008-05-01

    Vibration-related neurons in monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) discharge rhythmically when vibratory stimuli are presented. It remains unclear how functional information carried by vibratory inputs is coded in rhythmic neuronal activity. In the present study, we compared neuronal activity during wrist movements in response to two sets of cues. In the first, movements were guided by vibratory cue only (VIB trials). In the second, movements were guided by simultaneous presentation of both vibratory and visual cues (COM trials). SI neurons were recorded extracellularly during both wrist extensions and flexions. Neuronal activity during the instructed delay period (IDP) and the early reaction time period (RTP) were analyzed. A total of 96 cases from 48 neurons (each neuron contributed two cases, one each for extension and flexion) showed significant vibration entrainment during the early RTPs, as determined by circular statistics (Rayleigh test). Of these, 50 cases had cutaneous (CUTA) and 46 had deep (DEEP) receptive fields. The CUTA neurons showed lower firing rates during the IDPs and greater firing rate changes during the early RTPs when compared with the DEEP neurons. The CUTA neurons also demonstrated decreases in activity entrainment during VIB trials when compared with COM trials. For the DEEP neurons, the difference of entrainment between VIB and COM trials was not statistically significant. The results suggest that somatic vibratory input is coded by both the firing rate and the activity entrainment of the CUTA neurons in SI. The results also suggest that when vibratory inputs are required for successful task completion, the activity of the CUTA neurons increases but the entrainment degrades. The DEEP neurons may be tuned before movement initiation for processing information encoded by proprioceptive afferents.

  11. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003–2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998–2002. In addition, GPs’ retirement age was higher in 2003–2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. Methods In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. Results For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice within one year and the

  12. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods.

    PubMed

    Van Greuningen, Malou; Heiligers, Phil J M; Van der Velden, Lud F J

    2012-12-18

    The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003-2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998-2002. In addition, GPs' retirement age was higher in 2003-2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice within one year and the increasing retirement age are caused by a decrease in

  13. The 2013 Frank Stinchfield Award: Diagnosis of infection in the early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yi, Paul H; Cross, Michael B; Moric, Mario; Sporer, Scott M; Berger, Richard A; Della Valle, Craig J

    2014-02-01

    Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be difficult in the early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty (THA) because normal cues from the physical examination often are unreliable, and serological markers commonly used for diagnosis are elevated from the recent surgery. The purposes of this study were to determine the optimal cutoff values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count, and differential for diagnosing PJI in the early postoperative period after primary THA. We reviewed 6033 consecutive primary THAs and identified 73 patients (1.2%) who underwent reoperation for any reason within the first 6 weeks postoperatively. Thirty-six of these patients were infected according to modified Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Mean values for the diagnostic tests were compared between groups and receiver operating characteristic curves generated along with an area under the curve (AUC) to determine test performance and optimal cutoff values to diagnose infection. The best test for the diagnosis of PJI was the synovial fluid WBC count (AUC = 98%; optimal cutoff value 12,800 cells/μL) followed by the CRP (AUC = 93%; optimal cutoff value 93 mg/L), and synovial fluid differential (AUC = 91%; optimal cutoff value 89% PMN). The mean ESR (infected = 69 mm/hr, not infected = 46 mm/hr), CRP (infected = 192 mg/L, not infected = 30 mg/L), synovial fluid WBC count (infected = 84,954 cells/μL, not infected = 2391 cells/μL), and differential (infected = 91% polymorphonuclear cells [PMN], not infected = 63% PMN) all were significantly higher in the infected group. Optimal cutoff values for the diagnosis of PJI in the acute postoperative period were higher than those traditionally used for the diagnosis of chronic PJI. The serum CRP is an excellent screening test, whereas the synovial fluid WBC count is more specific.

  14. Period doubling cascades of limit cycles in cardiac action potential models as precursors to chaotic early Afterdepolarizations.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Philipp; Bulelzai, M A K; Erhardt, André H

    2017-04-04

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological voltage oscillations during the repolarization phase of cardiac action potentials (APs). EADs are caused by drugs, oxidative stress or ion channel disease, and they are considered as potential precursors to cardiac arrhythmias in recent attempts to redefine the cardiac drug safety paradigm. The irregular behaviour of EADs observed in experiments has been previously attributed to chaotic EAD dynamics under periodic pacing, made possible by a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the deterministic AP system of differential equations. In this article we demonstrate that a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential model is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the genesis of chaotic EADs. We rather argue that a cascade of period doubling (PD) bifurcations of limit cycles in the full AP system paves the way to chaotic EAD dynamics across a variety of models including a) periodically paced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes, b) periodically paced and non-active cardiomyocytes as well as c) unpaced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our bifurcation analysis reveals that chaotic EAD dynamics may coexist in a stable manner with fully regular AP dynamics, where only the initial conditions decide which type of dynamics is displayed. EADs are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias and hence are of relevance both from the viewpoint of drug cardiotoxicity testing and the treatment of cardiomyopathies. The model-independent association of chaotic EADs with period doubling cascades of limit cycles introduced in this article opens novel opportunities to study chaotic EADs by means of bifurcation control theory and inverse bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, our results may shed new light on the synchronization and propagation of chaotic EADs in homogeneous and heterogeneous multicellular and cardiac tissue preparations.

  15. T cell costimulation blockade promotes transplantation tolerance in combination with sirolimus and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for haploidentical transplantation in children with severe aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita Rani; Bhakuni, Prakash; Zaman, Shamsuz; Bansal, Satish; Bharadwaj, Priyanka; Bhargava, Sneh; Chakrabarti, Suparno

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a pilot study employing extended T cell costimulation blockade (COSBL) with Abatacept along with sirolimus and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in 10 patients (median age 12) with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Nine patients engrafted in the COSBL group, compared to all 10 patients (median 14 vs 13days) treated on PTCy protocols without abatacept (CONTROL group). The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 10.5% in the COSBL group compared to 50% in the CONTROL group (p=0.04). Chronic GVHD (12.5% vs 56%, p=0.02) and CMV reactivation (30% vs 80%, p=0.03) were also reduced in the COSBL group. T and NK cell subset analysis revealed higher CD56 bright CD16 - NK cells in the CONTROL group (p=0.004), but similar CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells in both groups at day+30. Tregs (CD4 + CD25 + CD127 dim/- FoxP3+) were markedly higher in the COSBL group at day+30 (8.4% vs 1.1%) and the trend was maintained through day+90 (p<0.01). The GVHD and Disease-free survival at one year in the COSBL group was 80% vs. 30% in the CONTROL group (p=0.05). Our preliminary findings suggest that COSBL in combination with PTCy and sirolimus might augment transplantation tolerance in children with SAA, probably due to synergistic effect on early recovery of Tregs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-orbital-period Prepolars Containing Early K-type Donor Stars. Bottleneck Accretion Mechanism in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems.

  18. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  19. Pelvic floor morphometry and function in women with and without puborectalis avulsion in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Marie-Pierre; Kruger, Jennifer; Wong, Vivien; Dumoulin, Chantale; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic floor muscles are subject to considerable stretching during vaginal birth. In 13-36% of women, stretching results in avulsion injury whereby the puborectalis muscle disconnects from its insertion points on the pubis bone. Until now, few studies have investigated the effect of this lesion on pelvic floor muscles in the early postpartum period. The primary aim of this study was to compare pelvic floor muscle morphometry and function in primiparous women with and without puborectalis avulsion in the early postpartum period. Our secondary objective was to compare the 2 groups for pelvic floor disorders and impact on quality of life. In all, 52 primiparous women diagnosed with (n = 22) or without (n = 30) puborectalis avulsion injury were assessed at 3 months postpartum. Pelvic floor muscle morphometry was evaluated with 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasound at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver. Different parameters were measured in the midsagittal and axial planes: bladder neck position, levator plate angle, anorectal angle, and levator hiatus dimensions. The dynamometric speculum was used to assess pelvic floor muscle function including: passive properties (passive forces and stiffness) during dynamic stretches, maximal strength, speed of contraction, and endurance. Pelvic floor disorder-related symptoms (eg, urinary incontinence, vaginal and bowel symptoms) and impact on quality of life were evaluated with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification was also assessed. In comparison to women without avulsion, women with avulsion presented an enlarged hiatus area at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver (P ≤ .013) and all other ultrasound parameters were found to be significantly altered during maximal contraction (P ≤ .014). They showed lower passive forces at maximal and 20-mm vaginal apertures as well as lower

  20. Effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation on development of visual area 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M; Harwerth, Ronald S; Smith, Earl L; Chino, Yuzo M

    2011-09-14

    Providing brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation reduces the depth of amblyopia. To gain insights into the neural basis of the beneficial effects of this treatment, the binocular and monocular response properties of neurons were quantitatively analyzed in visual area 2 (V2) of form-deprived macaque monkeys. Beginning at 3 weeks of age, infant monkeys were deprived of clear vision in one eye for 12 hours every day until 21 weeks of age. They received daily periods of unrestricted vision for 0, 1, 2, or 4 hours during the form-deprivation period. After behavioral testing to measure the depth of the resulting amblyopia, microelectrode-recording experiments were conducted in V2. The ocular dominance imbalance away from the affected eye was reduced in the experimental monkeys and was generally proportional to the reduction in the depth of amblyopia in individual monkeys. There were no interocular differences in the spatial properties of V2 neurons in any subject group. However, the binocular disparity sensitivity of V2 neurons was significantly higher and binocular suppression was lower in monkeys that had unrestricted vision. The decrease in ocular dominance imbalance in V2 was the neuronal change most closely associated with the observed reduction in the depth of amblyopia. The results suggest that the degree to which extrastriate neurons can maintain functional connections with the deprived eye (i.e., reducing undersampling for the affected eye) is the most significant factor associated with the beneficial effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision.

  1. Effects of Brief Daily Periods of Unrestricted Vision during Early Monocular Form Deprivation on Development of Visual Area 2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M.; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Smith, Earl L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Providing brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation reduces the depth of amblyopia. To gain insights into the neural basis of the beneficial effects of this treatment, the binocular and monocular response properties of neurons were quantitatively analyzed in visual area 2 (V2) of form-deprived macaque monkeys. Methods. Beginning at 3 weeks of age, infant monkeys were deprived of clear vision in one eye for 12 hours every day until 21 weeks of age. They received daily periods of unrestricted vision for 0, 1, 2, or 4 hours during the form-deprivation period. After behavioral testing to measure the depth of the resulting amblyopia, microelectrode-recording experiments were conducted in V2. Results. The ocular dominance imbalance away from the affected eye was reduced in the experimental monkeys and was generally proportional to the reduction in the depth of amblyopia in individual monkeys. There were no interocular differences in the spatial properties of V2 neurons in any subject group. However, the binocular disparity sensitivity of V2 neurons was significantly higher and binocular suppression was lower in monkeys that had unrestricted vision. Conclusions. The decrease in ocular dominance imbalance in V2 was the neuronal change most closely associated with the observed reduction in the depth of amblyopia. The results suggest that the degree to which extrastriate neurons can maintain functional connections with the deprived eye (i.e., reducing undersampling for the affected eye) is the most significant factor associated with the beneficial effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision. PMID:21849427

  2. The effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® after total knee replacement in early postoperative rehabilitation period. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Donec, V; Kriščiūnas, A

    2014-08-01

    The number of total knee replacements performed each year is increasing. Among the main impediments to functional recovery after these surgeries include postoperative edema, pain, lower limb muscle strength deficits, all of which point to a need to identify safe, effective postoperative rehabilitation modalities. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® (KT) method in reducing postoperative pain, edema, and improved knee range of motion recovery after total knee replacement (TKR) operation in early postoperative rehabilitation period. Randomized clinical trial. Inpatient rehabilitation facility. Ninety-four patients, who underwent primary TKR surgery. Using simple randomization, participants were divided into KT group and control group. Both groups received same rehabilitation program and procedures after surgery, except KT group also received KT applications throughout all rehabilitation period. Postoperative pain, edema, restoration of the operated knee flexion and extension were evaluated. The chosen level of significance was P<0.05; in evaluation power of the test β ≤ 0.2. Groups were homogenous to sex, age, BMI, comorbidities, preoperative knee flexion/extension impairment, preoperative pain intensity, anaesthesia, prosthesis implanted (P>0.05). In both groups postoperative pain decreased significantly during rehabilitation period, however less pain was found in KT group from the second postoperative week till the end of inpatient rehabilitation (28th postoperative day) (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). Postoperative edema was less intense and subsided more quickly in KT group as well (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). No difference was found in improvement of knee flexion (P>0.05). Operated knee extension was found better in KT group then in control at the end of in-patient rehabilitation (P<0.05; β ≤ 0.2). KT was well tolerated by patients. KT technique appeared to be beneficial for reducing postoperative pain, edema, improving knee extension

  3. Early Life Adversity during the Infant Sensitive Period for Attachment:, Programming of Behavioral Neurobiology of Threat Processing and Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance. PMID:28254197

  4. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  5. Trepanation in South-Central Peru during the early late intermediate period (ca. AD 1000-1250).

    PubMed

    Kurin, Danielle S

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates trepanations from five well-contextualized prehistoric sites in the south-central highlands of Andahuaylas, Peru. The emergence of trepanation in this region coincides with the collapse of the Wari Empire, ca. ad 1000. Thirty-two individuals from Andahuaylas, AMS radiocarbon dated to the early Late Intermediate Period (ca. ad 1000-1250), were found to have 45 total trepanations. Various surgical techniques were being employed concurrently throughout the region. Scraping trepanations evinced the highest survival rate; circular grooving, drilling and boring, and linear cutting were far less successful. Evidence of perioperative procedures like hair shaving, poultice application, and possible cranioplasty use aimed to ensure the survival of a trepanation recipient. Postmortem trepanations, also present in Andahuaylas, were likely executed on corpses as a means of better understanding cranial anatomy and improving techniques. Similarities in trepanation patterns throughout the region attest to common motivations to engage in surgery. Although moderate physical head trauma seems to be the impetus for intervention in many cases of trepanation, other motivations included physiological and possibly psychosomatic factors. Nevertheless, treatment was not for everyone. In Andahuaylas, trepanations were withheld from subadults, females, and those individuals who practiced cranial modification. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. System and method for implementing periodic early discard in on-chip buffer memories of network elements

    DOEpatents

    Francini, Andrea

    2013-05-14

    An advance is made over the prior art in accordance with the principles of the present invention that is directed to a new approach for a system and method for a buffer management scheme called Periodic Early Discard (PED). The invention builds on the observation that, in presence of TCP traffic, the length of a queue can be stabilized by selection of an appropriate frequency for packet dropping. For any combination of number of TCP connections and distribution of the respective RTT values, there exists an ideal packet drop frequency that prevents the queue from over-flowing or under-flowing. While the value of the ideal packet drop frequency may quickly change over time and is sensitive to the series of TCP connections affected by past packet losses, and most of all is impossible to compute inline, it is possible to approximate it with a margin of error that allows keeping the queue occupancy within a pre-defined range for extended periods of time. The PED scheme aims at tracking the (unknown) ideal packet drop frequency, adjusting the approximated value based on the evolution of the queue occupancy, with corrections of the approximated packet drop frequency that occur at a timescale that is comparable to the aggregate time constant of the set of TCP connections that traverse the queue.

  7. Early feed restriction of lambs modifies ileal epimural microbiota and affects immunity parameters during the fattening period.

    PubMed

    Frutos, J; Andrés, S; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R; Benavides, J; López, S; Santos, A; Martínez-Valladares, M; Rozada, F; Giráldez, F J

    2018-04-22

    Bacteria firmly attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium during the pre-weaning phase may show a significant impact on nutrient processing, immunity parameters, health and feed efficiency of lambs during post-weaning phases. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the differences in the ileal epimural microbiota (e.g. total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) of fattening lambs promoted by early feed restriction during the suckling phase trying to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms behind changes in feed efficiency during the fattening period. A total of 24 Merino lambs (average BW 4.81±0.256 kg) were used, 12 of them (ad libitum, ADL) kept permanently in individual pens with their mothers, whereas the other 12 lambs were separated from their dams for 9 h each day to be exposed to milk restriction (RES). After weaning (BW=15 kg) all the animals were penned individually, offered the same complete pelleted diet (35 g/kg BW per day) and slaughtered at a BW of 27 kg. During the fattening period, reduced gain : feed ratio (0.320 v. 0.261, P<0.001) was observed for the RES group. Moreover, increments of Prevotella spp. were detected in the ileal epimural microbiota of RES lambs (P<0.05). There were also higher numbers of infiltrated lymphocytes (T and B cells) in the ileal lamina propria (P<0.05), a higher M-cell labelling intensity in ileal Peyer's patches domes (P<0.05) and a trend towards a thickening of the submucosa layer when compared with the ADL group (P=0.057). Some other immunological parameters, such as an increased immunoglobulin A (IgA) production (pg IgA/µg total protein) and increments in CD45+ cells were also observed in the ileum of RES group (P<0.05), whereas transforming growth factor β and toll-like receptor gene expression was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, early feed restriction during the suckling phase promoted changes in ileal epimural microbiota and several immunity parameters that could

  8. [Relationship between the level of sialic acid during perinatal period and early intelligence development of full term infants].

    PubMed

    Wu, Youjia; Shao, Zhili; Gao, Weiwei; Li, Haiying; Xu, Meiyu

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between the status of sialic acid (SA) during perinatal period and early intelligence development of healthy full term infant, and to explore the effect of SA on the early intelligence development. A total of 127 pairs of healthy mothers-neonates in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University were recruited randomly in this prospective cohort study. The levels of SA from body fluids of mothers-neonates were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, such as the full-term maternal and cord blood and the colostrum. The questionnaire surveys were carried out in mothers and mental development evaluation according to Children's Development Center of China (CDCC) were carried out in infants 3 to 4 months of age to obtain the mental development index (MDI) and psycho-motor development index (PDI). A total of 120 pairs of maternal-neonatal subjects with complete data were included into statistical analysis. The levels of SA of maternal and cord blood and colostrum were (2.25 ± 0.02), (1.21 ± 0.01), and (5.01 ± 0.06) mmol/L respectively. MDI and PDI of infants 3 to 4 months of age were (99.40 ± 1.87) and (98.53 ± 1.96). The analysis using multiple linear regression indicated that MDI was associated with SA levels of cord blood and colostrum (β = 0.636, 0.175, P < 0.05), and PDI was also associated with them (β = 0.502, 0.262, P < 0.05). The levels of SA of cord blood and colostrums were individually divided into high-level group and low-level one according to the median level. MDI and PDI in high-level group of cord blood were both significantly higher than that in low-level group (111.85 ± 2.79) vs. (108.88 ± 2.0) , (101.08 ± 4.44) vs. (98.88 ± 2.0) P < 0.01. So were MDI and PDI in high-level group of colostrum compared with those in low-level group (111.71 ± 3.07) vs. (108.81 ± 1.56), P < 0.01; (101.29 ± 4.23) vs.(98.56 ± 1.79), P < 0.05. The analysis on correlation between the levels of maternal-neonatal body fluids

  9. Early post-natal neuroactive steroid manipulation modulates ondansetron effects on initial periods of alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Iris; Llidó, Anna; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2018-06-21

    Neuroactive steroids (NS) such as allopregnanolone are crucial for brain development and adult behaviour. Early post-natal alterations of NS by administering finasteride induce a decrease in the sensitivity to stimulant effects of low alcohol doses, an increase in alcohol consumption, and a decrease in ventrostriatal dopamine and serotonin levels. The aim of the present study is to observe if the effects of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron on initial alcohol consumption are modulated by post-natal NS manipulation. For this purpose, allopregnanolone, finasteride, or vehicle was injected from day 5 to 9. In adulthood, a novel object preference test was carried out in order to detect a possible novelty-seeking pattern in our animals, which has been related to vulnerability to drug abuse. The subjects then had access to two bottles (alcohol or control solutions) one hour daily for two consecutive weeks. Ondansetron (0.01 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg or vehicle) was administered before the hour of consumption in the initial phase (days 1, 2, 3) of the procedure, and after prolonged alcohol intake (days 11, 12, 13). Results indicated that finasteride animals showed a higher preference to explore the new object, as well as a higher alcohol consumption than the rest of the groups. Moreover, 0.1 mg/kg of ondansetron decreased alcohol consumption, but only in the post-natal finasteride group, suggesting a possible increase in 5HT3 receptor sensitivity in these animals. In conclusion, NS manipulation in crucial stages of development, such as early post-natal periods, seems to play an important role on the effects of ondansetron on alcohol intake and in the vulnerability to develop drug use or abuse. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I during the early postnatal period in intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Naho; Shoji, Hiromichi; Suganuma, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Natsuki; Kantake, Masato; Murano, Yayoi; Sakuraya, Koji; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for perinatal growth and development; low serum IGF-I has been observed during intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We investigated the effects of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I in IUGR rats during the early postnatal period. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation in pregnant rats. IUGR pups were divided into two groups injected daily with rhIGF-I (2 mg/kg; IUGR/IGF-I, n = 16) or saline (IUGR/physiologic saline solution (PSS), n = 16) from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 13. Maternal sham-operated pups injected with saline were used as controls (control, n = 16). Serum IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 3 and 5 were measured on PND25. The expression of Igf-i, IGF-I receptor (Igf-ir), Igfbp3, and 5 mRNA in the liver and brain was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction on PND25. Immunohistochemical staining of the liver for IGF expression was performed. Mean bodyweight on PND3 and PND25 in the IUGR pups (IUGR/IGF-I and IUGR/PSS) was significantly lower than that of the control pups. Serum IGF-I and hepatic Igf-ir mRNA in the IUGR pups were significantly lower than those in the control pups. In the IUGR/IGF-I group, hepatic Igfbp3 mRNA and liver immunohistochemical staining were increased. In the IUGR/PSS and control pups, there were no significant differences between these two groups in serum IGFBP3 and IGFBP5, hepatic Igf-i and Igfbp-5 mRNA, or brain Igf mRNA. No benefits on body and brain weight gain but an effective increase in hepatic IGFBP-3 was observed after treatment with 2 mg/kg rhIGF-I during the early postnatal period. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Evaluation of the impact of breast milk expression in early postpartum period on breastfeeding duration: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Beiqi; Hua, Jing; Wang, Yijing; Fu, Yun; Zhuang, Zhigang; Zhu, Liping

    2015-10-20

    Breast milk expression (breast pumping) has become prevalent as an important dimension of breastfeeding behavior. It is, however, not clear whether increasing breast milk expression contributes to extend the duration of breastfeeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of breast milk expression in early postpartum period on breastfeeding duration amongst mothers of healthy term infants. A prospective cohort study had been conducted from March to June 2010. Mothers who gave birth to healthy, full-term and singleton babies were enrolled at discharge. These women were interviewed at 6 weeks postpartum about their breastfeeding behaviors. According to expressing patterns at 6 week postpartum, women were divided into three groups: direct breastfeeding (group 1), combining direct breastfeeding with expressing (group 2), exclusive expressing (group 3). The investigators followed up the women by telephone thereafter at a bimonthly basis and documented breastfeeding duration. Survival analysis was conducted to explore the association between expressing patterns at 6 weeks postpartum and breastfeeding duration. Associated factors of exclusive expressing at 6 weeks postpartum were characterized by logistic regression analysis. Four hundred one eligible women were enrolled at discharge. Among the 389 women who attended the face-to-face interview at 6 weeks postpartum, 345 women continued breastfeeding. They were divided into 3 groups by their expressing patterns. According to survival analysis, women who exclusively expressed breast milk at 6 months postpartum (group 3) were 1.77 times as likely to stop breastfeeding as those who did not (group 1 and 2) (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.48; P <0.001). There is, however, no significant difference of breastfeeding duration between group 1 and group 2. Subgroup analysis showed that exclusive expressing women who were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum had the shortest breastfeeding duration

  12. CHANGES IN SERUM HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL FOLLOW TWO DIFFERENT TRENDS IN PATIENTS DURING EARLY POST MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Valjevac, Amina; Džubur, Alen; Nakaš-Ićindić, Emina; Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira; Zaćiragić, Asija; Lepara, Orhan; Arslanagić, Amila

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of homocysteine (Hcy) changes after acute myocardial infarction is still not elucidated. Serum Hcy concentration has been shown to increase between acute and convalescent period after myocardial infarction and stroke, Also a decrease in serum Hcy during acute phase was observed, It is still not clear whether the Hcy is a culprit or an innocent bystander in cardiovascular diseases, Addressing the discrepancies in Hcy changes in patients with acute myocardial infarction might give insight in Hcy role in cardiovascular diseases and offer implications both for the clinical interpretation and patients risk stratification, The aim of the study was to evaluate serum Hcy concentration changes during early post myocardial infarction, The study included 55 patients with AMI from the Clinics for Heart Diseases and Rheumatism at University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre, For Hcy analysis blood was collected on day 2 and 5 after the AMI onset, Serum Hcy concentration was determined quantitatively with fluorescent polarisation immunoassay on AxSYM system, Cluster analysis revealed two groups ofAMI patients with different trends of serum Hcy changes, Increase in serum Hcy concentration was observed in 33 (60,0%) patients (AMI 1 group), while in 22 (40,0%) patients a decrease was observed (AMI 2 group), On day 2, patients in AMI 2 group had significantly higher mean Hcy concentration compared to AMI 1 group of patients (15,27±0,96 and 11,59±0,61 μmol/L p<0,05), On day 5, no significant difference in mean Hcy level between AMI 1 and AMI 2 group of patients was observed (14,86±1,1 vs, 12,75±0,74 μmol/L respectively), Significant differences between AMI 1 and AMI 2 patients were observed in VLDLC levels and CK-MB activity on day 2, Patients in AMI 1 group had significant increase in platelets count from day 2 to day 5 (230,1±11,6 vs. 244,2±11,0; p<0,05). Our study of serial Hcy changes in patients with AMI revealed two different patterns of Hcy changes in early post

  13. Factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Miller, Laura J; Zera, Chloe A; Davis, Roger B; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2013-11-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a substantial risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. This risk may be mitigated by engaging in healthy eating, physical activity, and weight loss when indicated. Since postpartum depressive symptoms may impair a woman's ability to engage in lifestyle changes, we sought to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent GDM. The participants are part of the baseline cohort of the TEAM GDM (Taking Early Action for Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) study, a one-year randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program for women with a recent history of GDM, conducted in Boston, Massachusetts between June 2010 and September 2012. We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-15 weeks postpartum to women whose most recent pregnancy was complicated by GDM (confirmed by laboratory data or medical record review). An EPDS score ≥9 indicated depressive symptoms. We measured height and thyroid stimulating hormone, and administered a questionnaire to collect demographic data and information about breastfeeding and sleep. We calculated body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. We reviewed medical records to obtain data about medical history, including history of depression, mode of delivery, and insulin use during pregnancy. We conducted bivariable analyses to identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms, and then modeled the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms using multivariable logistic regression. Our study included 71 women (mean age 33 years ± 5; 59 % White, 28 % African-American, 13 % Asian, with 21 % identifying as Hispanic; mean pre-pregnancy BMI 30 kg/m(2) ± 6). Thirty-four percent of the women scored ≥9 on the EPDS at the postpartum visit. In the best fit model, factors associated with depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum included cesarean

  14. Ca2+ signaling and early embryonic patterning during the blastula and gastrula periods of zebrafish and Xenopus development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2006-11-01

    It has been proposed that Ca(2+) signaling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern forming events during early vertebrate development [L.F. Jaffe, Organization of early development by calcium patterns, BioEssays 21 (1999) 657-667; M.J. Berridge, P. Lipp, M.D. Bootman, The versatility and universality of calcium signaling, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1 (2000) 11-21; S.E. Webb, A.L. Miller, Calcium signalling during embryonic development, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 4 (2003) 539-551]. With reference to the embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the frog, Xenopus laevis, we review the Ca(2+) signals reported during the Blastula and Gastrula Periods. This developmental window encompasses the major pattern forming events of epiboly, involution, and convergent extension, which result in the establishment of the basic germ layers and body axes [C.B. Kimmel, W.W. Ballard, S.R. Kimmel, B. Ullmann, T.F. Schilling, Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish, Dev. Dyn. 203 (1995) 253-310]. Data will be presented to support the suggestion that propagating waves (both long and short range) of Ca(2+) release, followed by sequestration, may play a crucial role in: (1) Coordinating cell movements during these pattern forming events and (2) Contributing to the establishment of the basic embryonic axes, as well as (3) Helping to define the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen [E. Gilland, A.L. Miller, E. Karplus, R. Baker, S.E. Webb, Imaging of multicellular large-scale rhythmic calcium waves during zebrafish gastrulation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 157-161; J.B. Wallingford, A.J. Ewald, R.M. Harland, S.E. Fraser, Calcium signaling during convergent extension in Xenopus, Curr. Biol. 11 (2001) 652-661]. The various potential targets of these Ca(2+) transients will also be discussed, as well as how they might integrate with other known pattern forming

  15. Limitation of the Predominant-Period Estimator for Earthquake Early Warning and the Initial Rupture of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Ide, S.

    2007-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is an important and challenging issue for the reduction of the seismic damage, especially for the mitigation of human suffering. One of the most important problems in earthquake early warning systems is how immediately we can estimate the final size of an earthquake after we observe the ground motion. It is relevant to the problem whether the initial rupture of an earthquake has some information associated with its final size. Nakamura (1988) developed the Urgent Earthquake Detection and Alarm System (UrEDAS). It calculates the predominant period of the P wave (τp) and estimates the magnitude of an earthquake immediately after the P wave arrival from the value of τpmax, or the maximum value of τp. The similar approach has been adapted by other earthquake alarm systems (e.g., Allen and Kanamori (2003)). To investigate the characteristic of the parameter τp and the effect of the length of the time window (TW) in the τpmax calculation, we analyze the high-frequency recordings of earthquakes at very close distances in the Mponeng mine in South Africa. We find that values of τpmax have upper and lower limits. For larger earthquakes whose source durations are longer than TW, the values of τpmax have an upper limit which depends on TW. On the other hand, the values for smaller earthquakes have a lower limit which is proportional to the sampling interval. For intermediate earthquakes, the values of τpmax are close to their typical source durations. These two limits and the slope for intermediate earthquakes yield an artificial final size dependence of τpmax in a wide size range. The parameter τpmax is useful for detecting large earthquakes and broadcasting earthquake early warnings. However, its dependence on the final size of earthquakes does not suggest that the earthquake rupture is deterministic. This is because τpmax does not always have a direct relation to the physical quantities of an earthquake.

  16. Interobserver agreement on the echocardiographic parameters that estimate right ventricular systolic function in the early postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Temois, S G; Santos-Martínez, L E; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Gutiérrez-Delgado, L G; Baranda-Tovar, F M

    2016-11-01

    To know the variability of transthoracic echocardiographic parameters that assess right ventricular systolic function by analyzing interobserver agreement in the early postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery. To assess the feasibility of these echocardiographic measurements. A cross-sectional study, double-blind pilot study was carried out from May 2011 to February 2013. Cardiovascular postoperative critical care at the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez", Mexico City, Mexico. Consecutive, non-probabilistic sampling. Fifty-six patients were studied in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. The first echocardiographic parameters were obtained between 6-8hours after cardiac surgery, followed by blinded second measurements. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging (VSPAT), diameters and right ventricular outflow area, tract fractional shortening. The agreement was analyzed by the Bland-Altman method, and its magnitude was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval). Both observers evaluated TAPSE and VSPAT in 48 patients (92%). The average TAPSE was 11.68±4.53mm (range 4-27mm). Right ventricular systolic dysfunction was observed in 41 cases (85%) and normal TAPSE in 7 patients (15%). The average difference and its limits according to TAPSE were -0.917±2.95 (-6.821, 4.988), with a magnitude of 0.725 (0.552, 0.837); the tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging was -0.001±0.015 (-0.031, 0.030), and its magnitude 0.825 (0.708, 0.898), respectively. VSPAT and TAPSE were estimated by both observers in 92% of the patients, these parameters exhibiting the lowest interobserver variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard A; Dansey, Roger; Storek, Jan; Georges, George E; Bowen, James D; Holmberg, Leona A; Kraft, George H; Mayes, Maureen D; McDonagh, Kevin T; Chen, Chien-Shing; Dipersio, John; Lemaistre, C Fred; Pavletic, Steven; Sullivan, Keith M; Sunderhaus, Julie; Furst, Daniel E; McSweeney, Peter A

    2003-09-01

    High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23-61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2-60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/microL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/microL; P =.001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are limited

  18. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Qunzhi; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS) structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially) the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the “S&P 500 1987” bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs. PMID:27806093

  19. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Qunzhi; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS) structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially) the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the "S&P 500 1987" bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs.

  20. A rare case of os odontoideum from an Early Intermediate period tomb at the Huacas de Moche, Peru.

    PubMed

    Titelbaum, A R; Castillo, S Uceda

    2015-12-01

    Os odontoideum is an uncommon vertebral anomaly where there is a smoothly corticated ossicle independent from a shortened odontoid peg. An example of os odontoideum was observed in an Early Intermediate period skeleton excavated from the Huacas de Moche (Moche IV, AD 400-700), Peru. The affected individual is a middle adult male who presents additional minor developmental anomalies of the axial skeleton. This individual was interred with a middle adult female who also has developmental anomalies of the axial skeleton, including block cervical vertebra (Klippel-Feil). Os odontoideum is infrequently reported in the medical literature and there continues to be debate about whether it is acquired or congenital. Unlike clinical cases, archaeological cases present an opportunity to examine the entirety of the skeleton. In the present case, there does not appear to be macroscopic or radiographic evidence for a healed fracture, and since the individual has multiple minor axial developmental anomalies, a congenital etiology is plausible. This case is the first to be described from the archaeological context of South America and one of few paleopathological examples worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract helps prevent bacterial infections in the early postoperative period after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Emre, S; Sebastian, A; Chodoff, L; Boccagni, P; Meyers, B; Sheiner, P A; Mor, E; Guy, S R; Atillasoy, E; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    1999-01-01

    infections in the early postoperative period.

