Science.gov

Sample records for early pregnancy losses

  1. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  2. Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnaschy, Pablo A.; Welch, Kathleen B.; McConnell, Daniel S.; Low, Bobbi S.; Strassmann, Beverly I.; England, Barry G.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal stress is commonly cited as an important risk factor for spontaneous abortion. For humans, however, there is little physiological evidence linking miscarriage to stress. This lack of evidence may be attributable to a paucity of research on maternal stress during the earliest gestational stages. Most human studies have focused on “clinical” pregnancy (>6 weeks after the last menstrual period). The majority of miscarriages, however, occur earlier, within the first 3 weeks after conception (≈5 weeks after the last menstrual period). Studies focused on clinical pregnancy thus miss the most critical period for pregnancy continuance. We examined the association between miscarriage and levels of maternal urinary cortisol during the first 3 weeks after conception. Pregnancies characterized by increased maternal cortisol during this period (within participant analyses) were more likely to result in spontaneous abortion (P < 0.05). This evidence links increased levels in this stress marker with a higher risk of early pregnancy loss in humans. PMID:16495411

  3. Diagnostic Methods of Ectopic Pregnancy and Early Pregnancy Loss: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, A.; Meyberg-Solomayer, G.; Juhasz-Böss, I.; Joukhadar, R.; Takacs, Z.; Solomayer, E.-F.; Baum, S.; Radosa, J.; Mavrova, L.; Herr, D.

    2016-01-01

    This review article presents recent evidence on early pregnancy loss and ectopic pregnancy. In the light of recent evidence, the β-hCG discriminatory zone may be extended in clinically stable cases without evidence of bleeding. A possible cut-off is 4300 mIU/ml, which corresponds to when a sonographer should detect an intrauterine pregnancy. Embryonic demise can be confirmed when a transvaginal ultrasound finding shows no heartbeat in an embryo of more than 7 mm CRL, no embryo in a gestational sac having a mean sac diameter of more than 25 mm, or no appearance of an embryo within 7–10 days after the primary examination. These are considered definitive signs of embryonic demise. Suggestive signs of embryonic demise require closer monitoring of the pregnancy. PMID:27134292

  4. Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and painful this loss can be. You might wonder if you'll ever have a baby to hold and call your own. But surviving the emotional impact of pregnancy loss is possible. And many women go on to have successful pregnancies. Expand all | ...

  5. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability: a consensus statement from the ESHRE early pregnancy special interest group.

    PubMed

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B; Quenby, S; Farquharson, R G; Goddijn, M; Stephenson, M D

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability.

  6. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in early spontaneous pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W; Yan, X-t; Bai, C-m; Zhang, X-w; Hui, L-y; Yu, X-w

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in childbearing aged women and pregnancy loss (PL) in the first trimester. Subjects/Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Plasma was collected from 60 nulliparous women with singleton at 7–9 weeks of gestation (30 with viable gestation and 30 with PL) and 60 non-gravid childbearing aged women (30 with a successful pregnancy history, and 30 with one or more spontaneous first-trimester PL history). Quantitation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) was assayed. Results: By pregnancy/non-gravid, normal pregnant women had higher 25(OH)D (49.32 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (82.00 pg/ml) than PL women (34.49 μg/l and 37.87 pg/ml, both P<0.01); the non-gravid women with a successful pregnancy history also had higher 25(OH)D (39.56 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (39.04 pg/ml) than women with PL history (12.30 μg/l and 12.35 pg/ml, both P<0.01). The 96.7% of non-gravid women with PL history and 43.3% of PL women had serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 μg/l. There was a strong association between low vitamin D levels and PL (odds ratio 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–2.4, P<0.001). The regression analyses showed that PL was significantly inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (P<0.01) and CYP27B1 levels (P<0.01). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency associated with PL in the first trimester of pregnancy. Decreased serum vitamin D levels among childbearing aged women with the failed clinical pregnancies history may predispose to increased risk for PL. PMID:27222154

  7. Ovarian insufficiency and early pregnancy loss induced by activation of the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Erlebacher, Adrian; Zhang, Dorothy; Parlow, Albert F.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a murine model of early pregnancy failure induced by systemic activation of the CD40 immune costimulatory pathway. Although fetal loss involved an NK cell intermediate, it was not due to lymphocyte-mediated destruction of the fetus and placenta. Rather, pregnancy failure resulted from impaired progesterone synthesis by the corpus luteum of the ovary, an endocrine defect in turn associated with ovarian resistance to the gonadotropic effects of prolactin. Pregnancy failure also required the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and correlated with the luteal induction of the prolactin receptor signaling inhibitors suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (Socs1) and Socs3. Such links between immune activation and reproductive endocrine dysfunction may be relevant to pregnancy loss and other clinical disorders of reproduction. PMID:15232610

  8. Classic and cutting-edge strategies for the management of early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Brezina, Paul R; Kutteh, William H

    2014-03-01

    There are few conditions in medicine associated with more heartache to patients than recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The management of early RPL is a formidable clinical challenge for physicians. Great strides have been made in characterizing the incidence and diversity of this heterogeneous disorder, and a definite cause of pregnancy loss can be established in more than half of couples after a thorough evaluation. In this review, current data are evaluated and a clear roadmap is provided for the evaluation and treatment of RPL.

  9. Progesterone supplementation during the early fetal period reduces pregnancy loss in high-yielding dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Hunter, R H F

    2004-11-01

    It was hypothesized that sub-optimal progesterone concentrations during the late embryo and early fetal period may act to compromise conceptus development in dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis by supplementing pregnant cows with exogenous progesterone following pregnancy diagnosis. The study population consisted of 1098 pregnant lactating cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography between 36 and 42 days after insemination. Animals found to be pregnant were randomly assigned to the Control (untreated cows, n = 549) or Treatment (n = 549) groups. Cows in group Treatment were fitted at pregnancy diagnosis with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) containing 1.55 g of progesterone, for 28 days. Cows were then subjected to a further diagnosis by palpation per rectum on Day 90 of gestation. Pregnancy loss was registered in 95 (8.7%) cows on Day 90 of pregnancy: 66 (12%) in group Control and 29 (5.3%) in group Treatment. Logistic regression analysis indicated that there were no significant effects of herd, bull, milk production, service number, days in milk at pregnancy and lactation number. Based on the odds ratio, treated cows were 2.4 (1/0.41) times less likely to miscarry, whereas the risk of pregnancy loss was 1.6 times higher in cows that became pregnant during the warm period in comparison to the cool period. These results support the hypothesis that sub-optimal progesterone concentrations in high producer dairy cows may compromise conceptus development. Under these conditions, intra-vaginal progesterone supplementation has the potential to reduce the incidence of pregnancy loss during the early fetal period.

  10. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are ... Pregnancy Loss: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is pregnancy ...

  11. [Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 activity in women with unexplained very early recurrent pregnancy loss].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P; Komsa-Penkova, R; Ivanov, I; Konova, E; Kovacheva, K; Simeonova, M; Tanchev, S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the independent role of polymorphism 4G/5G (PL 4G/5G)--genotype 4G/4G in plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in the development of very early recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)--before 10 weeks of gestation of pregnancy. The polymorphism 4G/5G as well as Factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin (FII) gene mutation 20210 G > A and polymorphism 677 C > T in methylentetrahydrofolat reductase (MTHFR) gene was investigated in 110 women with recurrent pregnancy loss before 10 weeks of gestation and in 97 healthy women with at least one uncomplicated full-term pregnancy. A significant prevalence of PL 4G/5G in women with RPL was found in comparison to prevalence of the polymorphism in controls (41.8% versus 26.8% respectively in patients and controls, OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.05 3.69, p = 0.034). The difference in prevalence of the polymorphism remains still significant after exclusion of patients and control carriers of FVL, FII 202010 G > A and 677 C > T in MTHFR (the prevalence of PL 4G/5G alone was 44.1% and 24% respectively in patients and controls, OR: 2,5, 95% CI: 1,15 5, 45, p = 0.018). The found association of PL 4G/5G in PAI-1 with early recurrent pregnancy loss encourage an extension of the list of inherited thrombophilic factors with this one. This result also could have had an implication for adjustment of further prophylactic low-molecular weight heparin implication in further pregnancy to prevent a poor foetal outcome.

  12. Miscarriage, abortion or criminal feticide: understandings of early pregnancy loss in Britain, 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the close links in medical understandings of miscarriage and abortion in the first half of the twentieth century in Britain. In the absence of a clear legal framework for abortion, and the secrecy surrounding the practice, medical literature suggests contradictory and confused views about women presenting with clinical signs of pregnancy loss. On one hand, there was a lack of clarity as to whether pregnancy loss was natural or induced, with a clear tendency to assume that symptoms of miscarriage were the result of criminal interference gone wrong. On the other hand, women who did not present for treatment when miscarriage was underway were accused of neglecting their unborn children. The paper suggests that discourses around pregnancy loss were class-based, distrustful of female patients, and shaped by the wider context of fertility decline and concerns about infant mortality. The close historical connection between miscarriage and abortion offers some insight into why both the pro-life movement and miscarriage support advocates today draw on similar imagery and rhetoric about early fetal loss.

  13. Antithrombotic therapy for pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Paulien G; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although an association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss has been observed in many studies, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this association. Considering the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy for women with pregnancy loss (with or without thrombophilia) has been studied for the past 30 years. METHODS We performed a comprehensive review of the literature on the strength of the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy to increase the chance of live birth. RESULTS The association between pregnancy loss and thrombophilia varies according to the type of thrombophilia (e.g. antiphospholipid syndrome versus forms of inherited thrombophilia) and according to the type of pregnancy loss (single versus recurrent pregnancy loss and early versus late pregnancy loss). Thrombophilia may induce thrombosis in decidual vessels or impair placentation through hypercoagulability and inflammation, but these hypotheses need further verification. For women with antiphospholipid syndrome, evidence from small-sized trials suggests a beneficial effect of antithrombotic therapy but additional randomized controlled trials are essential to confirm this. Whether antithrombotic therapy increases the chance of live birth in women with inherited thrombophilia is unknown. Recent randomized controlled trials have consistently shown that antithrombotic therapy does not increase the chance of live birth in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. CONCLUSIONS There are large gaps in knowledge and a lack of evidence for treatment of women with pregnancy loss with thrombophilia. To provide a solid base for clinical practice, further studies on the role of coagulation in reproduction, as well as international collaborations in randomized controlled trials of antithrombotic therapy in women with pregnancy

  14. Association of Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1B) gene polymorphism with early pregnancy loss risk in the North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nair, R R; Khanna, A; Singh, K

    2014-02-01

    C+3953T IL-1 B single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was carried out in 140 unrelated early pregnancy loss (EPL) patients and in 198 fertile healthy control women and in chorionic villous samples by PCR-RFLP. In Indian population, this is the first report on association of IL-1 B SNP C+3953T polymorphism and EPL.

  15. MTHFR C677T polymorphism and recurrent early pregnancy loss risk in north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rohini R; Khanna, Anuradha; Singh, Kiran

    2012-02-01

    Recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL) is a multifactorial disorder as both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of disease. Folate metabolism is an important mechanism to ensure proper fetal growth. Hyperhomocysteinemia leads to a number of disorders and REPL is one of them. In a case-control study DNA from 106 cases with the history of 3 or more REPL and 140 healthy fertile controls with successful pregnancy outcomes were genotyped for C677T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) gene through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), which was further confirmed by sequencing. Allele frequencies of REPL cases were compared with healthy controls and a statistically significant association was found between REPL and the mutant T allele (χ² = 8.786, odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.323-3.9658, P = .003). The genotype frequencies of SNP C677T also differ significantly between these 2 groups (χ² = 8.237, P = .016). The OR for heterozygous CT in the REPL versus controls is 1.9591 (95% CI = 1.0285-3.7318, P = .04). The OR for TT homozygous is 6.3009 (95% CI = 1.2065, P = .02). Combined odds ratio of CT and TT against the control has been calculated as 2.2194 (95% CI = 1.2029-4.0952, P = .02) which is also significant. Thus the present study clearly indicates that homozygosity and heterozygosity for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism confer a 6.3009- and 1.9591-fold increased risk of idiopathic REPL, respectively.

  16. Proteomics study reveals that the dysregulation of focal adhesion and ribosome contribute to early pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lingli; Xu, Benhong; Ma, Li; Hou, Qingxiang; Ye, Mei; Meng, Shu; Ge, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Early pregnancy loss (EPL) affects 50–70% pregnant women in first trimester. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying EPL are far from being fully understood. Therefore, we aim to identify the molecular signaling pathways relating to EPL. Experimental design We performed proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of the placental villi in women who have undergone EPL and in normal pregnant women. The proteomics data were validated by Western blot analysis. Results We identified a total of 5952 proteins in placental villi, of which 588 proteins were differentially expressed in the EPL women. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these differentially expressed proteins participated in a variety of signaling pathways, including the focal adhesion pathway and ribosome pathway. Moreover, results of the Western blot confirmed that Desmin, Lamin A/C, MMP‐9, and histone H4 were upregulated in EPL and the Lamin C/ Lamin A ratio decreased obviously in EPL. These proteins could be associated with the pathophysiology of EPL. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002391. Conclusion and clinical relevance Our study demonstrated that the focal adhesion pathway and ribosome pathway are involved in EPL, and these findings might contribute to unveil the pathophysiology of EPL. PMID:26947931

  17. Recurrent early pregnancy loss and antiphospholipid antibodies: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Wong, L F; Porter, T F; de Jesús, G R

    2014-10-01

    Evidence from basic science studies supports a causative relationship between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and recurrent early miscarriage (REM) (prior to 10 weeks of gestation). However, human studies have not consistently found a relationship between aPL and REM. Members of the Obstetric Task Force of the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies performed a literature review of the association of aPL and REM and searched for clinical trials in women with REM who tested positive for aPL. Of the 46 studies that investigated the relationship between aPL and REM, 27 found a positive association, seven found no association, and the remaining 12 papers could not report an association (lack of control group). The main identified problems for such conflicting results were varying definitions of REM (two or three abortions, not necessarily consecutive; different gestational age at which pregnancy losses occurred); analysis of patients with previous fetal death (>10 weeks) in the same group of REM; and different definitions of "positive aPL" (cutoffs not following international recommendations; small number of studies confirmed persistence of positive aPL after six to 12 weeks). The 10 identified randomized trials with proposed treatments for women with REM who test positive for aPL also had heterogeneous inclusion criteria, with only one trial limited to subjects who would meet the current criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) by both clinical and laboratory criteria. Against this background, we conclude that the association between REM and aPL remains inconclusive and that the findings of treatment trials are at best inconsistent and at worst misleading. More convincing data are critically needed. Studies that identify, or at least stratify, according to international consensus criteria and include standardized core laboratory testing results are crucial if we are to establish an evidence-based association between aPL and REM and treatment

  18. Pregnancy Loss: How to Cope

    MedlinePlus

    ... J, et al. A national survey on public perceptions of miscarriage. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2015;125:1313. Kropmans ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-loss-miscarriage/in-depth/pregnancy-loss/art-20047983 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  19. Recurrent pregnancy loss and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) was defined as two or more miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, and parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocation and abnormal embryonic karyotype, are identifiable causes of RPL. Obesity may increase the risk of sporadic miscarriage in pregnancies conceived spontaneously. Obesity with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m2 is an independent risk factor for further miscarriage with odds ratio 1.7-3.5 in patients with early RPL. Obesity is associated with euploid miscarriage. Unexplained RPL with euploid embryo might be a common disease caused by both polymorphisms of multiple susceptibility genes and lifestyle factors such as women's age, obesity, and smoking. Patients with a history of RPL were found to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, celiac disease, gastric ulcer, gastritis, and atopic dermatitis. No study has examined the effect of weight loss on the prevention of further miscarriage in patients with RPL.

