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Sample records for early pregnancy diagnosis

  1. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  2. Early pregnancy diagnosis in bovines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Ashok K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  3. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949

  4. [Clinical relevant procedures for early pregnancy diagnosis in the mare].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Sieme, H; Bartmann, C-P; Handler, J; Sobiraj, A; Wehrend, A

    2014-01-01

    This review describes stepwise the recto-manual and transrectal ultrasonographic evidence of early pregnancy detection in the horse. The morphological and physiological conditions in the individual phases of early pregnancy are presented in correlation to the potential clinical findings. The importance of embryonic and early foetal losses is presented. Communication and documentation of findings are also addressed. The final section is devoted to the evaluation of the examination effort. In this regard, it is emphasized that the gynaecological examination for the evaluation of the pregnancy status represents a service contract.

  5. Effects of early pregnancy diagnosis by per rectal palpation of the amniotic sac on pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Romano, Juan E; Fahning, Melvyn L

    2013-11-15

    To determine effects of per rectal amniotic sac palpation (ASP) for pregnancy diagnosis during early gestation on pregnancy loss in lactating cows. Controlled, randomized block design. 368 pregnant dairy cows. Pregnancy was detected via transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) at day 29 (day of estrus = day 0), and cows were allocated into a control group (n = 167 cows) and ASP group (180). Control cows were not subjected to pregnancy diagnosis via palpation per rectum. Per rectal ASP was performed between days 34 and 43 by only 1 experienced veterinarian. All cows were reevaluated with TRUS on days 45, 60, and 90. 21 cows were removed because of illness. Pregnancy loss between days 29 and 90 occurred in 44 of 347 (12.7%) cows. Pregnancy loss for the control and ASP groups from days 29 to 90 occurred in 22 of 167 (13.2%) and 22 of 180 (12.2%) cows, respectively. Late embryonic pregnancy loss (days 29 to 45) for the control and ASP groups occurred in 18 (10.8%) and 15 (8.3%) cows, respectively. Early fetal pregnancy loss (days 46 to 60) for the control and ASP groups occurred in 2 of 149 (1.3%) and 6 of 165 (3.6%) cows, respectively, and late fetal pregnancy loss (days 61 to 90) for the same groups occurred in 2 of 147 (1.4%) and 1 of 159 (0.6%) cows, respectively. Pregnancy diagnosis via per rectal ASP during early gestation did not increase pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.

  6. Diagnosis and prognosis of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Gu, Wei; Hou, Yanyan

    2017-11-07

    To explore the gestational age of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis (ICP) of pregnancy, and to analyze the relationship between the clinical biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes in order to arrive at a reasonable diagnosis and administer appropriate treatment. This is a retrospective clinical study. We selected 47,260 pregnant women who received prenatal care and underwent childbirth at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University from January 2014 to December 2016 for participating in this study. Of these 47,260 women, 407 developed ICP. To calculate the gestational week cutoff between early- and late-onset ICP by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden's index. Two independent samples t tests and chi square test were used to compare the differences in biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes between the two groups. We found that 34 weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. Early-onset ICP is characterized by early onset, long disease duration and a higher incidence of preterm labor, fetal distress, and fetal low birth weight compared to late-onset ICP. Thirty-four weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. And to reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes in cases of early-onset ICP, we suggest prolonging gestation up to 37 weeks as far as possible before selecting iatrogenic birth.

  7. Comparison of accuracy of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and milk for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Z; Petrajtis-Gołobów, M; Melo de Sousa, N; Beckers, J F; Pawliński, B; Wehrend, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of early pregnancy diagnosis by determining pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and PAG concentration in milk. Blood and milk samples were obtained on days 0 (AI day), 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 105 of gestation from 60 lactating Holstein Frisian cows from one herd, carrying live fetuses. To determine PAG concentration a specific RIA system (RIA-706) was used. PAG concentration in blood and milk increased after 28 days of pregnancy, with blood concentrations being significantly higher than in milk. However, the accuracy of both tests at this time point was similar (sensitivity: 92 % in blood, 93 % in milk; specificity 53 % and 60 % respectively). None of the tests were able to detect open cows properly at this stage. On day 35 of gestation sensitivity (100 % for blood, 97 % for milk) and specificity (100 % for blood, 100 % for milk) were high enough to be used for reliable pregnancy diagnosis. The accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) for PAG concentrations in blood and milk for the rest of the study was 100 %. Our investigation shows that PAG determination in milk is a stress-free and non-invasive method for early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle.

  8. Does adenosine deaminase activity play a role in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Turkmen, G G; Karçaaltıncaba, D; Isık, H; Fidancı, V; Kaayalp, D; Tımur, H; Batıoglu, S

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is important due to life-threatening consequences in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the prediction of EP. Forty-one patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancy comprised the case group and forty-two first trimester pregnant women with shown foetal heart beating in ultrasound comprised the control group. The mean ADA level in EP (10.9 ± 3.0 IU/L) was higher than that in control group (9.2 ± 3.6 IU/L) (p = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristics or ROC curve identified ADA value of 10.95 IU/L as optimal threshold for the prediction of EP with 56% sensitivity and 67% specificity. High ADA levels are valuable in the early diagnosis of EP. However more comprehensive studies are required.

  9. Identification of serum protein markers for early diagnosis of pregnancy in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Buragohain, Lukumoni; Nanda, Trilok; Ghosh, Arnab; Ghosh, Mayukh; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Sambhu Sharan; Bharali, Arpita; Mohanty, Ashok K; Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, Ashok Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Improper or delayed pregnancy diagnosis has significant impact over animal production, particularly in buffaloes which inherently suffer from several reproductive inefficiencies. Thus the present study has undertaken to identify serum protein markers pertaining to early pregnancy diagnosis in buffaloes. Serum samples were collected from 10 pregnant Murrah Buffalo heifers at weekly intervals from days 0-35 post-artificial insemination and from 12 inseminated non-pregnant cyclic buffalo heifers on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and densitometric analysis revealed the presence of five protein spots showing average density fold change of ≥4 during early pregnancy. Mass spectrometry analysis identified these up-regulated proteins as anti-testosterone antibody light chain, apolipoprotein A-II precursor, serum amyloid A, cytokeratin type II, component IV isoform 1, which are have established roles in embryogenesis, but over-expression of the fifth identified protein immunoglobulin lambda light chain in pregnancy has been elucidated as a novel finding in the current study. Further, with bioinformatics analysis, potential antigenic B-cell epitopes were predicted for all these five proteins. An antibody cocktail-based approach involving antibodies against all these five up-regulated entire proteins or their epitopes could be developed for early detection of pregnancy in buffaloes. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Successful diagnosis and treatment of early splenic ectopic pregnancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Ni, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Splenic ectopic pregnancy (SEP), a special abdominal pregnancy, is extremely rare but carries a high risk of potentially uncontrollable, life-threatening intraperitoneal bleeding at early gestation, which is equivalent to the spontaneous rupture of the spleen. Therefore, early diagnosis of SEP is crucial and may avoid life-threatening situation. A 29-year-old G3P2 woman presented with 50 days of amenorrhea and positive serum β-human gonadotropin (β-HCG) was enrolled into the hospital due to the absence of gestational sac located in the uterine cavity. A pan-abdominal ultrasound scan revealed a 2.6 cm ×1.6 cm hyperechoic mass inferior to the spleen with color Doppler signal surrounding and 0.9 cm anechoic inside. The gynecologist found the gestational sac was located in the dorsal pole of the spleen through the exploratory laparoscopy. Total splenectomy was performed uneventfully to avoid the hemorrhage shock. The patient discharged with no complications and normal 1-month follow-up. It highlights that fully understanding of the knowledge about abdominal pregnancy, especially splenic pregnancy, and early imaging study with ultrasonography could reduce or avoid the misdiagnosis and miss-diagnosis of SEP.

  12. Role of MRI in the early diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Si, Ming-Jue; Gui, Shuang; Fan, Qin; Han, Hong-Xiu; Zhao, Qian-Qian; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhao, Jiang-Min

    2016-07-01

    To determine the role of MRI in the early diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP). Clinical and MRI features of 27 cases of tubal pregnancy were reviewed. A thick-walled gestational sac (GS)-like structure was demonstrated lateral to the uterus in all cases. On T2-weighted images, the thick wall typically exhibited 3 discrete rings in 22 cases (81 %), among which 17 cases (63 %) displayed small vessels and 6 cases (33 %) exhibited small areas of fresh haemorrhage inside the thick wall. The contents demonstrated non-specific liquid in 26 %, papillary solid components in 56 %, and fresh blood or fluid-fluid level in 19 % of the cases. Dilatation of the affected fallopian tube associated with hematosalpinx was demonstrated in 18 cases (67 %) and marked enhancement of the tubal wall was observed in 22 cases (81 %). No correlation was found between the size of the GS and the estimated gestational age (r = 0.056). MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis and management of tubal pregnancy. The characteristic MRI features include a GS-like structure with a "three rings" appearance on T2-weighted images, presence of solid components in the sac, dilatation of the affected fallopian tube with hematosalpinx, and tubal wall enhancement. • MR imaging has served as a problem-solving procedure in ectopic pregnancy. • MR imaging features can be criteria for early diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. • Detailed assessment of ectopic implantation is necessary for management decision-making.

  13. PTSD SYMPTOMS ACROSS PREGNANCY AND EARLY POSTPARTUM AMONG WOMEN WITH LIFETIME PTSD DIAGNOSIS.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W; Bocknek, Erika; Morelen, Diana; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia; Abelson, James L

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about trajectories of PTSD symptoms across the peripartum period in women with trauma histories, specifically those who met lifetime PTSD diagnoses prior to pregnancy. The present study seeks to identify factors that influence PTSD symptom load across pregnancy and early postpartum, and study its impact on postpartum adaptation. The current study is a secondary analysis on pregnant women with a Lifetime PTSD diagnosis (N = 319) derived from a larger community sample who were interviewed twice across pregnancy (28 and 35 weeks) and again at 6 weeks postpartum, assessing socioeconomic risks, mental health, past and ongoing trauma exposure, and adaptation to postpartum. Using trajectory analysis, first we examined the natural course of PTSD symptoms based on patterns across peripartum, and found four distinct trajectory groups. Second, we explored factors (demographic, historical, and gestational) that shape the PTSD symptom trajectories, and examined the impact of trajectory membership on maternal postpartum adaptation. We found that child abuse history, demographic risk, and lifetime PTSD symptom count increased pregnancy-onset PTSD risk, whereas gestational PTSD symptom trajectory was best predicted by interim trauma and labor anxiety. Women with the greatest PTSD symptom rise during pregnancy were most likely to suffer postpartum depression and reported greatest bonding impairment with their infants at 6 weeks postpartum. Screening for modifiable risks (interpersonal trauma exposure and labor anxiety) and /or PTSD symptom load during pregnancy appears critical to promote maternal wellbeing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PTSD Symptoms across Pregnancy and Early Postpartum Among Women with Lifetime PTSD Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W.; Bocknek, Erika; Morelen, Diana; Rosenblum, Katherine; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia; Abelson, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about trajectories of PTSD symptoms across the peripartum period in women with trauma histories, specifically those who met lifetime PTSD diagnoses prior to pregnancy. The present study seeks to identify factors that influence PTSD symptom load across pregnancy and early postpartum, and study its impact on postpartum adaptation. Method The current study is a secondary analysis on pregnant women with a Lifetime PTSD diagnosis (N=319) derived from a larger community sample who were interviewed twice across pregnancy (28 and 35 weeks) and again at 6 weeks postpartum, assessing socioeconomic risks, mental health, past and ongoing trauma exposure, and adaptation to postpartum. Results Using trajectory analysis, first we examined the natural course of PTSD symptoms based on patterns across peripartum, and found 4 distinct trajectory groups. Secondly, we explored factors (demographic, historical, and gestational) that shape the PTSD symptom trajectories, and examined the impact of trajectory membership on maternal postpartum adaptation. We found that child abuse history, demographic risk, and lifetime PTSD symptom count increased pregnancy-onset PTSD risk, whereas gestational PTSD symptom trajectory was best predicted by interim trauma and labor anxiety. Women with the greatest PTSD symptom rise during pregnancy were most likely to suffer postpartum depression and reported greatest bonding impairment with their infants at 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusions Screening for modifiable risks (interpersonal trauma exposure and labor anxiety) and/or PTSD symptom load during pregnancy appears critical to promote maternal wellbeing. PMID:26740305

  15. Early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep using near-infrared spectroscopy on blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Andueza, Donato; Alabart, José L; Lahoz, Belén; Muñoz, Fernando; Folch, José

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to discriminate between pregnant and nonpregnant ewes in early stages of pregnancy after artificial insemination (AI) from blood plasma. Samples were collected using jugular puncture at 18 and 25 days after AI from 188 Rasa Aragonesa and Ansotana ewes. Plasma samples were analyzed for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) and progesterone (P4) using ELISA commercial kits. The spectra of plasma samples were recorded in the visible and near-infrared ranges. The performance of these tests were compared, using as criterion standard the pregnancy status determined using transabdominal ultrasonography at 45 days after AI. Pregnancy rate was 47.9% (90/188). At Day 18, sensitivity was similar in NIRS and P4 tests (98.9% vs. 100%; not significant) and greater than PAG (32.2%; both P < 0.001). Specificity was similar in NIRS and PAG tests (both 100%) and greater than that of P4 (84.7%; P < 0.001). At Day 25, sensitivity and specificity of NIRS and PAG were both 100%. It can be concluded that NIRS was an accurate method of diagnosis of pregnancy at Days 18 and 25 after AI in ewes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Malignancy during pregnancy in Japan: an exceptional opportunity for early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Tabata, Tsutomu; Sudo, Tamotsu; Nishimura, Ryuichiro; Matsuo, Koji; Grubbs, Brendan H; Enomoto, Takayuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2018-02-08

    Malignancy during pregnancy has become a significant cause of maternal death in developed countries, likely due to both an older pregnant population, and increases of cervical cancer in younger women. Our aim is to investigate the clinical aspects of malignancy during pregnancy in Japan and to use this information to identify opportunities for earlier detection and treatment. We provided a questionnaire to 1508 secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Japan. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of cases with malignancy during pregnancy for the period of January to December, 2008. From the 760 institutions which responded, we obtained clinical information for 227 unique cases. The questionnaire provided clinical information, including disease site, pregnancy outcome and how the disease was detected. The most common type of malignancy was cervical cancer (n = 162, 71.4%) followed by ovarian (n = 16, 7.0%) and breast cancer (n = 15, 6.6%). Leukemia (n = 7, 3.1%), colon cancer (n = 5, 2.2%), gastric cancer (n = 5, 2.2%), malignant lymphoma (n = 4, 1.8%), thyroid cancer (n = 3, 1.3%), brain cancer (n = 3, 1.3%), endometrial cancer (n = 2, 0.9%), and head and neck cancer (n = 2, 0.9%) accounted for the remaining cases. Overall, gynecological malignancies accounted for 79.3% (95% confidence interval 74.0-84.6) of pregnancy associated malignancies diagnosed in the present study. The majority of cervical cancers, 149 (92.0%) of 162, were diagnosed by a Pap (Papanicolaou) smear during early gestation. Ten (62.5%) of the ovarian cancer cases were diagnosed by ultrasonography during a prenatal checkup or at the time of initial pregnancy diagnosis. Out of 14 breast cancers, only one (7.1%) was diagnosed by screening breast exam. From this study, we reaffirm the clear and significant benefits of prenatal checkups starting at an early gestational age for the detection of gynecological cancers during pregnancy. Conversely, breast

  17. Early Pregnancy Diabetes Screening and Diagnosis: Prevalence, Rates of Abnormal Test Results, and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.

  18. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  19. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wildt, David E.; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify ‘biomarkers’ and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population. PMID:29236714

  20. Pregnancy outcomes in women with an early diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feghali, Maisa N; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Comer, Diane M; Caritis, Steve; Catov, Janet M; Scifres, Christina M

    2018-04-01

    To examine pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) based on the timing of diagnosis. We compared demographics, blood sugars and outcomes between women diagnosed before (n = 167) or after 24 weeks' gestation (n = 1202) in a single hospital between 2009 and 2012. Because early screening is risk-based we used propensity score modelling and conditional logistic regression to account for systematic differences. Women diagnosed with GDM before 24 weeks were more likely to be obese and they were less likely to have excess gestational weight gain (35 vs. 45%, p = 0.04). Early diagnosis was associated with more frequent therapy including glyburide (65 vs. 56%, p < 0.001) and insulin (19 vs 6%, p < 0.001). After propensity score modelling and accounting for covariates, early diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for macrosomia (OR 2, 95% 1-4.15, p = 0.0498). Early diagnosis was not associated with other adverse outcomes. In a subgroup analysis comparing women treated with glyburide prior to 24 weeks compared to those diagnosed after 24 weeks, early diagnosis in women treated with glyburide was associated with an increased risk for macrosomia (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.4, P = 0.04). Women diagnosed with GDM before 24 weeks have unique features, are at risk for adverse outcomes, and require targeted approaches to therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Easy sonographic differential diagnosis between intrauterine pregnancy and cesarean delivery scar pregnancy in the early first trimester.

    PubMed

    Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Monteagudo, Ana; Cali, Giuseppe; El Refaey, Hazem; Kaelin Agten, Andrea; Arslan, Alan A

    2016-08-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a serious complication of pregnancy, which consists of implantation of the gestational sac in the hysterotomy scar. This condition is increasing in frequency and often poses a diagnostic challenge. Its diagnosis is dependent on visual assessment of the uterus on the longitudinal sagittal ultrasound plane. Misdiagnosing a low intrauterine chorionic sac as a CSP, or a true scar pregnancy as an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), may lead to adverse outcomes including hysterectomy. The objective of the study is to describe a sonographic method for the differential diagnosis of CSP vs IUP in early gestation. The current study tests the hypothesis that on a first-trimester ultrasound performed between 5-10 weeks of gestation, the relative location of the center of gestational sac to the midpoint of the uterus along a longitudinal line between the external cervical os and the fundus can be used for early detection of CSPs. This is a retrospective review of electronically archived ultrasound images of IUP and CSP between 5-10 weeks of gestation. A total of 242 ultrasound images were analyzed: 185 cases of normal IUPs (including 128 in anteverted uteri, 31 in retroverted uteri, and 26 IUPs with history of cesarean delivery) and 57 cases of CSPs diagnosed from 2004 through 2015 in a single institution. The following measurements were made for each case: distance from the external cervical os to the uterine fundus, the midpoint axis of the uterus, the distance from the external cervical os to the center of gestational sacs, and the distance from the external cervical os to the most distant edge of the gestational sacs from the cervix. The location of the center of the gestational sac relative to the midpoint axis of the uterus between 5-10 weeks of gestation differentiated between IUP and CSP (mean 17.8 vs -10.6 mm, respectively, P = .0001), indicating that most CSPs are located proximally to the midpoint axis of the uterus whereas most normal

  2. Serum MX2 Protein as Candidate Biomarker for Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Buragohain, L; Kumar, R; Nanda, T; Phulia, S K; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Balhara, S; Ghuman, Sps; Singh, I; Balhara, A K

    2016-08-01

    Interferon-tau (IFN-τ)-induced molecular markers such as ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and myxovirus resistance genes (MX1 and MX2) have generated immense attention towards developing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of pregnancy in bovine. These molecules are expressed at transcriptional level in peripheral nucleated cells. However, their presence in the serum is still a question mark. This study reports sequential changes in expression of MX2 transcript in whole blood and serum MX2 protein level on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 in pregnant (n = 9) buffalo heifers, and on days 0, 7 and 14 in non-inseminated (n = 8) and inseminated non-pregnant (n = 10) control animals. In non-inseminated and inseminated non-pregnant heifers, the differential expression of MX2 transcript and MX2 protein level remained similar between day 7 and 14 post-oestrus. However, in pregnant heifers, on 14th and 28th day post-insemination MX2 transcript was 16.38 ± 1.57 and 28.16 ± 1.91 times upregulated as compared to day 0. Similarly, serum MX2 protein concentration followed analogous trend as MX2 transcript and increased gradually with the progression of pregnancy. Correlation analysis between expression of MX2 transcript and its serum protein level showed a significant positive correlation in pregnant animals, while it was random in other two groups. Therefore, MX2 surge at transcriptional and serum protein level after day 14-28 of pregnancy in buffalo holds potential for its use in early pregnancy detection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of early pregnancy in cattle using different ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Racewicz, Przemysław; Sickinger, Marlene; Włodarek, Jan; Jaśkowski, Jędrzej M

    2016-06-16

    To evaluate the efficiency of different ultrasound devices in achieving an early diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy herds. A total of 1976 Holstein Friesian cows and heifers were artificially inseminated (AI) according to the herd manager's regime. Pregnancy diagnostics were performed between day 26 and 35 after AI using six different types of ultrasound systems (linear vs. sector scanners). Manual rectal palpation between day 45 and 60 after AI was used as the gold standard for pregnancy diagnostics. Sensitivity (SENS), specificity (SPEC), positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (ACC) of the diagnostic measures were determined. Average SENS was 82% (range 67.7-95.2%) with a mean SPEC of 73% (range 50.0-81.0%). ACC was 78.2% with a minimum of 64.6% and a maximum of 89.4%, depending on the ultrasound system. The PPV (ratio of the number of pregnant cows with a positive examination result to the number of cows actually pregnant) was 80.8% (range 59.1-88.1%), whereas the NPV (defined as the ratio of the number of cows correctly diagnosed negative to the number of cows actually open) was 74.4% (72.3-91.9%). Significant differences for these parameters were found depending on the ultrasound system used (p ≤ 0.01; Cramer's V. = 0.14). Regardless of the ultrasound device used, early pregnancy diagnostics between day 26 and 35 show a moderate diagnostic efficiency. Comparing the accuracy of the different devices, there may be a significant influence of type and technical parameters. Even though ultrasound systems with mechanical sector probes are not as convenient to use as systems with linear probes, according to this study, sector scanners are a reasonable alternative.

  4. Factors associated with pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) levels in plasma and milk of Holstein cows during early pregnancy and their effect on the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, A; Carvalho, P D; Amundson, M C; Fourdraine, R H; Vincenti, L; Fricke, P M

    2015-04-01

    Lactating Holstein cows (n = 141) were synchronized to receive their first timed artificial insemination (TAI). Blood and milk samples were collected 25 and 32 d after TAI, and pregnancy status was determined 32 d after TAI using transrectal ultrasonography. Cows diagnosed pregnant with singletons (n = 48) continued the experiment in which blood and milk samples were collected and pregnancy status was assessed weekly using transrectal ultrasonography from 39 to 102 d after TAI. Plasma and milk samples were assayed for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) levels using commercial ELISA kits. Compared to ultrasonography, accuracy was 92% for the plasma PAG ELISA test and 89% for the milk PAG ELISA test 32 d after TAI. Plasma and milk PAG levels for pregnant cows increased from 25 d to an early peak 32 d after TAI. Plasma and milk PAG levels then decreased from 32 d after TAI to a nadir from 53 to 60 d after TAI for the plasma PAG assay and from 46 to 67 d after TAI for the milk PAG assay followed by an increase from 74 to 102 d after TAI. Overall, plasma PAG levels were approximately 2-fold greater compared with milk PAG levels, and primiparous cows had greater PAG levels in plasma and milk compared with multiparous cows. The incidence of pregnancy loss from 32 to 102 d after TAI based on ultrasonography was 13% for cows diagnosed with singleton pregnancies, and plasma and milk PAG levels decreased to nonpregnant levels within 7 to 14 d after pregnancy loss. Both plasma and milk PAG levels were negatively correlated with milk production for both primiparous and multiparous cows. We conclude that stage of gestation, parity, pregnancy loss, and milk production were associated with plasma and milk PAG levels after TAI similarly. Based on plasma and milk PAG profiles, the optimal time to conduct a first pregnancy diagnosis is around 32 d after AI, coinciding with an early peak in PAG levels. Because of the occurrence of pregnancy loss, all pregnant cows should be

  5. Single point biochemical measurement algorithm for early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen A; Abban, Thomas K A; Borrelli, Paola T A; Luttoo, Jameel M; Kemp, Bryn; Iles, Ray K

    2013-09-01

    Tubal rupture as a result of an ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of first trimester maternal mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy depends on transvaginal ultrasound and serial serum measurements of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), which requires follow up. The objective of this study was to examine whether single point measurements at presentation could distinguish between women with ectopic pregnancy, viable pregnancy, and spontaneous miscarriage. Serum total hCG (hCGt), hyperglycosylated hCG (hCGh), free beta subunit of hCG (hCGβ), progesterone (P), and CA-125 were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay over a 3 month period in 441 women presenting at the emergency room with abdominal pain and a positive pregnancy test. Patient outcomes were followed and confirmed by histology. 65 samples were excluded due to poor sample storage, or lost to follow up. The pregnancy outcomes were 175 viable pregnancies, 175 spontaneous miscarriages, and 26 ectopic pregnancies. A serum hCGt <3736 mIU/mL cut off was 100% sensitive, with 76% specificity, for distinguishing ectopic pregnancy from viable pregnancy; but did not differentiate spontaneous miscarriage. Serum CA125 <41.98 U/mL produced 100% sensitivity and 43% specificity in distinguishing ectopic pregnancy from spontaneous miscarriage. Sequential application of hCGt and CA-125 cut off followed by ultrasound could detect 100% of ectopic pregnancies with 87% specificity for all intrauterine pregnancies. The combination of serum hCGt <3736 mIU/mL, followed by CA125 <41.98 U/mL is a promising algorithm for detecting all ectopic pregnancy at initial presentation. © 2013.

  6. IgG avidity test for the diagnosis of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pour Abolghasem, Shabnam; Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza; Babaloo, Zohre; Porhasan, Abolfazl; Nagili, Behroz; Gardashkhani, Omid Ali; Salehi, Parviz; Hashemi, Mohammad; Varshoghi, Mojtaba; Gaffari, Gafar Olade

    2011-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is well known as an important infection in pregnant women. Although many serologic methods are available, diagnosis of early Toxoplasmosis may be extremely difficult. To detect the Toxoplasma IgG antibodies developed at the early stage of infection in pregnant women. 225 pregnant women, who were in the 2nd to 4th month of their pregnancy, enrolled in this study. Anti-toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgG avidity were evaluated by ELISA method. The patients were categorized into three groups as follows: Group A, 124 cases; IgG+, IgM+, 55.1%; group B, 99 cases; IgG+, IgM-, 44%; and group C, 2 cases; IgG -, IgM +, 0.9%. Fifty five percent of the pregnant women had positive IgG and IgM among which 7.1% had low avidity which revealed an active infection in the pregnant women. In the current study, 44% of pregnant women had positive IgG and negative IgM, all of which had high avidity, which is an indication that in our population the level of toxoplasmosis infection is high and most women have had contacts with this parasite before pregnancy. In this study, the low avidity test was 7.1% showing that the occurrence of toxoplasmosis infection is still a serious issue. Observation of 45.8% high avidity among group A suggests that either IgM has a high half-life or there is a false positive IgM as a result of rheumatologic disorders. Therefore, avidity test is important in predicting maternal toxoplasmosis which is of value in disease treatment.

  7. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  8. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy. In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  9. Pregnancy as an early stress test for cardiovascular and kidney disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Facca, Thaís Alquezar; Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Gianna; Sabino, Amélia Rodrigues Pereira; Passos, Michelle Tiveron; Dos Santos, Larissa Fátima; Famá, Eduardo Augusto Brosco; Nishida, Sonia Kiyomi; Sass, Nelson

    2017-11-23

    Pregnancy is a cardiometabolic and renal stress test for women, primarily when associated with hypertension syndrome, which can have deleterious effects in the long term. We undertook this study to make a long-term evaluation on these women. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate voluntary women who had pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome versus normal pregnancy. We evaluated a total of 85 women, divided in case (n = 25) and control (n = 60) groups, by clinical, anthropometric and epidemiological profiles, general, metabolic and renal tests, and risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The case group showed a higher incidence of hypertension (P = .003), shorter period between its diagnosis and end of pregnancy (P < .001) and lower age at diagnosis (P = .033); higher weight (P < .001), body mass index (BMI) (P < .001), waist-to-height ratio (p = .001) and abdominal circumference (P < .001); higher fat percentage (P = .004) and weight to lose (P < .001) as measured by bioimpedance; lower estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation (P = .021), greater difference between estimated vascular age and real age (P = .008) according to Framingham Risk Score (2008) and higher frequency of metabolic syndrome (P < .001). Women who had pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome were found with a higher incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertension, earlier onset of hypertension, higher estimated vascular age and lower eGFR. These findings reinforce the importance of investigating the history of hypertension syndrome in pregnancy, which should be considered an indicator to be followed long term after childbirth. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of early or late resynchronization based on different methods of pregnancy diagnosis on reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinedino, L D P; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Cerri, R L A; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of dairy cows subjected to early (ER) or late (LR) resynchronization programs after nonpregnancy diagnoses based on either pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) ELISA or transrectal palpation, respectively. In addition, the accuracy of the PAG ELISA for early pregnancy diagnosis was assessed. Lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with timed artificial insemination (AI) performed between 61 and 74 DIM. On the day of the first postpartum AI, 1,093 cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to treatments; however, because of attrition, 452 ER and 520 LR cows were considered for the statistical analyses. After the first postpartum AI, cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and inseminated on the same day of detected estrus. Cows from ER that were not reinseminated in estrus received the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization 2d before pregnancy diagnosis. On d 28 after the previous AI (d 27 to 34), pregnancy status was determined by PAG ELISA, and nonpregnant cows continued on the Ovsynch protocol for reinsemination. Pregnant cows had pregnancy status reconfirmed on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) by transrectal palpation, and those that lost the pregnancies were resynchronized. Cows assigned to LR had pregnancy diagnosed by transrectal palpation on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) and nonpregnant cows were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol. Blood was sampled on d 28 after AI (d 27 to 34) from cows in both treatments that had not been reinseminated on estrus and again on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) for assessment of PAG ELISA to determine the accuracy of the test. Cows were subjected to treatments for 72d after the first insemination. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at first postpartum timed AI did not differ between treatments and averaged 28.9%. The proportion of nonpregnant cows that were resynchronized and received timed AI was greater

  11. Effect of early pregnancy diagnosis by per rectum amniotic sac palpation on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Romano, Juan E; Bryan, Kelsey; Ramos, Roney S; Velez, Juan; Pinedo, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of per rectal amniotic sac palpation (ASP) for pregnancy diagnosis during the late embryonic period on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled, randomized, blocked, blind experiment containing 680 lactating pregnant dairy cows with a viable embryo diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography was performed. Two dairy operation sites (farm A and farm B) were selected. At each farm, the cows were randomly divided into control (CON) and ASP groups. The CON group was not subjected to pregnancy diagnosis via per rectum palpation. The ASP examinations were performed by one experienced veterinarian between Days 34 and 45 after breeding. All cows were reevaluated by transrectal ultrasonography only between 2 and 4 weeks later. Two calving rates were calculated: calving rate 1 (cows that calved from the initial number of pregnant cows) and calving rate 2 (cows that calved from cows pregnant at reexamination). In farm A, the percentages of early pregnancy loss were 11.5% (19 of 165) and 13.2% (24 of 182) for the CON and the ASP groups, respectively (P = 0.64). In farm B, the percentage of early pregnancy loss was 11.2% (19 of 170) for the CON group and 8.8% (14 of 159; P = 0.48) for the ASP group. In farm A, the percentage of late pregnancy loss was 7.6% (11 of 145) for the CON group and 5.5% (8 of 155; P = 0.39) for the ASP group. In farm B, the percentage of late pregnancy loss was 3.7% (5 of 137) for the CON group and 6.3% (8 of 127; P = 0.32) for the ASP group. In farm A, early pregnancy loss was higher than late pregnancy loss (12.4% vs. 6.3%; P = 0.01), and in farm B, the same tendency was detected (10.0% vs. 4.9%, for early and late pregnancy loss, respectively; P = 0.02). In farm A, calving rate 1 was 81.2% (134 of 165) for the CON group and 80.8% (147 of 182; P = 0.92) for the ASP group. Calving rate 2 for the same groups was 92.4% (134 of 145) and 94.8% (147 of 155

  12. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... known pregnancies. What causes early pregnancy loss? About one half of cases of early pregnancy loss are caused by a ... do not show any signs of an infection, one option is to wait and let the ... may take longer in some cases. Another option is to take medication that helps ...

  13. Early pregnancy assessment in multiple pregnancies.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Francesco; Bhide, Amar

    2014-02-01

    Early ultrasound assessment and accurate determination of chorionicity is crucial so that appropriate care of multiple pregnancy can be provided. It is best achieved in the first trimester of pregnancy using the Lambda 'λ' and 'T' signs. Accurate labelling of the twins is needed to ensure that the same individual fetus is measured through the pregnancy so that the longitudinal growth pattern can be correctly assessed. Discrepancy in crown-rump length indicates a possibility for future development of selective intrauterine growth restriction. Careful early ultrasound assessment is needed to identify structural and chromosomal anomalies, as twin pregnancies are at increased risk. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, selective intrauterine growth restriction and congenital abnormalities represent the major determinants of perinatal loss in monochorionic pregnancies, and diagnosis and prognosis are discussed in detail. Treatment of twin reverse arterial perfusion sequence is more effective in early pregnancy, so early identification is needed. Outcome of conjoined twins is guarded, and is dependent on the extent of fusion, degree of sharing of organs, associated anomalies, and presence of cardiac failure in utero. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains the number one cause of first trimester maternal death. Traditionally, laparoscopy has been the gold standard for diagnosis of EP. The advent of high‐resolution transvaginal scan (TVS) means more clinically stable women with EPs are diagnosed earlier, well before surgery becomes necessary in many cases. Early diagnosis by TVS is therefore potentially life saving and can reduce surgical morbidity by allowing elective surgery or even non‐surgical conservative treatment options. Combining transabdominal and transvaginal scanning confers no benefit over transvaginal scanning alone. Reports that reads “…empty uterus, ectopic pregnancy cannot be excluded” should be a thing of the past. Diagnosis of EP should be based upon the positive identification of an adnexal mass using TVS rather than the absence of an intra‐uterine gestational sac. A systematic approach to scanning the early pregnancy pelvis will diagnose the vast majority of EPs at the initial scan. Ultrasound, and in particular TVS, is fast becoming the new gold standard for diagnosis of all types of EP. In modern management, laparoscopy should be seen as the operative tool of choice while TVS the diagnostic tool of choice. PMID:28191110

  15. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement for early diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seror, Jeremy; Lefevre, Guillaume; Berkane, Nathalie; Richard, Frederic; Bornes, Marie; Uzan, Serge; Berkane, Nadia

    2014-12-01

    Calcium-channel blockers administered to pregnant women as tocolytic agents can cause acute pulmonary edema. The first signs of this severe complication can be atypical and so delay introduction of appropriate therapy. We describe three cases in whom B-type natriuretic peptide measurements proved to be relevant in early diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women with acute pulmonary edema. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement in this setting could contribute to timely diagnosis and improve follow-up. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Random plasma glucose in early pregnancy is a better predictor of gestational diabetes diagnosis than maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Meek, Claire L; Murphy, Helen R; Simmons, David

    2016-03-01

    Asymptomatic pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes (GDM) at 24-28 weeks' gestation. Recent guidelines also recommend screening early in gestation to identify undiagnosed pre-existing overt diabetes. We assessed the performance of random plasma glucose (RPG) testing at antenatal booking in predicting GDM diagnosis later in pregnancy. Data from 25,543 consecutive singleton pregnancies at the Rosie Hospital in Cambridge (UK) were obtained from hospital electronic records as a service evaluation. All women were invited for an antenatal RPG (12-16 weeks) and a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT; 24-28 weeks) with a 75 g OGTT if GCT >7.7 mmol/l (139 mg/dl). At booking, 17,736 women had an RPG that was able to predict GDM (receiver operating characteristic AUC 0.8) according to various diagnostic criteria in common use. A cut-off point of ≥7.5 mmol/l (135 mg/dl) gave a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.90 for GDM diagnosis. Theoretically, using this screening policy, 13.2% of women would have been categorised at high risk (26.3% had GDM) and 86.8% of women at low risk (1.7% had GDM). RPG performed better than maternal age (AUC 0.60) or BMI (AUC 0.65) at predicting GDM diagnosis. RPG at booking has reasonable performance as a screening test and is better than maternal age or BMI for identifying women at high risk of GDM. RPG cannot replace OGTT for diagnosis but it may be useful to exclude women who do not need further investigation for GDM and to identify women who could be prioritised for early diagnosis or lifestyle interventions.

  17. Comparison of a commercial bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein ELISA test and a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radiomimmunoassay test for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Karen, Aly; Sousa, Noelita Melo De; Beckers, Jean-François; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Tibold, János; Mádl, István; Szenci, Ottó

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to compare the accuracy of a commercial PAG-ELISA test (Bovine Preg Test 29) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) for diagnosing pregnancy at Day 28 after insemination in dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was performed in 100 Holstein-Friesian cows at Day 28 after artificial insemination (AI; Day 0) to diagnose pregnancy. After TRUS examination, blood sample was collected from the coccygeal vessels of each cow to measure the concentrations of bPAGs by PAG-RIA test and Bovine Preg Test 29. Milk samples were collected at Days 0, 21 and 28 for measurement of progesterone (P4) by ELISA test. The cows were re-examined by TRUS at Day 42 to confirm the pregnancy diagnoses. The actual gold standard was based on TRUS outcomes at Day 28 that agreed with the outcomes of PAG-RIA test or PAG-ELISA test. If the outcomes of TRUS at Day 28 and PAG-RIA test and PAG-ELISA test did not agree, the gold standard was based on the outcome of TRUS at Day 42. Out of 100 inseminated cows, 41 were confirmed pregnant at Day 28 after AI. Based on the actual gold standard, the sensitivity of TRUS, PAG-ELISA and PAG-RIA tests for diagnosing pregnant cows at Day 28 were 92.7%, 90.2% and 100%, while the specificity of the three tests for diagnosing non-pregnant cows were 91.5%, 98.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the three tests were 92%, 95% and 97%, respectively. The degree of agreement (Kappa±S.E.) between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA test was 0.90 ±0.04. The degrees of agreement between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA and TRUS at Day 28 were 0.80±0.05 and 0.76±0.06, respectively. In conclusion, the commercial PAG-ELISA test is a highly accurate method for diagnosing early pregnancy in dairy cows on Day 28 after AI and may be used as an alternative method to the TRUS and the PAG-RIA test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Serum Beta hCG in Early Diagnosis and Management Strategy of Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Surampudi, Kameswari; Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao

    2016-07-01

    The presentation of Ectopic Pregnancy (EP) can be highly variable and serum Beta hCG estimation plays an important role in early diagnosis. Aim of the study was to determine the trends of hCG levels in EP and to explore the role of hCG in decisions related to management and follow-up of EPs. A retrospective study of women who had EPs from January 2006 to December 2012 at an advanced tertiary care centre in southern India was carried out. These women had undergone treatment based on the hospital protocol. The study identified 337 women with EP. Thirty one surgically confirmed cases were diagnosed below the discriminatory zone of 1500 mIU/ml. Among women who had Beta hCG estimations 48 hours apart, plateauing was observed in 22.5% while decrease >15% was noted in 26.8%. Almost half (47.9%) of the cases had an increase >15% and a few (2.8%) demonstrated an initial fall followed by a rise in titres. In 23.9% of these women, there was a rise >53% similar to intrauterine pregnancy. The average pre-treatment Beta hCG was 429.8, 3866.2 and 12961.5 mIU/ml for those who received expectant, medical and direct surgical treatment respectively. 43 women with relative contraindications received medical management and 39 were lost to follow-up after medical and expectant management. Excluding them, the success rate of these two modalities was 76.6% and 85.0% respectively. No single level of Beta hCG is diagnostic of EP and serial levels can demonstrate atypical trends in some cases. Hence, interpretation of these results should be done in conjunction with clinical and sonographic findings to arrive at a correct diagnosis.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Epee-Bekima, Mathias; Overton, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    The most common site of localisation of an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube. Rarely an ectopic pregnancy can be found in the ovary, a caesarean section scar, the abdomen or the cervix. Risk factors are previous ectopic pregnancy, PID, endometriosis, previous pelvic surgery, the presence of a coil and infertility. However, a third of women with an ectopic pregnancy have no known risk factors. NICE recommends a low threshold for offering a pregnancy test to women of childbearing age when they attend the surgery. Symptoms and signs appear when the tube starts to tear. When the tube ruptures, the woman will quickly become unwell and haemodynamically unstable because of rapid intra-abdominal blood loss. The most common symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are pelvic or abdominal pain, amenorrhoea, missed period or abnormal period and vaginal bleeding. A positive diagnosis of a urinary tract infection or gastroenteritis does not exclude an ectopic pregnancy. Signs of suspected ectopic pregnancy include pelvic, abdominal, adnexal or cervical motion tenderness, rebound tenderness and abdominal distension. Women who are haemodynamically unstable, or in whom there is significant concern about the degree of pain or bleeding, should be referred directly to A&E, irrespective of the result of the pregnancy test. Stable patients with bleeding who have pain or a pregnancy of six weeks gestation or more or a pregnancy of uncertain gestation should be referred immediately to an early pregnancy assessment (EPA) service, or out-of-hours gynaecology service if the EPA service is not available. Diagnosis is confirmed by transvaginal ultrasound scan to identify the location of the pregnancy.

  20. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) as a marker for the diagnosis of subclinical embryonic loss.

    PubMed

    Shahani, S K; Moniz, C; Chitlange, S; Meherji, P

    1992-01-01

    The validation of EPF as a possible correlate of early fertilization has made it possible to study and detect fertilization of the ovum in normal fertile women (during the luteal phase) and also in women with infertility, where the fertilization of the ovum may not be affected but there may be impairment in early embryonic development which results in early embryo loss or subclinical embryo loss. Our results have suggested that using EPF as a marker, we could detect subclinical embryonic loss in 57.8% of the infertile women where more than one menstrual cycle was studied and the blood was collected 4-7 days after ovulation. After the missed period, 80% of the patients who were negative for EPF but positive for hCG had spontaneous abortions. It would be interesting to study how EPF behaves as a marker, to detect subclinical embryonic loss in diverse pathological situations such as recurrent abortions, parental age and translocation carrier parents.

  1. Early diagnosis of iliofemoral DVT in pregnancy in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    van Zyl Smit, Nellis; Govind, Abha; Sharma, Devesh

    2012-06-12

    The case of a 26-year-old woman who was 23 weeks pregnant is described; the patient presented, on a weekend, to the emergency department (ED) with left groin pain. There were few clinical signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but ED ultrasound (US) showed a left external iliac vein thrombus. This is a new technique in the ED. Not only does this case show the importance of using this technique in the ED, but it also shows the importance of correct training in how to examine for thrombus in the external iliac vein in the pregnant patient. The patient was admitted to the hospital and started on low-molecular-weight heparin. A formal radiology department US performed the next week confirmed the diagnosis of DVT.

  2. Early pregnancy diagnosis on days 18 to 21 postinsemination using high-resolution imaging in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Scully, S; Butler, S T; Kelly, A K; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess the ability of corpus luteum (CL) and uterine ultrasound characteristics on d 18 to 21 to predict pregnancy status in lactating dairy cows. Ultrasound examinations were carried out on cows (n = 164) on d 18 to 21 following artificial insemination (AI). Images of the uterus and CL were captured using a Voluson i ultrasound device (General Electric Healthcare Systems, Vienna, Austria) equipped with a 12-MHz, multi frequency, linear array probe. Serum concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. Images of the CL were captured and stored for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow area were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were stored for analysis of echotexture. Diagnosis of pregnancy was made at each ultrasound examination based on CL blood flow, CL size, and uterine echotexture. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasonography on d 30 after AI. The relationship between ultrasound measures and pregnancy outcome, as well as the accuracy of the pregnancy diagnosis made at each ultrasound examination was assessed. Progesterone concentrations and CL tissue area were greater in pregnant compared with nonpregnant cows on all days. The CL blood flow ratio was higher in pregnant compared with nonpregnant cows on d 20 and 21 after AI. Echotexture measures of the CL and uterus were not different between pregnant and nonpregnant cows on any day of examination. The best logistic regression model to predict pregnancy included scores for CL blood flow, CL size, and uterine echotexture on d 21 following AI. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis was highest on d 21, with sensitivity and specificity being 97.6 and 97.5%, respectively. Uterine echotexture scores were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant cows from d 18 to 20. On d 21, pregnant cows had higher uterine echotexture scores

  3. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  4. Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Melissa; Bricker, Leanne; Neilson, James P; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostic ultrasound is a sophisticated electronic technology, which utilises pulses of high frequency sound to produce an image. Diagnostic ultrasound examination may be employed in a variety of specific circumstances during pregnancy such as after clinical complications, or where there are concerns about fetal growth. Because adverse outcomes may also occur in pregnancies without clear risk factors, assumptions have been made that routine ultrasound in all pregnancies will prove beneficial by enabling earlier detection and improved management of pregnancy complications. Routine screening may be planned for early pregnancy, late gestation, or both. The focus of this review is routine early pregnancy ultrasound. Objectives To assess whether routine early pregnancy ultrasound for fetal assessment (i.e. its use as a screening technique) influences the diagnosis of fetal malformations, multiple pregnancies, the rate of clinical interventions, and the incidence of adverse fetal outcome when compared with the selective use of early pregnancy ultrasound (for specific indications). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009). Selection criteria Published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials that compared outcomes in women who experienced routine versus selective early pregnancy ultrasound (i.e. less than 24 weeks’ gestation). We have included quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data for each included study. We used the Review Manager software to enter and analyse data. Main results Routine/revealed ultrasound versus selective ultrasound/concealed: 11 trials including 37505 women. Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy reduces the failure to detect multiple pregnancy by 24 weeks’ gestation (risk ratio (RR) 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.17). Routine scan is associated with a reduction in

  5. Insomnia during pregnancy: Diagnosis and Rational Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Ali M; Bhatia, Shashi K; Bhatia, Subhash K; Khawaja, Imran S

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy. Insomnia is a frequent sleep disturbance experienced by pregnant women which can be primary or due to co-morbid conditions. The differential diagnosis of insomnia in pregnancy includes anxiety disorders, mood disorders, breathing related sleep disorders and restless legs syndrome. Early interventions to treat the sleep disturbance are recommended to avoid adverse pregnancy outcomes. Management strategies include improving sleep hygiene, behavioral therapies, and pharmacotherapy. The risks of pharmacotherapy must be weighed against their benefits due to the possible risk of teratogenicity associated with some medications. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar employing a combination of key words: pregnancy, sleep disturbances, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep disorders and insomnia. We included original studies, review articles, meta-analysis and systematic reviews in our search prioritizing articles from the last 10-15 years. Articles older than 15 years were only included if their findings had not been superseded by more recent data. Further selection of articles was done from bibliographies and references of selected articles. Sleep disturbances in pregnancy are common and cause considerable morbidity. Management includes a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments carefully weighing the risks and benefits of each for the expectant mother and fetus.

  6. Insomnia during pregnancy: Diagnosis and Rational Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Ali M.; Bhatia, Shashi K.; Bhatia, Subhash K.; Khawaja, Imran S.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy. Insomnia is a frequent sleep disturbance experienced by pregnant women which can be primary or due to co-morbid conditions. The differential diagnosis of insomnia in pregnancy includes anxiety disorders, mood disorders, breathing related sleep disorders and restless legs syndrome. Early interventions to treat the sleep disturbance are recommended to avoid adverse pregnancy outcomes. Management strategies include improving sleep hygiene, behavioral therapies, and pharmacotherapy. The risks of pharmacotherapy must be weighed against their benefits due to the possible risk of teratogenicity associated with some medications. Methods: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar employing a combination of key words: pregnancy, sleep disturbances, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep disorders and insomnia. We included original studies, review articles, meta-analysis and systematic reviews in our search prioritizing articles from the last 10-15 years. Articles older than 15 years were only included if their findings had not been superseded by more recent data. Further selection of articles was done from bibliographies and references of selected articles. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances in pregnancy are common and cause considerable morbidity. Management includes a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments carefully weighing the risks and benefits of each for the expectant mother and fetus. PMID:27648062

  7. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Brian J; Källén, Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  8. Twin pregnancy diagnosis in Holstein cows: discriminatory powers and accuracy of diagnosis by transrectal palpation and outcome of twin pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J D; Weaver, L D; Franti, C E

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of twin pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation and to examine fetal survival, culling rates, and gestational lengths of cows diagnosed with twins. In this prospective study, 5309 cows on 14 farms in California were followed from pregnancy diagnosis to subsequent abortion or calving. The average sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of twin pregnancy diagnosis were 49.3%, 99.4%, 96.0%, and 86.1%, respectively. The abortion rate for single pregnancies of 12.0% differed significantly from those for bicornual twin pregnancies and unicornual twin pregnancies of 26.2% and 32.4%, respectively (P < 0.05). The early calf mortality between cows calving with singles (3.2%) and twins (15.7%) were significantly different (P < 0.005). The difference in fetal survival between single pregnancies and all twin pregnancies resulted in 0.42 and 0.29 viable heifers per pregnancy, respectively. The average gestation for single, bicornual, and unicornual pregnancies that did not abort before drying-off was 278, 272, and 270 days, respectively. Results of this study show that there is an increased fetal wastage associated with twin pregnancies and suggest a need for further research exploring management strategies for cows carrying twins. PMID:7728734

  9. Premature preterm rupture of the membrane diagnosis in early pregnancy: PAMG-1 and IGFBP-1 detection in amniotic fluid with biochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Doret, Muriel; Cartier, Régine; Miribel, Juliette; Massardier, Jérome; Massoud, Mona; Bordes, Agnès; Moret, Stéphanie; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Previable premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM), occurring before 24WG, is associated with a 25% neonatal survival rate. This terrible prognosis may lead to elective pregnancy termination on parents' request. Therefore, certain diagnosis is essential but remains difficult in about 10% of patients. Bed-side biochemical tests developed to help in diagnosis had never been evaluated in early pregnancies. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the in vitro sensitivity, detection limit, reaction time and consistency of AmniSure detecting placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) and actim PROM detecting Insulin Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in amniotic fluid between 15 and 20weeks of gestation (WG). Samples of amniotic fluid were collected by amniocentesis performed between 15 and 20 completed WG in 55 patients. Dilution series were prepared and both tests were performed twice at each dilution. In vitro sensitivity, detection limit, and reaction time were evaluated and compared in serial dilution. A total of 460 AmniSure and 476 actim PROM tests were performed. Both tests' in vitro sensitivity was 100% at dilution 1:20 and remained up to 90% until dilution 1:80. In vitro sensitivities were not different at any dilution. Detection limit and consistency were similar for both tests at all dilution. Actim PROM reaction time was shorter than AmniSure at all dilutions, except 1:320 (p<0.05). PAMG-1 and IGFBP-1 can be detected in amniotic fluid between 15 and 20 completed WG, using respectively AmniSure and actim PROM. © 2013.

  10. [The early pregnancy factor (EPF) as an early marker of disorders in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Straube, W; Römer, T; Zeenni, L; Loh, M

    1995-01-01

    The early pregnancy factor (EPF) seems to be very helpful in clinical applications such as early detection of pregnancy, differential diagnosis of failure of fertilization or implementation and prognosis of a fertilized ovum. Our purpose was to investigate the diagnostic value of single and serial measurement of EPF, especially in the differential diagnosis of abortion and extrauterine pregnancy. Women with a history of 6-16 weeks amenorrhoea with/without vaginal bleeding were included in the prospective study. The EPF-test system was carried out by means of the rosette inhibition method. EPF proved to be always positive in normal pregnant women and always negative in nonpregnant controls. In case of threatened abortion the prognosis was good, when the EPF values were positive, and poor when they became negative. Patients suffering from spontaneous and missed abortion mostly showed negative EPF-values. This was also true in ectopic pregnancies. The sensitivity and specificity of EPF-test system were 83%. The positive predictive value was observed to be 54% and the negative predictive value 95%. The EPF as an early embryonic signal may be a suitable parameter for the clinical use detecting pregnancy disturbances very early.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Adnexal Masses in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yakasai, Ibrahim Adamu; Bappa, Lawal Abdullahi

    2012-01-01

    Widespread use of ultrasound in early pregnancy has led to the detection of incidental adnexal masses more frequently. This article reviews the diagnosis and management options for adnexal masses in pregnancy. The availability of high-resolution ultrasound has made observation to be a viable option in some cases. However, for those masses suspicious of malignancy, at risk of torsion, rupture, or clinically symptomatic, surgical treatment is warranted. Laparoscopy has been successfully used in pregnancy and is safe in experienced and trained hands in properly equipped units. PMID:23741580

  12. Early diagnosis in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Garway-Heath, David F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for the clinical application of vision function tests and imaging devices to identify early glaucoma, and sets out a scheme for the appropriate use and interpretation of test results in screening/case-finding and clinic settings. In early glaucoma, signs may be equivocal and the diagnosis is often uncertain. Either structural damage or vision function loss may be the first sign of glaucoma; neither one is consistently apparent before the other. Quantitative tests of visual function and measurements of optic-nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer anatomy are useful to either raise or lower the probability that glaucoma is present. The posttest probability for glaucoma may be calculated from the pretest probability and the likelihood ratio of the diagnostic criterion, and the output of several diagnostic devices may be combined to achieve a final probability. However, clinicians need to understand how these diagnostic devices make their measurements, so that the validity of each test result can be adequately assessed. Only then should the result be used, together with the patient history and clinical examination, to derive a diagnosis.