  2. Ozone exposure during the early postnatal period alters the timing and pattern of alveolar growth and development in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Avdalovic, Mark V; Tyler, Nancy K; Putney, Lei; Nishio, Susie J; Quesenberry, Sherri; Singh, Parmjit J; Miller, Lisa A; Schelegle, Edward S; Plopper, Charles G; Vu, Thiennu; Hyde, Dallas M

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to oxidant air pollutants in early childhood, with ozone as the key oxidant, has been linked to significant decrements in pulmonary function in young adults and exacerbation of airway remodeling in asthma. Development of lung parenchyma in rhesus monkeys is rapid during the first 2 years of life (comparable to the first 6 years in humans). Our hypothesis is that ozone inhalation during infancy alters alveolar morphogenesis. We exposed infant rhesus monkeys biweekly to 5, 8 hr/day, cycles of 0.5 ppm ozone with or without house dust mite allergen from 1 to 3 or 1 to 6 months of age. Monkeys were necropsied at 3 and 6 months of age. A morphometric approach was used to quantify changes in alveolar volume and number, the distribution of alveolar size, and capillary surface density per alveolar septa. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the relative difference in gene expression over time. Monkeys exposed to ozone alone or ozone combined with allergen had statistically larger alveoli that were less in number at 3 months of age. Alveolar capillary surface density was also decreased in the ozone exposed groups at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, the alveolar number was similar between treatment groups and was associated with a significant rise in alveolar number from 3 to 6 months of age in the ozone exposed groups. This increase in alveolar number was not associated with any significant increase in microvascular growth as measured by morphometry or changes in angiogenic gene expression. Inhalation of ozone during infancy alters the appearance and timing of alveolar growth and maturation. Understanding the mechanism involved with this altered alveolar growth may provide insight into the parenchymal injury and repair process that is involved with chronic lung diseases such as severe asthma and COPD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Human management and landscape changes at Palaikastro (Eastern Crete) from the Late Neolithic to the Early Minoan period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Riera-Mora, S.; Orengo, H. A.; Livarda, A.; Knappett, C.

    2018-03-01

    On the east Mediterranean island of Crete, a hierarchical society centred on large palatial complexes emerges during the Bronze Age. The economic basis for this significant social change has long been debated, particularly concerning the role of olive cultivation in the island's agricultural system. With the aim of studying vegetation changes and human management to understand the landscape history from Late Neolithic to Bronze Age, two palaeoenvironmental records have been studied at Kouremenos marsh, near the site of Palaikastro (Eastern Crete). Pollen, NPP and charcoal particles analyses evidenced seven phases of landscape change, resulting from different agricultural and pastoral practices and the use of fire probably to manage vegetation. Moreover, the Kouremenos records show the importance of the olive tree in the area. They reflect a clear trend for its increasing use and exploitation from 3600 cal yr BC (Final Neolithic) to the Early Minoan period, that is coeval with an opening of the landscape. The increase of Olea pollen was due to the expansion of the tree and its management using pruning and mechanical cleaning. The onset of olive expansion at c. 3600 cal yr BC places Crete among the first locales in the eastern Mediterranean in the management of this tree. Between c. 2780 and 2525 cal yr BC the landscape was largely occupied by olive and grasslands, coinciding with an increase in grazing practices. The high Olea pollen percentages (40-45%) suggest an intensive and large-scale exploitation of the olive tree. The results suggest that a complex and organized landscape with complementary land uses and activities was already in place since the Final Neolithic. The notable expansion of olive trees suggests the relevance of olive exploitation in the socio-economic development of Minoan towns of eastern Crete. Other crops, such as cereals and vine, and activities such as grazing have also played an important role in the configuration of the past landscape.

  4. Donor CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are necessary for posttransplantation cyclophosphamide-mediated protection against GVHD in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Ross, Duncan B.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Kanakry, Christopher G.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Levy, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, it is unknown whether PTCy works singularly by eliminating alloreactive T cells via DNA alkylation or also by restoring the conventional (Tcon)/regulatory (Treg) T-cell balance. We studied the role of Tregs in PTCy-mediated GVHD prophylaxis in murine models of allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT). In 2 distinct MHC-matched alloBMT models, infusing Treg-depleted allografts abrogated the GVHD-prophylactic activity of PTCy. Using allografts in which Foxp3+ Tregs could be selectively depleted in vivo, either pre- or post-PTCy ablation of donor thymus–derived Tregs (tTregs) abolished PTCy protection against GVHD. PTCy treatment was associated with relative preservation of donor Tregs. Experiments using combinations of Foxp3– Tcons and Foxp3+ Tregs sorted from different Foxp3 reporter mice indicated that donor Treg persistence after PTCy treatment was predominantly caused by survival of functional tTregs that retained Treg-specific demethylation and also induction of peripherally derived Tregs. Finally, adoptive transfer of tTregs retrieved from PTCy-treated chimeras rescued PTCy-treated, Treg-depleted recipients from lethal GVHD. Our findings indicate that PTCy-mediated protection against GVHD is not singularly dependent on depletion of donor alloreactive T cells but also requires rapidly recovering donor Tregs to initiate and maintain alloimmune regulation. PMID:25139358

  5. Planar xanthomas secondary to post-transplantation cholangiopathy in a 16-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirali; Norberg, Adam; Hogeling, Marcia

    2018-05-01

    Planar xanthomas in children represent rare dermatologic findings associated with abnormalities in lipid metabolism. While planar xanthomas in Alagille's syndrome have been well described in the literature, there have been no cases reported of eruptive xanthomas in pediatric liver transplant patients. Herein we report a case of a 16-month-old boy status post-liver transplantation who presents with planar xanthomas secondary to cholangiopathy. A brief review of xanthomas and the related literature is also provided. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The seed of abundance and misery Peruvian living standards from the early republican period to the end of the guano era (1820-1880).

    PubMed

    Twrdek, Linda; Manzel, Kerstin

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines 19th-century Peruvian heights from the early republican period to the end of the guano era (1820-1880). Analyzing male and female prisoner heights from the Lima penitentiary, we find that the physical stature of the lower classes stagnated throughout the period. In spite of the substantial profits generated by Peru's chief export product, guano, these revenues apparently did not filter down to benefit ordinary laborers. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A single administration of methamphetamine to mice early in the light period decreases running wheel activity observed during the dark period

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko

    2014-01-01

    Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decrease, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3 h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments. PMID:22079320

  8. Weed presence altered biotic stress and light signaling in maize even when weeds were removed early in the critical weed-free period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weeds reduce crop yield even when there is no competition for resources. A phenomena known as the critical weed-free period (CWFP), which occurs early in the crop’s life cycle, is the essential interval when weed presence can reduce crop growth and yield. Even when weeds are removed after the CWFP, ...

  9. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  10. The effect of inhalational anaesthesia during deceased donor organ procurement on post-transplantation graft survival.

    PubMed

    Perez-Protto, S; Nazemian, R; Matta, M; Patel, P; Wagner, K J; Latifi, S Q; Lebovitz, D J; Reynolds, J D

    2018-03-01

    Many deceased by neurologic criteria donors are administered inhalational agents during organ recovery surgery-a process that is characterised by warm and cold ischaemia followed by warm reperfusion. In certain settings, volatile anaesthetics (VA) are known to precondition organs to protect them from subsequent ischaemia-reperfusion injury. As such, we hypothesised that exposure to VA during organ procurement would improve post-graft survival. Lifebanc (organ procurement organisation [OPO] for NE Ohio) provided the investigators with a list of death by neurologic criteria organ donors cared for at three large tertiary hospitals in Cleveland between 2006 and 2016-details about the surgical recovery phase were extracted from the organ donors' medical records. De-identified data on graft survival were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). The collated data underwent comparative analysis based on whether or not VA were administered during procurement surgery. Records from 213 donors were obtained for analysis with 138 exposed and 75 not exposed. Demographics, medical histories, and organ procurement rates were similar between the two cohorts. For the primary endpoint, there were no significant differences observed in either early (30-day) or late (five-year) graft survival rates for kidney, liver, lung, or heart transplants. Our findings from this retrospective review of a relatively small cohort do not support the hypothesis that the use of VA during the surgical procurement phase improves graft survival. Reviews of larger datasets and/or a prospective study may be required to provide a definitive answer.

  11. Simulation of the early startup period of high-temperature heat pipes from the frozen state by a rarefied vapor self-diffusion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y.; Faghri, A.

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe startup process is described physically and is divided into five periods for convenience of analysis. The literature survey revealed that none of the previous attempts to simulate the heat pipe startup process numerically were successful, since the rarefied vapor flow in the heat pipe was not considered. Therefore, a rarefied vapor self-diffusion model is proposed, and the early startup periods, in which the rarefied vapor flow is dominant within the heat pipe, are first simulated numerically. The numerical results show that large vapor density gradients existed along the heat pipe length, and the vapor flow reaches supersonic velocities when the density is extremely low. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data of the early startup period with good agreement.

  12. Post-transplantation HTLV-1 myelopathy in three recipients from a single donor.

    PubMed

    Zarranz Imirizaldu, J J; Gomez Esteban, J C; Rouco Axpe, I; Perez Concha, T; Velasco Juanes, F; Allue Susaeta, I; Corral Carranceja, J M

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports for the first time three cases of infection by HTLV-I via organ transplantation; all the organs coming from the same asymptomatic infected donor. The need is considered for the implementation of compulsory screenings for HTLV antibodies on organ donors and on blood banks. The determination of antibodies for HTLV-I/II on samples of serum and cerebral spinal fluid from the patients and the donor was performed by enzyme immunoassay and western blot. Analysis of proviral DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To detect changes in the sequence of amino acids, the tax gene was sequentiated, amplified, and compared with ATK prototype stocks. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral spinal fluid, and somatosensory evoked potential studies were carried out in all patients. All three transplanted patients developed a myelopathy within a very short period of time. In all three patients and donor the virus belonged to the Cosmopolitan A subtype. The homology of HTLV-I sequences recovered from the patients and donor was 100% in all four cases. Proviral load was high in all three patients. The factors that certainly contributed to the infection in the first place, and the development of the disease later, were on the one hand the high proviral load and their immunosuppressed condition, and on the other the virus genotype, which proved to be an aggressive variant. However, the analysis of the histocompatibility antigen showed that two of the patients carried an haplotype that has been associated with a lower risk of developing this disease. It is argued that, although in Spain and other European countries there is not compulsory screening for HTLV antibodies because of the studies that show a low seroprevalence, in view of the cases here reported, and to avoid the serious consequences that such infection has on transplanted patients, compulsory screenings, both on organ donors and on blood banks, should be implemented.

  13. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period.

    PubMed

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations-time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n = 97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK-PD modelling. The PK-PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK-PD model using post hoc Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l h(-1) 70 kg(-1) ; Vc /F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp /F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l h(-1) ; Ka , 2.5 (1.45, 4.93) h(-1) . Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK-PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0 , 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol h(-1)  mg(-1) protein and EC50 , 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg l(-1) . Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0 ) compared with Caucasian

  14. Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Francesca; Smith, Valerie; Cleary, Brian J

    2016-07-14

    Many women experience perineal pain after childbirth, especially after having sustained perineal trauma. Perineal pain-management strategies are thus an important part of postnatal care. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a commonly used type of medication in the management of postpartum pain and their effectiveness and safety should be assessed. To determine the effectiveness of a single dose of an oral NSAID for relief of acute perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2016), OpenSIGLE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, the ISRCTN Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov (31 March 2016). We also reviewed reference lists of retrieved papers and contacted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a single dose of a NSAID versus a single dose of placebo, paracetamol or another NSAID for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over trials were excluded. Two review authors (FW and VS) independently assessed all identified papers for inclusion and risk of bias. Any discrepancies were resolved through discussion and consensus. Data extraction, including calculations of pain relief scores, was also conducted independently by two review authors and checked for accuracy. We included 28 studies that examined 13 different NSAIDs and involved 4181 women (none of whom were breastfeeding). Studies were published between 1967 and 2013, with the majority published in the 1980s. Of the 4181 women involved in the studies, 2642 received a NSAID and 1539 received placebo or paracetamol. Risk of bias was generally unclear due to poor reporting, but in most studies the participants and personnel were blinded, outcome data were complete and the outcomes that were specified in the methods section were reported.None of the included studies reported on any of this review's secondary outcomes: prolonged hospitalisation or re

  15. Climate change and tectonic activity during the early Pliocene Warm Period from the ostracod record at Lake Qinghai, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fengyan; An, Zhisheng; Chang, Hong; Dodson, John; Qiang, Xiaoke; Yan, Hong; Dong, Jibao; Song, Yougui; Fu, Chaofeng; Li, Xiangzhong

    2017-05-01

    The Early Pliocene Warm Period (EPWP, 5-3 Ma) is sometimes thought to be a useful analogue for a future warmer world, and thus the boundary conditions and drivers of climate in the EPWP may provide valuable lessons for understanding how a future warmer world might unfold. Lake Qinghai is located on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and is affected by both Monsoon climate and Westerlies circulation. It is sensitive to the climate drivers of these systems. Its sediments, accumulated over the Cenozoic period, are a rich source of information for climate, tectonics and environmental changes of the period. We present a high-resolution ostracod record from a Lake Qinghai sediment core with a record of the period 5.10-2.60 Ma, thus covering the EPWP. Ostracods appear at 4.63 Ma and are most abundant until 3.58 Ma, while a body of water was present at the core site. This suggests a phase of humid climate and an intensified Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM), which is consistent with a warmer and wetter climate in the early Pliocene. Within this period the ostracod record shows some variabilities in lake level with deeper periods suggesting more intense ASM compared to those with shallower water. The disappearance of ostracods at 3.58 Ma may provide evidence for the uplift of Qinghai Nanshan (south of Qinghai Lake) since this is when the ASM intensified.

  16. Promoting healthy food preferences from the start: a narrative review of food preference learning from the prenatal period through early childhood.

    PubMed

    Anzman-Frasca, S; Ventura, A K; Ehrenberg, S; Myers, K P

    2018-04-01

    The palatable, energy-dense foods that characterize modern environments can promote unhealthy eating habits, along with humans' predispositions to accept sweet tastes and reject those that are sour or bitter. Yet food preferences are malleable, and examining food preference learning during early life can highlight ways to promote acceptance of healthier foods. This narrative review describes research from the past 10 years focused on food preference learning from the prenatal period through early childhood (ages 2-5 years). Exposure to a variety of healthy foods from the start, including during the prenatal period, early milk-feeding and the introduction to complementary foods and beverages, can support subsequent acceptance of those foods. Yet development is plastic, and healthier food preferences can still be promoted after infancy. In early childhood, research supports starting with the simplest strategies, such as repeated exposure and modelling, reserving other strategies for use when needed to motivate the initial tasting necessary for repeated exposure effects to begin. This review can help caregivers and practitioners to promote the development of healthy food preferences early in life. Specific implementation recommendations, the role of individual differences and next steps for research in this area are also discussed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. The "waiting period" of sensory and motor axons in early chick hindlimb: its role in axon pathfinding and neuronal maturation.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Scott, S A

    2000-07-15

    During embryonic development motor axons in the chick hindlimb grow out slightly before sensory axons and wait in the plexus region at the base of the limb for approximately 24 hr before invading the limb itself (Tosney and Landmesser, 1985a). We have investigated the role of this waiting period by asking, Is the arrest of growth cones in the plexus region a general property of both sensory and motor axons? Why do axons wait? Does eliminating the waiting period affect the further development of motor and sensory neurons? Here we show that sensory axons, like motor axons, pause in the plexus region and that neither sensory nor motor axons require cues from the other population to wait in or exit from the plexus region. By transplanting older or younger donor limbs to host embryos, we show that host axons innervate donor limbs on a schedule consistent with the age of the grafted limbs. Thus, axons wait in the plexus region for maturational changes to occur in the limb rather than in the neurons themselves. Both sensory and motor axons innervate their appropriate peripheral targets when the waiting period is eliminated by grafting older donor limbs. Therefore, axons do not require a prolonged period in the plexus region to sort out and project appropriately. Eliminating the waiting period does, however, accelerate the onset of naturally occurring cell death, but it does not enhance the development of central projections or the biochemical maturation of sensory neurons.

  18. Diet and human mobility from the lapita to the early historic period on Uripiv island, Northeast Malakula, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Bedford, Stuart; Richards, Michael; Hawkins, Stuart; Gray, Andrew; Jaouen, Klervia; Valentin, Frederique; Buckley, Hallie

    2014-01-01

    Vanuatu was first settled ca. 3000 years ago by populations associated with the Lapita culture. Models of diet, subsistence practices, and human interaction for the Lapita and subsequent occupation periods have been developed mainly using the available archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. We test these models using stable (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) and radiogenic (strontium) isotopes to assess the diet and childhood residency of past communities that lived on the small (<1 km2) island of Uripiv, located off the northeast coast of Malakula, Vanuatu. The burials are from the initial Lapita occupation of the island (ca. 2800-2600 BP), the subsequent later Lapita (LL, ca. 2600-2500 BP) and post-Lapita (PL, ca. 2500-2000 BP) occupations, in addition to a late prehistoric/historic (LPH, ca. 300-150 BP) occupation period. The human stable isotope results indicate a progressively more terrestrial diet over time, which supports the archaeological model of an intensification of horticultural and arboricultural systems as local resources were depleted, populations grew, and cultural situations changed. Pig diets were similar and included marine foods during the Lapita and PL periods but were highly terrestrial during the LPH period. This dietary pattern indicates that there was little variation in animal husbandry methods during the first 800 years of prehistory; however, there was a subsequent change as animal diets became more controlled in the LPH period. After comparison with the local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr baseline, all of the Lapita and LPH individuals appeared to be 'local', but three of the PL individuals were identified as "non-local." We suggest that these "non-locals" moved to the island after infancy or childhood from one of the larger islands, supporting the model of a high level of regional interaction during the post-Lapita period.

  19. Diet and Human Mobility from the Lapita to the Early Historic Period on Uripiv Island, Northeast Malakula, Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Bedford, Stuart; Richards, Michael; Hawkins, Stuart; Gray, Andrew; Jaouen, Klervia; Valentin, Frederique; Buckley, Hallie

    2014-01-01

    Vanuatu was first settled ca. 3000 years ago by populations associated with the Lapita culture. Models of diet, subsistence practices, and human interaction for the Lapita and subsequent occupation periods have been developed mainly using the available archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. We test these models using stable (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) and radiogenic (strontium) isotopes to assess the diet and childhood residency of past communities that lived on the small (<1 km2) island of Uripiv, located off the northeast coast of Malakula, Vanuatu. The burials are from the initial Lapita occupation of the island (ca. 2800–2600 BP), the subsequent later Lapita (LL, ca. 2600–2500 BP) and post-Lapita (PL, ca. 2500–2000 BP) occupations, in addition to a late prehistoric/historic (LPH, ca. 300–150 BP) occupation period. The human stable isotope results indicate a progressively more terrestrial diet over time, which supports the archaeological model of an intensification of horticultural and arboricultural systems as local resources were depleted, populations grew, and cultural situations changed. Pig diets were similar and included marine foods during the Lapita and PL periods but were highly terrestrial during the LPH period. This dietary pattern indicates that there was little variation in animal husbandry methods during the first 800 years of prehistory; however, there was a subsequent change as animal diets became more controlled in the LPH period. After comparison with the local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr baseline, all of the Lapita and LPH individuals appeared to be ‘local’, but three of the PL individuals were identified as “non-local.” We suggest that these “non-locals” moved to the island after infancy or childhood from one of the larger islands, supporting the model of a high level of regional interaction during the post-Lapita period. PMID:25140807

  20. Long-term impact of breast-feeding on body weight and glucose tolerance in children of diabetic mothers: role of the late neonatal period and early infancy.

    PubMed

    Rodekamp, Elke; Harder, Thomas; Kohlhoff, Rainer; Franke, Kerstin; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Plagemann, Andreas

    2005-06-01

    Offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) are at increased risk of developing overweight and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Recently, we observed that early neonatal ingestion of breast milk from diabetic mothers (DBM) may dose-dependently increase the risk of overweight in childhood. Here, we investigate whether DBM intake during the late neonatal period and early infancy also influences later adipogenic and diabetogenic risk in ODM. A total of 112 ODM were evaluated for influence of DBM ingestion during the late neonatal period (2nd-4th neonatal week) and early infancy on relative body weight (RBW) and glucose tolerance in early childhood. Exclusive breast-feeding was associated with increased childhood RBW (P = 0.011). Breast-fed ODM had an increased risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.98 [95% CI 1.12-3.50]). Breast-feeding duration was also positively related to childhood RBW (P = 0.004) and 120-min blood glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (P = 0.022). However, adjustment for the DBM volume ingested during the early neonatal period, i.e., 1st week of life, eliminated all these relations with late neonatal breast-feeding and its duration. Interestingly, no relationship was observed between maternal blood glucose in the middle of the third trimester and the outcome. Neither late neonatal DBM intake nor the duration of breast-feeding has an independent influence on childhood risk of overweight or IGT in ODM. Therefore, the 1st week of life appears to be the critical window for nutritional programming in ODM by ingestion of maternal "diabetic" breast milk.

  1. [Role of hemodynamic factors and heart volume in the prognosis of acute cardiac insufficiency during the early postoperative period in patients with mitral valve stenosis].

    PubMed

    Guliamov, D S; Amanov, A A; Andres, Iu P; Bazhenova, T F

    1983-07-01

    Investigations performed in 172 patients have shown that the state of the myocardium (such parameters as the heart volume, degree of lung hypertension, end-diastolic pressure in the right and left ventricles) is of great importance in pathogenesis of the development of acute heart failure in the early postoperative period in patients with mitral stenosis of the IIIrd and IVth stage of the blood circulation insufficiency.

  2. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P < 0.05). The combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation for two weeks in the early postoperative period has a beneficial effect on knee extension strength in both lower limbs and BI (transfer, walking and toilet use) scores in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. [Analysis of the incidence and causes of repeated surgical interventions in patients with early complications electrotherapy - 1 center experience from the period 2012-2015].

    PubMed

    Piątek, Łukasz; Polewczyk, Anna; Kurzawski, Jacek; Zachura, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Małgorzata; Janion, Marianna

    Due to increasing number of patients treated by cardiac implantable electronic devices we observe increasing number of complications after these procedures We analysed causes of early surgical revision of implantable devices connected with 1673 procedures of implantation (871 procedures) or exchange (802 procedures) of pacing systems (PM), cardioverter-difibrillators (ICD) and resynchronisation systems (CRT) in one local centre of electrotherapy in years 2012 to 2015. We characterised risk factors and its influence on encountered complications. In analysed period 72 reinterventions after implantations or exchanges of PM/ICD/CRT were performed. Main causes of early complications were: lead malfunction (2.5%), including the dislodgement of the leads in 1.9%, pocket hematoma (1.4%) and other abnormalities of the pocket (0.4 %), including pocket infections in 0.2%. The most important risk factors of early complications were often implantations of the leads with passive fixation and anticoagulation therapy in perioperative period. The knowledge of the early complications after implantations and exchanges of PM/ICD/CRT should improve the safety of procedures through more often used of the leads with active fixation and properly preparation of the patients requering the antithrombic therapy.

  4. Post-transplantation nephroptosis causing recurrent episodes of acute renal failure and hypertension secondary to intermittent vascular torsion of intraperitoneal renal allograft

    PubMed Central

    Dosch, Austin R.; Pahl, Madeleine; Reddy, Uttam; Foster, Clarence E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nephroptosis is a rare complication in renal transplantation, but one with significant associated risk. Due to non-specific clinical features, there may be a substantial delay in diagnosis and loss of the transplanted kidney due to renal pedicle thrombosis. We present a case of post-transplantation nephroptosis after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, which resulted in accelerated hypertension and reversible acute kidney injury >1 year after transplantation. Prompt detection of this rare entity leading to expeditious surgical intervention is necessary to preserve viability of the renal allograft. PMID:28560019

  5. 76 FR 8740 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... individual cases, to terminate this waiting period prior to its expiration and requires that notice of this.... 20110379 G Aetna, Inc.; Medicity, Inc.; Aetna, Inc. 20110384 G Illinois Tool Works Inc.; Royal Dutch Shell plc; Illinois Tool Works Inc. 12/21/2010 20110377 G Helen of Troy Limited; Kaz, Inc.; Helen of Troy...

  6. Effect of fast pH decline during the early postmortem period on calpain activity and cytoskeletal protein degradation of broiler M. pectoralis major.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Yang, J; Huang, F; Huang, M; Chen, K J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of fast pH decline during the early postmortem period on calpain activity and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in broilers. Eighty broilers were randomly categorized into two groups: physical restraint (PR) and free struggle (FS). M. pectoralis major (PM) was used for determination of calpain activity, shear value, ultrastructure of myofibrils, and the degradation of desmin, titin, nebulin, and troponin-T. The pH (6.05) of FS group is significantly low than PR group (6.38) at 0.3 h postmortem. Fast pH decline during the early postmortem period led to a decrease of μ/m-calpain activities at 0.3 and 3 h postmortem (P < 0.05), but did not affect the ultimate μ/m-calpain activity. An initial fast decrease in pH increased the degradation of desmin, titin, nebulin, and increased the 30 kDa degradation fragments of troponin-T. Therefore, the fast pH decline during the early postmortem period decreased the μ/m-calpain activity and increased the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in broiler muscle. It is possible that the fast pH decline experienced an earlier activation of calpains that resulted in earlier protein degradation and ultimately lower shear force. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  8. “Every woman counts”: a gender-analysis of numeracy in the Low Countries during the early modern period.

    PubMed

    de Moor, Tine; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    2010-01-01

    New evidence from Flanders and the Netherlands demonstrates that age heaping was gradually diminishing in large parts of the Low Countries during the sixteenth century, that (unexpectedly) almost no gender gap was apparent in the change (women even outperforming men at times), and that differences between town and countryside were small. These findings suggest an early rise in numeracy (or at least a “number sense”) in both urban and rural areas, linked to demographic change and commercial development. Between 1600 and 1800, Flanders, in particular, seems to have lost its strong distinctiveness in this regard.

  9. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiorespiratory control and cytokine profile in response to heat stress, hypoxia, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during early neonatal period.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Fiona B; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Wilson, Richard J A; Hasan, Shabih U

    2016-02-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is one of the most common causes of postneonatal infant mortality in the developed world. An insufficient cardiorespiratory response to multiple environmental stressors (such as prone sleeping positioning, overwrapping, and infection), during a critical period of development in a vulnerable infant, may result in SIDS. However, the effect of multiple risk factors on cardiorespiratory responses has rarely been tested experimentally. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the independent and possible interactive effects of infection, hyperthermia, and hypoxia on cardiorespiratory control in rats during the neonatal period. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration will negatively impact cardiorespiratory responses to increased ambient temperature and hypoxia in neonatal rats. Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat pups were studied at postnatal day 6-8. Rats were examined at an ambient temperature of 33°C or 38°C. Within each group, rats were allocated to control, saline, or LPS (200 μg/kg) treatments. Cardiorespiratory and thermal responses were recorded and analyzed before, during, and after a hypoxic exposure (10% O2). Serum samples were taken at the end of each experiment to measure cytokine concentrations. LPS significantly increased cytokine concentrations (such as TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, and IL-10) compared to control. Our results do not support a three-way interaction between experimental factors on cardiorespiratory control. However, independently, heat stress decreased minute ventilation during normoxia and increased the hypoxic ventilatory response. Furthermore, LPS decreased hypoxia-induced tachycardia. Herein, we provide an extensive serum cytokine profile under various experimental conditions and new evidence that neonatal cardiorespiratory responses are adversely affected by dual interactions of environmental stress factors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  11. [The alteration of Japanese anatomical terminology in the early Showa period and the Japanese language reform campaign].

    PubMed

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    In the second decade of the Showa period, great changes were made in the Japanese anatomical terms. It has been proposed that the presentation of JNA (Jenaer nomina anatomica) was one of the factors leading to the change. The Japanese language reform campaign, however, played an important role. The party kokugoaigo doumei and its successor kokugo kyokai required concise and unified technical terms. The anatomical nomenclature committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists worked to satisfy this requirement. The committee consulted with nomenclature committees of other medical associations and took account of their opinions. The anatomical nomenclature committee abandoned the literal translation from Latin to Japanese and shaped a succinct Japanese terminology. Modern Japanese anatomical terms are based on this terminology.

  12. Glass import and production in Hispania during the early medieval period: The glass from Ciudad de Vascos (Toledo)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one glass fragments from medieval Ciudad de Vascos (Toledo, Spain) were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The glasses fall into three types according to the fluxing agents used: mineral natron, soda-rich plant ash, and a combination of soda ash and lead. The natron glasses can be assigned to various established primary production groups of eastern Mediterranean provenance. Different types of plant ash glasses indicate differences in the silica source as well as the plant ash component, reflecting changing supply mechanisms. While the earlier plant ash groups can be related to Islamic glasses from the Near East, both in terms of typology and composition, the chemical signature of the later samples appear to be specific to glass from the Iberian Peninsula. This has important implications for our understanding of the emerging glass industry in Spain and the distribution patterns of glass groups and raw materials. The plant ash that was used for the Vascos glasses is rich in soda with low levels of potash, similar to ash produced in the eastern Mediterranean. It could therefore be possible that Levantine plant ash was imported and used in Islamic period glass workshops in Spain. Unlike central and northern Europe where an independent glass industry based on potassium-rich wood ash developed during the Carolingian period, the prevalence of soda ash and soda ash lead glass on the Iberian Peninsula indicates its commercial and technological interconnection with the Islamic east. Our study thus traces several stages leading to the development of a specifically Spanish primary glassmaking industry. PMID:28746419

  13. Evaluation of the kinesthetic sense and function of the hand in early period in operated cervical disc hernia.

    PubMed

    Kara, Býlge; Yildirim, Yücel; Karadýbak, Dýdem; Acar, Umýt

    2006-06-01

    A prospective study made into cervical disc hernias. To determine the kinesthetic sense and hand functions, which are important for the patients with cervical disc hernia to return to work life and daily activities that need skill. Neurosurgical department. Data Symptoms in cervical disc hernias and hand functions are affected depending on long-term pain. The evaluation of the hand is essential in assessing the patients' overall recovery and ability to return to daily activities and work life. Thirty-four patients with cervical disc hernia, who were operated on, were included in the study. Eight different test positions in the assessment of the hand's kinesthetic sense and hand function sort (HFS) in the evaluation of the hand function were applied. The disability levels of the patients were determined with The Neck Pain and Disability Scale, on the preoperative and postoperative discharge day and in the postoperative second month. Patients were divided into groups according to the side involved. In the evaluation of the kinesthetic test of the hand, only in the postoperative second month was a significant difference observed between the 1, 2, 3, and 4 test positions of the right side of the groups. On the other hand, no significant difference was found between the groups in the assessment of the hand function. In the measurement of hand functions and disability levels, strong and important correlations were determined. An early assessment of the hand's kinesthetic sense and function is instrumental in the patients' evaluation of recovery and resumption of work.

  14. The Influence of the Green River Lake System on the Local Climate During the Early Eocene Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elguindi, N.; Thrasher, B.; Sloan, L. C.

    2006-12-01

    Several modeling efforts have attempted to reproduce the climate of the early Eocene North America. However when compared to proxy data, General Circulation Models (GCMs) tend to produce a large-scale cold-bias. Although higher resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) that are able to resolve many of the sub-GCM scale forcings improve this cold bias, RCMs are still unable to reproduce the warm climate of the Eocene. From geologic data, we know that the greater Green River and the Uinta basins were intermontane basins with a large lake system during portions of the Eocene. We speculate that the lack of presence of these lakes in previous modeling studies may explain part of the persistent cold-bias of GCMs and RCMs. In this study, we utilize a regional climate model coupled with a 1D-lake model in an attempt to reduce the uncertainties and biases associated with climate simulations over Eocene western North American. Specifically, we include the Green River Lake system in our RCM simulation and compare climates with and without lakes to proxy data.

  15. Brief periods of NREM sleep do not promote early offline gains but subsequent on-task performance in motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Maier, Jonathan G; Piosczyk, Hannah; Holz, Johannes; Landmann, Nina; Deschler, Christoph; Frase, Lukas; Kuhn, Marion; Klöppel, Stefan; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Sterr, Annette; Riemann, Dieter; Feige, Bernd; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Nissen, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Sleep modulates motor learning, but its detailed impact on performance curves remains to be fully characterized. This study aimed to further determine the impact of brief daytime periods of NREM sleep on 'offline' (task discontinuation after initial training) and 'on-task' (performance within the test session) changes in motor skill performance (finger tapping task). In a mixed design (combined parallel group and repeated measures) sleep laboratory study (n=17 'active' wake vs. sleep, n=19 'passive' wake vs. sleep), performance curves were assessed prior to and after a 90min period containing either sleep, active or passive wakefulness. We observed a highly significant, but state- (that is, sleep/wake)-independent early offline gain and improved on-task performance after sleep in comparison to wakefulness. Exploratory curve fitting suggested that the observed sleep effect most likely emerged from an interaction of training-induced improvement and detrimental 'time-on-task' processes, such as fatigue. Our results indicate that brief periods of NREM sleep do not promote early offline gains but subsequent on-task performance in motor skill learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Earth's magnetic field in Italy during the Neolithic period: New data from the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Ferrara, Enzo; Camps, Pierre; Conati Barbaro, Cecilia; Spatafora, Simone; Carvallo, Claire; Poidras, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    We present new, full geomagnetic field vector results from three Neolithic ovens discovered at the archaeological site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy). The discovered structures are a rare example of very well preserved underground ovens from the Early Neolithic period. Standard thermal demagnetization procedures were used to isolate the direction of the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization acquired by the baked clay during the ovens' last firing. The corresponding archaeointensities were determined by the multi-specimen procedure (MSP-DSC) and show a clear intensity low during the Neolithic period. Both directional and intensity results are of high quality, offering the first contribution of full geomagnetic field vector data for this period in Italy. The new data are compared with other contemporaneous data from Europe and with global geomagnetic field models. Independent archaeomagnetic dating of the three ovens was also performed by means of the SCHA.DIF.14k model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with available radiocarbon dates and confirm that all ovens belong to the Neolithic. These new data importantly enrich our knowledge of the geomagnetic field during the Neolithic period that is poorly documented by data, not only in Italy but also in the whole of Europe and show that archaeomagnetic dating can provide precise results even for prehistoric periods.