  20. Development of an assay for a biomarker of pregnancy and early fetal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, R.E.; O'Connor, J.F.; Birken, S.; Krichevsky, A.; Wilcox, A.J.

    1987-10-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone, secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast cells of the fertilized ovum, that enters the maternal circulation at the time of endometrial implantation. It is composed of two nonidentical subunits; ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., with molecular weights of 14 kD and 23 kD, respectively. Human chorionic gonadotropin binds to the same receptor as hLH and displays the same biological response, namely, to stimulate the declining function of the corpus luteum to produce progestins and estrogen late in the menstrual cycle. The differences in the structures of hCG and hLH have been exploited to develop antibodies that can measure hCG specifically in the presence of hLH. Two-site antibody binding assays have been developed, based on a surface immunological concept of hCG epitopes, that involve four distinct regions to which antibodies against hCG can bind simultaneously. Antibody cooperative effects, in conjunction with kinetic advantages derived from the concentration factors by use of the sandwich assay technique (immunoradiometric assay, IRMA), have enabled development of extremely sensitive and specific measurement protocols for urinary hCG. The assay described herein permits the detection of pregnancy on an average 25.4 days after the first day of the preceding menses, as opposed to 29.5 days for conventional radioimmunoassay techniques. In addition, the greater sensitivity and specificity of this assay method has permitted the detection of episodes of fetal loss not detected by radioimmunoassay of urine specimens. A large scale epidemiological study is in progress using this assay technique as a way to identify pregnancies that are lost before becoming clinically apparent.

  1. Fetal loss in mice exposed to magnetic fields during early pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Svedenstaal, B.M.; Johanson, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    The effects of low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) on early pregnancy were studied in CBA/S mice. The magnetic field was a 20 kHz, 15 {micro}T sawtooth. Pregnant females were divided into four groups, two control groups and two exposed groups. One group was exposed to MFs continuously from day 1 postconception (pc) until day 5.5 pc, and the other group was exposed continuously until day 7 pc. All animals were sacrificed on day 19 pc, the day before partus, and their uterine contents were analyzed. No significant increase in the resorption (early fetal death) rate was found in the exposed animals compared to the sham controls. In the group exposed during days 1.0--5.5 pc, the body weight and length of the living fetuses were significantly decreased. Except on day 3 pc (progesterone) and day 13 pc (calcium) in the treated groups, there were no significant differences in progesterone and calcium levels in peripheral blood. Implantation occurred on the same day in MF-treated and control animals.

  2. Hypofibrinogenemia and the α-Fibrinogen Thr312Ala Polymorphism may be Risk Factors for Early Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Kamimoto, Yuki; Wada, Hideo; Ikejiri, Makoto; Nakatani, Kaname; Sugiyama, Takashi; Osato, Kazuhiro; Murabayashi, Nao; Habe, Koji; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Ohishi, Kohshi; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a cohort of 36 females with pregnancy loss. In addition to 11 patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and 2 patients with congenital antithrombin (AT) or protein C deficiency, we identified 5 patients with low fibrinogen levels (median 110 mg/dL) prior to 10 weeks of gestation. Four of these 5 patients underwent a fibrinogen gene analysis, and all 4 were found to be heterozygotes for the α-fibrinogen (FGA) Thr321Ala polymorphism. One female without hypofibrinogenemia with a history of 8 pregnancy losses was found to be homozygous for the same polymorphism, and she also showed hypercoagulability without thrombosis. In conclusion, there was a relatively high frequency of pregnancy loss in the setting of hypofibrinogenemia and/or the FGA Thr312Ala polymorphism, and this may be an important risk factor for pregnancy loss and a hypercoagulable state in later pregnancy.

  3. USE OF BROMOERGOCRYPTINE IN THE VALIDATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MECHANISMS OF EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Validated protocols for evaluating maternally mediated mechanisms of early pregnancy failure in rodents are needed for use in the risk assessment process. To supplement previous efforts in the validation of a panel of protocols assembled for this purpose, bromoergocryptine (BEC) ...

  4. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population - evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert; Légaré, Jacques; Miura, Teiji

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n=21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P=0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P=0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  5. Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites and Bisphenol A and Associations with Follicular-Phase Length, Luteal-Phase Length, Fecundability, and Early Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jukic, Anne Marie; Calafat, Antonia M.; McConnaughey, D. Robert; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Baird, Donna D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; McConnaughey, D. Robert; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Baird, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) show reproductive effects in animal studies and potentially affect human ovulation, conception, and pregnancy loss. Objectives We investigated these chemicals in relation to follicular- and luteal-phase lengths, time to pregnancy, and early pregnancy loss (within 6 weeks of the last menstrual period) among women attempting pregnancy. Methods Women discontinuing contraception provided daily first-morning urine specimens and recorded days with vaginal bleeding for up to 6 months. Specimens had previously been analyzed for estrogen and progesterone metabolites and human chorionic gonadotropin. A total of 221 participants contributed 706 menstrual cycles. We measured 11 phthalate metabolites and BPA in pooled urine from three specimens spaced throughout each menstrual cycle. We analyzed associations between chemical concentrations and outcomes using linear mixed models for follicular- and luteal-phase lengths, discrete-time fecundability models for time to pregnancy, and logistic regression for early pregnancy loss. Results Higher concentrations of monocarboxyoctyl phthalate (MCOP) were associated with shorter luteal phase [2nd tertile vs. 1st tertile: –0.5 days (95% CI: –0.9, –0.1), 3rd vs. 1st: –0.4 days (95% CI: –0.8, 0.01), p = 0.04]. BPA was also associated with shorter luteal phase [2nd vs. 1st: –0.8 days (95% CI: –1.2, –0.4), 3rd vs. 1st: –0.4 days (95% CI: –0.8, 0.02), p = 0.001]. Conclusions BPA and MCOP (or its precursors) were associated with shorter luteal phase. Menstrual cycle–specific estimates of urinary BPA and phthalate metabolites were not associated with detrimental alterations in follicular-phase length, time to pregnancy, or early pregnancy loss, and in fact, DEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] metabolites {MEOHP [mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate] and ΣDEHP} were associated with reduced early loss. These findings should be confirmed in future human studies. Citation Jukic

  6. Hormonal causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Petignat, Patrick; Streuli, Isabelle; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders play a major role in approximately 8% to 12% of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Indeed, the local hormonal milieu is crucial in both embryo attachment and early pregnancy. Endocrine abnormalities, including thyroid disorders, luteal phase defects, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes have to be evaluated in any case of RPL. Moreover, elevated androgen levels and some endocrinological aspects of endometriosis are also factors contributing to RPL. In the present article, we review the significance of endocrine disease on RPL.

  7. Association of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms with early pregnancy loss in an Indian population and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rohini R; Khanna, Anuradha; Singh, Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) enzymes of the glutathione detoxification pathway protect the embryo from oxidative stress. This study investigated GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to their role in conferring genetic susceptibility to pregnancy loss. In a case-control study, 174 early pregnancy loss (EPL) patients, of which 130 were recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients, and 180 healthy controls were investigated. Null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 were identified in duplex PCR reaction systems. Age-adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis. A meta-analysis was also conducted. The GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with EPL (aOR 4.47, P=0.004) and RPL (aOR 4.39, P=0.006). No significant association of the GSTM1 null genotype was found with RPL. In a meta-analysis study, the presence of the GSTM1 null genotype was shown to be a risk for RPL. The GSTT1 null genotype was not found to be a risk factor for pregnancy loss in the pooled population but its association with RPL was found in the Indian population. This study suggests that women carriers of GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes are more often at genetic risk of pregnancy loss. Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), enzymes of detoxification pathway, protect the embryo from oxidative stress. In the present study we have investigated GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to their role in conferring genetic susceptibility for early pregnancy loss (EPL) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Meta-analysis on the polymorphisms was conducted to support our findings that the presence of mutant genotypes at this site increases the risk of pregnancy loss. The GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with both EPL and RPL. In the meta-analysis, the overall result showed that the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk for RPL was statistically significant. On comparing the GSTT1

  8. Evolutionary forward genomics reveals novel insights into the genes and pathways dysregulated in recurrent early pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Kosova, Gülüm; Stephenson, Mary D.; Lynch, Vincent J.; Ober, Carole

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are the genes that gained novel expression in the endometria of Eutherian (placental) mammals more likely to be dysregulated in patients with endometrial-associated recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER There was a significant enrichment of genes dysregulated in REPL patients among the Eutherian-specific endometrial genes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Pregnancy loss is the most common complication of human pregnancy. REPL has multiple etiologies, including dysregulation of endometrial function, leading to ‘suboptimal’ implantation. Although the implantation process is tightly regulated in Eutherian (placental) mammals, the molecular factors contributing to dysregulated endometrial gene expression patterns in women with REPL are largely unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 32 REPL patients during the mid-luteal phase, and evaluated for glandular development arrest based on elevated nuclear cyclin E levels in gland cells, and for out-of-phase endometrial development based on histology. Gene expression levels were measured using Illumina Human HT-12v4 BeadChip arrays. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Differentially expressed genes were identified between patients with (i) out-of-phase (n = 10) versus normal (n = 22) histological dating and (ii) abnormally elevated (n = 9) versus normal (n = 23) cyclin E levels in the nuclei of endometrial glands, using a likelihood ratio test. Enrichment of dysregulated genes in REPL endometria among Eutherian-specific genes was tested by permutation. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were carried out for the dysregulated genes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Fifty-eight and eighty-one genes were identified as differentially expressed at P < 0.001 in women with out-of-phase histological dating and abnormally elevated glandular cyclin E levels, respectively. Genes that were recruited into endometrial expression during the evolution of

  9. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Grace Z.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Davis, Esther F.; Khoo, Cheen P.; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T.; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J.; O’Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A.; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (−17.7±16.4% versus −9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  10. Pregnancy Loss Following Coxsackievirus B3 Infection in Mice during Early Gestation Due toHigh Expression of Coxsackievirus-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) in Uterus and Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kyung Min; Kim, Yun Hwa; Shim, Hye Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Hosun

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackieviruses are important pathogens in children and the outcomes of neonatal infection can be serious or fatal. However, the outcomes of coxsackievirus infection during early gestation are not well defined. In this study, we examined the possibility of vertical transmission of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and the effects of CVB3 infection on early pregnancy of ICR mice. We found that the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) was highly expressed not only in embryos but also in the uterus of ICR mice. CVB3 replicated in the uterus 1 to 7 days post-infection (dpi), with the highest titer at 3 dpi. The pregnancy loss rate in mice infected with CVB3 during early gestation was 38.3%, compared to 4.7% and 2.7% in mock-infected and UV-inactivated-CVB3 infected pregnant mice, respectively. These data suggest that the uterus and embryo, which express abundant CAR, are important targets of CVB3 and that the vertical transmission of CVB3 during early gestation induces pregnancy loss. PMID:24521864

  11. Pregnancy loss following coxsackievirus b3 infection in mice during early gestation due to high expression of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) in uterus and embryo.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kyung Min; Kim, Yun Hwa; Shim, Hye Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Hosun

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackieviruses are important pathogens in children and the outcomes of neonatal infection can be serious or fatal. However, the outcomes of coxsackievirus infection during early gestation are not well defined. In this study, we examined the possibility of vertical transmission of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and the effects of CVB3 infection on early pregnancy of ICR mice. We found that the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) was highly expressed not only in embryos but also in the uterus of ICR mice. CVB3 replicated in the uterus 1 to 7 days post-infection (dpi), with the highest titer at 3 dpi. The pregnancy loss rate in mice infected with CVB3 during early gestation was 38.3%, compared to 4.7% and 2.7% in mock-infected and UV-inactivated-CVB3 infected pregnant mice, respectively. These data suggest that the uterus and embryo, which express abundant CAR, are important targets of CVB3 and that the vertical transmission of CVB3 during early gestation induces pregnancy loss.

  12. FAQs of Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pregnancy Loss: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media ... anything a woman can do to prevent a pregnancy loss? Most of the time, a woman cannot ...

  13. [Annexins and recurrent pregnancy loss].

    PubMed

    Udry, Sebastián; Aranda, Federico; Latino, Omar; Larrañaga, Gabriela de

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) affects public health and directly compromises the quality of life of hundreds of women, with a detrimental effect on their physical and mental health. Approximately 50% of RPL are not associated to any of the currently known etiology and will be considered idiopathic. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the expression of annexin 5 (ANXA5), a protein found on the trophoblastic surface, plays a fundamental role in the development of pregnancy due to its immunomodulator and anticoagulant function at the placentary level. Some genetic haplotypes of ANXA5 are associated to alterations in the expression of this gene, such as haplotype M2 which is associated to a decrease in the expression of ANXA5. The presence of this haplotype is related to the following conditions occurring during pregnancy: RPL, foetal intrauterine growth restriction, low child weight at birth, preeclampsia and maternal pulmonary thromboembolism. This review describes the structure, function and genetic expression of ANXA5, as well as its possible implication in RPL.