  13. Prepregnancy Nutrition and Early Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Toth, Thomas L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization. To date, there is limited evidence to support associations of prepregnancy vitamin D and caffeine intake with pregnancy loss. There is suggestive data supporting a link between a healthy diet and lower risk of pregnancy loss. High folate and minimal to no alcohol intake prior to conception have the most consistent evidence supporting an association with lower risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26457232

  14. Anxiety associated with diagnostic uncertainty in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, A; Raine-Fenning, N; Deb, S; Campbell, B; Vedhara, K

    2017-08-01

    To determine anxiety levels of women presenting to an early pregnancy assessment unit (EPAU) with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding and to assess how these levels change over time and according to ultrasonographic diagnosis. We undertook a prospective cohort study in an EPAU in a large UK teaching hospital. Women with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (< 12 weeks' gestation) presenting for the first time were eligible for inclusion in the study. State anxiety levels were assessed using the standardized short form of Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) on three occasions (before, immediately after and 48-72 hours after an ultrasound scan). Scores were correlated with ultrasonographic diagnosis. The diagnosis was either certain or uncertain. Certain diagnoses were either positive, i.e. a viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), or negative, i.e. a non-viable IUP or ectopic pregnancy. Uncertain diagnoses included pregnancy of unknown location and pregnancy of uncertain viability. Statistical analysis involved mixed ANOVAs and the post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test. A total of 160 women were included in the study. Anxiety levels decreased over time for women with a certain diagnosis (n = 128), even when negative (n = 64), and increased over time for women with an uncertain diagnosis (n = 32). Before the ultrasound examination, anxiety levels were high (STAI value, 21.96 ± 1.11) and there was no significant difference between the five groups. Immediately after the ultrasound examination, anxiety levels were lower in the viable IUP group (n = 64; 7.75 ± 1.13) than in any other group. The difference between the five groups was significant (P < 0.005). After 48-72 hours, women with a certain diagnosis had significantly lower anxiety levels than had those with an uncertain diagnosis (10.77 ± 4.30 vs 22.94 ± 1.65; P < 0.005). The experience of abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy is highly anxiogenic. Following an

  15. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Health Problems in Pregnancy Vaginal Bleeding Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  16. Signs and Symptoms of Early Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sapra, Katherine J.; Joseph, K.S.; Galea, Sandro; Bates, Lisa M.; Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Ananth, Cande V.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one-third of pregnancies end in loss; however, the natural history of early pregnancy loss, including signs and symptoms preceding loss, has yet to be fully described and its underlying mechanisms fully understood. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase to identify articles with prospective ascertainment of signs and symptoms, including vaginal bleeding, nausea, and vomiting, of pregnancy loss < 20 weeks gestation in spontaneous conceptions to ascertain existing literature on symptomatology of pregnancy loss. Two preconception and 16 pregnancy cohort studies that ascertained information on bleeding and/or nausea/vomiting prior to pregnancy loss ascertainment were included. Data from these studies indicated increased risk of loss with vaginal bleeding and decreased risk of loss with nausea/vomiting, though these studies were mostly comprised of pregnancies surviving into late first trimester. While such associations are biologically plausible, these study designs are subject to bias, given recruitment of women at later gestational ages and reliance on women presenting to care. Reporting symptoms to clinicians and over long periods may introduce reporting error. Data gaps remain regarding (1) relationships between signs and symptoms and losses occurring very early, prior to care entry; (2) empirical testing of whether relationships between signs and symptoms and loss differ across gestational age; (3) whether similar relationships between signs and symptoms and loss are observed in populations using assisted reproductive technologies; (4) the patterning of multiple signs and symptoms in relation to loss; and (5) how hormonal and physiologic adaptions to early pregnancy relate to symptomatology and pregnancy loss. PMID:27342274

  17. Signs and Symptoms of Early Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Katherine J; Joseph, K S; Galea, Sandro; Bates, Lisa M; Louis, Germaine M Buck; Ananth, Cande V

    2017-04-01

    Approximately one-third of pregnancies end in loss; however, the natural history of early pregnancy loss, including signs and symptoms preceding loss, has yet to be fully described and its underlying mechanisms fully understood. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase to identify articles with prospective ascertainment of signs and symptoms, including vaginal bleeding, nausea, and vomiting, of pregnancy loss < 20 weeks gestation in spontaneous conceptions to ascertain existing literature on symptomatology of pregnancy loss. Two preconception and 16 pregnancy cohort studies that ascertained information on bleeding and/or nausea/vomiting prior to pregnancy loss ascertainment were included. Data from these studies indicated increased risk of loss with vaginal bleeding and decreased risk of loss with nausea/vomiting, though these studies were mostly comprised of pregnancies surviving into late first trimester. While such associations are biologically plausible, these study designs are subject to bias, given recruitment of women at later gestational ages and reliance on women presenting to care. Reporting symptoms to clinicians and over long periods may introduce reporting error. Data gaps remain regarding (1) relationships between signs and symptoms and losses occurring very early, prior to care entry; (2) empirical testing of whether relationships between signs and symptoms and loss differ across gestational age; (3) whether similar relationships between signs and symptoms and loss are observed in populations using assisted reproductive technologies; (4) the patterning of multiple signs and symptoms in relation to loss; and (5) how hormonal and physiologic adaptions to early pregnancy relate to symptomatology and pregnancy loss.

  18. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  19. Successful treatment algorithm for evaluation of early pregnancy after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Goossen, Rachel P; Sparks, Amy E T; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Duran, Eyup Hakan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a prospectively implemented clinical algorithm for early identification of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after assisted reproductive technology (ART). Analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic medical center. All ART-conceived pregnancies between January 1995 and June 2013. Early pregnancy monitoring via clinical algorithm with all pregnancies screened using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and reported symptoms, with subsequent early ultrasound evaluation if hCG levels were abnormal or if the patient reported pain or vaginal bleeding. Algorithmic efficiency for diagnosis of EP and HP and their subsequent clinical outcomes using a binary forward stepwise logistic regression model built to determine predictors of early pregnancy failure. Of the 3,904 pregnancies included, the incidence of EP and HP was 0.77% and 0.46%, respectively. The algorithm selected 96.7% and 83.3% of pregnancies diagnosed with EP and HP, respectively, for early ultrasound evaluation, leading to earlier treatment and resolution. Logistic regression revealed that first hCG, second hCG, hCG slope, age, pain, and vaginal bleeding were all independent predictors of early pregnancy failure after ART. Our clinical algorithm for early pregnancy evaluation after ART is effective for identification and prompt intervention of EP and HP without significant over- or misdiagnosis, and avoids the potential catastrophic morbidity associated with delayed diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The history of the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a medical adventure.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S

    1992-01-09

    From its indirect reference by Abulcasis (936-1013) and until the 19th century the ectopic pregnancy was known as a universally fatal accident. By reporting successful treatment of tubal pregnancy with salpingectomy in 1884 Robert Lawson Tait (1845-1899) started an era of almost 70 years of exclusively extirpative treatment of ectopic pregnancy. The technologic revolution of the 20th century improved diagnostic capabilities so that diagnosis of unruptured ectopic pregnancy becomes feasible and even mandatory. Side by side our understanding of the natural history of ectopic pregnancy improved. Many patients with early-resolving ectopic pregnancies escape surgical treatment. Preservation of future fertility became possible with the introduction of conservative surgical procedures and with the use of methotrexate. The main achievement in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy over the past 110 years is the dramatic decrease in mortality rate: from 72-90% in 1880 to 0.14% in 1990.

  1. Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Becker, Georg; Müller, Antje; Braune, Stefan; Büttner, Thomas; Benecke, Reiner; Greulich, Wolfgang; Klein, Wolfgang; Mark, Günter; Rieke, Jürgen; Thümler, Reiner

    2002-10-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) approximately 60 % of the nigrostriatal neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) are degenerated before neurologists can establish the diagnosis according to the widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. It is conceivable that neuroprotective therapy starting at such an 'advanced stage' of the disease will fail to stop the degenerative process. Therefore, the identification of patients at risk and at earlier stages of the disease appears to be essential for any successful neuroprotection. The discovery of several genetic mutations associated with IPD raises the possibility that these, or other biomarkers, of the disease may help to identify persons at risk of IPD. Transcranial ultrasound have shown susceptibility factors for IPD related to an increased iron load of the substantia nigra. In the early clinical phase, a number of motor and particularly non-motor signs emerge, which can be identified by the patients and physicians years before the diagnosis is made, notably olfactory dysfunction, depression, or 'soft' motor signs such as changes in handwriting, speech or reduced ambulatory arm motion. These signs of the early, prediagnostic phase of IPD can be detected by inexpensive and easy-to-administer tests. As one single instrument will not be sensitive enough, a battery of tests has to be composed measuring independent parameters of the incipient disease. Subjects with abnormal findings in this test battery should than be submitted to nuclear medicine examinations to quantify the extent of dopaminergic injury and to reach the goal of a reliable, early diagnosis.

  2. Anti-early pregnancy by PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ling

    1993-03-01

    The effect of laser on anti-early pregnancy in rabbits showed that laser in combination with HPD could induce necrosis of blastocysts and complete absorption. The anti-fertility efficiency of the combined treatment was more effective than that of the He-Ne laser or the HPD treatment alone. The fluorescence spectrum of HPD determined by PNQ3 showed that its affinity to embryonic tissue was about 4 times greater than that to uterine tissue. This may underlie the mechanisms of anti-early pregnancy of the laser. The operation of artificial abortion is a routine method to terminate early pregnancy. Though it is simple and easy, its syndrome and complications can not be absolutely avoided. Many antifertility drugs have been reported, however, they often bring in general reaction. Our present work is to explore a new way of anti-early pregnancy in rabbits by means of the light inhibitory and light sensitive effects of laser. It is a quite safe and painless treatment without expanding and scraping of the uterus.

  3. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  4. Serial hCG and progesterone levels to predict early pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies of uncertain viability: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Puget, Claire; Joueidi, Yolaine; Bauville, Estelle; Laviolle, Bruno; Bendavid, Claude; Lavoué, Vincent; Le Lous, Maela

    2018-01-01

    To assess the value of serial hCG and progesterone serum level in the diagnosis of early pregnancy viability. It was a prospective cohort study. Women with a pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV), defined as the presence of an intra-uterine embryo with a crown-rump length <7mm with no cardiac activity or an intra-uterine gestational sac size <25mm with no visible embryonic structure in a transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) were eligible. The diagnosis value of serial plasmatic hCG levels on the first day and 48h after as well as the initial progesterone level were evaluated to diagnose pregnancy viability. Pregnancy viability was assessed by TVS 7 to 14days after inclusion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of an hCG H48/H0 ratio increase <11% to diagnose an early pregnancy loss were 70.6%, 100%, 100% and 85.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of a 6.2ng/ml progesterone level to diagnose an early pregnancy loss were 20%, 100%, 100% and 65.2%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of an hCG H48/H0 ratio increase >75% to diagnose a viable pregnancy were 100%, 31%, 45.9% and 100%, respectively. hCG H48/H0 ratio increase <11% was associated with early pregnancy loss in 100% of the cases. hCG H48/H0 ratio increase >75% was associated with 100% of viable pregnancies in 100% of the cases. Serial hCG levels alone permitted an early viability diagnosis within 48h for 41.1% of patients with PUV instead of 7 to 14days with TVS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound imaging in the management of bleeding and pain in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Knez, Jure; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2014-07-01

    Bleeding and pain are experienced by 20% of women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Although most pregnancies complicated by pain and bleeding tend to progress normally, these symptoms are distressing for woman, and they are also associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first and often the only diagnostic modality that is used to determine location of early pregnancy and to assess its health. Ultrasound is an accurate, safe, painless and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool, which all contributed to its widespread use in early pregnancy. Pain and bleeding in early pregnancy are sometimes caused by concomitant gynaecological, gastrointestinal, and urological problems, which could also be detected on ultrasound scan. In women with suspected intra-abdominal bleeding, ultrasound scan can be used to detect the presence of blood and provide information about the extent of bleeding. In this chapter, we comprehensively review the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of early pregnancy complications. We include information about the diagnosis of gynaecological and other pelvic abnormalities, which could cause pain or bleeding in pregnancy. We also provide a summary of the current views on the safety of ultrasound in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of early pregnancy factor (EPF) in equine (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, K; Yokoo, M; Ito, K; Nambo, Y; Miyake, Y I; Komatsu, M; Takahashi, J

    2000-03-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressive protein detected in the early pregnancy serum. We have already reported that we developed the rosette inhibition test for mare EPF and detected EPF in thoroughbreds. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not our method could be used clinically. The rosette inhibition test for equine EPF was carried out on serum from six nonpregnant and six pregnant Shetland ponies, a female and a male Chinese pony, and four nonpregnant and 13 pregnant thoroughbred mares. In the thoroughbreds sera were collected during the pregnancy period. Furthermore, we measured progesterone and detected pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) in order to confirm pregnancy of the Chinese pony 3 and 6 months after mating. In the nonpregnant Shetland ponies, the rosette inhibition titre (RIT) was 6.0+/-1.0 and EPF was negative. In contrast, in the pregnant ponies, the RIT was 9.2+/-0.4 and EPF was positive. Based on these results, we diagnosed pregnancy of the Chinese pony. The RIT of the female Chinese pony (3 months after mating) was above 10 and EPF was positive. Furthermore, we detected PMSG and progesterone in the serum of this pony. EPF appeared in the maternal blood circulation at 24-72 hr after mating, it was detected until the second trimester, and after that it disappeared from the maternal serum. The pony's EPF was detected by using the same rosette inhibition test as in the thoroughbred and was present from 24 to 72 hr after mating until the second trimester. The results indicated that our method was useful for pregnancy diagnosis of Equine.

  7. Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: A Review.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer Renae; Lachica, Ruben; Lee, Richard H; Montoro, Martin; Mestman, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism has important implications for pregnancy, affecting both mother and fetus. Appropriate maternal and fetal management iscritical to avoiding adverse pregnancy outcomes and requires a multidisciplinary approach. To describe maternal diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism, across all stages of pregnancy. In addition, to review clinical signs of fetal thyroid dysfunction due to maternal Graves disease and discuss management considerations. Review of published articles on PubMed and guidelines by recognized governing organizations regarding the diagnostic and management considerations for hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, from preconception to the postpartum period. Diagnosis of maternal hyperthyroidism involves both clinical symptoms and laboratory findings. Antithyroid medications are the mainstay of therapy, with trimester-specific pregnancy goals. Hyperthyroidism due to Graves disease has important diagnostic and management considerations for the fetus and neonate. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy affects mother, fetus, and neonate. Interpretation of thyroid tests and understanding the appropriate use of antithyroid drugs are fundamental. Proper education of physicians providing care to women with hyperthyroidism is essential and starts before pregnancy. Postpartum follow-up is an essential part of the care. A systematic approach to management will ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Psychological aspects of therapeutic abortion after early prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Di Giusto, M; Lazzari, R; Giorgetti, T; Paesano, R; Pachi, A

    1991-01-01

    The early discovery of a fetal pathology creates a "crisis" situation fraught with psychic problems for the couple who must live through it. The Authors observed a group of patients in the second trimester of pregnancy. They had all requested therapeutic abortion since serious malformation of the fetus had been confirmed. By means of a questionnaire constructed for the purpose, certain characteristics of fetal malformation and of pregnancy were evidenced, as well as the way these were experienced by the patients. The immediate and delayed reactions to the diagnosis of malformation were also studied, as was the experience lived when faced with the choice of abortion.

  9. Pitfall in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Jessica B.; Khandji, Alexander G.; Wardlaw, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) during pregnancy and the perinatal period is an uncommon medical problem characterized by polyuria and excessive thirst. Diagnosis of DI may be overlooked in the setting of pregnancy, a time when increased water intake and urine output are commonly reported. We report two cases: one of transient DI in a young woman during her third trimester of twin pregnancy in association with acute fatty liver and hypertension and one of postpartum DI secondary to Sheehan syndrome from rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm. These cases illustrate the spectrum with which DI related to pregnancy and delivery can present and highlight the difficulty in making the diagnosis since the symptoms are often initially overlooked. PMID:28819576

  10. An outcomes evaluation of an emergency department early pregnancy assessment service and early pregnancy assessment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Kim; Crilly, Julia; May, Chris; Bates, Kym; Saxena, Rakhee

    2014-01-01

    Background Complications in early pregnancy, such as threatened or actual miscarriage is a common occurrence resulting in many women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early pregnancy service delivery models described in the literature vary in terms of approach, setting and outcomes. Our objective was to determine outcomes of women who presented to an Australian regional ED with diagnoses consistent with early pregnancy complications following the implementation of an early pregnancy assessment service (EPAS) and early pregnancy assessment protocol (EPAP) in July 2011. Methods A descriptive, comparative (6 months before and after) study was undertaken. Data were extracted from the hospital ED information system and medical healthcare records. Outcome measures included: time to see a clinician, ED length of stay, admission rate, re-presentation rate, hospital admission and types of pathology tests ordered. Results Over the 12 -month period, 584 ED presentations were made to the ED with complications of early pregnancy (268 PRE and 316 POST EPAS–EPAP). Outcomes that improved statistically and clinically following implementation included: time to see a clinician (decreased by 6 min from 35 to 29 min), admission rate (decreased 6% from 14.5% to 8.5%), increase in β-human chorionic gonadotrophin ordering by 10% (up to 80% POST), increase in ultrasound (USS) performed by 10% (up to 73% POST) and increase in pain score documentation by 23% (up to 36% POST). Conclusions The results indicate that patient and service delivery improvements can be achieved following the implementation of targeted service delivery models such as EPAS and EPAP in the ED. PMID:24136123

  11. [Pregnancy-specific beta-glycoprotein in the serum of women with a complicated early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Radikov, N

    1989-01-01

    The author determined pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in 109 women with threatened early pregnancy as 32 of the women suffered from abortus imminens with several unsuccessful pregnancies in the past as well as 67 women with abortus incipiens with bleeding ex utero. The author established that 87% of women with abortus imminens and preserved pregnancies had values of beta 1-glycoprotein close to those of normal pregnancy for the respective gestational week. 93% of women with abortus incipiens preserved pregnancies till term, but the specific glycoprotein was with in normal ranges. Spontaneous abortion occurred in 7% of women with low values under the 10th percentile. The present study show that examination of pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in women with threatened early pregnancy is of prognostic significance for the outcome of pregnancy.

  12. Early pregnancy assessment with transvaginal ultrasound scanning.

    PubMed Central

    Daya, S; Woods, S; Ward, S; Lappalainen, R; Caco, C

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish normal parameters in early pregnancy through transvaginal ultrasonography so that gestational age can be determined and to correlate the sonographic findings with serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels calibrated against the first international reference preparation standard. SETTING: Infertility clinic. PATIENTS: Thirty-five women with normal intrauterine pregnancy. INTERVENTIONS: Serial measurement of the serum hCG level and the diameter of the gestational sac through transvaginal ultrasonography. MAIN RESULTS: The gestational sac could not be visualized when the hCG level was less than 1100 IU/L. The average growth rate of the sac was 0.9 mm/d. The threshold values for sac diameter, serum hCG level and gestational age below which the yolk sac was not visible were 3.7 mm, 1900 IU/L and 36 days respectively; the corresponding values above which the yolk sac was always visible were 6.7 mm, 5800 IU/L and 40 days. The threshold values below which cardiac activity was not visible were 8.3 mm, 9200 IU/L and 41 days respectively, and the corresponding values above which cardiac activity was always visible were 14.0 mm, 24,000 IU/L and 46 days. The mean gestational ages and the 95% confidence and prediction intervals were tabulated so that measurement of the gestational sac diameter could be used to estimate gestational age early in normal pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Transvaginal ultrasonography enables detection of an intrauterine sac and reliable estimation of gestational age on the basis of sac dimensions before an embryo can be seen. PMID:1993291

  13. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  14. Etiology, diagnosis and treatment of renal colic during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Angelica Anna Chiara; Cozzi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    To assess the incidence and causes of renal stones in pregnant women, investigate the reliability and accuracy of diagnostic investigations and to consider the various therapeutic options available. A review of the literature was conducted, searching for relevant papers on the physiology of urinary apparatus changes during pregnancy, as well as the etiology, diagnosis and management of renal colic in pregnant women. Standards of care in renal colic during pregnancy include accurate diagnosis primarily with ultrasound, or MRI if necessary, conservative therapy and careful surgical approach for urinary drainage in the first place or ureterorenoscopy when needed. Renal colic during pregnancy is potentially troublesome and likely to lead to serious adverse effects on both mother and fetus. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed, which includes experts in the fields of Urology, Obstetrics, Radiology and Anesthesiology, to ensure the optimal care of this delicate cohort of patients.

  15. Surrogate Pregnancy After Prenatal Diagnosis of Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Lynnette J; Kisthardt, Mary Kay; Kim, Helen H; Rosas, Laura M; Lantos, John D

    2017-02-01

    Some pregnancies today involve infertile individuals or couples who contract with a fertile woman to carry a pregnancy for them. The woman who carries the pregnancy is referred to as a "gestational carrier." The use of such arrangements is increasing. Most of the time, these arrangements play out as planned; sometimes, however, problems arise. This article discusses a case in which a fetal diagnosis of spina bifida led the infertile couple to request that the gestational carrier terminate the pregnancy, and the gestational carrier did not wish to do so. Experts in the medical and legal issues surrounding surrogacy discuss the considerations that should go into resolving such a conflict. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission.

  17. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  18. Economic evaluation of pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle: a decision analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Oltenacu, P A; Ferguson, J D; Lednor, A J

    1990-10-01

    Cost-benefit evaluations of several pregnancy diagnosis schemes were performed. The strategy using on-farm milk progesterone test on d 19 after service, followed by treatment of nonpregnant cows with prostaglandin, was the most profitable returning $10.50 per cow above the cost of the intervention. An increase in efficiency of detection of estrus of greater than 20% among cows diagnosed nonpregnant and an error rate in pregnancy diagnosis of less than or equal to 3% were needed to ensure profitability. Pregnancy diagnosis by uterine palpation per rectum on d 35 after service, combined with the use of pressure-sensitive mounting devices on nonpregnant cows was the second most profitable strategy and returned $5.10 per cow. An increase in efficiency of detection of estrus of greater than or equal to 20% was required to ensure profitability. Embryonic mortality was also critical and an increase from a baseline value of 10% to 12%, as a result of early uterine palpation, made this scheme unprofitable ($-4.80 per cow). Pregnancy diagnosis by uterine palpation per rectum at 50 or 65 d was less profitable, with a return of $2.50 and $.10 per cow, respectively.

  19. Early ultrasonographic diagnosis of hereditary retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pierro, L; Capoferri, C; Brancato, R

    1991-01-01

    A hereditary retinoblastoma (RTB) was identified by ocular echography in a newborn, whose predisposition to RTB had been assessed based on the family history and DNA testing of the chorionic villi at the eighth week of pregnancy. Ultrasonography was performed during pregnancies without an abnormality being demonstrated. On the third day of life a B-scan examination showed a small membranous lesion in the nasal parapapillary area, whilst on A-scan, the lesion appeared as a hyperreflective peak. Thanks to its early identification, the tumor was successfully treated by photocoagulation.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of drinking in early pregnancy among women who stopped drinking on pregnancy recognition.

    PubMed

    Parackal, S M; Parackal, M K; Harraway, J A

    2013-04-01

    Women of child bearing age that regularly drink alcohol are at risk for drinking in early pregnancy. Evidence indicates a majority of women stop alcohol consumption on pregnancy recognition. However, there is a dearth of studies reporting on patterns and correlates of drinking in early pregnancy prior to stopping on pregnancy recognition, which the current study aims to address. In 2005, a New Zealand nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 1,256 women aged 16-40 years. Data were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire using a web-assisted telephone interviewing system. Of the 1,256 women who participated, 127 (10 %) were currently pregnant and 425 women (34 %) were previously pregnant. Half of currently pregnant women and 37 % of previously pregnant women reported that they ceased drinking on recognising pregnancy. Women categorised as "risky drinkers" and those aged 16-24 years had higher odds to drink and binge drink in early pregnancy, compared with non-risky drinkers and women of other age categories respectively. A majority of women stop alcohol consumption on pregnancy recognition but prior to this, drink at levels posing a risk for the developing foetus. Women most at risk for drinking and binge drinking in early pregnancy were younger in age and exhibited risky drinking behaviour prior to pregnancy. A targeted intervention to reduce the risk for an alcohol exposed pregnancy is warranted for sexually active younger women in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  1. Thyroid disorders associated with pregnancy: etiology, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy has an effect on thyroid economy with significant changes in iodine metabolism, serum thyroid binding proteins, and the development of maternal goiter especially in iodine-deficient areas. Pregnancy is also accompanied by immunologic changes, mainly characterized by a shift from a T helper-1 (Th1) lymphocyte to a Th2 lymphocyte state. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies are present in 10% of women at 14 weeks' gestation, and are associated with (i) an increased pregnancy failure (i.e. abortion), (ii) an increased incidence of gestational thyroid dysfunction, and (iii) a predisposition to postpartum thyroiditis. Thyroid function should be measured in women with severe hyperemesis gravidarum but not in every patient with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Graves hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is best managed with propylthiouracil administered throughout gestation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-receptor antibody measurements at 36 weeks' gestation are predictive of transient neonatal hyperthyroidism, and should be checked even in previously treated patients receiving thyroxine. Postpartum exacerbation of hyperthyroidism is common, and should be evaluated in women with Graves disease not on treatment. Radioiodine therapy in pregnancy is absolutely contraindicated. Hypothyroidism (including subclinical hypothyroidism) occurs in about 2.5% of pregnancies, and may lead to obstetric and neonatal complications as well as being a cause of infertility. During the last few decades, evidence has been presented to underpin the critical importance of adequate fetal thyroid hormone levels in order to ensure normal central and peripheral nervous system maturation. In iodine-deficient and iodine-sufficient areas, low maternal circulating thyroxine levels have been associated with a significant decrement in child IQ and development. These data suggest the advisability of further evaluation for a screening program early in pregnancy to identify women with hypothyroxinemia, and

  2. Vitamin D status in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Madonna; Dodds, Linda; Giguère, Yves; Forest, Jean-Claude; Armson, B. Anthony; Woolcott, Christy; Agellon, Sherry; Spencer, Anne; Weiler, Hope A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in early pregnancy and the subsequent diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE). STUDY DESIGN This was a nested case-control study from 2 prospective Canadian cohorts conducted in Quebec City, Quebec, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 2002 through 2010. Participants were pregnant women (n=169 cases with PE and 1975 controls). Maternal serum was drawn <20 weeks of gestation, and 25(OH)D measurement was performed. Cases were ascertained from medical records. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Women who developed PE had a significantly lower 25(OH)D concentration at a mean gestational age of 14 weeks compared with women in the control group (mean ± SD 25[OH]D 47.2 ± 17.7 vs 52.3 ± 17.2 nmol/L, P < .0001). Women with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L compared to those with at least 50 nmol/L had a greater risk of developing PE (adjusted odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–3.83) after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, maternal age, smoking, parity, season and year of blood collection, gestational week at blood collection, and cohort site. Exploratory analysis with cubic splines demonstrated a dose-response relationship between maternal 25(OH)D and risk of PE, up to levels around 50 nmol/L, where the association appeared to plateau. CONCLUSION Maternal vitamin D deficiency early in pregnancy defined as 25(OH)D<30 nmol/L may be an independent risk factor for PE. The relevance of vitamin D supplementation for women of child-bearing age should be explored as a strategy for reducing PE and for promoting a healthier pregnancy. PMID:25446694

  3. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  4. Pregnancy interruption after second trimester diagnosis of fetal structural anomalies: the New Jersey Fetal Abnormalities Registry.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Eden R; Smulian, John C; DePrince, Kristin; Ananth, Cande V; Marcella, Stephen W

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict a decision to interrupt a pregnancy in which there are fetal anomalies in the second trimester. The New Jersey Fetal Abnormalities Registry prospectively recruits and collects information on pregnancies (> or = 15 weeks of gestation) from New Jersey residents in whom a fetal structural anomaly has been suspected by maternal-fetal medicine specialists. Enrolled pregnancies that have major fetal structural abnormalities identified from 15 to 23 weeks of gestation were included. Outcomes were classified as either elective interruption or a natural pregnancy course, which might include a spontaneous fetal death or live birth. Predictors of elective interruption of pregnancy were examined with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Of the 97 cases, 33% of the women (n = 32) interrupted the pregnancy. Significant variables in the regression model that were associated with a decision to interrupt a pregnancy were earlier identification of fetal anomalies (19.0 +/- 2 weeks of gestation vs 20.5 +/- 2 weeks of gestation; P = .003), the presence of multiple anomalies (78% [25/32] vs 52% [33/63]; P = .01], and a presumption of lethality (56% [18/32] vs 14% [9/65]; P = .0001). These variables corresponded to an odds ratio for pregnancy interruption of 4.2 (95% CI, 1.0, 17.0) for multiple anomalies, 0.8 (95% CI, 0.7, 1.0) for each week of advancing gestational age, and 36.1 (95% CI, 2.9, 450.7) for presumed lethal abnormalities. Early diagnosis, the identification of multiple abnormalities, and an assessment of likely lethality of fetal anomalies are important factors for the optimization of parental autonomy in deciding pregnancy management.

  5. Feasibility of maternity protection in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Von Busch, Tammy A; Frazier, Linda M; Sigler, Samantha J; Molgaard, Craig A

    2002-01-01

    Many countries have maternity protection laws for women who need job modification or medical leave during pregnancy. This approach will prevent birth defects only if maternal job changes can be made before the critical period of organogenesis, which begins at three weeks' gestation. The authors studied the gestational ages at which pregnant women working with chemicals, radiation, and noise presented for occupational safety and health consultations. The work setting promoted early presentation because the consultation was free, convenient, mandatory, and would not result in job loss. Among the 213 pregnant women evaluated between 1996 and 2000, most (89.5%) had their occupational safety evaluations in the first trimester. Although this sounds ideal, the mean gestational age at presentation was 7.5 weeks, and only 3.3% of occupational health evaluations were initiated by three weeks' gestation. Environmental and biological monitoring showed that none of the women was exposed over occupational limits. These data suggest that a workplace free from reproductive hazards needs to be provided before conception.

  6. Decidual vascular changes in early pregnancy as a marker for intrauterine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lichtig, C; Korat, A; Deutch, M; Brandes, J M

    1988-09-01

    Endometrial vascular changes similar to atherosclerosis of toxemia of pregnancy were described and graded in 217 consecutive endometrial biopsies of known early intrauterine pregnancy. Severe vascular changes were found in 23.5% of cases. Control material consisting of endometrial biopsies of patients with known cases of tubal ectopic pregnancy and various non-pregnancy menstrual disorders showed minimal or no changes except in one case. A parallel study of Aria-Stella phenomenon in 110 cases of uterine pregnancy showed significant changes in only 3.6% of patients. It is obvious that in these cases of positive Arias-Stella findings, the possibility of an extrauterine pregnancy could not be discarded on histologic grounds alone. The authors suggest the use of the vascular changes of the more severe histologic degree as described in this article as a positive or strongly suspicious marker for intrauterine pregnancy whenever this is needed.

  7. Dysglycemias in pregnancy: from diagnosis to treatment. Brazilian consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to find consensus on screening, diagnosing and treating all degrees of DYSGLYCEMIA that may occur during pregnancies in Brazil, considering that many cases of DYSGLYCEMIA in pregnant women are currently not diagnosed, leading to maternal and fetal complications. For this reason the Brazilian Diabetes Society (SBD) and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Societies (FEBRASGO), got together to introduce this proposal. We present here a joint consensus regarding the standardization of clinical management for pregnant women with any degree of Dysglycemia, on the basis of current information, to improve medical assistance and to avoid related complications of Dysglycemia in pregnancy to the mother and the fetus. This consensus aims to standardize the diagnosis among general practitioners, endocrinologists and obstetricians allowing the dissemination of information in basic health units, public and private services, that are responsible for screening, diagnosing and treating disglycemic pregnant patients. PMID:20416099

  8. Early pregnancy failure management among family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robin; Dehlendorf, Christine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gold, Katherine J; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2013-03-01

    Family physicians, as primary care providers for reproductive-aged women, frequently initiate or refer patients for management of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Safe and effective options for EPF treatment include expectant management, medical management with misoprostol, and aspiration in the office or operating room. Current practice does not appear to reflect patient preferences or to utilize the most cost-effective treatments. We compared characteristics and practice patterns among family physicians who do and do not provide multiple options for EPF care. We performed a secondary analysis of a national survey of women's health providers to describe demographic and practice characteristics among family physicians who care for women with EPF. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of providing more than one option for EPF management. The majority of family physicians provide only one option for EPF; expectant management was most frequently used among our survey respondents. Misoprostol and office-based aspiration were rarely used. Providing more than one option for EPF management was associated with more years in practice, smaller county population, larger proportions of Medicaid patients, intrauterine contraception provision, and prior training in office-based aspiration. Family physicians are capable of providing a comprehensive range of options for EPF management in the outpatient setting but few providers currently do so. To create a more patient-centered and cost-effective model of care for EPF, additional resources should be directed at education, skills training, and system change initiatives to prepare family physicians to offer misoprostol and office-based aspiration to women with EPF.

  9. Transabdominal ultrasound for pregnancy diagnosis in Reeves' muntjac deer.

    PubMed

    Walton, Kelly D; McNulty, Erin; Nalls, Amy V; Mathiason, Candace K

    2014-01-07

    Reeves' muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) are a small cervid species native to southeast Asia, and are currently being investigated as a potential model of prion disease transmission and pathogenesis. Vertical transmission is an area of interest among researchers studying infectious diseases, including prion disease, and these investigations require efficient methods for evaluating the effects of maternal infection on reproductive performance. Ultrasonographic examination is a well-established tool for diagnosing pregnancy and assessing fetal health in many animal species(1-7), including several species of farmed cervids(8-19), however this technique has not been described in Reeves' muntjac deer. Here we describe the application of transabdominal ultrasound to detect pregnancy in muntjac does and to evaluate fetal growth and development throughout the gestational period. Using this procedure, pregnant animals were identified as early as 35 days following doe-buck pairing and this was an effective means to safely monitor the pregnancy at regular intervals. Future goals of this work will include establishing normal fetal measurement references for estimation of gestational age, determining sensitivity and specificity of the technique for diagnosing pregnancy at various stages of gestation, and identifying variations in fetal growth and development under different experimental conditions.

  10. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology.

    PubMed

    Timor-Tritsch, I E; Monteagudo, A; Cali, G; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J M; Maymon, R; Arslan, A A; Patil, N; Popiolek, D; Mittal, K R

    2014-04-01

    To determine, by evaluation of histological slides, images and descriptions of early (second-trimester) placenta accreta (EPA) and placental implantation in cases of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), whether these are pathologically indistinguishable and whether they both represent different stages in the disease continuum leading to morbidly adherent placenta in the third trimester. The database of a previously published review of CSP and EPA was used to identify articles with histopathological descriptions and electronic images for pathological review. When possible, microscopic slides and/or paraffin blocks were obtained from the original researchers. We also included from our own institutions cases of CSP and EPA for which pathology specimens were available. Two pathologists examined all the material independently and, blinded to each other's findings, provided a pathological diagnosis based on microscopic appearance. Interobserver agreement in diagnosis was determined. Forty articles were identified, which included 31 cases of CSP and 13 cases of EPA containing histopathological descriptions and/or images of the pathology. We additionally included six cases of CSP and eight cases of EPA from our own institutions, giving a total of 58 cases available for histological evaluation (37 CSP and 21 EPA) containing clear definitions of morbidly adherent placenta. In the 29 cases for which images/slides were available for histopathological evaluation, both pathologists attested to the various degrees of myometrial and/or scar tissue invasion by placental villi with scant or no intervening decidua, consistent with the classic definition of morbidly adherent placenta. Based on the reviewed material, cases with a diagnosis of EPA and those with a diagnosis of CSP showed identical histopathological features. Interobserver correlation was high (kappa = 0.93). EPA and placental implantation in CSP are histopathologically indistinguishable and may represent different stages in

  11. [Early diagnosis of autism: Phenotype-endophenotype].

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, S

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders have for some time been the focus of intense interest for clinicians and researchers because of the high prevalence of the disorders among children in the community (approximately 1%), their severity and pervasiveness. Particular attention has been paid to the early diagnosis of the disorder and to the intensive therapeutic intervention. Currently the best prognosis for autism lays in the early diagnosis and intervention. Postponing the diagnosis and the intervention beyond infancy is considered loss of precious time. The diagnosis of autism, which begins early in life, was until recently considered that could be reliability made at the age of 3 years. Recent follow up studies however on children at risk for autism (children who had an older sibling with autism) have shown that the clinical signs of autism emerge at the end of the first year and become distinct by the end of the second year when the diagnosis can reliably be made. From a clinical perspective it is noted that the early clinical signs of risk for autism are related to social communication (e.g. limited or absent response when calling his/her name and to joint attention), stereotype behaviours and body movements or unusual handling of objects (e.g. intensive observation of objects and stereotype movements of hands and tapping or spinning), incongruent regulation of emotions (reduced positive and increased negative emotion). There is also delay in developmental characteristics such as the language (both receptive and expressive) and motor (particularly in postural control - characteristic is the drop of the head backwards when the infant is held in horizontal position). Studies on various aspects of the endophenotype of certain clinical signs among infants at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders, such as avoidance of eye contact, delay in verbal communication and increase of the head circumference, may provide useful information and may assist the clinician on follow up in the

  12. Severe subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cerebral venous thrombosis in early pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Takahashi, Mayu; Idei, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshiteru; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Akiba, Daisuke; Shibata, Eiji; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) rarely induces subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). During late pregnancy and puerperium, CVT is an uncommon but important cause of stroke. However, severe SAH resulting from CVT is extremely rare during early pregnancy. We report on a rare case of severe SAH due to CVT, and discuss the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. A 32-year-old pregnant woman (9th week of pregnancy) presented with slight head dullness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed focal, abnormal signal intensity in the left thalamus. Nine days later, the patient developed a generalized seizure and severe SAH was detected with computed tomography (CT) scan. MRI and cerebral angiography revealed a completely thrombosed superior sagittal sinus, vein of Galen, straight sinus, and right transverse sinus. Transvaginal sonography indicated a missed abortion. The day after admission, the patient presented again with a progressive loss of consciousness and signs of herniation. The patient underwent emergency decompressive craniotomy, followed by intrauterine curettage. Two months later, she made an excellent recovery except for a slight visual field defect. A rare case of severe SAH due to CVT is reported, with emphasis on the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Hoeks, Lette B; Bots, Michiel L; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report outcome of subsequent pregnancy after early-onset preeclampsia in first pregnancy, and to evaluate potential risk factors for recurrence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Reproductive follow-up data were obtained for women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, resulting in delivery before 34 weeks of gestation at the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands, between July 1993 and September 2002. The relative contributions of demographic data, outcome variables of first pregnancy, and common thrombophilias to the recurrence risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancy, were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Subsequent pregnancy outcome data were available for 120 women. Overall, preeclampsia reoccurred in the second pregnancy in 30 women (25%). However, 6 women delivered before 34 weeks of gestation (5%), 20 women between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation (17%), and 94 women after 37 weeks of gestation (78%). Forty-one women (34%) had an uneventful pregnancy. Recurrence rates for preeclampsia or preterm delivery were not related to severity of first pregnancy complications, including delivery before 28 weeks of gestation, occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, small-for-gestational age infants, and to hereditary or acquired thrombophilias. Chronic hypertension was related to a higher recurrence risk of preeclampsia in the second pregnancy (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4), and smoking was related to a higher recurrence risk of preterm birth (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6). Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia is generally favorable.

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Flood-Nichols, Shannon K.; Tinnemore, Deborah; Huang, Raywin R.; Napolitano, Peter G.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. Results Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years). Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women. PMID:25898021

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Flood-Nichols, Shannon K; Tinnemore, Deborah; Huang, Raywin R; Napolitano, Peter G; Ippolito, Danielle L

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years). Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057). Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women.

  16. Unintended pregnancy amongst an early pregnancy clinic cohort: Identifying opportunities for preventative health interventions.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Kate; Sim, Kyra A; D'souza, Mario; Pelosi, Marilena; Black, Kirsten I

    2016-08-01

    A relationship between maternal weight and unintended pregnancy has previously been reported. Researchers have found women who are overweight and obese women are less likely to use contraception, and more likely to have unplanned pregnancies, thus limiting their ability to optimise their health before conception. This study sought to examine the relationship between pregnancy intention and body mass index (BMI) amongst women attending a service managing early pregnancy complications. The cross-sectional descriptive study (n = 550) was conducted from November 2013 to February 2015 in Sydney, Australia. It documented women's pregnancy intention using a self-completed questionnaire incorporating a validated pregnancy intention scale and measuring women's height and weight to calculate their BMI using the WHO classification of anthropometry and adjusting for cut-offs in Asian populations. Socio-demographic characteristics were also documented. The respondents were ethnically diverse with over a third defining themselves as Asian (36%; 196). Forty-four per cent of women (239) had clearly intended their pregnancy, 39% (212) were ambivalent and 18% (99) had not intended to conceive. Forty-nine per cent (263) of women were overweight or obese. No relationship was found between pregnancy intention and BMI. Fewer than half the women with early pregnancy complications clearly intended to be pregnant. Contrary to previous research, pregnancy intention was not associated with maternal weight. Underutilised opportunities for lifestyle and preconception education exist to address the impact of modifiable maternal behaviours on future pregnancies and to provide contraception counselling to those not wishing to conceive. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Early invasive cervical cancer during pregnancy: different therapeutic options to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Ferraioli, Domenico; Ferriaoli, Domenico; Buenerd, Annie; Marchiolè, Pierangelo; Constantini, Sergio; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Mathevet, Patrice

    2012-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. Conservative management is possible, and different options should be discussed with patients. The main decision parameters are stage of disease, lymph node status, trimester of pregnancy and wishes of the patient. We reviewed our experience on cases of early-stage cervical cancer discovered during pregnancy and treated with different options of fertility-sparing management. Between 1990 and 2010, 5 patients with early-stage cervical cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were referred to our department for fertility-sparing treatment. The mean age at diagnosis was 28.6 years (range, 26-30 years). The stages of the tumors according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics were IA2 in 2 women and IB1 in 3 women. The histological type was squamous carcinoma in 3 cases and adenocarcinoma in 2 cases. All patients willing to preserve their fertility were treated with vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT) and pelvic lymph nodes dissection (PLN-D). Three procedures were performed in the first trimester: 1 patient was treated with medical abortion and then VRT and PLN-D, 2 patients were submitted to VRT and PLN-D during the first trimester, and 1 patient's case was complicated by spontaneous abortion. One patient was observed during the second trimester (20 weeks of gestation) and treated with VRT and PLN-D during pregnancy. Because this patient had pelvic lymph nodes positive for cancer, a cesarean delivery (CD) with radical hysterectomy and para-aortic lymph nodes dissection was performed followed by chemoradiotherapy. The last patient was evaluated during the third trimester of her pregnancy. Treatment included CD followed by VRT and PLN-D, which was delayed, to allow fetal maturity. Diagnosis of cervical cancer can occur during pregnancy. Different options of fertility-sparing treatment can be discussed on the basis of several factors: tumor stage, gestational age, and the patient

  18. Methylxanthines during pregnancy and early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, many fetuses and infants are exposed to methylxanthines via maternal consumption of coffee and other beverages containing these substances. Methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and aminophylline) are also commonly used as a medication for apnea of prematurity.The metabolism of methylxanthines is impaired in pregnant women, fetuses and neonates, leading to accumulating levels thereof. Methylxanthines readily passes the placenta barrier and enters all tissues and thus may affect the fetus/newborn at any time during pregnancy or postnatal life, given that the effector systems are mature.At clinically relevant doses, the major effector system for methylxanthines is adenosine receptors. Animal studies suggest that adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune system are developed at birth, but that cerebral adenosine receptors are not fully functional. Furthermore animal studies have shown protective positive effects of methylxanthines in situations of hypoxia/ischemia in neonates. Similarly, a positive long-term effect on lung function and CNS development was found in human preterm infants treated with high doses of caffeine for apneas. There is now evidence that the overall benefits from methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity outweigh potential short-term risks.On the other hand it is important to note that experimental studies have indicated that long-term effects of caffeine during pregnancy and postnatally may include altered behavior and altered respiratory control in the offspring, although there is currently no human data to support this.Some epidemiology studies have reported negative effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes related to maternal ingestion of high doses of caffeine, but the results are inconclusive. The evidence base for adverse effects of caffeine in first third of pregnancy are stronger than for later parts of pregnancy and there is currently insufficient evidence to advise women to restrict

  19. FDG-PET in early AD diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chew, Jessica; Silverman, Daniel H S

    2013-05-01

    FDG-PET is a valuable tool that will continue to aid in identifying AD in its prodromal and early dementia stages, distinguishing it from other causes of dementia, and tracking progression of the disease. As brain FDG-PET scans and well-trained readers of these scans are becoming more widely available to clinicians who are becoming more informed about the role FDG-PET can play in early AD diagnosis, its use is expected to increase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulmonary Sequestration: Early Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Sajad A.; Mufti, Gowher N.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Baba, Ajaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Intralobar sequestration is characterized by aberrant formation of nonfunctional lung tissue that has no communication with the bronchial tree and receives systemic arterial blood supply. Failure of earlier diagnosis can lead to recurrent pneumonia, failure to thrive, multiple hospital admissions, and more morbidity. The aim of this case report is to increase the awareness about the lung sequestration, to diagnose and treat it early, so that it is resected before repeated infection, and prevent the morbidity and mortality. PMID:26273485

  1. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  2. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  3. Two consecutive pregnancies in early and late stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sarafov, Stayko; Doitchinova, Maryana; Karagiozova, Zhvka; Slancheva, Boriana; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja

    2009-01-01

    There are few reports on pregnancies in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report on a young woman with sporadic ALS who gave birth twice during the course of her disease. The first pregnancy occurred 13 months after the onset of symptoms, and one month after diagnosis. The pregnancy was uncomplicated and resulted in vaginal delivery of a healthy boy. Fifteen months later, when she was already bed-ridden, she became pregnant again. She received a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the 21st gestational week and underwent early Caesarean section in the 34th week of gestation. The child was ventilated for 72 h in a neonatological unit. The patient was tracheotomized and ventilated two months later, i.e. 47 months after symptom onset, and died nine months later from gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Her two children have developed without abnormalities to date. This case confirms that pregnancies in early-stage ALS can develop normally and may result in uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Pregnancies in late stages may be critical for mother and child, and early delivery by Caesarean section may become necessary although neonatal outcome can be good.

  4. Automatic CDR Estimation for Early Glaucoma Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Jiménez, S.; Alemany, P.

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is a degenerative disease that constitutes the second cause of blindness in developed countries. Although it cannot be cured, its progression can be prevented through early diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for automatic glaucoma diagnosis based on retinal colour images. We focus on capturing the inherent colour changes of optic disc (OD) and cup borders by computing several colour derivatives in CIE L∗a∗b∗ colour space with CIE94 colour distance. In addition, we consider spatial information retaining these colour derivatives and the original CIE L∗a∗b∗ values of the pixel and adding other characteristics such as its distance to the OD centre. The proposed strategy is robust due to a simple structure that does not need neither initial segmentation nor removal of the vascular tree or detection of vessel bends. The method has been extensively validated with two datasets (one public and one private), each one comprising 60 images of high variability of appearances. Achieved class-wise-averaged accuracy of 95.02% and 81.19% demonstrates that this automated approach could support physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in its early stage, and therefore, it could be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening programs. PMID:29279773

  5. Recent pregnancy trends among early adolescent girls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Goto, Aya; Reich, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines recent time trends, explores potentially influential background factors and discusses prevention strategies of pregnancy among girls under 15 years of age in Japan. Using Japanese government data, we first analyzed time trends of early adolescence (<15 years of age) abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse from 2003 to 2010. Second, we analyzed ecological correlations of early adolescent pregnancy (abortion, live birth and stillbirth) with pregnancy in other age groups, child sexual abuse, and indicators of juvenile victimization and juvenile delinquency, using prefectural data. We found that rates of both abortion and live birth in early adolescents have increased since 2005 (annual percent change 5.3% and 2.3%, respectively), despite declining rates in older age groups. The abortion ratio in early adolescence remained the highest among all age groups in Japan. The early adolescent pregnancy rate showed significant correlation with the rates of juvenile victimization of welfare crimes (obscenity, alcohol drinking, smoking and drug use) (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.42, P = 0.00) and juvenile delinquency among junior high school students (12-14 years of age) (rs = 0.69, P = 0.00). The observed rise in rates of abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse among early adolescents along with strong ecological correlations of their pregnancy rate with juvenile victimization and delinquency indicators suggests that epidemiological investigation and public health programs at the individual and community levels are needed to address the complex social roots of these trends and to produce effective improvements in early adolescent reproductive health. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Early pregnancy failure: factors affecting successful medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Tendler, Rene; Kais, Mohamad; Maximovsky, Olga; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2010-06-01

    The results of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure are conflicting. To determine whether gestational sac volume measurement as well as other variables can predict the success rate of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. The study group comprised 81 women diagnosed with missed abortion or anembryonic pregnancy who consented to medical treatment. Demographic data were collected and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was documented. Crown-rump length and the sac volume were measured using transvaginal ultrasound. TVU was performed 12-24 hours after intravaginal administration of 800 micro g misoprostol. If the thickness of the uterine cavity was less than 30 mm, the women were discharged. If the sac was still intact or the thickness of the uterine cavity exceeded 30 mm, they were offered an additional dosage of intravaginal misoprostol or surgical uterine evacuation. Medical treatment successfully terminated 32 pregnancies (39.5%), 30 after one dose of misoprostol and 2 after two doses (group A); 49 underwent surgical evacuation (group B), 47 following one dose of misoprostol and 2 following two doses. There were no significant differences between the groups in age and gestational week. Gestational sac volume did not differ between groups A and B (10.03 and 11.98 ml respectively, P = 0.283). Parity (0.87 and 1.43, P = 0.015), previous pregnancies (2.38 and 2.88, P = 0.037), and betahCG concentration (6961 and 28,748 mlU, P = 0.013) differed significantly between the groups. Gestational sac volume is not a predictor of successful medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. Previous pregnancies and deliveries and higher betahCG concentration negatively affect the success rate of medical treatment.

  7. Screening and treatment for heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure: inconsistencies among UK early pregnancy units.

    PubMed

    Norrie, Gillian; Farquharson, Roy G; Greaves, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The significance of heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure is controversial. We surveyed all UK Early Pregnancy Units and 70% responded. The majority test routinely for heritable thrombophilias; 80%, 76% and 88% undertook at least one screening test in late miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption, respectively. The range of thrombophilias sought is inconsistent: testing for proteins C and S deficiency and F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) is most prevalent. Detection of heritable thrombophilia frequently leads to administration of antithrombotics in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, thrombophilia testing and use of antithrombotics are widespread in the UK despite controversies regarding the role of heritable thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications, and the lack of robust evidence for the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy.

  8. Medically complex pregnancies and early breastfeeding behaviors: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Jou, Judy; Attanasio, Laura B; Joarnt, Lauren K; McGovern, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is beneficial for women and infants, and medical contraindications are rare. Prenatal and labor-related complications may hinder breastfeeding, but supportive hospital practices may encourage women who intend to breastfeed. We measured the relationship between having a complex pregnancy (entering pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, or obesity) and early infant feeding, accounting for breastfeeding intentions and supportive hospital practices. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a nationally-representative survey of women who gave birth in 2011-2012 in a US hospital (N = 2400). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between pregnancy complexity and breastfeeding. Self-reported prepregnancy diabetes or hypertension, gestational diabetes, or obesity indicated a complex pregnancy. The outcome was feeding status 1 week postpartum; any breastfeeding was evaluated among women intending to breastfeed (N = 1990), and exclusive breastfeeding among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (N = 1418). We also tested whether breastfeeding intentions or supportive hospital practices mediated the relationship between pregnancy complexity and infant feeding status. More than 33% of women had a complex pregnancy; these women had 30% lower odds of intending to breastfeed (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98). Rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed were similar for women with and without complex pregnancies. Women who intended to breastfeed had similar rates of any breastfeeding 1 week postpartum regardless of pregnancy complexity, but complexity was associated with >30% lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98). Supportive hospital practices were strongly associated with higher odds of any or exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (AOR = 4.03; 95% CI, 1.81-8.94; and AOR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.70-4.23, respectively). Improving clinical and hospital

  9. Maternal lipid profile during early pregnancy and pregnancy complications and outcomes: the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Krukziener, Náthalie; Hutten, Barbara A; Vollebregt, Karlijn C; van Eijsden, Manon; Twickler, Marcel B

    2012-11-01

    Elevated lipid levels during late pregnancy are associated with complications and adverse outcome for both mother and newborn. However, it is inconclusive whether a disturbed lipid profile during early pregnancy has similar negative associations. Our objective was to investigate whether nonfasting maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride levels during early pregnancy are associated with six major adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data were derived from the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development (ABCD) cohort study. Random blood samples of nonfasting total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined during early gestation (median = 13, interquartile range = 12-14 wk). Outcome measures were pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia, preterm birth, small/large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and child loss. Only nondiabetic women with singleton deliveries were included; the baseline sample consisted of 4008 women. Analysis for PIH and preeclampsia were performed in nulliparous women only (n = 2037). Mean (sd) triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were 1.33 (0.55) and 4.98 (0.87) mmol/liter, respectively. The incidence of pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes were as follows: PIH, 4.9%; preeclampsia, 3.7%; preterm birth, 5.3%; SGA, 9.3%; LGA, 9.3%; and child loss, 1.4%. After adjustments, every unit increase in triglycerides was linearly associated with an increased risk of PIH [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, P = 0.021], preeclampsia (OR = 1.69, P = 0.018), LGA (OR = 1.48, P < 0.001), and induced preterm delivery (OR = 1.69, P = 0.006). No associations were found for SGA or child loss. Total cholesterol was not associated with any of the outcome measures. Elevated maternal triglyceride levels measured during early pregnancy are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. These results suggest that future lifestyle programs in women of reproductive age with a focus on lowering triglyceride levels (i.e. diet, weight

  10. Diagnostic value of the plasmatic ADM level for early ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi; Lu, Qi; Tao, Yu; Wang, Yu-Dong; Zhao, Wen-Xia

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the plasmatic ADM level in early pregnancy and to investigate the diagnostic value of ADM in early ectopic pregnancy (EP). 70 patients with EP who had menopause for 5~8 weeks were included as study group, while 155 women with normal intrauterine pregnancy were also included as control group. The correlation between ADM level and menopause weeks was statistically analyzed and ROC curve was used to identify the diagnostic value of ADM. (1) In 155 cases of normal intrauterine pregnancy, the plasmatic ADM level was increased with menopause weeks in linear relationship, and the correlation coefficient (R) was 0.991 (P<0.05). In 70 patients with EP, no significant increase was found with menopause weeks and no linear relationship can be found between ADM level and menopause weeks in EP group. The correlation coefficient (R) was 0.744 (P>0.05). (2) The multiple of median of plasmatic ADM level in EP group of menopause for 8 weeks was obviously lower than the intrauterine control group (P<0.01). (3) ROC curve was used to analyze the cut-off value of ADM level in the diagnosis of EP, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.523 (P>0.05) regardless of menopause weeks, however, the area under the ROC curve was 0.702 (P<0.05) at 8 weeks after menopause with sensitivity of 53.50% and specificity of 85.00%. Different from normal intrauterine pregnancy, plasmatic ADM level in early EP was relatively lower and no significant increase was found with menopause weeks; further studies are still needed for plasmatic ADM level as an indicator in the early diagnosis of EP.