  17. Evaluation of pre- and posttransplantation serum interferon-gamma and soluble CD30 for predicting liver allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Oh, E-J; Jung, E-S; Park, Y-J; Choi, J Y; Kim, D-G; Lee, K Y; Kang, C S

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify whether the serum interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), a Th1 cytokine, or soluble CD30 (sCD30), a marker for activation of Th2 cytokine-producing T cells, predict acute cellular rejection episodes among liver graft patients. Pretransplant and posttransplant sera from 32 living donor liver transplant recipients obtained on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery were tested for serum IFNgamma and sCD30 concentrations using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Recipients with an acute rejection episode (ARE) (n=14) displayed significantly higher IFNgamma concentrations pretransplant than did the patients with no ARE (n=18) (P<.05). The pretransplant serum levels of sCD30 were not different between the non-ARE and ARE groups. However, in comparison with the non-ARE group, who showed steadily decreasing serum sCD30 levels after transplantation, 12 among the 14 patients in the ARE group showed increasing sCD30 levels from day 1 to day 3 after transplantation (P<.05). These results suggest that the sCD30 increment during the early period after liver transplantation affects the immune response of rejection. This observation emphasizes the clinical relevance of serum sCD30, in addition to serum IFNgamma, as predictive markers for acute liver graft rejection.

  18. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William; Steiner, Meir; Coote, Marg; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1) to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2) to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3) to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women's Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph's Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.025), and IL-10 (p = 0.006) were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score. Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  19. Risk factors associated with abnormal glucose tolerance in the early postpartum period among Japanese women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kugishima, Yukari; Yasuhi, Ichiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Masashi; Kuzume, Akiko; Sugimi, So; Umezaki, Yasushi; Suga, Sachie; Kusuda, Nobuko

    2015-04-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) on the first postpartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) among Japanese women with gestational diabetes (GDM). In a retrospective study, data were analyzed from women with GDM who underwent their first postpartum OGTT 6-8weeks post partum at a center in Omura, Japan, between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Women with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance were deemed to have postpartum AGT. The association between postpartum AGT and various risk factors was analyzed. Among 169 women who underwent a postpartum OGTT, 58 (34.3%) had AGT. The significant risk factors associated with postpartum AGT in univariate analysis were pre-pregnancy body mass index (P=0.096), 1-hour plasma glucose (P=0.006), hemoglobin A1c (P<0.001), insulinogenic index (P=0.05), an insulinogenic index of less than 0.4 (P=0.006), and insulin therapy during pregnancy (P<0.001). Independent risk factors identified by multivariate logistic regression models were insulinogenic index (odds ratio [OR] 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.74; P=0.002), an insulinogenic index of less than 0.4 (OR 5.70, 95% CI 1.69-21.66; P=0.005), and insulin therapy during pregnancy (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.03-12.55; P=0.044). Among Japanese women with GDM, a lower insulinogenic index and use of insulin therapy during pregnancy are associated with early postpartum AGT. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Ginger on Breast Milk Volume in the Early Postpartum Period: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Paritakul, Panwara; Ruangrongmorakot, Kasem; Laosooksathit, Wipada; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Puapornpong, Pawin

    2016-09-01

    In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume. To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups. Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p < 0.01). However, the seventh day milk volume in the ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study. Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.

  1. The Correlation Between Breastfeeding Success in the Early Postpartum Period and the Perception of Self-Efficacy in Breastfeeding and Breast Problems in the Late Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Kılcı, Hanife; Çoban, Ayden

    2016-05-01

    The research was conducted to determine the correlation between breastfeeding success in the early postpartum period and the perception of self-efficacy in breastfeeding and breast problems in late postpartum. This analytic and cross-sectional research was carried out at Aydın Obstetrics and Gynecology and Children's Diseases Hospital. Three hundred twenty-seven primipara mothers who had delivered a single baby of healthy term at 37 or more gestational weeks with no previous experience with breastfeeding and who agreed to cooperate participated in the research. The mothers' mean gestational week of delivery was 39.25 ± 1.10 weeks, and it was found that 56.0% had delivered by cesarean section and 57.0% had started to breastfeed immediately after the birth. The mothers' LATCH mean score was 6.55 ± 0.86; their postnatal breastfeeding self-efficacy mean score was found to be 59.10 ± 7.21. Mothers who had high success in breastfeeding at early postpartum were found to experience fewer problems with their breasts (Z = -2.65, p < 0.05), gave birth by vaginal delivery (Z = -2.88, p < 0.05), and had not received anesthesia during the delivery (Z = -2.52, p < 0.05). In the correlation analysis, it was seen that mothers with high success in breastfeeding also had high self-efficacy scores (r = 0.210, p = 0.003). The results of the research indicated that breastfeeding success in the early postpartum period reduced breast problems and increased the perception of breastfeeding self-efficacy in the late postpartum period.

  2. Analysis of Changes in the Glomerular Filtration Rate as Measured by the Cockroft-Gault Formula in the Early Period after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Seckiner, Ilker; Erturhan, Sakip M.; Mizrak, Sedat; Erbagci, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to analyze the changes in kidney function during the postoperative early period caused by the application of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), which is commonly used in kidney stone surgery. Materials and Methods PNL was performed in 80 patients (48 men, 32 women) with kidney stones. The mean age of the patients was 43.71 years (range, 18 to 71 years). Preoperative and postoperative values for stone size, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum creatinine, urea, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), and Hb were compared in 80 patients in whom PNL surgery was performed. The formula of Cockroft-Gault was used to calculate the GFR during the early postoperative period (72 to 96 hours). Results Statistically significant decreases after PNL were observed in average stone size (preoperative, 627.75±375.10 mm2; postoperative, 81.70±16.15 mm2), serum urea (preoperative, 38.40±17.26 mg/dl; postoperative, 33.28±16.98 mg/dl), and creatinine (preoperative, 1.03±0.53 mg/dl; postoperative, 0.97±0.55 mg/dl) and an increase was observed in GFR (preoperative, 104.30±37.30 ml/min; postoperative, 112.38±40.1 ml/min). No changes were detected in the serum electrolyte values (Na, K, Cl). Multiple access, operation time, and type of lithotripter did not have any significant effects on the change in the GFR. Conclusions In light of our results, PNL for kidney stone operations appears to be a reliable and efficient method that provides recovery of kidney functions in the early post-operative period by increasing the GFR and with high stone-free rates. PMID:22950000

  3. Novel mutation identified in severe early-onset tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Suhas M; Grimm, Amy; Broderick, Lori

    2017-04-20

    Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) is the second most common heritable autoinflammatory disease, typically presenting in pre-school aged children with fever episodes lasting 1-3 weeks. Systemic symptoms can include rash, myalgia, ocular inflammation, and serositis. Here we report an unusual presentation of TRAPS in a 7 month old girl who presented with only persistent fever. She was initially diagnosed with incomplete Kawasaki Disease and received IVIG and infliximab; however, her fevers quickly recurred. Subsequent testing revealed a urinary tract infection, but she did not improve despite appropriate therapy. As fever continued, she developed significant abdominal distension with imaging concerning for appendicitis, followed by hyperthermia and hemodynamic instability. Given her protracted clinical course and maternal history of a poorly defined inflammatory condition, an autoinflammatory disease was considered. Therapy with anakinra was initiated, resulting in rapid resolution of fever and normalization of inflammatory markers. She was found to have a previously unreported mutation, Thr90Pro, in the TNFRSF1A gene associated with TRAPS. This novel mutation was also confirmed in the patient's mother and maternal uncle. This report reviews a severe case of TRAPS in infancy associated with a novel mutation, Thr90Pro, in the TNFRSF1A gene, and emphasizes that autoinflammatory disease should be considered in the differential of infants with fever of unknown origin.

  4. The Prevalence of Syphilis from the Early HIV Period is Correlated With Peak HIV Prevalence at a Country Level.

    PubMed

    Osbak, Kara K; Rowley, Jane T; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Kenyon, Chris Richard

    2016-04-01

    Could we have predicted national peak HIV based on syphilis prevalence in the 1990s? Earlier studies have shown positive correlations between various sexually transmitted infections at different population levels. In this article, we test the hypothesis that there was a residual variation in the national prevalence rates of syphilis and that these rates could predict subsequent peak HIV prevalence rates. This analysis uses linear regression to evaluate the country-level relationship between antenatal syphilis prevalence (1990-1999) and peak HIV prevalence. Antenatal syphilis data were taken from an Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation database on the prevalence of syphilis in low-risk populations. Peak HIV prevalence was calculated based on data taken from the Global Health Observatory Data Repository of the World Health Organization. A moderately strong association is found for the 76 countries with data available (R = 0.53, P < 0.001). The association was weakened but remained significantly positive when we adjusted for the type of syphilis testing used. Syphilis prevalence in the 1990s predicted approximately 53% of the variation in peak HIV prevalence. Populations with generalized HIV epidemics had a higher prevalence of syphilis in the pre-HIV period. This finding provides additional rationale to carefully monitor sexual behavior, sexual networks, and sexually transmitted infection incidence in these populations.

  5. The role of suture cutout in the failure of meniscal root repair during the early post-operative period: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blanca, Ana; Prado Nóvoa, María; Lombardo Torre, Maximiano; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Ezquerro Juanco, Francisco; Espejo-Baena, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    To assess the role of suture cutout in the mechanics of failure of the repaired posterior meniscal root during the early post-operative period when using sutures of different shape. Twenty medial porcine menisci were randomized in two groups depending on the suture shape used to repair the posterior root: thread or tape. The sutured menisci were subjected to cyclic loading (1000 cycles, (10, 30) N) followed by load-to-failure testing. Residual displacements, stiffness, and ultimate failure load were determined. During tests, the tissue-suture interface was recorded using a high-resolution camera. In cyclic tests, cutout progression at the suture insertion points was not observed for any specimen of either group and no differences in residual displacements were found between use of thread or tape. In load-to-failure tests, suture cutout started in all menisci at a load close to the ultimate failure and all specimens failed by suture pullout. Suture tape had a greater ultimate load with no other differences. In a porcine model of a repaired posterior meniscal root subjected to cyclic loads representative of current rehabilitation protocols in the early post-operative period under restricted loading conditions, suture cutout was not found as a main source of permanent root displacement when using suture thread or tape. Suture cutout progression started at high loading levels close to the ultimate load of the construct. Tape, with a meniscus-suture contact area larger than thread, produced higher ultimate load.

  6. The Effect of Aromatherapy Treatment on Fatigue and Relaxation for Mothers during the Early Puerperal Period in Japan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Asazawa, Kyoko; Kato, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Inoue, Asako

    2017-10-01

    Early in the postpartum period, mothers are often nervous and tired from the delivery, breast-feeding and caring for a new-born. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process and outcome of using aromatherapy treatments to increase relaxation and decrease fatigue for mothers during the first to the seventh day of the postpartum period. This non-randomized controlled study with a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate scores in relaxation and fatigue before and after the intervention. Aromatherapy hand treatments were performed on a purposive sample of 34 postpartum mothers in Tokyo, Japan, from May to July 2016. The single treatment included a choice of one of five essential aroma oils through hand and forearm massage. Relaxation and fatigue were measured by self-administered valid and reliable questionnaires. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to analyze the data before and after the intervention. The software programs SPSS, v. 23.0 (SPSS, Tokyo), was used to analyze the data, with the significance level set at 5%. Valid responses were obtained from 29 participants. A comparison of the scores before and after aroma treatment intervention indicated that the participants' relaxation scores increased significantly (P<0.001) and fatigue scores were significantly reduced (P<0.001). The majority of participants (77.8%) were satisfied with the treatment. The aroma treatments significantly improved relaxation and reduced fatigue for mothers in the early puerperal period and were well received. Therefore, a larger study using a pretest-posttest random control trial is recommended.

  7. The Effect of Aromatherapy Treatment on Fatigue and Relaxation for Mothers during the Early Puerperal Period in Japan: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Asazawa, Kyoko; Kato, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Inoue, Asako

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Early in the postpartum period, mothers are often nervous and tired from the delivery, breast-feeding and caring for a new-born. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process and outcome of using aromatherapy treatments to increase relaxation and decrease fatigue for mothers during the first to the seventh day of the postpartum period. Methods: This non-randomized controlled study with a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate scores in relaxation and fatigue before and after the intervention. Aromatherapy hand treatments were performed on a purposive sample of 34 postpartum mothers in Tokyo, Japan, from May to July 2016. The single treatment included a choice of one of five essential aroma oils through hand and forearm massage. Relaxation and fatigue were measured by self-administered valid and reliable questionnaires. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to analyze the data before and after the intervention. The software programs SPSS, v. 23.0 (SPSS, Tokyo), was used to analyze the data, with the significance level set at 5%. Results: Valid responses were obtained from 29 participants. A comparison of the scores before and after aroma treatment intervention indicated that the participants’ relaxation scores increased significantly (P<0.001) and fatigue scores were significantly reduced (P<0.001). The majority of participants (77.8%) were satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: The aroma treatments significantly improved relaxation and reduced fatigue for mothers in the early puerperal period and were well received. Therefore, a larger study using a pretest-posttest random control trial is recommended. PMID:29043282

  8. Effects of chronic iTBS-rTMS and enriched environment on visual cortex early critical period and visual pattern discrimination in dark-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Padilla, Diana V; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Early cortical critical period resembles a state of enhanced neuronal plasticity enabling the establishment of specific neuronal connections during first sensory experience. Visual performance with regard to pattern discrimination is impaired if the cortex is deprived from visual input during the critical period. We wondered how unspecific activation of the visual cortex before closure of the critical period using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could affect the critical period and the visual performance of the experimental animals. Would it cause premature closure of the plastic state and thus worsen experience-dependent visual performance, or would it be able to preserve plasticity? Effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) were compared with those of an enriched environment (EE) during dark-rearing (DR) from birth. Rats dark-reared in a standard cage showed poor improvement in a visual pattern discrimination task, while rats housed in EE or treated with iTBS showed a performance indistinguishable from rats reared in normal light/dark cycle. The behavioral effects were accompanied by correlated changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and atypical PKC (PKCζ/PKMζ), two factors controlling stabilization of synaptic potentiation. It appears that not only nonvisual sensory activity and exercise but also cortical activation induced by rTMS has the potential to alleviate the effects of DR on cortical development, most likely due to stimulation of BDNF synthesis and release. As we showed previously, iTBS reduced the expression of parvalbumin in inhibitory cortical interneurons, indicating that modulation of the activity of fast-spiking interneurons contributes to the observed effects of iTBS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Symposium review: Modulating adipose tissue lipolysis and remodeling to improve immune function during the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; De Koster, Jenne

    2018-03-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of transition and early lactation cow physiology and the use of advanced dietary, medical, and management tools, at least half of early lactation cows are reported to develop disease and over half of cow deaths occur during the first week of lactation. Excessive lipolysis, usually measured as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), is a major risk factor for the development of displaced abomasum, ketosis, fatty liver, and metritis, and may also lead to poor lactation performance. Lipolysis triggers adipose tissue (AT) remodeling that is characterized by enhanced humoral and cell-mediated inflammatory responses and changes in its distribution of cellular populations and extracellular matrix composition. Uncontrolled AT inflammation could perpetuate lipolysis, as we have observed in cows with displaced abomasum, especially in those animals with genetic predisposition for excessive lipolysis responses. Efficient transition cow management ensures a moderate rate of lipolysis that is rapidly reduced as lactation progresses. Limiting FFA release from AT benefits immune function as several FFA are known to promote dysregulation of inflammation. Adequate formulation of pre- and postpartum diet reduces the intensity of AT lipolysis. Additionally, supplementation with niacin, monensin, and rumen-protected methyl donors (choline and methionine) during the transition period is reported to minimize FFA release into systemic circulation. Targeted supplementation of energy sources during early lactation improves energy balance and increases insulin concentration, which limits AT lipolytic responses. This review elaborates on the mechanisms by which uncontrolled lipolysis triggers inflammatory disorders. Details on current nutritional and pharmacological interventions that aid the modulation of FFA release from AT and their effect on immune function are provided. Understanding the inherent characteristics of AT biology in

  10. Kinetics of C-reactive protein in children with congenital heart diseases in the early period after cardiosurgical treatment with extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Radoslaw; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Irga-Jaworska, Ninela; Chojnicki, Maciej; Steffens, Mariusz; Szofer-Sendrowska, Aneta; Zielinski, Jacek; Juscinski, Jacek

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) serum kinetics in children without clinical signs of infection after atrial and ventricular septal defects closure in terms of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Fifty-two patients met inclusion criteria and were divided into 2 groups: group A (antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin given up to 48 h postoperatively) and group B (antibiotic prophylaxis with amoxicillin and clavunic acid given more than 48 h postoperatively). The CRP was measured perioperatively in both groups. The CRP evaluation was the part of routine lab-tests during perioperative period, without any modification of the typical perioperative strategy. In the postoperative period CRP was measured after 24h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h in both groups. There were no differences between CRP levels between both groups of patients. The peak CRP values were observed after 48 h after the operation in ECC in both groups and decreased in the next postoperative days. In children with congenital heart defects undergoing cardiosurgical treatment with the use of ECC the assessing CRP values in the first postoperative day remains questionable. The maximum peak CRP value after operation with ECC can be much higher than the reference values without infection complications. Single CRP assessment in early postoperative period in these groups of children can lead to over-diagnosis of infections and antibiotics abuse. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting renal graft failure by sCD30 levels and de novo HLA antibodies at 1year post-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wu, Guojun; Chen, Jinhua; Yu, Ziqiang; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Shunliang; Tan, Jianming

    2012-06-01

    HLA antibodies and sCD30 levels were detected in the serum sampled from 620 renal graft recipients at 1 year post-transplantation, which were followed up for 5 years. Six-year graft and patient survivals were 81.6% and 91.0%. HLA antibodies were detected in 45 recipients (7.3%), of whom there were 14 cases with class I antibodies, 26 cases with class II, and 5 cases with both class I and II. Much more graft loss was record in recipients with HLA antibodies than those without antibodies (60% vs. 15.1%, p<0.001). Significantly higher sCD30 levels were recorded in recipients suffering graft loss than the others (73.9±48.8 U/mL vs. 37.3±14.6 U/mL, p<0.001). Compared with those with high sCD30 levels, recipients with low sCD30 levels (<50 U/mL) had much better 6-year graft survival (92.4% vs. 46.6%, p<0.001). Further statistical analysis showed that detrimental effect of de novo HLA antibodies and high sCD30 on graft survival was not only independent but also additive. Therefore, post-transplantation monitoring of HLA antibodies and sCD30 levels is necessary and recipients with elevated sCD30 level and/or de novo HLA antibody should be paid more attention in order to achieve better graft survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of implant macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative period: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Jeffrey J; Klokkevold, Perry R

    2017-10-01

    Available literature suggests there is a transient drop in implant stability from approximately week 0 to week 3-4 as a result of peri-implant bone remodeling as it transitions from a primary, mechanical stability to a secondary, biological stability. Research investigating the influence of macro-thread design on this process is scant. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the role of macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Seven patients, each missing at least two posterior teeth in the same arch, were included in the study. Three patients qualified for four implants resulting in a total of 10 matched pairs. All sites were healed (>6 months), non-grafted sites with sufficient bone to place implants. Each site in a matched pair was randomly assigned to receive either a control (Megagen EZ Plus Internal; EZ) or test (Megagen AnyRidge; AR) implant. The test implant incorporates a novel thread design with a wide thread depth and increased thread pitch. RFA was used to determine implant stability quotient (ISQ) values for each implant at the time of placement and weekly for the first 8 weeks. Implants consistently achieved a relatively high insertion torque (30-45 N/cm) and high initial ISQ value (79.8 ± 1.49). Baseline ISQ values for test (AR; 79.55 ± 1.61) and control (EZ; 80.05 ± 1.37) implants were similar. A general pattern of stability from baseline through all eight follow-up evaluations was observed for the test implants. A pattern of decreasing ISQ values was observed for the control implants across the early follow-up evaluations up to week four, where the value plateaued. There was a statistically significant main effect due to implant type (P < 0.01) and a statistically significant interaction between implant type and time (P < 0.01), indicating that the test and control implants performed differently at certain time points. Within the limitations

  13. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    PubMed

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  14. The early Holocene humid period in the Tayma palaeolake, NW Arabian Peninsula -- A high-resolution micro-facies and geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Plessen, Birgit; Dinies, Michèle; Engel, Max; Tjallingii, Rik; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The Tayma palaeolake is a rare archive of the early Holocene humid period in northern Arabia (Dinies et al. 2015; Engel et al. 2012). Here we present a ca. 1 m thick and 500 years spanning annually laminated sediment section that was deposited in the centre of the former lake from ca. 8500 to 8000 calibrated years (cal. yrs) BP, as determined by AMS 14C dating of pollen concentrates (Dinies et al. 2015). High-resolution micro-facies analyses based on thin section microscopy, μXRF element scanning, δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb measurements on single carbonate laminae, as well as geochemical measurements on bulk samples for TOC, CaCO3, C/N ratio, δ18Ocarb, δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg and δ15N determination were performed in order to investigate the sedimentological and geochemical changes along the varved sequence in great detail. The finely laminated marl sediments are mainly composed of sub-mm thick laminae of endogenic aragonite, organic matter and diatoms, as well as occasional, often graded silt-clay layers. Following an early lake phase from ca. 8700 to 8500 cal. yrs BP characterized by coarsely laminated, presumably non-annual marl sediments that are rich in ostracods, three main varved phases can be distinguished within the investigated section: (1) aragonitic-organic varves from ca. 8500 to 8300 cal. yrs BP, (2) diatom-organic varves from ca. 8300 to 8100 cal. yrs BP that frequently include aragonite laminae and occasionally gastropod and ostracod shells, and (3) organic varves from ca. 8100 to 8000 cal. yrs BP with decreasing diatom and aragonite laminae and an increasing frequency of gypsum layers. After this period, gypsum becomes abundant and fine lamination appears only sporadically. In addition, we observe increasing trends of TOC, C/N and δ13Ccarb and decreasing δ18Ocarb during phase 1 and excess δ18Ocarb, δ13Ccarb and TOC values during phase 2, pointing towards the maximum lake productivity and increased seasonal precipitation. We interpret this

  15. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  16. PHOTOMETRIC, SPECTROSCOPIC, AND ORBITAL PERIOD STUDY OF THREE EARLY-TYPE SEMI-DETACHED SYSTEMS: XZ AQL, UX HER, AND AT PEG

    SciTech Connect

    Zola, S.; Baştürk, Ö.; Şenavcı, H. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a combined photometric, spectroscopic, and orbital period study of three early-type eclipsing binary systems: XZ Aql, UX Her, and AT Peg. As a result, we have derived the absolute parameters of their components and, on that basis, we discuss their evolutionary states. Furthermore, we compare their parameters with those of other binary systems and with theoretical models. An analysis of all available up-to-date times of minima indicated that all three systems studied here show cyclic orbital changes; their origin is discussed in detail. Finally, we performed a frequency analysis for possible pulsational behavior, and asmore » a result we suggest that XZ Aql hosts a δ Scuti component.« less

  17. High resolution OCT quantitative analysis of the space between the IOL and the posterior capsule during the early cataract postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Tao, Aizhu; Lu, Ping; Li, Jin; Shao, Yilei; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao; Zhao, Yinying; Lu, Fan

    2013-10-25

    We quantitatively characterized the space between the IOL and the posterior capsule (IOL-PC space) during the early postphacoemulsification period, using high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). We recruited 30 eyes of 30 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and randomly divided them into two groups. Acrysof Natural IQ IOLs were implanted in one group (n = 15), and Adapt-AO IOLs were implanted into the other (n = 15). A custom-built OCT instrument was used to image the IOL-PC space at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery. Slit-lamp examination and auto refraction were performed at each visit. The IOL-PC spaces in the IQ group were 0.72 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24, and 0.23 ± 0.16 mm(2) at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery, respectively. At each of these times, the values for the AO group were significantly smaller (P < 0.001). Compared to 1 day after surgery, significant changes in the ACDs and refractive errors occurred up to 1 month postoperatively in the IQ group; however, changes in the ACD and refractive error were significant only at 1 week in the AO group. The decreases in IOL-PC space and in ACD during the early postoperative period were associated with a myopic shift. It appeared that the different IOL designs had a role in closure of the IOL-PC space. High resolution OCT was suitable for quantitative analysis of IOL-PC space. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01605812.).

  18. Single-injection femoral nerve block. Effects on the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tugay, Nazan; Saricaoglu, Fatma; Satilmis, Tulin; Alpar, Ulku; Akarcali, Inci; Citaker, Seyit; Tugay, Umut; Atilla, Bulent; Tokgozoglu, Mazhar

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of single injection femoral nerve block (FNB) on the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted this prospective, randomized, blinded trial in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Hospital Ankara, Turkey, between June 2003 and April 2004. Twenty-three patients scheduled for elective TKA were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group I received preemptive single injection FNB, group II received postoperative single injection FNB, and group III served as a control group. Intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) was used following surgery in all groups. Morphine dose and pain score defined by the visual analog scale (VAS) were recorded postoperatively at the 15th minute, 30th minute, 1st, 4th, 6th, 12th, 24th, and 48th hours. A standard rehabilitation protocol was applied for all patients. The independence level in functional activities was assessed during the first 2 postoperative days and at discharge with the Iowa Level of Assistance Scale (ILAS) and the Iowa Ambulation Speed Scale (IASS). Physical therapists that enrolled in the study were blinded to the groups. Pain scores were significantly different between the groups (p<0.05). The preemptive and postoperative FNB group`s VAS scores were both significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in VAS scores between preemptive and postoperative FNB groups (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in any of the functional scores in the first 2 postoperative days, and at discharge (p>0.05). Single injection FNB provided effective analgesia in patients undergoing TKA. However, the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period was not influenced by the analgesia method.

  19. [Relationship between leaf litter decomposition and colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates during early frost period in a headwater stream in the Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Hai Jun; Li, Ling; Nan, Xiao Fei; Zhang, Zhen Xing; Li, Kun

    2017-11-01

    Annually, about 70% of the streams in the Changbai Mountains are frosted during November to April, with manifest seasonal freeze-thaw characters. By using monoculture and mixing leaf litters of Tilia amurensis, Acer mono and Quecus mongolica, this research attempted to disentangle the relationship between leaf litter decomposition and colonization of macroinvertebrates in the stream during early frost period. A 35-day investigation was carried out in a headwater stream of the Changbai Mountains. Nylon bags with two hole sizes (5 mm and 0.3 mm) were used to examine decomposition of the litters. The results showed that the mass losses were significantly different among the three kinds of leaf litters in monoculture, whose decomposition rates descended as A. mono, T. amurensis, and Q. mongolica, however, there existed no significant difference among the litter mixing. Mass losses in both mesh bags all showed little difference, except T. amurensis and the mixed litters. Litter mixing effects occurred in the coarse mesh bags with A. mono and Q. mongolica, but no mixture effects for others. Community structures of the macroinvertebrates colonizing in the litter bags differed with each other, but shredders' density had no significant difference among the three litters, and the mixing effects on shredders were poor. Our results implied that microbes play the major decomposers of leaf litters, and macroinvertebrates contribute little to the decomposition in the early frost period. Despite shredder's density is lower, they determine the mixing effects of litters. Macroinvertebrates are selective to food and habitats, however, due to the short term colonizing, and the influence of leaf litters on shredders is still unsure. Our results might contribute to understanding the cold season ecological processes and related management issues of headwater stream ecosystem.

  20. Flank eruptions of Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods: New data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Condomines, Michel; Tanguy, Jean-Claude

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present new data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism with the aim of improving the knowledge of the flank eruptions that occurred at Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods, as defined in the new geological map of the volcano. The combination of the two dating techniques demonstrates that three major flank eruptions occurred on the lower north and west flanks during Greek-Roman epochs, producing large scoria cones and extensive lava flows. In particular, the Mt Ruvolo and Mt Minardo events highly impacted the territory of the west flank, notably by damming the Simeto River. The new data of the Millicucco and Due Monti lava flows, on the lower north-east flank, indicate a younger age than their stratigraphic ages quoted in the 2011 geological map, since they occurred around 700 and 500 AD, respectively. None of the large flank eruptions occurring on the lower slopes of Etna during the Early Medieval age are reported in the historical sources. Overall, our paper shows that a comprehensive assessment of eruptions at Mount Etna in the last three millennia can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Using motor behavior during an early critical period to restore skilled limb movement after damage to the corticospinal motor system during development

    PubMed Central

    Friel, KM; Chakrabarty, S; H-C, Kuo; Martin, JH

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated requirements for restoring motor function after corticospinal (CS) system damage during early postnatal development. Activity-dependent competition between the CS tracts (CST) of the two hemispheres is imperative for normal development. Blocking primary motor cortex (M1) activity unilaterally during a critical period (postnatal weeks-PW-5–7) produces permanent contralateral motor skill impairments, loss of M1 motor map, aberrant CS terminations, and decreases in CST presynaptic sites and spinal cholinergic interneuron numbers. To repair these motor systems impairments and restore function, we manipulated motor experience in three groups of cats after this CST injury produced by inactivation. One group wore a jacket restraining the limb ipsilateral to inactivation, forcing use of the contralateral, impaired, limb, for the month following M1 inactivation (PW8–13; “Restraint Alone”). A second group wore the restraint during PW8–13, and was also trained for 1 h/day in a reaching task with the contralateral forelimb (“Early Training”). To test the efficacy of intervention during adolescence, a third group wore the restraint and received reach training during PW20–24 (“Delayed Training”). Early training restored CST connections and the M1 motor map; increased cholinergic spinal interneurons numbers on the contralateral, relative to ipsilateral, side; and abrogated limb control impairments. Delayed training restored CST connectivity and the M1 motor map, but not contralateral spinal cholinergic cell counts or motor performance. Restraint alone only restored CST connectivity. Our findings stress the need to reestablish the integrated functions of the CS system at multiple hierarchical levels in restoring skilled motor function after developmental injury. PMID:22764234

  2. Fungal infections in children in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Radoslaw; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Irga-Jaworska, Ninela; Chojnicki, Maciej; Steffens, Mariusz; Paczkowski, Konrad; Zielinski, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative infections are still an important problem in cardiac surgery, especially in the paediatric population, and may influence the final outcome of congenital heart disease treatment. Postoperative infections with fungi are uncommon. The aetiology is poorly understood, and the proper diagnosis and treatment is unclear. In this single-centre study, the frequency of invasive fungal disease in children who underwent surgical management of congenital heart diseases was determined along with the risk factors for infection, treatment options and outcomes. All consecutive paediatric patients (<18 years of age) who underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease between September 2008 and December 2015 in a paediatric cardiac centre in Poland were identified. Those who developed invasive fungal disease in the early postoperative period (30 days) were identified. Of the 1540 cardiosurgical procedures for congenital heart disease, 6 were complicated by fungal infection (0.39%). One patient had a high probability of fungal infection, but the diagnosis was unproved. Nevertheless, the patient was successfully treated with antifungal treatment. Five had proven invasive fungal disease. Of these, 3 were diagnosed with candidaemia. All had undergone cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the remaining 2 patients, 1 was a preterm newborn with complete atrioventricular septal defect who developed rib fungal invasion. The remaining patient had pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and developed Fournier's gangrene after surgery. None of the patients died due to infection in the early postoperative period. However, the child with rib fungal invasion died 39 days after surgery as a result of multiorgan failure. Fungal infections in paediatric patients after cardiac surgery may markedly influence morbidity and mortality. Fungal infection prophylaxis in this specific group of children may reduce morbidity, whereas early empirical treatment followed by a targeted approach may

  3. Peripheral thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroid hormone deiodinase gene expression in dairy heifers on the day of ovulation and during the early peri-implantation period.

    PubMed

    Meyerholz, Marie Margarete; Mense, Kirsten; Linden, Matthias; Raliou, Mariam; Sandra, Olivier; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Hoedemaker, Martina; Schmicke, Marion

    2016-09-08

    Before the onset of fetal thyroid hormone production, the transplacental delivery of maternal thyroid hormones is necessary for embryonic and fetal development. Therefore, the adaptation of maternal thyroid hormone metabolism may be important for pregnancy success and embryo survival. The aims of this study were to determine the thyroid hormone levels during the early peri-implantation period until day 18 and on the day of ovulation, to determine whether pregnancy success is dependent on a "normothyroid status" and to determine whether physiological adaptations in maternal thyroid hormone metabolism occur, which may be necessary to provide sufficient amounts of biologically active T3 to support early pregnancy. Therefore, blood samples obtained on the day of ovulation (day 0) and days 14 and 18 of the Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 10) during the respective pregnant, non-pregnant and negative control cycles were analyzed for thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Liver biopsies (day 18) from pregnant and respective non-pregnant heifers were analyzed for mRNA expression of the most abundant hepatic thyroid hormone deiodinase (DIO1) by real time qPCR. Although liver DIO1 mRNA expression did not differ between the pregnant and non-pregnant heifers on day 18, the serum concentrations of TSH and T3 on day 18 were higher in non-pregnant heifers compared to pregnant heifers (P < 0.05). Moreover, T3 decreased between day 0 and 18 in pregnant heifers (P < 0.001). In conclusion, no associations between thyroid hormone patterns on day 18 and pregnancy success were detected. During the early peri-implantation period, TSH and T3 may be affected by the pregnancy status because both TSH and T3 were lower on day 18 in pregnant heifers compared to non-pregnant dairy heifers. In further studies, the thyroid hormone axis should be evaluated throughout the entire gestation to confirm these data and identify other possible effects of

  4. Thyroid Hormones Concentrations during the Mid-Dry Period: An Early Indicator of Fatty Liver in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Šamanc, Horea; Stojić, Velibor; Kirovski, Danijela; Jovanović, Milijan; Cernescu, Horia; Vujanac, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between postpartal fatty liver and thyroid gland activity during the peripartal and mid dry periods was studied. Twenty one dry cows were chosen. Blood samples were obtained on days −30, −2, and +12 related to calving and analized for thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). A T3/T4 ratio was calculated. Liver tissue samples were taken 12 d after calving and tested for the lipid content. Cows were divided into three groups: mild (<20% fat), moderate (20 to 30%), or severe fatty liver (>30%). Cows, that were affected with severe fatty liver, were hypothyroid prior to development of the condition due to lower T4 concentrations, and had significantly lower concentration of T3 and higher T3/T4 ratios than cows with mild and moderate fatty liver. Thus, hypothyroid state during mid-dry period may be an early indicator of postpartal fatty liver and may provoke T3/T4 ratio increase in this group of cows. PMID:21048844

  5. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cantoral, A; Téllez-Rojo, M M; Ettinger, A S; Hu, H; Hernández-Ávila, M; Peterson, K

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with risk of obesity, but little evidence exists to evaluate if age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption increases risk in children. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption with risk of obesity in 227 Mexican children. SSB intake was measured every 6 months; age of introduction and cumulative consumption during the pre-school period were calculated. Height, weight, waist circumference, SSB intake and other relevant variables were measured at age 8-14 years and obesity defined using standard criteria. All participants were introduced to SSB before age 24 months and most (73%) before 12 months. Early SSB introduction (≤12 months) was not significantly associated with increased odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 4.59). However, children in the highest tertile of cumulative SSB consumption, compared with the lowest, had almost three times the odds of general (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27, 7.00) and abdominal (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.03) obesity at age 8-14 years. High SSB consumption increased the likelihood of obesity in 8-14-year-old children. Our results suggest that SSB intake should be delayed and excessive SSB consumption in pre-school period should be avoided. © 2015 World Obesity.