  14. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  15. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Fischl, Margaret A.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. Methods: We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Results: Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9–27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0–19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Conclusion: Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant. PMID:27902507

  16. Genetic Considerations in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Kassie J.; Schust, Danny J.

    2015-01-01

    Human reproduction is remarkably inefficient; nearly 70% of human conceptions do not survive to live birth. Spontaneous fetal aneuploidy is the most common cause for spontaneous loss, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Although losses owing to de novo fetal aneuploidy occur at similar frequencies among women with sporadic and recurrent losses, some couples with recurrent pregnancy loss have additional associated genetic factors and some have nongenetic etiologies. Genetic testing of the products of conception from couples experiencing two or more losses may aid in defining the underlying etiology and in counseling patients about prognosis in a subsequent pregnancy. Parental karyotyping of couples who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) will detect some couples with an increased likelihood of recurrent fetal aneuploidy; this may direct interventions. The utility of preimplantation genetic analysis in couples with RPL is unproven, but new approaches to this testing show great promise. PMID:25659378

  17. Relaxin secretion in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Quagliarello, J; Steinetz, B G; Weiss, G

    1979-01-01

    Relaxin is a peptide hormone produced solely by the corpus luteum of pregnant women. Extracts of human pregnancy corpora lutea have relaxin activity in bioassay systems. This activity can be measured in a heterologous porcine radioimmunoassay (RIA). Immunoreactive relaxin was undetectable in the RIA in 51 nonpregnant women. In conception cycles, relaxin immunoactivity is detectable in peripheral blood by the time of the missed menses. Relaxin detection may be used as a pregnancy test. Relaxin may be an important luteal factor, together with progesterone, in early pregnancy maintenance.

  18. Relaxin as a hormonal aid to evaluate pregnancy and pregnancy loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Bergfelt, Don R; Blum, Jason L; Steinetz, Bernard G; Steinman, Karen J; O'Brien, Justin K; Robeck, Todd R

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to critically evaluate weekly and monthly circulating concentrations of immunoreactive relaxin throughout pregnancies that resulted in live births, stillbirths, and abortions in aquarium-based bottlenose dolphins. A relaxin RIA was used to analyze serum collected during 74 pregnancies involving 41 dolphins and 8 estrous cycles as well as 8 non-pregnant dolphins. Pregnancies resulted in live births (n=60), stillbirths (n=7), or abortions (n=7). Relative to parturition (Month 0), monthly changes (P<0.0001) in relaxin was indicated by relatively low concentrations during early pregnancy (Months -12 to -9) which subsequently increased (P<0.05) during mid- (Months -8 to -5) to late (Months -4 to -1) pregnancy; relaxin was highest (P<0.05) at the time of parturition. Post-parturition (Month 1), concentrations decreased (P<0.05). During the first 4weeks post-ovulation, relaxin concentrations were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant dolphins (status-by-week interaction, P=0.59). Status-by-month interaction (P<0.0002) involving different pregnancy outcomes was due, impart, to an increase in relaxin during early pregnancy (P<0.05) that was comparable among dolphins with live births, stillbirths, and abortions except concentrations were lower (P<0.05; 52%) at mid-pregnancy in association with pregnancy loss. Thereafter, concentrations increased (P<0.05) during late pregnancy in dolphins with stillbirths but not in dolphins with abortions. In conclusion, this study provided new information on the pregnancy-specific nature of relaxin, critical evaluation of the fundamental characteristics of relaxin during pregnancy and pregnancy loss, and clarification on the strengths and limitations of relaxin as a diagnostic aid to determine pregnancy status and assess maternal-fetal health in bottlenose dolphins.

  19. Nutrient insult in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Al-Rasasi, Buthaina; Morgan, Jane

    2002-02-01

    Nutrient insults in early pregnancy, such as nutrient deprivation during famines, are often associated with an unfavourable outcome. Suboptimal nutrition in the early stage of gestation has been linked to a number of adverse effects on fetal growth and development. Historically, nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) was an important contributor to pregnancy-related mortality; indeed, Charlotte Bronte died from starvation and dehydration after suffering very severe NVP 4 months into her first pregnancy (Gaskell, 1858). Although NVP seldom now progresses to be life-threatening, it affects the majority of pregnant women, and potentially presents a challenge to nutrient intake in the most vulnerable period of development. Symptoms range from mild (nausea only) to severe (a level of vomiting that restricts nutrient intake and ultimately threatens metabolic and electrolyte balance). Although NVP has been documented for thousands of years, its cause has not yet been satisfactorily elucidated, but seems to be related to endocrinological changes. Pregnant women also frequently report dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy which can be linked to both the incidence and severity of NVP. Paradoxically, NVP appears to be positively associated with a favourable outcome of pregnancy, including increased birth weight and gestational age. The mechanisms by which NVP favours the outcome of pregnancy are not known. They may be related to women increasing their nutrient intake to alleviate symptoms, improving the quality of their diet or reducing energy expenditure. Alternatively, adaptation to a reduced nutrient intake might stimulate the expression of growth factors and affect placentation or metabolism, thus favouring fetal growth when NVP resolves.

  20. Stepping Back to Gain Perspective: Pregnancy Loss History, Depression, and Parenting Capacity in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2008-01-01

    Previous empirical studies of pregnancy loss have predominantly focused on complex grief response and emergent problems associated with future parenting in self-selected samples of bereaved women. This article presents findings from a retrospective secondary data analysis conducted with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of currently…

  1. [Characteristics of miscarriage and women's rights after pregnancy loss].

    PubMed

    Lewicka, Magdalena; Sulima, Magdalena; Pyć, Maria; Stawarz, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The term "miscarriage" refers to the end of pregnancy before the 22nd week of gestation, or taking into account the criterion of foetal weight (less than 500 g). Approximately 15-20% of recognized pregnancies and miscarriage involve spontaneous expulsion of the blastocyst from the uterine cavity. This constitutes about 80% of miscarriages in the first 12 weeks of gestation. The literature lists a number of factors which cause the loss of pregnancies. The most frequently cited causes of abortion are: genetic, anatomical, immunological and hormonal factors, and infections. A large number of miscarriages remain unexplained (idiopathic miscarriages). Clinical signs of miscarriage include bleeding and pain. Bleeding or spotting is the earliest sign of miscarriage. Data from the patient's history, physical examination, ultrasound examination and tests for hCG level can enable diagnosis of bleeding in early pregnancy, help to assess the degree of risk, and implement an appropriate treatment regimen and care for pregnant women adapted to their needs. Loss of pregnancy is an interdisciplinary problem involving obstetrics, epidemiology, public health, psychology, and other specialities. The role of medical personnel in the care of women after the loss of a child, regardless of the week and therapeutic procedures, as well as for giving adequate information regarding the rights of women after pregnancy loss. The obligation to inform women of their rights concerns medical staff, and it is important to promote knowledge in this field among doctors, nurses and midwives who care for women after miscarriage.

  2. Immunization with BLS-Stx2B chimera totally protects dams from early pregnancy loss induced by Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) and confers anti-Stx2 immunity to the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Mejías, María P; Bruballa, Andrea C; Alvarez, Romina Soledad; Amaral, María M; Palermo, Marina S; Ibarra, Cristina

    2016-09-07

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial pathogens involved in food-borne diseases. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of STEC and is responsible for systemic complications including Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). It has been previously demonstrated that Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) induces pregnancy loss in rats in early stage of pregnancy. The main purpose of this study was to determine if an active immunization prevents Stx2 mediated pregnancy loss and confers passive protective immunity to the offspring. For that purpose Sprague Dawley female rats were immunized with the chimera based on the enzyme lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) and the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2B) named BLS-Stx2B. After immunization females were mated with males. At day 8 of gestation, dams were challenged intraperitoneally with a sublethal and abortifacient dose of Stx2. The immunization induced high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera and most important, prevented pregnancy loss. Pups born and breastfeed by immunized dams had high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera. Cross-fostering experiments indicated that passive protective immunity against Stx2 was transmitted through lactation. These results indicate that immunization of adult female rats with BLS-Stx2B prevents Stx2-induced pregnancy loss and confers anti Stx2 protective immunity to the offspring.

  3. Acute versus chronic grief: the case of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Lasker, J N; Toedter, L J

    1991-10-01

    Conceptual and measurement problems in identifying those at risk of chronic grief are reviewed, and results are presented of a longitudinal study of people who have experienced pregnancy loss. Coping resources, particularly prior mental health and social support, were the best predictors of low scores on subscales of the Perinatal Grief Scale that indicate chronic grief reactions. Results also offer some evidence of delayed grief responses, especially among men and those who experienced early losses.

  4. Recurrent pregnancy loss: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shahine, Lora; Lathi, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial condition. Approximately half of patients with RPL will have no explanation for their miscarriages. De novo chromosome abnormalities are common in sporadic and recurrent pregnancy loss. Testing for embryonic abnormalities can provide an explanation for the miscarriage in many cases and prognostic information. Regardless of the cause of RPL, patients should be reassured that the prognosis for live birth with an evidence-based approach is excellent for most patients. The authors review current evidence for the evaluation and treatment of RPL and explore the proposed use of newer technology for patients with RPL.

  5. The importance of preconception counseling and early pregnancy monitoring.

    PubMed

    Saravelos, Sotirios H; Regan, Lesley

    2011-11-01

    Preconception counseling plays a key role in preparing for a pregnancy. In couples with a history of recurrent early pregnancy loss, counseling is of particular importance because women are invariably more distressed and require reassurance that everything possible is being done to avoid future pregnancy losses. Because their subsequent pregnancies are more likely to be planned and these patients may be more willing to adopt recommendations that have been offered to them, it becomes more important to identify which investigations and interventions are the most beneficial. Several interventions ranging from genetic testing to lifestyle changes and medications may have a positive effect on the chances of a successful pregnancy. Early pregnancy monitoring and support increases the chance of a live birth and helps to predict potential future pregnancy complications. Recent research suggests that events that occur in the uterine decidua, even before a woman knows she is pregnant, may have a significant impact on fetal growth and the outcome of pregnancy. With this in mind, shifting future research and clinical practice to focus on the periconceptual period and the very early stages of pregnancy should offer significant benefits to the health of both the mother and her infant. The overall aim should be to effectively use every pregnancy as the health-care opportunity of two lifetimes.

  6. Explaining Pregnancy Loss: Parents' and Physicians' Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Dana S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Asked 138 females and 56 of their male partners to explain why they believed their spontaneous abortion, fetal or neonatal death, or ectopic pregnancy occurred. Explanations for loss included blaming mother, physical problems with mother or fetus, fate, or no explanation. Physicians' explanations related to gestational age of fetus, although…

  7. Chorioamnionitis and mid-trimester pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Ugwumadu, Austin

    2010-01-01

    Mid-trimester pregnancy loss defined as miscarriage at 14-23 weeks' gestation and preterm birth between 24 and 28 weeks are in essence clinical manifestations of the same disease process. The pathogenic and socio-biologic risk factors are the same, but the timing of onset of uterine activity and cervical dilatation may be delayed in the case of preterm birth. The overwhelming majority of cases are associated with ascending infection from the lower genital tract. Women with a prior history of late miscarriage are at increased risk of preterm delivery and vice versa. The risk of preterm delivery in women with prior mid-trimester pregnancy loss approximates the same recurrence risk documented for women with a previous history of preterm delivery, suggesting that mid-trimester miscarriage represents the lower end of the spectrum of preterm birth. There are many causes of mid-trimester pregnancy loss including abnormal placentation, immunological interactions, thrombophilias, cervical insufficiency and upper genital tract anomalies to name a few. This paper, however, will focus on the role of chorioamnionitis in the pathogenesis of mid-trimester pregnancy loss and the value of current interventions to reduce recurrence.

  8. Pregnancy and fetal loss reported by methamphetamine-using women.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    To better understand substance use disorder treatment needs of pregnant and parenting women who use methamphetamine (MA), this paper describes pregnancy histories and fetal losses for women who were treated for MA use (N = 153) with reference to a national sample, and describes their drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and mental health status. MA users reported an average of 4.6 total pregnancies and 2.1 fetal losses, whereas women in a general population survey reported 3.2 and 1.2, respectively. Higher numbers of pregnancies and fetal losses were correlated with specific substance abuse and mental health problems including early sexual abuse and cognitive problems. The combination of MA users' especially high numbers of pregnancies, fetal losses, and rates of risk behaviors suggest high social and health care costs for this population. Prenatal care may provide a vector through which women can be connected to risk reduction interventions and gender-responsive treatment services addressing substance use and mental health needs.

  9. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More than half of pregnant women suffer from nausea and vomiting, which typically begins by the 4th week and disappears by the 16th week of pregnancy. The cause of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is unknown, but may be due to the rise in human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration. In 1 in 200 women, the condition progresses to hyperemesis gravidarum, which is characterised by prolonged and severe nausea and vomiting, dehydration, and weight loss. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy? What are the effects of treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupressure; acupuncture; antihistamines; corticosteroids; corticotrophins; diazepam; dietary interventions other than ginger; domperidone; ginger; metoclopramide; ondansetron; phenothiazines; and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). PMID:21726485

  10. Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Melissa; Bricker, Leanne; Neilson, James P; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostic ultrasound is a sophisticated electronic technology, which utilises pulses of high frequency sound to produce an image. Diagnostic ultrasound examination may be employed in a variety of specific circumstances during pregnancy such as after clinical complications, or where there are concerns about fetal growth. Because adverse outcomes may also occur in pregnancies without clear risk factors, assumptions have been made that routine ultrasound in all pregnancies will prove beneficial by enabling earlier detection and improved management of pregnancy complications. Routine screening may be planned for early pregnancy, late gestation, or both. The focus of this review is routine early pregnancy ultrasound. Objectives To assess whether routine early pregnancy ultrasound for fetal assessment (i.e. its use as a screening technique) influences the diagnosis of fetal malformations, multiple pregnancies, the rate of clinical interventions, and the incidence of adverse fetal outcome when compared with the selective use of early pregnancy ultrasound (for specific indications). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009). Selection criteria Published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials that compared outcomes in women who experienced routine versus selective early pregnancy ultrasound (i.e. less than 24 weeks’ gestation). We have included quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data for each included study. We used the Review Manager software to enter and analyse data. Main results Routine/revealed ultrasound versus selective ultrasound/concealed: 11 trials including 37505 women. Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy reduces the failure to detect multiple pregnancy by 24 weeks’ gestation (risk ratio (RR) 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.17). Routine scan is associated with a reduction in

  11. Religious beliefs affect grieving after pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Cowchock, F S; Lasker, J N; Toedter, L J; Skumanich, S A; Koenig, H G

    2010-12-01

    Religious beliefs and practices may aid in coping with bereavement and grief after pregnancy loss. Data from 103 women enrolled in the original Lehigh Valley Perinatal Loss Project, and who were followed-up for at least 1 year, were evaluated for the impact of initial religious practices and beliefs on the course and severity of grief. Religious practices corresponding to standard scales of religiosity and agreement with specific beliefs were rated by the women on a Likert scale of 1-5. Neither agreement with statements corresponding to extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity or to positive religious coping, nor frequency of religious service attendance was predictive of follow-up scores on the Perinatal Grief Scale. Religious struggle, agreement with statements classified as negative religious coping, and continued attachment to the baby were all associated with more severe grief.