  11. 18 Percent of Pregnant Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    National Survey on Drug Use and Health The NSDUH Report Data Spotlight September 9, 2013 18 Percent of Pregnant VA60 Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy Women who drink alcohol while pregnant increase the risk that their infants will have physical, learning, and/ ...

  12. Adaptation to Pregnancy, Birth and Early Parenting: A Preliminary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Lois S.; And Others

    The normal course of family adaptation to pregnancy, birth, and early parenting is examined in this study, and variables predictive of difficulties in family adjustment during this period are investigated. Subjects were 89 married couples and 9 women whose husbands did not participate. The women had a mean age of 28 years; 46 were pregnant for the…

  13. ATRAZINE EFFECTS ON EARLY PREGNANCY AND IMPLANATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine Effects on Early Pregnancy and Implantation in the Rat.
    A.M. Cummings, B.E. Rhodes*, and R.L. Cooper*.
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC
    Atrazine (ATR), an herbicide, can induce mammary tumors in rats. ATR can also sup...

  14. Positive feelings during pregnancy, early feeding practices, and infant health.

    PubMed

    McManus, Melissa A; Khalessi, Ali A; Lin, Joyce; Ashraf, Jahanzeb; Reich, Stephanie M

    2017-05-01

    Early parenting practices, such as infant feeding, can affect children's physical health. Additionally, negative prenatal maternal affect can influence feeding choices, such as breast-feeding, and can have a detrimental effect on children's health. Little is known, however, about the contribution of positive maternal affect during pregnancy on feeding practices and children's health. This study explored whether positive prenatal feelings influenced children's health during the first 18 months, and whether early feeding practices mediated the relationship between these two variables. Low-income, ethnically diverse, primiparous women (n = 114) reported their feelings of pregnancy uplifts and hassles during their third trimester. These women were interviewed again at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months post-partum about their feeding practices. A retrospective audit of their infants' medical charts was completed from birth to 18 months. Using structural equation modeling, having more uplifts than hassles during pregnancy was associated with longer breast-feeding duration and greater adherence to recommended schedules for introducing fruits and vegetables, solids, and baby cereal. These feeding practices were linked to better child health outcomes, including reduced risk of upper respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, otitis media, and thrush. Positive maternal feelings during pregnancy were associated with better feeding practices, and these better feeding practices were associated with fewer common childhood illnesses. Helping expectant women focus on the positive aspects of their pregnancy may lead to postnatal care methods that are fiscally advantageous, preventive of detrimental postnatal choices, and medically beneficial for children. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Medical abortion in early pregnancy: experience in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Linan

    2006-07-01

    When medical abortion was first introduced in China, prostaglandins (PGs) were used alone or in combination with Chinese herbs or steroid drugs, but the results were not satisfactory. Mifepristone is now produced in three companies in China and is commonly used with PGs for medical abortion. We performed a Chinese- and English-language literature review of medical abortion in early pregnancy in China. A large multicenter trial conducted in China showed that, when used with a PGF(2alpha) analogue, the complete abortion rate in women given multiple doses of mifepristone (total, 150 mg) was significantly higher than that in women given a single dose of 200 mg of mifepristone. Oral misoprostol (0.6 mg) with mifepristone is now the most commonly used regimen, with a complete abortion rate of over 93%. In China, medical abortion is currently restricted to pregnancies before 49 days, but some hospitals have recently extended the use of medical abortion to pregnancies beyond 49 days. Prolonged bleeding is the main medical abortion side effect and is more likely to occur if the blood levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin fall slowly or when the gestational sac is big. Prescription of testosterone propionate may reduce the duration of bleeding. Over 80% of Chinese women are satisfied with current medical abortion regimens and will choose medical abortion again if they need to terminate a future unwanted pregnancy. Currently, medical abortion is a safe, efficient and acceptable method for the termination of early pregnancy in China.

  16. Early Diagnosis of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Frederick S.; Xu, Meiqi; Glaser, David L.; Collins, Felicity; Connor, Michael; Kitterman, Joseph; Sillence, David; Zackai, Elaine; Ravitsky, Vardit; Zasloff, Michael; Ganguly, Arupa; Shore, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare and disabling genetic condition characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic ossification in specific anatomic patterns. Most patients with fibrodys-plasia ossificans progressiva are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures that can cause lifelong disability. Recently, the genetic cause of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva was identified, and definitive genetic testing for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is now available before the appearance of heterotopic ossification. METHODS We recently evaluated 7 children for diagnosis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva before the onset of heterotopic ossification. A medical history, physical examination, and skeletal survey were obtained on all of the patients, as well as clinical genetic testing for the canonical fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva mutation. RESULTS All 7 of the children (4 girls and 3 boys; ages 3 months to 6 years) had congenital malformations of the great toes, but none had radiographic evidence of heterotopic ossification at the time of evaluation. Five of the 7 children had soft tissue lesions of the neck and back, suggestive of early fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva flare-ups, 3 of whom had undergone invasive diagnostic procedures that exacerbated their condition. Two children had no history or signs of soft tissue swelling or flare-ups. DNA sequence analysis found that all 7 of the children had the recurrent fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva missense mutation, a single nucleotide substitution (c.617G>A) at codon 206 in the glycine-serine activation domain of activin receptor IA, a bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor. CONCLUSION Clinical suspicion of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva early in life on the basis of malformed great toes can lead to early clinical diagnosis, confirmatory

  17. Inside stories: maternal representations of first time mothers from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Julia; Clarke, David; Cross, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    According to the psychoanalytical literature, it is during pregnancy that maternal representations of the mother-infant relationship become activated. Midwives who are engaged with the mother and the baby have not drawn upon this concept in their practice. In order for this to happen, it is important to understand better the nature of maternal representations and when they are activated from empirical studies. The research question is: what are the maternal representations of a group of first time mothers from pre-pregnancy, early pregnancy and to the first ultrasound. A narrative approach was used to gain insight into the maternal representations of first time pregnant womens' account of their representations. The analysis method was based on thematic approach. Fifteen women aged between 23 and 38 years. A midwives clinic attached to a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia. First-time pregnant women's maternal representations were activated when a woman begins to plan her pregnancy ('the time is right'), again at the onset of physical changes to her body as a result of conception ('my body is changing'), and at the first early ultrasound at around twelve weeks ('it' is a real baby). Maternal representations are important for the midwife and pregnant women because this concept provides another understanding in relation to the psychological dimension of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic Review of Chinese Medicine for Miscarriage during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy. PMID:24648851

  19. Early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katus, Hugo; Ziegler, André; Ekinci, Okan; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Achenbach, Stephan; Blankenberg, Stefan; Brueckmann, Martina; Collinson, Paul; Comaniciu, Dorin; Crea, Filippo; Dinh, Wilfried; Ducrocq, Grégory; Flachskampf, Frank A; Fox, Keith A A; Friedrich, Matthias G; Hebert, Kathy A; Himmelmann, Anders; Hlatky, Mark; Lautsch, Dominik; Lindahl, Bertil; Lindholm, Daniel; Mills, Nicholas L; Minotti, Giorgio; Möckel, Martin; Omland, Torbjørn; Semjonow, Véronique

    2017-11-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of acute chest pain has been augmented in recent years by advances in the sensitivity and precision of cardiac troponin assays, new biomarkers, improvements in imaging modalities, and release of new clinical decision algorithms. This progress has enabled physicians to diagnose or rule-out acute myocardial infarction earlier after the initial patient presentation, usually in emergency department settings, which may facilitate prompt initiation of evidence-based treatments, investigation of alternative diagnoses for chest pain, or discharge, and permit better utilization of healthcare resources. A non-trivial proportion of patients fall in an indeterminate category according to rule-out algorithms, and minimal evidence-based guidance exists for the optimal evaluation, monitoring, and treatment of these patients. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the ESC proposes approaches for the optimal application of early strategies in clinical practice to improve patient care following the review of recent advances in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The following specific 'indeterminate' patient categories were considered: (i) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin <99th percentile; (ii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin <99th percentile but above the limit of detection; (iii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile but without dynamic change; and (iv) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile and dynamic change but without coronary plaque rupture/erosion/dissection. Definitive evidence is currently lacking to manage these patients whose early diagnosis is 'indeterminate' and these areas of uncertainty should be assigned a high priority for research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and changes in serum lipid profiles throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lepsch, Jaqueline; Eshriqui, Ilana; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Vaz, Juliana S; Cunha Figueiredo, Amanda C; Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Brito, Alex; Mokhtar, Rana; Allen, Lindsay H; Holick, Michael F; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) concentrations, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that first trimester 25(OH)D inadequacy is associated with lower concentrations of HDL-c and higher LDL-c, TC, TG, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. A prospective cohort study with 3 visits at 5-13 (baseline), 20-26, and 30-36 gestational weeks, recruited 194 pregnant women attending a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in the first trimester using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 25(OH)D concentrations were classified as adequate (≥75nmol/L) or inadequate (<75nmol/L). Serum TC, HDL-c, and TG concentrations were measured enzymatically. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were employed to evaluate the association between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in serum lipid concentrations throughout pregnancy. Confounders adjusted for in the multiple analysis were age, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), early pregnancy BMI, leisure time physical activity before pregnancy, energy intake, and gestational age. At baseline, 69% of the women had inadequate concentrations of 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D inadequacy had higher mean LDL-c than those with adequate concentrations (91.3 vs. 97.5mg/dL; P=0.064) at baseline. TC, HDL-c, LDL-c TG, TG/HDL-c ratios, and TC/HDL-c ratios, increased throughout pregnancy independently of 25(OH)D concentrations (ANOVA for repeated measures P<0.001). The adjusted models showed direct associations between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in TC (β=9.53; 95%CI=1.12-17.94), LDL-c (β=9.99; 95% CI=3.62-16.36) concentrations, and TC/HDL-c ratios (β=0.16; 95% CI=0.01-0.31) throughout

  1. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne; Dowswell, Therese; Haas, David M; Doyle, Mary; O’Mathúna, Dónal P

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2003. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks’ gestation. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 May 2010). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials of any intervention for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy. We excluded trials of interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum which are covered by another review. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials and trials using a crossover design. Data collection and analysis Four review authors, in pairs, reviewed the eligibility of trials and independently evaluated the risk of bias and extracted the data for included trials. Main results Twenty-seven trials, with 4041 women, met the inclusion criteria. These trials covered many interventions, including acupressure, acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic drugs. We identified no studies of dietary or other lifestyle interventions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of P6 acupressure, auricular (ear) acupressure and acustimulation of the P6 point was limited. Acupuncture (P6 or traditional) showed no significant benefit to women in pregnancy. The use of ginger products may be helpful to women, but the evidence of effectiveness was limited and not consistent. There was only limited evidence from trials to support the use of pharmacological agents including vitamin B6, and anti-emetic drugs to relieve mild or moderate nausea and vomiting. There was little information on maternal and fetal adverse outcomes and on psychological, social or economic outcomes. We

  2. Development, validation, and application of a urinary relaxin radioimmunoassay for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy in felids.

    PubMed

    de Haas van Dorsser, Florine J; Swanson, William F; Lasano, Salamia; Steinetz, Bernard G

    2006-06-01

    Many nondomestic felids are highly endangered, and captive breeding programs have become essential components of holistic conservation efforts for these species. The ability to diagnose pregnancy early in gestation is fundamental to developing effective breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of urinary relaxin in felids and assess its applicability for early, noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Urine was collected from pregnant and nonpregnant domestic cats and leopards at mating, and then weekly thereafter for the duration of gestation. Paired serum samples were also collected from the domestic cats. A RIA for relaxin that uses an antiserum against synthetic canine relaxin was validated for felid urine and shown to detect relaxin immunoreactivity in pregnant cat urine subjected to acid-acetone extraction. In the cat, urinary relaxin was first detected between Days 21 and 28 of gestation; levels peaked at 42-49 days, and the concentrations then declined over 2 wk prior to parturition. The urinary relaxin profiles of the cat mirrored those in serum. In the leopard, urinary relaxin was first detected at Day 25-28 of gestation; levels peaked at Day 60-64 and declined in the last 3-4 wk of pregnancy. These results indicate that measurement of urinary relaxin in the cat and leopard provides a reliable method for pregnancy determination from as early as 3-4 wk of gestation. This method of pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring may prove useful in the breeding management of domestic cats and other felid and canid species, and provides a foundation for future studies on pregnancy in captive exotic carnivores.

  3. Markers of pregnancy: how early can we detect pregnancies in cattle using pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) and microRNAs?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pregnancy detection has evolved over the last few decades and the importance of early pregnancy detection is critical to minimize the amount of time a cow spends not pregnant or open. Embryonic mortality (EM) is generally considered to be the primary factor limiting pregnancy rates in cattle and occ...

  4. Association of early maternal hypertriglyceridemia with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chandi, Anadeep; Sirohiwal, Daya; Malik, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    Hypertensive diseases are directly responsible for 24 % of maternal deaths in India. A screening method is yet to be discovered to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to it. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are reported to increase in hypertensive pregnant women. To predict pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by serum triglyceride values. This study is a prospective cohort study that was conducted over three hundred normotensive, primigravida women with singleton pregnancy at 14-20 weeks of gestation. These were divided into two groups on the basis of their TG concentration estimated at 14-20 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was then followed till delivery and, signs and symptoms of PIH were noted in both the groups. Out of 300 women, 210 women completed the study. Fifty-nine women developed PIH and 151 women remained normotensive. Among 59 women, 45 women had raised TG values i.e., ≥160 mg/dL and 14 women were with normal TG levels i.e., <160 mg/dL. A significant positive correlation was found between serum TG concentration and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It was observed that a cutoff of 162.50 mg/dL for TG could reliably predict PIH with sensitivity of 76 % and specificity of 85 %. Also, the mothers with hypertriglyceridemia were found to be at higher risk of developing early-onset PIH. Our study supports the evidence that early pregnancy hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of PIH.

  5. Nutrient-gene interactions in early pregnancy: a vascular hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Steegers, E A P

    2003-02-10

    It is hypothesized that the following periconceptional and early pregnancy nutrient-gene interactions link vascular-related reproductive complications and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood: (1) Maternal and paternal genetically controlled nutrient status affects the quality of gametes and fertilization capacity; (2) The embryonic genetic constitution, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically controlled nutrient environment determine embryogenesis and fetal growth; (3) Trophoblast invasion of decidua and spiral arteries is driven by genes derived from both parents as well as by maternal nutritional factors; (4) Angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and vascular function are dependent on the genetic constitution of the embryo, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically controlled nutritional environment.Early intra-uterine programming of vessels may concern the same (in)dependent determinants of vascular-related complications during pregnancy and cardiovascular diseases in later life.

  6. Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86

  7. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States: a systematic review of the evidence for screening in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Catherine; McNamara, Bridgette; Williams, Emily D; Yore, Daniel; Oldenburg, Brian; Oats, Jeremy; Eades, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently proposed international guidelines for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recommend additional screening in early pregnancy for sub-populations at a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), such as indigenous women. However, there are criteria that should be met to ensure the benefits outweigh the risks of population-based screening. This review examines the published evidence for early screening for indigenous women as related to these criteria. Any publications were included that referred to diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States (n = 145). The risk of bias was appraised. There is sufficient evidence describing the epidemiology of diabetes in pregnancy, demonstrating that it imposes a significant disease burden on indigenous women and their infants at birth and across the lifecourse (n = 120 studies). Women with pre-existing T2DM have a higher risk than women who develop GDM during pregnancy. However, there was insufficient evidence to address the remaining five criteria, including the following: understanding current screening practice and rates (n = 7); acceptability of GDM screening (n = 0); efficacy and cost of screening for GDM (n = 3); availability of effective treatment after diagnosis (n = 6); and effective systems for follow-up after pregnancy (n = 5). Given the impact of diabetes in pregnancy, particularly undiagnosed T2DM, GDM screening in early pregnancy offers potential benefits for indigenous women. However, researchers, policy makers and clinicians must work together with communities to develop effective strategies for implementation and minimizing the potential risks. Evidence of effective strategies for primary prevention, GDM treatment and follow-up after pregnancy are urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23315909

  8. [Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. Differential diagnosis of "common" musculoskeletal pain during pregnancy and lactation].

    PubMed

    Heim, U; Clauss, M; Bürki, N; Lutz, T; Ilchmann, T

    2010-11-01

    Musculoskeletal pain during pregnancy and lactation is a common finding. Differential diagnoses range from"normal" findings to disturbances in bone metabolism and pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO). Imaging options are limited due to pregnancy, and laboratory diagnostics are time-consuming. Treatment of PAO with physiotherapy, pain killers and substitution of vitamin D and calcium leads to a rapid recovery from symptoms.

  9. Pregnancy in chronic dialysis, late diagnosis, and other problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadani, S.; Nasution, A. T.; Nasution, S.; Lubis, H. R.

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis is rare. Forpregnant patients with CKD undergoing regular hemodialysis, the effects of renal disease on the fetus should be noted and require specific strategies. A 30-year-old woman had no menstruation for 4 months. Abdominal ultrasound showed single fetus within 16 weeks of pregnancy. She had previously been in regular hemodialysis twice a week since 2015, then the frequency of hemodialysis was increased to thrice a week for 4 hours/dialysis. During pregnancy, she was given erythropoiesis stimulating agent, controlled protein nutrition (0.6-1.5g/kg/day) and routine pregnancy controls to an obstetrician. After 31-32 weeks gestation, thebaby was born alive with low birth weight (1800g). Maintaining pregnancy in women with regular hemodialysis is still challenging and difficult. Prolonged/intensive dialysis during pregnancy results in longer gestational periods, higher fetal weights, and a higher likelihood of survival. Based on a dialysis guideline for pregnancy in CKD, hemodialysis is performed at least 20 hours/week to maintain pre-dialysis of BUN≤50mg/dl hemoglobin should be at least 10-11g/dL. We reported a case of pregnancy in dialysis CKD patient undergoing hemodialysis thricea week (4 hours/dialysis). The baby was born alive with low birth weight (1800 g).

  10. Pregnancy incidence and intention after HIV diagnosis among women living with HIV in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Money, Deborah; Pick, Neora; Wang, Lu; Jabbari, Shahab; Carter, Allison; Webster, Kath; Conway, Tracey; Dubuc, Daniele; O’Brien, Nadia; Proulx-Boucher, Karene; Kaida, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Background Pregnancy incidence rates among women living with HIV (WLWH) have increased over time due to longer life expectancy, improved health status, and improved access to and HIV prevention benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, it is unclear whether intended or unintended pregnancies are contributing to observed increases. Methods We analyzed retrospective data from the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS). Kaplan-Meier methods and GEE Poisson models were used to measure cumulative incidence and incidence rate of pregnancy after HIV diagnosis overall, and by pregnancy intention. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine independent correlates of unintended pregnancy among the most recent/current pregnancy. Results Of 1,165 WLWH included in this analysis, 278 (23.9%) women reported 492 pregnancies after HIV diagnosis, 60.8% of which were unintended. Unintended pregnancy incidence (24.6 per 1,000 Women-Years (WYs); 95% CI: 21.0, 28.7) was higher than intended pregnancy incidence (16.6 per 1,000 WYs; 95% CI: 13.8, 20.1) (Rate Ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–1.8). Pregnancy incidence among WLWH who initiated cART before or during pregnancy (29.1 per 1000 WYs with 95% CI: 25.1, 33.8) was higher than among WLWH not on cART during pregnancy (11.9 per 1000 WYs; 95% CI: 9.5, 14.9) (Rate Ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0–3.0). Women with current or recent unintended pregnancy (vs. intended pregnancy) had higher adjusted odds of being single (AOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.42), younger at time of conception (AOR: 0.95 per year increase, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), and being born in Canada (AOR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.92). Conclusion Nearly one-quarter of women reported pregnancy after HIV diagnosis, with 61% of all pregnancies reported as unintended. Integrated HIV and reproductive health care programming is required to better support WLWH to optimize pregnancy planning and outcomes and to prevent unintended

  11. Pregnancy incidence and intention after HIV diagnosis among women living with HIV in Canada.

    PubMed

    Salters, Kate; Loutfy, Mona; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Money, Deborah; Pick, Neora; Wang, Lu; Jabbari, Shahab; Carter, Allison; Webster, Kath; Conway, Tracey; Dubuc, Daniele; O'Brien, Nadia; Proulx-Boucher, Karene; Kaida, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy incidence rates among women living with HIV (WLWH) have increased over time due to longer life expectancy, improved health status, and improved access to and HIV prevention benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, it is unclear whether intended or unintended pregnancies are contributing to observed increases. We analyzed retrospective data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS). Kaplan-Meier methods and GEE Poisson models were used to measure cumulative incidence and incidence rate of pregnancy after HIV diagnosis overall, and by pregnancy intention. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine independent correlates of unintended pregnancy among the most recent/current pregnancy. Of 1,165 WLWH included in this analysis, 278 (23.9%) women reported 492 pregnancies after HIV diagnosis, 60.8% of which were unintended. Unintended pregnancy incidence (24.6 per 1,000 Women-Years (WYs); 95% CI: 21.0, 28.7) was higher than intended pregnancy incidence (16.6 per 1,000 WYs; 95% CI: 13.8, 20.1) (Rate Ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8). Pregnancy incidence among WLWH who initiated cART before or during pregnancy (29.1 per 1000 WYs with 95% CI: 25.1, 33.8) was higher than among WLWH not on cART during pregnancy (11.9 per 1000 WYs; 95% CI: 9.5, 14.9) (Rate Ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0-3.0). Women with current or recent unintended pregnancy (vs. intended pregnancy) had higher adjusted odds of being single (AOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.42), younger at time of conception (AOR: 0.95 per year increase, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), and being born in Canada (AOR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.92). Nearly one-quarter of women reported pregnancy after HIV diagnosis, with 61% of all pregnancies reported as unintended. Integrated HIV and reproductive health care programming is required to better support WLWH to optimize pregnancy planning and outcomes and to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine use during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; Mclay, James S

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and explore predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use during early pregnancy. A questionnaire survey of pregnant women (500) attending for mid trimester scan at the maternity services in Grampian, North-East Scotland. Outcome measures included; CAM used; vitamins and minerals used; independent predictors of use; views and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The response rate was 66%. Two thirds of respondents (63%) reported using CAM, excluding vitamins and minerals, during early pregnancy. Respondents reported using a total of 28 different CAM modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (37% of respondents, 25 different products). The independent predictors of CAM use identified were: use by family and friends (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.3, p<0.001); ethnicity (non-white British) (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.8, p<0.001); and use prior to pregnancy (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.014). In comparison to prescribed medicines, most users were uncertain if CAM were safer (63%), more effective (66%), free from possible adverse effects (46%) or drug-CAM interactions (50%). Despite the majority of respondents being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, CAM modalities and CAM products are widely used during the early stages of pregnancy in this study population. The role of family and friends rather than health professionals in the decision to use CAM may be of concern and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Akram, Frida Hosseini; Johansson, Bengt; Möllerström, Gunnar; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Skjöldebrand-Sparre, Lottie

    2017-11-01

    Untreated and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy complications such as increased risk of miscarriage, hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. However, in Sweden, screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is only recommended for women with a high risk of thyroid disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical and SCH in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this prospective study, 1298 pregnant women were divided into three groups: one unselected general screening group (n = 611), one low-risk group comprising women without risk factors for thyroid disorder (n = 511), and one high-risk group comprising women with an inheritance or suspicion of thyroid disease or undergoing treatment for thyroid disease (n = 88). Serum was obtained up to gestational week 13, and thyrotropin (TSH) was analyzed. The incidences of thyroid dysfunction in the three screening groups were 9.8% in the general screening group, 9.6% in the low-risk group, and 10.2%, p = 0.948, in the high-risk group. In the women with known hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment, 50.6% had serum TSH levels above 2.0 mIU/L. High-risk screening is not useful in predicting which women are at risk of thyroid disease in early pregnancy since ∼10% of women with SCH or hypothyroidism could not be diagnosed in this way.

  14. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD <30 ng/ml) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10-0.96). Differential expression of 348 vitamin D-associated genes (158 upregulated) was found in peripheral blood of women who developed preeclampsia (FDR <0.05 in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial [VDAART]; P < 0.05 in a replication cohort). Functional enrichment and network analyses of this vitamin D-associated gene set suggests several highly functional modules related to systematic inflammatory and immune responses, including some nodes with a high degree of connectivity. Vitamin D supplementation initiated in weeks 10-18 of pregnancy did not reduce preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D

  15. Second trimester maternal urine for the diagnosis of trisomy 21 and prediction of poor pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Sílvia O; Barros, António S; Goodfellow, Brian J; Duarte, Iola F; Galhano, Eulália; Pita, Cristina; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Carreira, Isabel M; Gil, Ana M

    2013-06-07

    Given the recognized lack of prenatal clinical methods for the early diagnosis of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus, and the continuing need for optimized diagnosis methods for specific chromosomal disorders (e.g., trisomy 21) and fetal malformations, this work sought specific metabolic signatures of these conditions in second trimester maternal urine, using (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) metabolomics. Several variable importance to the projection (VIP)- and b-coefficient-based variable selection methods were tested, both individually and through their intersection, and the resulting data sets were analyzed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and submitted to Monte Carlo cross validation (MCCV) and permutation tests to evaluate model predictive power. The NMR data subsets produced significantly improved PLS-DA models for all conditions except for pre-premature rupture of membranes. Specific urinary metabolic signatures were unveiled for central nervous system malformations, trisomy 21, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia, and biochemical interpretations were proposed. This work demonstrated, for the first time, the value of maternal urine profiling as a complementary means of prenatal diagnostics and early prediction of several poor pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh-Toan; Zhou, Yiren; Zheng, Haitian; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Koh, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    We research a mobile imaging system for early diagnosis of melanoma. Different from previous work, we focus on smartphone-captured images, and propose a detection system that runs entirely on the smartphone. Smartphone-captured images taken under loosely-controlled conditions introduce new challenges for melanoma detection, while processing performed on the smartphone is subject to computation and memory constraints. To address these challenges, we propose to localize the skin lesion by combining fast skin detection and fusion of two fast segmentation results. We propose new features to capture color variation and border irregularity which are useful for smartphone-captured images. We also propose a new feature selection criterion to select a small set of good features used in the final lightweight system. Our evaluation confirms the effectiveness of proposed algorithms and features. In addition, we present our system prototype which computes selected visual features from a user-captured skin lesion image, and analyzes them to estimate the likelihood of malignance, all on an off-the-shelf smartphone.

  17. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Continuation of metformin reduces early pregnancy loss in obese Pakistani women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Fauzia Haq; Rizvi, Javed

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility worldwide. In addition to a poor conception rate, pregnancy loss rates are significantly higher (30-50%) during the first trimester in women with PCOS. Insulin resistance (IR) in this syndrome is not only implicated toward early pregnancy loss (EPL) but also pathognomic for various obstetrical complications during pregnancy. We evaluated the role of Metformin in the reduction of EPL in women with PCOS who conceived spontaneously or after induction ovulation with or without Metformin. The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of Metformin in the reduction of EPL in women with PCOS. Secondary outcomes like gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension and intrauterine growth restriction were also analyzed at the end of the study. This case-control study was conducted from March 2005 to March 2008 in the infertility and antenatal clinics of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 197 infertile women with PCOS were included. 'Cases' were women with PCOS who conceived while taking Metformin and it whom it was continued throughout pregnancy. 'Controls' were women in whom Metformin was either stopped in first trimester after confirmation of pregnancy (by serum betaHCG or by ultrasound) or they conceived spontaneously without the use of Metformin. All 197 women in this study had a confirmed diagnosis of PCOS (Rotterdam criteria). These women were followed till the final outcome of pregnancy was achieved. Both groups were compared for risk of EPL. It was found that continuation of Metformin during pregnancy reduces EPL, i.e. 8.8 vs. 29.4% in cases and controls, respectively (p < 0.001). In the subset of women with a prior history of miscarriage, the pregnancy loss rate was 12.5% in the Metformin versus 49.4% in control group (p = 0.002). Metformin continuation during pregnancy significantly reduces EPL

  19. Serum Hsp70 Antigen: Early Diagnosis Marker in Perinatal Asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Omidian, Masoud; Tavallai, Shima; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Parizadeh, Mostafa; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon Aa

    2015-04-01

    Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and permanent neurological and developmental deficit. Early and accurate diagnosis would help to establish the likely prognosis and may also help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that a protein called Hsp70 may be a good and potentially useful marker of cellular stress that may be clinically useful in determining the presence of neonatal asphyxia. Regarding the importance of early and accurate diagnosis of asphyxia, we conducted this study, which is the first investigation of the comparison of the serum Hsp70 antigen level between asphyxiated and healthy infants. In this observational study, the serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen were compared between neonates suffering from perinatal asphyxia (n = 50) and normal neonates (n = 51). The inclusion criteria for the cases were neonates who had reached term and had at least two clinical criteria of asphyxia. Exclusion criteria were babies with gestational age < 37 weeks, infants with congenital abnormalities or positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria in this group were the requirement to hospital stay during first week of the life or babies whose mothers had difficulties during pregnancy or delivery. Term neonates without major anomalies who had asphyxia during delivery were enrolled in the first six hours after delivery, and control group consisted of healthy term neonates without problems and normal delivery process in the first week of life. The cord blood was taken during labor to measure Hsp70 antigen level by using an in-house ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The median values of serum anti Hsp70 titers were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates compared with non-asphyxiated neonates (0.36 [0.04 - 1.14] vs 0.24 [0.01 - 0.63]). At cutoff point = 0.3125 ng/mL, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 76% based on ROC curve. A significant difference between the serum concentrations

  20. Serum Hsp70 Antigen: Early Diagnosis Marker in Perinatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Omidian, Masoud; Tavallai, Shima; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Parizadeh, Mostafa; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon AA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and permanent neurological and developmental deficit. Early and accurate diagnosis would help to establish the likely prognosis and may also help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that a protein called Hsp70 may be a good and potentially useful marker of cellular stress that may be clinically useful in determining the presence of neonatal asphyxia. Objectives: Regarding the importance of early and accurate diagnosis of asphyxia, we conducted this study, which is the first investigation of the comparison of the serum Hsp70 antigen level between asphyxiated and healthy infants. Patients and Methods: In this observational study, the serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen were compared between neonates suffering from perinatal asphyxia (n = 50) and normal neonates (n = 51). The inclusion criteria for the cases were neonates who had reached term and had at least two clinical criteria of asphyxia. Exclusion criteria were babies with gestational age < 37 weeks, infants with congenital abnormalities or positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria in this group were the requirement to hospital stay during first week of the life or babies whose mothers had difficulties during pregnancy or delivery. Term neonates without major anomalies who had asphyxia during delivery were enrolled in the first six hours after delivery, and control group consisted of healthy term neonates without problems and normal delivery process in the first week of life. The cord blood was taken during labor to measure Hsp70 antigen level by using an in-house ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: The median values of serum anti Hsp70 titers were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates compared with non-asphyxiated neonates (0.36 [0.04 - 1.14] vs 0.24 [0.01 - 0.63]). At cutoff point = 0.3125 ng/mL, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 76% based on ROC curve

  1. [Diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic hydronephrosis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Jane Angel; Graumann, Ole; Toft, Anja; Henriques, Carsten Ulrik; Walter, Steen

    2015-09-14

    Hydronephrosis in pregnancy is common in the second and third trimester. Only a few cases are symptomatic, caused by a ureteric stone or by the pregnancy itself. The clinical dilemma is when to treat and when not to treat. We propose a multidisciplinary management based on renal ultrasonography to verify hydronephrosis and renography to diagnose obstructive hydronephrosis. Obstruction with a high intra-renal pressure must be treated to avoid kidney dysfunction. Patients with pyonephrosis need immediate treatment.

  2. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten; Tabor, Ann; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2015-12-08

    Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy. Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Self-reported information on each woman's socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, and lifestyle factors including alcohol habits was obtained from an electronic questionnaire filled out as part of the individual medical record. Descriptive analysis was conducted and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the potential associated risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)). Questionnaires from 3,238 women were included. A majority of 70 %, reported weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The prevalence decreased to 3 % during early pregnancy. The overall proportion of women reporting binge drinking during early pregnancy was 35 % (n = 1,134). The following independent risk factors for binge drinking in early pregnancy were identified: lower degree of planned pregnancy, smoking and alcohol habits before pregnancy ((1 unit/weekly aOR 4.48, CI: 3.14 - 6.40), (2-7 units aOR 10.23, CI: 7.44-14.06), (≥8 units aOR 33.18, CI: 19.53-56.36)). Multiparity and the use of assisted reproductive technology were associated with lower odds of

  3. Burden of malaria in early pregnancy: a neglected problem?

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bich-Tram; Cottrell, Gilles; Cot, Michel; Briand, Valérie

    2015-02-15

    According to the current World Health Organization guidelines, the drug prevention of malaria during pregnancy does not adequately cover the first trimester of gestation in high-transmission areas. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of early infections are not completely understood yet, a review of the most recent studies on the topic suggests that their consequences are serious in terms of maternal anemia and low birth weight. Consequently, there is a need to focus on the awareness of women in a period hard to access, to develop safe drugs to be used in the first trimester, and to consider preconceptional interventions in teenage girls, such as a new malaria vaccine to be used in pregnancy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. High normal blood pressure in early pregnancy also contribute to early onset preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    He, Dian; Wu, Shaowen; Zhao, Haiping; Zheng, Zihe; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-11-27

    This study was to evaluate effects of high normal blood pressure (HNBP) in early pregnancy on total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. We conducted a multicenter, national representative retrospective cohort study. HNBP was defined as systolic blood pressure between 130 and 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure between 85 and 90 mmHg. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations of HNBP and the risks of above three types of preeclampsia. We included 58 054 women who were normotensive and nulliparous in early pregnancy. 4 809 (8.3%) fulfilled the definition of having HNBP, 16 682 (28.7%) were in normal blood pressure group, and 36 563 (63.0%) were in optimal blood pressure group. The incidence rates of total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia were 2.1% (1 217), 0.8% (491), and 1.4% (814), respectively. Compared to having optimal blood pressure, women with HNBP had significantly higher odds of total preeclampsia (odds ratio (OR) = 4.028, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.377, 4.804), severe preeclampsia (OR = 3.542, 95% CI 2.851, 4.400), and early preeclampsia (OR = 8.163, 95% CI 6.219, 10.715). Our restricted cubic spline results supported the dose-response relationship between continuous blood pressure and the odds ratio of three types of preeclampsia. The fraction of early preeclampsia associated with prehypertension was 58.6%, which was higher than those of total preeclampsia (42.2%) or severe preeclampsia (40.5%). Women in early pregnancy with HNBP more likely develop total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia, compared to those with optimal blood pressure. HNBP contribute more to early preeclampsia than severe preeclampsia. Our study provided robust epidemiological evidences for monitoring HNBP in early pregnancy to reduce the risks of preeclampsia.

  5. Early human pregnancy serum cytokine levels predict autoimmunity in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lindehammer, Sabina Resic; Björck, Sara; Lynch, Kristian; Brundin, Charlotte; Marsal, Karel; Agardh, Daniel; Fex, Malin

    2011-09-01

    It is generally believed that pregnancy is mediated by a Th2 response, which includes cytokines that promote placental growth and are involved in inducing tolerance to the foetus. If the balance between Th1/and Th2-mediated cytokines is disrupted, systemic and local changes could predispose the foetus to future disease. Therefore, a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance during pregnancy, possibly caused by underlying environmental factors, could be associated with post-partum autoimmune disease in the offspring. Based on this presumption, we used celiac disease as a model to investigate whether autoimmunity is triggered in the foetus during early pregnancy, observed as changes in the mother's cytokine profile. Ten cytokines were measured by electro-chemi-luminescent multiplex ELISA in serum samples obtained from mothers during early pregnancy. Cases included women with children who had developed verified celiac disease before the age of 5, who were compared with other women as matched controls. We observed that 7 out of 10 cytokine levels were significantly increased in our case mothers when compared to controls. Five of these belonged to what is generally known as a Th1-mediated response (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-1β and IL-12) and two were Th2 cytokines (IL-13 and IL-10). However, the IL-10 cytokine is known to have features from both arms of the immune system. These results were confirmed in a logistic regression model where five out of the initial seven cytokines remained. This study suggests that increase in Th1 serum cytokines may be associated with celiac disease in offspring.

  6. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-09-01

    , diversity, and evenness during pregnancy (P < .01). This change occurred between the first and second trimesters. Within-subject comparisons across pregnancy showed that preterm birth is associated with increased vaginal microbiome instability compared to term birth. No distinct taxa were associated with preterm birth. In a predominantly African-American population, a significant decrease of vaginal microbial community richness and diversity is associated with preterm birth. The timing of this suppression appears early in pregnancy, between the first and second trimesters, suggesting that early gestation may be an ecologically important time for events that ordain subsequent term and preterm birth outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of early diagnosis on functional disability in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dam; Choi, Chan-Bum; Lee, Jiyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jaejoon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To determine whether early diagnosis is beneficial for functional status of various disease durations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods A total of 4,540 RA patients were enrolled as part of the Korean Observational Study Network for Arthritis (KORONA). We defined early diagnosis as a lag time between symptom onset and RA diagnosis of ≤ 12 months, whereas patients with a longer lag time comprised the delayed diagnosis group. Demographic characteristics and outcomes were compared between early and delayed diagnosis groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of early diagnosis on the development of functional disability in RA patients. Results A total of 2,597 patients (57.2%) were included in the early diagnosis group. The average Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was higher in the delayed diagnosis group (0.64 ± 0.63 vs. 0.70 ± 0.66, p < 0.01), and the proportion of patients with no functional disability (HAQ = 0) was higher in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, early diagnosis was independently associated with no functional disability (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40). In a subgroup analysis according to disease duration, early diagnosis was associated with no functional disability in patients with disease duration < 5 years (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.72) but not in patients with longer disease duration (for 5 to 10 years: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.52; for ≥ 10 years: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.28). Conclusions Early diagnosis is associated with no functional disability, especially in patients with shorter disease duration. PMID:27618867

  8. Early pregnancy in the mare: old concepts revisited.

    PubMed

    Klein, C

    2016-07-01

    "Maternal recognition of pregnancy" (MRP) is commonly used to describe the ongoing embryo-maternal communication during early pregnancy that culminates in prevention of luteolysis and ensures ongoing progestin support. The conceptus-derived pregnancy recognition signal has not yet been identified in the mare. Although equine conceptuses produce substantial amounts of estrogens, there is a lack of evidence that estrogens are the pregnancy recognition signal in mares. Conceptus mobility is integral to MRP and is driven by conceptus-derived prostaglandin production. Cessation of conceptus mobility, referred to as fixation, is caused by increases in conceptus size and uterine tone and reduction in sialic acid content of the embryonic capsule. Gene expression profiling of equine preimplantation conceptuses revealed expression of neuraminidase 2 (NEU2), an enzyme that cleaves sialic acid from polysaccharide chains. Furthermore, secretion of NEU2 by conceptuses in vitro was functionally active; it appears therefore, that the conceptus itself regulates sialic acid content through expression of NEU2. Based on gene expression profiling, equine conceptuses express increasing amounts of fibrinogen during early development. Western blot analysis confirmed secretion of fibrinogen into culture medium when conceptuses were cultured in vitro and with immunohistochemistry, the acellular glycoprotein capsule of the conceptus had particularly intense staining for fibrinogen. Therefore, we hypothesize that conceptus-derived fibrinogen interacts with endometrial integrins to promote cessation of conceptus mobility and fixation. Indeed, next generation sequencing analysis of conceptus and endometrial samples 16 d after ovulation revealed that the integrin signaling pathway is significantly enriched in both sample types. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed ITGAVB1 as the most abundant integrin receptor in endometrium; fibrinogen has the highest

  9. Changes in beverage consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    PubMed

    Skreden, Marianne; Bere, Elling; Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C

    2015-05-01

    To describe changes in consumption of different types of beverages from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy, and to examine associations with maternal age, educational level and BMI. Cross-sectional design. Participants answered an FFQ at inclusion into a randomized controlled trial, the Fit for Delivery (FFD) trial, in median gestational week 15 (range: 9-20), reporting current consumption and in retrospect how often they drank the different beverages pre-pregnancy. Eight local antenatal clinics in southern Norway from September 2009 to February 2013. Five hundred and seventy-five healthy pregnant nulliparous women. Pre-pregnancy, 27 % reported drinking alcohol at least once weekly, compared with none in early pregnancy (P<0.001). The percentage of women drinking coffee (38 % v. 10 %, P<0.001), sugar-sweetened beverages (10 % v. 6 %, P=0.011) and artificially sweetened beverages (12 % v. 9 %, P=0.001) at least daily decreased significantly from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy, while the percentage of women who reported to drink water (85 % v. 92 %, P<0.001), fruit juice (14 % v. 20 %, P=0.001) and milk (37 % v. 42 %, P=0.001) at least daily increased significantly. From pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy higher educated women reduced their consumption frequency of coffee significantly more than women with lower education. Older women reduced their consumption frequency of coffee and artificially sweetened beverages and increased their consumption frequency of fruit juice and milk significantly more than younger women. There is a significant change in beverage consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy among Norwegian nulliparous women.

  10. Disclosure of Diagnosis in Early Recognition of Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Blessing, Andreas; Studer, Anna; Gross, Amelie; Gruss, L Forest; Schneider, Roland; Dammann, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    There is a debate concerning risks and benefits of early intervention in psychosis, especially concerning diagnosis disclosure. The present study reports preliminary findings on self-reported locus of control and psychological distress after the disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center. We compared the ratings of the locus of control and psychological distress before and after communication of diagnosis. The study included individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (n = 10), schizophrenia (n = 9), and other psychiatric disorders (n = 11). Results indicate greater endorsement of the internal locus of control in individuals with ARMS after communication of diagnosis in contrast to the other groups. Our results suggest that disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center leads to a reduction of psychological distress and increased feelings of control over one's health. Persons with ARMS seem to particularly benefit from disclosure of diagnosis as part of early intervention.

  11. Forensic DNA expertise of incest in early period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jakovski, Zlatko; Jankova, Renata; Nikolova, Ksenija; Spasevska, Liljana; Jovanovic, Rubens; Janeska, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Proving incest from tissue obtained by abortion early in pregnancy can be a challenge. Problems include the small quantity of embryonic tissue in the products of conception, and the mixing of DNA from mother and embryo. In many cases, this amorphous material cannot be grossly segregated into maternal and fetal components. Thus, morphological discrimination requires microscopy to select relevant tissue particles from which DNA can be typed. This combination of methods is reliable and efficient. In this article, we present two cases of incest discovered by examination of products of conception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Relationship to Early Pregnancy Discomforts.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hui-Jung; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Wang, Shu-Li; Wu, Trong-Neng; Lee, Chiu-Hsiang; Cheng, Shi-Yann

    2017-05-01

    We assessed environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and examined its association with pregnancy discomforts. We used structured questionnaires to interview a convenience sample of 139 pregnant women (8-20 weeks of gestation) recruited from 2 hospitals in central Taiwan. We found that 84% of the participants experienced ETS exposure in their households, workplaces, and/or public areas. Bivariate analyses showed the severity of pregnancy discomforts in the participants exposed to a high level of ETS was higher than that in those exposed to a low level of ETS. We found the discomfort symptoms of thirst, heartburn, lower abdominal pain, frequent urination, and depression to be significantly associated with ETS exposure. There also was a dose-response relationship between ETS exposure and discomfort. In addition, the presence of at least 4 out of those 5 symptoms served as a signal for raising women's self-awareness to avoid ETS hazards. Our study provides empirical evidence of an adverse relationship between ETS exposure and early pregnancy discomforts. The exposure to ETS in pregnant women remains high, and health education programs targeting this population should enhance their self-awareness to the discomforts related to ETS exposure and prompt them to adopt prevention strategies.

  13. Diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-10-06

    In prospective studies, the prevalence of undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women ranges from 3% to 15%. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus, including spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and decreased IQ in the offspring. Only two prospective studies have evaluated the impact of levothyroxine therapy in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, and the results were mixed. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as raised thyrotropin combined with a normal serum free thyroxine level. The normal range of thyrotropin varies according to geographic region and ethnic background. In the absence of local normative data, the recommended upper limit of thyrotropin in the first trimester of pregnancy is 2.5 mIU/L, and 3.0 mIU/L in the second and third trimester. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50% more thyroid hormone during pregnancy to maintain a euthyroid state. Consequently, most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant to maintain euthyroidism. Ongoing prospective trials that are evaluating the impact of levothyroxine therapy on adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus in women with subclinical hypothyroidism will provide crucial data on the role of thyroid hormone replacement in pregnancy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2014.

  14. [Studies of termination of early pregnancy with Bromo-Geraminum].

    PubMed

    Hou, Z K; Liu, D G; Kao, F S; Chen, S L

    1984-08-01

    The authors introduced 3 ml of 2-3% Bromo-Geraminum (BG) solution into the uterine cavities to induce abortion in 356 early pregnant women from March 1979 through June 1980. The success rate in the termination of early pregnancy was 80.1% and even 96.5% in those who had been pregnant for less than 5 weeks. The mean abortion time was 40.9 porn 19.7 hours. It was noticed that the blood HCG level dropped dramatically after introducing into the uterine cavity. It has been demonstrated experimentally and clinically that this method is effective, safe, simple, and inexpensive and that the normal menstrual cycle recovers very soon without side effects.

  15. Current approaches for assessment and treatment of women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy in Nigeria: a case for dedicated early pregnancy services.

    PubMed

    Iyoke, C A; Ugwu, O G; Ezugwu, F O; Onah, H E; Agbata, A T; Ajah, L C

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy are best cared for in dedicated units which offer rapid and definitive ultrasonographic and biochemical assessment at the initial review of the patient. To describe the current protocols for the assessment and treatment of women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy as reported by Nigerian Gynecologists, and determine if dedicated early pregnancy services such as Early Pregnancy Assessment Units could be introduced to improve care. A cross-sectional survey of Nigerian Gynecologists attending the 46 th Annual Scientific Conference of the Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria. This was a questionnaire-based study. Data analysis was by descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 17.0 for Windows (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). A total of 232 gynecologists working in 52 different secondary and tertiary health facilities participated in the survey. The mean age of the respondents was 42.6 ± 9.1 years (range 28-70 years). The proportion of gynecologists reporting that women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy were first managed within the hospital general emergency room was 92%. The mean reported interval between arrival in hospital and first ultrasound scan was 4.9 ± 1.4 hours (range ½-8 hours). Transvaginal scan was stated as the routine initial imaging investigation by only 17.2% of respondents. Approximately 94.8% of respondents felt that dedicated early pregnancy services were feasible and should be introduced to improve the care of women with early miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Reported protocols for managing early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy in many health facilities in Nigeria appear to engender unnecessary delays and avoidable costs, and dedicated early pregnancy services could be both useful and feasible in addressing these shortcomings in the way women with such conditions are currently managed.

  16. Does the presence of a Caesarean section scar affect implantation site and early pregnancy outcome in women attending an early pregnancy assessment unit?

    PubMed

    Naji, O; Wynants, L; Smith, A; Abdallah, Y; Saso, S; Stalder, C; Van Huffel, S; Ghaem-Maghami, S; Van Calster, B; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T

    2013-06-01

    Are there any differences in the location and distance to the internal cervical ostium of the implantation site of the intrauterine gestation sacs, early pregnancy symptoms and pregnancy outcome at 12 weeks gestation between women with and without a previous Caesarean section (CS)? The presence of a CS scar affects the site of implantation, and the distance between implantation site and the scar is related to the risk of spontaneous abortion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: Little is known about the impact of a CS scar on implantation other than the risk of Caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Furthermore, there is a paucity of information on how the proximity of implantation to the scar impacts on pregnancy outcome in the first trimester. A prospective cohort study conducted over 15 months in the early pregnancy unit of a London Teaching Hospital. Three hundred and eighty women underwent a transvaginal scan at 6-11 weeks of gestation. A total of 170 women had undergone ≥1 CS, and 210 women had no history of CS. The 380 women were recruited as consecutive non-selected cases. The relationship between the implanted sac and the CS scar was assessed by quantifiable measures and by subjective impression. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of the presence of a CS scar on pregnancy outcome. The final outcome of the study was the viability of the pregnancy at 12 weeks. Implantation was most frequently posterior (53%) in the CS group and fundal in the non-CS group (42%). Gestation sac implantation was 8.7 mm lower in the CS group (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.7-10.7, P < 0.0001). Presenting complaints differed in women with and without a previous CS (P = 0.0009). More frequent vaginal bleeding [73 versus 55%, difference -18, 95% CI (-27 to -8%] yet no clearly increased spontaneous abortion rates were noted in the CS group compared with the non-CS group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-1.9, P = 0.74). Subjective impression showed that in eight

  17. Changes in fruit and vegetable consumption habits from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy among Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Skreden, Marianne; Bere, Elling; Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C

    2017-04-04

    A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age. Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p <0.01), other vegetables (11 vs. 14%, p = 0.01), fruits (apples, pears, oranges or bananas) (24 vs. 41%, p < 0.01), other fruits and berries (8 vs. 15%, p < 0.01) and fruits and vegetables as snacks (14 vs. 28%, p < 0.01). The percentage of women who reported at least daily consumption of vegetables with dinner (22% at both time points) was stable. A higher proportion of older women increased their consumption of vegetables and fruits as snacks from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy compared to younger women (p=0.04). We found an increase in the proportion of women consuming FV daily or more frequently from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov database, NCT01001689 . https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01001689?term=NCT01001689&rank=1 .