  6. Representations of relatedness with parents and friends and autonomous academic motivation during the late adolescence-early adulthood period: reciprocal or unidirectional effects?

    PubMed

    Guay, Frédéric; Marsh, Herbert W; Senécal, Caroline; Dowson, Martin

    2008-12-01

    The literature on the determinants of academic motivation indicates that social and affective processes connected to students' interpersonal relationships are central elements in understanding students' academic motivation and other school-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: Does autonomous motivation drive representations of relatedness, do representations of relatedness drive autonomous motivation, or are these constructs reciprocally related over time? The sample consists of 834 adolescents aged 18 years (SD=1.88) who participated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Results from the structural equation models provided good support for the effect of representations of relatedness with parents on autonomous academic motivation but no convincing support for the effect of motivation on representations of relatedness with parents. In addition, no significant effect in either direction was found between representations of relatedness with friends and autonomous academic motivation. It might be important to inform parents that they may still have an influence on their adolescent's representations of relatedness and subsequently on his/her autonomous academic motivation even during the late adolescence-early adulthood period, a period when some parents may be tempted to believe that they can do little to motivate their offspring.

  7. The effects of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor blockade during the early neurodevelopmental period on emotional behaviors and cognitive functions of adolescent Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kocahan, Sayad; Akillioglu, Kubra; Binokay, Secil; Sencar, Leman; Polat, Sait

    2013-05-01

    The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain and plays an important role in neuronal development, learning and memory, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of NMDA receptor blockade during the early neurodevelopmental period on exploratory locomotion, anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive functions of adolescent Wistar rats. NMDA receptor hypofunction was induced 7-10 days after birth using MK-801 in rats (0.25 mg/kg twice a day for 4 days via intraperitoneal injection). The open-field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests were used to evaluate exploratory locomotion, anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive functions. In the OF test, MK-801 caused an increase in locomotion behavior (p < 0.01) and in the frequency of rearing (p < 0.05). In the EPM test, MK-801 treatment increased the time spent in the open arms, the number of open arm entries and the amount of head dipping (p < 0.01). MK-801 treatment caused no statistical difference compared to the control group in the PA test (p > 0.05). Chronic NMDA receptor blockade during the critical period of maturation for the glutamatergic brain system (postnatal days 7-10) produces locomotor hyperactivity and decreased anxiety levels, but has no significant main effect on cognitive function during adolescence.

  8. Effects of NMDA receptor blockade during the early development period on the retest performance of adult Wistar rats in the elevated plus maze.

    PubMed

    Kocahan, Sayad; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2013-07-01

    The elevated plus maze (EPM) is an animal model of anxiety used to test the effects of anxioselective drugs. The loss of the anxiolytic effect of drugs during the second exposure to the EPM is called the "one trial tolerance" (OTT) phenomenon. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the OTT phenomenon and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in the early developmental period of rats. NMDA receptor blockade was accomplished using MK-801 treatment given between postnatal days 20-30. Beginning on postnatal day 20, the rats were subcutaneously injected with MK-801 twice a day at the nape of the neck for a period of 10 days (0.25 mg/kg). Increased open arm exploration was observed in MK-801-treated rats during trial 1 (p = 0.001) and trial 2 (p = 0.003). The rats spent less time in the closed arms as compared to the saline animals in trial 1 (p = 0.006), and this time decreased further in trial 2 (p = 0.02). The fecal boli of the MK-801 group was decreased in trial 1 as compared to the saline group (p = 0.01), but was not significantly different in trial 2 (p = 0.08). In conclusion, NMDA receptor blockade using MK-801 produced an anxiolytic-like effect in trials 1 and 2. Furthermore, OTT was not affected by NMDA receptor blockade.

  9. Climatic changes during the early Medieval and recent periods inferred from δ13C and δ18O of Siberian larch trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, O. V.; Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf

    2010-12-01

    We report unique isotope datasets for δ13C and δ18O of wood and cellulose of larch trees (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) from Northeastern Yakutia [70°N-148°E] for the early Medieval (AD 900-1000) and recent (AD 1880-2004) periods. During the recent period June, July, and August air temperatures were positively correlated with δ13C and δ18O of wood and cellulose, while July precipitation was negatively correlated. The positive correlation with one of the warmest months (July) in Northeastern Yakutia could indicate high photosynthetic capacity, because warm and dry conditions cause stomatal closure and lower the isotopic fractionation, leading to less negative δ13C values. Because during July, the soil water is still frozen at a soil depth of 20-30 cm, the water accessibility for trees is limited, which can lead to drought situations. An increase in water availability allows for a higher stomatal conductance, resulting in lower δ13C values, leading to a negative relationship with summer precipitation. Furthermore, the vapor pressure deficit of July and August was significantly correlated with δ13C of wood and cellulose, indicating decreased stomatal conductance, an expression of moderate drought. This leads to reduced 13CO2 discrimination and less negative δ13C values. The simultaneous increase of δ18O also indicates a reduction in stomatal conductance under rather dry conditions or drought. Comparative analyses between mean isotope values for the AD 900-1000 and AD 1880-2004 periods indicate similar ranges of climatic conditions, with the exception of the period AD 1950-2004, which is characterized by increased summer drought. Whilst isotopic ratios in cellulose are reliably related to climatic variables, those in whole wood showed even stronger relationships during some periods. Strong positive correlations between δ18O of cellulose and Greenland ice-core data were detected for the beginning of the Medieval period (r=0.86; p<0.05), indicating the reliability

  10. [VIABILITY OF MYOCAROIUM AS RISK FACTOR FOR MORTALITY IN EARLY AND LATE PERIOD AFTER BYPASS SURGERY OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND SEVERE LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION].

    PubMed

    Todurov, B M; Zelenchuk, V; Kuzmich, I M; Ivanyuk, N B; Nikolaichuk, M V

    2015-06-01

    In coronary heart disease and low ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LV) in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery tend mortality and complication rate higher than preserved LV systolic function. Significant preoperative predictors of early mortality and remote in these patients, and the incidence of complications in the early postoperative period were reveald.

  11. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  12. Effect of Lavender Oil Aroma in the Early Hours of Postpartum Period on Maternal Pains, Fatigue, and Mood: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Farideh; Shiravani, Mahsa; Najib, Fatemeh Sadat; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Salehi, Alireza; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Busy care providers focus on the serious complications of postpartum period. This issue causes the seemingly trivial complications, such as mother's pains, fatigue, and psychological status, to be less taken into account. The study aimed to determine the effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood in primiparous mothers. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 participants; 29 in intervention group and 27 in control group. The intervention group received lavender oil in three doses during the first 24 h after delivery. Sesame oil was used in the control group. Intensity of pain, fatigue, and distress level was measured by visual analog scale before and after the interventions. Besides, mood status was assessed through the positive and negative affect schedule. Results: The mean age of all the participants was 23.88 ± 3.88 years. After the first intervention and also in the tomorrow morning assessment, significant differences were found between the two groups regarding perineal pain (P = 0.004, P < 0.001), physical pain (P < 0.001), fatigue (P = 0.02, P < 0.001), and distress scores (P < 0.001). In addition, significant differences were found concerning the mean scores of positive (P < 0.001) and negative (P = 0.007, P < 0.001) moods between the two groups after the interventions. Repeated measures analyses showed that the two groups were significantly different over time in all the evaluated variables. Conclusions: Lavender oil aromatherapy starting in the first hours of postpartum period resulted in better physical and mood status compared to nonaromatic group. PMID:28567231

  13. Pretransplant Tacrolimus Dose Requirements Predict Early Posttransplant Dose Requirements in Blood Group AB0-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Nauras; de Man, Femke M; de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H; van Gelder, Teun; Hesselink, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretransplant tacrolimus (Tac) dose requirements of patients scheduled to undergo living donor kidney transplantation correlate with posttransplantation dose requirements. The predictive value of Tac dose requirements (defined as the ratio of the Tac predose concentration, C0, divided by the total daily Tac dose, D) pretransplantation on this same parameter posttransplantation was assessed retrospectively in a cohort of 57 AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. These patients started immunosuppressive therapy 14 days before transplant surgery. All patients were using a stable dose of glucocorticoids and were at steady-state Tac exposure before transplantation. Tac dose requirements immediately before transplantation (C0/Dbefore) explained 63% of the Tac dose requirements on day 3 after transplantation: r = 0.633 [F (1, 44) = 75.97, P < 0.01]. No other clinical and demographic variables predicted Tac dose requirements early after transplantation. Steady-state Tac dose requirement before transplantation largely predicted posttransplantation Tac dose requirements in AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. The importance of this finding is that the posttransplantation Tac dose can be individualized based on a patient's pretransplantation Tac concentration/dose ratio. Pretransplant Tac phenotyping therefore has the potential to improve transplantation outcomes.

  14. Can zero-hour cortical biopsy predict early graft outcomes after living donor renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ranjeet Singh; Mehta, Nisarg; Mehta, Sony Bhaskar; Babu, Manas; Bansal, Devesh; Pillai, Biju S; Sam, Mohan P; Krishnamoorthy, Hariharan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify relevance of subclinical pathological findings in the kidneys of living donors and correlate these with early graft renal function. This was a prospective study on 84 living donor kidney transplant recipients over a period of two years. In all the donors, cortical wedge biopsy was taken and sent for assessment of glomerular, mesangial, and tubule status. The graft function of patients with normal histology was compared with those of abnormal histological findings at one, three, and six months, and one year post-surgery. Most abnormal histological findings were of mild degree. Glomerulosclerosis (GS, 25%), interstitial fibrosis (IF, 13%), acute tubular necrosis (ATN 5%), and focal tubal atrophy (FTA, 5%) were the commonly observed pathological findings in zero-hour biopsies. Only those donors who had histological changes of IF and ATN showed progressive deterioration of renal function at one month, three months, six months, and one year post-transplantation. In donors with other histological changes, no significant effect on graft function was observed. Zero-hour cortical biopsy gave us an idea of the general status of the donor kidney and presence or absence of subclinical pathological lesions. A mild degree of subclinical and pathological findings on zero-hour biopsy did not affect early graft renal function in living donor kidney transplantation. Zero-hour cortical biopsy could also help in discriminating donor-derived lesions from de novo alterations in the kidney that could happen subsequently.

  15. N zooming into the Mediterranean outflow fossil moat during the 1.2-1.8 million years period (Early-Pleistocene) - An approach by radiogenic and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreiro, Susana M.; Antón, Laura; Reguera, M. Isabel; Fernández, Marta; Conde, Estefanía; Barrado, Ana I.; Yllera, Abel

    2015-12-01

    The fossil Alvarez Cabral erosive Moat contains hemipelagite, contourite and turbidite facies where oceanography changes in the Mediterranean outflow are archived over the 1.2-1.8 Myr time period. Here we used Pb and Sr radiogenic isotopes to trace water masses and sediment source changes, for the first time in twenty glacial-interglacial (G-I) cycles of the Early-Pleistocene interval, and the last Glacial Maximum through Holocene cycle (including the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Stadial-1). A mixing line of Pb isotopes gives reliable low radiogenic 208Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/207Pb typical of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in one end-member and the signature of high radiogenic isotopes of Atlantic Waters (AW) towards the second end-member. The 87Sr/86Sr isotopes also display two end-members of the mixing line between eolian transport/dust source (0.71) and fluvial transport/weathering source (0.73) previously proposed in the Gulf of Cadiz. Combination of Pb and Sr radiogenic isotopes with O and C stable isotopes of planktonic and benthic foraminifera, and the response of foraminifera benthos over the Early-Pleistocene interval, reveals a direct link between water masses circulation and shifts in G-I. We found a persistent cyclic pattern of MOW circulation and fluvial deposition during glaciations and AW and aeolian influence during interglaciations. On site U1386B/C, the upper-MOW was less ventilated but productive and with high flux of organic flux matter during glacials, while Atlantic Waters were better ventilated, enriched in O, but less productive during interglacials. We infer that shifts in ocean and atmospheric processes in the Gulf of Cadiz were strongly controlled by Earth's obliquity (41 kyr-cycle) and 35°NH insolation during the Early-Pleistocene. We propose a correlation in changes in phase-relationship between precession and obliquity. In general terms, physical properties of fine sediments (glacials) show lower NGR, low reflectance and

  16. Acceptance and Use of Mobile Technology for Health Self-Monitoring in Lung Transplant Recipients during the First Year Post-Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Sereika, Susan M; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Handler, Steven M; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    To describe lung transplant recipients (LTRs') acceptance and use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring during the first year post-transplantation, and explore correlates of the use of technology in the 0 to 2, >2 to ≤6, >6 to ≤12, and 0 to 12 months. Secondary analysis of data from 96 LTR assigned to use Pocket PATH(®), a smartphone application, for daily health self-monitoring in a randomized controlled trial. Use of Pocket PATH was categorized as low, moderate, and high use. Proportional odds models for ordinal logistic regression were employed to explore correlates of use of technology. LTR reported high acceptance of Pocket PATH at baseline. However, acceptance was not associated with actual use over the 12 months (p=0.45~0.96). Actual use decreased across time intervals (p<0.001). Increased self-care agency was associated with the increased odds of higher use in women (p=0.03) and those less satisfied with technology training (p=0.02) in the first 2 months. Higher use from >2 to ≤6 months was associated with greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.37, p=0.01) and shorter length of hospital stay (OR=0.98, p=0.02). Higher use from >6 to ≤12 months was associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.02), lower psychological distress (OR=0.43, p=0.02), and better physical functioning (OR=1.09, p=0.01). Higher use over 12 months was also associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.007), better physical functioning (OR=1.13, p=0.001), and greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.05, p=0.02). Correlates were different for short- and long-term use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring in the first year post-transplantation. It is important to follow up with LTR with longer hospital stay, poor physical functioning, and psychological distress, providing ongoing education to improve their long-term use of technology for health self-monitoring.

  17. Acceptance and Use of Mobile Technology for Health Self-Monitoring in Lung Transplant Recipients during the First Year Post-Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sereika, Susan M.; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Handler, Steven M.; Schlenk, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To describe lung transplant recipients (LTRs’) acceptance and use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring during the first year post-transplantation, and explore correlates of the use of technology in the 0 to 2, >2 to ≤6, >6 to ≤12, and 0 to 12 months. Methods Secondary analysis of data from 96 LTR assigned to use Pocket PATH®, a smartphone application, for daily health self-monitoring in a randomized controlled trial. Use of Pocket PATH was categorized as low, moderate, and high use. Proportional odds models for ordinal logistic regression were employed to explore correlates of use of technology. Results LTR reported high acceptance of Pocket PATH at baseline. However, acceptance was not associated with actual use over the 12 months (p=0.45~0.96). Actual use decreased across time intervals (p<0.001). Increased self-care agency was associated with the increased odds of higher use in women (p=0.03) and those less satisfied with technology training (p=0.02) in the first 2 months. Higher use from >2 to ≤6 months was associated with greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.37, p=0.01) and shorter length of hospital stay (OR=0.98, p=0.02). Higher use from >6 to ≤12 months was associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.02), lower psychological distress (OR=0.43, p=0.02), and better physical functioning (OR=1.09, p=0.01). Higher use over 12 months was also associated with older age (OR=1.05, p=0.007), better physical functioning (OR=1.13, p=0.001), and greater satisfaction with technology training (OR=3.05, p=0.02). Conclusions Correlates were different for short- and long-term use of mobile technology for health self-monitoring in the first year post-transplantation. It is important to follow up with LTR with longer hospital stay, poor physical functioning, and psychological distress, providing ongoing education to improve their long-term use of technology for health self-monitoring. PMID:27437052

  18. Central command increases muscular oxygenation of the non-exercising arm at the early period of voluntary one-armed cranking.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji; Asahara, Ryota; Liang, Nan; Endo, Kana; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Michioka, Kensuke; Sasaki, Yu; Hamada, Hironobu; Yamashita, Kaori; Watanabe, Tae; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non-contracting arm muscles during contralateral one-armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non-exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) of the non-contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one-armed cranking (intensity, 35-40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one-armed exercise for 1 min. Voluntary one-armed cranking increased ( P  <   0.05) the Oxy-Hb of the triceps, biceps, and ECR muscles to the same extent (15 ± 4% of the baseline level, 17 ± 5%, and 16 ± 4%, respectively). The greatest increase in the Oxy-Hb was observed in the deltoid muscle. Intravenous injection of atropine (10-15  μ g/kg) and/or propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) revealed that the increased Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles consisted of the rapid atropine-sensitive and delayed propranolol-sensitive components. Mental imagery of the exercise increased the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. Motor-driven passive one-armed cranking had little influence on the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. It is likely that central command plays a role in the initial increase in oxygenation in the non-contracting arm muscles via sympathetic cholinergic vasodilatation at the early period of one-armed cranking. The centrally induced increase in oxygenation may not be different among the distal arm muscles but may augment in the deltoid muscle. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Urinary Tract Infections Among Hospitalized Adults in the Early Post-Liver Transplant Period: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Causative Agents, and Microbial Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Jafarpour, Zahra; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rasekh, Razieh; Khosravifard, Leila; Janghorban, Parisa

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are among the most common infections after liver transplant, especially soon after surgery. This study analyzed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria, their causative agents, and related risk factors in the early period after liver transplant in hospitalized adult transplant recipients in the main liver transplant referral center in Iran. In this prospective study, 389 consecutive adult patients who underwent liver transplant at the Nemazee Teaching Hospital were enrolled between October 2014 and October 2015. Risk factors were compared for patients who developed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria ("infection group "; n = 63 [16.2% ]) and patients without evidence of infection ("control group "; n = 211 [54.2% ]). Patients with sites of infection other than the urinary tract were excluded. Antimicrobial sus ceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared variables between the 2 groups. Seventy-nine episodes of urinary tract infections or bacteriuria occurred in the infection group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, hospitalization 2 to 7 days before transplant, and frequency of abdominal exploration were 11.0, 5.9, and 3.0 times more common in the infection group than in the control group. The chance of infection rises 1.1 times with each one unit increase of body mass index. The most common infection causes were gram-negative bacteria (n = 50; 63.3%), predominantly Escherichia coli (n = 24; 30.4%); followed by gram-positive bacteria (n = 20; 25.3%), predominantly Enterococcus species (n = 14; 17.8%) that had a high incidence of vancomycin resistance (n = 10; 71.4%); and non-Candida albicans species isolates (n = 9; 11.4%). Urinary tract infections are a common infection in hospitalized adult patients soon after liver transplant. Female sex, hospitalization shortly before transplant, more frequent abdominal exploration, and higher

  20. A study comparing ultrasound images of tongue movements between open bite children and normal children in the early mixed dentition period.

    PubMed

    Kikyo, T; Saito, M; Ishikawa, M

    1999-09-01

    The tongue surface movement of young patients with or without open bite was evaluated by ultrasound images taken on the posterior part of the tongue on the frontal plane to determine whether there is any relationship between the tongue movement and open bite malocclusion in the early mixed dentition period. The standardized reproducible ultrasound images were obtained using ultrasound diagnostic equipment that was fabricated in a cephalostat unit having a probe stabilizer. At the central portion of the tongue, no significant differences were detected in the duration or the momentum of tongue surface movement on a frontal plane was detected between the patients with and without open bite during swallowing. The farther the region was from the central portion, however, the longer the duration and the bigger the momentum of the tongue surface movement was found in the open bite group. Based on this evidence, it is suggested that an open-bite child swallows by using a tongue thrust motion that forms using a large depressed area in the tongue, whereas a normal child without tongue thrust forms a rather narrow groove in the central portion of the tongue when swallowing.

  1. A collection of sub-daily pressure and temperature observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.

    2015-08-01

    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.

  2. Incubation Period and Early Natural History Events of the Acute Form of Paracoccidioidomycosis: Lessons from Patients with a Single Paracoccidioides spp. Exposure.

    PubMed

    Buccheri, Renata; Khoury, Zarifa; Barata, Luis Carlos Barradas; Benard, Gil

    2016-06-01

    Several aspects of the natural history of paracoccidioidomycosis are still poorly understood. Different from the most prevalent, chronic form of the disease, the acute form represents a continuum from the initial respiratory infection to the full-blown disease, thus providing an opportunity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the early phase of this mycosis. We describe, for the first time, two patients with a single time point exposure to Paracoccidioides spp., for whom we were able to determine the time lapsed between exposure to the fungus Paracoccidioides spp. and the onset of signs and symptoms. In case 1, the pulmonary infection was unapparent, and the first manifestations of the acute/subacute form of the disease presented 4 months after Paracoccidioides spp. In case 2, self-limited, non-specific respiratory and systemic symptoms presented 45 days after infection. Thus, our patients confirm that, within a few weeks of infection, Paracoccidioides spp. affects the pulmonary lymphatic system and initially causes no or mild-to-moderate self-limited symptoms, eventually causing abnormalities on a chest X-ray, all of which spontaneously subside. These cases provide some insight into the natural history of this mycosis, the extent of the host exposure to the fungus, and the determination of its incubation period.

  3. Short communication: the effect of dry period duration and dietary energy density in early lactation on the rennet gelation properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T; de Feu, M A; O'Brien, B; Guinee, T P; Murphy, J J

    2010-02-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effects of decreasing the dry period (DP) duration and altering the energy density of the diet during early lactation on the rheological characteristics of milk. Forty mature Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry period treatments and 1 of 2 nutritional treatments. The DP treatments were continuous milking (CM) or an 8-wk standard dry period (SDP), and the nutritional treatments were a standard energy diet (SE) or a high energy diet (HE). Actual DP lengths were 6.3+/-1.7 d and 62.1+/-1.9 d for cows on the CM and SDP treatments, respectively. Milk samples were collected at 2, 6, and 10 wk postpartum. The concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose were determined in each sample. The rennet gelation properties were measured at 31 degrees C using dynamic low-amplitude strain oscillatory rheometry. The following parameters were obtained from the resultant elastic shear modulus (G'): gelation time, maximum curd firming rate, and gel strength. Reducing the DP duration from 62 to 6 d resulted in increases in milk protein concentration (31.8 vs. 34.7 g/kg), maximum curd firming rate (2.58 vs. 3.60 Pa/min), and gel strength (69.4 vs. 90.5Pa). Increasing the dietary energy density decreased percentage milk fat (43.1 vs. 37.7 g/kg) but otherwise had no effect. Gel strength was correlated with maximum curd firming rate (r=0.99), and both variables were correlated with milk protein concentration (r=0.71 and r=0.73, respectively). The results indicate that decreasing the duration of the DP increased milk protein concentration and improved the rennet gelation properties of milk, but that dietary energy density had little effect. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoscopic Repair of Incisional Hernia Following Liver Transplantation-Early Experience of a Single Institution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S-C; Lin, C-C; Elsarawy, A; Lin, Y-H; Wang, S-H; Wu, Y-J; Chen, C-L

    2017-10-01

    Ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is not uncommon following liver transplantation. Open repair was traditionally adopted for its management. Laparoscopic repair of VIH has been performed successfully in nontransplant patients with evidence of reduced recurrence rates and hospital stay. However, the application of VIH in post-transplantation patients has not been well established. Herein, we provide our initial experience with laparoscopic repair of post-transplantation VIH. From March 2015 to March 2016, 18 cases of post-transplantation VIH were subjected to laparoscopic repair (laparoscopy group). A historical control group of 17 patients who underwent conventional open repair (open group) from January 2013 to January 2015 were identified for comparison. The demographics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared. There were no significant differences among basic demographics between the 2 groups. No conversion was recorded in the laparoscopy group. Recurrence of VIH up to the end of the study period was not noted. In the laparoscopy group, the minor complications were lower (16.7% vs 52.9%; P = .035), the length of hospital stay was shorter (3 d vs 7 d, P = .007), but the median operative time was longer (137.5 min vs 106 min; P = .003). Laparoscopic repair of post-transplantation VIH is a safe and feasible procedure with shorter length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Posterior cruciate-substituting total knee replacement recovers the flexion arc faster in the early postoperative period in knees with high varus deformity: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Alpaslan; Akalın, Yavuz; Çevik, Nazan; Otuzbir, Ali; Özkan, Yüksel; Dostabakan, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    Posterior cruciate retention (CR) and substitution (PS) has been controversial in knee replacement surgery. Satisfactory medium and long-term results have been reported in knees with and without deformity but there are limited studies about early functional comparison in terms of recovery of flexion arc, stair activity, walking ability and straight leg raising, especially, in early postoperative period in knees with deformity. Therefore, we aimed to compare the flexion arc in CR and PS knees in postoperative first year including early postoperative days prospectively. Consecutive patients with a deformity of >10° were included and allocated to CR and PS groups randomly. KSS and Feller-patella scores were recorded both preoperatively and postoperatively (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months). Flexion and extension were measured both preoperatively and postoperatively (1st, 2nd, 3rd day and discharge day as well as 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months). Visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded postoperatively at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and discharge day and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th months. The walking ability, stair activity and straight leg raising were recorded. Patients were also examined at the last visit with minimum 7-year follow-up with KSS, Feller-patella and VAS scores. Their mean flexion arcs were measured and recorded. There were 61 TKR evaluated. KSS knee and function scores at the 3rd month and KSS Knee Score at 1st year were superior in PS knees (p = 0.029, p = 0.046, p = 0.026). Flexion arc was found larger on day 1, 2, 3 and discharge day, and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 12th month in PS group (p = 0.048, p = 0.002, p = 0.027, p = 0.043, p = 0.014, p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p = 0.018). Walking and stair activity showed no difference but straight leg raising was better in CR knees (p = 0.02). Mean flexion arc was larger in PS knees at the last visit after 7 years (119.0° ± 7.5° in PS and 113.8° ± 8.7° in CR, p = 0.02). There was no revision

  6. CD56-enriched donor cell infusion after post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for haploidentical transplantation of advanced myeloid malignancies is associated with prompt reconstitution of mature natural killer cells and regulatory T cells with reduced incidence of acute graft versus host disease: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita Rani; Zaman, Shamsur; Nedunchezhian, Murugaiyan; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Bhakuni, Prakash; Ahmed, Margoob; Sharma, Kanika; Rawat, Sheh; O'donnell, Paul; Chakrabarti, Suparno

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a pilot study on the feasibility of CD56-enriched donor cell infusion after post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for 10 patients with advanced myeloid malignancies undergoing haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with cyclosporine alone as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and compared the outcome and immune reconstitution with a control group of 20 patients undergoing the same without CD56-enriched donor cell infusion. An early and rapid surge of mature NK cells as well as CD4 + T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) was noted compared with the control group. KIR of donor phenotype reconstituted as early as day 30 with expression of CD56 dim CD16 + NKG2A - KIR + phenotype. None experienced viral or fungal infections, and non-relapse mortality was 10% only. The incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was 50% in the control group with none in the CD56 group (P = 0.01). Only two had de novo chronic GVHD in each group. Relapse occurred in five patients in CD56 group with a median follow-up of 12 months, similar to the control group. Our preliminary data show that CD56 + donor cell infusion after PTCy and short-course cyclosporine is feasible with prompt engraftment, rapid reconstitution of CD4 + T cells, Tregs and NK cells and reduced incidence of acute GVHD. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing relapse after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukaemia: the role of post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring and MRD-directed intervention.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Dong; Lv, Meng; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute leukaemia (AL). Post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring enables risk stratification and identifies AL patients at higher risk of relapse. MRD assessment primarily involves the determination of leukaemia-associated immunophenotypic patterns using multiparameter flow cytometry, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based evaluation of expression levels of leukaemia-related genes (specific reciprocal gene rearrangements and other mutation types). In addition, next generation sequencing and digital PCR may further enrich current MRD detection. Several MRD-directed interventions have demonstrated the ability to reduce the risk of relapse with acceptable treatment-related toxicities. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is the most important intervention for MRD-positive patients, while several modified strategies, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood cells followed by short term immune suppression and escalating dose regimen, further improve the safety and efficacy of DLI. Interferon therapy, targeted drugs, and hypomethylating agents have also been introduced for MRD-directed interventions. Referring to the issues of whether and who would benefit from pre-emptive intervention according to MRD, in this review, we summarized this rapidly evolving area of MRD monitoring and MRD-directed interventions in AL patients after allo-HSCT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Short periods of incubation, egg turning during storage and broiler breeder hens age for early development of embryos, hatching results, chicks quality and juvenile growth.

    PubMed

    Damaziak, K; Paweska, M; Gozdowski, D; Niemiec, J

    2018-05-14

    An effect of modification of storage conditions of the eggs of broiler breeder flocks at the age of 49-, 52- and 70-, 73-wks of life on an early embryonic development, hatching time and synchronization, hatchability rates, chicks quality and broiler growth was investigated. The eggs were divided into 4 experimental groups: COI = eggs storage 5 d, at turning every 12 h; NSP = eggs storage 12 d, at turning every 12 h; SPIDES = were treated with 4 h pre-incubation at 30°C and 50-55% air humidity, delivered at 5 and 10 d over of 12 d of storage, and turning every 12 h; NCOI = eggs storage 12 d, no turning and no pre-incubation. Eggs from older hens were characterized by poorer hatchability and poorer chicks quality. The use of 2 × 4 h pre-incubation in 12 d of eggs storage could have an effect on the initial acceleration of embryonic development in eggs of young hens, contributing to the alignment of embryos development in eggs from young and older hens to 72 h of incubation. Pre-incubation had no effect on the length of incubation period, hatching window, but it increased the hatchability of the set and apparently fertilized eggs and decreased the number of eggs not hatched, and also improved chicks quality. Eggs turning by 90° every 12 h during the storage positively affected the embryonic development, shortening the incubation time and the quality of chicks, but had no effect on hatchability rates and body weight in 42 d of life. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the applied modifications can be effective in counteracting the negative effects of storage of hatching eggs from both young and older birds.

  9. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period following microsurgical abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2014-11-01

    The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.

  10. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on executive function, working memory, and processing speed during the early recovery period following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Christine R; Summers, Mathew J; Vickers, James C; McCormack, Graeme H; Skilbeck, Clive E

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is detrimental to cognitive function, but results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) populations are mixed. A possible explanation is that APOEe2 carriers have routinely been incorporated into APOEe4 and non-e4 groups, despite APOEe2 being proposed to have an ameliorative effect. Our primary aim was to investigate the influence of APOEe4 on cognitive impairment during early recovery following TBI, excluding the potential confound of APOEe2 possession. A secondary objective was to explore whether APOEe4 displays more pronounced effects in moderate to severe TBI and to consider the potential postinjury protective influence of the APOEe2 allele. Participants who recently sustained a TBI (posttraumatic amnesia > 5 minutes) were assessed on measures of information processing speed, executive function, and working memory upon remission of posttraumatic amnesia. APOE genotype was determined by buccal saliva DNA extraction (APOEe4 n = 37, APOEe3 n = 92, APOEe2 n = 13). Stepwise multiple regressions were performed to compare APOEe4 carriers to APOEe3 homozygotes, with injury severity, age, and estimated premorbid IQ included in the first step. This model was found to significantly predict performance on all tasks, accounting for 17.3-24.3% of the variance. When APOEe4 status was added for the second step, there were no significant changes on any tasks (additional variance <1%). The effect of APOEe4 in moderate to severe TBI and the effect of APOEe2 were explored by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with no significant effects revealed. It is unlikely that APOE genotype influences cognitive function in the initial recovery period following TBI, regardless of injury severity. However, a more nuanced and long-term exploration of the effect of APOE genotype in the TBI population is warranted.

  12. Increased Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of Dentate Granule Neurons in Mice Lacking PSD-95-Interacting Adhesion Molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 during the Early Postnatal Period.

    PubMed

    Roh, Junyeop D; Choi, Su-Yeon; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Tae-Yong; Park, Jong-Sil; Cutforth, Tyler; Chung, Woosuk; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Myeong-Heui; Lee, Yeunkum; Mo, Seojung; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Jaewon; Choi, Se-Young; Bae, Yong Chul; Shen, Kang; Kim, Eunjoon; Han, Kihoon

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3 ) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3. In contrast, however, it is unknown whether Neph2 also has any roles in the postsynaptic compartments of DG neurons. We here report that, through its C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif, Neph2 directly interacts with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Moreover, Neph2 protein is detected in the brain PSD fraction and interacts with PSD-95 in synaptosomal lysates. Functionally, loss of Neph2 in mice leads to age-specific defects in the synaptic connectivity of DG neurons. Specifically, Neph2 -/- mice show significantly increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic events in DG neurons at postnatal week 2 when the endogenous Neph2 protein expression peaks, but show normal excitatory synaptic transmission at postnatal week 3. The evoked excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of medial perforant pathway (MPP)-DG synapses are also normal in Neph2 -/- mice at postnatal week 3, further confirming the age-specific synaptic defects. Together, our results provide some evidence for the postsynaptic function of Neph2 in DG neurons during the early postnatal period, which might be implicated in neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders caused by NEPH2 mutations.