  12. Early pregnancy failure induced by dibutyltin dichloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Ema, Makoto; Fujii, Sakiko; Ikka, Tsuguo; Matsumoto, Mariko; Hirose, Akihiko; Kamata, Eiichi

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we examined the adverse effects of dibutyltin on initiation and maintenance of pregnancy after maternal administration during early pregnancy in mice. Following successful mating, female ICR mice were given dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl) at 0, 7.6, 15.2, or 30.4 mg/kg bw/day by gastric intubation on days 0-3 or days 4-7 of pregnancy. Female mice were sacrificed on day 18 of pregnancy, and the pregnancy outcome was determined. After administration of DBTCl on days 0-3, the rate of nonpregnant females and the incidence of preimplantation embryonic loss were significantly increased at 30.4 mg/kg bw/day. The incidences of postimplantation embryonic loss in females given DBTCl on days 0-3 at 15.2 mg/kg and higher and on days 4-7 at 7.6 mg/kg bw/day and higher were increased. No increase in the incidence of fetuses with external malformations was observed after the administration of DBTCl on days 0-3 or days 4-7. A decline in the serum progesterone levels was detected in mice given DBTCl at 30.4 mg/kg bw/day on days 0-3 or days 4-7 of pregnancy. The data show that DBTCl adversely affects the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy when administered during early pregnancy in mice and suggest that the decline in serum progesterone levels is responsible for pregnancy failure.

  13. Inherited Thrombophilia and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Parand, Alireza; Zolghadri, Jale; Nezam, Mozhgan; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a common health problem. The polymorphisms G20210A of prothrombin gene (FII G 20210A), and G 1691A of factor V gene (Factor V Leiden, FVL) are the most extensively studied thrombophilic mutations in association to recurrent miscarriage. Objectives: To determine the frequency of FII G20210A and FVL polymorphisms as well as protein C and protein S deficiency in a series of patients with RPL compared with control group. Patients and Methods: The study group included 90 randomly selected patients with three or more consecutive miscarriages with the same partner in <20 weeks gestation in 2012. The control population consisted of 44 age-matched women with at least one live born children and no history of pregnancy loss. Functional activity of protein C and S, activated protein C resistance, FVL assay by polymerase chain reaction and prothrombin gene mutation were assessed. The polymorphism frequencies were recorded for each group and comparisons were made. Results: The mean functional activity of protein C and protein S were not significantly different between case and control groups (P >0.05). Frequency of protein C deficiency was also not significantly different between the case and control groups (P=0.906), but frequency of protein S deficiency was significantly higher in patients than controls (P=0.03). Genotype pattern of the patients and healthy individuals were not significantly different with regard to either FVL or Prothrombin G20210A (P > 0.05). Conclusions: We determined a significant higher frequency of protein S deficiency in patients with RPL compared with controls. But the frequency of protein C deficiency and the frequency of two common thrombophilic mutations (Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A), were not significantly different between patients with recurrent miscarriage and healthy women. PMID:24693393

  14. Critical pneumonia complicating early-stage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mercieri, Marco; Di Rosa, Roberta; Pantosti, Annalisa; De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Pinto, Giovanni; Arcioni, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia, Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, in a woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting this critical lung infection occurring during an early phase of pregnancy. This case study alerts physicians to the increasing worldwide spread of these uncommon yet virulent and potentially lethal infections. In our patient, antibiotic therapy with linezolid plus rifampin started at 14 weeks of pregnancy had a successful outcome without inducing toxicity or teratogenesis in the fetus.

  15. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sex? Did you bleed afterward? What is your blood type? Your provider can test your blood type. If it is Rh negative, you will need treatment with a medicine called Rho(D) immune globulin to prevent complications with future pregnancies. ... If something other than blood comes out, call ...

  16. Pregnancy losses in cattle: potential for improvement.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Waters, S M; Parr, M H; Kenny, D A

    2016-01-01

    For heifers, beef and moderate-yielding dairy cows, it appears that the fertilisation rate generally lies between 90% and 100%. For high-producing dairy cows, there is a less substantive body of literature, but it would appear that the fertilisation rate is somewhat lower and possibly more variable. In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs in the first 16 days following breeding (Day 0), with emerging evidence of greater losses before Day 8 in high-producing dairy cows. In cattle, late embryo mortality causes serious economic losses because it is often recognised too late to rebreed females. Systemic concentrations of progesterone during both the cycle preceding and following insemination affect embryo survival, with evidence of either excessive or insufficient concentrations being negatively associated with survival rate. The application of direct progesterone supplementation or treatments to increase endogenous output of progesterone to increase embryo survival cannot be recommended at this time. Energy balance and dry matter intake during the first 4 weeks after calving are critically important in determining pregnancies per AI when cows are inseminated at 70-100 days after calving. Level of concentrate supplementation of cows at pasture during the breeding period has minimal effects on conception rates, although sudden reductions in dietary intake should be avoided. For all systems of milk production, more balanced breeding strategies with greater emphasis on fertility and feed intake and/or energy must be developed. There is genetic variability within the Holstein breed for fertility traits, which can be exploited. Genomic technology will not only provide scientists with an improved understanding of the underlying biological processes involved in fertilisation and the establishment of pregnancy, but also, in the future, could identify genes responsible for improved embryo survival. Such information could be incorporated into breeding objectives in

  17. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  18. Pivotal periods for pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wiltbank, Milo C; Baez, Giovanni M; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Toledo, Mateus Z; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Ochoa, Julian C; Santos, José E P; Sartori, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Loss of pregnancy can occur at many different stages of gestation and for a variety of causes but clearly produces a negative impact for reproductive and economic performances of dairy herds. This review describes four pivotal periods for pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation and discusses possible causes for pregnancy failure during these periods. The first period occurs during the first week after breeding with lack of fertilization and death of the early embryo producing major losses in pregnancy, particularly under specific environmental and hormonal conditions. In general, 20%-50% of high-producing lactating dairy cows have already experienced pregnancy loss during the first week of gestation with methods to decrease pregnancy loss during this period targeting improved oocyte quality by alleviating heat stress, inflammatory diseases, and body condition loss, and by increasing progesterone concentrations during preovulatory follicle development. The second pivotal period, from Days 8 to 27, encompasses embryo elongation and the classical "maternal recognition of pregnancy" period with losses averaging ∼30% but with surprising variation between farms (25%-41%). Maintenance of the CL of pregnancy is produced by the embryonic signal interferon-tau and alteration in uterine secretory patterns of prostaglandins F2α, E1, and E2. Failures or delays in trophoblast elongation and/or embryonic development result in loss of pregnancy during the second pivotal period possibly due to suboptimal histotroph. The third pivotal period is during the second month of pregnancy, Days 28 to 60, with losses of ∼12% based on a summary of published results from more than 20,000 pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Delays or defects in development of the chorioallantoic placentomes or embryo result in CL regression or embryo death during this pivotal period. Finally, a fourth period during the third month of pregnancy has reduced pregnancy losses (∼2

  19. Feasibility of maternity protection in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Von Busch, Tammy A; Frazier, Linda M; Sigler, Samantha J; Molgaard, Craig A

    2002-01-01

    Many countries have maternity protection laws for women who need job modification or medical leave during pregnancy. This approach will prevent birth defects only if maternal job changes can be made before the critical period of organogenesis, which begins at three weeks' gestation. The authors studied the gestational ages at which pregnant women working with chemicals, radiation, and noise presented for occupational safety and health consultations. The work setting promoted early presentation because the consultation was free, convenient, mandatory, and would not result in job loss. Among the 213 pregnant women evaluated between 1996 and 2000, most (89.5%) had their occupational safety evaluations in the first trimester. Although this sounds ideal, the mean gestational age at presentation was 7.5 weeks, and only 3.3% of occupational health evaluations were initiated by three weeks' gestation. Environmental and biological monitoring showed that none of the women was exposed over occupational limits. These data suggest that a workplace free from reproductive hazards needs to be provided before conception.

  20. Chronic sleep loss during pregnancy as a determinant of stress: impact on pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Banti, Susanna; Manconi, Mauro; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and insomnia frequently characterize sleep in pregnancy during all three trimesters. We aimed: (i) to review the clinical evidence of the association between conditions of sleep loss during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) to discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that may be involved. A systematic search of cross-sectional, longitudinal studies using Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO, and MeSH headings and key words for conditions of sleep loss such as 'insomnia', 'poor sleep quality', 'short sleep duration', and 'pregnancy outcome' was made for papers published between January 1, 1960 and July 2013. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria for sleep loss and pregnancy outcome: seven studies on prenatal depression, three on gestational diabetes, three on hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, six on length of labor/type of delivery, eight on preterm birth, and three on birth grow/birth weight. Two main results emerged: (i) conditions of chronic sleep loss are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) chronic sleep loss yields a stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and abnormal immune/inflammatory, reaction, which, in turn, influences pregnancy outcome negatively. Chronic sleep loss frequently characterizes sleep throughout the course of pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Common pathophysiological mechanisms emerged as being related to stress system activation. We propose that in accordance to the allostatic load hypothesis, chronic sleep loss during pregnancy may also be regarded as both a result of stress and a physiological stressor per se, leading to stress 'overload'. It may account for adverse pregnancy outcomes and somatic and mental disorders in pregnancy.

  1. Quality of life and anxiety in pregnancies after late pregnancy loss: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hunfeld, J A; Agterberg, G; Wladimiroff, J W; Passchier, J

    1996-09-01

    Pregnant women with (n = 24) and without (n = 26) a previous pregnancy loss (> 16 weeks) due to congenital anomalies were compared on quality of life and anxiety. Pregnant women with a previous loss were divided into those with and those without a normal livebirth since the loss [cases+ (n = 6) and cases- (n = 18), respectively]. Psychological measurements were carried out before and after an ultrasound scan in the second trimester of the pregnancy. Women with a previous loss who had not delivered a healthy infant between the loss and the present pregnancy showed a lower quality of life as revealed by feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, and pain than the other groups. In addition, they showed more pregnancy-related anxiety. The negative emotions were particularly present just before the anomaly scan. Feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, pain, and pregnancy-related anxiety were significantly positively related to trait anxiety, irrespective of having experienced late pregnancy loss. The implications of this study are that the referring gynaecologist, physician, or midwife should be aware of the strong emotions and major concerns of women in a pregnancy subsequent to a late pregnancy loss. In addition, they should offer these women the opportunity to express their emotional distress.

  2. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Pregnancy Loss or Miscarriage?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose pregnancy loss or miscarriage? Skip sharing ... light spotting, or bleeding, she should contact her health care provider immediately. For diagnosis, the woman may need ...

  3. Systems biology approach to understanding uterine receptivity and pregnancy loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infertility and subfertility represent major problems in domestic animals and humans. The majority of embryonic loss in those species occurs during the first month of gestation when pregnancy recognition and conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) implantation are obligatory. The ...

  4. No association between apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Bianca, Sebastiano; Barrano, Barbara; Cutuli, Nunzio; Indaco, Lara; Cataliotti, Antonella; Milana, Gabriella; Barone, Chiara; Ettore, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Our study does not support the reported association between APOE and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) than the clinical management of these patients should not be influenced by the presence or not of APO E polymorphisms.

  5. Systematic Review of Chinese Medicine for Miscarriage during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy. PMID:24648851

  6. Intraoperative blood loss and gestational age at pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Marchiano; Thomas; Lapinski; Balwan; Patel

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To establish the relationship of measured intraoperative blood loss to gestational age at pregnancy termination, and to determine which factors, if any, affect the risk of bleeding.Methods: A single-operator series of 363 consecutive women undergoing pregnancy termination between 5 and 24 weeks gestational age, as dated by ultrasound, was prospectively evaluated. All pregnancies under 13 weeks gestation were terminated by mechanical dilation and suction curettage without preoperative cervical ripening. All pregnancies between 13 and 24 weeks gestation were terminated by preoperative osmotic cervical dilation with laminaria tents and subsequent uterine evacuation by a combination of suction curettage, sharp curettage, and Bierer forceps extraction. All patients over 12 weeks gestation received a postoperative oxytocin infusion. Whenever possible, amniotic fluid and blood were collected and measured separately. Patients were excluded from the data analysis for pregnancy demise, PPROM, Potter's syndrome, or inability to separate blood establish their relationship. After adjustment for gestational age, the results were analyzed to determine if blood loss was related to maternal age, smoking history, body habitus, or operative indication.Results: A curvilinear relationship between blood loss and gestational age was observed. Mean blood loss at 24 weeks exceeded 800 mL. After adjustment for gestational age, no factors significantly affected blood loss at dilation and aspiration of first trimester pregnancies. In those patients undergoing dilation and evacuation in the second trimester, both simple and stepwise regression analyses showed obesity (BMI >/=32.3) to be significantly associated with increased blood loss (P <.05). Neither age, parity, previous cesarean section, nor smoking history were significantly associated with increased blood loss at dilation and evacuation.Conclusions: With advancing gestational age, intraoperative blood loss increases in

  7. [New endometrial modulators in early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, M; Baiza-Gutman, L A; Hicks, J J

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines synthesized by the uterus or placenta include those thought to be produced exclusively by, or though to act on, cells of the lymphohematopoietic system. Although many of these cytokines are protein mediators of the immune system effector phase, in the female reproductive tract their principal target cells and sites of synthesis are non-lymphohematopoietic cells. During pregnancy, uterine epithelial cells, decidual cells and trophoblast appear to be major sources of the classic lymphohematopoietic cytokines. This suggests two not necessarily exclusive alternatives: that these cells are extensions of, or are involved in, regulating the immune system, or that these factors regulate growth and differentiation of uterine and embryonic tissues. This paper analyzes the sites of synthesis, targets and possible functions of the cytokines during early pregnancy.