  18. Early Elevations of the Complement Activation Fragment C3a and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Anne M.; Gibbs, Ronald S.; Murphy, James R.; Giclas, Patricia C.; Salmon, Jane E.; Holers, V. Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether elevations of complement C3a early in pregnancy are predictive of the subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS A plasma sample was obtained from each enrolled pregnant woman before 20 weeks of gestation. The cohort (n=1,002) was evaluated for the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes defined as hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (gestational hypertension or preeclampsia), preterm birth (before 37 weeks of gestation), premature rupture of the membranes, pregnancy loss (during the embryonic and fetal period), intrauterine growth restriction, and the composite outcome of any adverse outcome. RESULTS One or more adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred in 211 (21%) of the cohort. The mean levels (ng/mL) of C3a in early pregnancy were significantly (P=<.001) higher among women with one or more adverse outcomes (858±435) compared with women with an uncomplicated pregnancy (741±407). Adjusted for parity and prepregnancy body mass index, women with levels of C3a in the upper quartile in early pregnancy were three times more likely to have an adverse outcome later in pregnancy compared with women in the lowest quartile (95% confidence interval, 1.8–4.8; P<.001). The link between early elevated C3a levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes was driven primarily by individual significant (P<.05) associations of C3a with hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, preterm birth, and premature rupture of the membranes. CONCLUSION Elevated C3a as early as the first trimester of pregnancy is an independent predictive factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, suggesting that complement-related inflammatory events in pregnancy contribute to the subsequent development of poor outcomes at later stages of pregnancy. PMID:21173647

  19. Ultrasound diagnosis of uterine myomas and complications in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Exacoustòs, C; Rosati, P

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate myomas for ultrasound-documented size, location, position, and relation to the placenta, and to relate these findings to complications during pregnancy, at delivery, and in the puerperium. Among 12,708 pregnant patients who had ultrasound scans, 492 had uterine myomas. Single myomas were found in 88% of cases and multiple myomas in 12%. The myomas were evaluated for size, number, position, location, relationship to the placenta, and echogenic structure, and the outcome of pregnancy was compared to that of patients in the control group. A statistically significant increased incidence of threatened abortion, threatened preterm delivery, abruptio placentae, and pelvic pain was observed in patients with uterine myomas (P < .001). Abruptio placentae was particularly evident in women with myoma volumes greater than 200 cm3, submucosal location, or superimposition of the placenta. Pelvic pain was related to myoma volume greater than 200 cm3 and ultrasound findings of heterogeneous echo patterns and cystic areas. Mode of delivery, abortion, preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, and fetal growth did not seem to be affected by the presence of myomas. Thirty-two women with uterine myomas were managed surgically. Thirteen underwent myomectomy during pregnancy. Of these, eight delivered at term and five delivered preterm after the 32nd week of gestation. None of the deliveries were associated with neonatal death. The other 19 patients had surgery at delivery. Nine myomectomies were performed at cesarean delivery. Of these, three were complicated by severe hemorrhage necessitating hysterectomy. Another nine hysterectomies were performed during cesarean and one after vaginal delivery. In addition to myoma size, the ultrasound evaluation of pregnant women with myomas should include position, location, relationship to the placenta, and echogenic structure. These ultrasound findings make it possible to identify women at risk for myoma-related complications and

  20. Pancreatitis in pregnancy: etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mali, Padmavathi

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is a rare and dangerous disease. This study aimed to examine the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of pancreatitis in pregnancy. A total of 25 pregnant patients diagnosed with pancreatitis during the period of 1994 and 2014 was analyzed retrospectively. The pregnant patients were diagnosed with pancreatitis during a period of 21 years. Most (60%) of the patients were diagnosed with pancreatitis in the third trimester. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 25.7 years, with a mean gestational age of 24.4 weeks. Abdominal pain occurred in most patients and vomiting in one patient was associated hyperemesis gravidarum. The common cause of the disease was gallstone-related (56%), followed by alcohol-related (16%), post-ERCP (4%), hereditary (4%) and undetermined conditions (20%). The level of triglycerides was minimally high in three patients. ERCP and wire-guided sphincterotomy were performed in 6 (43%) of 14 patients with gallstone-related pancreatitis and elevated liver enzymes with no complications. Most (84%) of the patients underwent a full-term, vaginal delivery. There was no difference in either maternal or fetal outcomes after ERCP. Acute pancreatitis is rare in pregnancy, occurring most commonly in the third trimester, and gallstones are the most common cause. When laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not feasible and a common bile duct stone is highly suspected on imaging, endoscopic sphincterotomy or stenting may help to prevent recurrence and postpone cholecystectomy until after delivery.

  1. Maternal depression and physical health problems in early pregnancy: findings of an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Perlen, Susan; Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Brown, Stephanie J

    2013-03-01

    to investigate the relationship between physical health problems and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. baseline questionnaire, prospective pregnancy cohort study. six metropolitan public maternity hospitals in Victoria, Australia. 1507 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. nine per cent of women (131/1500) scored ≥ 13 on the EPDS indicating probable clinical depression in early pregnancy (mean gestation=15 weeks). The five most commonly reported physical health problems were as follows: exhaustion (86.9%), morning sickness (64.3%), back pain (45.6%), constipation (43.5%) and severe headaches or migraines (29.5%). Women scoring ≥ 13 on the EPDS reported a mean of six physical health problems compared with a mean of 3.5 among women scoring <13 on the EPDS. Women reporting five or more physical health problems had a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms (Adj OR=3.13, 95% CI 2.14-4.58) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, including maternal age. the findings from this large multi-centre study show that women experiencing a greater number of physical health problems are at increased risk of reporting depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. early detection and support for women experiencing physical and psychological health problems in pregnancy is an important aspect of antenatal care. The extent of co-morbid physical and psychological health problems underlines the need for comprehensive primary health care as an integral component of antenatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Echographic diagnosis of missed early miscarriage: Assessment of image quality].

    PubMed

    Barthes, C; Mezan De Malartic, C; Baumann, C; Rousseaux, H; Morel, O

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound examination plays a central role in case of suspected non-viable pregnancy. A wrong diagnosis might have major consequence in terms of inadequate care, especially in cases of false positive non-viable pregnancy diagnosis. Ultrasound criterions are today well defined. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel image-quoting method of first-trimester non-viable pregnancy. Thirty images of non-viable pregnancy were twice evaluated with blinded proofreading. Two quotations were evaluated: the first for the images of gestational sacs without embryo (gestational sac score), the second for the images with embryo (embryo score). The ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) was>0.75 for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility both for the quotations of the gestational sac and for the embryo with a low variability. Reproducibility of quoting crown rump length measurements <5mm was low at first proofreading but after adjustment of the quoting modalities, ICC was also>0.75. The inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of our quoting methods is high with a low variability. They might be a useful tool in current practice in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in circulating microRNA levels can be identified as early as day 8 of pregnancy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Jason; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Poor reproductive performance remains a major issue in the dairy industry, with low conception rates having a significant impact on milk production through extended calving intervals. A major limiting factor is the lack of reliable methods for early pregnancy diagnosis. Identification of animals within a herd that fail to conceive within 3 weeks after insemination would allow early re-insemination and shorten calving intervals. In a previous study, we found an increase in plasma miR-26a levels in Day 16-pregnant relative to non-pregnant heifers, however changes in miRNA levels that early during pregnancy were very small which likely prevented the identification of robust biomarkers. In this study, we extended our analyses to a wider interval during pregnancy (Days 8 to 60, n = 11 heifers) with the rationale that this may facilitate the identification of additional early pregnancy miRNA biomarkers. Using small RNA sequencing we identified a total of 77 miRNAs that were differentially expressed on Day 60 relative to Day 0 of pregnancy. We selected 14 miRNAs for validation by RT-qPCR and confirmed significant differences in the expression of let-7f, let-7c, miR-30c, miR-101, miR-26a, miR-205 and miR-143 between Days 0 and 60. RT-qPCR profiling throughout Days 0, 8, 16 and 60 of pregnancy showed a distinct increase in circulating levels of miR-26a (3.1-fold, P = 0.046) as early as Day 8 of pregnancy. In summary, in contrast to earlier stages of pregnancy (≤ Day 24), marked differences in the levels of multiple miRNAs can be detected in circulation by Day 60 in cattle. Retrospective analyses showed miR-26a levels to be increased in circulation as early as Day 8, sooner than previously reported in any species, suggesting a biological role for this miRNA in the very early events of pregnancy.

  4. Diagnosis of pregnancy in moose using a bovine assay for pregnancy-specific protein B.

    PubMed

    Haigh, J C; Dalton, W J; Ruder, C A; Sasser, R G

    1993-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 26 moose (Alces alces ) and evaluated for the presence of an antigen that cross-reacted with antisera to bovine pregnancy-specific protein B (P-SPB). The objective of this study was to determine if the P-SPB radioimmunoassay (RIA) was a reliable indicator of pregnancy in these animals. In the first year of the study calf production the following summer was used as the index of previous pregnancy. In the second year all females were subjected to palpation per rectum after chemical immobilization. Seven of the 10 cows sampled in the first year were also sampled in the second year. All animals determined pregnant by rectal palpation were positive for P-SPB; however, P-SPB was not detected in males.

  5. Early-pregnancy maternal vitamin D status and maternal hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Tomedi, L E; Simhan, H N; Bodnar, L M

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and maternal hyperglycaemia (post-load glucose concentration ≥ 7.5 mmol/l). Pregnant women (n = 429; 61% black, 36% obese, 45% smokers) enrolled in a cohort study at <16 weeks gestation. Non-fasting blood samples were assayed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at enrolment. At 24-28 weeks gestation, maternal hyperglycaemia was determined using a 50-g 1-h oral glucose challenge test. A total of 67% of women had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations < 50 nmol/l and 11% had maternal hyperglycaemia. Among smokers, each 23-nmol/l increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was associated with a reduction in the odds of maternal hyperglycaemia [odds ratio: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.68)] after adjustment for parity, race/ethnicity, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, marital status, income, family history of diabetes, and gestational age of gestational diabetes mellitus screening. Among non-smokers, we found no association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and maternal hyperglycaemia. Smoking status may modify the relationship between poor maternal vitamin D status and maternal hyperglycaemia. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  6. Thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in early pregnancy and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Haddow, James E; Cleary-Goldman, Jane; McClain, Monica R; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Canick, Jacob A; Malone, Fergal D; Porter, T Flint; Nyberg, David A; Bernstein, Peter S; D'Alton, Mary E

    2010-07-01

    To further evaluate the relationship between thyroid antibodies and preterm births. This is a prospective study of pregnancy outcome and demographic data combined with retrospective measurement of thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies. Sera were obtained at 11-13 and 15-18 weeks of gestation from 10,062 women with singleton viable pregnancies (a subset from the First- and Second-Trimester Risk of Aneuploidy [FaSTER] trial). Women with elevated levels of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin antibodies, or both in the first trimester have a higher rate of preterm delivery before 37 weeks of gestation than antibody-negative women (7.5% compared with 6.4%, odds ratio [OR] 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.46). This is also the case for very preterm delivery before 32 weeks of gestation (1.2% compared with 0.7%, OR 1.70; 95% CI 0.98-2.94). Preterm premature rupture of membranes is also increased (2.0% compared with 1.2%, OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.05-2.44). These associations are less strong for second-trimester antibody measurements. The present data do not confirm strong associations between thyroid antibody elevations and preterm birth found in three of five previously published reports. Preterm premature rupture of membranes appears to contribute to the thyroid antibody-associated early deliveries, possibly as a result of inflammation. II.

  7. Diagnosis of a sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Palmucci, Stefano; Lanza, Maria Letizia; Gulino, Fabrizio; Scilletta, Beniamino; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy is a rare, non-obstetric cause of abdominal pain that requires prompt surgical intervention (decompression) to avoid intestinal ischemia and perforation. We report the case of a 31-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain and subsequent development of constipation. Preoperative diagnosis was achieved using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography: the large bowel distension and a typical whirl sign - near a sigmoid colon transition point - suggested the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. The decision to refer the patient for emergency laparotomy was adopted without any ionizing radiation exposure, and the pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Imaging features of sigmoid volvulus and differential diagnosis from other non-obstetric abdominal emergencies in pregnancy are discussed in our report, with special emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24967020

  8. Diagnosis of a sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, Stefano; Lanza, Maria Letizia; Gulino, Fabrizio; Scilletta, Beniamino; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2014-02-01

    Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy is a rare, non-obstetric cause of abdominal pain that requires prompt surgical intervention (decompression) to avoid intestinal ischemia and perforation. We report the case of a 31-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain and subsequent development of constipation. Preoperative diagnosis was achieved using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography: the large bowel distension and a typical whirl sign - near a sigmoid colon transition point - suggested the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. The decision to refer the patient for emergency laparotomy was adopted without any ionizing radiation exposure, and the pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Imaging features of sigmoid volvulus and differential diagnosis from other non-obstetric abdominal emergencies in pregnancy are discussed in our report, with special emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Acute gall bladder perforation--a dilemma in early diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C L; Wong, T H; Rauff, A

    1991-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a rare complication of cholecystitis. A definitive diagnosis is uncommon before surgery and the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition are high. We report six patients with gall bladder perforation to show the difficulty of making an early diagnosis. The history and the clinical findings of these patients are reviewed to highlight diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:1885081

  10. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  11. Ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Carr, R J; Evans, P

    2000-03-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs in approximately 2% of all pregnancies in the United States, and is the nation's leading cause of first trimester maternal death. Its incidence has increased sixfold in the past 25 years, despite significant improvements in techniques for early diagnosis and management. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, and common clinical presentations of ectopic pregnancy. Both traditional and newly developed strategies for diagnosis and management are described. The primary care physician is in an excellent position to screen for and diagnose ectopic pregnancy, and to counsel patients regarding treatment options and future risks. With the increasing trend toward outpatient nonsurgical management of ectopics, it is expected that the roll of the primary care physician in managing patients with ectopic pregnancy will continue to increase.

  12. Symptoms associated with the DSM IV diagnosis of depression in pregnancy and post partum.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Martin; Marks, Maureen N; Pinard, Claudia; Taylor, Alyx; von Castelberg, Brida; Künzli, Hansjörg; Glover, Vivette

    2009-06-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum may affect symptoms of depression. However it has not yet been tested how the symptoms used for the DSM IV diagnosis of depression discriminate depressed from non depressed women perinatally. A modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID interview) was used that allowed assessment of all associated DSM IV symptoms of depression with depressed and non depressed women in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Loss of appetite was not associated with depression either ante or postnatally. The antenatal symptom pattern was different from the postnatal. The sensitivity of the symptoms ranged from 0.7% to 51.6%, and specificity from 61.3% to 99.1%. The best discriminating symptoms were motor retardation/agitation and concentration antenatally, and motor retardation/agitation, concentration and fatigue postnatally. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum depression show significantly different symptom profiles. Appetite is not suitable for the diagnosis of depression in the perinatal period.

  13. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider will likely test your urine in early pregnancy to see if this is the case and ... and body-mass index before pregnancy or in early pregnancy and found that obesity during pregnancy is associated ...

  14. Biomarkers for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Saito, Keigo; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although the prognosis of patients with HCC is generally poor, the 5-year survival rate is > 70% if patients are diagnosed at an early stage. However, early diagnosis of HCC is complicated by the coexistence of inflammation and cirrhosis. Thus, novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are required. Currently, the diagnosis of HCC without pathological correlation is achieved by analyzing serum α-fetoprotein levels combined with imaging techniques. Advances in genomics and proteomics platforms and biomarker assay techniques over the last decade have resulted in the identification of numerous novel biomarkers and have improved the diagnosis of HCC. The most promising biomarkers, such as glypican-3, osteopontin, Golgi protein-73 and nucleic acids including microRNAs, are most likely to become clinically validated in the near future. These biomarkers are not only useful for early diagnosis of HCC, but also provide insight into the mechanisms driving oncogenesis. In addition, such molecular insight creates the basis for the development of potentially more effective treatment strategies. In this article, we provide an overview of the biomarkers that are currently used for the early diagnosis of HCC. PMID:26457017

  15. Pregnancy interrupted: loss of a desired pregnancy after diagnosis of fetal anomaly.

    PubMed

    McCoyd, Judith L M

    2007-03-01

    Prenatal diagnostic techniques both enable and force women and couples to make decisions about whether to continue a pregnancy where the fetus has an anomaly. Few studies have explored the decision-making and bereavement processes of women who terminate a desired pregnancy after the discovery of a fetal anomaly. This reports the qualitative results of a study designed to explore these processes while placing them within the context of the societal milieu. Findings are reported as themes that emerged from the 30 intensive interviews conducted with women at varying stages after this experience. These include mythical expectations based on denial that anomaly could occur, misconceptions about the nature of prenatal testing and inaccurate expectations about the experience and duration of grief. Further, the contradictory norms in society are defined as creating additional dilemmas for women as they attempt to gain support and understanding following their loss. Suggestions for how providers may assist women with their grief are incorporated.

  16. Carrier diagnostics and prevention of hemoglobinopathies in early pregnancy in The Netherlands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, P C; Plancke, A; Van Meir, C A; Janssen, C A H; Kok, P J M J; Van Rooijen-Nijdam, I H; Tanis, B C; van Huisseling, J C M; Versteegh, F G A

    2006-08-01

    We have offered, for the first time in The Netherlands, carrier diagnostics for hemoglobinopathies (HbP) to early pregnant women. The aim of this study was to establish whether carrier analysis would be welcome by the public and feasible at the outpatient level. One hundred and thirty-nine randomly selected women were informed and offered basic carrier diagnostics at the first pregnancy control. Carrier diagnostics was accepted by 136 women (97.8%). The population consisted of 31% of recent immigrants and 69% of native Dutch. One carrier of HbS and one of beta-thalassemia were found, both among the group of the recent immigrants. In both cases, partners were tested excluding a couple at risk. In addition, five carriers of alpha(+)-thalassemia were diagnosed at the molecular level, one of them in the native Dutch population. Basic carrier analysis was done both at the Hospital Laboratory and at the Reference Laboratory. No discrepancies were found. This pilot study shows that (1) as predicted the prevalence of risk-related HbP and of alpha(+)-thalassemia is high in the immigrant population. (2) The compliance with carrier analysis in both native Dutch and immigrants is virtually total and (3) carrier diagnosis in early pregnancy and partner analysis in Hospital Laboratories is possible and is an effective tool for primary prevention of HbP in The Netherlands.

  17. Early Pregnancy Biochemical Predictors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Powe, Camille E

    2017-02-01

    Universal oral glucose tolerance-based screening is employed to identify pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as treatment of this condition decreases the risk of associated complications. A simple and accurate blood test which identifies women at low or high risk for GDM in the first trimester would have the potential to decrease costs and improve outcomes through prevention or treatment. This review summarizes published data on early pregnancy biomarkers which have been tested as predictors of GDM. A large number of first-trimester biochemical predictors of GDM have been reported, mostly in small case-control studies. These include glycemic markers (fasting glucose, post-load glucose, hemoglobin A1C), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), insulin resistance markers (fasting insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin), adipocyte-derived markers (adiponectin, leptin), placenta-derived markers (follistatin-like-3, placental growth factor, placental exosomes), and others (e.g., glycosylated fibronectin, soluble (pro)renin receptor, alanine aminotransferase, ferritin). A few large studies suggest that first-trimester fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1C may be useful for identifying women who would benefit from early GDM treatment. To translate the findings from observational studies of first-trimester biomarkers for GDM to clinical practice, trials or cost-effectiveness analyses of screening and treatment strategies based on these novel biomarkers are needed.

  18. Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stability and Change in Clinical Diagnosis and Symptom Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Whitney; Swineford, Lauren B.; Nottke, Charly; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be stable in children as young as age three, few studies have explored stability of a diagnosis in younger children. Predictive value of diagnostic tools for toddlers and patterns of symptom change are important considerations for clinicians making early diagnoses. Most…

  19. Incidence and factors associated with early pregnancy losses in Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zobel, R; Tkalčić, S; Pipal, I; Buić, V

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that management system, milk yield, parity, body condition score and ambient temperature can significantly influence the rate of early pregnancy loss in dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to establish the extent and patterns of early pregnancy loss from days 32 to 86 of gestation, and to check relationships between management system, milk yield, ambient temperature (quartile), body condition score, bull and parity on the early pregnancy loss rate for Simmental dairy cattle in Croatia. Animals were housed in two dairy farms with two different management systems (pasture based-group A, n=435 and intensive-group B, n=425) with a total of 151 heifers and 709 cows. Overall pregnancy losses were recorded in 67 (7.79%) animals, with late embryonic losses in 30 (44.77%) and early fetal losses in 37 (55.23%) animals (P>0.05). Early pregnancy losses were twofold higher in group B when compared to the group A (P<0.05). More than the half of pregnancy losses were recorded during the III quartile (P<0.05). There was no significant relationship between the paternal bull and pregnancy loss rate. Low body condition score (BCS 2-3) was associated with the highest, while BCS 3.25-4 showed the lowest pregnancy loss rate (P<0.05). The pregnancy loss rate increased in parallel with parity and milk yield increase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis and Management of IUGR in Pregnancy Complicated by Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gutaj, Paweł; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    This review discusses available literature on the diagnosis and management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in women with type 1 diabetes. IUGR is diagnosed when ultrasound-estimated fetal weight is below the 10th percentile for gestational age. IUGR diagnosis implies a pathologic process behind low fetal weight. IUGR in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes is usually caused by placental dysfunction related to maternal vasculopathy. Prevention of IUGR should ideally start before pregnancy. Strict glycemic control and intensive treatment of nephropathy and hypertension are essential. Low-dose aspirin initiated before 16 gestational weeks can also reduce IUGR risk in women with vasculopathy. Umbilical and uterine artery Doppler studies can guide diagnosis and surveillance of fetuses with IUGR. Decisions regarding the timing of delivery should be based on assessment of umbilical artery Doppler. The risk of prematurity and impaired fetal lung maturation should always be considered, especially in fetuses younger than 32 weeks.

  1. Early prenatal diagnosis of a lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pristavu, Anda Ioana; Furnica, Cristina; Ifrim, Mona Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan Mihai

    2018-04-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare type of lumbar hernia with associated abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs, and trunk muscles. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, all of which were diagnosed after birth. We present a case of LCVS diagnosed early in the second trimester of pregnancy using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. In our case, the associated anomalies were: multiple costovertebral anomalies, lumbar hernia, anal imperforation, left hand supernumerary digit, and clubfoot.

  2. Incidence and diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), diagnosed by ascending phlebography, has been calculated retrospectively in a group of 14 869 obstetrical patients. The incidence was calculated to 0.13 per thousand antepartum and 0.61 per thousand postpartum. The study revealed that clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis are very unreliable in pregnant women but more reliable in puerperal women. It is concluded that objective diagnosis of thrombosis is important in pregnant women, and ascending phlebography is a rewarding objective method to use in pregnant women.

  3. Embodied experiences of prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormality and pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Penelope; McClaren, Belinda J; Hodgson, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pregnant women routinely undergo prenatal screening in Australia and this has become a common experience of motherhood. When prenatal screening or prenatal testing results in diagnosis of a serious fetal abnormality, women are presented with a decision to continue or terminate their pregnancy. Few recent studies have explored women's psychosocial experience of prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality, and within this small group of studies it is rare for research to consider the embodied aspect of women's experiences. This paper reports on qualitative findings from in-depth interviews with 59 women in Melbourne, Australia who received a prenatal diagnosis of a significant abnormality and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Interview transcripts were coded inductively through thematic analysis. Two themes about embodiment were generated from the interviews: transitioning embodiment, and vulnerable bodies in un/comfortable spaces. Theory of pregnant embodiment was drawn on in interpreting women's narratives. Recommendations arising from the analysis include health professionals recognising, acknowledging and accommodating the transitioning embodied state of women as they consider, prepare for, undergo and recover from pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Further recommendations address the connections and disconnections between this transitioning embodied state and the spaces of clinics, hospitals and home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis and management of primary hepatic pregnancy: literature review of 31 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicai; Su, Zhilei; Lu, Shounan; Fu, Wen; Liu, Zhifa; Jiang, Xingming; Tai, Sheng

    2018-05-21

    To summarize the appropriate diagnostic methods and therapeutic options for primary hepatic pregnancy (PHP). Literature searches were performed in Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase databases (1956-2017), using the following search terms: primary hepatic pregnancy, hepatic pregnancy, liver pregnancy, hepatic ectopic pregnancy and intrahepatic pregnancy. Further literature was confirmed through cross-referencing. Thirty-one cases were reviewed and collected. The site mostly described in literatures is the right lobe of liver (93.5%). Main symptoms of PHP included abdominal pain (77.4%), amenorrhea (45.2%), acuteperitonism (32.3%), shock (25.8%) and vomit (16.1%). Majority of patients (83.9%) were treated by laparotomy. Less-invasive approaches (16.1%) such as laparoscopy or combination of postoperative injection of methotrexate were used less frequently. The outcome was acceptable at the end of the follow-up period in ten cases (1-72 months) and the recovery rate was 96.7%. One patient died and other complications were noted in three patients during the postoperative period. The clinical diagnosis of PHP can be settled up by comprehensive analysis of serum HCG levels, ultrasound and imaging. The analysis should be assessed carefully before therapeutic procedure. Invasive methods should be preferential. Less-invasive approaches can be selected when the patients have stable hemodynamics and non-acute abdomen.

  5. Terminating pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis--with a little help of professional ethics?

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Dagmar

    2012-07-01

    Termination of pregnancy after a certain gestational age and following prenatal diagnosis, in many nations seem to be granted with a special status to the extent that they by law have to be discussed within a predominantly medical context and have physicians as third parties involved in the decision-making process ('indication-based' approach). The existing legal frameworks for indication-based approaches, however, do frequently fail to provide clear guidance for the involved physicians. Critics, therefore, asked for professional ethics and professional institutions in order to provide normative guidance for the physicians in termination of pregnancy on medical grounds. After outlining the clinical pathway in an indication-based approach and the involved types of (clinical) judgements, this paper draws upon different understandings of professional ethics in order to explore their potential to provide normative guidance in termination of pregnancy on medical grounds. The analysis reveals that professional ethics will not suffice-neither as a set of established norms nor as internal morality-in order to determine the normative framework of indication-based approaches on termination of pregnancy. In addition, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies regarding the target and outcome between prenatal testing on the one hand and following termination of pregnancy on the other hand. A source of morality external to medicine has to be the basis of evaluation if a consistent and workable normative framework for termination of pregnancy and prenatal testing should be established.

  6. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  7. Compliance with national recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy in a Danish cohort.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G; Damm, Peter; Tabor, Ann; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2015-11-27

    Exercise during pregnancy is associated with health benefits for both the mother and the fetus, and is therefore recommended in several national guidelines. Only few studies investigate whether these guideline recommendations are met. The aims of this study were 1. To assess the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire during the first trimester among 7,915 women participating in the prospective Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Associations were estimated by multivariate regression analyses. In early pregnancy, 38 % of the study population met the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding Danish language and a low educational level were all factors associated a lower probability for meeting the recommendations. The preferred types of exercise before and during pregnancy were bicycling, brisk walking, running and strength training. The proportion of women engaged in any type of exercise decreased in early pregnancy with the exception of swimming and aquatic exercise. In this cohort, more than one-third met the Danish recommendation for exercise during early pregnancy. Exercise in pregnancy is still an issue to address because the most vulnerable groups of pregnant women do not exercise. This is a cause of concern because it may reflect social inequalities in health and highlights the need for a structural and systematic approach to preconception care and early antenatal counselling.

  8. Diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Veeravahu, M

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis has always posed problems because of its rarity and the difficulty of excluding coincidental liver disease caused by a multitude of pathogens. Case reports deal predominantly with jaundiced homosexual men in whom syphilis is discovered later, and the prospective studies of patients with early syphilis disclose only mild biochemical abnormalities in liver function test results. There is no single characteristic feature attributable to early syphilitic hepatitis. Even liver histologic findings are variable. At least in those patients who have jaundice, there is a likelihood of coincidental viral hepatitis. Therefore, the evidence to implicate Treponema pallidum as a liver pathogen in early syphilis is not convincing.

  9. Creating continuity out of the disruption of a diagnosis of HIV during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Carmel; Alderdice, Fiona; Lohan, Maria; Spence, Dale

    2012-06-01

    To understand the uniqueness of the experience of testing HIV positive from the perspective of pregnant women. As more people learn of their HIV diagnosis through routine screening processes, it is timely to reflect on the impact of receiving an unexpected positive result. A prospective qualitative study. This paper draws on the case studies of four women who were participating in a larger prospective qualitative study of reproductive decision-making, pregnancy and childbirth following HIV diagnosis. Multiple interviews were conducted following diagnosis during pregnancy, and, after the birth of their babies. Thematic data analysis was undertaken. Drawing on Becker's theory of disruption, we document the 'sudden disjuncture' of their antenatal diagnosis and the embodied emotional struggle the women engaged in to create continuity in their lives. A diagnosis of HIV disrupted the women's biographies in terms of their health, relationships and social identity. As pregnant women, the threat of HIV was experienced most significantly in relation to their unborn child. However, their narratives also revealed how a diagnosis of HIV in the context of pregnancy, whilst traumatic, provided a focus for regaining continuity in their lives, as the baby became a metaphor for hope and orientation toward the future. As HIV testing becomes more 'routine', the findings of this study serve to remind health professionals that a positive diagnosis continues to constitute a major trauma to individuals and families. We propose that appropriately educated nursing and midwifery staff could facilitate the 'meaning making' process that is required for newly diagnosed HIV positive persons to find a subjective sense of well-being in their lives. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Maternal morbidity in early pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julia M; Labrique, Alain; West, Keith P; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Ullah, Barkat; Wu, Lee; Massie, Allan; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf; Christian, Parul

    2012-12-01

    To determine the burden of maternal morbidity in early pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline morbidity data from 42 896 pregnant women enrolled in a vitamin A supplementation trial. One-week histories for 31 defined symptoms were collected at 5-12 weeks of gestation. Ten illnesses were defined, compatible with ICD-10 diagnoses and WHO definitions. Prevalence, duration, and treatment-seeking behaviors were determined for each symptom and illness. Risk of wasting malnutrition was compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic women. In total, 93.1% of women reported at least 1 symptom. The most frequent symptoms were poor appetite (53.3%), vaginal discharge (48.7%), and nausea (48.1%), each of which lasted 22-27 days. The most prevalent illnesses were anemia (36.4%), morning sickness (17.2%), excessive vomiting (7.0%), and reproductive tract infections (6.7%). Symptoms that prompted treatment seeking included jaundice, high-grade fever, and swelling of hands and face. Odds ratios for malnutrition were higher among women with symptoms of anemia (1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.36), vaginal discharge (1.37; 95% CI, 1.31-1.43), and high-grade fever (1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.37) than among those without symptoms. Women in rural Bangladesh report substantial morbidity in the first trimester. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Sonographic Diagnosis of Neurocutaneous Melanosis in a Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Yakut, Zeynep Ilerisoy; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Turan, Aynur; Demirel, Nihal; Demirkan, Tulin Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare, congenital non-hereditary syndrome, characterized by multiple pigmented nevi. We report the radiologic findings of a newborn who had extensive cutaneous melanotic nevus with satellite lesions in the brain. Ultrasound showed multiple echogenic foci in the cerebral parenchyma. Subsequent MRI confirmed these lesions as characteristic deposits of melanin. The infant was asymptomatic, but presence of risk factors such as malign transformation or neurological manifestations makes early diagnosis very important. We present this case to emphasize on the radiological findings of this syndrome in order to reach an early diagnosis. PMID:25780540

  12. Ultrasound elastography in the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Hee Jin; Kwag, Hyon Joo; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Park, Hae-Won; Lee, Yong-Rae; Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ultrasound (US) elastography is useful for the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed US elastography findings of 18 feet with a clinical history and physical examination highly suggestive of plantar fasciitis but with normal findings on conventional US imaging as well as 18 asymptomatic feet. Softening of the plantar fascia was significantly greater in the patient than in the control group [Reviewers 1 and 2: 89% (16/18) vs. 50% (9/18), P=.027, respectively]. US elastography is useful for the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Predictors of Early Antenatal Care Initiation in Relationship to Timing of HIV Diagnosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nattey, Cornelius; Jinga, Nelly; Mongwenyana, Constance; Mokhele, Idah; Mohomi, Given; Fox, Matthew P; Onoya, Dorina

    2018-06-01

    Effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission benefits from early presentation to antenatal care (ANC). It is, however, unclear whether a previous HIV diagnosis results in earlier initiation of ANC. We estimated the probability of early ANC initiation among women with a previous HIV-positive diagnosis compared to those who first tested for HIV during ANC and explored determinants of early ANC among HIV-positive women. We conducted an analysis of a cross-sectional survey among 411 HIV-positive adult (>18 years) women who gave birth at midwife obstetrics units in Gauteng between October 2016 and May 2017. Predictors of early ANC (defined as initiating ANC before or at 14 weeks of gestation) were assessed by multivariate log-binomial regression model. Overall, 51% (210) were diagnosed during pregnancy with 89% (188) initiating antiretroviral therapy on the same day of diagnosis. There was no meaningful difference in the timing of ANC initiation between women with previous HIV diagnosis [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.9-1.7] compared with those diagnosed during pregnancy. Early ANC was predicted by planned pregnancy [aRR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7], parity (>2 children) [aRR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9] compared to not having a child, and tuberculosis diagnosis [aRR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-6.1]. Our results suggest the need for a targeted intervention among HIV-positive women by improving the quality, content and outreach of ANC services to enhance early ANC uptake, and minimize mother-to-child transmission risk.

  14. Combined use of serum HCG and sonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Kadar, N.; Taylor, K.J.W.; Rosenfield, A.T.

    1983-09-01

    During an 18 month period, 320 patients were referred with clinical suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy. This study is based on 19 patients with ectopic pregnancy who had both a sonographic examination of the pelvis and determination of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) before surgery. Emphasis is focused on the spectrum of sonographic appearances that may occur in ectopic gestation. These are illustrated, and the sonographic criteria that have been used both for a positive diagnosis and for the exclusion of ectopic pregnancy in the past are analyzed. It is suggested that the accuracy of sonography can be increasedmore » by determining the serum HCG level on the day of the scan and by interpreting the findings with reference to the discriminatory HCG zone.« less

  15. Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Diagnosis of Triploidy During the Second Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kolarski, Milenko; Ahmetovic, Begzudin; Beres, Maja; Topic, Radomir; Nikic, Vedran; Kavecan, Ivana; Sabic, Semin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Triploidy is a lethal chromosomal numeric abnormality, characterized on extra haploid set of chromosomes. It occurs in 2 to 3% of conceptuses and accounts for approximately 20% of chromosomally abnormal first-trimester miscarriages. As such, triploidy is estimated to occur in 1 of 3,500 pregnancies at 12 weeks’, 1 in 30,000 at 16 weeks’, and 1 in 250,000 at 20 weeks’ gestation. Case report: We present a case of second-trimester triploidy diagnosed prenataly at our center. 28-years-old gravida with a first spontaneous pregnancy had early gestational hypertension. Ultrasound examination in 146/7 weeks’ gestation revealed asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation. We recommended biochemical maternal serum screening during second trimester of pregnancy (AFP, HCG, uE3). Result of biochemical screening was indication for cytogenetic analysis from amniotic fluid cells and we recommended early amniocentesis in 156/7 weeks’ gestation. Result showed abnormal karyotype of the fetus (69,XXX triploidy), and DNA analysis confirmed Type-2 Diginy. Parents decided to terminate this pregnancy, and it was done at 22 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion: We emphasize the importance of non-invasive prenatal exminationes-biochemical serum screening during second trimester of pregnancy, and ultrasound examinations in prenatal screening of syndroma Down and other chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:28790549

  16. Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of early cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Orzan, OA; Șandru, A; Jecan, CR

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a disease with an unpredictable evolution mainly due to its high metastatic ability. The steadily increasing incidence and the poor outcome in advanced stages made this cancer an interesting field for many research groups. Given that CM is a curable disease in early stages, efforts have been made to detect it as soon as possible, which led to the diversification and refining of diagnosis methods and therapies. But, as the data from trials have been published, doubts about the indications and efficacy of established treatments have arisen. In fact, there is probably no single aspect of early CM that has not given birth to controversy. This article intends to present the current disputes regarding the early detection, diagnosis, treatment and postoperative follow-up of patients with localized CM. After analyzing both pros and cons, several conclusions were drawn, that reflect our experience in managing patients with early CM. PMID:25866567

  17. The impact of nausea and vomiting on women: a burden of early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, C; Crowther, C; Beilby, J; Dandeaux, J

    2000-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are troublesome symptoms occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe the impact these symptoms have on women in early pregnancy by interviewing, using a structured questionnaire, 593 pregnant women presenting with nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy. The women were asked to complete the Rhodes index of nausea and vomiting and the MOS 36 Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Symptoms of nausea and vomiting started early in pregnancy. Nausea was the most troublesome symptom experienced by women, both in its duration and intensity. Low scores for the SF-36 were found for all items, particularly physical functioning, energy and social functioning. The women described substantial effects on working, household duties and parenting activities. Findings from this study suggest nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy has a profound impact on women's general sense of well-being and day to day life activities.

  18. Alkaline Phosphatase Protects Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Early Pregnancy Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Ni, Hua; Herington, Jennifer; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive cytokine inflammatory response due to chronic or superphysiological level of microbial infection during pregnancy leads to pregnancy complications such as early pregnancy defects/loss and preterm birth. Bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), long recognized as a potent proinflammatory mediator, has been identified as a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes have been shown to detoxify LPS by dephosphorylation. In this study, we examined the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in mitigating LPS-induced early pregnancy complications in mice. We found that 1) the uterus prior to implantation and implantation sites following embryo implantation produce LPS recognition and dephosphorylation molecules TLR4 and tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) isozyme, respectively; 2) uterine TNAP isozyme dephosphorylates LPS at its sites of production; 3) while LPS administration following embryo implantation elicits proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the embryo implantation sites (EISs) and causes early pregnancy loss, dephosphorylated LPS neither triggers proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the EISs nor induces pregnancy complications; 4) AP isozyme supplementation to accelerate LPS detoxification attenuates LPS-induced pregnancy complications following embryo implantation. These findings suggest that a LPS dephosphorylation strategy using AP isozyme may have a unique therapeutic potential to mitigate LPS- or Gram-negative bacteria-induced pregnancy complications in at-risk women. PMID:25910276

  19. Alkaline phosphatase protects lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Ni, Hua; Herington, Jennifer; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C

    2015-01-01

    Excessive cytokine inflammatory response due to chronic or superphysiological level of microbial infection during pregnancy leads to pregnancy complications such as early pregnancy defects/loss and preterm birth. Bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), long recognized as a potent proinflammatory mediator, has been identified as a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes have been shown to detoxify LPS by dephosphorylation. In this study, we examined the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in mitigating LPS-induced early pregnancy complications in mice. We found that 1) the uterus prior to implantation and implantation sites following embryo implantation produce LPS recognition and dephosphorylation molecules TLR4 and tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) isozyme, respectively; 2) uterine TNAP isozyme dephosphorylates LPS at its sites of production; 3) while LPS administration following embryo implantation elicits proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the embryo implantation sites (EISs) and causes early pregnancy loss, dephosphorylated LPS neither triggers proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the EISs nor induces pregnancy complications; 4) AP isozyme supplementation to accelerate LPS detoxification attenuates LPS-induced pregnancy complications following embryo implantation. These findings suggest that a LPS dephosphorylation strategy using AP isozyme may have a unique therapeutic potential to mitigate LPS- or Gram-negative bacteria-induced pregnancy complications in at-risk women.

  20. Review on diagnosis and management of urolithiasis in pregnancy: an ESUT practical guide for urologists.

    PubMed

    Somani, Bhaskar K; Dellis, Athanasios; Liatsikos, Evangellos; Skolarikos, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Management of urolithiasis in pregnancy can be challenging for most urologists with diagnostic and treatment dilemma to ensure the best outcome for both mother and fetus. We wanted to review the literature for urolithiasis in pregnancy with a practical management guide for urologists. A non-systematic review of literature was carried out for all English language literature using Medline. To ensure a more comprehensive search, the review of diagnosis and management of pregnant patients with urolithiasis was carried out separately, by two authors independently. Due to diagnostic complexity, investigations (US, CT, MRI) carried out were assessed separately. Our search included diagnostic studies such as US, CT and MRI (73, 20 and 27 articles, respectively) and management studies (55 articles in total). Details on etiology, radiation risk, safety of various diagnostic modalities, medications and treatment options are covered through an evidence-based approach. We provide a practical guide for urologists in what is clearly a stressful situation for patient and physician alike. Urolithiasis in pregnancy needs a careful multidisciplinary management to achieve good outcomes for both mother and baby. Our review shows that a balanced approach for diagnosis and treatment seems to achieve the best outcomes in pregnancy.

  1. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF METHANOL DURING EARLY PREGNANCY IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent attention to methanol (MeOH) as a potential alternative fuel prompted an evaluation of the chemical's effects during very early pregnancy. ats were dosed by gavage during Days 1-8 of pregnancy at 0, 1.6, 2.4 or 3.2 g MeOH/kg/day. roups of animals were killed on Days 9, 11 ...

  3. Adolescent Stress, Coping, and Academic Persistence in Rural Appalachia: The Unacknowledged Import of Early Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Linda; Bickel, Robert

    This paper examines pregnancy in early adolescence, among West Virginia females aged 10-14, as it relates to local economic and social contexts. Although research on adolescent pregnancy is substantial, it is generally limited to the experiences of older adolescents and premised on assumptions of methodological individualism--that the correlates…

  4. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  5. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  6. Whole exome sequencing in recurrent early pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ying; Wen, Jiadi; Tang, Flamingo; Martell, Sally; Shomer, Naomi; Leung, Peter C.K.; Stephenson, Mary D.; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica

    2016-01-01

    STUDY HYPOTHESIS Exome sequencing can identify genetic causes of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). STUDY FINDING We identified compound heterozygous deleterious mutations affecting DYNC2H1 and ALOX15 in two out of four families with RPL. Both genes have a role in early development. Bioinformatics analysis of all genes with rare and putatively pathogenic mutations in miscarriages and couples showed enrichment in pathways relevant to pregnancy loss, including the complement and coagulation cascades pathways. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Next generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being used to identify known and novel gene mutations in children with developmental delay and in fetuses with ultrasound-detected anomalies. In contrast, NGS is rarely used to study pregnancy loss. Chromosome microarray analysis detects putatively causative DNA copy number variants (CNVs) in ∼2% of miscarriages and CNVs of unknown significance (predominantly parental in origin) in up to 40% of miscarriages. Therefore, a large number of miscarriages still have an unknown cause. STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLES/MATERIALS, METHODS Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform on seven euploid miscarriages from four families with RPL. Golden Helix SVS v8.1.5 was used for data assessment and inheritance analysis for deleterious DNA variants predicted to severely disrupt protein-coding genes by introducing a frameshift, loss of the stop codon, gain of the stop codon, changes in splicing or the initial codon. Webgestalt (http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/webgestalt/) was used for pathway and disease association enrichment analysis of a gene pool containing putatively pathogenic variants in miscarriages and couples in comparison to control gene pools. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Compound heterozygous mutations in DYNC2H1 and ALOX15 were identified in miscarriages from two families with RPL. DYNC2H1 is involved in cilia biogenesis and has been associated with fetal

  7. Whole exome sequencing in recurrent early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ying; Wen, Jiadi; Tang, Flamingo; Martell, Sally; Shomer, Naomi; Leung, Peter C K; Stephenson, Mary D; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica

    2016-05-01

    Exome sequencing can identify genetic causes of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). We identified compound heterozygous deleterious mutations affecting DYNC2H1 and ALOX15 in two out of four families with RPL. Both genes have a role in early development. Bioinformatics analysis of all genes with rare and putatively pathogenic mutations in miscarriages and couples showed enrichment in pathways relevant to pregnancy loss, including the complement and coagulation cascades pathways. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being used to identify known and novel gene mutations in children with developmental delay and in fetuses with ultrasound-detected anomalies. In contrast, NGS is rarely used to study pregnancy loss. Chromosome microarray analysis detects putatively causative DNA copy number variants (CNVs) in ∼2% of miscarriages and CNVs of unknown significance (predominantly parental in origin) in up to 40% of miscarriages. Therefore, a large number of miscarriages still have an unknown cause. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform on seven euploid miscarriages from four families with RPL. Golden Helix SVS v8.1.5 was used for data assessment and inheritance analysis for deleterious DNA variants predicted to severely disrupt protein-coding genes by introducing a frameshift, loss of the stop codon, gain of the stop codon, changes in splicing or the initial codon. Webgestalt (http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/webgestalt/) was used for pathway and disease association enrichment analysis of a gene pool containing putatively pathogenic variants in miscarriages and couples in comparison to control gene pools. Compound heterozygous mutations in DYNC2H1 and ALOX15 were identified in miscarriages from two families with RPL. DYNC2H1 is involved in cilia biogenesis and has been associated with fetal lethality in humans. ALOX15 is expressed in placenta and its dysregulation has been associated with inflammation, placental

  8. Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Diagnosis of Appendicitis During Pregnancy: A Canadian Experience.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael; Hague, Cameron J; Vos, Patrick; Tiwari, Pari; Wiseman, Sam M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective review of all MRI scans performed at our institution, between 2006 and 2012, for the evaluation of suspected appendicitis in pregnant women. Details of the MRI scans performed were obtained from the radiology information system as well as details of any ultrasounds carried out for the same indication. Clinical and pathological data were obtained by retrospective chart review. The study population comprised 63 patients, and 8 patients underwent a second MRI scan during the same pregnancy. A total of 71 MRI scans were reviewed. The appendix was identified on 40 scans (56.3%). Sensitivity of MRI was 75% and specificity was 100% for the diagnosis of appendicitis in pregnant women. When cases with right lower quadrant inflammatory fat stranding or focal fluid, without appendix visualization, were classified as positive for appendicitis, MRI sensitivity increased to 81.3% but specificity decreased to 96.4%. MRI is sensitive and highly specific for the diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy and should be considered as a first line imaging study for this clinical presentation. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Premenstrual symptoms are associated with psychological and physical symptoms in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Susanne; Einsle, Franziska; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The reproductive life of women is characterised by a number of distinct reproductive events and phases (e.g. premenstrual phase, peripartum, perimenopause). The hormonal transitions during these phases are often associated with both psychological and physical symptoms. Associations between these reproductive phases have been shown by numerous studies. However, the relationship between symptoms during the premenstrual phase and during early pregnancy has received little attention thus far, although early pregnancy is a time of dramatic hormonal as well as physical adaptation. Findings are based on a prospective longitudinal study with N = 306 pregnant women (MARI study). Three hundred five women that had menstrual bleeding in the year before pregnancy rated the severity of psychological and physical symptoms during premenstrual phases in the year preceding pregnancy. Besides this, they rated the severity of the same symptoms during early pregnancy (weeks 10 to 12 of gestation). The overall severity of premenstrual symptoms was significantly associated with the overall severity of early pregnancy symptoms (b = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.5; p < 0.001). The overall severity of early pregnancy symptoms was best predicted by the severity of premenstrual irritability. The best predictor for a particular symptom in early pregnancy mostly was the corresponding premenstrual symptom. The associations between premenstrual and early pregnancy symptoms support the reproductive hormone sensitivity hypothesis that some women are prone to repeatedly experience specific psychological and physical symptoms during different reproductive phases. The findings further imply that the nature of symptoms might be rather consistent between different reproductive phases.

  10. Severe hydronephrosis secondary to uterine artery pseudoaneurysm in the early second trimester of pregnancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tsukuru; Tokoro, Shinsuke; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Inoue, Takashi; Kimura, Fuminori; Murakami, Takashi

    2017-09-25

    Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) normally presents genital bleeding in the puerperal period, and severe hydronephrosis rarely presents during pregnancy. We report a rare case of severe ureteral obstruction accompanied by uterine artery pseudoaneurysm in the early second trimester of pregnancy, which was successfully treated by surgical intervention. A 42-year-old nulligravid woman who had undergone myomectomy 3 years earlier was referred to our hospital for acute left abdominal pain at the 17th week of gestation. Ultrasonography showed severe left hydronephrosis and a 6-cm mass in the parauterine space. Color Doppler ultrasonography revealed a spinning turbulent flow pattern inside the mass lesion. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed the left uterine artery feeding blood flow to the mass and left ureteral obstruction by the mass. These results indicated left hydronephrosis secondary to left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm. To resolve the problem, laparotomy was performed. As uterine artery isolation was impossible, ligation of the left internal iliac artery and releasing of the ureteral obstruction were carried out. The hydronephrosis and abdominal pain promptly resolved after the surgery. Thereafter, fetal development proceeded normally in the remaining months of the pregnancy. A healthy baby was delivered through cesarean section at 36 weeks gestational age. At the cesarean section, the left lower uterine segment where the UAP had been present was not visible because of the firm adhesion in around it. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm can cause hydronephrosis in the early second trimester of pregnancy. Ligation of the unilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and effective intervention to block the blood flow to the uterine artery pseudoaneurysm during pregnancy, when uterine artery ligation seems not possible. In the pregnancy after previous surgical procedures to the uterus, uterine artery pseudoaneurysm should be considered in the differential

  11. [Clinical study of induced abortion of early-early pregnancy: an analysis of 10, 404 cases].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Xue-fen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jian-hua

    2012-01-03

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of early-early pregnancy induced abortion (EPIA). A total of 10 404 cases of EPIA performed at our hospital from January 1993 to December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 9434 cases of common induced abortion (CIA). The amount of hemorrhage and operative duration, degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, rate of incomplete abortion, menstrual changes and post-operative onset of Asherman's syndrome were observed and compared between 2 groups. The average age, ratio of parous cases, ratio of the cases of first-pregnancy induced abortion were not different between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The amount of hemorrhage bleeding ((4.9 ± 3.2) ml), operative duration ((90.3 ± 12.4) s), degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, menstrual changes and the rate of Asherman's syndrome in the EPIA group were all significantly less than those in the CIA group (P < 0.05). However, the rate of incomplete abortion (0.44%) in the EPIA group was significantly higher than that (0.21%) in the CIA group (P < 0.05). EPIA has the advantages of lesser hemorrhage, less pain, shorter operative duration and fewer complications over CIA. Therefore the recovery of EPIA cases is earlier than that of CIA cases. While the risk of incomplete abortion stays high.

  12. Surgical management of early pregnancy failure: history, politics, and safe, cost-effective care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H; Dalton, Vanessa K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2007-05-01

    Early pregnancy failure and induced abortion are often managed differently, even though safe uterine evacuation is the goal in both. Early pregnancy failure is commonly treated by curettage in operating room settings in anesthetized patients. Induced abortion is most commonly managed by office vacuum aspiration in awake or sedated patients. Medical evidence does not support routine operating room management of early pregnancy failure. This commentary reviews historical origins of these different care standards, explores political factors responsible for their perpetuation, and uses experience at University of Michigan to dramatize the ways in which history, politics, and biomedicine intersect to produce patient care. The University of Michigan initiated office uterine evacuations for early pregnancy failure treatment. Patients previously went to the operating room. These changes required faculty, staff, and resident education. Our efforts blurred the lines between spontaneous and induced abortion management, improved patient care and better utilized hospital resources.

  13. Antihistamine Use in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Birth Defects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.; Yau, Wai-Ping; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between use of specific antihistamines in early pregnancy and certain specific birth defects. Objective To test 16 previously-hypothesized associations between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects, and identify possible new associations. Methods We used 1998-2010 data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, a multicenter case-control surveillance program of birth defects in North America. Mothers were interviewed within six months of delivery about demographic, reproductive, medical, and behavioral factors, and details on use of prescription and non-prescription medications. We compared 1st trimester exposure to specific antihistamines between 13,213 infants with specific malformations and 6,982 non-malformed controls, using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for potential confounders, including indication for use. Results Overall, 13.7% of controls were exposed to antihistamines during the 1st trimester. The most commonly-used medications were diphenhydramine (4.2%), loratadine (3.1%), doxylamine (1.9%), and chlorpheniramine (1.7%). Where estimates were stable, none supported the previously-hypothesized associations. Among over 100 exploratory comparisons of other specific antihistamine/defect pairs, 14 had ORs ≥1.5 of which 6 had 95% CI bounds excluding 1.0 before but not after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusion Our findings do not provide meaningful support for previously-posited associations between antihistamines and major congenital anomalies; at the same time, we identified associations that had not been previously suggested. We suspect that previous associations may be chance findings in the context of multiple comparisons, a situation which may also apply to our new findings. PMID:24565715

  14. [Early prenatal diagnosis of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins].

    PubMed

    Picaud, A; Nlome-Nze, A R; Engongha-Beka, T; Ogowet-Igumu, N

    1990-06-01

    The authors summarize the case of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins diagnosed at 22 weeks of pregnancy by ultrasonography performed because of hydramnios. The rate of separation anomalies of monozygotic twins is assessed by a review of the literature: from 1 to twenty to fifty thousands for joined twins to 1 per cent fifty thousand to fifteen millions for diprosopus. The etiology is the result of a late division of the egg between D12 and D16. Often an encephalic diprosopic joined twins cause elevated levels of maternal serum alpha protein. Early ultrasonography permits to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.

  15. Evaluation of genes involved in prostaglandin action in equine endometrium during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Atli, Mehmet O; Kurar, Ercan; Kayis, Seyit A; Aslan, Selim; Semacan, Ahmet; Celik, Sefa; Guzeloglu, Aydin

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PTG), Prostaglandin H Synthase-1 (PTGS1) and PTGS2, PGF synthase (PTGFS), and PGE synthase (PTGES), PGF receptor (PTGFR), PGE receptors (PTGER2 and PTGER4), prostaglandin transporter (SLCO2A1) and hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase-15 (HPGD). Endometrial biopsies were obtained from mares on day of ovulation (d0, n=4), late diestrus (LD, n=4), early luteolysis (EL, n=4) and after luteolysis (AL, n=4) during the cycle. Stages of the cycle were confirmed by plasma progesterone concentrations measured daily and ultrasound examinations. Biopsies were also taken on days 14 (P14; n=4), 15 (P15, n=4), 18 (P18, n=4) and 22 (P22; n=4) of pregnancy. Relative mRNA expressions were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. A mixed model was fitted on the normalized data and least significant difference test (α=0.05) was employed. Expression of PTGS1 mRNA was low throughout the estrous cycle and early days of pregnancy, but upregulated on P18 and P22. PTGS2 expression was increased on EL, but it was suppressed by pregnancy on P15, P18, and P22. PTGFS expression was upregulated in both cyclic and pregnant mares compared to d0 and its level was the highest on LD. PTGFR expression was transiently increased on LD and EL and was suppressed during early pregnancy. Both PTGES and PTGER2 expressions were increased on LD, EL, and early pregnancy, but were decreased after the luteolysis in cyclic mares as they remained high on P18 and P22. PTGER4 expression did not change throughout the cycle and early pregnancy. Levels of HPGD and SLCO2A1 were significantly increased only on P22. In conclusion, PTGS2 expression increases around the time of luteolysis and concurrent upregulation of PTGFS and PTGES indicates that equine endometrium has increased capability of PTG production around the time of luteolysis. However, pregnancy reduces PTGS2 expression, but maintains the high levels of PTGES during early

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Colliot, O; Hamelin, L; Sarazin, M

    2013-10-01

    A major challenge for neuroimaging is to contribute to the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows detecting different types of structural and functional abnormalities at an early stage of the disease. Anatomical MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The recent diagnostic criteria of "mild cognitive impairment due to AD" include hippocampal atrophy, which is considered a marker of neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis techniques generate automatic and reproducible measures both in the hippocampus and throughout the whole brain. Recent modalities such as diffusion-tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI provide additional measures that could contribute to the early diagnosis but require further validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with changes in leisure time physical activity during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2013-05-01

    To identify key factors involved in modifying leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during early pregnancy. A prospective study was conducted of 1175 pregnant women who attended a scheduled visit at Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain, at 20-22 weeks of pregnancy. The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect data regarding participation in any LTPA or physical activity performed according to society recommendations during early pregnancy and in the year before pregnancy. A polytomous regression model was used to identify factors associated with LTPA. Approximately 20.0% of the women did not engage in any LTPA, and 68.0% did not achieve the recommendations for exercise, either before or during pregnancy. Desirable changes related to performing any LTPA or the society recommendations for LTPA during pregnancy were associated with university level of education (aOR, 3.64 [95% CI, 1.54-8.56] and aOR, 1.75 [95% CI, 0.67-4.57], respectively) and smoking cessation at pregnancy (aOR, 2.05 [95% CI, 0.97-4.35] and aOR, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.31-17.83], respectively). Few women achieved the minimum recommendations for exercise before or during pregnancy. Nevertheless, adoption of healthy lifestyle choices during pregnancy seemed to promote other healthy habits, such as participation in LTPA. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can women determine the success of early medical termination of pregnancy themselves?