  13. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-09-01

    The benefits of preoperative training programmes compared with alternative treatment are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-intensity preoperative resistance training programme in patients waiting for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3) and finally 3 months after TKA (T4). The intervention group completed an 8-week training programme 3 days per week prior to surgery. Isometric knee flexion, isometric hip abduction, VAS, WOMAC, ROM extension and flexion and all the functional assessments were greater for the intervention group at T2, T3 and T4, whereas isometric knee extension was greater for this group at T2 and T4 compared with control. The present study supports the use of preoperative training in end-stage OA patients to improve early postoperative outcomes. High-intensity strength training during the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up recovery after TKA. I.

  14. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium intake affect rates of bone calcium deposition during pregnancy and the early postpartum period123

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kimberly O; Donangelo, Carmen M; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Gildengorin, Ginny; Abrams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background: Factors affecting bone calcium deposition across pregnancy and lactation are not well characterized. Objective: The impact of maternal age, calcium intake, race-ethnicity, and vitamin D status on the rate of bone calcium deposition (VO+) was assessed across pregnancy and lactation. Design: Stable calcium isotopes were given to 46 women at pre- or early pregnancy (trimester 1), late pregnancy (trimester 3), and 3–10 wk postpartum. Three cohorts were included: 23 adolescents from Baltimore (MD), aged 16.5 ± 1.4 y (mean ± SD; Baltimore cohort); 13 adults from California, aged 29.5 ± 2.6 y (California cohort); and 10 adults from Brazil, aged 30.4 ± 4.0 y (Brazil cohort). The total exchangeable calcium pool, VO+, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], parathyroid hormone, and calcium intake were evaluated. Results: At trimester 3, inverse associations between 1,25(OH)2D and VO+ were evident in the Baltimore (P = 0.059) and Brazil (P = 0.008) cohorts and in the whole group (P = 0.029); calcium intake was not a significant determinant of VO+ in any group during pregnancy. At postpartum, a significant positive association was evident between VO+ and calcium intake (P ≤ 0.002) and between VO+ and African ethnicity (P ≤ 0.004) in the whole group and within the Baltimore and Brazil cohorts. Conclusions: Elevated 1,25(OH)2D was associated with decreased rates of bone calcium deposition during late pregnancy, a finding that was particularly evident in pregnant adolescents and adult women with low calcium intakes. Higher dietary calcium intakes and African ethnicity were associated with elevated rates of bone calcium deposition in the postpartum period. PMID:22648718

  15. Sex-dependent role of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 in stress-regulation and related anxiety phenotype during the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Balázsfi, Diána; Farkas, Lívia; Csikota, Péter; Fodor, Anna; Zsebők, Sándor; Haller, József; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-07-01

    Stress and related disorders are in the focus of interest and glutamate is one of the most important neurotransmitters that can affect these processes. Glutamatergic neurons are characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) among which vGluT3 is unique contributing to the non-canonical, neuromodulatory effect of glutamate. We aimed to study the role of vGluT3 in stress axis regulation and related anxiety during the early postnatal period using knockout (KO) mice with special focus on sex differences. Anxiety was explored on postnatal day (PND) 7-8 by maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Stress-hormone levels were detected 60 min after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection 7 days later. Both genotypes gained weight, but on PND 14-15 KO mice pups had smaller body weight compared to wild type (WT). vGluT3 KO mice reacted to an immune stressor with enhanced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion compared to WT. Although there was a tendency for enhanced anxiety measured by more emitted USV, this did not reach the level of significance. The only sex-related effect was the enhanced corticosterone reactivity in male pups. For the HPA axis regulation in neonates vGluT3 expression seems to be dispensable under basal conditions, but is required for optimal response to immune stressors, most probably through an interaction with other neurotransmitters. Disturbance of the fine balance between these systems may result in a borderline enhanced anxiety-like behavior in vGluT3 KO pups.

  16. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Pamidronate Therapy on Bone Mass Density in Early Post-Renal Transplant Period: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zijie; Han, Zhijian; Tao, Jun; Lu, Pei; Liu, Xuzhong; Wang, Jun; Wu, Bian; Huang, Zhengkai; Yin, Changjun; Tan, Ruoyun; Gu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The overall effect of pamidronate on bone mass density (BMD) in the early renal transplant period varies considerably among studies. The effects of pamidronate on graft function have not been determined. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase independently by two authors. Randomized controlled trials of pamidronate evaluating bone loss in the first year of renal transplantation were included. Methods reported in the “Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.2” were used to evaluate changes of lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, and serum creatinine, calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Fixed or random effect models were used as appropriate. Results Six randomized trials evaluating 281 patients were identified. One hundred forty-four were treated with pamidronate and 137 were control patients. Administration of pamidronate was associated with significant reduction of bone loss in the lumbar spine, compared to the control group (standardized mean difference (SMD)  = 24.62 [16.25, 32.99]). There was no difference between the pamidronate treated and control femoral neck BMD (SMD  = 3.53 [−1.84, 8.90]). A significant increase in the serum creatinine level of the intervention group was seen, compared to the control group. The serum calcium and iPTH of the pamidronate and control groups were not different after 1 year (serum creatinine: SMD  = −3.101 [−5.33, −0.89]; serum calcium: SMD  = 2.18 [−0.8, 5.16]; serum iPTH: SMD  = 0.06 [−0.19, 0.31]). Heterogeneity was low for serum calcium and iPTH and high for serum creatinine. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial clinical efficacy of pamidronate on BMD with no association with any alteration in graft function during the first year of renal transplantation. Significant heterogeneity precludes the conclusion of the

  18. KELT-20b: A Giant Planet with a Period of P ˜ 3.5 days Transiting the V ˜ 7.6 Early A Star HD 185603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Michael B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Gaudi, B. Scott; Stassun, Keivan G.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Bieryla, Allyson; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Collins, Karen A.; Penev, Kaloyan; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Villanueva, Steven, Jr.; Eastman, Jason D.; Kielkopf, John F.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Cohen, David H.; Joner, Michael D.; Stephens, Denise C.; Relles, Howard; Corfini, Giorgio; Gregorio, Joao; Zambelli, Roberto; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Calkins, Michael L.; Berlind, Perry; Ciardi, David R.; Dressing, Courtney; Patel, Rahul; Gagnon, Patrick; Gonzales, Erica; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Colón, Knicole D.; James, David; Pepper, Joshua; Fulton, Benjamin J.; McLeod, Kim K.; Stockdale, Christopher; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; DePoy, D. L.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia; Johnson, John A.; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Samson A.; Sergi, Anthony; Wilson, Maurice; Sliski, David H.

    2017-11-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-20b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V˜ 7.6 early A star, HD 185603, with an orbital period of P≃ 3.47 days. Archival and follow-up photometry, Gaia parallax, radial velocities, Doppler tomography, and AO imaging were used to confirm the planetary nature of KELT-20b and characterize the system. From global modeling we infer that KELT-20 is a rapidly rotating (v\\sin {I}* ≃ 120 {km} {{{s}}}-1) A2V star with an effective temperature of {T}{eff}={8730}-260+250 K, mass of {M}* ={1.76}-0.20+0.14 {M}⊙ , radius of {R}* ={1.561}-0.064+0.058 {R}⊙ , surface gravity of {log}{g}* ={4.292}-0.020+0.017, and age of ≲ 600 {Myr}. The planetary companion has a radius of {R}P={1.735}-0.075+0.070 {R}{{J}}, a semimajor axis of a={0.0542}-0.0021+0.0014 au, and a linear ephemeris of {{BJD}}{TDB}=2457503.120049+/- 0.000190 +E(3.4741070+/- 0.0000019). We place a 3σ upper limit of ˜ 3.5 {M}{{J}} on the mass of the planet. Doppler tomographic measurements indicate that the planetary orbit normal is well aligned with the projected spin axis of the star (λ =3\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 4+/- 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 1). The inclination of the star is constrained to 24\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 4< {I}* < 155\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6, implying a three-dimensional spin-orbit alignment of 1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 3< \\psi < 69\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8. KELT-20b receives an insolation flux of ˜ 8× {10}9 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2, implying an equilibrium temperature of of ˜2250 K, assuming zero albedo and complete heat redistribution. Due to the high stellar {T}{eff}, KELT-20b also receives an ultraviolet (wavelength d≤slant 91.2 nm) insolation flux of ˜ 9.1× {10}4 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2, possibly indicating significant atmospheric ablation. Together with WASP-33, Kepler-13 A, HAT-P-57, KELT-17, and KELT-9, KELT-20 is the sixth A star host of a transiting giant planet, and the third-brightest host (in V) of a transiting planet.

  19. Cell-engineered human elastic chondrocytes regenerate natural scaffold in vitro and neocartilage with neoperichondrium in the human body post-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yanaga, Hiroko; Imai, Keisuke; Koga, Mika; Yanaga, Katsu

    2012-10-01

    cartilage. Using our multilayered culture system supplemented with FGF2, elastic chondrocytes produce an ECM and also exhibit an intercellular network; therefore, they are able to maintain tissue integrity post-transplantation. These findings realized a clinical application for generative cartilage surgery.

  20. Patent foramen ovale does not have a negative impact on early outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alba, Ana Carolina; Verocai Flaman, F; Granton, J; Delgado, D H

    2011-01-01

    To identify the impact of the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Twenty-seven pre-liver transplant patients who had a PFO (PFO group) were identified and compared with 61 patients without PFO (NoPFO group). Patients were matched according to age, gender and cause of liver disease. The diagnosis of PFO was made by transthoracic echocardiography prior to liver transplantation. Patient baseline characteristics and complications during the early post-transplant period were analyzed. The mean age in the PFO group was 47 ± 14 (range 18-68) yr and 50 ± 11 (range 12-65) yr in the NoPFO group. The PFO group had a mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 15 ± 10 whereas in the NoPFO group the MELD score was 19 ± 10 (p = 0.08). There were non-significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between groups. Duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of neurological complications were similar. Thirty-day mortality rate was similar in both groups; only one patient in the NoPFO group died within the first 30 days post-transplantation. The presence of PFO in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation does not appear to affect patient outcomes during the peri-operative period. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Cell-Engineered Human Elastic Chondrocytes Regenerate Natural Scaffold In Vitro and Neocartilage with Neoperichondrium in the Human Body Post-Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Keisuke; Koga, Mika; Yanaga, Katsu

    2012-01-01

    auricular cartilage. Using our multilayered culture system supplemented with FGF2, elastic chondrocytes produce an ECM and also exhibit an intercellular network; therefore, they are able to maintain tissue integrity post-transplantation. These findings realized a clinical application for generative cartilage surgery. PMID:22563650

  2. Efficacy and safety of losartan in treatment of hyperuricemia and posttransplantation erythrocytosis: results of a prospective, open, randomized, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Chen, J; Han, F; Cheng, M; Xu, L; Zhang, L; Ding, X; Le, Y

    2009-11-01

    Hyperuricemia and posttransplantation erythrocytosis (PTE) are frequent complications after kidney transplantation and are important risk factors for cardiovascular events. Losartan decreases serum uric acid and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and may be a useful agent for treatment of hyperuricemia and PTE. To evaluate the influence of losartan on serum creatinine (SCr), serum uric acid, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in patients after kidney transplantation and to evaluate the safety profile of losartan in these patients. Sixty-six Han Chinese patients (43 men and 23 women; mean [SD] age, 40.45 [11.50] years) were enrolled in the study. All patients had undergone a first cadaveric donor kidney transplantation at least 3 months previously and had stable graft function with SCr concentration less than 176.8 micromol/L and Hb concentration greater than 110 g/L. The patients were divided into 2 groups (losartan group, n = 34; and control group, n = 32) according to the odevity of patient identification number. Patients in the losartan group received losartan, 50 mg/d; patients in the control group did not receive losartan. Each patient was followed up for 6 months. Nine patients in the losartan group and 5 patients in the control group dropped out because of acute renal insufficiency, anemia, acute rejection, or poor compliance. The serum uric acid concentration in the losartan group continuously decreased at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 (P = .12, P = .01, P = .04, and P = .005 compared with baseline, and P = .02, P = .003, P = .02, and P = .006 compared with control), especially in the patients with hyperuricemia (P = .02, P < .001, P = .003, and P < .001 compared with baseline, and P = .02, P = .002, P = .02, and P = .002 compared with control). The Hb level in the losartan group decreased significantly at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 (P = .003, P < .001, P = .004, and P = 0.02 compared with baseline, and P = .001, P < .001, P = .001, and P = .005 compared with control

  3. Circles of Confidence in Correspondence: Modeling Confidentiality and Secrecy in Knowledge Exchange Networks of Letters and Drawings in the Early Modern Period.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Charles; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Science in the early modern world depended on openness in scholarly communication. On the other hand, a web of commercial, political, and religious conflicts required broad measures of secrecy and confidentiality; similar measures were integral to scholarly rivalries and plagiarism. This paper analyzes confidentiality and secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchange via letters and drawings. We argue that existing approaches to understanding knowledge exchange in early modern Europe--which focus on the Republic of Letters as a unified entity of corresponding scholars--can be improved upon by analyzing multilayered networks of communication. We describe a data model to analyze circles of confidence and cultures of secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchanges. Finally, we discuss the outcomes of a first experiment focusing on the question of how personal and professional/official relationships interact with confidentiality and secrecy, based on a case study of the correspondence of Hugo Grotius.

  4. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend < 0.01). PCA identified "healthy" patterns for all periods, but none was associated with the outcomes (P trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  5. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... cycle. Many women have painful periods, also called dysmenorrhea. The pain is most often menstrual cramps, which ... as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not the same as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). ...

  6. Early Chinese History: The Hundred Schools Period. China's Golden Age of Philosophy. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Lehn; Dube, Clayton

    In this unit students examine the four most influential Chinese philosophical traditions developed during the Zhou period (roughly 6th-3rd centuries B.C.E.). The four philosophies students study include: (1) Confucianism; (2) Mohism; (3) Daoism (Taoism); and (4) Legalism. In three lessons, students compare the ideas of these schools and explore…

  7. Early feeding of carnivorous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a hyperglucidic diet during a short period: effect on dietary glucose utilization in juveniles.

    PubMed

    Geurden, I; Aramendi, M; Zambonino-Infante, J; Panserat, S

    2007-06-01

    Based on the concept of nutritional programming in higher vertebrates, we tested whether an acute hyperglucidic stimulus during early life could induce a long-lasting effect on carbohydrate utilization in carnivorous rainbow trout. The trout were fed a hyperglucidic diet (60% dextrin) at two early stages of development: either at first feeding (3 days, stimulus 1) or after yolk absorption (5 days, stimulus 2). Before and after the hyperglucidic stimulus, they received a commercial diet until juvenile stage (>10 g). Fish that did not experience the hyperglucidic stimuli served as controls. The short- and long-term effects of the stimuli were evaluated by measuring the expression of five key genes involved in carbohydrate utilization: alpha-amylase, maltase (digestion), sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT1; intestinal glucose transport), and glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, involved in the utilization and production of glucose, respectively. The hyperglucidic diet rapidly increased expressions of maltase, alpha-amylase, and glucokinase in stimulus 1 fish and only of maltase in stimulus 2 fish, probably because of a lower plasticity at this later stage of development. In the final challenge test with juveniles fed a 25% dextrin diet, both digestive enzymes were upregulated in fish that had experienced the hyperglucidic stimulus at first feeding, confirming the possibility of modification of some long-term physiological functions in rainbow trout. In contrast, no persistent molecular adaptations were found for the genes involved in glucose transport or metabolism. In addition, growth and postprandial glycemia were unaffected by the stimuli. In summary, our data show that a short hyperglucidic stimulus during early trout life may permanently influence carbohydrate digestion.

  8. Calculating the costs of an 8-week, physiotherapy-led exercise intervention in deconditioned cancer survivors in the early survivorship period (the PEACH trial).

    PubMed

    Broderick, J M; Guinan, E; O' Donnell, D M; Hussey, J; Tyrrell, E; Normand, C

    2014-06-01

    Strong evidence exists for rehabilitation programmes following a cancer diagnosis, although little is known about their cost. The effects of an 8-week, physiotherapy-led, structured group intervention during the early survivorship phase were evaluated. Significant changes in quality of life and fatigue, and promising changes in fitness were found. The overall cost for this programme was €196 per participant, including the salaries of the clinicians, overheads and equipment costs. The modest costs associated with this programme may support more routine 'cancer rehabilitation', although more robust analyses are required. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of residual feed intake with abundance of ruminal bacteria and biopolymer hydrolyzing enzyme activities during the peripartal period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elolimy, Ahmed A; Arroyo, José M; Batistel, Fernanda; Iakiviak, Michael A; Loor, Juan J

    2018-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle typically calculated at peak lactation is a measure of feed efficiency independent of milk production level. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in ruminal bacteria, biopolymer hydrolyzing enzyme activities, and overall performance between the most- and the least-efficient dairy cows during the peripartal period. Twenty multiparous Holstein dairy cows with daily ad libitum access to a total mixed ration from d - 10 to d 60 relative to the calving date were used. Cows were classified into most-efficient (i.e. with low RFI, n  = 10) and least-efficient (i.e. with high RFI, n  = 10) based on a linear regression model involving dry matter intake (DMI), fat-corrected milk (FCM), changes in body weight (BW), and metabolic BW. The most-efficient cows had ~ 2.6 kg/d lower DMI at wk 4, 6, 7, and 8 compared with the least-efficient cows. In addition, the most-efficient cows had greater relative abundance of total ruminal bacterial community during the peripartal period. Compared with the least-efficient cows, the most-efficient cows had 4-fold greater relative abundance of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens at d - 10 and d 10 around parturition and tended to have greater abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Megaspheara elsdenii . In contrast, the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus and Streptococcus bovis was lower and Succinimonas amylolytica and Prevotella bryantii tended to be lower in the most-efficient cows around calving. During the peripartal period, the most-efficient cows had lower enzymatic activities of cellulase, amylase, and protease compared with the least-efficient cows. The results suggest that shifts in ruminal bacteria and digestive enzyme activities during the peripartal period could, at least in part, be part of the mechanism associated with better feed efficiency in dairy cows.

  10. Association between father involvement and attitudes in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in the pre-adolescent period in a UK birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A

    2017-10-15

    Much of the research on parenting and its influence on child development has emphasised the mother's role. However, increasing evidence highlights the important role of fathers in the development, health and well-being of their children. We sought to explore the association between paternal involvement in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in 9 and 11 year-old children. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the southwest of England. The outcome was depressive symptoms measured using the short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) score. The main exposure was father involvement measured through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Scores on factor 1 measured fathers' emotional response to the child; scores on factor 2 measured the frequency of father involvement in domestic and childcare activities; scores on factor 3 measured fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 13% (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.77-0.98, p = 0.024) and 9% (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.80-1.03, p = 0.129) respectively lower adjusted odds of depressive symptoms at 9 and 11 years. For factor 2, there was weak evidence of a 17% increase in odds of depressive symptoms associated with 1 unit higher factor scores at both ages (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.00-1.37, p = 0.050). In these observational data, the possibility of residual confounding in the association between the exposure and the outcome cannot be ruled out. Positive psychological and emotional aspects of father involvement in children's early upbringing, but not the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, may protect children against developing symptoms of depression in their pre-teen years. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An intervention study exploring the effects of providing older adult hip fracture patients with an information booklet in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Siobhan; Conway, Col; McGrath, Niamh B; O'Leary, Breda; O'Sullivan, Mary P; O'Sullivan, Dawn

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the provision of an information booklet on mobilisation improves early mobility postsurgical repair of hip fracture. Hip fracture among older people can have long-lasting consequences with the majority of patients failing to achieve their prefracture functional status. Early postoperative mobility may have a positive effect on long-term recovery. The importance of providing postoperative information on mobility has been highlighted. It is suggested that patients remain passive in their recovery when they do not understand the importance of mobilisation. The study used a pretest-post-test design of two treatments and a usual care control group. Eighty-three adults postsurgical repair of hip fracture, aged 65 years and older, were recruited to the study. Participants were assigned to one of three groups, a usual care group, treatment group 1 (T(1)) usual care plus basic information booklet or treatment group 2 (T(2)) usual care plus detailed information booklet. Data collection three days postsurgery and prior to discharge included the Mini-Mental State Examination, a Demographic Questionnaire, the Elderly Mobility Scale and a Numerical Pain Scale. Greatest improvements in Elderly Mobility Scale scores occurred in T(1), with least changes observed in T(2). Changes did not reach significance level (p=0·105). The results of the study suggest that the provision of basic information is preferable and highlights a deficiency of education in usual care. Hip fracture patients should be provided with an educational booklet containing basic information on mobility to promote optimal recovery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The safety and tolerability of rotigotine transdermal system over a 6-year period in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Giladi, Nir; Boroojerdi, Babak; Surmann, Erwin

    2013-09-01

    This open-label extension (SP716; NCT00599196) of a 6-month, double-blind, randomized study (SP513) investigated the safety and tolerability of rotigotine transdermal system over up to ~6 years in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD; early-stage PD at double-blind enrollment). Eligible patients completing the 6-month study received optimal dose open-label rotigotine (≤ 16 mg/24 h) for up to ~6 years. Adjunctive levodopa was permitted. Primary outcomes included adverse events (AEs) and extent of rotigotine exposure. Analysis of adjunctive levodopa use, dyskinesias [unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) IV], and efficacy (UPDRS II + III total score) were also assessed. Of 381 patients enrolled in the open-label extension, 52 % were still in the study at time of closure; 24 % withdrew because of AEs and 6 % because of lack of efficacy. Patients received rotigotine for a median duration of 1,564.5 days (~4 years, 3 months; range 5-2, 145 days). 69 % of patients started supplemental levodopa; median time to levodopa was 485 days (~1 year, 4 months). Most common AEs (% per patient-year) were somnolence (18 %), application site reactions (12 %), nausea (9 %), peripheral edema (7 %), and fall (7 %). AEs indicative of impulsive-compulsive behavior were recorded in 25 (7 %) patients. Dyskinesias were experienced by 65 (17 %) patients; the majority [47 of 65 (72 %)] reported first dyskinesia after starting levodopa. Mean UPDRS II + III total scores remained below double-blind baseline for 4 years (assessment of all patients). In conclusion, rotigotine was generally well tolerated for up to ~6 years in patients with early-stage PD. The AEs reported were in line with previous studies of rotigotine transdermal system, with typical dopaminergic side effects and application site reactions seen.

  13. Climate during the Roman and early-medieval periods in North-western Europe: a review of climate reconstructions from terrestrial archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelmann, Dana F. C.; Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T. I. J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; van Lanen, Rowin J.; Stouthamer, Esther; Jansma, Esther

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions are essential to identify possible influences of climate variability on landscape evolution and landscape-related cultural changes (e.g., shifting settlement patterns and long-distance trade relations). North-western Europe is an ideal research area for comparison between climate variability and cultural transitions given its geomorphological diversity and the significant cultural changes that took place in this region during the last two millennia (e.g., the decline of the Roman Empire and the transition to medieval kingdoms). Compared to more global climate records, such as ice cores and marine sediments, terrestrial climate proxies have the advantage of representing a relatively short response time to regional climatic change. Furthermore for this region large quantity of climate reconstructions is available covering the last millennium, whereas for the first millennium AD only few high resolution climate reconstructions are available. We compiled climate reconstructions for sites in North-western Europe from the literature and its underlying data. All these reconstructions cover the time period of AD 1 to 1000. We only selected data with an annual to decadal resolution and a minimum resolution of 50 years. This resulted in 18 climate reconstructions from different archives such as chironomids (1), pollen (4), Sphagnum cellulose (1), stalagmites (6), testate amoebae (4), and tree-rings (2). The compilation of the different temperature reconstructions shows similar trends in most of the records. Colder conditions since AD 300 for a period of approximately 400 years and warmer conditions after AD 700 become apparent. A contradicting signal is found before AD 300 with warmer conditions indicated by most of the records but not all. This is likely the result of the use of different proxies, reflecting temperatures linked to different seasons. The compilation of the different precipitation reconstructions also show similar

  14. Rivaroxaban vs Warfarin Sodium in the Ultra-Early Period After Atrial Fibrillation-Related Mild Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Kwon, Sun U; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong-Jae; Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Eung-Gyu; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Sung, Sang Min; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bang, Oh Young; Seo, Woo-Keun; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kang, Hyun Goo; Yu, Kyung-Ho

    2017-10-01

    In atrial fibrillation (AF)-related acute ischemic stroke, the optimal oral anticoagulation strategy remains unclear. To test whether rivaroxaban or warfarin sodium is safer and more effective for preventing early recurrent stroke in patients with AF-related acute ischemic stroke. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, blinded end point evaluation, comparative phase 2 trial was conducted from April 28, 2014, to December 7, 2015, at 14 academic medical centers in South Korea among patients with mild AF-related stroke within the previous 5 days who were deemed suitable for early anticoagulation. Analysis was performed on a modified intent-to-treat basis. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive rivaroxaban, 10 mg/d for 5 days followed by 15 or 20 mg/d, or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0, for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the composite of new ischemic lesion or new intracranial hemorrhage seen on results of magnetic resonance imaging at 4 weeks. Primary analysis was performed in patients who received at least 1 dose of study medications and completed follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Key secondary end points were individual components of the primary end point and hospitalization length. Of 195 patients randomized, 183 individuals (76 women and 107 men; mean [SD] age, 70.4 [10.4] years) completed magnetic resonance imaging follow-up and were included in the primary end point analysis. The rivaroxaban group (n = 95) and warfarin group (n = 88) showed no differences in the primary end point (47 [49.5%] vs 48 [54.5%]; relative risk, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.69-1.20; P = .49) or its individual components (new ischemic lesion: 28 [29.5%] vs 31 of 87 [35.6%]; relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.54-1.26; P = .38; new intracranial hemorrhage: 30 [31.6%] vs 25 of 87 [28.7%]; relative risk, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.70-1.71; P = .68). Each group had 1 clinical ischemic stroke, and all new intracranial hemorrhages were asymptomatic

  15. COGNITIVE FUNCTION OF 6-YEAR OLD CHILDREN EXPOSED TO MOLD-CONTAMINATED HOMES IN EARLY POSTNATAL PERIOD. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN POLAND

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Stigter, Laura; Jankowski, Jeffrey; Butscher, Maria; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Skarupa, Anita; Sowa, Agata

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the neurologic effects of various air pollutants have been the focus of increasing attention. The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of early childhood exposure to indoor molds on the subsequent cognitive function of 6-year old children. The results of this study are based on the six-year follow-up of 277 babies born at term to mothers participating in a prospective cohort study in Krakow, Poland. The study participants are all non-smoking pregnant women who were free of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The presence of visible mold patches on indoor walls was monitored at regular time intervals over gestation and after birth up to the age of five. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was administered to children at age 6. The exposure effect of living in mold-contaminated homes on the IQ scores of children was adjusted for major confounders, known to be important for the cognitive development of children such as maternal education, the child’s gender, breastfeeding practices in infancy, the presence of older siblings and the prenatal exposure to lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The adjusted IQ deficit attributed to longer exposures to indoor molds (> 2 years) was significantly lower on the IQ scale (beta coeff. = −9.16, 95%CI: −15.21, −3.10) and tripled the risk of low IQ scoring (OR= 3.53; 95%CI: 1.11 – 11.27) compared with references. While maternal education (beta coeff. = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.05, 1.17) and breastfeeding (beta coeff. = 4.0; 95%CI: 0.84, 7.17) showed a significant positive impact on cognitive function, prenatal ETS exposure (beta coeff. = −0.41; 95%CI: −0.79, −0.03) and the presence of older siblings (beta coefficient= −3.43; 95%CI: −5.67, −1.20) were associated with poorer cognitive function in children. In conclusion, the results of this study draw attention to the harmful effect of early postnatal exposure to indoor molds on children

  16. Evaluating the efficacy, safety and evolution of renal function with early initiation of everolimus-facilitated tacrolimus reduction in de novo liver transplant recipients: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nashan, Bjorn; Schemmer, Peter; Braun, Felix; Dworak, Markus; Wimmer, Peter; Schlitt, Hans

    2015-03-26

    Introduction of calcineurin inhibitors had led to improved survival rates in liver transplant recipients. However, long-term use of calcineurin inhibitors is associated with a higher risk of chronic renal failure, neurotoxicity, de novo malignancies, recurrence of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have shown that everolimus has the potential to provide protection against viral replication, malignancy, and progression of fibrosis, as well as preventing nephrotoxicity by facilitating calcineurin inhibitor reduction without compromising efficacy. The Hephaistos study evaluates the beneficial effects of early initiation of everolimus in de novo liver transplant recipients. Hephaistos is an ongoing 12-month, multi-center, open-label, controlled study aiming to enroll 330 de novo liver transplant recipients from 15 centers across Germany. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio (7-21 days post-transplantation) to receive everolimus (trough levels 3-8 ng/mL) with reduced tacrolimus (trough levels <5 ng/mL), or standard tacrolimus (trough levels 6-10 ng/mL) after entering a run-in period (3-5 days post-transplantation). In the run-in period, patients are treated with induction therapy, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and corticosteroids according to local practice. Randomization is stratified by HCV status and model of end-stage liver disease scores at transplantation. The primary objective of the study is to exhibit superior renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-4 formula) with everolimus plus reduced tacrolimus compared to standard tacrolimus at Month 12. Other objectives are: to assess the incidence of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, or death; the incidences of components of the composite efficacy endpoint; renal function via estimated glomerular filtration rate using various formulae (MDRD-4, Nankivell, Cockcroft

  17. Case of ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte pick-up during very early period of unnoticed pregnancy followed by ongoing normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Hiroshi; Nakao, Kazuki; Horikawa, Michiharu; Negishi, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of unnoticed pregnancy that was maintained during low estrogen and progesterone circumstances, that showed menses-like bleeding, and was then discovered after ovarian hyperstimulation during the next period. The patient was 39 years old and primigravid. She underwent intrauterine insemination, followed by luteal support with human chorionic gonadotrophin and progestin; however, she experienced menstruation-like bleeding 15 days later. As low estradiol and progesterone levels were confirmed on the 2nd day of bleeding, ovarian hyperstimulation of short protocol for in vitro fertilization was commenced. Although 13 mature follicles were observed, only six oocytes were retrieved and one developed into a blastocyst. Four days after oocyte pick-up, a gestational sac was seen in utero. The fetus is currently growing uneventfully. This case suggests that pregnancy can be maintained during ovarian hyperstimulation, even if menstruation-like bleeding is shown in low-progesterone circumstances. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  19. Behavioral analysis of the consequences of chronic blockade of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the early postnatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Latysheva, N V; Raevskii, K S

    2003-02-01

    Considering data on the possible glutamatergic nature of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we attempted to model cognitive derangements in animals by chronic blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors. Wistar rats received daily s.c. injections of the non-competitive NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) from days 7 to day 49 of postnatal life. One day after the antagonist injections given on days 27 and 28 of life, animals of the experimental group showed decreased levels of spontaneous movement and orientational-investigative activity as compared with controls, where there was no change in the elevated locomotor reaction produced in response to the direct action of MK-801. These animals showed decreases in the level of anxiety (on day 40 of life) and derangement in spatial learning with food reinforcement (days 50-54 of life). It is suggested that early neonatal blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors leads to the development in animals of disturbances to situational perception and assessment of incoming sensory information.

  20. Facial skeleton asymmetry and its relationship to mastication in the Early Medieval period (Great Moravian Empire, Mikulčice, 9th-10th century).

    PubMed

    Ibrová, Alexandra; Dupej, Ján; Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, Petr; Poláček, Lumír; Velemínská, Jana

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship of mastication and directional asymmetry (DA) of upper facial skeleton in Early Medieval sample from the Mikulčice settlement (Czech Republic). The settlement is divided into two burial areas of presumably different socioeconomic status: the castle and the sub-castle. The material consisted of 193 individuals (125 castle, 68 sub-castle). The relationship of facial skeleton DA and mastication was analysed by examining tooth wear and mandibular shape by means of 3D geometric morphometrics. Tooth wear of premolars and molars was evaluated using appropriate scoring systems. 3D coordinates of 35 mandibular landmarks were scanned using MicroScribe G2X digitizing system. The results did not reveal any significant differences in tooth wear DA or mandible DA values between burial areas or sexes. Mandibular shape, however, differed significantly between burial areas and sexes. Directional changes of mandibular landmarks supported a right chewing side preference in the sample. Significant relationship between upper facial skeleton DA and mandible DA was recorded. Differences in subsistence between burial areas and sexes did not translate into differences in mandible DA and dental wear. However, mandibular shape analysis revealed prominence of areas affected by masticatory muscles in individuals from the castle. Higher consumption of tough material, such as meat, has been proposed as possible explanation. The right side was found to be preferential for chewing. The relationship between upper facial skeleton DA and mandible DA was concluded to be the result of the compensatory and adaptive function of mandible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression of tumour necrosis factor and insulin signalling-related factors in subcutaneous adipose tissue during the dry period and in early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Rahmani, H R; Ghorbani, G R; Morel, I; van Dorland, H A

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression of adipose factors, which may be part of the mechanisms that underlie insulin sensitivity, were studied in dairy cows around parturition. Subcutaneous fat biopsies and blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows in week 8 antepartum (a.p.), on day 1 postpartum (p.p.) and in week 5 p.p. In the adipose tissue samples, mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), insulin-independent glucose transporter (GLUT1), insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4), insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (p85) and catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin. Plasma parameters followed a pattern typically observed in dairy cows. Gene expression changes were observed, but there were no changes in TNFα concentrations, which may indicate its local involvement in catabolic adaptation of adipose tissue. Changes in GLUT4 and GLUT1 mRNA abundance may reflect their involvement in reduced insulin sensitivity and in sparing glucose for milk synthesis in early lactation. Unchanged gene expression of IRS1, IRS2 and p85 over time may imply a lack of their involvement in terms of insulin sensitivity dynamics. Alternatively, it may indicate that post-transcriptional modifications of these factors came into play and may have concealed an involvement. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methamidophos Exposure During the Early Postnatal Period of Mice: Immediate and Late-Emergent Effects on the Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure. PMID:23596261

  4. Methamidophos exposure during the early postnatal period of mice: immediate and late-emergent effects on the cholinergic and serotonergic systems and behavior.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carla S; Dutra-Tavares, Ana C; Nunes, Fernanda; Nunes-Freitas, André L; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C; Meyer, Armando; Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure.