  8. Pregnancy loss in lesbian and bisexual women: an online survey of experiences

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although pregnancy loss is a distressing health event for many women, research typically equates women's experiences of pregnancy loss to ‘married heterosexual women's experiences of pregnancy loss’. The objective of this study was to explore lesbian and bisexual women's experiences of miscarriage, stillbirth and neonatal death. METHODS This study analysed predominantly qualitative online survey data from 60 non-heterosexual, mostly lesbian, women from the UK, USA, Canada and Australia. All but one of the pregnancies was planned. Most respondents had physically experienced one early miscarriage during their first pregnancy, although a third had experienced multiple losses. RESULTS The analysis highlights three themes: processes and practices for conception; amplification of loss; and health care and heterosexism. Of the respondents, 84% conceived using donor sperm; most used various resources to plan conception and engaged in preconception health care. The experience of loss was amplified due to contextual factors and the investment respondents reported making in impending motherhood. Most felt that their loss(es) had made a ‘significant’/‘very significant’ impact on their lives. Many respondents experienced health care during their loss. Although the majority rated the overall standard of care as ‘good’/‘very good’/‘outstanding’, a minority reported experiencing heterosexism from health professionals. CONCLUSIONS The implications for policy and practice are outlined. The main limitation was that the inflexibility of the methodology did not allow the specificities of women's experiences to be probed further. It is suggested that both coupled and single non-heterosexual women should be made more visible in reproductive health and pregnancy loss research. PMID:20023293

  9. Seasonal effects on oocyte developmental competence in sows experiencing pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Bertoldo, M J; Holyoake, P K; Evans, G; Grupen, C G

    2011-03-01

    Recently, oocyte quality in sows culled for reasons unrelated to fertility was found to decline during the period of seasonal infertility. Wean-to-service interval (WSI) has also been associated with pregnancy loss in sows mated during the period of seasonal infertility. The aims of this study were to determine whether WSI and season are associated with changes in oocyte developmental competence in sows experiencing early (before Day 35 of gestation) and late (after Day 35 of gestation) pregnancy loss. Ovaries were collected in pairs from sows sourced from commercial piggeries that were culled for reasons related to infertility after being mated in summer and winter/spring. Sows were grouped according to their pregnancy loss type, their previous WSI and the presence or absence of corpora lutea (CL) on their ovaries. Oocyte developmental competence was assessed following in vitro maturation, artificial activation and parthenote development in vitro. In sows culled for early-pregnancy loss, there was a greater number of CL present on ovaries collected in spring compared to those collected in summer (11.57±3.3 vs. 9.26±0.99; P<0.05). Also, the proportion of oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage was greater in summer than in spring (55.9±5.2% vs. 31.2±6.4%; P<0.05). In sows culled for late-pregnancy loss, a greater proportion of oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage in winter compared with late-spring (64.3±7.0% vs. 34.1±6.6%; P<0.05). In addition, the blastocyst formation rate of oocytes was lower in sows that displayed a WSI≤6 days than in sows that displayed a WSI>6 days (37.8±7.3% vs. 62.2±6.9%; P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that sows culled for pregnancy loss exhibit seasonal changes in oocyte developmental competence. The mechanism which causes WSI to be prolonged does not appear to result in reduced oocyte developmental competence. While poor oocyte quality and the mechanism that increases WSI may contribute to pregnancy

  10. Anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lovas, András; Almos, Péter Z; Peto, Zoltán; Must, Anita; Horváth, Szatmár

    2011-12-01

    Pharmacological treatment of major psychiatric conditions (eg, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) is exceptionally difficult during pregnancy. Despite all efforts, medication-resistant life-threatening mental deterioration can emerge with the urgent need for rapid and effective intervention. In these cases, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may represent the only valid and safe therapeutic option. Here, we present the challenging medical case of a 31-year-old primigravida with a general medical history of obesity and hypertension, previously diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder, now presenting with severe, therapy-resistant manic agitation. Full symptomatic remission was achieved and preserved with ECT given between the 7th and 22nd gestational weeks, the pregnancy reached full term, and a healthy child was born by cesarean delivery performed because of preeclampsia. Although it is unusual to start ECT this early in pregnancy, with the thorough assessment of potential risk factors and preventive measures taken, it can be the most effective and presumably the least risky treatment approach. By delineating key aspects of both the psychiatric and anesthetic management of this case, we aim to highlight the importance of a close cooperation between all medical fields involved in clinical practice.

  11. [Support for teenage pregnancies and early emotional deprivation].

    PubMed

    Andro, Gwénäelle

    2016-01-01

    The perinatal psychology and psychiatry unit of Caen university hospital has put in place two systematic intervention protocols relating to pregnancy: teenage pregnancy and denial of pregnancy. Professionals are particularly concerned with teenagers with a history of early emotional deprivation and mistreatment, with the spectre of repetition. A partnership with a motherhood centre helps all concerned to work together to build resilience.

  12. Using Doppler ultrasonography on day 34 of pregnancy to predict pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Dale E; Galvão, Klibs N; Mortensen, Christopher J; Risco, Carlos A; Ealy, Alan D

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether uterine or ovarian vascular dynamics could be used to identify cows at risk for pregnancy loss. Our hypothesis was that cows that subsequently lose their pregnancy will have decreased corpus luteal (CL) perfusion, or an increased resistance index (RI; reduced blood flow), or both, at d 34 of pregnancy. Day 34 was chosen because it is a common time for dairy cattle to be checked for pregnancy. This experiment was performed in 2 replicates from November 2011 to April 2012 (n = 69) and from November 2012 to April 2013 (n = 53). Cows were bred via timed artificial insemination using Ovsynch-56 and checked for pregnancy on d 32 after artificial insemination. At d 34, cows confirmed pregnant were examined via transrectal Doppler ultrasonography. Blood samples collected via coccygeal vein were used to measure circulating plasma progesterone concentrations. Diameter of the corpus luteum and crown-rump length were measured. Color power Doppler ultrasonography was used to determine vascular perfusion to the CL, and RI was measured for the uterine arteries just after branching from the umbilical artery. Records were later examined to identify pregnancy status of cows after reconfirmation. Abortion rate did not differ between replicates (11.6% in replicate 1, 9.4% in replicate 2). Mean crown-rump length of embryos that were carried to term was greater on d 34 than that in cows that aborted (14.23 ± 0.27 vs. 13.21 ± 0.53 mm). Circulating progesterone concentration at d 34 was greater for cows that carried pregnancies to term than for those that aborted (9.1 ± 0.7 vs. 7.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL). The final logistic regression model consisted of crown-rump length, progesterone concentration, and RI of the uterine artery contralateral to pregnancy. Decreased crown-rump length and progesterone concentration tended to be associated with increased odds ratio for pregnancy loss, whereas CL perfusion and uterine blood flow were not

  13. Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress after pregnancy loss: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A; Kindt, Merel; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This study examined (1). predictors for peritraumatic dissociation, (2). its relations with acute and chronic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and (3). pathways regarding these relations in response to pregnancy loss. In early pregnancy, about 1370 women volunteers completed questionnaires for neuroticism, control over emotions, dissociative tendencies, absorption, and prior life events. Of these, 126 subsequently experienced pregnancy loss and most of them completed measures 1 month (N = 118) and 4 months (N = 104) later. At 1 month, peritraumatic dissociation, memory of pregnancy loss (degree of fragmentation, sensory impressions, and emotional intensity), thought suppression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed, and at 4 months, PTSD symptoms were re-assessed. Peritraumatic dissociation was predicted by prior low control over emotions, dissociative tendencies, and lower education. It was not predicted by neuroticism, absorption, and prior life events. Peritraumatic dissociation was related to acute PTSD symptoms and LISREL analyses indicated that self-reported memory fragmentation and thought suppression of pregnancy loss mediated this relation. It also predicted chronic PTSD symptoms, and this relation was mediated by acute PTSD symptoms.

  14. Pregnancy Loss and Distress among U.S. Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Although pregnancy loss--especially miscarriage--is a relatively common experience among reproductive-aged women, much of our understanding about the experience has come from small clinic-based or other nonrepresentative samples. We compared fertility-specific distress among a national sample of 1,284 women who have ever experienced a stillbirth…

  15. Mother-offspring dialogue in early pregnancy: impact of adverse environment on pregnancy maintenance and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2011-07-01

    The mother-offspring dialogue begins even before implantation and is essential to signal pregnancy, establish robust contact, and maintain embryo growth and development. Any circumstance that disrupts the dialogue risks pregnancy problems. A new look at how stress impacts on pregnancy involves its adverse effects on the key pregnancy hormones of progesterone and prolactin. These effects have far-reaching consequences on pregnancy maintenance, maternal anxiety and embryo programming. This review focuses on early pregnancy and how stress might compromise the multi-layer, two-way communication between mother and embryo.

  16. Collecting data on pregnancy loss: a review of evidence from the World Fertility Survey.

    PubMed

    Casterline, J B

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of levels and differentials of pregnancy loss are presented for 40 developing countries participating in the World Fertility Survey (WFS) program. Judged against agreed-upon levels of spontaneous loss in human populations, WFS surveys measured from 50 to 80 percent of recognizable losses. The coverage of induced abortions appears to be much worse. Consistent with data from other sources and settings, the probability of loss is strongly correlated with maternal demographic characteristics: age, pregnancy order, pregnancy spacing, and pregnancy loss history. Despite incomplete coverage, the WFS data on pregnancy loss provide considerable, and largely unexploited, insight on the dynamics of the reproductive career.

  17. The Parental Experience of Pregnancy after Perinatal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Pamela D.; DeBackere, Katrina; Kavanaugh, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the research literature on the parental experience of pregnancy, primarily maternal, subsequent to perinatal loss. Data Sources Computerized searches on CINAHL and PubMed databases. Study Selection Articles from indexed journals relevant to the objective were reviewed from January 1997 to December 2007. Only research-based studies in English were included. Data Extraction The review was performed using the methodology of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). Data were extracted and organized under headings: author/year/setting; purpose; sample; design/instruments; results; and nursing implications for parents during a pregnancy following a perinatal loss. Data Synthesis Depression and anxiety are frequently seen in pregnant women subsequent to a perinatal loss. The parental experience is filled with intense and conflicting emotions as parents balance being hopeful while worrying about another potential loss. Conclusions It is important for health care providers to evaluate the woman's obstetric history, acknowledge and validate previous perinatal loss, and discuss with her what would be helpful during the prenatal period with respect to the previous perinatal loss. PMID:18811772

  18. Perinatal Loss: The Effect on Attachment in Subsequent Pregnancies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    attachment, during subsequent pregnancies, between mothers who had experienced a previous perinatal loss and those who had not. A Likert Scale was used to...immediate postpartum period which effect attachment to the fetus and later to the infant? Are there key concerns/issues particular to these mothers...the main point behind encouraging bonding immedately during the postpartum period regardless of whether or not the baby lives. With resolution mothers

  19. The effects of gestational age and gender on grief after pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, K R; Dunn, D S; Toedter, L J; Lasker, J N

    1991-07-01

    The roles of gestational age and gender in grief reactions following loss of pregnancy were explored. Parents with losses later in pregnancy reported more intense grief than did those whose losses were earlier. Women expressed higher levels of grief than did men six to eight weeks after the loss; however, this difference had decreased by one and two years after the loss.

  20. A Developmental Approach to Pregnancy Prevention with Early Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Susan E.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with older teens and adults do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with the developmental needs of the young teen provide the best approaches to teen pregnancy prevention.…

  1. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices.

  2. The effect of physiological urine dilution on pregnancy test results in complicated early pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, A; Matthews, M; Kuan, A M; Henson, G

    1998-04-01

    This study addresses the likelihood of false negative urine pregnancy test results, due to physiological urine dilution as described in some anecdotal reports. In this prospective study 320 pregnancy tests were performed on urine samples of varying concentrations obtained from 40 women, with suspected complications of early pregnancy, who had presented for ultrasound scans. Four different pregnancy tests were used and serum betahCG levels were measured quantitatively. Despite a mean fivefold increase in urine dilution, the pregnancy tests with low betahCG detection limits maintained maximal sensitivity. The detection of betahCG in dilute urine was adversely affected by using pregnancy tests with higher betahCG detection limits and these tests should be used with caution when assessing gynaecological emergencies.