    PubMed

    Cameron, S T; Glasier, A; Johnstone, A; Dewart, H; Campbell, A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the outcome of early medical termination of pregnancy (TOP) among women who choose a "self assessment" follow up comprising a self-performed low sensitivity urine pregnancy test with instructions on signs/symptoms that mandate contacting the TOP service. A retrospective review of computer databases of 1726 women choosing self-assessment after early medical TOP (<9 weeks) in the UK. The main outcome measures were (a) number of women choosing self-assessment, (b) contact rates with TOP service and (c) time to presentation with an ongoing pregnancy (failed TOP). Ninety-six percent of women having an early medical TOP and going home to expel the pregnancy chose self-assessment. Two percent of women made unscheduled visits to the TOP service. One hundred and eighty-eight women (11%) telephoned the service about concerns related to complications or the success of treatment. There were eight ongoing pregnancies (0.5%; 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9%). Four were detected within 4 weeks of treatment; the remainder were not detected until one or more missed menses after the procedure. Most women having an early medical TOP, who go home to expel the pregnancy, choose self-assessment. Relatively few women make unscheduled visits or telephone the TOP service. Most ongoing pregnancies are recognized at an early stage, although late presentation (as with all methods of follow up) does still occur. If women are given clear instructions on how and when to conduct a urine pregnancy test and on signs/symptoms that mandate contacting the TOP service, then they can confirm the success of early medical TOP themselves. Late presentation due to failure to recognize an ongoing pregnancy is rare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of maternal smoking cessation before and during early pregnancy on fetal and childhood growth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2014-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction and childhood obesity, but only a few studies have examined the association of smoking cessation before and during pregnancy with fetal and childhood growth. We examined this association in a prospective cohort study in Japan. Our study included children born between 1991 and 2006 and their mothers. Using a questionnaire, maternal smoking status was recorded at pregnancy. The anthropometric data of the children were collected during a medical check-up at age 3 years. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis stratified by sex. In total, 2663 mothers reported their smoking status during early pregnancy, and data were collected from 2230 (83.7%) children at age 3 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in birth weight (approximately 120-150 g). Body mass index at age 3 years was significantly higher among boys born to smoking mothers than among boys born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with overweight at age 3 years among boys (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.03-5.4). However, among women who stopped smoking in early pregnancy, there was no increase in the risks of a small for gestational age birth or childhood overweight at age 3 years. Children born to mothers who stopped smoking before or during early pregnancy had appropriate fetal and childhood growth.

  20. The cellular immunity and oxidative stress markers in early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Daglar, Korkut; Biberoglu, Ebru; Kirbas, Ayse; Dirican, Aylin Onder; Genc, Metin; Avci, Aslihan; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in cellular immunity and oxidative stress in pregnancy have any association with spontaneous miscarriage. Circulating adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a marker of cellular immunity and malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as markers of T lymphocyte activation and parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were compared between 40 women with early pregnancy loss and another 40 women with ungoing healthy pregnancy. Women with miscarriage had higher serum ADA and GPx levels when compared with women with normal pregnancy (p = 0.034 and p < 0.001, respectively). Although serum MDA level was slightly higher in women with miscarriage, the difference was not significant (p = 0.083). CAT levels were alike in both groups. We have demonstrated an increased cellular immunity and perhaps a compensated oxidative stress related to increased antioxidant activation in women with early spontaneous pregnancy loss.

  1. Experiences of prenatal diagnosis and decision-making about termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jan; Pitt, Penelope; Metcalfe, Sylvia; Halliday, Jane; Menezes, Melody; Fisher, Jane; Hickerton, Chriselle; Petersen, Kerry; McClaren, Belinda

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic technologies and ultrasound screening techniques have increased the ability to predict and diagnose congenital anomalies during pregnancy. As a result more prospective parents than ever before will receive a prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abnormality. Little is known about how Australian women and men experience receiving a prenatal diagnosis and how they make their decision about whether or not to continue the pregnancy. This qualitative study aims to describe parental experiences and examine how best to provide support after a prenatal diagnosis. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 102 women and men approximately six weeks post-diagnosis of fetal abnormality. Data were elicited using a narrative, chronological approach and women (n = 75) and a sample of male partners (n = 27) were separately interviewed. Thematic analysis, involving a rigorous process of qualitative coding, enabled iterative development and validation of emergent themes. Participants identified that the shock of the diagnosis can be lessened when good care is delivered, by provision of: clear, accurate and respectful communication; empathic, non-judgemental, professional support; timely access to further testing and appointments; seamless interactions with services and administration; appropriate choices about invasive testing; acknowledgment of the enormity and unexpected nature of the diagnosis, and of the subsequent decision-making challenges; and discussion of the myriad feelings likely to emerge throughout the process. This study has demonstrated the importance of providing timely access to accurate information and supportive, non-judgemental care for women and their partners following prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abnormality. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Correlates of early pregnancy serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a Peruvian population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Levey, Elizabeth; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations during early pregnancy is lacking. The aim of the study is to examine the correlates of early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. A total of 982 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited in early pregnancy. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relation between BDNF concentrations and continuous covariates. Analysis of variance and generalized linear models were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted BDNF concentrations according to categorical variables. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to determine the factors that influence early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. In bivariate analysis, early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations were positively associated with maternal age (r = 0.16, P < 0.001) and early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.17, P < 0.001), but inversely correlated with gestational age at sample collection (r = -0.21, P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (r = -0.07, P < 0.05). In the multivariable linear regression model, maternal age (β = 0.11, P = 0.001), early pregnancy BMI (β = 1.58, P < 0.001), gestational age at blood collection (β = -0.33, P < 0.001), and serum CRP concentrations (β = -0.57, P = 0.002) were significantly associated with early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. Participants with moderate antepartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10) had lower serum BDNF concentrations compared with participants with no/mild antepartum depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score < 10). Maternal age, early pregnancy BMI, gestational age, and the presence of moderate antepartum depressive symptoms were statistically significantly associated with early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations in low-income Peruvian women. Biological changes of CRP during pregnancy may affect serum

  3. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Håberg, S E; London, S J; Stigum, H; Nafstad, P; Nystad, W

    2009-03-01

    Folate supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to reduce the risk of congenital malformations. Maternal intake of folate supplements during pregnancy might also influence childhood immune phenotypes via epigenetic mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between folate supplements in pregnancy and risk of lower respiratory tract infections and wheeze in children up to 18 months of age. In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, questionnaire data collected at several time points during pregnancy and after birth on 32,077 children born between 2000 and 2005 were used to assess the effects of folate supplements during pregnancy on respiratory outcomes up to 18 months of age, while accounting for other supplements in pregnancy and supplementation in infancy. Folate supplements in the first trimester were associated with increased risk of wheeze and respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. Adjusting for exposure later in pregnancy and in infancy, the relative risk for wheeze for children exposed to folic acid supplements in the first trimester was 1.06 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.10), the relative risk for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.09 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.15) and the relative risk for hospitalisations for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.41). Folic acid supplements in pregnancy were associated with a slightly increased risk of wheeze and lower respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. The results suggest that methyl donors in the maternal diet during pregnancy may influence respiratory health in children consistent with epigenetic mechanisms.

  4. Acute Cutaneous Necrosis: A Guide to Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Karen; Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Fike, Jesse; Stanford, Carol; Hall, John C

    Acute cutaneous necrosis is characterised by a wide range of aetiologies and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, warranting complex considerations in management. Early recognition is imperative in diagnosis and management of sudden gangrenous changes in the skin. This review discusses major causes of cutaneous necrosis, examines the need for early assessment, and integrates techniques related to diagnosis and management. The literature, available via PubMed, on acute cutaneous necrotic syndromes was reviewed to summarise causes and synthesise appropriate treatment strategies to create a clinician's guide in the early diagnosis and management of acute cutaneous necrosis. Highlighted in this article are key features associated with common causes of acute cutaneous necrosis: warfarin-induced skin necrosis, heparin-induced skin necrosis, calciphylaxis, pyoderma gangrenosum, embolic phenomena, purpura fulminans, brown recluse spider bite, necrotising fasciitis, ecthyma gangrenosum, antiphospholipid syndrome, hypergammaglobulinemia, and cryoglobulinemia. This review serves to increase recognition of these serious pathologies and complications, allowing for prompt diagnosis and swift limb- or life-saving management.

  5. GPs' attitudes, awareness, and practice regarding early diagnosis of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shamail; Orrell, Martin; Iliffe, Steve; Gracie, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Background In primary care, the diagnosis of dementia is often delayed and the 2007 National Audit Office Report concluded action was needed to improve patient care and value for money. Aim To investigate the attitudes, awareness, and practice of GPs in England regarding early diagnosis and management of patients with dementia, and perceptions of local specialist services, to identify training or support needs. Design of study Secondary analysis of survey data that capture the above attitudes, awareness, and practice. Setting Online survey, targeting GP members of medeConnect. Method Survey data were obtained using an anonymised online self-completion questionnaire, and then analysed using standard data-analysis software. Results A total of 1011 GPs across the eight English regions responded. Older GPs were more confident in diagnosing and giving advice about dementia, but less likely to feel that early diagnosis was beneficial, and more likely to feel that patients with dementia can be a drain on resources with little positive outcome. Younger GPs were more positive and felt that much could be done to improve quality of life. Attitudes had no correlation with sex. GPs in general felt they had not had sufficient basic and post-qualifying training in dementia, and overall knowledge about dementia was low. Conclusion Much could be done to improve GPs' knowledge of dementia, and the confidence of older GPs could be an educational resource. However, greater experience may create scepticism about early diagnosis because of the perceived poor quality of specialist services. PMID:20849686

  6. “Have no regrets:” Parents' experiences and developmental tasks in pregnancy with a lethal fetal diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Denney-Koelsch, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Significance Lethal fetal diagnoses are made in 2% of all pregnancies. The pregnancy experience is certainly changed for the parents who choose to continue the pregnancy with a known fetal diagnosis but little is known about how the psychological and developmental processes are altered. Methods This longitudinal phenomenological study of 16 mothers and 14 fathers/partners sought to learn the experiences and developmental needs of parents who continue their pregnancy despite the lethal diagnosis. The study was guided by Merleau-Ponty's philosophic view of embodiment. Interviews (N = 90) were conducted with mothers and fathers over time, from mid-pregnancy until 2–3 months post birth. Data analysis was iterative, through a minimum of two cycles of coding, theme identification, within- and cross-case analysis, and the writing of results. Results Despite individual differences, parents were quite consistent in sharing that their overall goal was to “Have no regrets” when all was said and done. Five stages of pregnancy were identified: Pre-diagnosis, Learning Diagnosis, Living with Diagnosis, Birth & Death, and Post Death. Developmental tasks of pregnancy that emerged were 1) Navigating Relationships, 2) Comprehending Implication of the Condition, 3) Revising Goals of Pregnancy, 4) Making the Most of Time with Baby, 5) Preparing for Birth and Inevitable Death, 6) Advocating for Baby with Integrity, and 7) Adjusting to Life in Absence of Baby. Prognostic certainty was found to be highly influential in parents' progression through developmental tasks. Conclusion The framework of parents' pregnancy experiences with lethal fetal diagnosis that emerged can serve as a useful guide for providers who care for families, especially in perinatal palliative care. Providing patient-centered care that is matched to the stage and developmental tasks of these families may lead to improved care and greater parent satisfaction. PMID:26954999

  7. Diagnosis of Pregnancy and Providing Options Counseling for the Adolescent Patient.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Laurie L

    2017-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Options Counseling for the Pregnant Adolescent Patient" recommends the basic content of the pediatrician's counseling for an adolescent facing a new diagnosis of pregnancy. However, options counseling is just one aspect of what may be one of the more challenging scenarios in the pediatric office. Pediatricians must remain alert to the possibility of pregnancy among their adolescent female patients. When discovering symptoms suggestive of pregnancy, pediatricians must obtain a relevant history, perform diagnostic testing and properly interpret the results, and understand the significance of the results from the patient perspective and reveal them to the patient in a sensitive manner. If the patient is indeed pregnant, the pediatrician, in addition to providing comprehensive options counseling, may need to help recruit adult support for the patient and should offer continued assistance to the adolescent and her family after the office visit. All pediatricians should be aware of the legal aspects of adolescent reproductive care and the resources for pregnant adolescents in their communities. This clinical report presents a more comprehensive view of the evaluation and management of pregnancy in the adolescent patient and a context for options counseling. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Matching diagnosis and management of diabetes in pregnancy to local priorities and resources: an international approach.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, H David; Oats, Jeremy J N; Zeck, Willibald; Seshiah, V; Hod, Moshe

    2011-11-01

    The International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups' (IADPSG) criteria for the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy are described and application of these in differing healthcare contexts on a worldwide basis is reported. Existing local protocols and known epidemiologic and clinical data regarding the detection and management of overt diabetes and gestational diabetes in the context of human pregnancy are considered. Although the IADPSG criteria are uniform, their introduction poses a variety of practical and technical challenges in differing healthcare contexts, both between and within countries. Knowledge of local factors will be vital in the implementation of the new guidelines and will require extensive liaison with local clinical and health policy groups. Resource availability will be critical in determining the type of treatment available in this context. The IADPSG criteria offer an important opportunity for a uniform approach to diabetes in pregnancy. Scaled implementation of these criteria adapted to a variety of local healthcare contexts should improve both research endeavors and patient care. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlates of recreational physical activity in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ning, Y; Williams, M A; Dempsey, J C; Sorensen, T K; Frederick, I O; Luthy, D A

    2003-06-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits of a physically active lifestyle, over 25% of American adults report that they never engage in regular recreational physical activity. Little is known about the determinants of physical activity among pregnant women. We investigated the predictors of physical activity in 386 normotensive pregnant women. Participants provided information about the type, frequency and duration of each physical activity performed during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. We calculated odd ratios (OR) for active compared with inactive women using logistic regression models. Approximately 61% of women reported participating in some regular physical activity during pregnancy. Walking, swimming, gardening and jogging were the most common activities. Physical activity as an adolescent (OR 4.0) and during the year before pregnancy (OR 48.9) were the strongest predictors of physical activity in pregnancy. Active women who continued to exercise during pregnancy decreased the average intensity of their exercise and the weekly duration of exercise compared with the year before pregnancy. Nulliparas were twice as likely to engage in physical activity as compared with multiparas. Education and income were positively related with physical activity. Non-White women were 40-60% less likely to engage in physical activity as compared with White women. Smokers were also less likely to engage in physical activity. High protein intake was positively associated with physical activity, while the opposite was true for high carbohydrate intake. The identification of determinants of physical activity in pregnancy has important implications for developing strategies aimed at promoting a physically active lifestyle among young women.

  10. APPLICATION OF NONINVASIVE PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS IN BACTRIAN CAMELS (CAMELUS BACTRIANUS) USING CUBONI REACTION AND BARIUM CHLORIDE TEST.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Tamara; Brandlová, Karolína; Lukešová, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy diagnoses in half-tamed animals are often very complicated. This study aimed to examine the alternative noninvasive and cheap methods of pregnancy diagnosis from urine in domestic Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). Urine from 14 female camels kept in four European zoologic gardens was collected and tested by two chemical tests--Cuboni reaction and barium chloride test. The Cuboni reaction was significantly (P<0.01) affected by the pregnancy status of female camels. The total accuracy of the Cuboni reaction was 70.5% but it increased significantly (P<0.05) in the time leading up to parturition. The accuracy was 100% in the 3rd third of pregnancy. Urine of nonpregnant females did not react with a solution of barium chloride while, contrary to other studies, white precipitates formed mostly (80 to 100%) in urine of pregnant females. This study concluded that the Cuboni reaction is applicable for pregnancy diagnosis in camels.

  11. Are female orphans at risk for early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tia; Peterman, Amber

    2009-06-01

    Female orphans are widely cited as being at risk for early marriage, early childbearing, and risky sexual behavior; however, to date no studies have examined these linkages using population-level data across multiple countries. This study draws from recent Demographic and Health Surveys from ten sub-Saharan African countries to examine the relationship between orphanhood status and measures of early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy among adolescent girls aged 15 to 17. Results indicate that, overall, little association is found between orphanhood and early marriage or teen pregnancy, whereas evidence from seven countries supports associations between orphanhood and early sexual debut. Findings are sensitive to the use of multivariate models, type of orphan, and country setting. Orphanhood status alone may not be a sufficient targeting mechanism for addressing these outcomes in many countries; a broader, multidimensional targeting scheme including orphan type, schooling, and poverty measures would be more robust in identifying and aiding young women at risk.

  12. Calcium supplementation commencing before or early in pregnancy, or food fortification with calcium, for preventing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Manyame, Sarah

    2017-09-26

    Pre-eclampsia is considerably more prevalent in low- than high-income countries. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is dietary differences, particularly calcium deficiency. Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy reduces the serious consequences of pre-eclampsia and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for women with low dietary calcium intake, but has limited effect on the overall risk of pre-eclampsia. It is important to establish whether calcium supplementation before and in early pregnancy has added benefit. Such evidence would be justification for population-level fortification of staple foods with calcium. To determine the effect of calcium supplementation or food fortification with calcium, commenced before or early in pregnancy and continued at least until mid-pregnancy, on pre-eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register (10 August 2017), PubMed (29 June 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (10 August 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of calcium supplementation or food fortification which include women of child bearing age not yet pregnant, or in early pregnancy. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and trials published in abstract form only would have been eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. Cross-over designs are not appropriate for this intervention.The scope of this review is to consider interventions including calcium supplementation with or without additional supplements or treatments, compared with placebo or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. This review is based on one RCT (involving 60 women) which looked at calcium plus additional supplements

  13. Risk Factors and Birth Outcomes of Anaemia in Early Pregnancy in a Nulliparous Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S.; Kenny, Louise C.; Baker, Philip N.; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Objective The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of ‘low risk’ women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. Methods The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization’s definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL). Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work) was the main method of analysis. Results The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. Conclusion In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia’s conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy. PMID:25875012

  14. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    PubMed

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Baker, Philip N; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL). Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work) was the main method of analysis. The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  15. [Coverage by the Family Health Strategy and diagnosis of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis].

    PubMed

    Saraceni, Valéria; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2012-03-01

    This paper aimed to correlate syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis with coverage of the Family Health Strategy (FHS), based on available data in the national health information systems. The syphilis notification estimates were calculated according to the Sentinel Childbirth Study for 2004 under the Ministry of Health and the data were obtained from the websites of the Health Surveillance Secretariat and Healthcare Secretariat, for the year 2008. The ratios between observed and estimated gestational syphilis and congenital syphilis were not statistically correlated with population coverage by the FHS (r = -0.28 and r = -0.40, respectively). The FHS is a privileged area for prenatal care and logically a source of compulsory notification of syphilis in pregnancy. By combining diagnosis with adequate treatment of syphilis in pregnant women and their partners, the FHS becomes a prime instrument for eliminating congenital syphilis in Brazil. Expanding the FHS coverage and quality of care are essential for achieving this goal.

  16. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in early spontaneous pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Hou, W; Yan, X-T; Bai, C-M; Zhang, X-W; Hui, L-Y; Yu, X-W

    2016-09-01

    Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in childbearing aged women and pregnancy loss (PL) in the first trimester. This is a cross-sectional study. Plasma was collected from 60 nulliparous women with singleton at 7-9 weeks of gestation (30 with viable gestation and 30 with PL) and 60 non-gravid childbearing aged women (30 with a successful pregnancy history, and 30 with one or more spontaneous first-trimester PL history). Quantitation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) was assayed. By pregnancy/non-gravid, normal pregnant women had higher 25(OH)D (49.32 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (82.00 pg/ml) than PL women (34.49 μg/l and 37.87 pg/ml, both P<0.01); the non-gravid women with a successful pregnancy history also had higher 25(OH)D (39.56 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (39.04 pg/ml) than women with PL history (12.30 μg/l and 12.35 pg/ml, both P<0.01). The 96.7% of non-gravid women with PL history and 43.3% of PL women had serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 μg/l. There was a strong association between low vitamin D levels and PL (odds ratio 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.4, P<0.001). The regression analyses showed that PL was significantly inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (P<0.01) and CYP27B1 levels (P<0.01). Vitamin D deficiency associated with PL in the first trimester of pregnancy. Decreased serum vitamin D levels among childbearing aged women with the failed clinical pregnancies history may predispose to increased risk for PL.

  17. Sensitivity and Specificity of Biochemical Tests for Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jurate, Kondrackiene; Rimantas, Zalinkevicius; Jolanta, Sumskiene; Vladas, Gintautas; Limas, Kupcinskas

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is linked with increased risk of fetal complications. An accurate diagnostic test is needed to diagnose this disorder on time. We aimed to assess sensitivity and specificity of laboratory tests used for diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and determine more reliable cut-off values of transaminases. Sixty one symptomatic patients with ICP and 29 healthy pregnant women were included in the retrospective analysis. ICP patients had higher total bile acids (TBA) levels than healthy women (32 vs. 6; P < 0.0001) due to increase in cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). CA/CDCA ratio was significantly higher in ICP patients compared to healthy pregnant women (1.13 vs. 0.68; P < 0.00002). TBA, CA, CDCA and CA/CDCA ratio demonstrate the following sensitivity (94%, 96%, 89%, 71.9%) and specificity (63%, 63%, 59%, 79.3%, respectively) for ICP diagnosis. Lowering cut-off values for ALT (31 U/L) and AST (30 U/L) resulted only in minimal increase of sensitivity to 92.2% vs. 90.1% for ALT and to 92.2%, vs. 90.6% for AST. The present study did not reveal any single specific and sensitive marker for reliable diagnosis of ICP. Establishment of lower cut-off values for transaminases activity might only minimally increase the accuracy of diagnosing ICP.

  18. Criteria for screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, Walter; Garcia, Raquel; Pereira, Susana; Akolekar, Ranjit; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2011-01-01

    To propose new cutoffs in plasma glucose levels in screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the first trimester of pregnancy. A 50-gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT) was performed in 1,716 singleton pregnancies at 6-14 weeks' gestation. In those with a positive GCT, a 100-gram glucose tolerance test (GTT) was carried out. The GCT and as necessary the GTT were repeated at 20-30 weeks. The relation of the results of the GCT and GTT at 6-14 weeks to that at 20-30 weeks was examined. The diagnosis of GDM was made in 85 cases. In the GCT, there was a significant association between 1-hour plasma glucose levels at 6-14 weeks and at 20-30 weeks (r = 0.558, p < 0.0001), and in all cases of GDM, the level was 130 mg/dl or more at 6-14 weeks and 140 mg/dl or more at 20-30 weeks. In the GTT, the plasma glucose 1, 2 and 3 h after the 100-gram glucose load at 6-14 weeks was, respectively, 18, 29 and 35% lower than at 20-30 weeks. Effective diagnosis of GDM in the first trimester can be achieved by lowering the GCT and GTT plasma glucose cutoffs. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Two Obese Patients with Presumptive Diagnosis of Anaphylactoid Syndrome of Pregnancy Presenting at a Community Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kradel, Brian K; Hinson, Scarlett B; Smith, Carr J

    2016-07-01

    Anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy (ASP) is a rare but extremely serious complication, with an estimated incidence in North America of 1 in 15 200 deliveries. Despite its rarity, ASP is responsible for approximately 10% of all childbirth-associated deaths in the United States. At present, there is no validated biomarker or specific set of risk factors sufficiently predictive of ASP risk to incorporate into clinical practice. Toward the goal of developing a methodology predictive of an impending ASP event for use by obstetricians, anesthesiologists, and other practitioners participating in infant deliveries, physicians encountering an ASP event have been encouraged to report the occurrence of a case and its biologically plausible risk factors. Herein, we report on 2 patients who presented with a presumptive diagnosis of ASP to the delivery unit of a community hospital. Patient One was a 21-year-old, obese (5'11" tall, 250 lbs., BMI 34.9) white female, 1 pregnancy, no live births (G1P0), estimated gestational age (EGA) 40.2 weeks. Patient Two was a 29-year-old, obese (5'7" tall, 307 lbs., BMI 48.1) Hispanic female, second pregnancy, with 1 previous live birth via C-section (G2P1-0-0-1). Her pregnancy was at gestational age 38 weeks plus 2 days. Patient One had 2 possible risk factors: administration of Pitocin to induce labor and post-coital spotting from recent intercourse. Patient Two suffered premature rupture of the placental membranes. Both Patient One and Patient Two had very high body mass indices (BMIs), at the 97th and 99th percentiles, respectively. In the relatively few cases of anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy described to date, this is the first report of a possible association with high BMI.

  20. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). Placental volume, VI, and VFI during early pregnancy were lower in the miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The effect of early pregnancy on the formation of obstetric fistula.

    PubMed

    Browning, Andrew; Mbise, Frederick; Foden, Phil

    2017-09-01

    To assess the effect of early pregnancy on obstetric fistula. A prospective observational study was conducted among patients with obstetric fistula caused by a long obstructed labor who presented at Selian Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania, or Kitovu Hospital, Uganda, between January 1, 2015, and January 31, 2016. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated. Among 270 patients, 162 (60.0%) experienced their first pregnancy up to 2 years after menarche (early group) and 108 (40.0%) experienced their first pregnancy more than 2 years after menarche (late group). No significant differences between the early and late groups were found for median age at presentation (30.0 vs 28.0 years), median parity (both 2.0), stillbirth (n=145 [89.5%] vs n=95 [88.0%]), median duration of labor (both 2.0 days), home delivery (n=31 [19.1%] vs n=17 [15.7%]), cesarean delivery (n=79 [48.8%] vs 58 [53.7%]), median time from obstetric fistula formation to presentation (48.0 vs 24.0 months), and obstetric fistula classifications. Obstetric fistula occurred during the first pregnancy in 99 (61.1%) women in the early group and 71 (65.7%) in the late group (P=0.440). Frequency of obstetric fistula during the first pregnancy is not increased among women who experience their first pregnancy within 2 years of menarche. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Predictors of successful early infant diagnosis of HIV in a rural district hospital in Zambézia, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca E; Ciampa, Philip J; Sidat, Mohsin; Blevins, Meridith; Burlison, Janeen; Davidson, Mario A; Arroz, Jorge A; Vergara, Alfredo E; Vermund, Sten H; Moon, Troy D

    2011-04-01

    A key challenge inhibiting the timely initiation of pediatric antiretroviral treatment is the loss to follow-up of mothers and their infants between the time of mothers' HIV diagnoses in pregnancy and return after delivery for early infant diagnosis of HIV. We sought to identify barriers to follow-up of HIV-exposed infants in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique. We determined follow-up rates for early infant diagnosis and age at first test in a retrospective cohort of 443 HIV-infected mothers and their infants. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with successful follow-up. Of the 443 mother-infant pairs, 217 (49%) mothers enrolled in the adult HIV care clinic, and only 110 (25%) infants were brought for early infant diagnosis. The predictors of follow-up for early infant diagnosis were larger household size (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.53), independent maternal source of income (OR, 10.8; 95% CI, 3.42-34.0), greater distance from the hospital (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.01-4.51), and maternal receipt of antiretroviral therapy (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.02-9.73). The median age at first test among 105 infants was 5 months (interquartile range, 2-7); 16% of the tested infants were infected. Three of four HIV-infected women in rural Mozambique did not bring their children for early infant HIV diagnosis. Maternal receipt of antiretroviral therapy has favorable implications for maternal health that will increase the likelihood of early infant diagnosis. We are working with local health authorities to improve the linkage of HIV-infected women to HIV care to maximize early infant diagnosis and care.

  3. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2009-01-01

    The impact of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy was investigated in longitudinal studies in the United States (N = 242) and New Zealand (N = 520), in which community samples of girls were followed prospectively from early in life (5 years) to approximately age 18. Greater exposure to father absence was strongly associated with elevated risk for early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. This elevated risk was either not explained (in the U.S. study) or only partly explained (in the New Zealand study) by familial, ecological, and personal disadvantages associated with father absence. After controlling for covariates, there was stronger and more consistent evidence of effects of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy than on other behavioral or mental health problems or academic achievement Effects of father absence are discussed in terms of life-course adversity, evolutionary psychology, social learning, and behavior genetic models. PMID:12795391

  4. Thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in early pregnancy and placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Haddow, James E; McClain, Monica R; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Canick, Jacob A; Malone, Fergal D; Porter, T Flint; Nyberg, David A; Bernstein, Peter S; D'Alton, Mary E

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the relationship between thyroid antibodies and placental abruption. This cohort study assesses thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in relation to placental abruption among 10,062 women with singleton viable pregnancies (from the First and Second Trimester Risk of Aneuploidy [FaSTER] trial). A thyroperoxidase antibody cutoff of 50 international units/mL is used for comparison with published data from another cohort. Women with elevated thyroperoxidase antibody levels in the first and second trimesters have a higher rate of placental abruption than antibody-negative women. This relationship is less strong in the first trimester (1.51% compared with 0.83%; odds ratio [OR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-3.37) than in the second trimester (1.78% compared with 0.82%; OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.21-3.99). A similar, but weaker, relationship is present for thyroglobulin antibodies. Sixty-four of 782 thyroperoxidase antibody-positive pregnancies without abruption become negative by the second trimester; one pregnancy with abruption becomes antibody-positive. Odds ratios for pregnancies with both thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibody elevations are also higher (first trimester: OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 0.91-4.86; second trimester: OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.17-6.33). The present data confirm an association between thyroid antibody elevations and placental abruption described in a recent report. These findings, however, do not provide support for recommending routine testing for thyroid antibodies during pregnancy. II.

  5. Depression, pregnancy-related anxiety and parental-antenatal attachment in couples using preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Winter, C; Van Acker, F; Bonduelle, M; Van Berkel, K; Belva, F; Liebaers, I; Nekkebroeck, J

    2016-06-01

    Do preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) couples experience higher levels of stress during pregnancy and the perinatal period compared with couples who conceive spontaneously (SC) or with ICSI? PGD couples did not experience more psychological stress during pregnancy and beyond than ICSI or SC couples. Previous studies have shown that assisted reproduction technology (ART) couples are more prone to pregnancy-related anxieties than SC couples, but display depressed feelings to an equal or lesser extent. However, only one study has focused on a female PGD sample, which may be a more vulnerable group than other ART groups, due to the potentially complex hereditary background, adverse childhood experiences and losses. In that study, PGD women experienced a reduction in state anxiety, and maternal-antenatal attachment did not differ from normative data. Unfortunately, no data exist on pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and parental-antenatal attachment. Valuable information from both parents (e.g.: couples) is also lacking. For this longitudinal prospective study questionnaire, data from 185 women and 157 men (157 couples) were collected between February 2012 until April 2014. Data were analysed using multilevel analysis. The couples conceiving after PGD, ICSI or SC were followed from the first trimester of the pregnancy until the third month post-partum. A total of 60 PGD, 58 ICSI and 69 SC couples were initially recruited by various departments of Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel). At each trimester (T1: 12-14 weeks, T2: 20-22 weeks, T3: 30-32 weeks) of pregnancy, depression (EPDS), pregnancy-related anxieties (PRAQ) and parental-antenatal attachment (M/PAAS) were recorded. At T4 (3 months post-partum), depression (EPDS) was assessed again. In the first trimester (T1) broad socio-demographic data and at T4 perinatal health data of both mother and child were recorded. Differences between conception groups over time were analysed using multilevel

  6. Early pregnancy factor as a marker for assessing embryonic viability in threatened and missed abortions.

    PubMed

    Shahani, S K; Moniz, C L; Bordekar, A D; Gupta, S M; Naik, K

    1994-01-01

    It is now well recognized that the presence of early pregnancy factor (EPF) can signify the occurrence of fertilization, continuation of pregnancy and the existence of a viable embryo. With this in view, a study was undertaken to observe the potential of EPF as a marker in assessing embryo viability in cases complicated with vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy. The results indicated that the sensitivity of EPF as a marker in predicting threatened or missed abortion was 78.9% and the specificity 95.6%. The positive predictive value was observed to be 93.8% and the negative predictive value 84.6%. Our studies have shown that since EPF is present in viable but absent in non-viable pregnancies, it could be a useful marker of prognostic value in threatened abortions.

  7. Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review.

    PubMed

    van Oppenraaij, R H F; Jauniaux, E; Christiansen, O B; Horcajadas, J A; Farquharson, R G; Exalto, N

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to evaluate the impact of early pregnancy events and complications as predictors of adverse obstetric outcome. METHODS We conducted a literature review on the impact of first trimester complications in previous and index pregnancies using Medline and Cochrane databases covering the period 1980-2008. RESULTS Clinically relevant associations of adverse outcome in the subsequent pregnancy with an odds ratio (OR) > 2.0 after complications in a previous pregnancy are the risk of perinatal death after a single previous miscarriage, the risk of very preterm delivery (VPTD) after two or more miscarriages, the risk of placenta praevia, premature preterm rupture of membranes, VPTD and low birthweight (LBW) after recurrent miscarriage and the risk of VPTD after two or more termination of pregnancy. Clinically relevant associations of adverse obstetric outcome in the ongoing pregnancy with an OR > 2.0 after complications in the index pregnancy are the risk of LBW and very low birthweight (VLBW) after a threatened miscarriage, the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age and low 5-min Apgar score after detection of an intrauterine haematoma, the risk of VPTD and intrauterine growth restriction after a crown-rump length discrepancy, the risk of VPTD, LBW and VLBW after a vanishing twin phenomenon and the risk of PTD, LBW and low 5-min Apgar score in a pregnancy complicated by severe hyperemesis gravidarum. CONCLUSIONS Data from our literature review indicate, by finding significant associations, that specific early pregnancy events and complications are predictors for subsequent adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. Though, some of these associations are based on limited or small uncontrolled studies. Larger population-based controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, identification of these risks will improve obstetric care.

  8. Natural killer cells and regulatory T cells in early pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    SHARMA, SURENDRA

    2015-01-01

    Survival of the allogeneic embryo in the uterus depends on the maintenance of immune tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. The pregnant uterus is replete with activated maternal immune cells. How this immune tolerance is acquired and maintained has been a topic of intense investigation. The key immune cells that predominantly populate the pregnant uterus are natural killer (NK) cells. In normal pregnancy, these cells are not killers, but rather provide a microenvironment that is pregnancy compatible and supports healthy placentation. In placental mammals, an array of highly orchestrated immune elements to support successful pregnancy outcome has been incorporated. This includes active cooperation between maternal immune cells, particularly NK cells, and trophoblast cells. This intricate process is required for placentation, immune regulation and to remodel the blood supply to the fetus. During the past decade, various types of maternal immune cells have been thought to be involved in cross-talk with trophoblasts and in programming immune tolerance. RegulatoryT cells (Tregs) have attracted a great deal of attention in promoting implantation and immune tolerance beyond implantation. However, what has not been fully addressed is how this immune-trophoblast axis breaks down during adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly early pregnancy loss, and in response to unscheduled inflammation. Intense research efforts have begun to shed light on the roles of NK cells and Tregs in early pregnancy loss, although much remains to be unraveled in order to fully characterize the mechanisms underlying their detrimental activity. An increased understanding of host-environment interactions that lead to the cytotoxic phenotype of these otherwise pregnancy compatible maternal immune cells is important for prediction, prevention and treatment of pregnancy maladies, particularly recurrent pregnancy loss. In this review, we discuss relevant information from experimental and human

  9. Cognitive assessments for the early diagnosis of dementia after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Shabiul

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of poststroke dementia (PSD) is important for medical practitioners to customize patient treatment programs based on cognitive consequences and disease severity progression. The aim is to diagnose and detect brain degenerative disorders as early as possible to help stroke survivors obtain early treatment benefits before significant mental impairment occurs. Neuropsychological assessments are widely used to assess cognitive decline following a stroke diagnosis. This study reviews the function of the available neuropsychological assessments in the early detection of PSD, particularly vascular dementia (VaD). The review starts from cognitive impairment and dementia prevalence, followed by PSD types and the cognitive spectrum. Finally, the most usable neuropsychological assessments to detect VaD were identified. This study was performed through a PubMed and ScienceDirect database search spanning the last 10 years with the following keywords: “post-stroke”; “dementia”; “neuro-psychological”; and “assessments”. This study focuses on assessing VaD patients on the basis of their stroke risk factors and cognitive function within the first 3 months after stroke onset. The search strategy yielded 535 articles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, only five articles were considered. A manual search was performed and yielded 14 articles. Twelve articles were included in the study design and seven articles were associated with early dementia detection. This review may provide a means to identify the role of neuropsychological assessments as early PSD detection tests. PMID:25246795

  10. Early complications in bariatric surgery: incidence, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Santo, Marco Aurelio; Pajecki, Denis; Riccioppo, Daniel; Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control. The medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery) were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2%) patients were male and 445 (82.8%) were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46), and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2. Early complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5%) patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%. The incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years.

  11. Preconception B-vitamin and homocysteine status, conception, and early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Venners, Scott A; Xu, Xiping; Chen, Changzhong; Wang, Lihua; Guang, Wenwei; Huang, Aiqun; Wang, Xiaobin

    2007-08-01

    Maternal vitamin status contributes to clinical spontaneous abortion, but the role of B-vitamin and homocysteine status in subclinical early pregnancy loss is unknown. Three-hundred sixty-four textile workers from Anqing, China, who conceived at least once during prospective observation (1996-1998), provided daily urine specimens for up to 1 year, and urinary human chorionic gonadotropin was assayed to detect conception and early pregnancy loss. Homocysteine, folate, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured in preconception plasma. Relative to women in the lowest quartile of vitamin B6, those in the third and fourth quartiles had higher adjusted proportional hazard ratios of conception (hazard ratio (HR)=2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 3.4; HR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.3, respectively), and the adjusted odds ratio for early pregnancy loss in conceptive cycles was lower in the fourth quartile (odds ratio=0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.0). Women with sufficient vitamin B6 had a higher adjusted hazard ratio of conception (HR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and a lower adjusted odds ratio of early pregnancy loss in conceptive cycles (odds ratio=0.7, 95% CI: 0.4, 1.1) than did women with vitamin B6 deficiency. Poor vitamin B6 status appears to decrease the probability of conception and to contribute to the risk of early pregnancy loss in this population.

  12. Fetal bilateral renal agenesis, phocomelia, and single umbilical artery associated with cocaine abuse in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Maki; Chaoui, Rabih; Stallmach, Thomas; Hürlimann, Sandra; Lauper, Urs; Hebisch, Gundula

    2003-11-01

    Maternal cocaine abuse in pregnancy is associated with complications such as intrauterine growth retardation, abruptio placentae, and preterm delivery. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first published observation of fetal bilateral renal agenesis associated with a vascular disruption syndrome comprising upper limb reduction defect and a single umbilical artery following maternal cocaine abuse in early pregnancy. This constellation in a fetus aborted at 18 weeks extends the spectrum of complications possibly associated with cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Measurement of the uterus and gestation sac by ultrasound in early normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chandra, M; Evans, L J; Duff, G B

    1981-01-14

    Uterine volumes measured by two different ultrasonic methods, and gestation sac volumes in early normal pregnancy are reported. The results obtained for uterine volume measurements are compared. Methods using measurements obtained from only a longitudinal scan were simpler but slightly less accurate. Uterine volumes were also calculated in a series of patients with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. The accuracy of the prediction of the outcome of the pregnancy, based solely on uterine volume was 71 percent. Uterine volume measurement is most useful in identifying cases of missed abortion where the period of gestation is known.

  14. Self-reported Vitamin Supplementation in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy. PMID:19372214

  15. Self-reported vitamin supplementation in early pregnancy and risk of miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Reem; Olshan, Andrew F; Herring, Amy H; Savitz, David A; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2009-06-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy.

  16. Prevalence of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in early pregnancy in rural Bangladesh, the MINIMat trial.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Emma; Hossain, Mohammad B; Lönnerdal, Bo; Raqib, Rubhana; El Arifeen, Shams; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies as well as their determinants in early pregnancy. Baseline data from a population-based randomized intervention trial. The study was conducted in Matlab, a sub-district in rural Bangladesh from 1 January to 31 December 2002. Pregnant women (n= 740) were enrolled in approximately week 14 in pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires, physical examinations and laboratory analyses of blood samples for concentrations of hemoglobin, ferritin, zinc, folate and vitamin B-12. Covariates associated with anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in bivariate analyses were evaluated in multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Anemia was present in 28% of the women, 55% were zinc deficient, 46% were vitamin B-12 deficient and 18% were folate deficient. Anemia was not associated with iron deficiency but rather with vitamin B-12 deficiency. Infestation with Ascaris was highly prevalent (67%) and associated with both folate and vitamin B-12 deficiency. Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies all varied significantly with season. The high prevalences of zinc and vitamin B-12 deficiencies in early pregnancy are a concern, as it could lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes and increased health risks for both mother and child. The prevalence of iron deficiency was low, but as this was during early pregnancy, the women might develop iron deficiency and consequently iron deficiency anemia as the pregnancy progresses. © 2010 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2010 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Comfort with motherhood in late pregnancy facilitates maternal role attainment in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuka; Takeishi, Yoko; Ito, Naoko; Ito, Mizuki; Atogami, Fumi; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life, comfort, and wellbeing during pregnancy are essential for every country in the world. Pregnancy is considered a preparation period for becoming a mother. Maternal role development, including confidence and satisfaction as a mother, is important in the transition to motherhood. Negative psychosocial affect, such as increased anxiety and distress, during pregnancy adversely influences the childbirth experience and childcare, which contributes to postpartum depression. However, the impact of positive feelings on the maternal role development remains unclear. Therefore, the study purpose was to clarify the relationship between comfort in late pregnancy and maternal role attainment and childcare during early postpartum. We designed a descriptive, longitudinal, correlational study by using the Prenatal Comfort Scale, the Postpartum Maternal Role Confidence Scale, and the Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Among 339 participants who had received care at a university hospital located in Sendai city in Japan, 215 subjects completed the longitudinal study by answering a questionnaire for the respective Scale late in their pregnancy or during early postpartum. The subjects consisted of 114 primipara (32.0 ± 5.4 years) and 101 multipara (33.4 ± 4.9 years). In primipara, comfort with motherhood was significantly correlated with maternal confidence regarding knowledge and childcare skills and maternal satisfaction. In multipara, comfort in late pregnancy was related to maternal confidence and satisfaction. Positive affect was related to maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction in early postpartum. Therefore, a prenatal nursing intervention helps women become more comfortable with impending motherhood, thereby promoting maternal role attainment after delivery.

  18. Early pregnancy exposure to feto-toxic medications among out-patients in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kabuluzi, Ezereth; Campbell, Malcolm; McGowan, Linda; Chirwa, Ellen; Brabin, Loretta

    2014-08-01

    To estimate the proportion of women in early pregnancy prescribed potentially feto-toxic medications at an out-patient clinic in Malawi. Over six-months the number of women of child-bearing age attending out-patient clinics and prescribed medicines at Mitundu Community Hospital was derived from the hospital's registry and pharmacy records. Women prescribed potentially feto-toxic medicines (using Food and Drug Administration classifications) by medical assessments were subsequently interviewed and pregnancy tested. Exposure to potentially feto-toxic medications was estimated and differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women were described. Of 8970 female outpatients, 1012 (11.3%; 95% CI: 10.6% to 12%) were prescribed potentially feto-toxic medicines. After excluding 740 as unlikely to be pregnant, 209 women had negative pregnancy tests and 63 were confirmed as pregnant, representing one in 16 of women prescribed contraindicated medicines or between 2.8% and 3.5% of all women attending in early pregnancy. Most medicines were FDA rated C or D. Only 152 (55.9%) of these women had been asked about pregnancy and prescribing practices did not discriminate between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. Assessment and prescribing practices for women attending out-patient clinics who might be in early pregnancy were inadequate, increasing the risk of exposure to potentially feto-toxic medicines.

  19. Are women in early pregnancy following the national pyramid recommendations?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J L; Keaveney, E M; O'Connor, N; Cox, M; Regan, A; Shannon, E; Turner, M J

    2011-10-01

    Appropriate nutrition in pregnancy is fundamental for maternal and fetal health, and the long-term physiological wellbeing of the offspring. We aimed to determine whether a sample of pregnant women met the national guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy, and to examine if compliance differs when analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Subjects completed a 24-hr dietary recall, and had their BMI calculated. The mean age was 27.8 years. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg/m2, with 32 (31.7%) subjects overweight and 14 (13.9%) obese based on BMI category. Although the majority of subjects thought that they had a healthy diet, less than half met the recommended guidelines for each individual food group with achievement of the dairy group being particularly low. Achievement of food group recommendations was not influenced by BMI category. Public health messages on healthy eating guidelines need to be clearly communicated to pregnant women.

  20. Factors associated with post-diagnosis pregnancies in women living with HIV in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Pilecco, Flávia Bulegon; Vigo, Álvaro; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho; Knauth, Daniela Riva

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of infection by HIV. Cross-sectional study with women of a reproductive age living with HIV/AIDS cared for in the public services of the city of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil. The data was analyzed from a comparison between two groups: women with and women without pregnancies after the diagnosis of HIV. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the reasons of prevalence (RP). The occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of HIV is associated with a lower level of education (RP adjusted = 1.31; IC95%: 1.03-1.66), non-use of condoms in the first sexual intercourse (RP = 1.32; IC95%: 1.02-1.70), being 20 years old or less when diagnosed with HIV (RP = 3.48; IC95%: 2.02-6.01), and experience of violence related to the diagnosis of HIV (RP = 1.28; IC95%: 1.06-1.56). The occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of infection by HIV does not indicate the exercise of the reproductive rights of the women living with HIV/AIDS because these pregnancies occurred in contexts of great vulnerability.

  1. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558) completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25). Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11), somatic disease (β = 0.11), work related stress (β = 0.10) and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09). Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors. PMID:21401914

  2. Early predictors of nonmarital first pregnancy and abortion.

    PubMed

    Udry, J R; Kovenock, J; Morris, N M

    1996-01-01

    Most research on abortion has focused on women's characteristics at the time of the procedure, but individuals' behavior may also be shaped by their experiences from younger ages. This study uses longitudinal data on 351 California white women aged 27-30 in 1990-1991 to identify characteristics in childhood and adolescence that predict who will have a nonmarital first pregnancy and, of those who do, which women will seek an abortion. Bivariate analyses reveal that psychosocial characteristics indicating a strong sense of autonomy, such as feeling it is important not to be tied down and engaging in socially undesirable behavior, are significantly associated with the likelihood of having a nonmarital first pregnancy (odds ratios of 1.7 and 1.5, respectively), but family characteristics are not. However, among women who have a first pregnancy out of wedlock, the odds of having an abortion are mostly influenced by family rather than psychological characteristics, particularly having been a good student and having a well-educated mother (2.0 and 1.7).

  3. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Metabolomics as a promising tool for early osteoarthritis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, E B; Dos Santos, G C; Duarte, M E L; Moura, V; Aguiar, D P

    2017-09-21

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of disability worldwide, due to progressive articular cartilage loss and degeneration. According to recent research, OA is more than just a degenerative disease due to some metabolic components associated to its pathogenesis. However, no biomarker has been identified to detect this disease at early stages or to track its development. Metabolomics is an emerging field and has the potential to detect many metabolites in a single spectrum using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques or mass spectrometry (MS). NMR is a reproducible and reliable non-destructive analytical method. On the other hand, MS has a lower detection limit and is more destructive, but it is more sensitive. NMR and MS are useful for biological fluids, such as urine, blood plasma, serum, or synovial fluid, and have been used for metabolic profiling in dogs, mice, sheep, and humans. Thus, many metabolites have been listed as possibly associated to OA pathogenesis. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the studies in animal models and humans, regarding the use of metabolomics as a tool for early osteoarthritis diagnosis. The concept of osteoarthritis as a metabolic disease and the importance of detecting a biomarker for its early diagnosis are highlighted. Then, some studies in plasma and synovial tissues are shown, and finally the application of metabolomics in the evaluation of synovial fluid is described.

  5. Impact of a History of Hypertension in Pregnancy on Later Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Dawn C; Kattah, Andrea G; Weissgerber, Tracey L; Agarwal, Sanket; Mielke, Michelle M; Weaver, Amy L; Vaughan, Lisa E; Henkin, Stanislav; Zimmerman, Katherine; Miller, Virginia M; White, Wendy M; Hayes, Sharonne N; Garovic, Vesna D

    2018-05-13

    Atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) produces significant morbidity in women and is typically attributed to cardiac remodeling from multiple causes, particularly hypertension. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPDs) are associated with future hypertension and adverse cardiac remodeling. We evaluated whether women with AF were more likely to have experienced a HPD compared with those without. A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 7566 women who had a live or stillbirth delivery in Olmsted County, Minnesota between 1976 and 1982. AF cases were matched (1:1) to controls based on date of birth, age at first pregnancy, and parity. AF and pregnancy history were confirmed by chart review. We identified 105 AF cases: mean age 57±8 (mean±SD) years, (controls 56±8 years), 32±8 years (controls 31±8 years) after the first pregnancy. Cases were more likely to have obesity during childbearing years, and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary disease, valvular disease, and heart failure at the time of AF diagnosis. Cases were more likely to have a history of HPDs, compared with controls: 28/105 (26.7%) cases versus 12/105 (11.4%) controls, odds ratio: 2.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-6.04). After adjustment for hypertension and obesity, the association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant; odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 2.12 (0.92-5.23). Women with AF are more likely to have had a HPD, a relationship at least partially mediated by associated obesity and hypertension. Given the high morbidity of AF, studies evaluating the benefit of screening for and management of cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of HPD should be performed. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Serum ferritin thresholds for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Daru, J; Allotey, J; Peña-Rosas, J P; Khan, K S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review was to understand the landscape of serum ferritin in diagnosing iron deficiency in the aetiology of anaemia in pregnancy. Iron deficiency in pregnancy is a major public health problem leading to the development of anaemia. Reducing the global prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age is a 2025 global nutrition target. Bone marrow aspiration is the gold standard test for iron deficiency but requires an invasive procedure; therefore, serum ferritin is the most clinically useful test. We undertook a systematic search of electronic databases and trial registers from inception to January 2016. Studies of iron or micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy with pre-defined serum ferritin thresholds were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and assessed quality. There were 76 relevant studies mainly of observational study design (57%). The most commonly used thresholds of serum ferritin for the diagnosis of iron deficiency were <12 and <15 ng mL -1 (68%). Most primary studies provided no justification for the choice of serum ferritin threshold used, but 25 studies (33%) used thresholds defined by expert consensus in a guideline development process. There were five studies (7%) using a serum ferritin threshold defining iron deficiency derived from primary studies of bone marrow aspiration. Unified international thresholds of iron deficiency for women throughout pregnancy are required for accurate assessments of the global disease burden and for evaluating effectiveness of interventions addressing this problem. © 2017 World Health Organization licensed by Transfusion Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. The role of thyroid hormone in trophoblast function, early pregnancy maintenance, and fetal neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Noriyuki; Tsujino, Taro; Maruo, Takeshi

    2004-11-01

    To review the literature on the roles of thyroid hormone in trophoblast function, early pregnancy maintenance, and fetal neurodevelopment. MEDLINE was searched for English-language papers published from 1971 to 2003, using the key words "brain," "hypothyroidism," "placenta," "pregnancy," "threatened abortion," "thyroid hormone," "thyroid hormone receptor," "thyroid hormone replacement therapy," "thyroid hormone-responsive gene," and "trophoblast." Transplacental transfer of thyroid hormone occurs before the onset of fetal thyroid hormone secretion. Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in the placenta and the fetal central nervous system early in pregnancy, and thyroid hormone plays a crucial role both in trophoblast function and fetal neurodevelopment. Maternal hypothyroxinemia is associated with a high rate of spontaneous abortion and long-term neuropsychological deficits in children born of hypothyroid mothers. Maternal iodine deficiency also causes a wide spectrum of neuropsychological disorders in children, ranging from subclinical deficits in cognitive motor and auditory functions to hypothyroid-induced cognitive impairment in infants. However, these conditions are preventable when iodine supplementation is initiated before the second trimester. Although thyroid hormone replacement therapy is effective for reducing the adverse effects complicated by maternal hypothyroidism, the appropriate dose of thyroid hormone is mandatory in protecting the early stage of pregnancy. Close monitoring of maternal thyroid hormone status and ensuring adequate maternal thyroid hormone levels in early pregnancy are of great importance to prevent miscarriage and neuropsychological deficits in infants.