  5. Age-dependent long-term structural and functional effects of early life seizures: evidence for a hippocampal critical period influencing plasticity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Meyerand, M.E.; Sutula, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity promotes circuit formation in developing systems and during critical periods permanently modifies circuit organization and functional properties. These observations suggest that excessive neural activity, as occurs during seizures, might influence developing neural circuitry with long-term outcomes that depend on age at the time of seizures. We systematically examined long-term structural and functional consequences of seizures induced in rats by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, and hyperthermia across postnatal ages from birth through postnatal day 90 in adulthood (P90). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and electrophysiological methods at ≥P95 following seizures induced from P1 to P90 demonstrated consistent patterns of gross atrophy, microstructural abnormalities in the corpus callosum and hippocampus, and functional alterations in hippocampal circuitry at ≥P95 that were independent of the method of seizure induction and varied systematically as a function of age at the time of seizures. Three distinct epochs were observed in which seizures resulted in distinct long-term structural and functional outcomes at ≥P95. Seizures prior to P20 resulted in DTI abnormalities in corpus callosum and hippocampus in the absence of gross cerebral atrophy, and increased paired pulse inhibition (PPI) in the dentate gyrus at ≥P95. Seizures after P30 induced a different pattern of DTI abnormalities in the fimbria and hippocampus accompanied by gross cerebral atrophy with increases in lateral ventricular volume, as well as increased PPI in the dentate gyrus at ≥P95. In contrast, seizures between P20-P30 did not result in cerebral atrophy or significant imaging abnormalities in the hippocampus or white matter, but irreversibly decreased PPI in the dentate gyrus compared to normal adult controls. These age-specific long-term structural and functional outcomes identify P20-P30 as a potential critical period in hippocampal

  6. Evaluation of reproductive tract infection during early post-partum period and its relationship with subsequent reproductive performance in high milk producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T

    2012-04-01

    Clinically normal Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 43) were used to establish a relationship between the evaluations of the uterine condition by vaginoscopy, Metricheck, endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during post-partum period (pp), and subsequent reproductive performance. The uterine status of the selected cows was evaluated by EC, Metricheck, US and vaginoscopy on a weekly basis from the third week (W3) to the seventh week (W7) pp. The animals were bred after a voluntary waiting period of 45-60 days pp and diagnosed for pregnancy status at 45 days after breeding by US. First service conception rate (FSCR) of bred animals was 32.6% (14/43). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leucocyte percentage between conceived and non-conceived cows during different weeks post-partum. First service conception rate in animals with normal vaginal discharge as detected by Metricheck was significantly low when compared to those of abnormal discharge during W3 (2.3% vs 30.3%; p < 0.001) and W4 (4.7% vs 29.7%; p < 0.01) post-partum. Using US, the number of pregnant cows having fluid in uterus (FIU) during W6 (p < 0.01) and W7 (p < 0.001) post-partum was significantly lower (2/34, 4.7% and 1/43, 2.3%, respectively) than those that had no FIU (12/43, 27.9% and 13/43, 30.3%, respectively). Using vaginoscopy, FSCR in animals having abnormal discharge was significantly (p < 0.01) low when compared to that of normal discharge (2.4% vs 30.2%) during W5 and W6 post-partum. In conclusion, Metricheck during W3 and W4 and detection of FIU by US and vaginoscopy during W6 and W7 pp can be used as good predictive tools to anticipate the future reproductive performance of dairy cattle. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Post-Transplantation Natural Killer Cell Count: A Predictor of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Survival Outcomes After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hyewon; Han, Mi-Soon; Shim, Hyoeun; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Boram; Kong, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Reconstitution of the immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) plays an important role in post-transplant outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of the lymphocyte subset (LST) counts to transplant-related complications and survival outcomes after allo-HSCT has not been fully elucidated. A total of 70 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2013, with LST results both 7 days before conditioning and 30 or 90 days after allo-HSCT were included. The LST counts in the peripheral blood were determined using 6-color flow cytometry. Clinical information, including transplant-related events during the first 100 days after allo-HSCT, was reviewed, and any association between these events and LST was analyzed. At 30 days after allo-HSCT, the CD4 + T-cell (P = .009) and B-cell (P = .035) counts were lower and the natural killer (NK) cell count was greater (P < .001) than before conditioning. The CD8 + T-cell (P = .001) and NK cell (P < .001) counts were high 90 days after transplantation. The hazard ratios for a low NK cell count on days 30 and 90 for acute graft-versus-host disease were 6.22 and 14.67, respectively. Patients with low NK cell counts at 30 and 90 days after allo-HSCT had poorer overall survival (P = .043 and P = .028, respectively) and greater nonrelapse mortality (P = .036 and P = .033, respectively). A low NK cell count on day 30 was still prognostic for overall survival (P = .039) on multivariable analysis. NK cell counts after allo-HSCT, especially on day 30, were predictive of acute graft-versus-host disease, nonrelapse mortality, and survival. Serial lymphocyte subset analysis can be used to identify and treat patients at risk during the early period after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  9. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... have extra androgen, a hormone that can cause hair growth on the face, chin, chest, and abdomen. Extra ... You stop getting your period. You have extra hair growth on the face, chin, chest, or abdomen. You ...

  10. Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Maria Nilza Lima; Cavalcante, Nádia Carenina Nunes; Mesquita, Fabrício José Alencar; Batista, Rosângela Lucena Fernandes; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP) estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth). The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

  11. mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian Cradle of Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Witas, Henryk W.; Tomczyk, Jacek; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Płoszaj, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today’s Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5. PMID:24040024

  12. Molluscs as evidence for a late Pleistocene and early Holocene humid period in the southern coastal desert of Peru (14.5°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mächtle, Bertil; Unkel, Ingmar; Eitel, Bernhard; Kromer, Bernd; Schiegl, Solveig

    2010-01-01

    The southern Peruvian coastal desert around Palpa, southern Peru (14.5°S) is currently characterized by hyper-arid conditions. However, the presence of two species of molluscs ( Scutalus, Pupoides) and desert-loess deposits indicates the past development of semi-desert and grassland ecosystems caused by a displacement of the eastern desert margin due to hydrological changes. Radiocarbon dating shows that the transition to a semi-arid climate in the southern Peruvian coastal desert took place during the Greenland interstadial 1, ˜ 13.5 cal ka BP. At the beginning of the Holocene, the mollusc fauna vanished due to increasing humidity and the development of grasslands. Dust particles were fixed by the grasses, as indicated by abundant Poaceae phytoliths, and desert loess was formed. The humid period we observe here is out of phase with the palaeoenvironmental records from the Titicaca region, which indicates dry conditions at that time. This paper offers a new idea for this contradiction: an orbitally driven meridional shift of the Bolivian high might have altered the moisture supply across the Andes.

  13. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  14. The efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in the early postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seangleulur, Alisa; Vanasbodeekul, Pramook; Prapaitrakool, Sunisa; Worathongchai, Sukhumakorn; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; McEvoy, Mark; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin

    2016-11-01

    Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) has emerged as an alternative treatment for postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its efficacy remains inconclusive with inconsistent results from previous studies and meta-analyses. There is no agreement on which local anaesthetic agent and infiltration technique is most effective and well tolerated. The objective was to compare LIA after primary TKA with placebo or no infiltration in terms of early postoperative pain relief, mobilisation, length of hospital stay (LOS) and complications when used as a primary treatment or as an adjunct to regional anaesthesia. The role of injection sites, postoperative injection or infusion and multimodal drug injection with ketorolac were also explored. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was performed using PubMed and SCOPUS up to September 2015. RCTs comparing LIA with placebo or no infiltration after primary TKA in terms of pain score and opioid consumption at 24 and 48 h, mobilisation, LOS and complications were included. In total 38 RCTs were included. LIA groups had lower pain scores, opioid consumption and postoperative nausea and vomiting, higher range of motion at 24 h and shorter LOS than no injection or placebo. After subgroup analysis, intraoperative peri-articular but not intra-articular injection had lower pain score at 24 h than no injection or placebo with the pooled mean difference of pain score at rest of -0.89 [95% CI (-1.40 to -0.38); I = 92.0%]. Continuing with postoperative injection or infusion reduced 24-h pain score with the pooled mean difference at rest of -1.50 [95% CI (-1.92 to -1.08); I = 60.5%]. There was no additional benefit in terms of pain relief during activity, opioid consumption, range of movement or LOS when LIA was used as an adjunct to regional anaesthesia. Four out of 735 patients receiving LIA reported deep knee infection, three of whom had had postoperative

  15. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post

  16. Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the close-up diet on performance of dairy cows in the early lactation period.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P; Flaga, J; Barteczko, A; Burakowska, K; Oprządek, J; Zabielski, R

    2015-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sodium butyrate microencapsulated within triglyceride matrix (Na-butyrate) in the close-up period on performance of dairy cows and rumen papillae development. In trial 1, 26 Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly allocated to 2 groups (13 cows/group) and fed prepartum a total mixed ration (TMR) without or with 300g of Na-butyrate/d from 30 d before expecting calving to parturition. After calving, the same lactational TMR without Na-butyrate was offered to both treatments. Dry matter intake and milk yield were monitored daily to 60 d in milk, and body condition of cows was scored on d 30, 21, and 4 before parturition and d 14, 31, and 60 after parturition. On d 15, 10, and 5 before parturition blood samples were collected from 6 cows randomly chosen from each group and analyzed for plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations. No differences in dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield, body condition score, or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations was observed between treatments; however, in the last 5 d before parturition the cows receiving Na-butyrate ate 1.7kg of DM/d more, on average, as compared with control cows. In trial 2, 12 Holstein-Friesian growing bulls (404±48; body weight ± SD) were used to determine the effect of Na-butyrate inclusion in the diet on rumen papillae development. Bulls were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 bulls/group) and fed TMR without or with 2% (on a dry matter basis) of Na-butyrate for 21 d. At the end of the study, bulls were killed and rumen fluid and rumen tissue samples from dorsal and ventral sac of the rumen were collected. No effect of Na-butyrate supplementation on BW of bulls and DMI during the trial period was observed. Sodium butyrate supplementation increased total short-chain fatty acid concentration in the rumen but had no effect on rumen pH, molar proportions of short-chain fatty acids, and NH3-N concentration

  17. The Diagnostic Utility of Computer-Assisted Auscultation for the Early Detection of Cardiac Murmurs of Structural Origin in the Periodic Health Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Viviers, Pierre L; Kirby, Jo-Anne H; Viljoen, Jeandré T; Derman, Wayne

    Identification of the nature of cardiac murmurs during the periodic health evaluation (PHE) of athletes is challenging due to the difficulty in distinguishing between murmurs of physiological or structural origin. Previously, computer-assisted auscultation (CAA) has shown promise to support appropriate referrals in the nonathlete pediatric population. CAA has the ability to accurately detect cardiac murmurs of structural origin during a PHE in collegiate athletes. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Level 3. A total of 131 collegiate athletes (104 men, 28 women; mean age, 20 ± 2 years) completed a sports physician (SP)-driven PHE consisting of a cardiac history questionnaire and a physical examination. An independent CAA assessment was performed by a technician who was blinded to the SP findings. Athletes with suspected structural murmurs or other clinical reasons for concern were referred to a cardiologist for confirmatory echocardiography (EC). Twenty-five athletes were referred for further investigation (17 murmurs, 6 abnormal electrocardiographs, 1 displaced apex, and 1 possible case of Marfan syndrome). EC confirmed 3 structural and 22 physiological murmurs. The SP flagged 5 individuals with possible underlying structural pathology; 2 of these murmurs were confirmed as structural in nature. Fourteen murmurs were referred by CAA; 3 of these were confirmed as structural in origin by EC. One such murmur was not detected by the SP, however, and detected by CAA. The sensitivity of CAA was 100% compared with 66.7% shown by the SP, while specificity was 50% and 66.7%, respectively. CAA shows potential to be a feasible adjunct for improving the identification of structural murmurs in the athlete population. Over-referral by CAA for EC requires further investigation and possible refinements to the current algorithm. Further studies are needed to determine the true sensitivity, specificity, and cost efficacy of the device among the athletic population. CAA may be a

  18. Endogenous Opioids as Substrates for Ethanol Intake in the Neonatal Rat: The impact of prenatal ethanol exposure on the opioid family in the early postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Kelly; Deak, Terrence

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite considerable knowledge that prenatal ethanol exposure can lead to devastating effects on the developing fetus, alcohol consumption by pregnant women remains strikingly prevalent. Both clinical and basic research has suggested that, in addition to possible physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, gestational exposure to alcohol may lead to an increased risk for the development of later alcohol-related use and abuse disorders. The current work sought to characterize alterations in endogenous opioid signaling peptides and gene expression produced by ethanol exposure during the last days of gestation. Methods Experimental subjects were 4-, 8-, and 12-day old infant rats obtained from pregnant females that were given daily intubations of 0, 1, or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last few days of gestation (GD17-20). Using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting analysis, and enzyme immunoassays, we examined mRNA and protein for three opioid receptors and ligands in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus. Results Three main trends emerged - (1) mRNA for the majority of factors were found to upregulate across each of the three postnatal ages assessed, indicative of escalating ontogenetic expression of opioid-related genes; (2) prenatal ethanol significantly reduced many opioid peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism by which prenatal exposure can affect future responsiveness towards ethanol; and (3) the nucleus accumbens emerged as a key site for ethanol-dependent effects, suggesting a potential target for additional assessment and intervention towards understanding the ethanol's ability to program the developing brain. Conclusion We provide a global assessment of relatively long-term changes in both opioid gene expression and protein following exposure to only moderate amounts of ethanol during a relatively short window in the prenatal period. These results suggest that, while continuing to undergo ontogenetic changes, the infant

  19. The Diagnostic Utility of Computer-Assisted Auscultation for the Early Detection of Cardiac Murmurs of Structural Origin in the Periodic Health Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Viviers, Pierre L.; Kirby, Jo-Anne H.; Viljoen, Jeandré T.; Derman, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identification of the nature of cardiac murmurs during the periodic health evaluation (PHE) of athletes is challenging due to the difficulty in distinguishing between murmurs of physiological or structural origin. Previously, computer-assisted auscultation (CAA) has shown promise to support appropriate referrals in the nonathlete pediatric population. Hypothesis: CAA has the ability to accurately detect cardiac murmurs of structural origin during a PHE in collegiate athletes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: A total of 131 collegiate athletes (104 men, 28 women; mean age, 20 ± 2 years) completed a sports physician (SP)–driven PHE consisting of a cardiac history questionnaire and a physical examination. An independent CAA assessment was performed by a technician who was blinded to the SP findings. Athletes with suspected structural murmurs or other clinical reasons for concern were referred to a cardiologist for confirmatory echocardiography (EC). Results: Twenty-five athletes were referred for further investigation (17 murmurs, 6 abnormal electrocardiographs, 1 displaced apex, and 1 possible case of Marfan syndrome). EC confirmed 3 structural and 22 physiological murmurs. The SP flagged 5 individuals with possible underlying structural pathology; 2 of these murmurs were confirmed as structural in nature. Fourteen murmurs were referred by CAA; 3 of these were confirmed as structural in origin by EC. One such murmur was not detected by the SP, however, and detected by CAA. The sensitivity of CAA was 100% compared with 66.7% shown by the SP, while specificity was 50% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion: CAA shows potential to be a feasible adjunct for improving the identification of structural murmurs in the athlete population. Over-referral by CAA for EC requires further investigation and possible refinements to the current algorithm. Further studies are needed to determine the true sensitivity

  20. Endogenous opioids as substrates for ethanol intake in the neonatal rat: The impact of prenatal ethanol exposure on the opioid family in the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Kelly; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Despite considerable knowledge that prenatal ethanol exposure can lead to devastating effects on the developing fetus, alcohol consumption by pregnant women remains strikingly prevalent. Both clinical and basic research has suggested that, in addition to possible physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, gestational exposure to alcohol may lead to an increased risk for the development of later alcohol-related use and abuse disorders. The current work sought to characterize alterations in endogenous opioid signaling peptides and gene expression produced by ethanol exposure during the last days of gestation. Experimental subjects were 4-, 8-, and 12-day old infant rats obtained from pregnant females that were given daily intubations of 0, 1, or 2g/kg ethanol during the last few days of gestation (GDs 17-20). Using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting analysis, and enzyme immunoassays, we examined mRNA and protein for three opioid receptors and ligands in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus. Three main trends emerged - (1) mRNA for the majority of factors was found to upregulate across each of the three postnatal ages assessed, indicative of escalating ontogenetic expression of opioid-related genes; (2) prenatal ethanol significantly reduced many opioid peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism by which prenatal exposure can affect future responsiveness towards ethanol; and (3) the nucleus accumbens emerged as a key site for ethanol-dependent effects, suggesting a potential target for additional assessment and intervention towards understanding the ethanol's ability to program the developing brain. We provide a global assessment of relatively long-term changes in both opioid gene expression and protein following exposure to only moderate amounts of ethanol during a relatively short window in the prenatal period. These results suggest that, while continuing to undergo ontogenetic changes, the infant brain is sensitive to prenatal ethanol

  1. Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide-Based Haploidentical Transplantation as Alternative to Matched Sibling or Unrelated Donor Transplantation for Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Registry Study of the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Gayoso, Jorge; Canals, Carmen; Finel, Hervé; Peggs, Karl; Dominietto, Alida; Castagna, Luca; Afanasyev, Boris; Robinson, Stephen; Blaise, Didier; Corradini, Paolo; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Bermúdez, Arancha; Forcade, Edouard; Russo, Domenico; Potter, Michael; McQuaker, Grant; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Scheid, Christof; Bloor, Adrian; Montoto, Silvia; Dreger, Peter; Sureda, Anna

    2017-10-20

    Purpose To compare the outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based haploidentical (HAPLO) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with the outcome of patients who received conventional HLA-matched sibling donor (SIB) and HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD). Patients and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 709 adult patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who were registered in the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database who received HAPLO (n = 98), SIB (n = 338), or MUD (n = 273) transplantation. Results Median follow-up of survivors was 29 months. No differences were observed between groups in the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). HAPLO was associated with a lower risk of chronic GVHD (26%) compared with MUD (41%; P = .04). Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 17%, 13%, and 21% in HAPLO, SIB, and MUD, respectively, and corresponding 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse or progression was 39%, 49%, and 32%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, relative to SIB, nonrelapse mortality was similar in HAPLO ( P = .26) and higher in MUD ( P = .003), and risk of relapse was lower in both HAPLO ( P = .047) and MUD ( P < .001). Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 67% and 43% for HAPLO, 71% and 38% for SIB, and 62% and 45% for MUD, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall survival or progression-free survival between HAPLO and SIB or MUD. The rate of the composite end point of extensive chronic GVHD and relapse-free survival was significantly better for HAPLO (40%) compared with SIB (28%; P = .049) and similar to MUD (38%; P = .59). Conclusion Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based HAPLO transplantation results in similar survival outcomes compared with SIB and MUD, which confirms its suitability when no conventional donor is available. Our results also suggest that HAPLO results in a lower risk of chronic

  2. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  3. Chaotic evolution of the long-period Milankovitch cycle during the early Mesozoic: independent evidences from the Newark lacustrine sequence (North America) and the pelagic bedded chert sequence (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, M.; Olsen, P. E.; Tada, R.

    2012-12-01

    The correlation of Earth's orbital parameters with climatic variations has been used to generate astronomically calibrated geologic time scales of high accuracy. However, because of the chaotic behavior of the solar planets, the orbital models have a large uncertainty beyond several tens of million years in the past. This chaotic behavior also causes the long-period astronomical cycles (> 0.5 Myr periodicity) to modulate their frequency and amplitude. In other words, their modulation patterns could be potential constraints for the orbital models. Here we report the first geologic constraints on the timing of frequency transition and amplitude modulation of the ~ 2 Myr long eccentricity cycles during the early Mesozoic. We examined the lake level records of the early Mesozoic Newark lacustrine sequence in North America and the biogenic silica burial rate of the pelagic bedded chert sequence in the Inuyama area, Japan, which are proven to be reflect the astronomical cycle (Olsen, 1986; Olsen and Kent, 1996; Ikeda et al., 2010). The time scales of the two sequences were orbitally calibrated with the end-Triassic mass extinction interval as the age anchor, covering ~ 30 Myr and ~ 65 Myr, respectively (Olsen et al., 2011; Ikeda et al., 2010, in prep). We find that the frequency modulation of ~ 2 Myr cycle between 2.4 Myr to 1.6 Myr cycle have occurred at least the Middle to Late Triassic. In addition, the ~ 2 Myr cycle modulate its amplitude with ~ 10 Myr periodicity with in-phase relation between the two. Similar modulation patterns of ~ 2 Myr cycles from the two independent geologic records indicate convincing evidences for the chaotic behavior of the Solar planets. Because these modulation patterns are different from the results of the orbital models by Laskar et al. (2004, 2011), our records will provide the new and challenging constraints for the orbital models in terms of chaotic behavior of Solar planets.

  4. IGF-1 deficiency in a critical period early in life influences the vascular aging phenotype in mice by altering miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation: implications for the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tarantini, Stefano; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Ashpole, Nicole M; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Wei, Jeanne Y; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological findings support the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period of development have a fundamental impact on vascular health later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during development are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating IGF-1 levels during adolescence. The present study was designed to characterize the effect of developmental IGF-1 deficiency on the vascular aging phenotype. To achieve that goal, early-onset endocrine IGF-1 deficiency was induced in mice by knockdown of IGF-1 in the liver using Cre-lox technology (Igf1 f/f mice crossed with mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase). This model exhibits low-circulating IGF-1 levels during the peripubertal phase of development, which is critical for the biology of aging. Due to the emergence of miRNAs as important regulators of the vascular aging phenotype, the effect of early-life IGF-1 deficiency on miRNA expression profile in the aorta was examined in animals at 27 months of age. We found that developmental IGF-1 deficiency elicits persisting late-life changes in miRNA expression in the vasculature, which significantly differed from those in mice with adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency (TBG-Cre-AAV8-mediated knockdown of IGF-1 at 5 month of age in Igf1 f/f mice). Using a novel computational approach, we identified miRNA target genes that are co-expressed with IGF-1 and associate with aging and vascular pathophysiology. We found that among the predicted targets, the expression of multiple extracellular matrix-related genes, including collagen-encoding genes, were downregulated in mice with developmental IGF-1 deficiency. Collectively, IGF-1 deficiency during a critical period during early in life results in persistent changes in post-transcriptional miRNA-mediated control of genes critical targets for vascular health, which likely contribute to the

  5. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  6. Short communication: Effects of dietary 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole supplementation on vitamin B12 supply, lactation performance, and energy balance in dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Wang, D M; Zhang, B X; Wang, J K; Liu, H Y; Liu, J X

    2018-03-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) supplementation to the feed during the transition period and early lactation on the vitamin B 12 supply, lactation performance, and energy balance in postpartum cows. Twenty-four prepartum Holstein dairy cows were divided into 12 blocks based on their parity and milk yield at the last lactation and were then randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments: a basal diet without DMB (control) or a treatment diet that contained 1.5 g of DMB/d per cow. The study started at wk 3 before the expected calving day and ended at wk 8 postpartum. The feed intake and the lactation performance were measured weekly after calving. Blood parameters were measured on d -10, 0, 8, 15, 29, 43, and 57 relative to the calving day. Body weight was measured on the calving day and on d 57 after calving. The yields of milk, protein, and lactose in cows fed DMB were higher than in the control throughout the whole postpartum stage. On wk 8 postpartum, the vitamin B 12 content in the milk and sera was greater in cows fed DMB than in the control. The overall body weight loss from wk 1 to 8 postpartum was less in cows fed DMB than in the control. The plasma content of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyric acid was significantly lower in cows fed DMB than in the control throughout the whole experimental stage. In conclusion, dietary DMB fed during the transition period and early lactation improved the vitamin B 12 supply, milk production, and energy balance of postpartum dairy cows. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting graft survival within 1-year post-transplantation in heart and lung transplant: an analysis of the OPTN/UNOS registry.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Today, a main focus of the transplant community is the long-term outcomes of lung and heart allograft recipients. However, even early post-transplant survival (within the first post-transplant year) needs improvement, as early graft failure still accounts for many allograft losses. In this chapter, we review the experience of heart and lung transplantation as reported to the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing registry and investigate the factors responsible for causing failure in the first post-transplant year. Trends indicate that sicker patients are increasingly being transplanted, thereby limiting improvements in early post-transplant survival. More lung and heart transplant patients are coming to transplant on dialysis. In heart transplant, there is an increase in the number of heart retransplant patients and an increase in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. For lung transplant, more patients are on a ventilator prior to transplant than in the past 25 years. Given that sicker/riskier patients are now receiving more heart and lung transplants, future studies need to take place to better understand these patients so that they can have the same survival as patients entering transplant with less severe illnesses.

  8. What can happen after lung transplantation and the importance of the time since transplantation: radiological review of post-transplantation complications.

    PubMed

    Daimiel Naranjo, I; Alonso Charterina, S

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation is the best treatment option in the final stages of diseases such as cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Better surgical techniques and advances in immunosuppressor treatments have increased survival in lung transplant recipients, making longer follow-up necessary because complications can occur at any time after transplantation. For practical purposes, complications can be classified as early (those that normally occur within two months after transplantation), late (those that normally occur more than two months after transplantation), or time-independent (those that can occur at any time after transplantation). Many complications have nonspecific clinical and radiological manifestations, so the time factor is key to narrow the differential diagnosis. Imaging can guide interventional procedures and can detect complications early. This article aims to describe and illustrate the complications that can occur after lung transplantation from the clinical and radiological viewpoints so that they can be detected as early as possible. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Early fundoplication is associated with slower decline in lung function after lung transplantation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Biswas Roy, Sreeja; Elnahas, Shaimaa; Serrone, Rosemarie; Haworth, Cassandra; Olson, Michael T; Kang, Paul; Smith, Michael A; Bremner, Ross M; Huang, Jasmine L

    2018-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent after lung transplantation. Fundoplication slows lung function decline in patients with GERD, but the optimal timing of fundoplication is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent fundoplication after lung transplantion at our center from April 2007 to July 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: early fundoplication (<6 months after lung transplantation) and late fundoplication (≥6 months after lung transplantation). Annual decline in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) was analyzed. Of the 251 patients who underwent lung transplantation during the study period with available pH data, 86 (34.3%) underwent post-transplantation fundoplication for GERD. Thirty of 86 (34.9%) had early fundoplication and 56 of 86 (65.1%) had late fundoplication. Median time from lung transplantation to fundoplication was 4.6 months (interquartile range, 2.0-5.2) and 13.8 months (interquartile range, 9.0-16.1) for the early and late groups, respectively. The median DeMeester score was comparable between groups. One-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates in the early group were 90%, 70%, and 70%, respectively; in the late group, these rates were 91%, 66%, and 66% (log rank P = .60). Three- and 5-year percent predicted FEV 1 was lower in the late group by 8.9% (95% confidence interval, -30.2 to 12.38; P = .46) and 40.7% (95% confidence interval, -73.66 to -7.69; P = .019). A linear mixed model showed a 5.7% lower percent predicted FEV 1 over time in the late fundoplication group (P < .001). In this study, patients with early fundoplication had a higher FEV 1 5 years after lung transplantation. Early fundoplication might protect against GERD-induced lung damage in lung transplant recipients with GERD. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Improvement in Marrow Fibrosis Following Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shuichiro; Tsumanuma, Riko; Aizawa, Keiko; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Maeda, Kunihiko; Omoto, Ejiro

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis for myelodysplastic syndrome with bone marrow fibrosis (MDS-F) is worse than the prognosis of MDS without fibrosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy; however, the indications and the procedures involved in HSCT remain unclear. We herein describe a 69-year-old Japanese man with MDS-F who received haploidentical HSCT and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. Although the first HSCT resulted in secondary graft failure, the second HSCT using PTCy led to successful engraftment after early improvement in fibrosis. Since the incidence of graft failure is high in myelofibrosis patients, a secondary HSCT using PTCy may be successful if employed. PMID:27853082

  11. Maternal lifetime history of depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal and early postnatal period do not predict infant-mother attachment quality in a large, population-based Dutch cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tharner, Anne; Luijk, Maartje P C M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of maternal history of depressive disorder and the effects of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the early postpartum period on attachment insecurity and disorganization. A total of 627 mother-infant dyads from the Generation R Study participated in a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. Maternal history of depression was assessed by diagnostic interviews during pregnancy; maternal peri- and postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed with questionnaires in 506 of these women at 20 weeks pregnancy and two months postpartum; and infant-mother attachment security was observed when infants were aged 14 months. A history of maternal depressive disorder, regardless of severity or psychiatric comorbidity, was not associated with an increased risk of infant attachment insecurity or disorganization. Likewise, maternal peri- and postnatal depressive symptoms were not related to attachment insecurity or disorganization at 14 months. These results are important because mothers from otherwise low risk backgrounds often have previously been depressed or are struggling with non-clinical depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after giving birth. Our findings are discussed in terms of protective factors that may limit the potentially negative effects of maternal depressive symptoms on the infant-mother attachment relationship in the general population. The role of selective attrition and lack of information about the mothers' attachment status for the current null-findings are also discussed.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood From Kidney Transplant Recipients for the Early Detection of Digestive System Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, M; Okamoto, M; Takenaka, M; Sasaki, H; Fukami, N; Kataoka, K; Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Hoshinaga, K; Shiroki, R

    2017-06-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer in comparison with the general population. To effectively manage post-transplantation malignancies, it is essential to proactively monitor patients. A long-term intensive screening program was associated with a reduced incidence of cancer after transplantation. This study evaluated the usefulness of the gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples obtained from kidney transplant patients and adopted a screening test for detecting cancer of the digestive system (gastric, colon, pancreas, and biliary tract). Nineteen patients were included in this study and a total of 53 gene expression screening tests were performed. The gene expression profiles of blood-delivered total RNA and whole genome human gene expression profiles were obtained. We investigated the expression levels of 2665 genes associated with digestive cancers and counted the number of genes in which expression was altered. A hierarchical clustering analysis was also performed. The final prediction of the cancer possibility was determined according to an algorithm. The number of genes in which expression was altered was significantly increased in the kidney transplant recipients in comparison with the general population (1091 ± 63 vs 823 ± 94; P = .0024). The number of genes with altered expression decreased after the induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (1484 ± 227 vs 883 ± 154; P = .0439). No cases of possible digestive cancer were detected in this study period. The gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows for the early detection of cancer of the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients Receiving Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus-Based Immunosuppression With 2 Different Corticosteroid Minimization Strategies: ADVANCE, A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Georges; Glyda, Maciej; Albano, Laetitia; Viklický, Ondrej; Merville, Pierre; Tydén, Gunnar; Mourad, Michel; Lõhmus, Aleksander; Witzke, Oliver; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Brown, Malcolm W; Undre, Nasrullah; Kazeem, Gbenga; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2017-08-01

    ADVANCE (NCT01304836) was a phase 4, multicenter, prospectively randomized, open-label, 24-week study comparing the incidence of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) with 2 prolonged-release tacrolimus corticosteroid minimization regimens. All patients received prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil and 1 bolus of intraoperative corticosteroids (0-1000 mg) as per center policy. Patients in arm 1 received tapered corticosteroids, stopped after day 10, whereas patients in arm 2 received no steroids after the intraoperative bolus. The primary efficacy variable was the diagnosis of PTDM as per American Diabetes Association criteria (2010) at any point up to 24 weeks postkidney transplantation. Secondary efficacy variables included incidence of composite efficacy failure (graft loss, biopsy-proven acute rejection or severe graft dysfunction: estimated glomerular filtration rate (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4) <30 mL/min per 1.73 m), acute rejection and graft and patient survival. The full-analysis set included 1081 patients (arm 1: n = 528, arm 2: n = 553). Baseline characteristics and mean tacrolimus trough levels were comparable between arms. Week 24 Kaplan-Meier estimates of PTDM were similar for arm 1 versus arm 2 (17.4% vs 16.6%; P = 0.579). Incidence of composite efficacy failure, graft and patient survival, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate were also comparable between arms. Biopsy-proven acute rejection and acute rejection were significantly higher in arm 2 versus arm 1 (13.6% vs 8.7%, P = 0.006 and 25.9% vs 18.2%, P = 0.001, respectively). Tolerability profiles were comparable between arms. A prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppressive regimen is efficacious, with a low incidence of PTDM and a manageable tolerability profile over 24 weeks of treatment. A lower incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection was seen in patients receiving corticosteroids tapered over 10

  14. T Cell-Replete Peripheral Blood Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide Results in Outcomes Similar to Transplantation from Traditionally Matched Donors in Active Disease Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    How, Joan; Slade, Michael; Vu, Khoan; DiPersio, John F; Westervelt, Peter; Uy, Geoffrey L; Abboud, Camille N; Vij, Ravi; Schroeder, Mark A; Fehniger, Todd A; Romee, Rizwan

    2017-04-01

    Outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who fail to achieve complete remission remain poor. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been shown to induce long-term survival in AML patients with active disease. HCT is largely performed with HLA-matched unrelated or HLA-matched related donors. Recently, HCT with HLA-haploidentical related donors has been identified as a feasible option when HLA-matched donors are not immediately available. However, there are little data comparing outcomes for AML patients with active disease who receive haploidentical versus traditionally matched HCT. We retrospectively analyzed data from 99 AML patients with active disease undergoing allogeneic HCT at a single institution. Forty-three patients received unrelated donor HCT, 32 patients received matched related donor HCT, and 24 patients received peripheral blood haploidentical HCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. We found no significant differences between treatment groups in terms of overall survival (OS), event-free survival, transplantation-related mortality, cumulative incidence of relapse, and cumulative incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed univariate regression analysis of variables that modified OS in all patients and found only younger age at transplantation and development of chronic GVHD significantly improved outcome. Although limited by our relatively small sample size, these results indicate that haploidentical HCT in active AML patients have comparable outcomes to HCT with traditionally matched donors. Haploidentical HCT can be considered in this population of high-risk patients when matched donors are unavailable or when wait times for transplantation are unacceptably long. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Corrects Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Chinese Patients With IL10RA-Associated Immune Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kaiyue; Qian, Xiaowen; Huang, Zhiheng; Lu, Junping; Wang, Yuhuan; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Bingbing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lingli; Zhai, Xiaowen; Huang, Ying

    2018-05-18

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered the only curative therapy for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with specific immune defects, such as interleukin-10 receptor deficiency. We performed reduced-intensity conditioning before umbilical cord blood transplantation in patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency. We enrolled 9 very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease patients with typical manifestations. We diagnosed the patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency by whole-exome sequencing. Umbilical cord blood transplantation was performed in all 9 patients. Eight patients received the reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, and 1 patient received the myeloablative conditioning regimen. All 9 patients received transplantation between the ages of 6 months to 43 months (average, 16.8 months) with body weights ranging from 3 to 10.4 kg (average, 6.6 kg). The patients displayed complete chimerism at 2-8 weeks after transplantation; 6 patients achieved complete remission without evidence of graft-vs-host disease or infections; 1 patient died of chronic lung graft-vs-host disease at 6 months post-transplantation; and the other 2 patients died of sepsis post-transplantation because of unsuccessful engraftments. Severe malnutrition and growth retardation associated with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency were significantly improved post-transplantation. We recommend umbilical cord blood transplantation as a potential treatment for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with a defined monogenic immunodeficiency, and we suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning chemotherapy is more suitable than myeloablative conditioning for patients with severe malnutrition and bowel disease. We have demonstrated success with reduced-intensity conditioning for interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency in pediatric patients with severe clinical conditions. 10.1093/ibd/izy028_video1izy028.video15786489183001.