  3. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with cerebral hemorrhage during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Pin; Ge, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) rarely induces cerebral hemorrhage, and CVST with cerebral hemorrhage during early pregnancy is extremely rare. Upon literature review, we are able to find only one case of CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in early pregnancy. In this paper, we report another case of a 27-year-old patient who developed CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in her fifth week of pregnancy. Although the optimal treatment for this infrequent condition remains controversial, we adopted anticoagulation as the first choice of treatment and obtained favorable results. PMID:25630781

  4. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949

  5. The role of religious beliefs in pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Allahdadian, Maryam; Irajpour, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Birth can cause and post-traumatic stresses in many women even when the occasion of birth results in alive baby. Fetal death can challenge her understanding of justice and God's love toward his creatures. Religious beliefs have a considerable effect on decreasing individuals’ tendency toward bereavement; thus, it is expected to have a relationship with sorrow and mental distress ensuing fetal death. The present research has been conducted to review the existing literature on religion and fetal death and then study Iranian women and their families’ response to such a tragedy. Materials and Methods: This is a unsystematic (narrative) review. Research was conducted to study the role of mothers’ religious belief in their encounter with pregnancy loss in cases belonging to a 23-year period from 1990 to 2013. PubMed and Ovid databases and Iranian religious resources such as Tebyan were utilized for these studies. Of course, several articles were also derived by means of manual search. Results: Nine out of 31 papers had the searched keywords in common in the preliminary search. A review of the existing papers indicated that only 4 out of 22 papers dealt exactly with the role of religion on reaction of parents to fetal death. The four papers belonged to the years 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012 indicating the new approach to religion in pregnancy loss cases. Conclusion: Religion has a significant effect on parents’ acceptance of such mishaps and it may have a considerable effect on their recovery from such tragic events. PMID:27462641

  6. Management of women with recurrent pregnancy losses and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Agcaoili, Maria Socorro L; Aleta, Lara; Liao, Aihua; Ota, Kuniaki; Dambaeva, Svetlana; Beaman, Kenneth; Kim, Joon Woo; Gilman-Sachs, Alice

    2013-06-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been associated with recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL) and other obstetrical complications. The diagnostic criteria for the classical antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) have been utilized for the detection of obstetrical APS in women with RPL. However, laboratory findings and immunopathology of obstetrical APS are significantly different from those of classical APS. In addition, many women with RPL who have positive aPL do not have symptoms consistent with the current APS criteria. The induction of a proinflammatory immune response from trophoblasts and complement activation by aPL rather than thromboembolic changes has been reported as a major immunopathological feature of obstetrical APS. Heparin treatment has been reported to be effective in prevention of early pregnancy loss with APS but not for the late pregnancy loss or complications. The complex effects of heparin may explain the limited efficacy of heparin treatment in RPL. New diagnostic criteria for obstetrical APS are needed urgently, and new therapeutic approaches should be explored further.

  7. A meta-analysis of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent pregnancy loss in women with inherited thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Skeith, Leslie; Carrier, Marc; Kaaja, Risto; Martinelli, Ida; Petroff, David; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Laskin, Carl A; Rodger, Marc A

    2016-03-31

    We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) vs no LMWH in women with inherited thrombophilia and prior late (≥10 weeks) or recurrent early (<10 weeks) pregnancy loss. Eight trials and 483 patients met our inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference in livebirth rates with the use of LMWH compared with no LMWH (relative risk, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.19;P= .28), suggesting no benefit of LMWH in preventing recurrent pregnancy loss in women with inherited thrombophilia.

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Flood-Nichols, Shannon K.; Tinnemore, Deborah; Huang, Raywin R.; Napolitano, Peter G.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. Results Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years). Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women. PMID:25898021

  9. Bacterial and protozoal causes of pregnancy loss in the bitch and queen.

    PubMed

    Pretzer, S D

    2008-08-01

    Several bacterial species have been implicated in canine and feline pregnancy loss. Brucella canis is one of the more important bacterial infectious agents that cause pregnancy loss in the bitch. Brucella has been documented in the queen but in general infectious abortion from bacteria and protozoal agents is uncommon in the species. Protozoal causes of pregnancy loss in the bitch and queen are less common than in other species. Etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of bacterial and protozoal causes of pregnancy loss in the bitch and queen are reviewed. Veterinary practitioners should be aware that many of these organisms have zoonotic potential.

  10. 'Miscarriage or abortion?' Understanding the medical language of pregnancy loss in Britain; a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Moscrop, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term 'miscarriage' instead of 'abortion' to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is better understood in the context of these historical developments, rather than as the consequence of more empathic medical care for women who experience miscarriage.

  11. Infertility, Pregnancy Loss and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Benedict, Merle D.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the etiology involved in female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains idiopathic. Recent scientific research has suggested a role for environmental factors in these conditions. Secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) contains a number of known or suspected reproductive toxins, and human exposure to STS is prevalent worldwide. Robust evidence exists for the toxic effects of active smoking on fertility and pregnancy, but studies of passive exposure are much more limited in number. While the association between maternal STS exposure and declined birth weight has been fairly well-documented, only recently have epidemiologic studies begun to provide suggestive evidence for delayed conception, altered menstrual cycling, early pregnancy loss (e.g. spontaneous abortion), preterm delivery, and congenital malformations in relation to STS exposure. There is also new evidence that developmental exposures to tobacco smoke may be associated with reproductive effects in adulthood. To date, most studies have estimated maternal STS exposure through self-report even though exposure biomarkers are less prone to error and recall bias. In addition to utilizing biomarkers of STS exposure, future studies should aim to identify vital windows of STS exposure, important environmental co-exposures, individual susceptibility factors, and specific STS constituents associated with female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The role of paternal exposures/factors should also be investigated. PMID:23888128

  12. Seropositivity of cytomegalovirus in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Sherkat, Roya; Meidani, Mohsen; Zarabian, Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some evidence has shown a relationship between human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and pregnancy loss. However, whether recurrent or latent CMV infection or altered immune response to CMV is related to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is unclear. We evaluated CMV infection and avidity of antibodies to CMV in women with RPL. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 43 women with RPL referred to a clinical immunology out-patient clinic in Isfahan (Iran), and 43 age-matched multiparous women without history of abortion as control subjects. Patients and controls were evaluated for anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies and IgG avidity index (AI) using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: One case (2.3%) of positive anti-CMV IgM was detected in each group. Anti-CMV IgG positivity was more frequent in patients than in controls (90.6% vs. 69.8%, P = 0.014), but there was no difference between the two groups in anti-CMV IgG AI (79.4 ± 11.4 vs. 80.1 ± 10.2, P = 0.781). IgG titer was significantly higher in seropositive cases with RPL than seropositive controls (5.18 ± 1.99 vs. 2.00 ± 0.81, P < 0.001). Conclusion: We found that previous exposure to CMV was significantly higher in patients with RPL than the control group. However, no association was found between IgG AI and RPL. Further investigations are needed to find whether latent CMV infection starts an indirect process of autoimmune etiology in RPL or women with RPL have recurrent or reactivation of CMV infection. PMID:25002889

  13. Skin test reactivity to female sex hormones in women with primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Fathi, Hesham M; Farres, Mohamed N; Taha, Marwa S

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to examine the hypothesis that primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss might be associated with an inappropriate immunologically mediated response to progesterone and/or estrogen. This prospective study included 47 women with two or more documented consecutive early pregnancy losses of unknown etiology, and no previous history of deliveries. Intradermal skin testing was performed in the luteal phase of the cycle (days 16-20) using estradiol benzoate, progesterone, and a placebo of refined sesame oil. Immediate (20 min) and late (24h and 1 week) skin test readings for all cases were compared with those of 12 parous women of comparable age with no history of spontaneous miscarriages, premenstrual disorders, pregnancy, or sex hormone-related allergic or autoimmune diseases. Main outcome measure was skin test reactivity to estradiol and/or progesterone. Immediate skin test reactivity to both hormones was observed among half of the cases at 20 min. A papule after 24h, which persisted for up to 1 week, was observed among 32 (68.1%) and 34 (72.3%) cases at the sites of estrogen and progesterone injection, respectively. 55.3% of cases had combined skin test reactivity to both estradiol and progesterone at 1 week. All women in the control group showed absence of skin test reactivity for both estradiol and progesterone at 20 min, 24h, and 1 week. None of the subjects in either group showed skin test reactivity to placebo. There is an association between primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and skin test reactivity to female sex hormones.

  14. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  15. Etiologic characteristics and index pregnancy outcomes of recurrent pregnancy losses in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gi Su; Rhee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and clinical outcomes of Korean recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients. And also, we investigated the differences between primary and secondary RPL patients, between two and three or more pregnancy losses. Methods One hundred seventy eight women diagnosed as RPL were enrolled. We performed chromosomal analysis, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, natural killer cell proportion, anticardiolipin antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2glycoprotein-1 antibodies, antinuclear antibody, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, homocysteine, MTFHR gene, factor V Leiden mutation, and hysterosalphingography/hysteroscopic evaluation. Results The mean age was 34.03±4.30 years, and mean number of miscarriages was 2.69±1.11 (range, 2 to 11). Anatomical cause (13.5%), chromosomal abnormalities (5.6%), and endocrine disorders (34.3%) were observed in RPL women. Elevated natural killer cell and antiphospholipid antibodies were observed in 43.3% and 7.3% each. Among of 178 women, 77 women were pregnant. After management of those women, live birth rate was 84.4% and mean gestational weeks was 37.63±5.12. Women with three or more RPL compared with women with two RPL had more common anatomical cause such as intrauterine adhesions and lower rates of spontaneous pregnancy. Compare with secondary RPL women, immunological abnormalities were more common in primary RPL. However, miscarriage rates were not different. Conclusion Immunological factor including autoimmune and alloimmune disorders was most common etiology of RPL. Inherited thrombophilia showed different patterns with other ethnic countries. Miscarriage rates were not different between primary and secondary RPL, or between two and three or more miscarriages group. PMID:27668201

  16. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation.

  17. Human sexual size dimorphism in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Radek; Smith, Gordon C S; Malone, Fergal D; Ball, Robert H; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Berkowitz, Richard L; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2007-05-15

    Sexual size dimorphism is thought to contribute to the greater mortality and morbidity of men compared with women. However, the timing of onset of sexual size dimorphism remains uncertain. The authors determined whether human fetuses exhibit sexual size dimorphism in the first trimester of pregnancy. Using a prospective cohort study, conducted in 1999-2002 in the United States, they identified 27,655 women who conceived spontaneously and 1,008 whose conception was assisted by in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination and for whom a first-trimester measurement of fetal crown-rump length was available. First-trimester size was expressed as the difference between the observed and expected size of the fetus, expressed as equivalence to days of gestational age. The authors evaluated the association between fetal sex, first-trimester size, and birth weight. Eight to 12 weeks after conception, males were larger than females (mean difference: assisted conception = 0.4 days, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.7, p = 0.008; spontaneous conception = 0.3 days, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.4, p < 0.00001). The size discrepancy remained significant at birth (mean birth weight difference: assisted conception = 90 g, 95% CI: 22, 159, p = 0.009; spontaneous conception = 120 g, 95% CI: 107, 132, p < 0.00001). These data demonstrate that human fetuses exhibit sexual size dimorphism in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Mothers' Prenatal Activities Predict Adjustment to Pregnancy and Early Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ronalda; Turner, Nita

    This study examined the activities of pregnant women and how these activities facilitated a positive adjustment to pregnancy and early parenting. Subjects were 49 expectant first-time mothers ranging in age from 20 to 41 and attending a childhood preparation class. Eighty-two percent of the women were married. Subjects completed two questionnaires…

  19. ATRAZINE EFFECTS ON EARLY PREGNANCY AND IMPLANATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine Effects on Early Pregnancy and Implantation in the Rat.
    A.M. Cummings, B.E. Rhodes*, and R.L. Cooper*.
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC
    Atrazine (ATR), an herbicide, can induce mammary tumors in rats. ATR can also sup...

  20. Debendox in early pregnancy and fetal malformation.

    PubMed

    Fleming, D M; Knox, J D; Crombie, D L

    1981-07-11

    During the mid-1960s, 22 977 pregnant women in Scotland and England were followed up prospectively for the incidence of malformations in their infants evident at birth or within six weeks. During the first 13 weeks of gestation 620 of these women had been prescribed Debendox (dicyclomine-doxylamine-pyridoxine) and 743 other women agents other than Debendox containing pyridoxine. Of the 620 women given Debendox, 589 (95%) had a normal outcome of pregnancy, 8 (13%) delivered a malformed infant, and 23 (3.7%) had other outcomes. Of the 22 357 women who were given Debendox, 445 (2.0%) produced infants with malformation; and the rates for all abnormal outcomes among women given Debendox and those not given the drug were 5.0% and 5.4% respectively. These results support the hypothesis that Debendox is not teratogenic.

  1. Debendox in early pregnancy and fetal malformation.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, D M; Knox, J D; Crombie, D L

    1981-01-01

    During the mid-1960s, 22 977 pregnant women in Scotland and England were followed up prospectively for the incidence of malformations in their infants evident at birth or within six weeks. During the first 13 weeks of gestation 620 of these women had been prescribed Debendox (dicyclomine-doxylamine-pyridoxine) and 743 other women agents other than Debendox containing pyridoxine. Of the 620 women given Debendox, 589 (95%) had a normal outcome of pregnancy, 8 (13%) delivered a malformed infant, and 23 (3.7%) had other outcomes. Of the 22 357 women who were given Debendox, 445 (2.0%) produced infants with malformation; and the rates for all abnormal outcomes among women given Debendox and those not given the drug were 5.0% and 5.4% respectively. These results support the hypothesis that Debendox is not teratogenic. PMID:6789952

  2. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission.

  3. Ovarian control of pituitary hormone secretion in early human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Emmi, A M; Skurnick, J; Goldsmith, L T; Gagliardi, C L; Schmidt, C L; Kleinberg, D; Weiss, G

    1991-06-01

    To determine the influence of ovarian relaxin on the secretion of pituitary GH and PRL in vivo, we evaluated circulating serum hormone levels in 17 pregnant patients with functional corpora lutea (group I) and compared them to levels in 10 patients with premature ovarian failure (POF; group II) who became pregnant with egg donation and did not have corpora lutea. Group II patients had exogenous hormonal support. Serum relaxin (RLX), GH, PRL, estradiol (E2), and progesterone levels were measured weekly by RIA from weeks 4-8 of pregnancy. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to determine hormonal relationships. Serum RLX was present in the natural pregnancy group, with a mean of 1.94 micrograms/L over the study period. Serum RLX was undetectable in the POF patients (less than 0.16 micrograms/L). No significant difference in PRL or progesterone levels between the two groups was noted. E2 levels showed an upward trend in both groups with time and were significantly higher in patients of the POF group than in group I women (P = 0.001). GH levels were significantly higher in the natural cycle patients (P = 0.02) despite lower E2 levels. These data provide additional support for the concept that RLX production in early pregnancy originates from the corpus luteum. They suggest that a luteal product, probably RLX, stimulates GH secretion in early pregnancy. This is a previously undescribed role for RLX in pituitary physiology during human pregnancy.