  8. Sleep disturbance and cardiometabolic risk factors in early pregnancy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Haney, Alyssa; Buysse, Daniel J; Rosario, Bedda L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Okun, Michele L

    2014-04-01

    Cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors are linked to increased morbidity. Disturbed sleep is associated with CM risk factors in late pregnancy, but little is known about sleep in early pregnancy and CM risk factors. Diary and actigraphy-assessed sleep information, as well as CM outcomes (blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI)), were collected thrice from pregnant women (N=161) in early pregnancy: T1 (10-12 weeks), T2 (14-16 weeks) and T3 (18-20 weeks). The sleep variables evaluated included sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO) and total sleep time (TST). Sleep variables were dichotomised using established clinical cut-offs. BMI and BP significantly changed across time. Women with persistent SOL≥20 min had greater BMI than women without persistent SOL≥20 min prior to covariate adjustment at T1 and T2, but at T3 the BMI values converged. Similar results were observed for persistent WASO≥30 min. Persistently long WASO, as measured by actigraphy, was associated with elevated SBP, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with anecdotal evidence, it appears as if a subset of women report substantial difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep during early pregnancy and this may augment the risk of higher BP and BMI. Understanding these relationships is important as CM risk factors are linked to maternal and infant morbidity. Assessing sleep in early pregnancy may bestow time necessary for appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for early malaria diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chengzhong; Carey, Kai A; Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Menyaev, Yulian A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Stumhofer, Jason S; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2016-06-01

    In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has already demonstrated a great potential for the diagnosis of deadly diseases through ultrasensitive detection of rare disease-associated circulating markers in whole blood volume. Here, we demonstrate the first application of this powerful technique for early diagnosis of malaria through label-free detection of malaria parasite-produced hemozoin in infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as high-contrast PA agent. The existing malaria tests using blood smears can detect the disease at 0.001-0.1% of parasitemia. On the contrary, linear PAFC showed a potential for noninvasive malaria diagnosis at an extremely low level of parasitemia of 0.0000001%, which is ∼10(3) times better than the existing tests. Multicolor time-of-flight PAFC with high-pulse repetition rate lasers at wavelengths of 532, 671, and 820 nm demonstrated rapid spectral and spatial identification and quantitative enumeration of individual iRBCs. Integration of PAFC with fluorescence flow cytometry (FFC) provided real-time simultaneous detection of single iRBCs and parasites expressing green fluorescence proteins, respectively. A combination of linear and nonlinear nanobubble-based multicolor PAFC showed capability to real-time control therapy efficiency by counting of iRBCs before, during, and after treatment. Our results suggest that high-sensitivity, high-resolution ultrafast PAFC-FFC platform represents a powerful research tool to provide the insight on malaria progression through dynamic study of parasite-cell interactions directly in bloodstream, whereas portable hand-worn PAFC device could be broadly used in humans for early malaria diagnosis. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana

    2011-06-01

    To investigate high-anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, 260 Portuguese couples (N = 520) filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the first, second, and third pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety (STAI-S ≥ 45) in women (13.1%; 12.2%; 18.2%; 18.6%; 4.7%) and men (10.1%; 8.0%, 7.8%; 8.5%; 4.4%) and for depression (EPDS ≥ 10) in women (20.0%, 19.6%, 17.4%, 17.6%; 11.1%) and men (11.3%; 6.6%; 5.5%; 7.5%; 7.2%) were high. Rates for depression were higher than rates for high-anxiety only in women during early pregnancy and the postpartum, but not at the third pregnancy trimester and childbirth. Rates for high-anxiety and depression were higher in women than in men during pregnancy/childbirth, but not at 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety but not rates for depression were higher during pregnancy/childbirth compared to 3-months postpartum and only in women. Considering that 15.9% of the parents-to-be were highly anxious and/or depressed during pregnancy-comparing to 9.3% at 3-months postpartum-particular attention should be drawn to both women's and men's mental health early in pregnancy.

  11. Impact of demographic factors, early family relationships and depressive symptomatology in teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Tan, Louisa H; Steele, Angela; Black, Kirsten

    2004-04-01

    Teenage pregnancy has been well studied from a demographic risk perspective, but less data examining the early interpersonal family experiences of teenage mothers are available. We aimed to explore the relative impact of demographic, early interpersonal family relationships and depressive symptomatology as associations for teenage, as compared to non-teenage, childbearing. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. Data from consecutive teenage (teenage) and non-teenage (control) subgroups of antenatal women were compared. Subjects were interviewed and completed the following questionnaires: demographic, drug use and lifestyle; early life experiences; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and General Health Questionnaire-28. In multivariate analysis, the following factors had a significant independent association with younger age of motherhood in order of magnitude: a history of parental separation/divorce in early childhood; exposure to family violence in early childhood; illicit drug use (ever or in pregnancy); idealization of the pregnancy; low family income; a positive HADS-A or HADS-D subscale score; and a low level of education. Interventions to reduce the rate of teenage births need to be multifocal and should include strategies to address early childhood exposure to parental separation and violence, reduce idealization of pregnancy, diagnose psychological symptomatology and offer alternative career choices to children defaulting in the education system.

  12. Associations of early pregnancy sleep duration with trimester-specific blood pressures and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle A; Miller, Raymond S; Qiu, Chunfang; Cripe, Swee May; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated the influence of maternal self-reported habitual sleep duration during early pregnancy on blood pressure (BP) levels and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Prospective cohort study. Clinic-based study. A cohort of 1,272 healthy, pregnant women. We abstracted maternal antenatal BP values from medical records and estimated mean BP differences across hours of sleep categories in regression models, using generalized estimating equations. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia (PE) in relation to long and short sleep duration were estimated. Mean 1st and 2nd trimester systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP values were similar among women reporting to be short sleepers (< or = 6 h) vs. women reporting to sleep 9 hours. However, both short and long sleep duration in early pregnancy were associated with increased mean 3rd trimester SBP and DBP. For example, mean 3rd trimester SBP was 3.72, and 2.43 mm Hg higher for women reporting < or = 6 h and 7-8 h sleep, respectively, compared with women reporting 9 h of sleep. Mean 3rd trimester SBP was 4.21 mm Hg higher for women reporting long sleep (> or = 10 h) vs. the reference group. Short and long sleep durations were associated with increased risks of PIH and PE. The ORs for very short (< 5 h) and long (> or = 10 h) sleepers were 9.52 (95% CI 1.83 to 49.40) and 2.45 (95% CI 0.74 to 8.15) for PE. Our findings are consistent with a larger literature that documents elevated blood pressure and increased risks of hypertension with short and long sleep duration.

  13. The Lin28/Let-7 System in Early Human Embryonic Tissue and Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7–9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤6-weeks) and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤6-weeks) of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (de)regulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans. PMID:24498170

  14. Optimized smith waterman processor design for breast cancer early diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin, D. S.; Isa, M. N.; Ismail, R. C.; Ahmad, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an optimized design of Processing Element (PE) of Systolic Array (SA) which implements affine gap penalty Smith Waterman (SW) algorithm on the Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX75T Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) sequence alignment. The PE optimization aims to reduce PE logic resources to increase number of PEs in FPGA for higher degree of parallelism during alignment matrix computations. This is useful for aligning long DNA-based disease sequence such as Breast Cancer (BC) for early diagnosis. The optimized PE architecture has the smallest PE area with 15 slices in a PE and 776 PEs implemented in the Virtex - 6 FPGA.

  15. Videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology: early experience.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, D. A.; Hasan, A.; Forty, J.; Morritt, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    We report our experience using the new technique of videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology. In the last 12 months, 40 patients (24 male; 16 female) have undergone investigation by this method. Lung biopsy has been performed in 17 patients, pleural biopsy in 20 patients and mediastinal biopsy in three patients. The majority had been referred after other investigations had been inconclusive. All biopsies were diagnostic except one mediastinal biopsy. This early experience suggests that videothoracoscopic biopsy is a well-tolerated technique with high diagnostic yield. PMID:8154806

  16. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries.

    PubMed

    Wall, Kristin M; Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H; Latka, Mary H; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A; Price, Matt A

    2017-03-01

    Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted.

  17. Parental decisions to abort or continue a pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in a setting where termination of pregnancy is not legally available.

    PubMed

    Quadrelli, Roberto; Quadrelli, Andrea; Mechoso, Búrix; Laufer, Mauricio; Jaumandreu, Ciro; Vaglio, Alicia

    2007-03-01

    To learn about parental decisions to abort or continue a pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities among the population in Uruguay. Between 1982 and 2003, 14 656 amniocentesis and 2740 chorionic villus samplings were performed in a referral Genetic Unit. Chromosomal anomalies were found in 376 cases (2.16%) and included Down syndrome, aneuploidies in which a severe prognosis was expected, sex chromosome aneuploidy and aneuploidies with a low risk of an abnormal clinical phenotype. The couples that received abnormal results were contacted by phone and asked if they had continued or interrupted the pregnancy after the diagnosis and genetic counseling. We contacted 207 couples (55%). When confronted with Down syndrome or an aneuploidy in which a severe prognosis was expected, 89% and 96% of patients, respectively, decided to terminate the pregnancy. When confronted with sex chromosome aneuploidy or aneuploidies with a low risk of an abnormal clinical phenotype, 79% and 90% of patients, respectively, decided to continue the pregnancy. The present study shows that when faced with an anomaly such as Down syndrome and aneuploidies in which a severe prognosis was expected, most of the couples decided to terminate the pregnancy, although TOP is not legally available in Uruguay. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Pregnancy continuation and organizational religious activity following prenatal diagnosis of a lethal fetal defect are associated with improved psychological outcome.

    PubMed

    Cope, Heidi; Garrett, Melanie E; Gregory, Simon; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the psychological impact, specifically symptoms of grief, post-traumatic stress and depression, in women and men who either terminated or continued a pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis of a lethal fetal defect. This project investigated a diagnostically homogeneous group composed of 158 women and 109 men who lost a pregnancy to anencephaly, a lethal neural tube defect. Participants completed the Perinatal Grief Scale, Impact of Event Scale - Revised and Beck Depression Inventory-II, which measure symptoms of grief, post-traumatic stress and depression, respectively. Demographics, religiosity and pregnancy choices were also collected. Gender-specific analysis of variance was performed for instrument total scores and subscales. Women who terminated reported significantly more despair (p = 0.02), avoidance (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.04) than women who continued the pregnancy. Organizational religious activity was associated with a reduction in grief (Perinatal Grief Scale subscales) in both women (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 and p = 0.03) and men (p = 0.047). There appears to be a psychological benefit to women to continue the pregnancy following a lethal fetal diagnosis. Following a lethal fetal diagnosis, the risks and benefits, including psychological effects, of termination and continuation of pregnancy should be discussed in detail with an effort to be as nondirective as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Early diagnosis of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Casaroto, Ana R; Loures, Daniela C N Rocha; Moreschi, Eduardo; Veltrini, Vanessa C; Trento, Cleverson L; Gottardo, Vilmar D; Lara, Vanessa S

    2011-01-25

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the KCOTs are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This article paper reports the case of a patient, a 10-year-old boy with NBCCS, emphasizing its clinical and radiographic manifestations. This study highlights the importance of health professionals in the early diagnosis of NBCCS and in a preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  20. Stages of syphilis in South China - a multilevel analysis of early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ngai Sze; Huang, Shujie; Zheng, Heping; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Peizhen; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Li Gang; Goh, Beng Tin; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-31

    Early diagnosis of syphilis and timely treatment can effectively reduce ongoing syphilis transmission and morbidity. We examined the factors associated with the early diagnosis of syphilis to inform syphilis screening strategic planning. In an observational study, we analyzed reported syphilis cases in Guangdong Province, China (from 2014 to mid-2015) accessed from the national case-based surveillance system. We categorized primary and secondary syphilis cases as early diagnosis and categorized latent and tertiary syphilis as delayed diagnosis. Univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify the factors associated with early diagnosis. We also examined the factors associated with early diagnosis at the individual and city levels in multilevel logistic regression models with cases nested by city (n = 21), adjusted for age at diagnosis and gender. Among 83,944 diagnosed syphilis cases, 22% were early diagnoses. The city-level early diagnosis rate ranged from 7 to 46%, consistent with substantial geographic variation as shown in the multilevel model. Early diagnosis was associated with cases presenting to specialist clinics for screening, being male and attaining higher education level. Cases received syphilis testing in institutions and hospitals, and diagnosed in hospitals were less likely to be in early diagnosis. At the city-level, cases living in a city equipped with more hospitals per capita were less likely to be early diagnosis. To enhance early diagnosis of syphilis, city-specific syphilis screening strategies with a mix of passive and client/provider-initiated testing might be a useful approach.

  1. Association of increased S100A8 serum protein with early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rohini R; Khanna, Anuradha; Singh, Kiran

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of systemic S100A8 protein in menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and early pregnancy loss (EPL) is not known. Altered expression of S100A8 in maternal decidua is associated with recurrent early pregnancy loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the systemic level of S100A8 in different phases of menstrual cycle, different trimester of pregnancy, and in EPL. Level of S100A8 was investigated in serum samples of the subjects through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). S100A8 levels were elevated during proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. We found no statistical difference in S100A8 level in different trimester of pregnancy. S100A8 level was found to be significantly elevated in patients with EPL. This is the first study evaluating the systemic level of S100A8 predicting its role during menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It opens a new perspective in which S100A8 can be used as a prognostic marker for EPL. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The use of iloprost in early pregnancy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Elliot, C A; Stewart, P; Webster, V J; Mills, G H; Hutchinson, S P; Howarth, E S; Bu'lock, F A; Lawson, R A; Armstrong, I J; Kiely, D G

    2005-07-01

    In patients with pulmonary hypertension, pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal death. Such patients are counselled to avoid pregnancy, or if it occurs, are offered early interruption. Some patients, however, decide to continue with their pregnancy and others may present with symptoms for the first time whilst pregnant. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy provides a treatment option for these high-risk patients. The present study describes three patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of various aetiologies who were treated with the prostacyclin analogue iloprost during pregnancy, and the post-partum period. Nebulised iloprost commenced as early as 8 weeks of gestation and patients were admitted to hospital between 24-36 weeks of gestation. All pregnancies were completed with a duration of between 25-36 weeks and all deliveries were by caesarean section under local anaesthetic. All patients delivered children free from congenital abnormalities, and there was no post-partum maternal or infant mortality. In conclusion, although pregnancy is strongly advised against in those with pulmonary hypertension, the current authors have achieved a successful outcome for mother and foetus with a multidisciplinary approach and targeted pulmonary vascular therapy.

  3. Early prediction of hypertension during pregnancy in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manisha; Gupta, Usha; Bhattacharjee, Jayashree; Singh, Ritu; Singh, Shalini; Goel, Manish; Sharma, Karuna; Rehman, Mujeeb U

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the role of maternal factors, biomarkers, and uterine-artery Doppler in the prediction of hypertension during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was performed between December 2012 and November 2014. All singleton pregnancies between 11 weeks and 13 weeks, 6 days of pregnancy were included. Patients had their body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), mean arterial pressure, uterine-artery Doppler pulsatility index, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels recorded. Any patients diagnosed with hypertension during follow-up were assigned to the case cohort; all other patients were assigned to the control group. Hypertension during pregnancy was observed in 198 (9.7%) of 2042 patients that attended follow-up. The mean BMI, mean arterial pressure, uterine-artery Doppler pulsatility index, and the PAPP-A level at study enrollment were all significantly correlated with the later development of hypertension (P<0.001 for all variables). The combined sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of using the investigated parameters to predict hypertension was 76%, 80%, 31%, and 93%, respectively. Patient BMI, mean arterial pressure, PAPP-A, and pulsatility index were found to be effective predictors of hypertension during pregnancy. Combining these predictors may be beneficial in selecting individuals for close monitoring and early intervention during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of successful early infant diagnosis of HIV in a rural district hospital in Zambézia, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Rebecca E.; Ciampa, Philip J.; Sidat, Mohsin; Blevins, Meridith; Burlison, Janeen; Davidson, Mario A.; Arroz, Jorge A.; Vergara, Alfredo E.; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A key challenge inhibiting the timely initiation of pediatric antiretroviral treatment is the loss to follow-up of mothers and their infants between the time of mothers' HIV diagnoses in pregnancy and return after delivery for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV. We sought to identify barriers to follow-up of HIV-exposed infants in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Methods We determined follow-up rates for early infant diagnosis and age at first test in a retrospective cohort of 443 HIV-infected mothers and their infants. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with successful follow-up. Results Of the 443 mother-infant pairs, 217 (49%) mothers enrolled in the adult HIV care clinic, and only 110 (25%) infants were brought for early infant diagnosis. The predictors of follow-up for EID were larger household size (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.53), independent maternal source of income (OR=10.8; 95% CI, 3.42-34.0), greater distance from the hospital (OR=2.14; 95% CI, 1.01-4.51) and maternal receipt of ART (OR=3.15; 95% CI, 1.02-9.73). The median age at first test among 105 infants was 5 months (interquartile range 2 to 7); 16% of the tested infants were infected. Conclusions Three of four HIV-infected women in rural Mozambique did not bring their children for early infant HIV diagnosis. Maternal receipt of ART has favorable implications for maternal health that will increase the likelihood of early infant diagnosis. We are working with local health authorities to improve the linkage of HIV-infected women to HIV care to maximize early infant diagnosis and care. PMID:21266912

  5. The role of pregnancy awareness on female sexual function in early gestation.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, Aytul; Bakir, Vuslat Lale; Akbayir, Ozgur; Cilesiz Goksedef, Behiye Pinar; Akca, Aysu

    2012-07-01

    Female sexual function is negatively influenced by pregnancy due to the physical and emotional changes. Although the most significant effect is seen in the third trimester of pregnancy, a considerable decrease in the frequency of intercourse and sexual desire in the first trimester has also been shown. To investigate the factors that affect sexuality in early pregnancy and the impact of awareness of pregnancy on female sexual function in the first trimester of pregnancy using two self-reported questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, 130 healthy, married pregnant women who were admitted to the gynecology clinic between the 4th and 10th week of gestation were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire and the female sexual function index (FSFI). The factors associated with FSFI score and monthly sexual activity frequency in the first trimester, as well as the differences in sexual activity frequency and FSFI scores between the women who were previously aware of their pregnancy and those who were yet unaware of their pregnancy. Women who were unaware of their pregnancy had significantly higher coitus frequency in comparison with the aware group (P = 0.002). Total FSFI score was 21.99 ± 8.13 in the aware group and 24.66 ± 3.76 in the unaware group (P = 0.02). None of the obstetric and sociodemographic variables had an influence on desire and pain scores. Arousal, lubrication, and satisfaction scores were adversely affected by awareness of pregnancy. Orgasm scores were influenced negatively by awareness and positively by love marriage; however, in multivariate linear regression analysis none of these were defined as independent factor for orgasm scores. Overall FSFI scores and monthly frequency of sexual activity were only affected by awareness. The results of this study suggest that in early gestation, awareness of pregnancy is associated with lower female sexual function. Furthermore, obstetric and sociodemographic factors seem to be

  6. [Thinking about the present primary open angle glaucoma early diagnosis concepts and methods].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zeqin

    2014-05-01

    Early diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma has not been clear and consistent in concepts and methods. At present, according to the pathophysiology process of optic nerve damage and its detection technology, early diagnosis on the concept still belongs to the early clinical diagnosis instead of preclinical diagnosis, and on the method depends on the fundus as morphological index combined with the visual field as functional index. The direction of early clinical diagnosis mainly lies in exploring more effective diagnosis index, rather than blindly adopt new diagnostic technology.

  7. Utility of metabolic profiling of serum in the diagnosis of pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Powell, Katie L; Carrozzi, Anthony; Stephens, Alexandre S; Tasevski, Vitomir; Morris, Jonathan M; Ashton, Anthony W; Dona, Anthony C

    2018-06-01

    Currently there are no clinical screening tests available to identify pregnancies at risk of developing preeclampsia (PET) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), both of which are associated with abnormal placentation. Metabolic profiling is now a stable analytical platform used in many laboratories and has successfully been used to identify biomarkers associated with various pathological states. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to metabolically profile serum samples collected from 143 pregnant women at 26-41 weeks gestation with pregnancy outcomes of PET, IUGR, PET IUGR or small for gestational age (SGA) that were age-matched to normal pre/term pregnancies. Spectral analysis found no difference in the measured metabolites from normal term, pre-term and SGA samples, and of 25 identified metabolites, only glutamate was marginally different between groups. Of the identified metabolites, 3-methylhistidine, creatinine, acetyl groups and acetate, were determined to be independent predictors of PET and produced area under the curves (AUC) = 0.938 and 0.936 for the discovery and validation sets. Only 3-hydroxybutyrate was determined to be an independent predictor of IUGR, however the model had low predictive power (AUC = 0.623 and 0.581 for the discovery and validation sets). A sub-panel of metabolites had strong predictive power for identifying PET samples in a validation dataset, however prediction of IUGR was more difficult using the identified metabolites. NMR based metabolomics can identify metabolites strongly associated with disease and has the potential to be useful in developing early clinical screening tests for at risk pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonatal autonomic function after pregnancy complications and early cardiovascular development.

    PubMed

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Oster, Julien; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Yu, Grace Z; Siepmann, Timo; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B; Leeson, Paul

    2018-05-23

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a predictor of later cardiac risk. This study tested whether pregnancy complications that may have long-term offspring cardiac sequelae are associated with differences in HRV at birth, and whether these HRV differences identify abnormal cardiovascular development in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight sleeping neonates had 5-min electrocardiogram recordings at birth. Standard time and frequency domain parameters were calculated and related to cardiovascular measures at birth and 3 months of age. Increasing prematurity, but not maternal hypertension or growth restriction, was associated with decreased HRV at birth, as demonstrated by a lower root mean square of the difference between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD) and low (LF) and high-frequency power (HF), with decreasing gestational age (p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated a relative imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, compared to the term infants. However, differences in autonomic function did not predict cardiovascular measures at either time point. Altered cardiac autonomic function at birth relates to prematurity rather than other pregnancy complications and does not predict cardiovascular developmental patterns during the first 3 months post birth. Long-term studies will be needed to understand the relevance to cardiovascular risk.

  9. Some Limitations for Early Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Infection by PCR.

    PubMed

    Volta, Bibiana Julieta; Perrone, Alina Elizabet; Rivero, Rocío; Scollo, Karenina; Bustos, Patricia Laura; Bua, Jacqueline

    2018-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi , the causing agent of Chagas disease, can be transmitted to the offspring of infected pregnant women, thus being an epidemiologically important way of parasite transmission in humans. In addition, the migration of infected women from endemic areas to nonendemic countries may export this parasite infection. The diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease relies on the detection of the parasite because maternal antibodies are passively transferred to infants during pregnancy. The diagnosis of congenital infection can also be confirmed by detection of infant-specific anti- T cruzi antibodies at 10 months after delivery. Because early detection of T cruzi infection in newborns allows an efficient trypanocidal treatment and cure, more sensitive molecular techniques such as DNA amplification are being used for a prompt parasitological diagnosis of children born to seropositive mothers. In this report, we describe a diagnosis case of a child congenitally infected with T cruzi who tested negative for parasite detection both by microscopic observation and DNA amplification at 20 days and 6 months after delivery. However, at 7 months of age, a hemoculture was made from the infant's blood, and the infective parasite was finally isolated and classified as T cruzi discrete typing unit I. In a retrospective study, real-time polymerase chain reaction also allowed detecting the parasite but failed to detect any parasite load in earlier control samples. This case report stresses that even when molecular techniques are negative, a long-term follow-up is necessary for the diagnosis of infants congenitally infected with T cruzi . Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Can we improve the prevention and detection of congenital abnormalities? An audit of early pregnancy care in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Arroll, Nicola; Sadler, Lynn; Stone, Peter; Masson, Vicki; Farquhar, Cindy

    2013-08-16

    To determine whether there were "quality gaps" in the provision of care during pregnancies that resulted in a perinatal death due to congenital abnormality. Perinatal deaths from congenital cardiovascular, central nervous system or chromosomal abnormality in 2010 were identified retrospectively. Data were extracted by retrospective clinical note review and obtained by independent review of ultrasound scans. There were 137 perinatal deaths due to a congenital cardiovascular (35), central nervous system (29) or chromosomal abnormality (73). First contact with a health professional during pregnancy was predominantly with a general practitioner. First contact occurred within 14 weeks in 85% of pregnancies and there was often a significant delay before booking. Folate supplements were taken by 7% pre-conceptually and 54% of women in the antenatal period. There were 20 perinatal deaths from neural tube defects that could potentially have been prevented through the use of pre-conceptual folate. Antenatal screening was offered to 75% of the women who presented prior to 20 weeks and 84% of these undertook at least one of the available antenatal screening tests. Review of ultrasound images found five abnormalities could have been detected earlier. Delay in booking or failure to offer screening early were the most common reasons for delay in diagnosis of screen detectable abnormalities. The preventative value and timing of (pre-conceptual) folate needs emphasis.

  11. Chlorophyll as a biomarker for early disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor Atta, Babar; Saleem, M.; Ali, Hina; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Imran; Ahmed, M.

    2018-06-01

    The current study was designed to identify the stage for the diagnosis of disease before visible symptoms appeared. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been employed to identify disease signatures for its early diagnosis in rice plant leaves. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) diseased and healthy leaf samples were collected from the rice fields in September, 2017 which were then used to record spectra using an excitation wavelength at 410 nm. The spectral range of emission was set from 420 to 800 nm which covers the blue–green and the chlorophyll bands. It was found that diseased leaves have a narrower ‘chlorophyll a’ band than healthy ones, and furthermore, that the emission band at 730 nm was either declined or depleted in the sample with high infection symptoms. In contrast, the blue–green region was observed to increase due to the emergence of disease. As the band intensity of chlorophyll decreases during infection, this decrease in chlorophyll content and increase in the blue–green spectral region could provide a new approach for predicting BLB at an early stage. The important finding was that the chlorophyll degradation and rise in the blue–green region take place in leaves with BLB or during BLB infection. Principal component analysis has been applied to spectral data which successfully separated diseased samples from healthy ones even with very small spectral variations.

  12. Gestational hypothyroidism: development of mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy in previously euthyroid women.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Karen R; Cataldo, Nicholas A; Hubbard, Janice A; Malizia, Beth A; Steinkampf, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    To determine the proportion of euthyroid women attending a fertility practice who develop hypothyroidism in very early pregnancy (gestational hypothyroidism [GHT]), and to examine the association of GHT with exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Retrospective cohort study. A private reproductive medicine practice. All healthy women (N = 94) with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss, TSH level <2.5 mIU/L, negative thyroid peroxidase antibodies at initial evaluation, and not taking thyroid medication, who conceived during an 18-month period. Usual fertility care; 30 women who had received exogenous gonadotropins. Serum TSH level at the time of pregnancy detection. Gestational hypothyroidism (TSH ≥ 2.5 mIU/L) developed in 23 of 94 women (24%). The mean increase in serum TSH level from initial evaluation to early pregnancy was 0.45 ± 0.08 [SE] mIU/L. There was a trend toward the association of GHT with use of exogenous gonadotropins. Gestational hypothyroidism was positively associated with initial prepregnancy TSH level. Euthyroid women may develop mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy, especially after exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Appropriate vigilance will allow for timely levothyroxine treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breath analysis based on micropreconcentrator for early cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.

  14. Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of pregnancy diagnosis using transrectal ultrasonography and ELISA for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in dairy cows using a Bayesian latent class model.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of pregnancy diagnosis using transrectal ultrasonography and an ELISA for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) in milk, in lactating dairy cows in seasonally calving herds approximately 85-100 days after the start of the herd's breeding period. Paired results were used from pregnancy diagnosis using transrectal ultrasonography and ELISA for PAG in milk carried out approximately 85 and 100 days after the start of the breeding period, respectively, from 879 cows from four herds in Victoria, Australia. A Bayesian latent class model was used to estimate the proportion of cows pregnant, the Se and Sp of each test, and covariances between test results in pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Prior probability estimates were defined using beta distributions for the expected proportion of cows pregnant, Se and Sp for each test, and covariances between tests. Markov Chain Monte Carlo iterations identified posterior distributions for each of the unknown variables. Posterior distributions for each parameter were described using medians and 95% probability (i.e. credible) intervals (PrI). The posterior median estimates for Se and Sp for each test were used to estimate positive predictive and negative predictive values across a range of pregnancy proportions. The estimate for proportion pregnant was 0.524 (95% PrI = 0.485-0.562). For pregnancy diagnosis using transrectal ultrasonography, Se and Sp were 0.939 (95% PrI = 0.890-0.974) and 0.943 (95% PrI = 0.885-0.984), respectively; for ELISA, Se and Sp were 0.963 (95% PrI = 0.919-0.990) and 0.870 (95% PrI = 0.806-0.931), respectively. The estimated covariance between test results was 0.033 (95% PrI = 0.008-0.046) and 0.035 (95% PrI = 0.018-0.078) for pregnant and non-pregnant cows, respectively. Pregnancy diagnosis results using transrectal ultrasonography had a higher positive predictive value but lower negative predictive value than results from the

  15. Maternal depression from early pregnancy to 4 years postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort study: implications for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, H; Gartland, D; Mensah, F; Brown, S J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum, and the risk factors for depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum. Prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women. Melbourne, Australia. In all, 1507 women completed baseline data in pregnancy (mean gestation 15 weeks). Women were recruited from six public hospitals. Questionnaires were completed at recruitment and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months postpartum, and 4 years postpartum. Scores ≥13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used to indicate depressive symptoms. Almost one in three women reported depressive symptoms at least once in the first 4 years after birth. The prevalence of depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum was 14.5%, and was higher than at any time-point in the first 12 months postpartum. Women with one child at 4 years postpartum were more likely to report depressive symptoms at this time compared with women with subsequent children (22.9 versus 11.3%), and this association remained significant in adjusted models (Adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.63). Maternal depression is more common at 4 years postpartum than at any time in the first 12 months postpartum, and women with one child at 4 years postpartum report significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than women with subsequent children. There is a need for scaling up of current services to extend surveillance of maternal mental health to cover the early years of parenting. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Factors predicting early diagnosis of pediatric laryngotracheobronchial foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Parida, Pradipta; Nirmal, Nirmal Shanmugasundaram; Gopalakrishnan, Surianarayanan; Saxena, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To study the clinical and radiological findings to make early diagnosis of foreign body (FB) aspiration in children. This prospective study was conducted on 45 children below 12 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of FB aspiration undergone rigid bronchoscopy from September 2008 to may 2010. Bronchoscopy was positive for FB in 37 children. The results of these 37 children (15 female and 22 male) were analyzed. 81% of children were in age group of 1-3 years. Penetration syndrome (sudden onset coughing, choking and gagging when the child is having something in the mouth) (89.2%) and decreased breath sounds (86.5%) were the most common clinical features. Cough, respiratory difficulty and fever were present in 83.8%, 78.4% and 27% respectively. Tachypnoea, tachycardia, chest retractions, decreased chest movements and wheeze were present in 83.3%, 83.3%, 83.3%, 51.4% and 43.2% respectively. Unilateral hyperinflation (64.9%), mediastinal shift (45.9%), and collapse (21.6%) were common radiological sign on chest radiograph and in 13.5% patients the chest X-rays were normal. Sites of FB lodgments were larynx, trachea, right main bronchus, left main bronchus and bilateral bronchi in 10.8%, 10.8%, 35.1%, 37.8 and 5.5% respectively. Food related FBs were present in 30 cases (peanut in 54.1%) and inorganic FBs were present in 7 cases. FBs were removed successfully by rigid bronchoscopy in all cases without any mortality. Penetration syndrome, localized decreased breath sounds, unilateral hyperinflation and/or mediastinal shift on radiology are predictors for early diagnosis of FB aspiration.

  17. Normal pregnancy is associated with an increase in thrombin generation from the very early stages of the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Bagot, C N; Leishman, E; Onyiaodike, C C; Jordan, F; Freeman, D J

    2017-09-01

    Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis, which begins during the first trimester, but the exact time of onset is unknown. Thrombin generation, a laboratory marker of thrombosis risk, increases during normal pregnancy but it is unclear exactly how early this increase occurs. We assessed thrombin generation by Calibrated Automated Thrombography in women undergoing natural cycle in vitro fertilization, who subsequently gave birth at term following a normal pregnancy (n=22). Blood samples were taken just prior to conception and repeated five times during very early pregnancy, up to Day 59 estimated gestation. Mean Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP), peak thrombin generation and Velocity Index (VI) increased significantly from pre-pregnancy to Day 43 gestation (p=0.024-0.0004). This change persisted to Day 59 gestation. The mean of the percentage change from baseline, accounting for inter-individual variation, in ETP, peak thrombin and VI increased significantly from pre-pregnancy to Day 32 gestation (p=0.0351-<0.0001) with the mean increase from baseline persisting to Day 59 gestation. Thrombin generation increases significantly during the very early stages of normal pregnancy when compared to the pre-pregnancy state. The increased risk of venous thrombosis therefore likely begins very early in a woman's pregnancy, suggesting that women considered clinically to be at high thrombotic risk should start thromboprophylaxis as early as possible after a positive pregnancy test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54). Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those women who intend to get pregnant and to

  19. Molar Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... including a rare form of cancer — and requires early treatment. Symptoms A molar pregnancy may seem like a normal pregnancy at first, but most molar pregnancies cause specific signs and symptoms, including: Dark brown to bright red ...

  20. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  1. Factors influencing early referral, early diagnosis and management in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Distler, Oliver; Allanore, Yannick; Denton, Christopher P; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Pope, Janet E; Hinzmann, Barbara; Davies, Siobhan; de Oliveira Pena, Janethe; Khanna, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    To gain insight into clinical practice regarding referral, early diagnosis and other aspects of the management of patients with dcSSc in Europe and the USA. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 84 rheumatologists (or internal medicine physicians) and 40 dermatologists in different countries (the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA). Physicians were asked to identify key steps in the patient pathway relating to patient presentation, diagnosis and referral, in addition to other treatment and follow-up processes. The interviewed physicians reported that late presentation with dcSSc was common, with some patients presenting to primary care physicians after symptoms had persisted for up to 1 year. Awareness of dcSSc is reported to vary widely among primary care physicians. Final diagnosis, generally following guideline-based recommendations, was by rheumatologists in most cases (or internal medicine physicians in France) and they remained responsible for global patient management, with lesser involvement in diagnosis and management by dermatologists. Specialist centres were not well defined and did not exist in all countries. Patients and primary healthcare providers can be unaware of the symptoms of dcSSc, therefore presentation and referral to specialist care are often late. Thus, improved awareness among patients and primary care physicians is necessary to facilitate earlier referral and diagnosis. Once referred, more consistent use of the modified Rodnan skin score at diagnosis and follow-up may help to monitor disease progression. Furthermore, establishing specialist centres may help to promote such changes and improve patient care.

  2. Pregnancy Luteoma in Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Rupinder Kaur; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Sehgal, Sahil; Singh, Hena Paul; Ojha, Pushpanjali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy luteoma is a rare non neoplastic condition of the ovary. It is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging in pregnancy or during cesarean section. Pregnancy luteoma can also occur after ectopic pregnancy. Case Presentation: A 30 year old female presented to G.B. Pant Hospital, Andaman and Nicobar Islands institute of Medical Sciences, Port Blair in October 2015 with abdominal pain. After initial investigations, exploratory laporotomy was done for ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Enlarged ovary was removed along with the ruptured portion of fallopian tube. Histopathological examination revealed solid aggregates of large cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm; diagnosis of pregnancy luteoma was given. Conclusion: It must be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses in pregnant females that early diagnosis of this entity may avoid unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:29062798

  3. Pregnancy Luteoma in Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Brar, Rupinder Kaur; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Sehgal, Sahil; Singh, Hena Paul; Ojha, Pushpanjali

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy luteoma is a rare non neoplastic condition of the ovary. It is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging in pregnancy or during cesarean section. Pregnancy luteoma can also occur after ectopic pregnancy. A 30 year old female presented to G.B. Pant Hospital, Andaman and Nicobar Islands institute of Medical Sciences, Port Blair in October 2015 with abdominal pain. After initial investigations, exploratory laporotomy was done for ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Enlarged ovary was removed along with the ruptured portion of fallopian tube. Histopathological examination revealed solid aggregates of large cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm; diagnosis of pregnancy luteoma was given. It must be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses in pregnant females that early diagnosis of this entity may avoid unnecessary radical surgery.

  4. Educational differences in continuing or restarting drinking in early and late pregnancy: role of psychological and physical problems.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2014-01-01

    Many women continue drinking alcohol during pregnancy. This study aimed to describe educational differences in continued drinking in early and late pregnancy and to examine the contribution of psychological and physical factors to the explanation of educational differences. We examined 4,885 women enrolled in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Information on alcohol intake during pregnancy was based on self-reports at the 16th week of gestation and at 3 months postpartum. Only women who reported alcohol intake before pregnancy were included. Explanatory factors were alcohol intake before pregnancy, psychological problems, and physical problems. The risk of continued drinking in early pregnancy was increased in higher educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% CI [1.25, 1.60]); in addition, in late pregnancy, higher educated women had an increased risk of restarting (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.37, 2.04]) and continuing drinking (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.36, 2.30]). The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and all physical and psychological problems together explained 17.1% and 8.8% of the educational differences in continued drinking in early pregnancy, respectively. Higher educated women are more likely to continue drinking during pregnancy. The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and physical and psychological problems contributed to the explanation of continued drinking. However, other factors may play a greater role, such as cultural factors and social norms.

  5. Maternal Body Mass Index in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Epilepsy in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Razaz, Neda; Tedroff, Kristina; Villamor, Eduardo; Cnattingius, Sven

    2017-06-01

    There is growing concern about the long-term neurologic effects of prenatal exposure to maternal overweight and obesity. The causes of epilepsy are poorly understood and, in more than 60% of the patients, no definitive cause can be determined. To investigate the association between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of childhood epilepsy and examine associations between obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications and risks of childhood epilepsy. A population-based cohort study of 1 441 623 live single births at 22 or more completed gestational weeks in Sweden from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011, was conducted. The diagnosis of epilepsy as well as obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications were based on information from the Sweden Medical Birth Register and National Patient Register. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs after adjusting for maternal age, country of origin, educational level, cohabitation with partner, height, smoking, maternal epilepsy, and year of delivery. Data analysis was conducted from June 1 to December 15, 2016. Risk of childhood epilepsy. Of the 1 421 551 children born between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, with covariate information available, 7592 (0.5%) were diagnosed with epilepsy through December 31, 2012. Of these 3530 (46.5%) were female. The overall incidence of epilepsy in children aged 28 days to 16 years was 6.79 per 10 000 child-years. Compared with offspring of normal-weight mothers (BMI 18.5 to <25.0), adjusted HRs of epilepsy by maternal BMI categories were as follows: overweight (BMI 25.0 to <30.0), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.17); obesity grade I (BMI 30.0 to <35.0), 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31); obesity grade II (BMI 35.0 to <40.0), 1.30 (95% CI, 1.12-1.50); and obesity grade III (BMI≥40.0), 1.82 (95% CI, 1.46-2.26). The rates of epilepsy were considerably increased for children with

  6. Does tea consumption during early pregnancy have an adverse effect on birth outcomes?

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin-Hua; He, Jian-Rong; Shen, Song-Ying; Wei, Xue-Ling; Chen, Nian-Nian; Yuan, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Lan; Li, Wei-Dong; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Bartington, Suzanne; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-09-01

    Tea, a common beverage, has been suggested to exhibit a number of health benefits. However, one of its active ingredients, caffeine, has been associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We investigated whether tea consumption during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and abnormal fetal growth. A total of 8775 pregnant women were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Tea consumption (type, frequency, and strength) during their first trimester and social and demographic factors were obtained by way of questionnaires administered during pregnancy. Information on birth outcomes and complications during pregnancy was obtained from hospital medical records. Overall habitual tea drinking (≥1 serving/week) prevalence among pregnant women was low, at 16%. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (eg, maternal age, educational level, monthly income) tea drinking during early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth (small or large for gestational age) (P>.05). We did not identify a consistent association between frequency of tea consumption or tea strength and adverse birth outcomes among Chinese pregnant women with low tea consumption. Our findings suggest that occasional tea drinking during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth. Given the high overall number of annual births in China, our findings have important public health significance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Maternal Serum B-Cell Activating Factor Levels: Candidate Early Biomarker for Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stohl, Hindi E; Lee, Richard H; Manetta, Joseph; Kikly, Kristine; Korst, Lisa M; Stohl, William

    2017-11-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early suppression of B-cell lymphopoiesis is necessary for a normal pregnancy. Dysregulation of factors critical to B-cell survival may result in pregnancy complications, including hypertension. In this prospective observational study at a single medical center, serum levels of BAFF (B-cell activating factor) were measured in pregnant participants at each trimester, at delivery, and postpartum and in nonpregnant controls at a single time point. Comparisons were made between nonpregnant and pregnant subjects and between time periods of pregnancy. First-trimester serum BAFF levels were further tested for association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The study included 149 healthy pregnant women, 25 pregnant women with chronic hypertension, and 48 nonpregnant controls. Median first-trimester serum BAFF level (ng/mL) for healthy women (0.90) was lower than median serum BAFF levels for women with chronic hypertension (0.96; P =0.013) and controls (1.00; P =0.002). Serum BAFF levels steadily declined throughout pregnancy, with the median second-trimester level lower than the corresponding first-trimester level (0.77; P =0.003) and the median third-trimester level lower than the corresponding second-trimester level (0.72; P =0.025). The median first-trimester serum BAFF level was elevated in women who subsequently developed hypertension compared with women who remained normotensive (1.02 versus 0.85; P =0.012), with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve being 0.709. First-trimester serum BAFF level may be an early and clinically useful predictor of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Immunological mechanisms to establish embryo tolerance in early bovine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Groebner, A E; Schulke, K; Schefold, J C; Fusch, G; Sinowatz, F; Reichenbach, H D; Wolf, E; Meyer, H H D; Ulbrich, S E

    2011-01-01

    A well-balanced immunological interaction between mother and the semi-allogenic embryo is of particular importance. The objective of the present study was to analyse mechanisms of immune tolerance in bovine pregnancy during peri-implantation. Simmental heifers inseminated with either cryopreserved spermatozoa or seminal plasma were killed 12, 15 or 18 days after oestrus. Uteri were flushed for the recovery of conceptuses and the ipsilateral intercaruncular endometrium was sampled for gene expression analysis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA, coding for the initial enzyme of the kynurenine pathway, was 18-fold (P < 0.001) more abundant in the endometrium of Day 18 pregnant v. non-pregnant animals. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed a decrease of endometrial l-tryptophan (P = 0.0008), but an increase of l-kynurenine concentration (P = 0.005) from Day 12 to Day 18, suggesting increasing IDO activity (P < 0.03). An in vitro coculture model of endometrial cells showed an induction of IDO expression following interferon-τ exposure primarily in stroma cells, which was confirmed by in situ hybridisation localising IDO mRNA mainly in deep stroma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer CD45-positive leucocytes in the zona basalis of pregnant animals. Elevated IDO activity may reduce the presence of leucocytes in the pregnant endometrium, providing a possible mechanism for protecting the semi-allogenic conceptus from maternal rejection.

  9. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  10. A Possible Contra-Indication for Early Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Conditions: Impact on Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) in children on parenting stress. While there is increasing pressure to provide early diagnosis of ASC, there is a lack of evidence relating to the impact of early diagnosis on the parents. The parents of 85 children with ASC completed measures of their…

  11. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin as an early predictor of pregnancy outcomes after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Chuan, Sandy; Homer, Michael; Pandian, Raj; Conway, Deirdre; Garzo, Gabriel; Yeo, Lisa; Su, H Irene

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hhCG) measured as early as 9 days after egg retrieval can predict ongoing pregnancies after in vitro fertilization and fresh embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Cohort Academic assisted reproduction center. Consecutive patients undergoing IVF-ET INTERVENTION(S): Serum hhCG and hCG levels measured 9 (D9) and 16 (D16) days after egg retrieval Ongoing pregnancy beyond 9 weeks of gestation. Ongoing pregnancy (62 of 112 participants) was associated with higher D9 levels of hhCG and hCG. However, hhCG was detectable in all D9 OP samples, while hCG was detectable in only 22%. A D9 hhCG level of >110 pg/mL was 96% specific for an ongoing pregnancy, yielding a positive predictive value of 94%. Compared with the D9 hCG levels, hhCG was more sensitive and had a larger area under the curve (0.87 vs. 0.67, respectively). The diagnostic test characteristics were similar between the D16 hhCG and hCG levels. In patients undergoing assisted reproduction, a test to detect pregnancy early and predict outcomes is highly desirable, and hhCG is detectable in serum 9 days after egg retrieval IVF-ET cycles. In this early assessment, hhCG was superior to traditional hCG and highly predictive of ongoing pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Signs and symptoms associated with early pregnancy loss: findings from a population-based preconception cohort.

    PubMed

    Sapra, K J; Buck Louis, G M; Sundaram, R; Joseph, K S; Bates, L M; Galea, S; Ananth, C V

    2016-04-01

    What is the relationship between signs and symptoms of early pregnancy and pregnancy loss <20 weeks' gestation? Vaginal bleeding is associated with increased incidence of early pregnancy loss, with more severe bleeding and bleeding accompanied by lower abdominal cramping associated with greater incidence of loss; conversely, vomiting is associated with decreased incidence of early pregnancy loss, even in the setting of vaginal bleeding, while nausea alone is not. Two previous cohort studies with preconception enrollment suggested that bleeding is associated with loss while nausea is inversely associated with loss though these studies were limited by small study size and reporting after loss ascertainment. No prior preconception cohort study has examined multiple signs and symptoms in relation to pregnancy loss. Population-based preconception cohort of 501 couples discontinuing contraception to try for pregnancy in 16 counties in Michigan and Texas, USA. Participants were followed daily until positive home pregnancy test or 12 months of trying without an hCG pregnancy; women who became pregnant were followed daily from 2 to 7 weeks post-conception. Three hundred and forty-seven women had a positive home pregnancy test denoting hCG pregnancy. Three hundred and forty-one women remained after excluding ineligible pregnancies. Women recorded daily from 2 to 7 weeks post-conception their signs and symptoms, including vaginal bleeding (none, spotting, light, moderate and heavy), lower abdominal cramping, nausea and vomiting. Pregnancy losses were ascertained by a subsequent negative home pregnancy test, clinical confirmation or onset of menses, depending on gestational age at loss; time-to-loss was measured in days post-conception. Cumulative incidence functions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed for each sign or symptom, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for presence compared with absence of signs or symptoms were estimated using Cox proportional

  13. Signs and symptoms associated with early pregnancy loss: findings from a population-based preconception cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sapra, K.J.; Buck Louis, G.M.; Sundaram, R.; Joseph, K.S.; Bates, L.M.; Galea, S.; Ananth, C.V.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between signs and symptoms of early pregnancy and pregnancy loss <20 weeks' gestation? SUMMARY ANSWER Vaginal bleeding is associated with increased incidence of early pregnancy loss, with more severe bleeding and bleeding accompanied by lower abdominal cramping associated with greater incidence of loss; conversely, vomiting is associated with decreased incidence of early pregnancy loss, even in the setting of vaginal bleeding, while nausea alone is not. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Two previous cohort studies with preconception enrollment suggested that bleeding is associated with loss while nausea is inversely associated with loss though these studies were limited by small study size and reporting after loss ascertainment. No prior preconception cohort study has examined multiple signs and symptoms in relation to pregnancy loss. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Population-based preconception cohort of 501 couples discontinuing contraception to try for pregnancy in 16 counties in Michigan and Texas, USA. Participants were followed daily until positive home pregnancy test or 12 months of trying without an hCG pregnancy; women who became pregnant were followed daily from 2 to 7 weeks post-conception. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, METHODS Three hundred and forty-seven women had a positive home pregnancy test denoting hCG pregnancy. Three hundred and forty-one women remained after excluding ineligible pregnancies. Women recorded daily from 2 to 7 weeks post-conception their signs and symptoms, including vaginal bleeding (none, spotting, light, moderate and heavy), lower abdominal cramping, nausea and vomiting. Pregnancy losses were ascertained by a subsequent negative home pregnancy test, clinical confirmation or onset of menses, depending on gestational age at loss; time-to-loss was measured in days post-conception. Cumulative incidence functions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed for each sign or symptom, and hazard ratios (HRs

  14. Early diagnosis and treatment in a child with foodborne botulism.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Maria Renata; Lamba, Marta; Rossi, Alessandro; Siani, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxins. Despite rare the mortality rate is high if untreated. Diagnosis of botulism is still a challenge for clinician, due to the variability of clinical manifestations and disease course. We report on a child with type B botulin intoxication who was early diagnosed and treated underlining that clinical suspicion is crucial to start prompt treatment. An 11-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and mydriasis, dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, dysphonia, urine retention and constipation. Clear sensorium and no fever were observed. Immediately the suspicion of botulism was risen and botulinum antitoxin was administered. 3 days later serum and rectal samples tested positive for Clostridium botulinum. The patient completely recovered when discharged from hospital. Foodborne botulism is still possible in developed countries. The confirmation test of botulism requires some days. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis prompt clinical suspicion is thus crucial. The outcome depends on rapid implementation of appropriate management with intensive respiratory care and antitoxin administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep Learning Role in Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Islam; Khalil, Ashraf; Elmogy, Mohammed; Abou El-Fetouh, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed; Elmaghraby, Adel; Ghazal, Mohammed; El-Baz, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The presented system integrates both clinical biomarkers (prostate-specific antigen) and extracted features from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging collected at multiple b values. The presented system performs 3 major processing steps. First, prostate delineation using a hybrid approach that combines a level-set model with nonnegative matrix factorization. Second, estimation and normalization of diffusion parameters, which are the apparent diffusion coefficients of the delineated prostate volumes at different b values followed by refinement of those apparent diffusion coefficients using a generalized Gaussian Markov random field model. Then, construction of the cumulative distribution functions of the processed apparent diffusion coefficients at multiple b values. In parallel, a K-nearest neighbor classifier is employed to transform the prostate-specific antigen results into diagnostic probabilities. Finally, those prostate-specific antigen–based probabilities are integrated with the initial diagnostic probabilities obtained using stacked nonnegativity constraint sparse autoencoders that employ apparent diffusion coefficient–cumulative distribution functions for better diagnostic accuracy. Experiments conducted on 18 diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data sets achieved 94.4% diagnosis accuracy (sensitivity = 88.9% and specificity = 100%), which indicate the promising results of the presented computer-aided diagnostic system. PMID:29804518

  16. Pelvic girdle pain--associations between risk factors in early pregnancy and disability or pain intensity in late pregnancy: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hilde Stendal; Veierød, Marit B; Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Vøllestad, Nina K

    2010-05-13

    Recent studies have shown high prevalence rates for pelvic girdle pain (PGP) in pregnancy. Some risk factors for developing PGP have been suggested, but the evidence is weak. Furthermore there is almost no data on how findings from clinical examinations are related to subsequent PGP. The main purpose for this study was to study the associations between socio-demographical, psychological and clinical factors measured at inclusion in early pregnancy and disability or pain intensity in gestation week 30. This is a prospective cohort study following women from early to late pregnancy. Eligible women were recruited at their first attendance at the maternity care unit. 268 pregnant women answered questionnaires and underwent clinical examinations in early pregnancy and in gestation week 30. We used scores on disability and pain intensity in gestation week 30 as outcome measures to capture the affliction level of PGP. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to study the associations between potential risk factors measured in early pregnancy and disability or pain intensity in gestation week 30. Self-reported pain locations in the pelvis, positive posterior pelvic pain provocation (P4) test and a sum of pain provocation tests in early pregnancy were significantly associated with disability and pain intensity in gestation week 30 in a multivariable statistic model. In addition, distress was significantly associated with disability. The functional active straight leg raise (ASLR) test, fear avoidance beliefs and the number of pain sites were not significantly associated with either disability or pain intensity. The results suggest that a clinical examination, including a few tests, performed in early pregnancy may identify women at risk of a more severe PGP late in pregnancy. The identification of clinical risk factors may provide a foundation for development of targeted prevention strategies.

  17. Biochemical and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) uterine horn fluid during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, M E; Apichela, S A; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Stelletta, C

    2015-02-01

    South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non-pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5-week-pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non-pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone-treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Detection of early pregnancy factor-like activity in women with gestational trophoblastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Mehta, A R; Shahani, S K

    1987-07-01

    The presence of immunosuppressive early pregnancy factor (EPF) in the maternal serum has so far been associated with gestation. Its presence in the serum of women with gestational trophoblastic tumors was investigated. The results indicate that while EPF activity was detected in the serum of women with choriocarcinoma, no such activity was detected in the serum of women with hydatidiform mole, leading to the novel use of EPF as a marker to distinguish these two clinical situations. Results of the experiments also suggest that EPF moiety present in the maternal serum during pregnancy may be of different molecular entity than that present in the serum of women with choriocarcinoma.

  19. Baseline Demographic, Anthropometric, Psychosocial, and Behavioral Characteristics of Rural, Southern Women in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Objectives Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) characteristics of rural, Southern, pregnant women enrolled in a maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program are described. Methods Participants included 82 women early in their second trimester of pregnancy and residing in three Lower Mississippi Delta counties in the United States. Baseline data were collected through direct measurement and surveys. Results Participants were primarily African American (96 %), young (mean age = 23 years), single (93 %), and received Medicaid (92 %). Mean gestational age was 18 weeks, 67 % of participants were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant, and 16 % tested positive for major depression. Participants were sedentary (mean minutes of moderate intensity physical activity/week = 30), had low diet quality (mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 total score = 43 points), with only 38, 4, and 7 % meeting recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium intakes, respectively. Conclusions for Practice In the Lower Mississippi Delta, there is a need for interventions that are designed to help women achieve optimal GWG by improving their diet quality and increasing the amount of physical activity performed during pregnancy. Researchers also should consider addressing barriers to changing health behaviors during pregnancy that may be unique to this region of the United States.