  16. Incidence of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients Receiving Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus-Based Immunosuppression With 2 Different Corticosteroid Minimization Strategies: ADVANCE, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, Georges; Glyda, Maciej; Albano, Laetitia; Viklický, Ondrej; Merville, Pierre; Tydén, Gunnar; Mourad, Michel; Lõhmus, Aleksander; Witzke, Oliver; Christiaans, Maarten H. L.; Brown, Malcolm W.; Undre, Nasrullah; Kazeem, Gbenga; Kuypers, Dirk R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background ADVANCE (NCT01304836) was a phase 4, multicenter, prospectively randomized, open-label, 24-week study comparing the incidence of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) with 2 prolonged-release tacrolimus corticosteroid minimization regimens. Methods All patients received prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil and 1 bolus of intraoperative corticosteroids (0-1000 mg) as per center policy. Patients in arm 1 received tapered corticosteroids, stopped after day 10, whereas patients in arm 2 received no steroids after the intraoperative bolus. The primary efficacy variable was the diagnosis of PTDM as per American Diabetes Association criteria (2010) at any point up to 24 weeks postkidney transplantation. Secondary efficacy variables included incidence of composite efficacy failure (graft loss, biopsy-proven acute rejection or severe graft dysfunction: estimated glomerular filtration rate (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4) <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2), acute rejection and graft and patient survival. Results The full-analysis set included 1081 patients (arm 1: n = 528, arm 2: n = 553). Baseline characteristics and mean tacrolimus trough levels were comparable between arms. Week 24 Kaplan–Meier estimates of PTDM were similar for arm 1 versus arm 2 (17.4% vs 16.6%; P = 0.579). Incidence of composite efficacy failure, graft and patient survival, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate were also comparable between arms. Biopsy-proven acute rejection and acute rejection were significantly higher in arm 2 versus arm 1 (13.6% vs 8.7%, P = 0.006 and 25.9% vs 18.2%, P = 0.001, respectively). Tolerability profiles were comparable between arms. Conclusions A prolonged-release tacrolimus, basiliximab, and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppressive regimen is efficacious, with a low incidence of PTDM and a manageable tolerability profile over 24 weeks of treatment. A lower incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection was seen in patients

  17. Post-transplantation Development of Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik N; Firszt, Rafael

    2018-01-29

    The development of food allergies is increasingly being recognized as a post-solid organ transplant complication. In this article, we review the spectrum of post-transplant food allergy development and the proposed mechanisms for de novo food allergies and the clinical significance they pose. The development of new food allergies is disproportionately associated with pediatric liver transplants, where it occurs in up to 38% of select populations. The mechanism of food allergy development is not completely understood; however, it is likely promoted by unbalanced immune suppression. De novo food allergy development is a common complication of solid organ transplants with the highest risk occurring in pediatric liver transplant recipients. There are likely multiple mechanisms for food allergy development including passive transfer of membrane-bound IgE and lymphocytes from donor to recipient, as well as loss of food tolerance and active development of new food allergies. The optimal management of food allergies following organ transplants has not been well researched but may include changing the immune suppression regimen if the food allergy does not resolve without intervention.

  18. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  19. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  20. High circulating CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ T-cell sub-population early after lung transplantation is associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Durand, Maxim; Lacoste, Philippe; Danger, Richard; Jacquemont, Lola; Brosseau, Carole; Durand, Eugénie; Tilly, Gaelle; Loy, Jennifer; Foureau, Aurore; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Tissot, Adrien; Roux, Antoine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Kessler, Romain; Mussot, Sacha; Dromer, Claire; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean François; Guillemain, Romain; Claustre, Johanna; Degauque, Nicolas; Magnan, Antoine; Brouard, Sophie

    2018-06-01

    Chronic bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains a major limitation for long-term survival after lung transplantation. The immune mechanisms involved and predictive biomarkers have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether peripheral blood T-lymphocyte profile could predict BOS in lung transplant recipients. An in-depth profiling of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was prospectively performed on blood cells from stable (STA) and BOS patients with a longitudinal follow-up. Samples were analyzed at 1 and 6 months after transplantation, at the time of BOS diagnosis, and at an intermediate time-point at 6 to 12 months before BOS diagnosis. Although no significant difference was found for T-cell compartments at BOS diagnosis or several months beforehand, we identified an increase in the CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T-cell sub-population in BOS patients at 1 and 6 months after transplantation (3.39 ± 0.40% vs 1.67 ± 0.22% in STA, p < 0.001). A CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T-cell threshold of 2.4% discriminated BOS and stable patients at 1 month post-transplantation. This was validated on a second set of patients at 6 months post-transplantation. Patients with a proportion of CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T cells up to 2.4% in the 6 months after transplantation had a 2-fold higher risk of developing BOS. This study is the first to report an increased proportion of circulating CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T cells early post-transplantation in lung recipients who proceed to develop BOS within 3 years, which supports its use as a BOS predictive biomarker. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your period What happens during your menstrual cycle Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Problem periods Getting enough sleep ... can skip to our pages on your menstrual cycle , PMS , how to take care of your period , ...

  2. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Reserve Select for certain members of the selected reserve; Transitional Assistance Management Program; early eligibility for TRICARE for certain reserve component members. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2005-03-16

    This interim final rule establishes requirements and procedures for implementation of TRICARE Reserve Select. It also revises requirements and procedures for the Transitional Assistance Management Program. In addition, it establishes requirements and procedures for implementation of the earlier TRICARE eligibility for certain reserve component members. The rule is being published as an interim final rule with comment period in order to comply with statutory effective dates.

  3. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenisch, Chantal; Keller, Kathrin M.; Salvisberg, Melanie; Amann, Benjamin; Bauch, Martin; Blumer, Sandro; Brázdil, Rudolf; Brönnimann, Stefan; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fleitmann, Dominik; Glaser, Rüdiger; González-Rouco, Fidel; Grosjean, Martin; Hoffmann, Richard C.; Huhtamaa, Heli; Joos, Fortunat; Kiss, Andrea; Kotyza, Oldřich; Lehner, Flavio; Luterbacher, Jürg; Maughan, Nicolas; Neukom, Raphael; Novy, Theresa; Pribyl, Kathleen; Raible, Christoph C.; Riemann, Dirk; Schuh, Maximilian; Slavin, Philip; Werner, Johannes P.; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate affected human societies throughout the last millennium. While European cold periods in the 17th and 18th century have been assessed in detail, earlier cold periods received much less attention due to sparse information available. New evidence from proxy archives, historical documentary sources and climate model simulations permit us to provide an interdisciplinary, systematic assessment of an exceptionally cold period in the 15th century. Our assessment includes the role of internal, unforced climate variability and external forcing in shaping extreme climatic conditions and the impacts on and responses of the medieval society in north-western and central Europe.Climate reconstructions from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives indicate that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century. This decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers resulting in a strong seasonal cycle in temperature. Results from comprehensive climate models indicate consistently that these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system. External forcing like volcanic eruptions tends to reduce simulated temperature seasonality and cannot explain the reconstructions. The strong seasonal cycle in temperature reduced food production and led to increasing food prices, a subsistence crisis and a famine in parts of Europe. Societies were not prepared to cope with failing markets and interrupted trade routes. In response to the crisis, authorities implemented numerous measures of supply policy and adaptation such as the installation of grain storage capacities to be prepared for future food production shortfalls.

  4. Quantitative reconstruction of temperature at a Jōmon site in the Incipient Jōmon Period in northern Japan and its implications for the production of early pottery and stone arrowheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Ishizaki, Yui; Kuroyanagi, Azumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ohkushi, Ken-ichi

    2017-02-01

    The first emergence and development of pottery is an important archeological research topic. Climate change and associated ecological changes likely promoted the development of pottery. However, little is known about these environmental factors at the regional scale. Sedimentary Core MD01-2409 was collected off the coast of northern Honshu, Japan, and provided an excellent opportunity to quantitatively estimate temperature using an alkenone proxy. This estimation is based upon the positive correlation between the sea surface temperature (SST) and the atmospheric temperature (AT) near the core collection site. The Jōmon began to produce the earliest pottery found in Japan during this period. This corresponds to a climatic anomaly that could be attributed to one of the global effects of the Heinrich Event I. The event's origin in the northern North Atlantic consequently weakened the Asian Monsoon because the two are linked via atmospheric circulation. Japan experienced its coldest summer (SST of 8.7 °C; AT of 5.2 °C) around 15.68 cal kyr BP; these summer temperatures were approximately 7-11 °C lower than they are currently (∼15.7 °C and ∼16.7 °C), respectively. The summer environment was a little colder than those experienced in the present-day cities of Nemuro and/or Nosappu in Hokkaido. Subsistence in a terrestrial environment would have been difficult for the Jōmon people; however, marine products such as fish and shellfish would have been plentiful. These conditions are consistent with the evidence that the earliest pottery was predominantly used for cooking marine and freshwater resources and increased diversification in the range of aquatic products used. The Bølling-Allerød and pre-Boreal warm Episodes during deglaciation warmed climatic environments and enhanced marine biogenic production. The maximum SST during this period is comparable to the modern SST despite its short duration (of approximately a century or less). Even though the

  5. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  6. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  7. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  8. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Posch, Christian; Kaulfersch, Wilhelm; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are characterized by apparently unprovoked attacks of fever, rashes, and musculoskeletal and sensorineural inflammation accompanied by high acute-phase reactants. Excessive interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling appears to be a constant feature in the pathomechanism of the disease, driven by a gain-of-function mutation in the NLRP3 gene. Herein, we present the case of a 9-month-old boy with recurrent nonpruritic rashes and episodes of fever. The difficulties of early diagnosis due to initially mild clinical symptoms and the dramatic response to anti-IL-1 therapy after diagnosis emphasize the practical relevance of considering CAPS as a differential diagnosis in these patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Some Reflections on the Periodic Table and Its Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernelius, W. Conard

    1986-01-01

    Discusses early periodic tables; effect on the periodic table of atomic numbers; the periodic table in relation to electron distribution in the atoms of elements; terms and concepts related to the table; and the modern basis of the periodic table. Additional comments about these and other topics are included. (JN)

  10. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  11. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images ... S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  12. The CV period minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Ulrich; Baraffe, Isabelle

    Using improved, up-to-date stellar input physics tested against observations of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs we calculate the secular evolution of low-donor-mass CVs, including those which form with a brown dwarf donor star. Our models confirm the mismatch between the calculated minimum period (plus or minus in ~= 70 min) and the observed short-period cut-off (~= 80 min) in the CV period histogram. Theoretical period distributions synthesized from our model sequences always show an accumulation of systems at the minimum period, a feature absent in the observed distribution. We suggest that non-magnetic CVs become unobservable as they are effectively trapped in permanent quiescence before they reach plus or minus in, and that small-number statistics may hide the period spike for magnetic CVs. We calculate the minimum period for high mass transfer rate sequences and discuss the relevance of these for explaining the location of CV secondaries in the orbital-period-spectral-type diagram. We also show that a recently suggested revised mass-radius relation for low-mass main-sequence stars cannot explain the CV period gap.

  13. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  14. Periodic GMP Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    We recall criteria on the spectrum of Jacobi matrices such that the corresponding isospectral torus consists of periodic operators. Motivated by those known results for Jacobi matrices, we define a new class of operators called GMP matrices. They form a certain Generalization of matrices related to the strong Moment Problem. This class allows us to give a parametrization of almost periodic finite gap Jacobi matrices by periodic GMP matrices. Moreover, due to their structural similarity we can carry over numerous results from the direct and inverse spectral theory of periodic Jacobi matrices to the class of periodic GMP matrices. In particular, we prove an analogue of the remarkable ''magic formula'' for this new class.

  15. [PERIOPERATIVE ANALGESIA INFLUENCE ON MOTHER REHABILITATION PERIOD AFTER CESAREAN SECTION].

    PubMed

    Sedykh, S V

    2015-01-01

    Early breast-feeding is a standard of perinatal care currently. After cesarean section it can be possible in case of early mother activation (verticalization). Assessment of perioperative analgesia influence on activation timing was the aim of our research. We included 120 parturient women. It was proved, that local analgesia using in postoperative period promotes early mother verticaliration, and optimal breast-feeding starting.

  16. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  17. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  18. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  19. Absent menstrual periods - primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Either of these problems may be due to: Anorexia (loss of appetite) Chronic or long-term illnesses, ... to begin. If the cause is the bulimia , anorexia or too much exercise, periods will often begin ...

  20. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  1. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  2. Super periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  3. Critical periods and amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Daw, N W

    1998-04-01

    During the past 20 years, basic science has shown that there are different critical periods for different visual functions during the development of the visual system. Visual functions processed at higher anatomical levels within the system have a later critical period than functions processed at lower levels. This general principle suggests that treatments for amblyopia should be followed in a logical sequence, with treatment for each visual function to be started before its critical period is over. However, critical periods for some visual functions, such as stereopsis, are not yet fully determined, and the optimal treatment is, therefore, unknown. This article summarizes the current extent of our knowledge and points to the gaps that need to be filled.

  4. Periodic neutropenia and monocytopenia

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Liu, Y.K.

    A patient with periodic neutropenia exhibited simultaneous monocytopenia, and epinephrine infusion revealed no monocytes in the marginating pool during neutropenia. Lymphocytes, eosinophils, and platelets also fluctuated periodically, but serial bone marrow studies and epinephrine infusion data indicate these fluctuations could have represented epiphenomena rather than a more global form of periodic hematopoiesis. Bone marrow descriptions of most cases of periodic neutropenia have indicated a ''maturation arrest'' at the promyelocyte or myelocyte stage prior to development of neutropenia; peripheral blood monocytes are usually normal or fluctuate out of phase with neutrophils. In the present case, ''maturation arrest'' occurred at the myeloblastmore » stage, and neutrophils and monocytes cycled together. Morphologically normal eosinophilopoiesis with a mean eosinophil to erythroid ratio in the marrow of 0.27 +/- 0.10 (SD) persisted despite a sustained disappearance of promyelocytes.« less

  5. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  6. Prescriptions analysis by clinical pharmacists in the post-operative period: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Charpiat, B; Goutelle, S; Schoeffler, M; Aubrun, F; Viale, J-P; Ducerf, C; Leboucher, G; Allenet, B

    2012-09-01

    Clinical pharmacists can help prevent medication errors. However, data are scarce on their role in preventing medication prescription errors in the post-operative period, a high-risk period, as at least two prescribers can intervene, the surgeon and the anesthetist. We aimed to describe and quantify clinical pharmacist' intervention (PIs) during validation of drug prescriptions on a computerized physician order entry system in a post-surgical and post-transplantation ward. We illustrate these interventions, focusing on one clearly identified recurrent problem. In a prospective study lasting 4 years, we recorded drug-related problems (DRPs) detected by pharmacists and whether the physician accepted the PI when prescription modification was suggested. Among 7005 orders, 1975 DRPs were detected. The frequency of PIs remained constant throughout the study period, with 921 PIs (47%) accepted, 383 (19%) refused and 671 (34%) not assessable. The most frequent DRP concerned improper administration mode (26%), drug interactions (21%) and overdosage (20%). These resulted in a change in the method of administration (25%), dose adjustment (24%) and drug discontinuation (23%) with 307 drugs being concerned by at least one PI. Paracetamol was involved in 26% of overdosage PIs. Erythromycin as prokinetic agent, presented a recurrent risk of potentially severe drug-drug interactions especially with other QT interval-prolonging drugs. Following an educational seminar targeting this problem, the rate of acceptation of PI concerning this DRP increased. Pharmacists detected many prescription errors that may have clinical implications and could be the basis for educational measures. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  7. Are periodic bombardments real?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the hypothesis that showers of comets or asteroids strike the earth every 26 m yrs, causing climatic castastrophes and mass extinctions (Raup and Sepkoski, 1984). Possible explanations for the alleged periodicity are discussed, including the possibility that the sun has a small faint companion star and perturbations of the Oort cloud as the solar system passes through the Galactic plane. Also, the possible causes of the extinction at the K-T boundary are examined. The implications of these theories are noted and evidence suggesting that impacts do not have periodicity is presented.

  8. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.

  9. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  10. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  11. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common form of periodic paralysis. It affects males more often. Causes HypoPP is congenital. This means it is present at birth. In most cases, it is passed down through families (inherited) as an autosomal dominant disorder. In other words only one parent needs ...

  12. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  13. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  14. Painful menstrual periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise. If these self-care measures do not work, your health care provider may offer you treatment such as: Birth control pills Mirena IUD Prescription anti-inflammatory medicines Prescription pain relievers (including narcotics, for brief periods) Antidepressants Antibiotics When ...

  15. Defective expression of apoptosis-related molecules in multiple sclerosis patients is normalized early after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, G L V; Ferreira, A F; Gasparotto, E P L; Kashima, S; Covas, D T; Guerreiro, C T; Brum, D G; Barreira, A A; Voltarelli, J C; Simões, B P; Oliveira, M C; de Castro, F A; Malmegrim, K C R

    2017-03-01

    Defective apoptosis might be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated apoptosis-related molecules in MS patients before and after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) using BCNU, Etoposide, AraC and Melphalan (BEAM) or cyclophosphamide (CY)-based conditioning regimens. Patients were followed for clinical and immunological parameters for 2 years after AHSCT. At baseline, MS patients had decreased proapoptotic BAD, BAX and FASL and increased A1 gene expression when compared with healthy counterparts. In the BEAM group, BAK, BIK, BIM EL , FAS, FASL, A1, BCL2, BCLX L , CFLIP L and CIAP2 genes were up-regulated after AHSCT. With the exception of BIK, BIM EL and A1, all genes reached levels similar to controls at day + 720 post-transplantation. Furthermore, in these patients, we observed increased CD8 + Fas + T cell frequencies after AHSCT when compared to baseline. In the CY group, we observed increased BAX, BCLW, CFLIP L and CIAP1 and decreased BIK and BID gene expressions after transplantation. At day + 720 post-AHSCT, the expression of BAX, FAS, FASL, BCL2, BCLX L and CIAP1 was similar to that of controls. Protein analyses showed increased Bcl-2 expression before transplantation. At 1 year post-AHSCT, expression of Bak, Bim, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and cFlip-L was decreased when compared to baseline values. In summary, our findings suggest that normalization of apoptosis-related molecules is associated with the early therapeutic effects of AHSCT in MS patients. These mechanisms may be involved in the re-establishment of immune tolerance during the first 2 years post-transplantation. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes,more » the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.« less

  17. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  18. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  19. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  20. Optimal Periodic Control Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    single pair of complex eigenvalues are restricted to the unit circle in the complex plane . This is shown by first applying the reciprocity property to a...figure 6.2a and for H in figure 6.2b. Traversing the right half plot of figure 6.1a in a counter-clockwise direction, beginning at the origin...respectively. Only the lower half of the plots are shown because this region provides the solutions of most interest to the optimal periodic control problem

  1. Global bioevents and the question of periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepkoski, J. John

    The hypothesis of periodicity in extinction is an empirical claim that extinction events, while variable in magnitude, are regular in timing and therefore are serially dependent upon some single, ultimate cause with clocklike behavior. This hypothesis is controversal, in part because of questions regarding the identity and timing of certain extinction events and because of speculations concerning possible catastrophic extraterrestrial forcing mechanisms. New data on extinctions of marine animal genera are presented that display a high degree of periodicity in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as well as a suggestion of nonstationary periodicity in the late Paleozoic. However, no periodicity is evident among the as yet poorly documented extinction events of the early and middle Paleozoic.

  2. Elevated pretransplantation soluble CD30 is associated with decreased early allograft function after human lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashish S; Leffell, M Sue; Lucas, Donna; Zachary, Andrea A

    2009-02-01

    Early allograft function after lung transplantation is variable. Clinical criteria have limited predictive value for early graft function. Recipient immunologic state before LTx may affect early lung function. We investigated the association between pretransplantation soluble CD30 (sCD30), a marker of Th2-type T-cell activation, and early clinical parameters of allograft function. Between September 2002 and January 2007, a total of 80 transplantations were performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Of the patients, 43 had a pretransplantation sCD30 level determined. Pre- and postoperative patient variables were collected, and patients were stratified into two groups: sCD30 <20 (low sCD30) and >20 (high sCD30). High sCD30 (n = 26) and low sCD30 (n = 17) groups were similar in age, gender, and ischemia time. In the high sCD30 group, a higher percentage of patients had pulmonary fibrosis and a lower percentage had emphysema. Oxygenation at 48 hours was significantly worse in the high sCD30 group as compared with the low sCD30 (p = 0.003). Moreover, prolonged intubation and 90-day mortality were greater in the high sCD30 group. This represents the first report of the use of sCD30 as a marker for early allograft function in human lung transplanation. Increased pretransplantation recipient sCD30 appears to be associated with decreased early post-transplantation gas exchange, prolonged intubation, and early mortality.

  3. Hyperthyroidism with Periodic Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, David L.; Goldberg, W. M.

    1969-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism may be associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Two cases are presented demonstrating intermittent attacks of flaccid paralysis associated with clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory findings of hyperthyroidism. During an attack, one patient had a serum potassium of 2.1 mEq. per litre. Various factors such as trauma, exposure to cold, excessive carbohydrate ingestion and certain medications have been stated to precipitate an episode of paralysis. Attacks may range from mild weakness to generalized flaccid paralysis with loss of deep tendon reflexes. Several reported patients have died owing to cardiac arrest or respiratory paralysis. During attacks, the serum potassium is usually in the range of 2.2 to 3.2 mEq. per litre. It is postulated that a metabolic abnormality affecting the muscle-cell membrane can occur in the hyperthyroid state resulting in a shift of potassium to the intracellular position, thus producing a situation of hyperpolarization of the muscle-cell membrane which in turn alters the muscle contractibility. The importance of recognizing the unusual association of hypokalemic periodic paralysis with hyperthyroidism is stressed because, with successful treatment of the hyperthyroidism, the episodes of paralysis disappear. PMID:5353150

  4. Period Variation in BW Vulpeculae (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D. E.; Odell, A. P.

    2018-06-01

    (Abstract only) BW Vulpeculae (BW Vul) has the largest amplitude of the beta Cephei stars. An observing campaign on this star using the AAVSOnetís Bright Star Monitor (BSM) telescopes was begun in December of 2015 and has yielded 66 nights of observations to date. A period analysis will be presented using the BSM data set in combination with unpublished data from the Lowell Observatory. Over almost 80 years of observations, BW Vul has closely followed a parabolic ephemeris (period increasing by 2.4 seconds/century) plus a light-travel-time effect. This parabola with excursions on either side also could be viewed as a sequence of straight lines (constant period) with abrupt period increases. The first paradigm predicted a necessary change in slope around 2004, which did not occur. Instead, the period decreased abruptly in 2009. That maximum occurred 250 minutes early compared to the first paradigm, and about 25 minutes early compared to the straight-line paradigm from 1982ñ2009.

  5. Critical period revisited: impact on vision.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Hirofumi; Hensch, Takao K

    2008-02-01

    Neural circuits are shaped by experience in early postnatal life. The permanent loss of visual acuity (amblyopia) and anatomical remodeling within primary visual cortex following monocular deprivation is a classic example of critical period development from mouse to man. Recent work in rodents reveals a residual subthreshold potentiation of open eye response throughout life. Resetting excitatory-inhibitory balance or removing molecular 'brakes' on structural plasticity may unmask the potential for recovery of function in adulthood. Novel pharmacological or environmental interventions now hold great therapeutic promise based on a deeper understanding of critical period mechanisms.

  6. Early application of Met-RANTES ameliorates chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Song, Erwei; Zou, Hequn; Yao, Yousheng; Proudfoot, Amanda; Antus, Balazs; Liu, Shanying; Jens, Lutz; Heemann, Uwe

    2002-02-01

    Initial insults to kidney allografts, characterized by infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, contribute to chronic allograft nephropathy. Chemokines such as RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed) are thought to be responsible for the recruitment and activation of infiltrating cells. The present study investigated whether early application of Met-RANTES, a chemokine receptor antagonist that blocks the effects of RANTES, can protect renal allografts from long-term deterioration. Fisher (F344) rat kidneys were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis recipients and treated with cyclosporine A (1.5 mg/kg/day) for the first 10 days following transplantation, together with either Met-RANTES at 40 microg/day, 200 microg/day or vehicle for the first 7 days. Animals were harvested at 2 and 28 weeks after transplantation for histologic, immunohistologic and molecular analysis. Met-RANTES treatment reduced the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages in allografts at 2 weeks after transplantation, accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and RANTES. At post-transplantation week 28, Met-RANTES treatment at high and low doses reduced urinary protein excretion and significantly ameliorated glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, intimal proliferation of graft arteries and mononuclear cell infiltration. However, creatinine clearance was not influenced by Met-RANTES. Furthermore, Met-RANTES suppressed the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B). Blockade of chemokine receptors by Met-RANTES diminishes early infiltration and activation of mononuclear cells in the grafts, and thus reduces the pace of chronic allograft nephropathy.

  7. Periodized Nutrition for Athletes.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2017-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss the literature in great detail but to clearly define the concept and to give a complete overview of the methods available, with an emphasis on adaptations that are not in the muscle. Whilst there is good evidence for some methods, other proposed methods are mere theories that remain to be tested. 'Periodized nutrition' refers to the strategic combined use of exercise training and nutrition, or nutrition only, with the overall aim to obtain adaptations that support exercise performance. The term nutritional training is sometimes used to describe the same methods and these terms can be used interchangeably. In this review, an overview is given of some of the most common methods of periodized nutrition including 'training low' and 'training high', and training with low- and high-carbohydrate availability, respectively. 'Training low' in particular has received considerable attention and several variations of 'train low' have been proposed. 'Training-low' studies have generally

  8. Periodically modulated dark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  9. Experience factors in performing periodic physical evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. A.

    1969-01-01

    The lack of scientific basis in the so-called periodic health examinations on military personnel inclusive of the Executive Health Program is outlined. This latter program can well represent a management tool of the company involved in addition to being a status symbol. A multiphasic screening technique is proposed in conjunction with an automated medical history questionnaire for preventive occupational medicine methodology. The need to collate early sickness consultation or clinic visit histories with screening techniques is emphasized.

  10. Modeling the incubation period of inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Dean A

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Philip Sartwell, the incubation period distribution for infectious diseases is most often modeled using a lognormal distribution. Theoretical models based on underlying disease mechanisms in the host are less well developed. This article modifies a theoretical model originally developed by Brookmeyer and others for the inhalational anthrax incubation period distribution in humans by using a more accurate distribution to represent the in vivo bacterial growth phase and by extending the model to represent the time from exposure to death, thereby allowing the model to be fit to nonhuman primate time-to-death data. The resulting incubation period distribution and the dose dependence of the median incubation period are in good agreement with human data from the 1979 accidental atmospheric anthrax release in Sverdlovsk, Russia, and limited nonhuman primate data. The median incubation period for the Sverdlovsk victims is 9.05 (95% confidence interval = 8.0-10.3) days, shorter than previous estimates, and it is predicted to drop to less than 2.5 days at doses above 10(6) spores. The incubation period distribution is important because the left tail determines the time at which clinical diagnosis or syndromic surveillance systems might first detect an anthrax outbreak based on early symptomatic cases, the entire distribution determines the efficacy of medical intervention-which is determined by the speed of the prophylaxis campaign relative to the incubation period-and the right tail of the distribution influences the recommended duration for antibiotic treatment.

  11. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  12. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  13. Perspectives on the "Silent Period" for Emergent Bilinguals in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, Caroline; Drury, Rose

    2015-01-01

    This article draws together the research findings from two ethnographic studies as a means to problematize the "silent period" as experienced by young bilingual learners in two English speaking early-years settings in England. Most teachers and senior early-years practitioners in England are monolingual English speakers. The children…

  14. [Hypertension and pregnancy: Post-partum period].

    PubMed

    Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum period is associated with specific characteristics in women with gestational disorders or preeclampsia. For breastfeeding women, the choice of antihypertensive treatment should take into account the impact on child health. The impact of breastfeeding on health mother must be also discussed. Moreover, for lactation inhibition, bromocriptine should not be used, especially in the context of gestational disorders. In post-partum period, the best contraceptive strategy is only-progestin contraception or non-hormonal contraceptives use. However, this choice will depend on the stabilization or normalization of blood pressure in early post-partum period. Finally, several consultations should be suggested: an information and announcement to explain the consequences of these gestational disorders and organize their multidisciplinary management and follow-up. A preconceptional consultation takes its place to anticipate potential recurrent preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and to schedule a future pregnancy in optimal conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, J M

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date summary of the signs, diagnosis, treatment, and implications of equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. The review encompasses all original articles published between 1986 and early 1993. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is the result of a genetic mutation in the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; most affected horses are heterozygotes. The classical signs are muscle fasciculation, spasm, and weakness associated with hyperkalemia. However, these signs are only rarely observed in affected horses. Potential sequelae to attacks are abrasions and involuntary recumbency; these problems are not specific for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, but they occur more frequently in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis-affected horses. It is also likely that hyperkalemic periodic paralysis results in greater muscle mass. There are suggestions that homozygotes may be more severely affected and show signs of upper respiratory obstruction as foals. The practitioner needs to be aware of the tests for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and their limitations, so that he can properly diagnose this condition. The industry has the difficult problem of deciding whether or not testing should be mandatory and the fate of positive horses. Images Figure 2. PMID:8050073

  16. ROTATION PERIODS OF WIDE BINARIES IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, K. A.

    In a search of proper motion catalogs for common proper motion stars in the field of the Kepler spacecraft I identified 93 likely binary systems. A comparison of their rotation periods is a test of the gyrochronology concept. To find their periods I calculated the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the Kepler mission photometry for each star. In most systems for which good periods can be found, the cooler star has a longer period than the hotter component, in general agreement with models. However, there is a wide range in the gradients of lines connecting binary pairs in a period–color diagram.more » Furthermore, near the solar color, only a few stars have longer periods than the Sun, suggesting that they, and their cooler companions, are not much older than the Sun. In addition, there is an apparent gap at intermediate periods in the period distribution of the late K and early M stars. Either star formation in this direction has been variable, or stars evolve in period at a non-uniform rate, or some stars evolve more rapidly than others at the same mass. Finally, using the ACF as a measure of the activity level, I found that while the F, G, and early K stars become less active as their periods increase, there is no correlation between period and activity for the mid K to early M stars.« less

  17. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  18. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-06-13

    Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 'ultra-brief' case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule-Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3-4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3-4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East-York Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/NE/0022). The study findings will be

  19. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  20. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  1. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  2. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  3. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  4. Period doubling in period-one steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Reuben R. W.; Xing, Bo; Carlo, Gabriel G.; Poletti, Dario

    2018-02-01

    Nonlinear classical dissipative systems present a rich phenomenology in their "route to chaos," including period doubling, i.e., the system evolves with a period which is twice that of the driving. However, typically the attractor of a periodically driven quantum open system evolves with a period which exactly matches that of the driving. Here, we analyze a periodically driven many-body open quantum system whose classical correspondent presents period doubling. We show that by studying the dynamical correlations, it is possible to show the occurrence of period doubling in the quantum (period-one) steady state. We also discuss that such systems are natural candidates for clean and intrinsically robust Floquet time crystals.

  5. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-16

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a "critical period" for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR(-/-)) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular "brakes" on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas.

  6. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  7. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  8. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 [Docket No. RM2010-7; Order No. 372] Periodic... in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Proposal Thirty would modify the... Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three through Nineteen), November 13, 2009, at 36...

  9. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 [Docket No. RM2011-5; Order No. 625] Periodic... certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to a Postal Service rulemaking... changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Four separate proposals...

  10. Early osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Kon, Elizaveta; Condello, Vincenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Steinwachs, Matthias; Seil, Romain; Berruto, Massimo; Engebretsen, Lars; Filardo, Giuseppe; Angele, Peter

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness on the importance in identifying early phases of the degenerative processes in knee osteoarthritis (OA), the crucial period of the disease when there might still be the possibility to initiate treatments preventing its progression. Early OA may show a diffuse and ill-defined involvement, but also originate in the cartilage surrounding a focal lesion, thus necessitating a separate assessment of these two entities. Early OA can be considered to include a maximal involvement of 50 % of the cartilage thickness based on the macroscopic ICRS classification, reflecting an OARSI grade 4. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated review of the current status of the diagnosis and definition of early knee OA, including the clinical, radiographical, histological, MRI, and arthroscopic definitions and biomarkers. Based on current evidence, practical classification criteria are presented. As new insights and technologies become available, they will further evolve to better define and treat early knee OA.