  4. Early pregnancy in adolescents: diagnosis, assessment, options counseling, and referral.

    PubMed

    Aruda, Mary M; Waddicor, Kathleen; Frese, Liesl; Cole, Joanna C M; Burke, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Health care providers are faced with many challenges when working with adolescents. Vague symptoms, unreliable menstrual history, and adolescent reluctance to disclose sexual activity present challenges to early diagnosis. When pregnancy is suspected, clinicians need skills for accurate diagnosis, conducting comprehensive assessments, and providing options counseling. Complexities of providing confidential care while balancing the needs of the adolescent and family may deter some clinicians. A clinical case scenario illustrates important elements of care. Through sharing lessons learned from 10 years of working in a Pregnancy Follow-up Clinic, the authors hope to empower other clinicians as they care for adolescents during this critical time.

  5. Leukocyte driven-decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Patricia DA; Zhang, Jianhong; Dunk, Caroline; Lye, Stephen J; Anne Croy, B

    2014-01-01

    Successful pregnancy and long-term, post-natal maternal and offspring cardiac, vascular and metabolic health require key maternal cardiovascular adaptations over gestation. Within the pregnant decidualizing uterus, coordinated vascular, immunological and stromal cell changes occur. Considerable attention has been given to the roles of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in initiating decidual spiral arterial remodeling, a process normally completed by mid-gestation in mice and in humans. However, leukocyte roles in much earlier, region specific, decidual vascular remodeling are now being defined. Interest in immune cell-promoted vascular remodeling is driven by vascular aberrations that are reported in human gestational complications such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction. Appropriate maternal cardiovascular responses during pregnancy protect mothers and their children from later cardiovascular disease risk elevation. One of the earliest uterine responses to pregnancy in species with hemochorial placentation is stromal cell decidualization, which creates unique niches for angiogenesis and leukocyte recruitment. In early decidua basalis, the aspect of the implantation site that will cradle the developing placenta and provide the major blood vessels to support mature placental functions, leukocytes are greatly enriched and display specialized properties. UNK cells, the most abundant leukocyte subset in early decidua basalis, have angiogenic abilities and are essential for normal early decidual angiogenesis. The regulation of uNK cells and their roles in determining maternal and progeny cardiovascular health over pregnancy and postpartum are discussed. PMID:25066422

  6. Leukocyte driven-decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Patricia D A; Zhang, Jianhong; Dunk, Caroline; Lye, Stephen J; Croy, B Anne

    2014-11-01

    Successful pregnancy and long-term, post-natal maternal and offspring cardiac, vascular and metabolic health require key maternal cardiovascular adaptations over gestation. Within the pregnant decidualizing uterus, coordinated vascular, immunological and stromal cell changes occur. Considerable attention has been given to the roles of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in initiating decidual spiral arterial remodeling, a process normally completed by mid-gestation in mice and in humans. However, leukocyte roles in much earlier, region specific, decidual vascular remodeling are now being defined. Interest in immune cell-promoted vascular remodeling is driven by vascular aberrations that are reported in human gestational complications such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction. Appropriate maternal cardiovascular responses during pregnancy protect mothers and their children from later cardiovascular disease risk elevation. One of the earliest uterine responses to pregnancy in species with hemochorial placentation is stromal cell decidualization, which creates unique niches for angiogenesis and leukocyte recruitment. In early decidua basalis, the aspect of the implantation site that will cradle the developing placenta and provide the major blood vessels to support mature placental functions, leukocytes are greatly enriched and display specialized properties. UNK cells, the most abundant leukocyte subset in early decidua basalis, have angiogenic abilities and are essential for normal early decidual angiogenesis. The regulation of uNK cells and their roles in determining maternal and progeny cardiovascular health over pregnancy and postpartum are discussed.

  7. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne; Dowswell, Therese; Haas, David M; Doyle, Mary; O’Mathúna, Dónal P

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2003. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks’ gestation. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 May 2010). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials of any intervention for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy. We excluded trials of interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum which are covered by another review. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials and trials using a crossover design. Data collection and analysis Four review authors, in pairs, reviewed the eligibility of trials and independently evaluated the risk of bias and extracted the data for included trials. Main results Twenty-seven trials, with 4041 women, met the inclusion criteria. These trials covered many interventions, including acupressure, acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic drugs. We identified no studies of dietary or other lifestyle interventions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of P6 acupressure, auricular (ear) acupressure and acustimulation of the P6 point was limited. Acupuncture (P6 or traditional) showed no significant benefit to women in pregnancy. The use of ginger products may be helpful to women, but the evidence of effectiveness was limited and not consistent. There was only limited evidence from trials to support the use of pharmacological agents including vitamin B6, and anti-emetic drugs to relieve mild or moderate nausea and vomiting. There was little information on maternal and fetal adverse outcomes and on psychological, social or economic outcomes. We

  8. A developmental approach to pregnancy prevention with early adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Proctor, S E

    1986-10-01

    Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with adults and older teens do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with developmental needs of the young teen provide cogent approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Particular emphasis should be placed on interpersonal relationships and their importance in the young woman's life, especially the relationship between the young teen and her parents. Developing and improving all relationships instrumental in positively affecting teen decision-making represent potent approaches to pregnancy prevention. The axioms of Piaget, Erikson, and Mercer are examined in regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and psychosexual development in the 12-14 year old. Young teens' responses to sex education as well as their use of contraception are reviewed in relation to developmental theory.

  9. Teratogenic Risk of Drugs Used in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ruedy, John

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of common illnesses in early pregnancy is complicated because of the risk of teratogenic effects of drugs on the fetus. The period of greatest risk is between the first and eighth week of pregnancy. Since much of this period occurs before a diagnosis of pregnancy is made, care must be used in treatment of common illnesses in all women susceptible to becoming pregnant. Few, if any, drugs have been tested for teratogenicity in controlled clinical trials. Risk must therefore be based on epidemiological studies, individual case reporting and extrapolation from animal studies. Sufficient information is available on commonly used drugs to establish such risks. It is important that drugs of least known risk but adequate efficacy be used in treating intercurrent illness in the first trimester. PMID:21279129

  10. The Paradox of Time Post-Pregnancy Loss: Three Things Not to Say When Communicating Social Support.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michaela D E

    2016-11-01

    In this essay, I interrogate the role time plays in the three most common social support messages I received post-pregnancy loss. In doing so, I illustrate how our most common "social support" responses to pregnancy loss, while uttered from caring, intentional places of support, can actually serve to marginalize and invalidate experiences of pregnancy loss.

  11. [Early pregnancy risk: development and validation of a predictive instrument].

    PubMed

    Burrows, R; Rosales, M E; Díaz, M; Muzzo, S

    1994-06-01

    An early pregnancy risk scale, with scores ranging from 11 to 66 points from lower to higher risk, was constructed using variables associated with teenager's pregnancy. This scale was applied to 3000 female teenagers, coming from Metropolitan Santiago public schools. The sample was divided in three risk groups: group A (high risk) with scores equal or over 35 points, group B (low risk) with scores equal or below 20 points and group B (intermediate risk) with scores between 20.1 and 34.9 points. These girls were followed during 2 years. During this period, 84 girls became pregnant, 24 of 184 (13%) in group A, 60 of 2332 (2.6%) in group C and none of 307 in group B. There were 104 school desertions in group A and 37 in group B. To study associations and analyze risk, the sample was divided in two risk groups: high, with scores over 27 and low, with scores below 27. There was a high association between pregnancy risk score and the occurrence of pregnancy (RR 5.25 p < 0.0001) and school desertion (RR 3.32 p < 0.0001). Pregnancy was predicted with a 78% sensitivity and 55.6% specificity. School desertion was predicted with a 74% sensitivity and 56% specificity. The importance variable weighing using multiple regression models, to improve the predictor's sensitivity and specificity, is discussed.

  12. Early Pregnancy Maternal Blood DNA Methylation in Repeat Pregnancies and Change in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Status—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy; Muhie, Seid; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Lin, Shili; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Repeat pregnancies with different perinatal outcomes minimize underlying maternal genetic diversity and provide unique opportunities to investigate nongenetic risk factors and epigenetic mechanisms of pregnancy complications. We investigated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-related differential DNA methylation in early pregnancy peripheral blood samples collected from women who had a change in GDM status in repeat pregnancies. Six study participants were randomly selected from among women who had 2 consecutive pregnancies, only 1 of which was complicated by GDM (case pregnancy) and the other was not (control pregnancy). Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was profiled using Illumina HumanMethylation 27 BeadChips. Differential Identification using Mixture Ensemble and false discovery rate (<10%) cutoffs were used to identify differentially methylated targets between the 2 pregnancies of each participant. Overall, 27 target sites, 17 hypomethylated (fold change [FC] range: 0.77-0.99) and 10 hypermethylated (FC range: 1.01-1.09), were differentially methylated between GDM and control pregnancies among 5 or more study participants. Novel genes were related to identified hypomethylated (such as NDUFC1, HAPLN3, HHLA3, and RHOG) or hypermethylated sites (such as SEP11, ZAR1, and DDR). Genes related to identified sites participated in cell morphology, cellular assembly, cellular organization, cellular compromise, and cell cycle. Our findings support early pregnancy peripheral blood DNA methylation differences in repeat pregnancies with change in GDM status. Similar, larger, and repeat pregnancy studies can enhance biomarker discovery and mechanistic studies of GDM. PMID:25676578

  13. Pregnancy outcomes following the administration of high doses of dexamethasone in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kayvan Jafari, Sabah; Nezafat Firizi, Maryam; Abbaspour, Ali Reza; Ghafoori Gharib, Fahime; Ghobadi, Yusef; Gholizadeh, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Methods Pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high-dose DEX in the experimental group or saline in the control group on gestational days (GDs) 0.5 to 4.5. Pregnant mice were sacrificed on GDs 7.5, 13.5, or 18.5 and their peripheral blood, placentas, fetuses, and uterine tissue were collected. Decidual and placenta cell supernatants were examined to evaluate the effect of DEX on the proliferation of mononuclear cells, the quantity of uterine macrophages and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also were measured fetal and placental growth parameters on GD 18.5. Results We found that high doses of DEX were associated with an increased abortion rate, enhancement of the immunosuppressive effect of the decidua, alterations in placental growth parameters, decreased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and a reduced frequency of macrophages and uNK cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that the high-dose administration of DEX during early pregnancy negatively affected pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27104153

  14. Use of tramadol in early pregnancy and congenital malformation risk.

    PubMed

    Källén, Bengt; Reis, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies exist regarding the risk of a teratogenic effect of tramadol when used in early pregnancy. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, women (deliveries in 1997-2013) who had reported the use of tramadol in early pregnancy were identified. Maternal characteristics and concomitant drug use were analyzed. Among 1,682,846 women (1,797,678 infants), 1751 (1776 infants) had used tramadol, 96 of the infants had a congenital malformation and 70 of them were relatively severe. The adjusted odds ratio for a relatively severe malformation was 1.33 (95% CI 1.05-1.70). The odds ratios for cardiovascular defects (1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.29) and for pes equinovarus (3.63, 95% CI 1.61-6.89) were significantly increased. The study suggests a teratogenic effect of tramadol but the risk increase is moderate.

  15. Induction of therapeutic abortion in early pregnancy with mifepristone in combination with prostaglandin pessary.

    PubMed

    Rodger, M W; Baird, D T

    1987-12-19

    Therapeutic abortion was induced in 100 women in early pregnancy (less than 56 days' amenorrhoea) with a combination of the antigestagen mifepristone (RU 486) and a synthetic prostaglandin analogue, gemeprost. Mifepristone in oral doses of 400-600 mg was followed 48 h later by a gemeprost vaginal pessary (0.5-1.0 mg). Bleeding was induced in all women 22-70 h after the mifepristone dose and although bleeding continued for 4-43 days (median 12) the total measured blood-loss was only a median of 72.5 ml (range 15-398). Complete abortion occurred in 95 women. Surgical evacuation of the uterus for minimum debris was required in the remaining 5. Only 10 women had diarrhoea or pain that required opioid analgesia. The combination of mifepristone and gemeprost provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical evacuation of the uterus for therapeutic abortion in early pregnancy.

  16. Early pregnancy in the horse revisited - does exception prove the rule?

    PubMed

    Aurich, Christine; Budik, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Early equine pregnancy shares many features with that of more intensively assessed domestic animals species, but there are also characteristic differences. Some of those are poorly understood. Descent of the equine conceptus into the uterine lumen occurs at day 5 to 6 after ovulation but is only possible when the embryo secretes prostaglandin E2. Although maintenance of equine pregnancy probably involves secretion of a conceptus derived anti-luteolytic factor, this agent has not been identified. Rapid growth, conceptus mobility and presence of an acellular capsule at the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy, i.e. between days 12 and 14, are prerequisites to avoid pregnancy loss. Progesterone together with 5α-pregnanes is secreted by the corpus luteum and induces the production of endometrial histotroph which is responsible for conceptus nutrition until placention. A stable contact between the outer trophoblast layer of the allantochorion and the luminal epithelium of the endometrium is not established before days 40 to 42 of pregnancy.

  17. Delayed Interval Delivery following Early Loss of the Leading Twin

    PubMed Central

    Udealor, P. C.; Ezeome, I. V.; Emegoakor, F. C.; Okeke, D. O.; Okere, P. C. N.