  20. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Attreed, Sarah E.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity—including the specific mechanisms in humans—is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. Recent Findings The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Summary Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. PMID:28488132

  1. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life.

    PubMed

    Attreed, Sarah E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Heaney, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity-including the specific mechanisms in humans-is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines.

  2. Ultrasonographically documented early pregnancy loss in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Lueders, Imke; Drews, Barbara; Niemuller, Cheryl; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Fickel, Jörns; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Early embryonic resorption or fetal loss is known to occur occasionally in captive elephants; however, this has mostly been reported anecdotally. The present study documents the case of a 24-year-old, multiparous Asian elephant cow that suffered embryonic death and resorption at around 18 weeks of gestation. From ovulation onwards, this female was sonographically examined 58 times. Blood was collected twice weekly for progestagen determination via enzyme immunoassay. On Day 42 after ovulation, a small quantity of fluid was detected in the uterine horn, which typically indicates the presence of a developing conceptus. Repeated inspections followed what appeared to be a normal pregnancy until Day 116. However, on Day 124, signs of embryonic life were absent. Progestagen concentrations started declining two weeks later, reaching baseline levels one month after embryonic death. Retrospectively, ultrasound examination revealed several abnormalities in the uterine horn. Besides an existing leiomyoma, multiple small cystic structures had formed in the endometrium at the implantation site and later in the placenta. These pathological findings were considered as possible contributors to the early pregnancy failure. PCR for endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) (which had occurred previously in the herd) as well as serology for other infectious organisms known to cause abortion in domestic animals did not yield any positive results. Although no definitive reason was found for this pregnancy to abort, this ultrasonographically and endocrinologically documented study of an early pregnancy loss provides important insights into the resorption process in Asian elephants.

  3. HYPERGLYCOSYLATED HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN AS AN EARLY PREDICTOR OF PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AFTER IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, Sandy; Homer, Michael; Pandian, Raj; Conway, Deirdre; Garzo, Gabriel; Yeo, Lisa; Su, H. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if hyperglycosylated hCG (hhCG), produced by invasive trophoblasts, measured as early as 9 days after egg retrieval can predict ongoing pregnancies (OP) after in vitro fertilization and fresh embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Design Cohort Setting Academic ART center Patients Consecutive patients undergoing IVF-ET Interventions Serum hhCG and hCG levels measured 9 (D9) and 16 (D16) days after egg retrieval Outcome Ongoing pregnancy (OP) beyond 9 weeks of gestation Results OP (62 of 112 participants) was associated with higher D9 levels of hhCG and hCG However, hhCG was detectable in all D9 OP samples, while hCG was detectable in only 22%. D9 hhCG levels >110 pg/mL was 96% specific for OP, yielding a positive predictive value of 95%. Compared to D9 hCG levels, hhCG was more sensitive and had a larger area under the curve (0.87 vs. 0.67). Diagnostic test characteristics were similar between D16 hhCG and hCG levels. Conclusions In patients undergoing assisted reproduction, a test to detect pregnancy early and predict outcomes is highly desirable. HhCG is detectable in serum 9 days after egg retrieval IVF-ET cycles. At this early assessment, hhCG is superior to traditional hCG and highly predictive of ongoing pregnancies. PMID:24355054

  4. Uterine and fetal dynamics during early pregnancy in mares.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P G; Ginther, O J

    1991-02-01

    Fetal activity and mobility and changes in diameter of the allantoic fluid compartment in the uterine horns were studied in mares between days 69 and 81 of pregnancy by use of transrectal ultrasonography (n = 12) and transcervical videoendoscopy (n = 8). The insertion tube of the videoendoscope was positioned within the allantoic sac to permit viewing of the fetus and entrance to each uterine horn. Each uterine horn was divided ultrasonographically into 3 segments of equal length, and the horns were designated on the basis of side of umbilical attachment (cord vs noncord horns). The diameter of the allantoic fluid compartment in the cornual segments increased (P less than 0.05) over the cranial (18.6 +/- 1.9 mm), middle (35.6 +/- 2.9 mm), and caudal (51.7 +/- 4.4 mm) segments, but differences between cord and noncord horns were not evident. Dynamic changes in diameter of the allantoic fluid compartment in cornual segments (ultrasonography) and at the entrance to each uterine horn (videoendoscopy) were detected (no significant difference between methods). During continuous videoendoscopic viewing (17 to 60 min/mare), extreme changes in allantoic fluid compartment diameter (76 to 100% of maximum to 0 to 25% of maximum or vice-versa) occurred an equivalent of 2.6 times/h/horn entrance; changes had an average duration of 3.4 minutes. A change from 100% (maximal diameter) to 0% (no visible lumen) or vice-versa occurred an equivalent of 1.3 times/h/horn entrance. Sometimes the uterine wall was so closely constricted++ around the fetal-amniotic unit that no intervening allantoic fluid was ultrasonographically detectable whereas at other times the uterus in the same location was widely dilated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Outcome of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies in Lebanon: obstetricians' roles during and after prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eldahdah, Lama T; Ormond, Kelly E; Nassar, Anwar H; Khalil, Tayma; Zahed, Laila F

    2007-06-01

    To better understand obstetrician experiences in Lebanon when disclosing abnormal amniocentesis results. Structured interviews with 38 obstetricians identified as caregivers from the American University of Beirut Medical Center Cytogenetics Laboratory database of patients with abnormal amniocentesis results between 1999 and 2005. Obstetricians were primarily male, Christian, and with an average of 14 years of experience. They reported doing most pre-amniocentesis counseling, including discussion of risk for common autosomal aneuplodies (95%), and procedure-related risk (95%). Obstetricians reported that 80% of patients at risk for aneuploidy underwent amniocentesis. The study population reported on 143 abnormal test results (124 autosomal abnormalities). When disclosing results, obstetricians reportedly discussed primarily physical and cognitive features of the diagnosis. They varied in levels of directiveness and comfort in providing information. Our records showed that 59% of pregnancies with sex chromosome abnormalities were terminated compared to 90% of those with autosomal aneuploidies; various reasons were proposed by obstetricians. This study is among the few to assess prenatal diagnosis practices in the Middle East, with a focus on the role of the obstetrician. Given the influence of culture and social norms on prenatal decision-making, it remains important to understand the various impacts on clinical practice in many nations. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early esophageal squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ikeya, Takashi; Marcon, Norman; Mosko, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It carries a poor prognosis as more than half of patients present with advanced and unresectable disease. One contributing factor is the increased risk of lymph node metastases at early stages of disease. As such, it is essential to detect squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) at an early stage. In order to risk stratify lesions, endoscopists must be able to perform image enhanced endoscopy including magnification and Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. The assessment of both the horizontal extent and depth of any lesion is also of utmost importance prior to treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection and submucosal dissection remain the standard of care with literature supportive their respective use. Radiofrequency ablation and other endoscopic treatments are currently available although should not be considered first line at this time. Our objective is to review the current options for the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal SCN. PMID:28979708

  7. Can milk cell or skim milk miRNAs be used as biomarkers for early pregnancy detection in cattle?

    PubMed Central

    Schanzenbach, Corina I.; Kirchner, Benedikt; Ulbrich, Susanne E.; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    The most critical phase of pregnancy is the first three weeks following insemination. During this period about 50% of high yielding lactating cows suffer embryonic loss prior to implantation, which poses a high economic burden on dairy farmers. Early diagnosis of pregnancy in cattle is therefore essential for monitoring breeding outcome and efficient production intervals. Regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) that reach easily accessible body fluids via a ‘liquid biopsy’ could be a new class of pregnancy predicting biomarkers. As milk is obtained regularly twice daily and non-invasively from the animal, it represents an ideal sample material. Our aim was to establish a pregnancy test system based on the discovery of small RNA biomarkers derived from the bovine milk cellular fraction and skim milk of cows. Milk samples were taken on days 4, 12 and 18 of cyclic cows and after artificial insemination, respectively, of the same animals (n = 6). miRNAs were analysed using small RNA sequencing (small RNA Seq). The miRNA profiles of milk cells and skim milk displayed similar profiles despite the presence of immune cell related miRNAs in milk cells. Trends in regulation of miRNAs between the oestrous cycle and pregnancy were found in miR-cluster 25~106b and its paralog cluster 17~92, miR-125 family, miR-200 family, miR-29 family, miR-15a, miR-21, miR-26b, miR-100, miR-140, 193a-5p, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-652, miR-2898 and let-7i. A separation of cyclic and pregnant animals was achieved in a principal component analysis. Bta-miRs-29b, -221, -125b and -200b were successfully technically validated using quantitative real-time PCR, however biological validation failed. Therefore we cannot recommend the diagnostic use of these miRNAs in milk as biomarkers for detection of bovine pregnancy for now. PMID:28234939

  8. Dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Coughlin, Kara B; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A

    2008-08-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence documents diverse health benefits, including reduced risks of hypertension, associated with diets high in fiber. Few studies, however, have investigated the extent to which dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy is associated with reductions in preeclampsia risk. We assessed the relationship between maternal dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. We also evaluated cross-sectional associations of maternal early pregnancy plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations with fiber intake. The study population comprised 1,538 pregnant Washington State residents. A 121-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess maternal dietary intake, 3 months before and during early pregnancy; and generalized linear regression procedures were used to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Dietary total fiber intake was associated with reduced preeclampsia risk. After adjusting for confounders, the RR of preeclampsia for women in the highest (> or =21.2 g/day) vs. the lowest quartile (<11.9 g/day) was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.11-0.75). We observed associations of similar magnitude when the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of water-soluble fiber (RR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.86) and insoluble fiber (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.14-0.87) were evaluated. Mean triglyceride concentrations were lower (-11.9 mg/dl, P = 0.02) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were higher (+2.63 mg/dl, P = 0.09) for women in the highest quartile vs. those in the lowest quartile. These findings of reduced preeclampsia risk with higher total fiber intake corroborate an earlier report; and expand the literature by providing evidence, which suggests that dietary fiber may attenuate pregnancy-associated dyslipidemia, an important clinical characteristic of preeclampsia.

  9. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  10. The effect of ambient air pollution during early pregnancy on fetal ultrasonic measurements during mid-pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Craig A; Barnett, Adrian G; Pritchard, Gary

    2008-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been mounting evidence that ambient air pollution during pregnancy influences fetal growth. This study was designed to examine possible associations between fetal ultrasonic measurements collected from 15,623 scans (13-26 weeks gestation) and ambient air pollution during early pregnancy. We calculated mothers' average monthly exposures over the first 4 months of pregnancy for the following pollutants: particulate matter < 10 microm aerodynamic diameter (PM10), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. We examined associations with fetal femur length (FL), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), and abdominal circumference (AC). Final analyses included scans from only those women within 2 km of an air pollution monitoring site. We controlled for long-term trend, season, temperature, gestation, mother's age, socioeconomic status, and fetal sex. A reduction in fetal AC was associated with O3 during days 31-60 [-1.42 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.74 to -0.09], SO2 during days 61-90 (-1.67 mm; 95% CI, -2.94 to -0.40), and PM10 during days 91-120 (-0.78 mm; 95% CI, -1.49 to -0.08). Other results showed a reduction in BPD (-0.68 mm; 95% CI, -1.09 to -0.27) associated with SO2 during days 0-30, a reduction in HC (-1.02 mm; 95% CI, -1.78 to -0.26) associated with PM10 during days 91-120, and a reduction in FL associated with PM10 during days 0-30 (-0.28 mm; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.08) and 91-120 (-0.23; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.04). We found strong effects of ambient air pollution on ultrasound measures. Future research, including more individually detailed data, is needed to confirm our results.

  11. The value of multidisciplinary team meetings within an early pregnancy assessment unit.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, Rasiah; Farag, Mena; Hayes, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to ascertain the value of multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings within an early pregnancy assessment unit (EPAU). Our national telephone survey identified that in the United Kingdom, overall 37% of EPAU utilise regular MDT meetings. Secondary and tertiary hospitals are just as likely to hold regular MDT meetings. The participants in our interview study expressed the principal benefits of regular MDT meetings as communication, education and effective stress management. The perceived additional benefits included improved care quality, better patient experience and enhanced team cohesion. During the meetings, at least, one representative from every tier of staffing was present. The caseload of the MDT meeting comprised ectopic pregnancies and pregnancies of unknown location. We propose a number of research studies, which would build on this study. Such efforts will help enhance the effectiveness of the MDT-based EPAU service.

  12. Cross-Reactivity between Chlamydia trachomatis Heat Shock Protein 10 and Early Pregnancy Factor

    PubMed Central

    Betsou, Fotini; Borrego, Maria José; Guillaume, Nicolas; Catry, Maria Anjos; Romão, Sandra; Machado-Caetano, J. A.; Sueur, Jean Marie; Mention, Jacques; Faille, Nicole; Orfila, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein 10 (Chsp10) is associated with chronic genital tract infection with C. trachomatis. Chsp10 is homologous to human chaperonin 10 (Cpn10) and early pregnancy factor (EPF), a form of human Cpn10 that is specifically secreted at the start of pregnancy. We investigated cross-reactions between serum anti-Chsp10 antibodies and anti-EPF antibodies in pregnant and nonpregnant patients. Pregnancy was found to be associated with the presence of anti-EPF antibodies, which are specifically induced in pregnant women with a history of C. trachomatis infection, and with the presence of serum anti-Chsp10 antibodies. We also found that infertility was associated with the presence of anti-Chsp10 and anti-EPF antibodies. The HLA class II haplotype DR8 DQ4 was associated with the presence of anti-Chsp10 antibodies but not of anti-EPF antibodies. PMID:12738647

  13. Isolation, purification and partial characterization of early pregnancy factor (EPF) from sera of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Haq, A; Mothi, B A; Al-Hussein, K; Al-Tufail, M; Hollanders, J; Jaroudi, K; Al-Waili, N; Shabani, M

    2001-05-29

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a pregnancy protein, which is secreted into the maternal serum 12-16 hours after fertilization. It is thought to be an immunosuppressive molecule. EPF is detected in pregnant woman's serum by the rosette inhibition assay (RIA). In this study, EPF was purified from the pregnant woman's sera by using ion exchange chromatography and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins which showed a positive result with the RIA, were found to be 35 kDa and 17 kDa molecular weights. The biological activities of these proteins were stable upon heat treatment at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Proteins isolated and purified in this study might be of great significance to the field of human reproduction with particular reference to pregnancy and recurrent abortion.

  14. Vitamin D, the placenta and early pregnancy: effects on trophoblast function.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Ankana; Tamblyn, Jennifer A; Finn-Sell, Sarah; Chan, Shiao-Y; Westwood, Melissa; Gupta, Janesh; Kilby, Mark D; Gross, Stephane R; Hewison, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in vitamin D metabolism, notably increased maternal serum levels of active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (1,25(OH) 2 D). This appears to be due primarily to increased renal activity of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) that catalyzes synthesis of 1,25(OH) 2 D, but CYP27B1 expression is also prominent in both the maternal decidua and fetal trophoblast components of the placenta. The precise function of placental synthesis of 1,25(OH) 2 D remains unclear, but is likely to involve localized tissue-specific responses with both decidua and trophoblast also expressing the vitamin D receptor (VDR) for 1,25(OH) 2 D. We have previously described immunomodulatory responses to 1,25(OH) 2 D by diverse populations of VDR-expressing cells within the decidua. The aim of the current review is to detail the role of vitamin D in pregnancy from a trophoblast perspective, with particular emphasis on the potential role of 1,25(OH) 2 D as a regulator of trophoblast invasion in early pregnancy. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women, and a wide range of studies have linked low vitamin D status to adverse events in pregnancy. To date, most of these studies have focused on adverse events later in pregnancy, but the current review will explore the potential impact of vitamin D on early pregnancy, and how this may influence implantation and miscarriage. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Cohort profile: effect of malaria in early pregnancy on fetal growth in Benin (RECIPAL preconceptional cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Accrombessi, Manfred; Yovo, Emmanuel; Cottrell, Gilles; Agbota, Gino; Gartner, Agnès; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Djossinou, Diane; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Tuikue-Ndam, Nicaise; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Houzé, Sandrine; Jackson, Nicola; Ayemonna, Paul; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Fievet, Nadine; Briand, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose REtard de Croissance Intra-uterin et PALudisme (RECIPAL) is an original preconceptional cohort designed to assess the consequences of malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy, which is a poorly investigated period in Africa and during which malaria may be detrimental to the fetus. Participants For this purpose, a total of 1214 women of reproductive age living in Sô-Ava and Akassato districts (south Benin) were followed up monthly from June 2014 to December 2016 until 411 of them became pregnant. A large range of health determinants was collected both before and during pregnancy from the first weeks of gestation to delivery. Five Doppler ultrasound scans were performed for early dating of the pregnancy and longitudinal fetal growth assessment. Findings to date Pregnant women were identified at a mean of 6.9 weeks of gestation (wg). Preliminary results confirmed the high prevalence of malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy, with more than 25.4% of women presenting at least one microscopic malarial infection during this period. Most infections occurred before six wg. The prevalence of low birth weight, small birth weight for gestational age (according to INTERGROWTH-21st charts) and preterm birth was 9.3%, 18.3% and 12.6%, respectively. Future plans REtard de Croissance Intra-uterin et PALudisme (RECIPAL) represents at this time a unique resource that will provide information on multiple infectious (including malaria), biological, nutritional and environmental determinants in relation to health outcomes in women of reproductive age, pregnant women and their newborns. It will contribute to better define future recommendations for the prevention of malaria in early pregnancy and maternal malnutrition in Africa. It confirms that it is possible to constitute a preconceptional pregnancy cohort in Africa and provides valuable information for researchers starting cohorts in the future. PMID:29317419

  16. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B.; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H.; Latka, Mary H.; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A.; Price, Matt A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. Methods: From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Results: Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. Conclusions: In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted. PMID:27893488

  17. [Cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin F 2 alpha in early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Retzke, U; Schwarz, R

    1976-01-01

    In 10 normotensive healthy early pregnant women cardiovascular studies were done before, during and after the intravenous administration of prostaglandin F2alpha with the method of quantitative sphygmometry. Arterial blood pressure was measured graphically with an automatic sphygmomanometer unit. Velocity of aortic pulse wave was determined directly on the principle of exact electronic timing. Prostaglandin F2alpha was infused with electric pump in the dosage of 6, 5, 13 and 26 mug per minute for 30 minutes in each case. Arterial blood pressure is nearly constant. Heart rate, the elasticity coefficient of the arteries E' and total peripheral resistance decreases significantly. Stroke volume, cardiac output, work and power of the heart increases significantly. Nevertheless there are no contra-indications on the part of cardiovascular system for using prostaglandin F2alpha for induction of abortion

  18. Psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and early parenting after assisted conception: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hammarberg, K; Fisher, J R W; Wynter, K H

    2008-01-01

    It is known that infertility affects emotional well-being, satisfaction with life and self-esteem and that failed assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment is associated with diminished life satisfaction, reduced self-confidence and substantial psychological distress. Investigations of whether these persist when treatment results in a pregnancy and live birth have been undertaken. A systematic search for English-language research articles on psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and the first post-partum year after ART conception. Of 466 retrieved papers, 46 met inclusion criteria. These reported data from 28 studies. There is consistent evidence that marital satisfaction, emotional well-being and self-regard in pregnancy, attachment to the fetus and parent-infant relationship in ART groups are similar to comparison groups. Anxiety about the survival of the fetus and early parenting difficulties appear to be higher and post-natal self-confidence lower. Evidence about adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood and the experience of childbirth is inconclusive and reports of parental perceptions of infant temperament and behaviour are contradictory. Between-study methodological differences may explain the lack of consistency in findings of the influence of infertility and ART on some aspects of the transition to parenthood. Overall, this body of evidence is best described as emergent. It is possible that in pregnancy after ART, parenthood might be idealized and this might then hinder adjustment and the development of a confident parental identity.

  19. Head circumference at birth and exposure to tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".

  20. Our children are not a diagnosis: the experience of parents who continue their pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 or 18.

    PubMed

    Guon, Jennifer; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Farlow, Barbara; Brazg, Tracy; Janvier, Annie

    2014-02-01

    Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 (T13-18) are associated with high rates of perinatal death and with severe disability among survivors. Prenatal diagnosis (PND) may lead many women to terminate their pregnancy but some women choose to continue their pregnancy. We sent 503 invitations to answer a questionnaire to parents who belong to T13 and 18 internet support groups. Using mixed methods, we asked parents about their prenatal experience, their hopes, the life of their affected child, and their family experience. 332 parents answered questions about 272 children; 128 experienced PND. These parents, despite feeling pressure to terminate (61%) and being told that their baby would likely die before birth (94%), chose to continue the pregnancy. Their reasons included: moral beliefs (68%), child-centered reasons (64%), religious beliefs (48%), parent-centered reasons (28%), and practical reasons (6%). At the time of the diagnosis, most of these parents (80%) hoped to meet their child alive. By the time of birth, 25% chose a plan of full interventions. A choice of interventions at birth was associated with fewer major anomalies (P < 0.05). Parents describe "Special" healthcare providers as those who gave balanced and personalized information, respected their choice, and provided support. Parents make decisions to continue a pregnancy and choose a plan of care for their child according to their beliefs and their child's specific medical condition, respectively. Insights from parents' perspective can better enable healthcare providers to counsel and support families. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Importance of early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without biliary dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Takuma, Kensuke; Kamisawa, Terumi; Tabata, Taku; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Igarashi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops. METHODS: The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM. Of these, patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation. The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated. Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n = 16) or jaundice (n = 12). Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%) and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years. Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer. All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred. Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls, and hyperplastic changes, hypertrophic muscular layer, subserosal fibrosis, and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%), 5 (63%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients

  2. Healthy Lifestyle During Early Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Badon, Sylvia E; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Wartko, Paige D; Miller, Raymond S; Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have found associations between individual healthy behaviors and reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the association of composite healthy lifestyle during pregnancy with GDM has not been examined. Participants in the Omega Study (n = 3,005), a pregnancy cohort study conducted in Washington State (1996-2008), reported information on diet, physical activity, smoking, and stress during early pregnancy. Lifestyle components were dichotomized into healthy/unhealthy and then combined into a total lifestyle score (range, 0-4). Regression models were used to determine relative risk of GDM (n = 140 cases) in relation to healthy lifestyle. Twenty percent of participants had a healthy diet, 66% were physically active, 95% were nonsmokers, and 55% had low stress. Each 1-point increase in lifestyle score was associated with a 21% lower risk of GDM (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.96) after adjustment for age, race, and nulliparity. Adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, prepregnancy physical activity, and prepregnancy smoking attenuated the associations slightly. Associations were similar in normal-weight and overweight/obese women. In this study, a composite measure of healthy lifestyle during early pregnancy was associated with substantially lower GDM risk. Public health messaging and interventions promoting multiple aspects of a healthy lifestyle during early pregnancy should be considered for GDM prevention. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?

    PubMed

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-07-01

    The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking, on child motor function at age 5. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function at age 5. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. [Assessment of thyroid function in women treated for vomiting in early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Makowska, Beata; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna

    2005-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism does not influence procreation ability significantly, but very often causes complications of the course of pregnancy and increases neonatal morbidity and mortality in newborns. Nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy are very common complaints in these patients. The aim of the study was to prove, that assessment of the thyroid hormones in every vomiting woman in the first trimester allows to start the proper treatment of hyperthyreosis as early as possible and improves the prognosis. Authors analyzed 22 pregnant women treated for vomiting during the first trimester in the Department of Obstetrics and 5 women treated in the Outpatient Clinic. In none of them hormonal dysfunction was diagnosed before pregnancy. In 21 patients free thyroxine (fT4) in serum was assessed. In 8 cases (38%) hyperthyreosis was diagnosed. Except the routine anti vomiting treatment, they received a beta-blocker 30 mg per day. It allowed to avoid hospitalization in three pregnant women treated in the outpatient clinic. Two patients, who had earlier two spontaneous abortions, delivered healthy babies. 1. The beta-blocker in treatment gives very good results and allows to avoid hospitalization in patients with hyperthyroidism and hyper emesis gravidarum. 2. In some patients vomiting may be the only symptom of sub clinical hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy. Assessment of the thyroid hormones levels and adequate treatment may give these women a chance for a healthy child.

  5. [Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Lubin, Vanessa; Gautier, Jean-François; Antoine, Jean-Marie; Beressi, Jean-Paul; Vexiau, Patrick

    2002-11-09

    The rare association of Cushing's syndrome and pregnancy is explained by the amenorrhea and sterility inherent to the syndrome. In the literature, 125 cases have been reported: 30 cases of early diagnosis and 95 others diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. When hypercorticism exists before pregnancy it is hardly secretory. Its diagnosis, at an early stage, is not hindered by the hormone modifications of pregnancy. Its aetiological treatment raises the problem of the compatibility in pursuing the latter. The positive and aetiological diagnoses of Cushing's syndrome are difficult and its prevalence may therefore be underestimated. The evocative clinical signs are unspecific: excessive weight gain, hypertension of pregnancy and gestational diabetes. The 24-hour free hypercortisoluria and the absence of dexamethasone inhibition are of little diagnostic value after the 14th week of amenorrhea. The positive diagnosis therefore relies essentially on the abolition of the circadian rhythm of cortisol. The biological hyperandrogenia commonly observed is not discriminating. Adrenal aetiologies are frequent. Imaging must be performed to eliminate an adrenocortical tumor. The maternal prognosis depends on the hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes and the complications of Cushing's syndrome. It depends on the activity of the hypercorticism and its early aetiological treatment, which must not be delayed after pregnancy. The foetal prognosis depends on the maternal prognosis. It is represented by preterm delivery, hypotrophy and death of the foetus in utero. The therapeutic management must be symptomatic and aetiologic, maternal and obstetrical.

  6. EARLY: a pilot study on early diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in a primary healthcare centre.

    PubMed

    Benito, Luisa; Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Gómez, Eva; Martí, David; Mitjavila, Joan; Torres, Ferran; Miró, Òscar; Sisó, Antoni; Mont, Lluís

    2015-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is likely to improve therapy and prognosis. The study objective was to evaluate the usefulness of a programme for early diagnosis of AF in patients from an urban primary care centre. Participants were recruited from a randomized sample of patients not diagnosed with AF but having relevant risk factors: age ≥ 65 years, ischaemic and/or valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and/or diabetes. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). The intervention included (i) initial visit with clinical history, electrocardiogram, and instruction about pulse palpation and warning signs and (ii) electrocardiogram every 6 months during a 2-year follow-up. The main endpoint of the study was the proportion of new cases diagnosed at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were number of new AF diagnoses and complications associated with the arrhythmia in both groups. A total of 928 patients were included (463 IG and 465 CG). At 6 months, AF was diagnosed in 8 IG patients and 1 CG patient (1.7 vs. 0.2%, respectively, P = 0.018). After 2 years of follow-up, 11 IG patients and 6 CG patients had newly diagnosed AF (2.5 vs. 1.3%, respectively, P = 0.132). Time to first diagnosis of AF was shorter in IG patients [median (inter-quartile range): 7 (192) days vs. 227 (188.5) days in CG, P = 0.029]. The simple screening proposed could be useful for the early detection of AF in primary care. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P < 0.01) at ~10, ~20, and ~32 wk. Height was also positively associated with ECW and TBW at each time point. Early pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P < 0.01) from 10 to 20 wk, but not with 20- to 32-wk gains after accounting for weight gain. BMI was positively associated with percentage changes in plasma volume from 20 to 32 wk (0.57% per kg/m(2); P < 0.05). Height was not associated with changes in body water or plasma volume. Women with low BMI and height in early pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  8. Alternative complement pathway activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy as a predictor of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Anne M.; Murphy, James R.; Byers, Tim; Gibbs, Ronald S.; Neville, Margaret C.; Giclas, Patricia C.; Salmon, Jane E.; Holers, V. Michael

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease classically defined on the basis of hypertension and proteinuria. As shown in animal studies, complement activation is associated with inflammation in the placenta and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The association between complement activation in humans and adverse pregnancy outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether elevated levels of the activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy are predictive of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN This prospective study of 701 women was conducted in Denver, CO. A single plasma sample was obtained from each woman before 20 weeks’ gestation. The cohort was followed up throughout pregnancy for the development of preeclampsia. Analysis included multivariate logistic regression to adjust for established risk factors for preeclampsia. RESULTS Preeclampsia developed in 4.6% of the cohort. Women with elevated Bb (90th or greater percentile) were substantially more likely to develop preeclampsia than women who had levels less than the 90th percentile (unadjusted relative risk [RR], 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 to 7, P = .0009). Other significant risk factors for preeclampsia included nulliparity (RR, 2.1, 95% CI, 1–4), a high body mass index (P = .006 for trend), and maternal medical (preexisting maternal hypertension, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus) disease (RR, 4.4, 95% CI, 2–10). Significant risk factors among multiparous women included a history of hypertension in a previous pregnancy (RR, 5, 95% CI, 1.6 to 16) and a change of paternity (RR, 5.1, 95% CI, 1.6 to 15). Adjustment for risk factors did not attenuate the association between an elevated Bb and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.8, 95% CI, 1.6 to 9, P = .002) in the cohort. After removing women with plasma obtained before 10 weeks, the adjusted OR of Bb in the top decile for preeclampsia was 6.1 (95% CI 2.2, 17, P = .0005). CONCLUSION The complement activation product Bb in

  9. Hospitalization for early bonding of the genetic mother after a surrogate pregnancy: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sharan, H; Yahav, J; Peleg, D; Ben-Rafael, Z; Merlob, P

    2001-12-01

    In surrogate pregnancies the genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding to their infant, either prenatally (in utero) or in the immediate postnatal period. The purpose of this article is to describe a new method for encouraging early parent-infant bonding after surrogate pregnancy by hospitalizing the genetic mother in the maternity ward immediately after the delivery. Two genetic mothers were hospitalized in the maternity ward (rooming-in system) at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel immediately after delivery of their infants by surrogate arrangement. The first birth was a singleton pregnancy with vaginal delivery and the second, a twin pregnancy with delivery by cesarean section. The genetic parents were counseled by a social worker from the adoption agency, starting 3 months before the estimated date of delivery. The parents were referred to the hospital social worker before the delivery. To assess attachment, we observed the parents' behavior toward their children during two daily 15-minute periods of free, unstructured interaction. The parents showed good primary caregiving functions and established affective verbal and physical contact with the infants. They began to recognize the infants' needs and temperament, and exhibited an aura of self-confidence during their interactions. All expressed satisfaction with the method at discharge and reported on reduction of their fears about returning home with the infants. We believe that early hospitalization of the genetic mother in a surrogate delivery may be desirable to establish good and safe early mother-infant bonding, and that it should be considered for adoption as regular hospital policy. Further randomized studies with larger samples over the long term are warranted.

  10. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  11. Early Childbearing: Perspectives of Black Adolescents on Pregnancy, Abortion, and Contraception. Sage Library of Social Research 192.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Rickels, Karl

    This book reports on the Penn Study of Teenage Pregnancy, which examined issues surrounding adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and childbearing. Participants were African-American teenagers between the ages of 13 and 17 from disadvantaged urban backgrounds. Based on individual interviews over 2 years in the early 1980s, the study provided details…

  12. Complement activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Anne M; Gibbs, Ronald S; Murphy, James R; Byers, Tim; Neville, Margaret C; Giclas, Patricia C; Salmon, Jane E; Van Hecke, Trisha M; Holers, V Michael

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an elevated level of the complement activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy was associated with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) at less than 34 weeks' gestation or SPTB between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation (late SPTB). This was a prospective study of 784 women enrolled at less than 20 weeks' gestation. Following exclusions, 13 women (1.7%) had a SPTB at less than 34 weeks' gestation and 25 (3.2%) a SPTB between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Women with Bb in the top quartile were 4.7 times more likely to have an SPTB less than 34 weeks' gestation as compared with women who had levels of Bb in the lower 3 quartiles (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14, P = .003). There was no association between Bb and late SPTB (relative risk 0.8, 95% CI 0.3-2). A significant relationship was found between an elevated Bb in early pregnancy and SPTB less than 34 weeks' gestation. These results suggest that inflammatory events in early pregnancy are part of the pathogenic mechanisms of this condition.

  13. COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION FRAGMENT Bb IN EARLY PREGNANCY AND SPONTANEOUS PRETERM BIRTH

    PubMed Central

    LYNCH, ANNE M.; GIBBS, RONALD S.; MURPHY, JAMES R.; BYERS, TIM; NEVILLE, MARGARET C.; GICLAS, PATRICIA C.; SALMON, JANE E.; VAN HECKE, TRISHA M; MICHAEL HOLERS, V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if an elevated level of the complement activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy was associated with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) at less than 34 weeks gestation or SPTB between 34 and 37 weeks gestation (late SPTB). Study Design Prospective study of 784 women enrolled at < 20 weeks gestation. Results Following exclusions, 13 women (1.7%) had a SPTB at less than 34 weeks gestation and 25 (3.2%) a SPTB between 34 and 37 weeks gestation. Women with Bb in the top quartile were 4.7 times more likely to have an SPTB less than 34 weeks gestation as compared with women who had levels of Bb in the lower three quartiles (95% CI 1.5 to 14, P = 0.003). There was no association between Bb and late SPTB (RR= 0.8, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2). Conclusions A significant relationship was found between an elevated Bb in early pregnancy and SPTB < 34 weeks gestation. These results suggest that inflammatory events in early pregnancy are part of the pathogenic mechanisms of this condition. PMID:18928972

  14. Optimization of Trichomonas vaginalis Diagnosis during Pregnancy at a University Hospital, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Testardini, Pamela; Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo; Entrocassi, Andrea Carolina; Menghi, Claudia; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Gatta, Claudia; Losada, Mirta; Touzón, María Sol; Corominas, Ana; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodriguez; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods for Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis during pregnancy in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications. A total of 386 vaginal exudates from pregnant women were analyzed. T. vaginalis was investigated by 3 types of microscopic examinations direct wet mount with physiologic saline solution, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, and wet mount with sodium-acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue method. PCR for 18S rRNA gene as well as culture in liquid medium were performed. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were evaluated considering the culture media positivity or the PCR techniques as gold standard. The frequency of T. vaginalis infection was 6.2% by culture and/or PCR, 5.2% by PCR, 4.7% by culture, 3.1% by SAF/methylene blue method and 2.8% by direct wet smear and prolonged MGG staining. The sensitivities were 83.3%, 75.0%, 50.0%, and 45.8% for PCR, culture, SAF/methylene blue method, and direct wet smear-prolonged MGG staining, respectively. The specificity was 100% for all the assessed methods. Microscopic examinations showed low sensitivity, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients. It is necessary to improve the detection of T. vaginalis using combined methods providing higher sensitivity, such as culture and PCR, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients, in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications.

  15. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans A; Devlieger, Roland; Jans, Goele; Galjaard, Sander; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Blumska, Kinga; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2017-12-04

    Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (< 20 weeks) of the DALI (Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. A total of 735 pregnant women were included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5.55], self-efficacy, OR = .95, 95% CI [.92, .98], social support, OR = .94, 95% CI [.90, .99], and pregnancy-related worries (socioeconomic: OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.15]; health: OR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; relationship: OR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.05, 1.31]). Mental health problems are common in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. ISRCTN70595832 , 02.12.2011.

  16. A Bayesian latent class model to estimate the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by transrectal ultrasonography and laboratory detection of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fosgate, G T; Motimele, B; Ganswindt, A; Irons, P C

    2017-09-15

    Accurate diagnosis of pregnancy is an essential component of an effective reproductive management plan for dairy cattle. Indirect methods of pregnancy detection can be performed soon after breeding and offer an advantage over traditional direct methods in not requiring an experienced veterinarian and having potential for automation. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) detection ELISA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in dairy cows of South Africa using a Bayesian latent class approach. Commercial dairy cattle from the five important dairy regions in South Africa were enrolled in a short-term prospective cohort study. Cattle were examined at 28-35days after artificial insemination (AI) and then followed up 14days later. At both sampling times, TRUS was performed to detect pregnancy and commercially available PAG detection ELISAs were performed on collected serum and milk. A total of 1236 cows were sampled and 1006 had complete test information for use in the Bayesian latent class model. The estimated sensitivity (95% probability interval) and specificity for PAG detection serum ELISA were 99.4% (98.5, 99.9) and 97.4% (94.7, 99.2), respectively. The estimated sensitivity and specificity for PAG detection milk ELISA were 99.2% (98.2, 99.8) and 93.4% (89.7, 96.1), respectively. Sensitivity of veterinarian performed TRUS at 28-35days post-AI varied between 77.8% and 90.5% and specificity varied between 94.7% and 99.8%. In summary, indirect detection of pregnancy using PAG ELISA is an accurate method for use in dairy cattle. The method is descriptively more sensitive than veterinarian-performed TRUS and therefore could be an economically viable addition to a reproductive management plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic Profile in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Offspring Adiposity at 4 Years of Age: The Rhea Pregnancy Cohort Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Daraki, Vasiliki; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Papavasiliou, Stathis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Karahaliou, Marianna; Koinaki, Stella; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-01-01

    Context Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may increase the risk of childhood obesity but it is unknown whether other metabolic factors in early pregnancy such as lipid profile and hypertension are associated with offspring cardiometabolic traits. Objective Our objective was to investigate whether fasting lipid, glucose, and insulin levels during early pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy weight status, are associated with offspring adiposity measures, lipid levels and blood pressure at preschool age. Design and Methods The study included 618 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort “Rhea” study in Crete, Greece. Pregnant women were recruited at the first prenatal visit (mean: 12weeks, SD: 0.7). A subset of 348 women provided fasting serum samples for glucose and lipid measurements. Outcomes measures were body mass index, abdominal circumference, sum of skinfold thickness, and blood pressure measurements at 4 years of age. A subsample of 525 children provided non-fasting blood samples for lipid measurements. Results Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with greater risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.81), central adiposity (RR: 1.97, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.49), and greater fat mass by 5.10mm (95%CI: 2.49, 7.71) at 4 years of age. These associations were more pronounced in girls. An increase of 40mg/dl in fasting serum cholesterol levels in early pregnancy was associated with greater skinfold thickness by 3.30mm (95%CI: 1.41, 5.20) at 4 years of age after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and several other confounders. An increase of 10mmHg in diastolic blood pressure in early pregnancy was associated with increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.45), and greater skinfold thickness by 1.71mm (95% CI: 0.57, 2.86) at 4 years of age. Conclusions Metabolic dysregulation in early pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity at preschool age. PMID:25970502

  18. Use of the partial farm budget technique to predict the economic impact of the flock management decision to use B-mode ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, D J; Ley, W B; Whittier, W D; Bowen, J M; Thatcher, C D; Pelzer, K D; Moore, J M

    1989-07-15

    A computer spreadsheet was developed to predict the economic impact of a management decision to use B-mode ultrasonographic ovine pregnancy diagnosis. The spreadsheet design and spreadsheet cell formulas are provided. The program used the partial farm budget technique to calculate net return (NR) or cash flow changes that resulted from the decision to use ultrasonography. Using the program, either simple pregnancy diagnosis or pregnancy diagnosis with the ability to determine singleton or multiple pregnancies may be compared with no flock ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis. A wide range of user-selected regional variables are used to calculate the cash flow changes associated with the ultrasonography decisions. A variable may be altered through a range of values to conduct a sensitivity analysis of predicted NR. Example sensitivity analyses are included for flock conception rate, veterinary ultrasound fee, and the price of corn. Variables that influence the number of cull animals and the cost of ultrasonography have the greatest impact on predicted NR. Because the determination of singleton or multiple pregnancies is more time consuming, its economic practicality in comparison with simple pregnancy diagnosis is questionable. The value of feed saved by identifying and separately feeding ewes with singleton pregnancies is not offset by the increased ultrasonography cost.

  19. USE OF BROMOERGOCRYPTINE IN THE VALIDATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MECHANISMS OF EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Validated protocols for evaluating maternally mediated mechanisms of early pregnancy failure in rodents are needed for use in the risk assessment process. To supplement previous efforts in the validation of a panel of protocols assembled for this purpose, bromoergocryptine (BEC) ...

  20. A Novel early pregnancy assessment unit/Gynaecology assessment unit dashboard: An experience from a UK district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Wahba, K; Shah, A; Hill, K; Hosni, M M

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of early pregnancy assessment units (EPAUs)/Gynaecology assessment units (GAUs) started more than 20 years ago in the UK to decrease hospital admissions of patients with early pregnancy problems. However, there are still wide variations in the quality of services provided by these units. The objective of this study was to create a method that can be used for continuous assessment of these units on a regular basis. We designed a dashboard covering all aspects of EPAU/GAU activities depending upon the early pregnancy unit association guidelines, and the department of health data and statistics. The EPAU/GAU dashboard has been used successfully in the early assessment pregnancy unit of Yeovil District hospital for few years and is still implemented until now. It is an excellent tool for continuous audit. It is a simple method that should be adopted by different EPAUs/GAUs for their objective assessment in order to improve the services provided by these units.

  1. Sonographic findings of early pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus: A two case report.

    PubMed

    Dove, Christine K; Harvey, Sara M; Spalluto, Lucy B

    Congenital uterine anomalies have a profound impact on reproductive outcomes. The unicornuate uterus accounts for approximately 20% of all congenital uterine anomalies. Unicornuate uterine anomalies with non-communicating rudimentary horns are at risk of developing ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn. Given increased risked of uterine rupture, rudimentary horn pregnancies pose significant maternal health risks. Understanding the sonographic appearance of early pregnancy within the rudimentary horn of the unicornuate uterine configuration is imperative for appropriate and timely clinical management. We present two cases of pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus diagnosed sonographically in the first trimester. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence and the risk of early pregnancy among women ages 18-22.

    PubMed

    Young, Maria-Elena D; Deardorff, Julianna; Ozer, Emily; Lahiff, Maureen

    2011-09-01

    This clinic- and community-based study of young women investigated the relationship between previous sexual abuse and early pregnancy, examining the effect of the developmental period in which sexual abuse occurred and type of sexual abuse, while also providing methodological advances in the assessment of distinctive sexual abuse and its sequelae. Secondary data analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was conducted to determine the association between sexual abuse in childhood, in adolescence, or both, and risk of early pregnancy among 1,790 young women. In addition, this study examined the type of sexual abuse that occurred during each period. As compared with women with no history of sexual abuse, women who experienced sexual abuse only in childhood had a 20% greater hazard of pregnancy; women who experienced sexual abuse only in adolescence had a 30% greater hazard of pregnancy; and women who experienced sexual abuse in both childhood and adolescence had an 80% greater hazard of pregnancy. Across these periods, attempted rape and rape were associated with an increased hazard of pregnancy. The association between sexual abuse and pregnancy was mediated by age at first intercourse and moderated by a woman's education level. This study provides evidence that both the developmental timing and the type of sexual abuse contributes to an increased risk for early pregnancy. The study findings indicate that sexual abuse leads to an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, which in turn increases the likelihood of an early pregnancy. Women with higher educational attainment are less likely to experience early pregnancy as a result of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subchorionic hematomas are increased in early pregnancy in women taking low-dose aspirin.

    PubMed

    Truong, Ashley; Sayago, M Mercedes; Kutteh, William H; Ke, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    To determine the frequency of subchorionic hematomas (SCH) in first-trimester ultrasound examinations of patients with infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and in patients from a general obstetric population. To determine if the method of assisted reproduction utilized or the use of anticoagulants, such as heparin and aspirin (ASA), influenced frequency of SCH. Prospective, cohort study. Fertility clinic and general obstetrics clinic. Five hundred and thirty-three women who were pregnant in the first-trimester. Not applicable. Frequencies of subchorionic hematomas in women based on diagnosis, use of anticoagulants, and fertility treatment. SCH were identified in 129/321 (40.2%) in the study group compared to 23/212 (10.9%) in the control group. Fertility diagnosis and the use of heparin did not appear to affect the frequency of SCH in the first trimester; however, SCH occurred at an almost four-fold increase in patients taking ASA compared to those not taking ASA, regardless of fertility diagnosis or method of fertility treatment. The use of ASA may be associated with an increased risk of developing a SCH during the first trimester. The increased frequencies of SCH in pregnancies of patients attending a fertility clinic compared to women from a general obstetrical practice was highly correlated with the use of ASA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of Fetal Anomaly and the Increased Maternal Psychological Toll Associated with Pregnancy Termination.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Priscilla K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 4% of U.S. abortions occur in desired pregnancies, with many resulting from fetal anomalies. The majority of terminations occur in the second trimester; however in recent years first-trimester ultrasound measurement for nuchal translucency, calculation of risk based on maternal age, and biochemistry at 11-14 weeks gestation, have resulted in earlier prenatal diagnoses for chromosomal abnormalities. First trimester ultrasound can also now lead to diagnoses of major structural abnormalities including anecephaly, ventral wall defects, and limb abnormalities. The American College of Medical Genetics released recommendations underscoring the crucial importance of ethical counseling and substantive communication with parents facing a prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly. Unfortunately, the inability of health care providers to understand and empathize with the ardent desire of some parents to refuse termination is likely to be a large factor in the common practice of professionals attempting to steer expectant parents toward termination. Perinatal hospice is family-centered, comprehensive, and integrative in nature. The care provided by perinatal hospice units is delivered by an interdisciplinary team of obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, social workers and chaplains in 130 locations throughout the U.S. Support is offered from diagnosis until death and beyond with time for "bonding, loving, and losing." "Hospice care is an interactive, and at times intense, form of care. Rather than simply 'letting nature take its course,' this approach empowers the family to take control of some of the consequences of their unfortunate situation." A primary focus of perinatal hospice is on fear reduction. Parents facing the death of an infant often fear isolation and abandonment in addition to worrying about their child experiencing pain. Parents are assured that they will be cared for and supported throughout this entire chapter of their lives, as their babies are kept

  5. Feasibility of Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV in Resource-Limited Settings: The ANRS 12140-PEDIACAM Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tejiokem, Mathurin C.; Faye, Albert; Penda, Ida C.; Guemkam, Georgette; Ateba Ndongo, Francis; Chewa, Gisèle; Rekacewicz, Claire; Rousset, Dominique; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Boisier, Pascal; Warszawski, Josiane

    2011-01-01

    Background Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV is a key-point for the implementation of early HAART, associated with lower mortality in HIV-infected infants. We evaluated the EID process of HIV according to national recommendations, in urban areas of Cameroon. Methods/Findings The ANRS12140-Pediacam study is a multisite cohort in which infants born to HIV-infected mothers were included before the 8th day of life and followed. Collection of samples for HIV DNA/RNA-PCR was planned at 6 weeks together with routine vaccination. The HIV test result was expected to be available at 10 weeks. A positive or indeterminate test result was confirmed by a second test on a different sample. Systematic HAART was offered to HIV-infected infants identified. The EID process was considered complete if infants were tested and HIV results provided to mothers/family before 7 months of age. During 2007–2009, 1587 mother-infant pairs were included in three referral hospitals; most infants (n = 1423, 89.7%) were tested for HIV, at a median age of 1.5 months (IQR, 1.4–1.6). Among them, 51 (3.6%) were HIV-infected. Overall, 1331 (83.9%) completed the process by returning for the result before 7 months (median age: 2.5 months (IQR, 2.4–3.0)). Incomplete process, that is test not performed, or result of test not provided or provided late to the family, was independently associated with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9, p = 0.01), absence of PMTCT prophylaxis (aOR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4 to 4.3, p = 0.002), and emergency caesarean section (aOR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.5 to 4.3, p = 0.001). Conclusions In urban areas of Cameroon, HIV-infected women diagnosed sufficiently early during pregnancy opt to benefit from EID whatever their socio-economic, marital or disclosure status. Reduction of non optimal diagnosis process should focus on women with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy especially if they did not receive any

  6. Prediction of Maternal Cytomegalovirus Serostatus in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kuessel, Lorenz; Husslein, Heinrich; Marschalek, Julian; Brunner, Julia; Ristl, Robin; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia; Kiss, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent congenital viral infection and thus places an enormous disease burden on newborn infants. Seroprevalence of maternal antibodies to CMV due to CMV exposure prior to pregnancy is currently the most important protective factor against congenital CMV disease. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors, and to develop and evaluate a risk-predicting model for the maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy. Methods Maternal and paternal background information, as well as maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy from 882 pregnant women were analyzed. Women were divided into two groups based on their CMV serostatus, and were compared using univariate analysis. To predict serostatus based on epidemiological baseline characteristics, a multiple logistic regression model was calculated using stepwise model selection. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using ROC curves. A nomogram based on the model was developed. Results 646 women were CMV seropositive (73.2%), and 236 were seronegative (26.8%). The groups differed significantly with respect to maternal age (p = 0.006), gravidity (p<0.001), parity (p<0.001), use of assisted reproduction techniques (p = 0.018), maternal and paternal migration background (p<0.001), and maternal and paternal education level (p<0.001). ROC evaluation of the selected prediction model revealed an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.8–0.86), yielding sensitivity and specificity values of 0.69 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion We identified predictors of maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy and developed a risk-predicting model based on baseline epidemiological characteristics. Our findings provide easy accessible information that can influence the counseling of pregnant woman in terms of their CMV-associated risk. PMID:26693714

  7. Changes in the Vaginal Microenvironment with Metronidazole Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Balkus, Jennifer; Agnew, Kathy; Lawler, Richard; Hitti, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with preterm delivery, but there is little evidence that treatment improves pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether oral or vaginal metronidazole treatment for BV in early pregnancy was more effective in restoring the normal vaginal environment. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial comparing oral and intravaginal metronidazole for treatment of BV in early pregnancy (<20 weeks). Vaginal samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment were evaluated using gram stain, culture, colorimetric detection of sialidase, and immunoassay for measurement of proinflammatory cytokines interleukins-1β, -6, -8 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). We compared the effect of treatment between groups (using chi-square and t test) and within individuals (McNemar's test). Results Of 126 subjects, 108 (86%) completed follow-up (55 oral, 53 intravaginal). Of the study population, 34% achieved therapeutic cure, and this was not different between treatment groups. BV-associated bacteria were significantly reduced in both groups, but few subjects regained colonization with protective lactobacilli. Among women who achieved therapeutic cure, the level of IL-1β dropped significantly (p < 0.001) and SLPI increased (p = 0.003). More women in the vaginal treatment group had undetectable sialidase after treatment (p = 0.013). Conclusions Treatment with oral or intravaginal metronidazole in early pregnancy reduced colonization with BV-associated bacteria but was not effective in achieving therapeutic cure or in restoring healthy vaginal lactobacilli. PMID:19951217

  8. How Persistent is a Diagnosis of Mathematical Disorder at an Early Age? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemmie; De Weerd, Frauke; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; De Bond, Annemie

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to look at differences between children who outgrew and did not outgrow an early diagnosis of mathematical learning disorder (MD; n=13), and peers without MD (n=13). Children were tested at 5, 6, 7 and 10 years of age. About 54% of the children with an early diagnosis of MD still experienced mathematical difficulties at the…

  9. Early pregnancy factor activity in serum of patients with surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S J; Ma, A Y; Qiao, C X; Zheng, Z Q

    2000-10-01

    The presence of early pregnancy factor (EPF) has been repeatedly confirmed as indispensable to successful pregnancy. However, there is as yet little reported about how surgical abortion would affect the EPF activity, owing to the induced embryo loss. The aim of this study was to pursue this among a large number of patients available in the People's Republic of China. Sera from aborters were collected before surgical abortion and again on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day after treatment. EPF activity was detected by rosette inhibition assay. Before surgical abortion, the mean level of EPF in pregnancy sera was about the same as that of the positive control. After surgical abortion, the EPF level declined rapidly for the first 3 days and then dropped gradually within the negative control range after 5-7 days. Quantitative study of EPF activity along temporal dimensions (duration) due to surgical abortion further promotes the efficiency to take EPF activity and its rate of change as truly index for monitoring embryonic care and development of normal pregnancy.

  10. Chronic endometritis in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and/or fetal demise.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Dana B; Bernardi, Lia A; Stephenson, Mary D

    2014-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of chronic endometritis in women with a history of recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL) and/or fetal demise (FD). Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Recurrent pregnancy loss program in an academic medical center. Three hundred ninety-five women with a history of two or more pregnancy losses of less than 10 weeks' size or a fetal demise of 10 or more weeks' size. All women had an endometrial biopsy. Chronic endometritis was treated with antibiotics, and a second endometrial biopsy was recommended as a "test of cure." Subsequent live-birth rate (LBR). The overall prevalence of chronic endometritis was 9% (35/395) in this cohort; 7% (21/285) in the REPL group, 14% (8/57) in the FD group, and 11% (6/53) in the combined REPL/FD group. The cure rate was 100% after a course(s) of antibiotics. The subsequent cumulative LBR was 88% (21/24) for the treated chronic endometritis group versus 74% (180/244) for the group without chronic endometritis. The per-pregnancy LBR for the treated chronic endometritis group was 7% (7/98) before treatment versus 56% (28/50) after treatment. There was a high prevalence of chronic endometritis in this cohort. The test of cure was 100% with antibiotics. Subsequent LBRs after treatment were encouraging. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Lia A; Cohen, Ronald N; Stephenson, Mary D

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). Observational cohort study. REPL program in an academic medical center. 286 women with a history of ≥2 pregnancy losses <10 weeks. From 2004-2007, no treatment for women with SCH (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] >2.5 mIU/L with a normal free thyroxine or free thyroxine index); from 2008 onward, levothyroxine treatment prepregnancy to maintain TSH ≤2.5 mIU/L. Live-birth rate (LBR). The prevalence of SCH was 55 (19%) of 286 in this REPL cohort. The cumulative LBR was 27 (69%) of 39 for women with SCH versus 104 (74%) of 141 for euthyroid women. The per-pregnancy LBR was 34 (49%) of 69 for SCH versus 129 (58%) of 221 for euthyroid women. When the LBR was compared between treated and untreated SCH, the cumulative LBR was 17 (71%) of 24 versus 10 (67%) of 15, respectively. The per-pregnancy LBR for SCH treated versus untreated women was 22 (48%) of 46 versus 12 (52%) of 23, respectively. Although there was a high prevalence of SCH in the REPL cohort, there was no statistically significant difference in the subsequent live-birth rate when comparing women with SCH and euthyroid women, or treated and untreated SCH. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental predictors of inattention-hyperactivity from pregnancy to early childhood.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Stéphanie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Larroque, Béatrice; Melchior, Maria; Falissard, Bruno; Côté, Sylvana M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers. Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards). Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment) and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood). Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence. A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood.