  11. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  12. Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J.H.

    2016-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also contribute to the later development of clinical symptoms through alterations in the child’s experience of his or her environment. By age 2, developmental precursors of autism symptoms can be used to diagnose children reliably, and by age 3, the diagnosis is thought to be relatively stable. The downward extension of the autism diagnosis poses important questions for therapists in designing interventions that are applicable for infants who demonstrate early risk factors. We review current knowledge of the early signs of ASD in the infancy period (0–12 months) and the manifestation of symptoms in toddlerhood (12– 36 months), noting the importance of considering the variability in onset and trajectory of ASD. Finally, we consider the implications of this emerging research for those who work or interact with young children, including the importance of early monitoring and the development and evaluation of age-appropriate interventions. PMID:28090148

  13. Lipidomics comparing DCD and DBD liver allografts uncovers lysophospholipids elevated in recipients undergoing early allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Casas-Ferreira, Ana M; Ma, Yun; Sen, Arundhuti; Kim, Min; Proitsi, Petroula; Shkodra, Maltina; Tena, Maria; Srinivasan, Parthi; Heaton, Nigel; Jassem, Wayel; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2015-12-04

    Finding specific biomarkers of liver damage in clinical evaluations could increase the pool of available organs for transplantation. Lipids are key regulators in cell necrosis and hence this study hypothesised that lipid levels could be altered in organs suffering severe ischemia. Matched pre- and post-transplant biopsies from donation after circulatory death (DCD, n = 36, mean warm ischemia time = 2 min) and donation after brain death (DBD, n = 76, warm ischemia time = none) were collected. Lipidomic discovery and multivariate analysis (MVA) were applied. Afterwards, univariate analysis and clinical associations were conducted for selected lipids differentiating between these two groups. MVA grouped DCD vs. DBD (p = 6.20 × 10(-12)) and 12 phospholipids were selected for intact lipid measurements. Two lysophosphatidylcholines, LysoPC (16:0) and LysoPC (18:0), showed higher levels in DCD at pre-transplantation (q < 0.01). Lysophosphatidylcholines were associated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 14-day post-transplantation (q < 0.05) and were more abundant in recipients undergoing early allograft dysfunction (EAD) (p < 0.05). A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve combining both lipid levels predicted EAD with 82% accuracy. These findings suggest that LysoPC (16:0) and LysoPC (18:0) might have a role in signalling liver tissue damage due to warm ischemia before transplantation.

  14. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  15. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  16. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W.; Hensch, Takao K.

    2012-01-01

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a “critical period” for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR−/−) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular “brakes” on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  17. Early Childhood Review: Papers from GAEC, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Penny, Ed.; Kelly, Clare, Ed.; McLean, Kathy, Ed.; Mellor, Nikki, Ed.; Pidgeon, Sue, Ed.; Stevens, Judith, Ed.; Stables, Kay, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This periodical, from Goldsmiths Association for Early Childhood (GAEC), addresses a variety of issues related to early childhood education in Great Britain. Articles included in the Spring 1996 issue are: (1) "Traditional Story Telling in the Early Years" (Fiona Collins); (2) "International Focus--Early Childhood Education…

  18. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  19. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  20. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  1. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested.

  2. 76 FR 52915 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed changes are... assignment of certain flat sorting operations; bias in mixed mail tallies; and Express Mail. Establishing... consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ \\1\\ Petition of the...

  3. Testing for periodicity of extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, David M.; Sepkoski, J. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical techniques used by Raup and Sepkoski (1984 and 1986) to identify a 26-Myr periodicity in the biological extinction record for the past 250 Myr are reexamined, responding in detail to the criticisms of Stigler and Wagner (1987). It is argued that evaluation of a much larger set of extinction data using a time scale with 51 sampling intervals supports the finding of periodicity. In a reply by Sigler and Wagner, the preference for a 26-Myr period is attributed to a numerical quirk in the Harland et al. (1982) time scale, in which the subinterval boundaries are not linear interpolations between the stage boundaries but have 25-Myr periodicity. It is stressed that the results of the stringent statistical tests imposed do not disprove periodicity but rather indicate that the evidence and analyses presented so far are inadequate.

  4. Sensitive Periods of Emotion Regulation: Influences of Parental Care on Frontoamygdala Circuitry and Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Dylan G.

    2016-01-01

    Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental…

  5. Periodic nanostructural materials for nanoplasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dukhyun

    2017-02-01

    Nanoscale periodic material design and fabrication are essentially fundamental requirement for basic scientific researches and industrial applications of nanoscience and engineering. Innovative, effective, reproducible, large-area uniform, tunable and robust nanostructure/material syntheses are still challenging. Here, I would like to introduce the novel periodic nanostructural materials particularly with uniformly ordered nanoporous or nanoflower structures, which are fabricated by simple, cost-effective, and high-throughput wet chemical methods. I also report large-area periodic plasmonic nanostructures based on template-based nanolithography. The surface morphology and optical properties are characterized by SEM and UV-vis. spectroscopy. Furthermore, their enhancement factor is evaluated by using SERS signals.

  6. Early Adolescents' Social Goals and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly

    2017-01-01

    What are the common types of social goals endorsed by early adolescents and how are they related to their school adjustment? This article discusses the importance of assessing students' social goals during the early adolescent developmental period when peers become increasingly important and youth experience tremendous changes to the school…

  7. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  8. 75 FR 65593 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... waivers for First-Class Mail Flats at the district level, non-retail First- Class Mail Parcels, all categories of Standard Mail, Outside County Periodicals, non-retail Media Mail, Library Mail, Bound Printed...

  9. Early alteration of kidney function in nonuremic type 1 diabetic islet transplant recipients under tacrolimus-mycophenolate therapy.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Pieter; Rustandi, Maria; Efendi, Achmad; Lee, Da Hae; Ling, Zhidong; Hilbrands, Robert; Kuypers, Dirk; Mathieu, Chantal; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Gorus, Frans; Pipeleers, Daniel; Keymeulen, Bart

    2014-08-27

    Transplant patients on tacrolimus therapy exhibit a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The type of graft and immune treatment protocol may influence the extent and reversibility of this side effect. The present single-center study is conducted in 48 nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients of an intraportal islet-cell graft under maintenance immunosuppression (IS) with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Estimated GFR (eGFR) and albuminuria were followed up to 5 years posttransplantation. Mean eGFR values decreased by 19 mL/min/1.73 m after 1 to 2 weeks of IS (P<0.0001) and then remained stable throughout the complete treatment period. The decrease was related to predose trough tacrolimus concentrations or doses and disappeared upon its discontinuation; it was also associated with the presence of albuminuria at the time of transplantation. Tacrolimus treatment resulted in a reduction of albuminuria; its discontinuation restored albuminuria to the initial levels. The use of tacrolimus in our islet-cell transplant protocol caused an initial 20% reduction in eGFR, which was reversible following its discontinuation, at least within the 5-year follow-up period. The associated reduction in albuminuria was also reversible, compatible with a tacrolimus-induced preglomerular vasoconstriction. These observations support further use of our tacrolimus regimen in this patient population.

  10. Periodic Fluctuation of Perceived Duration

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Shuhei; Murai, Yuki; Yuasa, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have reported that the allocation of spatial attention fluctuates periodically. This periodic attention was revealed by measuring behavioral performance as a function of cue-to-target interval in the Posner cueing paradigm. Previous studies reported behavioral oscillations using target detection tasks. Whether the influence of periodic attention extends to cognitively demanding tasks remains unclear. To assess this, we examined the effects of periodic attention on the perception of duration. In the experiment, participants performed a temporal bisection task while a cue was presented with various cue-to-target intervals. Perceived duration fluctuated rhythmically as a function of cue-to-target interval at a group level but not at an individual level when the target was presented on the same side as the attentional cue. The results indicate that the perception of duration is influenced by periodic attention. In other words, periodic attention can influence the performance of cognitively demanding tasks such as the perception of duration. PMID:29755719

  11. Christianity and Korean Higher Education in the Late Choson Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    This article examines particular aspects of higher education during the late Korean Choson period with descriptive analysis. The context of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism between the early 18th and the late 19th centuries is presented. Also examined is Christian higher education during these two centuries. The impact of Christianity on Korean…

  12. 48 CFR 48.104-1 - Determining sharing period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., based on planning and programming or production documentation at the time the VECP is accepted. The.... (c) For engineering-development contracts and contracts containing low-rate-initial-production or early production units, the end of the sharing period is based not on a calendar date, but on acceptance...

  13. 48 CFR 48.104-1 - Determining sharing period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., based on planning and programming or production documentation at the time the VECP is accepted. The.... (c) For engineering-development contracts and contracts containing low-rate-initial-production or early production units, the end of the sharing period is based not on a calendar date, but on acceptance...

  14. 48 CFR 48.104-1 - Determining sharing period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., based on planning and programming or production documentation at the time the VECP is accepted. The.... (c) For engineering-development contracts and contracts containing low-rate-initial-production or early production units, the end of the sharing period is based not on a calendar date, but on acceptance...

  15. 48 CFR 48.104-1 - Determining sharing period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., based on planning and programming or production documentation at the time the VECP is accepted. The.... (c) For engineering-development contracts and contracts containing low-rate-initial-production or early production units, the end of the sharing period is based not on a calendar date, but on acceptance...

  16. An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouma, J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief history of several of the early forms of the periodic table of the elements are discussed including those of Mendeleev, Meyer, Hubbard, Gmelin, Von Antropoff, and Strong. A more every-day-life form of the table is presented. (CW)

  17. Old Dogs Learning New Tricks: Neuroplasticity beyond the Juvenile Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillard, Angeline S.; Erisir, Alev

    2011-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the prevalent view in Psychology was that although learning and the formation of new memories are lifelong occurrences, the neural changes associated with these events were all in the existing receptors. No new neural hardware, from synapses to neurons, was thought to appear after a protracted period early in life. In the past 20…

  18. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massivemore » (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.« less

  19. Rational reduction of periodic propagators for off-period observations.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Wyndham B; Logan, John W; Pines, Alexander

    2004-02-01

    Many common solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance problems take advantage of the periodicity of the underlying Hamiltonian to simplify the computation of an observation. Most of the time-domain methods used, however, require the time step between observations to be some integer or reciprocal-integer multiple of the period, thereby restricting the observation bandwidth. Calculations of off-period observations are usually reduced to brute force direct methods resulting in many demanding matrix multiplications. For large spin systems, the matrix multiplication becomes the limiting step. A simple method that can dramatically reduce the number of matrix multiplications required to calculate the time evolution when the observation time step is some rational fraction of the period of the Hamiltonian is presented. The algorithm implements two different optimization routines. One uses pattern matching and additional memory storage, while the other recursively generates the propagators via time shifting. The net result is a significant speed improvement for some types of time-domain calculations.

  20. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  1. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: thigaki@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp, E-mail: y_tatsuta@akane.waseda.jp

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, andmore » then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.« less

  2. Decreased serum estrogen improves fat graft retention by enhancing early macrophage infiltration and inducing adipocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hsiaopei; Feng, Jingwei; Hu, Wansheng; Wang, Jing; Cai, Junrong; Lu, Feng

    2018-06-18

    Fat grafting is a commonly used procedure; however, the mechanisms that regulate graft outcomes are not clear. Estrogen has been associated with vascularization, inflammation and fat metabolism, yet its role in fat grafting is unclear. Mice were implanted with 17β-estradiol pellets (high estrogen, HE), underwent ovariectomy (low estrogen level, OVX) or sham surgery (normal estrogen level, CON). 45 days later, inguinal fat of mice was autografted subcutaneously. At 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks post-transplantation, grafts were dissected, weighed, and assessed for histology, angiogenesis and inflammation level. Serum estrogen level correlated to estrogen manipulation. 12 weeks after autografting, the retention rate was significantly higher in the OVX (79% ± 30%) than in the HE (16% ± 8%) and CON (35% ± 13%) groups. OVX-grafts had the least necrosis and most hypertrophic fat. OVX recruited the most pro-inflammatory macrophages and demonstrated a faster dead tissue removal process, however a higher fibrogenic tendency was found in this group. HE grafts had the most Sca1+ local stem cells and CD31  +  capillary content; however, with a low level of acute inflammation and insufficient adipokine PPAR-γ expression, their retention rate was impaired. Elevated serum estrogen increased stem cell density and early vascularization; however, by inhibiting the early inflammation, it resulted in delayed necrotic tissue removal and finally led to impaired adipose restoration. A low estrogen level induced favorable inflammation status and adipocyte hypertrophy to improve fat graft retention, but a continuing decreased estrogen level led to fat graft fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transplantation of Ex Vivo Expanded Umbilical Cord Blood (NiCord) Decreases Early Infection and Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sarah; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Adcock, Janet; Corbet, Kelly; Gasparetto, Cristina; Lopez, Richard; Long, Gwynn D; Morris, Ashley K; Rizzieri, David A; Sullivan, Keith M; Sung, Anthony D; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2017-07-01

    Delayed hematopoietic recovery contributes to increased infection risk following umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. In a Phase 1 study, adult recipients of UCB stem cells cultured ex vivo for 3 weeks with nicotinamide (NiCord) had earlier median neutrophil recovery compared with historical controls. To evaluate the impact of faster neutrophil recovery on clinically relevant early outcomes, we reviewed infection episodes and hospitalization during the first 100 days in an enlarged cohort of 18 NiCord recipients compared with 86 standard UCB recipients at our institution. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in NiCord recipients compared with standard UCB recipients (12.5 days versus 26 days; P < .001). Compared with standard UCB recipients, NiCord recipients had a significantly reduced risk for total infection (RR, 0.69; P = .01), grade 2-3 (moderate to severe) infection (RR, 0.36; P < .001), bacterial infection (RR, 0.39; P = .003), and grade 2-3 bacterial infection (RR, 0.21; P = .003) by Poisson regression analysis; this effect persisted after adjustment for age, disease stage, and grade II-IV acute GVHD. NiCord recipients also had significantly more time out of the hospital in the first 100 days post-transplantation after adjustment for age and Karnofsky Performance Status (69.9 days versus 49.7 days; P = .005). Overall, transplantation of NiCord was associated with faster neutrophil engraftment, fewer total and bacterial infections, and shorter hospitalization in the first 100 days compared with standard UCB transplantation. In conclusion, rapid hematopoietic recovery from an ex vivo expanded UCB transplantation approach is associated with early clinical benefit. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Periodic growth of bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takemasa; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Hiramatsu, Fumiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Kurosu, Sayuri; Nakatsuchi, Michio; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of concentric ring colonies by bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis has been investigated experimentally, focusing our attention on the dependence of local cell density upon the bacterial motility. It has been confirmed that these concentric ring colonies reflect the periodic change of the bacterial motility between motile cell state and immotile cell state. We conclude that this periodic change is macroscopically determined neither by biological factors (i.e., biological clock) nor by chemical factors (chemotaxis as inhibitor). And our experimental results strongly suggest that the essential factor for the change of the bacterial motility during concentric ring formation is the local cell density.

  5. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  6. Periodic response of nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataraj, C.; Nelson, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure is developed to determine approximate periodic solutions of autonomous and non-autonomous systems. The trignometric collocation method (TCM) is formalized to allow for the analysis of relatively small order systems directly in physical coordinates. The TCM is extended to large order systems by utilizing modal analysis in a component mode synthesis strategy. The procedure was coded and verified by several check cases. Numerical results for two small order mechanical systems and one large order rotor dynamic system are presented. The method allows for the possibility of approximating periodic responses for large order forced and self-excited nonlinear systems.

  7. Stability of Stellar Periods in the Hyades and Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Stauffer, John R.; K2 Clusters Team

    2018-06-01

    K2 has opened to us the study of high-precision light curves from which we can derive stellar rotation periods. We have presented period distributions for the Pleiades, Praesepe, Upper Sco and Rho Oph. But, how stable are the periods we are deriving from them? Early ground-based work in Orion (Rebull 2001) suggested that, for the youngest stars, about half the stars had sufficiently different spot distributions in two consecutive years such that periods could not be recovered in the second year. However, now that we have K2, precision and diurnal windowing functions are no longer really much of a concern. For a handful of stars in Hyades and Taurus, the K2 spacecraft monitored them for two non-consecutive 70d windows (campaigns 4, 2015 Feb and 13, 2017 Mar). In this poster, we examine whether or not the light curves are similar in the two epochs, and how accurately the same period can be recovered.

  8. Monogenic Periodic Fever Syndromes: Treatment Options for the Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Seza; Demir, Selcan

    2017-08-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are disorders of the innate immune system characterized by uncontrolled inflammation. The most commonly encountered autoinflammatory diseases are the hereditary periodic fever syndromes, which present with fever and other features of the skin, serosal membranes, and musculoskeletal system. The main inherited (monogenic) periodic fever syndromes are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (HIDS)/mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and pathophysiological basis of autoinflammatory diseases have provided new treatment strategies. Patients with periodic fever syndromes have clearly benefited from anti-interleukin (IL)-1 treatment. Colchicine is still the mainstay of FMF therapy, but IL-1 blockade is also effective if colchicine fails. Early diagnosis and effective treatment can prevent irreversible organ damage. The scope of pathogenic mutations and more targeted therapy for better management of these rare diseases remains to be defined.

  9. Natural course of early COPD.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Kyungjoo; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Jee-Ae; Kim, Sang Hyun; Lee, Sang Haak; Park, Yong Bum; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Hwang, Yong Il

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the natural course of early COPD. The aim of this study was to observe the natural course of early COPD patients. We also aimed to analyze medical utilization and costs for early COPD during a 6-year period. Patients with early COPD were selected from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. We linked the KNHANES data of patients with early COPD to National Health Insurance data. A total of 2,397 patients were enrolled between 2007 and 2012. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) was 78.6%, and the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) index value was 0.9. In total, 110 patients utilized health care for COPD in 2007, and this number increased to 179 in 2012. The total mean number of days used per person increased from 4.9 in 2007 to 7.8 in 2012. The total medical cost per person also increased from 248.8 US dollar (USD) in 2007 to 780.6 USD in 2013. A multiple linear regression revealed that age, lower body mass index, lower FEV 1 (%), and lower EQ-5D score were significantly associated with medical costs. Even in early COPD patients, some of them eventually progressed and utilized health care for COPD.

  10. The onset of visual experience gates auditory cortex critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Todd M.; Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems influence one another during development and deprivation can lead to cross-modal plasticity. As auditory function begins before vision, we investigate the effect of manipulating visual experience during auditory cortex critical periods (CPs) by assessing the influence of early, normal and delayed eyelid opening on hearing loss-induced changes to membrane and inhibitory synaptic properties. Early eyelid opening closes the auditory cortex CPs precociously and dark rearing prevents this effect. In contrast, delayed eyelid opening extends the auditory cortex CPs by several additional days. The CP for recovery from hearing loss is also closed prematurely by early eyelid opening and extended by delayed eyelid opening. Furthermore, when coupled with transient hearing loss that animals normally fully recover from, very early visual experience leads to inhibitory deficits that persist into adulthood. Finally, we demonstrate a functional projection from the visual to auditory cortex that could mediate these effects. PMID:26786281

  11. AWBATTM: Early Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Victoria B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Methods: Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBATTM-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBATTM-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Results: Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, σ =1.95, with a range of 8–15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, σ =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, σ =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, σ =2.48, with a range of 5–13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, σ =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, σ =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Discussion: Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control. PMID:20361005

  12. AWBAT: early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Victoria B

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBAT-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBAT-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, sigma =1.95, with a range of 8-15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, sigma =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, sigma =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, sigma =2.48, with a range of 5-13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, sigma =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, sigma =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control.

  13. Periodic and quasiperiodic revivals in periodically driven interacting quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luitz, David J.; Lazarides, Achilleas; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2018-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that interparticle interactions generically destroy dynamical localization in periodically driven systems, resulting in diffusive transport and heating. In this Rapid Communication we rigorously construct a family of interacting driven systems which are dynamically localized and effectively decoupled from the external driving potential. We show that these systems exhibit tunable periodic or quasiperiodic revivals of the many-body wave function and thus of all physical observables. By numerically examining spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice we show that the analytically obtained revivals of such systems remain stable for finite systems with open boundary conditions while having a finite lifetime in the presence of static spatial disorder. We find this lifetime to be inversely proportional to the disorder strength.

  14. Sex and ancestry determine the free-running circadian period.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Charmane I; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J

    2017-10-01

    The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods. Recently, in evolutionary terms, immigrants came from Europe and Africa to America ('the New World'). The Europeans were descendents of people who had lived in Europe for thousands of years with changing photoperiods (and presumably longer periods), whereas Africans had ancestors who had always lived around the equator (with shorter periods). It may have been advantageous to have a longer circadian period while living in Europe early in the evolution of humans. In our modern world, however, it is better to have a shorter period, because it helps make our circadian rhythms earlier, which is adaptive in our early-bird-dominated society. European American women had a shorter circadian period than men (24.24 versus 24.41), but there was no sex difference in African Americans (24.07 for both men and women). We speculate that selection pressures in Europe made men develop a slightly longer period than women to help them track dawn which could be useful for hunters, but less important for women as gatherers. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  15. The Period of 2167 Erin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montigiana, N.; Benedetti, W.; Mannucci, M.; Riccetti, S.

    2008-09-01

    Analysis of data taken in March and April 2007 by groups from Osservatorio Astronomico Margherita Hack and the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire indicates a likely period of 5.7186 ± 0.0001 h for 2167 Erin. The amplitude of the lightcurve was 0.53 ± 0.02 mag.

  16. On Extending the Probationary Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James G.

    2009-01-01

    A number of U.S. institutions of higher education are considering multiyear extensions of the widely accepted seven-year maximum probationary period for all tenure-track faculty. Such a substantial extension is to be distinguished from, and exists in addition to, the ad hoc short-term extensions that many institutions may now grant to individual…

  17. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing Systems operations, a change in the... Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing this docket will...: proposed productivity measurement for Flats Sequencing System. Proposal Sixteen introduces a new method for...

  18. ANOVA Analysis of Student Daily Test Scores in Multi-Day Test Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouritsen, Matthew L.; Davis, Jefferson T.; Jones, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Instructors are often concerned when giving multiple-day tests because students taking the test later in the exam period may have an advantage over students taking the test early in the exam period due to information leakage. However, exam scores seemed to decline as students took the same test later in a multi-day exam period (Mouritsen and…

  19. Autoinflammatory Diseases with Periodic Fevers.

    PubMed

    Sag, Erdal; Bilginer, Yelda; Ozen, Seza

    2017-07-01

    One purpose of this review was to raise awareness for the new autoinflammatory syndromes. These diseases are increasingly recognized and are in the differential diagnosis of many disease states. We also aimed to review the latest recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency (HIDS/MVKD) are the more common autoinflammatory diseases that are characterized by periodic fevers and attacks of inflammation. Recently much collaborative work has been done to understand the characteristics of these patients and to develop recommendations to guide the physicians in the care of these patients. These recent recommendations will be summarized for all four diseases. FMF is the most common periodic fever disease. We need to further understand the pathogenesis and the role of single mutations in the disease. Recently, the management and treatment of the disease have been nicely reviewed. CAPS is another interesting disease associated with severe complications. Anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) treatment provides cure for these patients. TRAPS is characterized by the longest delay in diagnosis; thus, both pediatricians and internists should be aware of the characteristic features and the follow-up of these patients. HIDS/MVKD is another autoinflammatory diseases characterized with fever attacks. The spectrum of disease manifestation is rather large in this disease, and we need further research on biomarkers for the optimal management of these patients.

  20. Early Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Sources of Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Kylea K.

    2017-01-01

    Early adolescence includes youth approximately 11-14 years of age. This age group represents a population open to learning more information about sexuality and signifies a developmental period where effective sexuality interventions may begin (Ott & Pfieffer, 2009; Grossman et al., 2014). Early adolescence is a critical period when…

  1. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods

    PubMed Central

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G

    2017-01-01

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease. PMID:29266000

  3. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  4. Quantum gates by periodic driving.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z C; Wang, W; Yi, X X

    2016-02-25

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions-it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    PubMed

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  6. Period of an Interrupted Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bradley E.

    2002-11-01

    While demonstrating a classic conservation-of-energy problem to my AP Physics students, I became curious about the periodic motion that ensued for certain initial conditions. The original problem consists of releasing a mass at the end of a string from an initial position horizontal to the plane of a table. The string comes in contact with a peg some distance below the point where the string is attached at the top. One is asked to find what minimum fraction of the string's length should the peg be placed to have the mass complete a circle about the peg. However, when the mass is released from much lower heights, the system undergoes periodic motion that can be thought of as an interrupted pendulum.

  7. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  8. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  9. Long Period Seismological Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-31

    in central Asia as observed at the high-gain long- period sites. Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity...Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity of the surface wave signals from many events in the Tadzhik-Kirgiz...and receivers. A number of Interesting features can be illustrated by examining portions of three selsmograms recorded at Chiang Mai (CHO

  10. The Stability of Periodic Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    first class, the new stable orbit has a fundamental frequency equal to half that of the original orbit. Thesebifurcations (for which one real...eigenvalue of the Poincare map passes out through the unit circle at -1 : see Appendix 1) 9,10 are observed and are referred to as subharmonic or period...doubling bifurcations. At such a bifurcation componenns of x(t) with a frequency -8- equal to half that of the original longitudinal motion grow

  11. Noncoherent detection of periodic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The optimal Bayes detector for a general periodic waveform having uniform delay and additive white Gaussian noise is examined. It is shown that the detector is much more complex than that for the well known cases of pure sine waves (i.e. classical noncoherent detection) and narrowband signals. An interpretation of the optimal processing is presented, and several implementations are discussed. The results have application to the noncoherent detection of optical square waves.

  12. Pseudochaotic dynamics near global periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong; Zaslavsky, George M.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we study a piecewise linear version of kicked oscillator model: saw-tooth map. A special case of global periodicity, in which every phase point belongs to a periodic orbit, is presented. With few analytic results known for the corresponding map on torus, we numerically investigate transport properties and statistical behavior of Poincaré recurrence time in two cases of deviation from global periodicity. A non-KAM behavior of the system, as well as subdiffusion and superdiffusion, are observed through numerical simulations. Statistics of Poincaré recurrences shows Kac lemma is valid in the system and there is a relation between the transport exponent and the Poincaré recurrence exponent. We also perform careful numerical computation of capacity, information and correlation dimensions of the so-called exceptional set in both cases. Our results show that the fractal dimension of the exceptional set is strictly less than 2 and that the fractal structures are unifractal rather than multifractal.

  13. Log-periodic crashes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Raul; da Silva, Sergio; Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram

    2006-05-01

    We revisit the finding that crashes can be deterministic and governed by log-periodic formulas [D. Sornette, A. Johansen, Significance of log-periodic precursors to financial crashes, Quant. Finance 1 (2001) 452-471; D. Sornette, W.X. Zhou, The US 2000-2002 market descent: how much longer and deeper?, Quant. Finance 2 (2002) 468-481]. One- and two-harmonic equations are usually employed to fit daily data during bubble episodes. But a three-harmonics has been shown to fit anti-bubbles [A. Johansen, D. Sornette, Financial “anti-bubbles”: log-periodicity in gold and Nikkei collapses, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 10 (1999) 563-575]. Here we show that the three-harmonic formula can work for bubble episodes as well as anti-bubbles. This is illustrated with daily data from the Brazilian real-US dollar exchange rate. And we also show that the three-harmonics can fit an intraday data set from that foreign exchange rate.

  14. High Arctic plant phenology is determined by snowmelt patterns but duration of phenological periods is fixed: an example of periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Gillespie, Mark A. K.; Rumpf, Sabine B.; Baggesen, Nanna; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2016-12-01

    The duration of specific periods within a plant’s life cycle are critical for plant growth and performance. In the High Arctic, the start of many of these phenological periods is determined by snowmelt date, which may change in a changing climate. It has been suggested that the end of these periods during late-season are triggered by external cues, such as day length, light quality or temperature, leading to the hypothesis that earlier or later snowmelt dates will lengthen or shorten the duration of these periods, respectively, and thereby affect plant performance. We tested whether snowmelt date controls phenology and phenological period duration in High Arctic Svalbard using a melt timing gradient from natural and experimentally altered snow depths. We investigated the response of early- and late-season phenophases from both vegetative and reproductive phenological periods of eight common species. We found that all phenophases follow snowmelt patterns, irrespective of timing of occurrence, vegetative or reproductive nature. Three of four phenological period durations based on these phenophases were fixed for most species, defining the studied species as periodic. Periodicity can thus be considered an evolutionary trait leading to disadvantages compared with aperiodic species and we conclude that the mesic and heath vegetation types in Svalbard are at risk of being outcompeted by invading, aperiodic species from milder biomes.

  15. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  17. A model for periodic blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Sormani, Mattia C.; Stamerra, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We describe a scenario to explain blazar periodicities with time-scales of ˜ few years. The scenario is based on a binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) system in which one of the two SMBHs carries a jet. We discuss the various mechanisms that can cause the jet to precess and produce corkscrew patterns through space with a scale of ˜ few pc. It turns out that the dominant mechanism responsible for the precession is simply the imprint of the jet-carrying SMBH orbital speed on the jet. Gravitational deflection and Lense-Thirring precession (due to the gravitational field of the other SMBH) are second-order effects. We complement the scenario with a kinematical jet model which is inspired to the spine-sheath structure observed in M87. One of the main advantages of such a structure is that it allows the peak of the synchrotron emission to scale with frequency according to νF ∝ νξ as the viewing angle is changed, where ξ is not necessarily 3 or 4 as in the case of jets with uniform velocity, but can be ξ ˜ 1. Finally, we apply the model to the source PG1553+113, which has been recently claimed to show a Tobs = (2.18 ± 0.08) yr periodicity. We are able to reproduce the optical and gamma-ray light curves and multiple synchrotron spectra simultaneously. We also give estimates of the source mass and size.

  18. [Early career of Michael Sendivogius].

    PubMed

    Prinke, Rafał T

    2012-01-01

    One of the most influential alchemical authors of the early modern period was Michael Sendivogius whose early life is shrouded in mystery. He may be labelled the most famous Polish scientific writer between Copernicus and Marie Skłodowska-Curie, but because of the difficulties involved in researching the biography of any alchemist, there has been relatively little interest in him among Polish historians. The early work of Roman Bugaj (author of the still fundamental monograph) and Włodzimierz Hubicki (who made his research available to the international community) has been continued only by the English-born Zbigniew Szydło and the author of this article. The roots of many legends about Sendivogius were three mid-17th century short biographies, none of which is trustworthy, so it is crucial to verify the received myth and the version constructed in the 1960's and 1970's with primary sources and evidence from the recent "new historiography of alchemy". The present article examines them in the light of newly discovered sources and reinterpretation of the old ones. The genealogy of the Sedzimir family is discussed at length to show that Sendivogius most probably was not its member but only a pretender in order to assume (or prove) the status of a nobleman. Several possible hypotheses about his origins are presented. He is known to have studied at three universities (Leipzig, Vienna and Altdorf) but authors of early panegyrics dedicated to Sendivogius list more universities which he may have attended. The most interesting is that of Cambridge, listed as the first one, because practically no Poles or Czechs went there at the time. Finally, his marriage to Veronica Stiebar, a wealthy widow of a Franconian knightly family, and her interesting family relationships (links to Erasmus, Camerarius, Paracelsus and the original Doctor Faustus) are discussed. The period covered is that before Sendivogius moved to Prague in about 1597, having already been a courtier of Rudolf II

  19. Is there a sensitive period in human incest avoidance?

    PubMed

    Luo, Liqun

    2011-06-24

    Many studies support the proposition that early cosocialization with opposite-sex children has the effect of inhibiting later mutual sexual attraction, but the existence of a period in the life cycle in which individuals are sensitive to the effect of early cosocialization has been a matter of controversy. Drawing on earlier traditional psychological research, and on more recent work guided by parental investment theory, we hypothesized that only for maternal perinatal association (MPA)-absent males a less-than- around-three-years age difference with the sister can predict stronger aversion to sibling incest. The results corroborated the hypothesis. The results can be interpreted as support for the existence of a sensitive period as well as for the potent role of MPA. Cross-cultural comparative studies were called on to further test the hypothesis.

  20. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Takako

    2012-04-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are a group of rare autoinflammatory disorders; many cases of CAPS are caused by mutations in the NLRP3 gene. In these conditions, interleukin (IL)-1 is overproduced, and this overproduction plays a major role in disease onset and progression. CAPS include three variants, ranging in order of increasing severity from familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, previously termed familial cold urticaria, through Muckle-Wells syndrome, to chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous articular syndrome, also known as neonatal onset multisystemic inflammatory disease. Diagnosis of CAPS is initially based on clinical manifestations and medical history, and later confirmed genetically. CAPS should be suspected when characteristic skin lesions, typical periodic fever episodes, bone/joint manifestations, and CNS involvement are recognized. CAPS are life-long diseases, and early diagnosis and early treatment with IL-1-targeted therapies may improve prognosis.

  1. Long-term Outcome of 1-step Kidney Transplantation and Bladder Augmentation Procedure in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Cleper, Roxana; Ben Meir, David; Krause, Irit; Livne, Pinchas; Mor, Eitan; Davidovits, Miriam; Dagan, Amit

    2018-06-01

    Guidelines for bladder augmentation (BA) in kidney transplantation (KT) recipients are not well-defined. In our center, simultaneous BA with KT (BA-KT) is performed. We assessed transplantation outcomes of this unique extensive procedure. A case-control single center retrospective study. Transplantation outcomes were compared with those of KT recipients who did not need BA. Compared with 22 patients who underwent KT only, for 9 who underwent BA-KT, surgical complications and the need for revision in the early posttransplantation period were similar; early graft function was better: estimated glomerular filtration rate, 96.5 ± 17.1 versus 79.4 ± 16.6 mL/min at 0 to 6 months (P = 0.02); posttransplantation clean intermittent catheterization was more often needed: by 78% (7/9) versus 13% (3/22); and asymptomatic bacteriuria was more common: 100% versus 9% during the first 6 months (P < 0.001), 55% versus 9% (P = 0.02) and 66.6% versus 9% during the first and second years, respectively (P = 0.004).