  13. [IDENTIFICATION OF CAUSES OF EARLY PREGNANCY LOSSES ACCORDING TO HYSTOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Gotsiridze, K; Kintraia, N; Pailodze, M; Gogia, T; Tsaava, F

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the early spontaneous abortions has been conducted (486 cases). Histomorphologic analysis of the curettage material contents erveledinvolutive-regressive developmental chsnges in 108 (22,28%) cases, in 370 cases (77.78%) pathologic changes, like inflammatory changes of deciduas and chorionic villis in 302 cases (80.2%), pathologic prematurity of chorionic vili in 48 cases (12.6%), hydatidiform mole in 28 cases (7.4%). As most cases of pregnancy loss has been reported at 7-9 weeks /172 cases/, we compared histomorphologic data revealed at 7-8 (71 cases) weeks to 5-6 (135 cases) and 10-12 weeks of gestation. Morphologic research data confimed, that at 7-8 weeks compared to 5-6 weeks leading reason ofpregnancy loss was inflammatory changes (OR-1,584), what can be cause of 110 pregnancy losses at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.11). Data comparing7-9 weeks to 10-12 weeks pregnancy losses, confirm the priority of pathologic immaturity (OR-1,279) and hydatidiform mole (OR-1,557) and could be the risk of 100 cases of pregnancy termination at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.10).Existing results are of great importance for the preconceptional preparation of women.

  14. Finasteride use during pregnancy and early neonatal outcome: a case report.

    PubMed

    AlSaad, Doua; Lee, Ben H; Al-Obaidly, Sawsan

    2018-06-01

    The use of antiandrogen drugs such as finasteride during pregnancy may carry the risk of birth defects, especially hypospadias. We report a 39-year-old woman, with 5 weeks unplanned pregnancy, the patient conceived while receiving daily dose of finasteride 2.5 mg for treatment of alopecia. The patient's partner was concurrently using finasteride for the same purpose. Ultrasound scans including detailed anatomy were normal throughout pregnancy and the fetal gender was detected to be male. The patient had her delivery at 38 +5 weeks' gestation, by elective cesarean section, a male infant with a weight of 3.58 kg and Apgar score of 9 and 10 at 1 and 5-min, respectively. The infant was healthy with no obvious dysmorphic features. In this case report, maternal use of finasteride in early pregnancy was not associated with external genitalia abnormalities of a male baby. Moreover, maternal exposure to the semen of partner who received finasteride did not adversely affect the short term neonatal outcomes. However, absence of apparent neonatal adverse effects in a single case report does not indicate safety of use. Population-based long term neonatal outcomes are yet to be established.

  15. [Vojta's method as the early neurodevelopmental diagnosis and therapy concept].

    PubMed

    Banaszek, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Vaclav Vojta (1917-2000) developed an early diagnostic method of the neurodevelopmental disorder of infants and came up with therapeutic concept consisting in releasing of global motor complexes by means of the stimulation of proper areas on patients body. In the diagnostics apart from very careful observation of the spontaneous movement of the infant and examination of the reflexes that are characteristic for the first weeks of human's life, Vojta applied the examination of the 7 postural reactions. Presence of the trouble in patterns and dynamics of the postural reactions Vojta called Central Nervous Coordination Disorder--CNCD and regarded as work diagnosis or alarm signal indicating necessity of application of the therapy, especially when asymmetry of the muscle tone and primitive reflexes beyond their physiological appearance period are observed or the number of the abnormal reactions exceeds 5. Global motor complexes as reflex locomotion--crawling and rotation--consist of all the partial motion patterns, which are gradually used by healthy infant in the process of postural and motor ontogenesis. Providing the central nervous system with proper external stimulation allows to, using neuronal plasticity, recreate an access to the human's postural development program and gradually replace pathological motor patterns by those more regular. Exercises repeated several times a day rebuilt support, erectile and vertical mechanisms, improve automatic postural control and phase lower limb movement. Affecting especially on autochtonic muscles of the spine exercises balance synergic cooperation of muscle groups in the trunk and those surrounding key body joints. This way they correct body's posture and peripheral motion and pathology of the outlasted primitive reflexes gradually withdraws.

  16. Effects of embryo size at transfer (whole versus demi) and early pregnancy progesterone supplementation on embryo growth and pregnancy-specific protein bovine concentrations in recipient dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Lopes-da-Costa, L; Chagas e Silva, J; Deloche, M C; Jeanguyot, N; Humblot, P; Horta, A E M

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate embryonic size and survival, plasma progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-specific protein bovine (PSPB) concentrations in early pregnancies (n = 99) following the transfer of one whole (n = 66) or one demi (n = 33) embryo to recipient virgin dairy heifers. The experiment was designed to evaluate the fixed effects of embryo size at transfer (whole or demi embryo) on Day 7 of the estrous cycle (Day 0 = estrus) and P4 supplementation between Days 7 to 19 through an intravaginal device (yes or no) on plasma P4 and PSPB concentrations and on embryo measurements. Plasma P4 concentrations were measured by RIA on Days 0, 7, 14, 19, 21, 25, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 of pregnancy and, PSPB concentrations were measured by ELISA on Days 7, 21, 25, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63. The presence of an embryonic vesicle was detected on Day 25, embryonic/fetal movements and heartbeat were evaluated on Days 42 and 63 and embryo measurements [crown-rump length (CRL) and width at mid body] were obtained on Day 42 through ultrasonography. In non-supplemented pregnancies, Day 42 whole embryos had higher (P < 0.05) CRL and width than demi embryos, but the difference averaged only 1 to 2 mm. In P4 supplemented pregnancies, whole and demi embryos attained a similar size on Day 42 of pregnancy. Embryo size at transfer, early exogenous P4 supplementation and their interactions had no effects (P > 0.05) on plasma P4 concentrations. However, the post-hoc LSD evaluation showed that plasma P4 concentrations on Day 25 were higher (P < 0.001) in whole than in demi embryo derived pregnancies and, that exogenous P4 supplementation increased (P < 0.05) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 19 of pregnancy. The plasma PSPB detection rate on Days 7 to 63 of pregnancy was similar in pregnancies resulting from the transfer of whole and demi embryos. From a total of 93 recipients remaining pregnant until Day 63, plasma PSPB was constantly undetectable on Day 7, was detected in 4% of

  17. Pregnancies After the Diagnosis of Mild Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Varner, Michael W; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Landon, Mark B; Casey, Brian M; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Rouse, Dwight J; Tita, Alan T N; Thorp, John M; Chien, Edward K; Saade, George R; Peaceman, Alan M; Blackwell, Sean C; Vandorsten, J Peter

    2017-02-01

    To assess the association of subsequent pregnancy with subsequent metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus after a pregnancy complicated by mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We conducted a prospective observational follow-up study of women with mild GDM randomized from 2002 to 2007 to usual care or dietary intervention and glucose self-monitoring. Women were evaluated 5-10 years after the parent study. Participants were grouped according to the number of subsequent pregnancies (group A, none [reference]; group B, one; group C, two or greater). Serum triglycerides, glucose tolerance, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist circumference were assessed. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by American Heart Association and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute criteria. Multivariable regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 905 eligible women from the original trial, 483 agreed to participate, 426 of whom were included in this analysis. Groups A, B, and C consisted of 212, 143, and 71 women, respectively. Of women with subsequent pregnancies, 32% (69/214) had another pregnancy complicated with GDM. No difference between groups was observed for metabolic syndrome (group A, 34%; group B, 33%; group C, 30%). Subsequent pregnancies were associated with diabetes mellitus outside of pregnancy (group A, 5.2%; group B, 10.5%, RR 2.62, 95% CI 1.16-5.91; group C, 11.3%, RR 2.83, 95% CI 1.06-7.59), and if complicated with GDM (no subsequent GDM pregnancy, RR 1.99, 95% CI 0.82-4.84; subsequent GDM pregnancy, RR 3.75, 95% CI 1.60-8.82). In women with prior mild GDM, subsequent pregnancies did not increase the frequency of metabolic syndrome, but subsequent pregnancies with GDM increased the risk of diabetes mellitus outside of pregnancy.

  18. Maternal N-Carbamylglutamate Supply during Early Pregnancy Enhanced Pregnancy Outcomes in Sows through Modulations of Targeted Genes and Metabolism Pathways.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangzhou; Ye, Qianhong; Ye, Changchuan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2018-06-13

    Reducing pregnancy loss is important for improving reproductive efficiency for both human and mammalian animals. Our previous study demonstrates that maternal N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supply during early pregnancy enhances embryonic survival in gilts. However, whether maternal NCG supply improves the pregnancy outcomes is still not known. Here we found maternal NCG supply during early pregnancy in sows significantly increased the numbers of total piglets born alive per litter ( P < 0.05) and significantly changed the levels of metabolites in amniotic fluid and serum involved in metabolism of energy, lipid, and glutathione and immunological regulation. The expression of endometrial progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) was significantly increased by NCG supplementation ( P < 0.05) as well as the expression of PGRMC1, endothelial nitric oxide synthesases (eNOS), and lamin A/C in fetuses and placentae ( P < 0.05). Among the NCG-associated amino acids, arginine and glutamine, markedly increased PGRMC1 and eNOS expression in porcine trophectoderm cells ( P < 0.05), whereas glutamate could stimulate the expression of vimentin and lamin A/C in porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells ( P < 0.05) and proline stimulated lamin A/C expression ( P < 0.05). Collectively, these data reveal the mechanisms of NCG in reducing early embryo loss. These findings have important implications that NCG has great potential to improve pregnancy outcomes in human and mammalian animals.

  19. Use of Antihistamine Medications During Early Pregnancy and Isolated Major Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Werler, Martha M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Antihistamines are commonly used during pregnancy. There is little evidence that they have teratogenic effects, but there are knowledge gaps with respect to newer products, as well as the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. METHODS Using the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2003), the authors examined associations between maternal use of 14 antihistamines during early pregnancy and 26 isolated major birth defects. A Bayesian analysis incorporating prior knowledge about the relationships between the antihistamines, birth defects, and measured covariates was conducted. RESULTS Of the 364 associations investigated, 24 had 95% posterior intervals excluding 1.0. All 24 associations were positive; 23 associations were of weak to moderate magnitude (posterior odds ratio [OR] < 3.0) and one was strong (OR > 6.0) but very imprecise. Of the 24 associations, 20 were with non-cardiac defects. Eight associations involved the antihistamine diphenhydramine. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study generally were consistent with no association between birth defects and antihistamine use during early pregnancy. Several of the findings might warrant further investigation, although the observed elevated associations should be interpreted in the context of the number of associations investigated and the analysis of retrospective, self-reported data. PMID:19161158

  20. Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Arnold, Charles D; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-02-18

    Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. The mean consumption of animal-source foods was 10.3 times/week. In multivariate analysis, socioeconomic status, education, and food security were generally positively associated with anthropometric indicators and dietary practices but not with iron or vitamin A status. Our findings confirm that there is a high burden of undernutrition among these Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. Understanding factors related to undernutrition can help to identify adolescent pregnant women at higher risk and provide appropriate counseling and care. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999–2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3–4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4–6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS–outcome associations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:26333069

  2. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Webster, Thomas F; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2015-10-06

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999-2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3-4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4-6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS-outcome associations in epidemiologic studies.

  3. Interferon-τ increases BoLA-I for implantation during early pregnancy in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe; Li, Binbin; Wu, Yue; Wang, Xiao; Deng, GanZhen

    2017-11-10

    Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) signals pregnancy recognition in ruminants. We investigated the effects of IFN-τ produced by embryo trophoblastic cells (ETCs) on expression of bovine leukocyte antigen-I (BoLA-I), a bovine analogue of human MHC-I, in endometrial luminal epithelial cells (EECs) during early pregnancy in dairy cows. Expression of IFN-τ and BoLA-I was increased in endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in endometrial tissues, while expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was decreased, indicating immunosuppression. Progesterone increased IFN-τ expression in EECs. IFN-τ increased p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 levels in EECs, but reduced TRAF3 levels. In addition, IFN-τ increased expression of BoLA-I and IL-10, but decreased expression of IL-6 in EECs. These results indicate that IFN-τ enables stable implantation in dairy cows by increasing expression of BoLA-I, and by immunosuppression mediated by increased IL-10 and decreased IL-6 expression.

  4. Interferon-τ increases BoLA-I for implantation during early pregnancy in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhe; Li, Binbin; Wu, Yue; Wang, Xiao; Deng, GanZhen

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) signals pregnancy recognition in ruminants. We investigated the effects of IFN-τ produced by embryo trophoblastic cells (ETCs) on expression of bovine leukocyte antigen-I (BoLA-I), a bovine analogue of human MHC-I, in endometrial luminal epithelial cells (EECs) during early pregnancy in dairy cows. Expression of IFN-τ and BoLA-I was increased in endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in endometrial tissues, while expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was decreased, indicating immunosuppression. Progesterone increased IFN-τ expression in EECs. IFN-τ increased p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 levels in EECs, but reduced TRAF3 levels. In addition, IFN-τ increased expression of BoLA-I and IL-10, but decreased expression of IL-6 in EECs. These results indicate that IFN-τ enables stable implantation in dairy cows by increasing expression of BoLA-I, and by immunosuppression mediated by increased IL-10 and decreased IL-6 expression. PMID:29221114

  5. Early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancy: Findings from 60 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Sobel, Howard; Betran, Ana Pilar; Temmerman, Marleen

    2018-06-01

    Around the world, the incidence of multiple pregnancies reaches its peak in the Central African countries and often represents an increased risk of death for women and children because of higher rates of obstetrical complications and poor management skills in those countries. We sought to assess the association between twins and early neonatal mortality compared with singleton pregnancies. We also assessed the role of skilled birth attendant and mode of delivery on early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancies. We conducted a secondary analysis of individual level data from 60 nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys including 521 867 singleton and 14 312 twin births. We investigated the occurrence of deaths within the first week of life in twins compared to singletons and the effect of place and attendance at birth; also, the role of caesarean sections against vaginal births was examined, globally and after countries stratification per caesarean sections rates. A multi-level logistic regression was used accounting for homogeneity within country, and homogeneity within twin pairs. Early neonatal mortality among twins was significantly higher when compared to singleton neonates (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.0-8.3) in these 60 countries. Early neonatal mortality was also higher among twins than singletons when adjusting for birth weight in a subgroup analysis of those countries with data on birth weight (n = 20; less than 20% of missing values) (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2-3.5). For countries with high rates (>15%) of caesarean sections (CS), twins delivered vaginally in health facility had a statistically significant (aOR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.4-9.4) increased risk of early neonatal mortality compared to twins delivered through caesarean sections. Home twin births without SBA was associated with increased mortality compared with delivering at home with SBA (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8) and

  6. Early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancy: Findings from 60 low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Sobel, Howard; Betran, Ana Pilar; Temmerman, Marleen

    2018-01-01

    Background Around the world, the incidence of multiple pregnancies reaches its peak in the Central African countries and often represents an increased risk of death for women and children because of higher rates of obstetrical complications and poor management skills in those countries. We sought to assess the association between twins and early neonatal mortality compared with singleton pregnancies. We also assessed the role of skilled birth attendant and mode of delivery on early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancies. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of individual level data from 60 nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys including 521 867 singleton and 14 312 twin births. We investigated the occurrence of deaths within the first week of life in twins compared to singletons and the effect of place and attendance at birth; also, the role of caesarean sections against vaginal births was examined, globally and after countries stratification per caesarean sections rates. A multi-level logistic regression was used accounting for homogeneity within country, and homogeneity within twin pairs. Results Early neonatal mortality among twins was significantly higher when compared to singleton neonates (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.0-8.3) in these 60 countries. Early neonatal mortality was also higher among twins than singletons when adjusting for birth weight in a subgroup analysis of those countries with data on birth weight (n = 20; less than 20% of missing values) (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2-3.5). For countries with high rates (>15%) of caesarean sections (CS), twins delivered vaginally in health facility had a statistically significant (aOR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.4-9.4) increased risk of early neonatal mortality compared to twins delivered through caesarean sections. Home twin births without SBA was associated with increased mortality compared with delivering at home with SBA (aOR = 1

  7. Biomonitoring of human fetal exposure to environmental chemicals in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M

    2014-01-01

    The first trimester of human fetal life, a period of extremely rapid development of physiological systems, represents the most rapid growth phase in human life. Interference in the establishment of organ systems may result in abnormal development that may be manifest immediately or programmed for later abnormal function. Exposure to environmental chemicals may be affecting development at these early stages, and yet there is limited knowledge of the quantities and identities of the chemicals to which the fetus is exposed during early pregnancy. Clearly, opportunities for assessing fetal chemical exposure directly are extremely limited. Hence, this review describes indirect means of assessing fetal exposure in early pregnancy to chemicals that are considered disrupters of development. Consideration is given to such matrices as maternal hair, fingernails, urine, saliva, sweat, breast milk, amniotic fluid and blood, and fetal matrices such as cord blood, cord tissue, meconium, placenta, and fetal liver. More than 150 articles that presented data from chemical analysis of human maternal and fetal tissues and fluids were reviewed. Priority was given to articles where chemical analysis was conducted in more than one matrix. Where correlations between maternal and fetal matrices were determined, these articles were included and are highlighted, as these may provide the basis for future investigations of early fetal exposure. The determination of fetal chemical exposure, at the time of rapid human growth and development, will greatly assist regulatory agencies in risk assessments and establishment of advisories for risk management concerning environmental chemicals.

  8. Propensity for adverse pregnancy outcomes in African-American women may be explained by low energy expenditure in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Most, Jasper; Gilmore, L Anne; Altazan, Abby D; St Amant, Marshall; Beyl, Robbie A; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2018-06-01

    African-American (AA) women have poorer pregnancy outcomes, and studies in nonpregnant women suggest a different etiology of weight gain in AA compared with white women. We hypothesized that physiologic factors such as low energy expenditure and physical activity would be present in AA compared with white women in pregnancy. We aimed to identify physiologic risk factors for disordered energy balance in AA and white women early in pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study in 66 pregnant women with obesity, between 14 and 16 wk of gestation. Energy intake was calculated using the intake-balance method. Energy expenditure was measured in free-living conditions [total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)] over 7 d with the use of doubly labelled water and during sleep [sleeping EE (SleepEE)] in a room calorimeter. Body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography and physical activity by accelerometers. Markers of metabolic health were obtained from fasting blood and urine. AA (n = 34) and white (n = 32) women were comparable in age (mean ± SEM: 27.7 ± 0.6 y), enrollment body mass index [mean ± SEM (in kg/m2): 36.9 ± 0.7], and body fat (mean ± SEM: 45.0% ± 0.6%). AA women had more fat-free mass (P = 0.01) and tended to be more insulin-resistant (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, P = 0.06). Energy intake was significantly lower in AA than in white women (2499 ± 76 compared with 2769 ± 58 kcal/d, P = 0.001), although absolute TDEE was comparable (AA: 2590 ± 77 kcal/d; white: 2711 ± 56 kcal/d; P = 0.21). After adjusting for body composition, TDEE was significantly lower in AA women (-231 ± 74 kcal/d, P = 0.003), as was SleepEE (-81 ± 37 kcal/d, P = 0.03). Physical activity, substrate oxidation, and metabolic biomarkers (triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations, catecholamine excretion) were not significantly different between groups. Body mass-adjusted energy expenditure is significantly

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 10 [5] colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

  11. Perlecan and syndecan-4 in uterine tissues during the early pregnancy in mice.

    PubMed

    San Martin, S; Soto-Suazo, M; Zorn, T M T

    2004-07-01

    During early pregnancy in mice, there is recruitment of specific immune cells, remodeling of the endometrium, cell differentiation and synthesis of new molecules. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of perlecan and syndecan-4 in the uteri before and after embryo implantation. During pre-implantation, perlecan was identified in basement membranes and extracellular spaces of the endometrial stroma. In contrast, expression of syndecan-4 was quite weak. In the peri-implantation period, perlecan remained in the basement membranes, and it was no longer observed in the stroma and it was identified in the embryonic cells. On day 4 of pregnancy, syndecan-4 increased in the fibroblasts of the subepithelial stroma. After implantation, syndecan-4 was pronounced in pre-decidual and mature decidual cells. The coordinate balance between the pre- and post-implantation periods suggests a role of these two molecules in the adaptive modification of the uterine microenvironment to receive and implant the embryo.

  12. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Juanmahel; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Flaws, Jodi A.; Bagchi, Milan K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention in female reproductive health due to its widespread toxic effects. Although BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we addressed the effect of prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA on embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Our studies revealed that treatment of mice with BPA led to improper endometrial epithelial and stromal functions thus affecting embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Upon further analyses, we found that the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and its downstream target gene, HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2), was markedly suppressed in BPA-exposed uterine tissues. Previous studies have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor and the MAPK signaling pathways and inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, we observed that down-regulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with enhanced activation of fibroblast growth factor and MAPK signaling in the epithelium, thus contributing to aberrant proliferation and lack of uterine receptivity. Further, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. In summary, our studies revealed that chronic exposure to BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:27022677

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: impact of counseling patterns on parental perceptions and decisions regarding termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hilton-Kamm, Debra; Chang, Ruey-Kang; Sklansky, Mark

    2012-12-01

    An online survey for parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) was developed to study parents' experiences at the time of diagnosis. The survey was distributed to online support groups. A total of 841 responses from parents of children with CHD were received during a 4-week period. The current study examined those respondents (211 [25 %]) who reported their child's diagnosis as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Among these, 138 (65 %) reported receiving the diagnosis prenatally. 32 % of those receiving a prenatal diagnosis reported that after they declined to terminate the pregnancy, termination was mentioned again by their physicians. Parents who had termination mentioned again after their initial decline reported significantly lower optimism regarding their child's life expectancy than those who did not have it mentioned again (66 vs. 94 %, p < 0.001); were more likely to interpret the term "rare" to mean "little or no chance of survival" (34 vs. 13 %, p = 0.01); and were more likely to change pediatric cardiologists (PCs) (43 vs. 12 %, p < 0.001). Similarly, 22 % of respondents receiving a prenatal diagnosis reported feeling pressure to terminate the pregnancy by the PC. Those who felt pressure to terminate reported lower optimism about their child's life expectancy than respondents who did not feel pressure (48 vs. 88 %, p < 0.001) and were more likely to choose a new PC (48 vs. 17 %, p < 0.001). In our cohort of parents, when termination of pregnancy was mentioned after the parents declined it, or if the parents felt pressure to terminate, the parents perceived a lower chance of survival, felt less optimistic about their child's life expectancy, and were more likely to choose another PC for long-term follow-up care. Our study could not determine whether repeated discussions of the possibility for termination of pregnancy independently impacts parental optimism regarding prognosis or whether those who counsel with repeated discussions of

  15. Termination of pregnancy at very early gestation without visible yolk sac on ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Heller, Rebecca; Cameron, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Requests for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at very early gestation (≤6 weeks) can prove challenging for abortion services as the ultrasound feature usually accepted as definitive evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), the presence of a yolk sac within a gestational sac, may not yet be evident. In 2011 the Edinburgh TOP service introduced a protocol permitting women to proceed to treatment without further investigations provided that ultrasound showed the features of an eccentrically placed gestational sac (≥3 mm) with a decidual reaction, and there were no signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted of outcomes of women presenting for TOP at ≤6 weeks' gestation over a 2-year period using the hospital computerised database. A total of 1155 women presented for TOP with an ultrasound gestational age of ≤6 weeks. Of these, 1030 (89%) had ultrasound evidence of a yolk sac. Eighty-seven women (7.5%) had an eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction. All 87 women fulfilled our criteria to proceed to medical TOP, and 66 did so. In the remaining 21 cases, further investigations were performed before they proceeded to medical TOP. Two (0.17%) medical TOPs failed, both in women whose initial ultrasound had shown a yolk sac. Women with ultrasound features consistent with a very early IUP (≥3 mm eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction) and without signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy can proceed directly to medical TOP without the need for delay for further ultrasonography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Predicting the intrauterine fetal death of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Mai; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiromi; Mochizuki, Akihiko; Sekiguchi, Futoshi; Koshimizu, Naho; Itai, Toshiyuki; Odagami, Mizuha

    2018-01-11

    We investigated whether it was possible to predict the prognosis of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy based on the degree of neck thickening. We retrospectively analyzed 57 singleton pregnancies with fetuses with cystic hygroma who were examined before the 22nd week of pregnancy. The fetuses were categorized according to the outcome, structural abnormalities at birth, and chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we proposed a new sonographic predictor with which we assessed neck thickening by dividing the width of the neck thickening by the biparietal diameter, which is expressed as the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio. The median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio in the intrauterine fetal death group (0.51) was significantly higher than that in the live birth group (0.27). No significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the structural abnormalities group at birth and the no structural abnormalities group, and no significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the chromosomal abnormality group and the no chromosomal abnormality group. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio to predict intrauterine fetal death. When the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio cut-off value was 0.5, intrauterine fetal death could be predicted with a sensitivity of 52.9% and a specificity of 100%. It is possible to predict intrauterine fetal death in fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured. However, even if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured, predicting the presence or absence of a structural abnormality at birth or a chromosomal abnormality is difficult. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria is suitable for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis: further evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yumei; Yang, Huixia; Zhu, Weiwei; Yang, Hongyun; Li, Haixia; Yan, Jie; Zhang, Cuilin

    2014-01-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) recommended new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) after extensive analyses of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study. Unfortunately, there was no data from mainland of China in this study. We evaluated the feasibility of IADPSG criteria for GDM diagnosis in China. A large prospective study was conducted. We reviewed medical records of a total of 25 674 pregnant women who underwent GDM screening and diagnosis between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 in the Peking University First Hospital. The prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was calculated according to different cut off values defined by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the IADPSG, and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes related to GDM was analyzed. According to the cut off values of NDDG and IADPSG criteria, the prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was 8.4% and 18.9% (P < 0.01) respectively, and the prevalence of cesarean section (52.5% vs. 46.0%, P < 0.01), macrosomia (7.5% vs. 6.3%, P < 0.05), neonatal hypoglycemia (1.6% vs. 1.0%, P < 0.01), and perinatal death (0.5% vs. 0.2%, P < 0.01); the prevalence was significantly lower when IADPSG criteria were applied. The prevalence of macrosomia, cesarean section, neonatal hypoglycemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, etc. was also higher in the GDM group than in the normal group. The prevalence of cesarean section (62.3%) and macrosomia (14.8%) was the highest in untreated mild GDM patients. Our results indicated that treatment/intervention of women with GDM identified by IADPSG criteria was related to significantly lower risk of multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such findings provide support for applying IADPSG criteria in China.

  18. Cardiac arrest and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Tabitha A; Sanson, Tracy G

    2009-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy is rare occurring in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. When it does occur, it is important for a clinician to be familiar with the features peculiar to the pregnant state. Knowledge of the anatomic and physiologic changes of pregnancy is helpful in the treatment and diagnosis. Although the main focus should be on the mother, it should not be forgotten that there is another potential life at stake. Resuscitation of the mother is performed in the same manner as in any other patient, except for a few minor adjustments because of the changes of pregnancy. The specialties of obstetrics and neonatology should be involved early in the process to ensure appropriate treatment of both mother and the newborn. This article will explore the changes that occur in pregnancy and their impact on treatment. The common causes of maternal cardiac arrest will be discussed briefly. PMID:19561954

  19. Birth defects after use of antithyroid drugs in early pregnancy: a Swedish nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Lönn, Stefan; Vestergaard, Peter; Törring, Ove

    2017-10-01

    Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) may have teratogenic effects, but more evidence is needed on the risk and types of birth defects after the use of methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU). This study aimed to evaluate the association between the use of ATDs in early pregnancy and birth defects. Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. The study included 684 340 children live-born in Sweden from 2006 to 2012. Exposure groups defined by maternal ATD use in early pregnancy were MMI ( n  = 162); PTU ( n  = 218); MMI and PTU ( n  = 66); ATD before or after, but not in pregnancy ( n  = 1551) and non-exposed (never ATD ( n  = 682 343)). Outcome was cumulative incidence of birth defects diagnosed before two years of age. The cumulative incidence of birth defects was not significantly different in children exposed to MMI (6.8%, P  = 0.6) or PTU (6.4%, P  = 0.4) vs non-exposed (8.0%). For subtypes of birth defects, MMI was associated with an increased incidence of septal heart defects ( P  = 0.02). PTU was associated with ear ( P  = 0.005) and obstructive urinary system malformations ( P  = 0.006). A case of choanal atresia was observed after exposure to both MMI and PTU. The incidence of birth defects in children born to mothers who received ATD before or after, but not in pregnancy, was 8.8% and not significantly different from non-exposed ( P  = 0.3), MMI exposed ( P  = 0.4) or PTU exposed ( P  = 0.2). MMI and PTU were associated with subtypes of birth defects previously reported, but the frequency of ATD exposure in early pregnancy was low and severe malformations described in the MMI embryopathy were rarely observed. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Izci Balserak, Bilgay

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses.Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m(-2)) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy.SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy.Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations.There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population.To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy.To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the

  1. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  2. Predictive value of serum β-hCG for early pregnancy outcomes among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinglin; Liu, Yukun; Li, Xuejiao; Jiao, Xuedan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    To examine peak serum levels of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) for prediction of early pregnancy outcomes among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In a retrospective study, the medical records of pregnant women with a history of RSA treated at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, China, between January 2011 and July 2013 were reviewed. Serum β-hCG had been measured twice weekly from 5 to 13weeks of pregnancy, and pregnancy was monitored by transvaginal ultrasonography to 13(+6)weeks. Optimal cutoff for peak β-hCG level was determined by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and Youden index. Women were divided into four groups on the basis of optimal peak β-hCG cutoff and pregnancy outcome (pregnancy at 13weeks or spontaneous abortion). Peak β-hCG levels and length of pregnancy at this peak were examined. Overall, 1240 patients were included. The optimal cutoff value of peak β-hCG was 88 468IU/L, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for successful pregnancy of 95.6%, 88.0%, 95.6%, and 89.0%, respectively. A faster rise in β-hCG, higher peak β-hCG, and longer pregnancy length at peak β-hCG were associated with successful early pregnancy. A cutoff value of serum β-hCG of 88 000IU/L could be used to predict early pregnancy outcomes for women with a history of RSA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. The decidua of preeclamptic-like BPH/5 mice exhibits an exaggerated inflammatory response during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Heyward, CY; Sones, JL; Lob, HE; Yuen, LC; Abbott, KE; Huang, W; Begun, ZR; Butler, SD; August, A; Leifer, CA; Davisson, RL

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development. BPH/5 pregnancies are characterized by abnormal placentation; therefore, we hypothesized that macrophage localization and/or function is altered during early pregnancy at the site of placental formation (the decidua) compared to C57BL/6 controls. At early gestation time points, before the onset of maternal hypertension or proteinuria, there was a reduction in the number of macrophages in BPH/5 decidua and a concomitant increase in activated T cells compared to C57BL/6. BPH/5 decidua also exhibited decreased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Together, these data suggest that a reduction in decidual macrophages during pregnancy is associated with immune activation in BPH/5 mice, inadequate placental development and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in this model. PMID:28432903

  4. The decidua of preeclamptic-like BPH/5 mice exhibits an exaggerated inflammatory response during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Heyward, C Y; Sones, J L; Lob, H E; Yuen, L C; Abbott, K E; Huang, W; Begun, Z R; Butler, S D; August, A; Leifer, C A; Davisson, R L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development. BPH/5 pregnancies are characterized by abnormal placentation; therefore, we hypothesized that macrophage localization and/or function is altered during early pregnancy at the site of placental formation (the decidua) compared to C57BL/6 controls. At early gestation time points, before the onset of maternal hypertension or proteinuria, there was a reduction in the number of macrophages in BPH/5 decidua and a concomitant increase in activated T cells compared with C57BL/6. BPH/5 decidua also exhibited decreased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Together, these data suggest that a reduction in decidual macrophages during pregnancy is associated with immune activation in BPH/5 mice, inadequate placental development and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum and saliva cortisol relations in adolescents during pregnancy and the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Dorn, L D; Susman, E J

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine: (1) relations between serum and saliva cortisol in adolescents in pregnancy and early postpartum and (2) short-term consistency of serum and saliva cortisol across three samples, 20 minutes apart, as well as the long-term consistency from pregnancy to early postpartum. Pregnant adolescents (n = 40), ages 14 to 19 years, were enrolled in this study. Subjects were seen at 20 weeks gestation or earlier (T1), 34-36 weeks gestation (T2), and 2-3 weeks postpartum (T3). Blood samples were drawn at T1 and T3, at 0, 20, and 40 minutes. Saliva samples were collected across the same 40-minute period at T1, T2, and T3. Spearman rho (rs) correlation coefficients between serum and saliva ranged from 0.72 to 0.77 (T1), and 0.42 to 0.60 (T3) (p < or = 0.05). Short-term consistency between serum cortisol samples was 0.86-0.97 at T1 and 0.60-0.82 at T3. Short-term consistency for saliva cortisol samples was 0.70-0.96 at T1, 0.91-0.95 at T2, and 0.64-0.89 at T3. Long-term consistency (T1 to T3) for serum and saliva cortisol was low. Individual differences as well as dramatic changes in the endocrine environment in pregnancy and the early postpartum period may explain the more moderate serum-saliva correlations in the postpartum period.

  6. Early Pregnancy Weight Gain Exerts the Strongest Effect on Birth Weight, Posing a Critical Time to Prevent Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Gilmore, L Anne; Hu, Gang; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-09-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with infant birth weight and childhood obesity; however, the patterns of GWG on infant birth weight are poorly understood. This analysis in 16,218 mother-child dyads from Tianjin, China, determined the risk of infant size at birth according to GWG occurring throughout the first and second trimester (early GWG) or during the third trimester (late GWG), according to maternal prepregnancy BMI and the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Excessive GWG in early and late pregnancy had an increased risk for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.0, P < 0.001). Regardless of prepregnancy BMI, excessive GWG early in pregnancy (< 24 weeks) was associated with an increased risk of LGA infants (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 2.1-3.1, P < 0.001), and inadequate early GWG was associated with a higher risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7, P < 0.001). The pattern of GWG early in pregnancy, regardless of GWG later in pregnancy, had the greatest impact on infant size at birth. Interventions initiated early in pregnancy may facilitate better adherence to the GWG guidelines and minimize the risk of LGA and SGA infants, a potential precursor for childhood obesity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinterest Email Print About Pregnancy Loss (Before 20 Weeks of Pregnancy) Pregnancy loss is the unexpected loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. It is sometimes called miscarriage, early ...

  8. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08-2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71-2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88-2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  9. Frequency of euploid miscarriage is increased in obese women with recurrent early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Boots, Christina E; Bernardi, Lia A; Stephenson, Mary D

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether the frequency of euploid miscarriage is increased in obese women with recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Academic RPL program. A total of 372 women with REPL, defined as ≥2 pregnancy losses<10 weeks, and at least one ultrasound-documented miscarriage with chromosome results. Body mass index (BMI) was measured at the initial consultation and at each subsequent pregnancy. Conventional cytogenetic analysis and, when indicated, microsatellite analysis and/or comparative genomic hybridization was performed. Frequency of euploid miscarriage in obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2) and nonobese (BMI<30 kg/m2) subjects, before and subsequent to REPL evaluation. There were 578 miscarriages with chromosome results. Of the subjects, 18% were obese at the time of miscarriage. The mean maternal age at miscarriage was similar between the obese and nonobese groups. Due to the high rate of maternal cell contamination in the prior miscarriages, only subsequent miscarriages with chromosome results were included in the primary analysis. Of the 117 subsequent miscarriages, the frequency of an euploid miscarriage among obese women was 58% compared with 37% of nonobese women (relative risk=1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.47). Obese women with REPL have an increased frequency of euploid miscarriage, which is a known risk factor for subsequent miscarriage. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal serum amyloid A level as a novel marker of primary unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Moustafa I; Ramy, Ahmed R; Abdelhamid, Ahmed S; Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Omar, Amna; Harara, Rany M; Fathy, Hayam; Abolouz, Ashraf S

    2017-03-01

    To assess maternal serum amyloid A (SAA) levels among women with primary unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). A prospective study was conducted among women with missed spontaneous abortion in the first trimester at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, between January 21 and December 25, 2014. Women with at least two consecutive primary unexplained REPLs and no previous live births were enrolled. A control group was formed of women with no history of REPL who had at least one previous uneventful pregnancy with no adverse outcomes. Serum samples were collected to measure SAA levels. The main outcome was the association between SAA and primary unexplained REPL. Each group contained 96 participants. Median SAA level was significantly higher among women with REPL (50.0 μg/mL, interquartile range 26.0-69.0) than among women in the control group (11.6 μg/mL, interquartile range 6.2-15.5; P<0.001). The SAA level was an independent indicator of primary unexplained REPL, after adjusting for maternal age and gestational age (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.19; P<0.001). Elevated SAA levels found among women with primary unexplained REPL could represent a novel biomarker for this complication of pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. The effects of two Ureaplasma diversum strains on early pregnancy in heifers.

    PubMed Central

    Gale, S P

    1987-01-01

    Two field isolates of Ureaplasma diversum spp. were used to infect heifers at the time of insemination in a preliminary study to observe the effect of infection on early pregnancy. M84-14c-1 was a field isolate from a bull's prepuce typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-44 (Group C). M84-477c-4 was a field isolate from bovine semen typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-288 (Group A). All three heifers infected with M84-477c-4 had a mild granular vulvitis at some time during the trial. None was pregnant when slaughtered 27 days after infection. The result of infection with M84-14c-1, a preputial isolate, was not consistent. One heifer had no infection and a normal pregnancy, one heifer was infected with an abnormal pregnancy, and one heifer was open but ureaplasmas were not detected until day 17 of the trial. PMID:3453276

  12. Immunohistochemical distribution of early pregnancy factor in ovary, oviduct and placenta of pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, M C; Bellingeri, R V; Motta, C E; Alustiza, F E; Picco, N Y; Vivas, A B

    2015-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressant that promotes maternal immune system tolerance of the allogenic fetus. Little is known about localization of this factor in different tissues and nothing has been reported about localization in swine reproductive and placental tissues. We determined the concentration of EPF in serum of gilts and porcine placenta conditioned medium (PPCM). We also analyzed the expression of EPF in different reproductive tissues of pregnant gilts at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. EPF concentration in serum and PPCM was determined by western blot and densitometry. EPF expression in reproductive tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The highest concentration of EPF was observed at 30 days in serum and PPCM; the concentration was higher in PPCM than in serum at the stages we evaluated. All reproductive tissues from the gestational stages analyzed showed specific labeling of EPF, but this labeling did not appear in non-pregnant gilts. At 30 days pregnancy, the EPF expression in the ovary was predominantly in follicular lutein cells, probably owing to its function as a luteotrophic factor. In the oviduct, EPF was expressed in unciliated secretory epithelial cells and in the cilia of ciliated cells. In the placenta, EPF was expressed in the fetal portion (mesoderm chorioallantois and epithelium of endoderm). EPF acts as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for the trophoblast during the peri-implantation period.

  13. Miscarriage, abortion or criminal feticide: understandings of early pregnancy loss in Britain, 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the close links in medical understandings of miscarriage and abortion in the first half of the twentieth century in Britain. In the absence of a clear legal framework for abortion, and the secrecy surrounding the practice, medical literature suggests contradictory and confused views about women presenting with clinical signs of pregnancy loss. On one hand, there was a lack of clarity as to whether pregnancy loss was natural or induced, with a clear tendency to assume that symptoms of miscarriage were the result of criminal interference gone wrong. On the other hand, women who did not present for treatment when miscarriage was underway were accused of neglecting their unborn children. The paper suggests that discourses around pregnancy loss were class-based, distrustful of female patients, and shaped by the wider context of fertility decline and concerns about infant mortality. The close historical connection between miscarriage and abortion offers some insight into why both the pro-life movement and miscarriage support advocates today draw on similar imagery and rhetoric about early fetal loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational Intelligence in Early Diabetes Diagnosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research. PMID:21713313

  15. Computational intelligence in early diabetes diagnosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S

    2010-01-01

    The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research.

  16. [Relations between hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and subsequent risk of early-term birth: a birth cohort study].

    PubMed

    Li, F Y; Yan, S Q; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Pan, W J; Ge, X; Han, Y; Hao, J H; Tao, F B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To evaluate the relations between hypertensive disorders (HDP) in pregnancy and early-term birth. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women were consecutively recruited. Demographic information was collected in early pregnancy. HDP was diagnosed in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. On the basis of precise evaluation on gestation age, early-term birth was defined as gestational age of 37-38 weeks+6 days. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between HDP and early-term birth. Results: The current study included 3 260 pregnant women, with the rates of HDP, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and pre-eclampsia as 6.0% ( n =194), 4.2% ( n =137) and 1.8% ( n =57), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences between pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and earlyterm birth ( OR =1.49, 95% CI : 0.94-2.36) were found. Pre-eclampsia appeared to have increased the risk of early-term birth ( OR =4.46, 95% CI : 2.09-9.54). Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia could significantly increase the risk of early-term birth. This finding suggested that early detection and intervention programs were helpful in reducing the risk of early-term birth.

  17. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, Candace A.; Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@mail.nih.gov; Yeung, Edwina

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscalemore » Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also

  18. [Genital bacterial carriage during the last trimester of pregnancy and early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A; Dagnra, A; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. To determine the bacterial ecology and pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the germs of the following early-onset neonatal sepsis, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-foetal infections and to find out a drug prophylaxis. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and of possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. An exploration was carried out in every newborn suspected of infection. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them, 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36, and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33,5%), Enterbacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) and polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or endocervicitis (10.4%), asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. These pregnancies led to 334 live births with 27 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis to which endocervicitis (25%) and vaginosis (19,7%) were most often linked. Genital samples at the last trimester of pregnancy could evaluate the risk of maternofoetal infections and allow to adapt a drug prophylaxis of Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent germ of

  19. Safety of Tenofovir Use During Pregnancy: Early Growth Outcomes in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    SIBERRY, George K.; WILLIAMS, Paige L.; MENDEZ, Hermann; SEAGE, George R.; JACOBSON, Denise L.; HAZRA, Rohan; RICH, Kenneth C.; GRINER, Raymond; TASSIOPOULOS, Katherine; KACANEK, Deborah; MOFENSON, Lynne M.; MILLER, Tracie; DiMEGLIO, Linda A.; WATTS, D. Heather

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use during pregnancy with early growth parameters in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. Design US-based prospective cohort study of HEU children to examine potential adverse effects of prenatal TDF exposure. Methods We evaluated the association of maternal TDF use during pregnancy with small for gestational age (SGA); low birth weight (LBW, <2.5kg); weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length-forage z-scores (LAZ) and head circumference-for-age (HCAZ) z-scores at newborn visit; and LAZ, HCAZ, and WAZ at age one year. Logistic regression models for LBW and SGA were fit, adjusting for maternal and sociodemographic factors. Adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate LAZ, WAZ and HCAZ by TDF exposure. Results Of 2029 enrolled children with maternal antiretroviral information, TDF was used by 449 (21%) HIV-infected mothers, increasing from 14% in 2003 to 43% in 2010. There was no difference between those exposed to combination regimens with versus without TDF for SGA, LBW, and newborn LAZ and HCAZ. However, at age one year, infants exposed to combination regimens with TDF had significantly lower adjusted mean LAZ and HCAZ than those without TDF (LAZ: −0.17 vs. −0.03, p=0.04; HCAZ: 0.17 vs. 0.42, p=0.02). Conclusions TDF use during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk for LBW or SGA. The slightly lower mean LAZ and HCAZ observed at age one year in TDF-exposed infants are of uncertain significance but underscore the need for additional studies of growth outcomes after TDF use during pregnancy. PMID:22382151

  20. Increased maternal plasma leptin in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A; Vadachkoria, Surab; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Luthy, David A

    2004-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may have independent direct effects on both insulin secretion and action, in addition to its well documented effects on appetite and energy expenditure. Some, but not all, previously published studies suggest that maternal leptin concentrations may be increased in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined the association between plasma leptin concentration and GDM risk. Women were recruited before 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. Maternal plasma leptin concentrations (collected at 13 weeks of gestation) were measured by using immunoassay. We used generalized linear models to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. GDM developed in 5.7% of the cohort (47 of 823). Elevated leptin concentrations were positively associated with GDM risk (P for trend <.001). After adjusting for maternal prepregnancy adiposity and other confounders, women with leptin concentrations of 31.0 ng/mL or higher experienced a 4.7-fold increased risk of GDM (95% confidence interval 1.2, 18.0) as compared with women who had concentrations of 14.3 ng/mL or lower. We noted a strong linear component of trend in risk of GDM with increasing maternal plasma leptin concentration. Each 10-ng/mL increase in the leptin concentration was associated with a 20% increase in GDM risk (relative risk 1.2; 95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.3). Hyperleptinemia, independent of maternal adiposity, in early pregnancy appears to be predictive of an increased risk of GDM later in pregnancy. Additional larger prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm and more precisely assess the etiologic importance of hyperleptinemia in pregnancy. II-2

  1. Prospective study of maternal mid-pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and early childhood respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Maria C; Stene, Lars C; Håberg, Siri E; Nafstad, Per; Stigum, Hein; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2013-11-01

    Studies suggest that prenatal vitamin D status may be inversely associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) early in life. Studies of prenatal vitamin D status and development of asthma have inconsistent findings. We examined the associations of maternal mid-pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level with the frequency of LRTIs by 36 months and with current asthma at 36 months using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D level was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Respiratory disorders were evaluated by maternal report through questionnaires. LRTIs were analysed in a random sample of 1248 children. Asthma was analysed using a case-control design, including 489 cases and 1183 controls. Multivariable generalised linear models calculated adjusted measures of association. The median gestational week of sample collection was 18 weeks (range 9, 35). The mean 25(OH)D level was 73.7 nmol/L (standard deviation 23.7). Higher maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was associated with a reduced risk of three or more LRTIs by 36 months vs. none, adjusted risk ratio 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58, 0.93] per 20 nmol/L increase. Associations were similar when examining the frequency of LRTIs by 18 months, and the frequency of LRTIs between 18 and 36 months. Maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was not significantly associated with current asthma at 36 months, adjusted odds ratio 0.91 [95% CI 0.81, 1.02] per 20 nmol/L increase. Higher maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was associated with a modestly reduced risk of recurrent LRTIs by 36 months, but was not associated with current asthma at 36 months. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Developmental Predictors of Inattention-Hyperactivity from Pregnancy to Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Foulon, Stéphanie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Melchior, Maria; Falissard, Bruno; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers. Materials and Methods Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards). Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment) and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood). Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence. Results A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. Discussion This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood. PMID:25938453

  3. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Critically Regulates Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Large, Michael J.; Wetendorf, Margeaux; Lanz, Rainer B.; Hartig, Sean M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Mancini, Michael A.; Kovanci, Ertug; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Threadgill, David W.; Lydon, John P.; Jeong, Jae-Wook; DeMayo, Francesco J.

    2014-01-01

    Infertility and adverse gynecological outcomes such as preeclampsia and miscarriage represent significant female reproductive health concerns. The spatiotemporal expression of growth factors indicates that they play an important role in pregnancy. The goal of this study is to define the role of the ERBB family of growth factor receptors in endometrial function. Using conditional ablation in mice and siRNA in primary human endometrial stromal cells, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) to be critical for endometrial function during early pregnancy. While ablation of Her2 or Erbb3 led to only a modest reduction in litter size, mice lacking Egfr expression are severely subfertile. Pregnancy demise occurred shortly after blastocyst implantation due to defects in decidualization including decreased proliferation, cell survival, differentiation and target gene expression. To place Egfr in a genetic regulatory hierarchy, transcriptome analyses was used to compare the gene signatures from mice with conditional ablation of Egfr, wingless-related MMTV integration site 4 (Wnt4) or boneless morphogenic protein 2 (Bmp2); revealing that not only are Bmp2 and Wnt4 key downstream effectors of Egfr, but they also regulate distinct physiological functions. In primary human endometrial stromal cells, marker gene expression, a novel high content image-based approach and phosphokinase array analysis were used to demonstrate that EGFR is a critical regulator of human decidualization. Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR signaling intermediaries WNK1 and AKT1S1, members identified in the kinase array and previously unreported to play a role in the endometrium, also attenuate decidualization. These results demonstrate that EGFR plays an integral role in establishing the cellular context necessary for successful pregnancy via the activation of intricate signaling and transcriptional networks, thereby providing valuable insight into potential therapeutic targets. PMID

  4. Ovarian ectopic pregnancy: diagnosis, treatment, correlation to Carnegie stage 16 and review based on a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Bernhard; Kraemer, Elizabeth; Guengoer, Ersin; Juhasz-Boess, Ingolf; Solomayer, Erich-Franz; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Rajab, Taufiek Konrad

    2009-07-01

    To present a case of a vital ectopic pregnancy after 8 weeks that was located in the right ovary. Case study and literature review. Hospital outpatient clinic. A 29-year-old primigravida presented with lower abdominal pain and mild vaginal bleeding at 8 weeks after her last menstrual period. Wedge resection of the ovary which did not affect subsequent fertility. Conservative treatment options and preservation of patient's reproductive capacity. The embryo was laparoscopically removed in toto and visualized. Therefore, macroscopic correlation to Carnegie stage 16 of development was possible. Approximately 3% of all ectopic pregnancies are located in the ovaries. Preoperative diagnosis of this extremely rare condition is challenging, because the ectopic tumor often resembles cysts of the corpus luteum. At surgery, the trophoblast tissue or the embryo can rarely be visualized completely.

  5. 3D power Doppler ultrasound in early diagnosis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Neto, R Moreira; Ramos, J G L

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a known cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Thus, evaluation of the predicting value of comparing 3D power Doppler indices (3DPD) of uteroplacental circulation (UPC) in the first and second trimester in patients who developed preeclampsia (PE) and those who did not and testing the hypothesis that the parameters of vascularization and placenta flow intensity, as determined by three-dimensional ultrasound (3D), are different in normal pregnancies compared with preeclampsia, could be a suitable screening method. A prospective observational study using 3D power Doppler were performed to evaluate the placental perfusion in 96 pregnant women who came to do the ultrasound routine between 11 and 14 weeks. The placental vascular index (VI), flow index (FI), blood vessels and blood flow index (VFI) by three-dimensional Doppler histogram were calculated. All patients repeated the exam between 16 and 20 weeks. The outcome was scored as normal or preeclamptic. Placental vascular indices including VI, FI and VFI were significantly lower in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls in the study performed in the second trimester (p<0.001). There was not any statistical difference in the patients examined in the first trimester. Our findings suggest that 3D-power Doppler assessment of placental vascular indices in the second trimester has the potential to detect women at risk for subsequent development of PE. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p < 0.001), and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001). Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant. PMID:27916904

  7. Medication use in early pregnancy-prevalence and determinants of use in a prospective cohort of women.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Brian J; Butt, Hajeera; Strawbridge, Judith D; Gallagher, Paul J; Fahey, Tom; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2010-04-01

    To examine the extent, nature and determinants of medication use in early pregnancy. We reviewed early pregnancy medication use, as reported to a midwife at the booking interview, in women delivering between 2000 and 2007 in a large maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland (n = 61 252). Excluding folic acid, at least one medication was reported in 23 989 (39.2%) pregnancies. Over the counter (OTC) medications were reported in 11 970 (19.5%) pregnancies, illicit drugs or methadone in 545 (0.9%) and herbal medicines/supplements in 352 (0.58%). FDA category D and X medications were reported by 1532 (2.5%) and 1987 (3.2%) women. Asthma, depression and hypertension were among the most commonly reported chronic medical disorders. Medications with potential for foetal harm were reported by 86 (15.7%) women treated for depression and 68 (20%) women treated for hypertension. Factors associated with reporting the use of medications with potential for foetal harm included unplanned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.52), booking at less than 12 weeks gestation (aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.58-2.13), being above 25 years of age, unemployed (aOR 2.58, 95%CI 2.03-3.29), nulliparous (aOR 1.41; 95%CI 1.22-1.63), single (aOR 1.28; 95%CI 1.06-1.54) or smoking during pregnancy (aOR 1.96, 95%CI 1.67-2.28). Women frequently report medication use in early pregnancy. Women and prescribers need to be aware of the lack of pregnancy safety data for many medications, and the need for pre-pregnancy planning. Prescribers should ensure that optimal medications are used when treating women of childbearing potential with chronic medical disorders.

  8. Disclosure, stigma of HIV positive child and access to early infant diagnosis in the rural communities of OR Tambo District, South Africa: a qualitative exploration of maternal perspective.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Vincent Oladele; Thomson, Elza; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Idowu Anthony

    2015-08-26

    Despite the overwhel