    2015-01-01

    This was a case of a nulliparous woman with reduced chance of conception following unilateral salpingectomy and years of infertility. She eventually conceived following ovulation induction resulting in twin pregnancy. She had miscarriage that led to loss of one of the twins at 17 weeks of gestational age. The pregnancy was however continued for 116 days following meticulous management with eventual delivery of a live female baby with good outcome. PMID:25688311

  18. Ambient Temperature and Early Delivery of Singleton Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extreme temperature is associated with adverse birth outcomes but it is unclear whether it increases early delivery risk.Background: Extreme temperature is associated with adverse birth outcomes but it is unclear whether it increases early delivery risk. Objectives: We aimed to determine the association between ambient temperature and early delivery.Objectives: We aimed to determine the association between ambient temperature and early delivery. Methods: Medical records from 223,375 singleton deliveries from 12 U.S. sites were linked to local ambient temperature. Exposure to hot (> 90th percentile) or cold (< 10th percentile) using site-specific and window-specific temperature distributions were defined for 3-months preconception, 7-week periods during the first two trimesters, 1 week preceding delivery, and whole pregnancy. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations calculated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval for early deliveries associated with hot/cold exposures, adjusting for conception month, humidity, site, sex, maternal demographics, parity, insurance, prepregnancy body mass index, pregnancy complications, and smoking or drinking during pregnancy. Acute temperature associations were estimated separately for warm (May–September) and cold season (October–April) in a case-crossover analysis using conditional logistic regression.Methods: Medical records from 223,375 singleton deliveries from 12 U.S. sites were linked to local ambient temperature. Exposure to hot (> 90th percentile) or cold (< 10th percentile) using site-specific and window-specific temperature distributions were defined for 3-months preconception, 7-week periods during the first two trimesters, 1 week preceding delivery, and whole pregnancy. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations calculated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval for early deliveries associated with hot/cold exposures, adjusting for conception month

  19. Biology of primate relaxin: A paracrine signal in early pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Relaxin is a peptide hormone that exerts numerous effects in a variety of tissues across a broad range of species. Although first identified more than 75 years ago interest in relaxin biology has waxed and waned over the years consistent with peaks and troughs of new experimental data on its wide-ranging biological effects and advances in relaxin enabling technologies. Recent insights into species-dependent differences in relaxin biology during pregnancy have once again stimulated a relative surge of interest in the study of relaxin's reproductive biology. Identification and pharmacological characterization of orphaned relaxin receptors and exploration of its paracrine effects on pregnancy using genomic and proteomic technologies have succeeded in fueling current interest in relaxin research. Primates and non-primate vertebrates exhibit very disparate profiles of relaxin genomics, proteomics and functional biology. Non-human primates appear to exhibit a very close similarity to humans with respect to relaxin reproductive biology but the similarities and subtle differences are only just beginning to be understood. We, and others, have shown that relaxin produces significant changes to the non-human primate endometrium during the peri-implantation period that are consistent with relaxin's long perceived role as a paracrine modulator of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the reproductive biology of relaxin in non-human primates with a specific emphasis on the paracrine role of ovarian and endometrial relaxin during embryo implantation and early pregnancy. PMID:15200675

  20. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  1. Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Winter, Michael R.; Vieira, Veronica M.; Webster, Thomas F.; Ozonoff, David M.

    2010-01-01

    There is little information on the impact of solvent-contaminated drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. This retrospective cohort study examined whether maternal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) - contaminated drinking water in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts influenced the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss. The study identified exposed (n=959) and unexposed (1,087) women who completed a questionnaire on their residential and pregnancy histories, and confounding variables. Exposure was estimated using water distribution system modeling software. No meaningful associations were seen between PCE exposure level and the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss at the exposure levels experienced by the study population. Because PCE remains a common water contaminant, it is important to continue monitoring its impact on women and their pregnancies. PMID:20613966

  2. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Litonjua, Augusto A.; McElrath, Thomas F.; O’Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C.; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W.; Handy, Diane E.; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Williams, Michelle A.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. METHODS. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10–18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32–38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D–associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. RESULTS. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61–1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD <30 ng/ml) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10–0.96). Differential expression of 348 vitamin D–associated genes (158 upregulated) was found in peripheral blood of women who developed preeclampsia (FDR <0.05 in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial [VDAART]; P < 0.05 in a replication cohort). Functional enrichment and network analyses of this vitamin D–associated gene set suggests several highly functional modules related to systematic inflammatory and immune responses, including some nodes with a high degree of connectivity. CONCLUSIONS. Vitamin D supplementation initiated in weeks 10–18 of pregnancy did not reduce preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of

  3. Endocrinology of pregnancy and early pregnancy detection by reproductive hormones in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Ropstad, E; Veiberg, V; Säkkinen, H; Dahl, E; Kindahl, H; Holand, O; Beckers, J F; Eloranta, E

    2005-04-01

    The endocrinology was studied throughout pregnancy in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) located in Oulu, Finland (65 degrees N, 25 degrees E) with 13 captive, semi domestic adult females. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and estrone sulphate (E1SO4), 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG). The mean plasma P4 concentration peaked twice during gestation: at around 24 and three weeks prior to calving. In pregnant females the plasma PAG concentration increased over basal concentrations 21-30 days after the estimated day of conception and peaked at the time of calving. The concentrations of E2 and E1SO4 remained low until 60 days before calving when a rapid increase was found for both hormones. The mean plasma concentration of PG-metabolite increased throughout pregnancy to a maximum at parturition. The estimated mean (range) gestation length was 216 (212-220) days. Judged from measures on reproductive organs collected from 86 free-ranging, semi-domestic female reindeer of unknown age presented for slaughter at Roros, Norway (63 degrees N, 11 degrees E) in the second week of December 1999, it was concluded that the breeding season lasted from early September until the end of November. The results also showed that plasma PAG concentration could provide a tool for detection of pregnancy in reindeer.

  4. Peritoneal pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum in early gestation: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Azumi; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Furuya, Masataka; Matsumura, Satoko; Murayama, Shinji; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Peritoneal pregnancy may cause severe abdominal bleeding without genital bleeding as early as the fifth week of gestation. Awareness that pregnancy can exist in unusual locations is imperative. PMID:26185643

  5. Changes in vascular extracellular matrix composition during decidual spiral arteriole remodeling in early human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samantha D; Choudhury, Ruhul H; Matos, Patricia; Horn, James A; Lye, Stephen J; Dunk, Caroline E; Aplin, John D; Jones, Rebecca L; Harris, Lynda K

    2016-05-01

    Uterine spiral arteriole (SA) remodeling in early pregnancy involves a coordinated series of events including decidual immune cell recruitment, vascular cell disruption and loss, and colonization by placental-derived extravillous trophoblast (EVT). During this process, decidual SA are converted from narrow, muscular vessels into dilated channels lacking vasomotor control. We hypothesized that this extensive alteration in SA architecture must require significant reorganization and/or breakdown of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). First trimester decidua basalis (30 specimens) was immunostained to identify spiral arterioles undergoing trophoblast-independent and -dependent phases of remodeling. Serial sections were then immunostained for a panel of ECM markers, to examine changes in vascular ECM during the remodeling process. The initial stages of SA remodeling were characterized by loss of laminin, elastin, fibrillin, collagen types III, IV and VI from the basement membrane, vascular media and/or adventitia, and surrounding decidual stromal cells. Loss of ECM correlated with disruption and disorganization of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the majority of changes occurred prior to extensive colonization of the vessel wall by EVT. The final stages of SA remodeling, characterized by the arrival of EVT, were associated with the increased mural deposition of fibronectin and fibrinoid. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal loss of ECM from the walls of remodeling decidual SA in early pregnancy.

  6. Global alteration in gene expression profiles of deciduas from women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, S.A.; Fan, X.; Hong, Y.; Sang, Q.-X.; Giaccia, A.; Westphal, L.M.; Lathi, R.B.; Krieg, A.J.; Nayak, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) occurs in ∼5% of women. However, the etiology is still poorly understood. Defects in decidualization of the endometrium during early pregnancy contribute to several pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of idiopathic RPL. We performed microarray analysis to identify gene expression alterations in the deciduas of idiopathic RPL patients. Control patients had one antecedent term delivery, but were undergoing dilation and curettage for current aneuploid miscarriage. Gene expression differences were evaluated using both pathway and gene ontology (GO) analysis. Selected genes were validated using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR). A total of 155 genes were found to be significantly dysregulated in the deciduas of RPL patients (>2-fold change, P < 0.05), with 22 genes up-regulated and 133 genes down-regulated. GO analysis linked a large percentage of genes to discrete biological functions, including immune response (23%), cell signaling (18%) and cell invasion (17.1%), and pathway analysis revealed consistent changes in both the interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-8 pathways. All genes in the IL-8 pathway were up-regulated while genes in the IL-1 pathway were down-regulated. Although both pathways can promote inflammation, IL-1 pathway activity is important for normal implantation. Additionally, genes known to be critical for degradation of the extracellular matrix, including matrix metalloproteinase 26 and serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal-type 1, were also highly up-regulated. In this first microarray approach to decidual gene expression in RPL patients, our data suggest that dysregulation of genes associated with cell invasion and immunity may contribute significantly to idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. PMID:22505054

  7. Molecular thrombophilic profile in Mexican patients with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    López-Jiménez, J J; Porras-Dorantes, Á; Juárez-Vázquez, C I; García-Ortiz, J E; Fuentes-Chávez, C A; Lara-Navarro, I J; Jaloma-Cruz, A R

    2016-10-05

    Idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (IRPL) is defined by three or more consecutive miscarriages occurring before the twentieth week of gestation as a result of unidentified etiological factors. The results of previous studies have indicated that prothrombotic factors play a pathogenic role in early and late pregnancy. This study aimed to identify inherited prothrombotic and hypofibrinolytic risk factors in Mexican-Mestizo patients with IRPL. Fifty-six women with IRPL and 50 control women with at least two full-term pregnancies and no history of RPL were included in this case-control study. Four prothrombotic (F5 G1691A, F2 G20210A, MTHFR C677T-A1298C) and one hypofibrinolytic (PAI1 4G/5G) restricted fragment length polymorphisms were subjected to molecular analysis. In the case of hypofibrinolytic ACE Ins/Del (I/D), identification was performed by direct PCR. The independent risk correlated with the presence of polymorphisms in IRPL patients was estimated using odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). MTHFR 677TT was the most frequent prothrombotic factor in the IRPL group (23%), followed by the compound-heterozygous C677T-A1298C (16%) and heterozygous F2 20210GA (3.6%). The heterozygous ACE I/D (62%) was the main hypofibrinolytic risk factor of IRPL, followed by the homozygote PAI1 4G/4G (18%). The ACE I/D polymorphism was the only significantly different factor among the cases and controls. The dominant genetic model D/D+I/D vs I/I showed an OR (95%CI) of 2.89 (1.22-6.89) and P = 0.019 in Mexican-Mestizo women. The results of this study support an association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and IRPL risk in a Mexican population.

  8. Satisfaction with Hospital Care and Interventions after Pregnancy Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasker, Judith N.; Toedter, Lori J.

    1994-01-01

    Conducted longitudinal study of 194 women and men who experienced miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth, or newborn death to examine recommended interventions. Subjects were more satisfied if they had experienced intervention than if they had not, but having experienced more total interventions was not associated with lower grief or greater…

  9. Embryonic and early foetal losses in cattle and other ruminants.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Morris, D G

    2008-07-01

    Embryo survival is a major factor affecting production and economic efficiency in all systems of ruminant milk and meat production. For heifers, beef and moderate yielding dairy cows, does and camelids it appears that fertilization generally lies between 90% and 100%. In high-producing dairy cows there is a less substantive body of literature, but it would appear that it is somewhat lower and perhaps more variable. In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs before day 16 following breeding with some evidence of greater losses before day 8 in high-producing dairy cows. In cattle late embryo loss, while numerically much smaller than early embryo mortality loss, nevertheless, causes serious economic losses to producers because it is often too late to rebreed females when they repeat. In multiple ovulating small ruminants, the loss rate is positively related to ovulation rate. Systemic concentrations of progesterone, during both the cycle preceding and following insemination, affect embryo survival rate with evidence that too high or indeed too low a concentration being negatively associated with survival rate. Uterine expression of mRNA for progesterone receptor, oestradiol receptor and retinol-binding protein appears to be sensitive to changes in peripheral concentrations of progesterone during the first week after artificial insemination. Energy balance and dry matter intake during 4 weeks after calving are critically important in determining conception rate when cows are inseminated at 70-100 days post-calving. Concentrate supplementation of cows at pasture during the breeding period has minimal effects on conception rates though sudden reductions in dietary intake should be avoided. For all systems of milk production, more balanced breeding strategies with greater emphasis on fertility and feed intake and/or energy balance must be developed. There is sufficient genetic variability within the Holstein breed for fertility traits. Alternative dairy breeds

  10. Severity of Birth Defects After Propylthiouracil Exposure in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Propylthiouracil (PTU) used in the treatment of maternal hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may be associated with a higher prevalence of birth defects in the face and neck region and in the urinary system but the severity of these complications remains to be elucidated. Methods: Review of hospital-registered cases of birth defects in the face and neck region and in the urinary system after PTU exposure in early pregnancy. We obtained information on maternal redeemed prescription of PTU and child diagnosis of birth defect from nationwide registers for all children born in Denmark between 1996 and 2008 (n=817,093). The children were followed until December 31, 2010 (median age, 8.3 years) and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for having a birth defect after PTU exposure versus nonexposed children (n=811,730). Results: Fourteen cases of birth defects were identified in the face and neck region and in the urinary system after PTU exposure in early pregnancy; 11 children were exposed to PTU only (n=564), whereas 3 children were born to mothers who switched from methimazole (MMI)/carbimazole (CMZ) to PTU in early pregnancy (n=159). Among children exposed to PTU only, the adjusted HR for having a birth defect in the face and neck region was 4.92 (95% CI 2.04–11.86) and in the urinary system 2.73 (1.22–6.07). Looking into details of the 14 cases, 7 children were diagnosed with a birth defect in the face and neck region (preauricular and branchial sinus/fistula/cyst) and 7 children had a birth defect in the urinary system (single cyst of kidney and hydronephrosis). Surgical treatment was registered in 6 of the cases with a birth defect in the face and neck region and 3 of the cases with a birth defect in the urinary system. Two of the children with a birth defect in the urinary system also had other birth defects (genital organs). Conclusions: We report details on possible

  11. Spontaneous pregnancy loss in humans and exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Kim, Keewan; Neamtiu, Iulia; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2010-11-01

    Maternal exposure to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in naturally contaminated drinking groundwater sources has been associated with an increased risk for the spontaneous loss of clinically recognized pregnancies in several epidemiologic studies. Whereas a large worldwide population depends on drinking groundwater sources with high levels of iAs contamination, in quantities exceeding 10 parts per billion (ppb), an even larger population is likely to be exposed to mild-moderate drinking groundwater iAs contamination, in quantities <10ppb. Only a single epidemiologic study to date has considered spontaneous pregnancy loss in association with consumption of drinking water with mild-moderate iAs contamination; the vast majority of published studies of spontaneous loss addressed populations with substantial exposure. The aim of this review is to evaluate the published literature to assess the plausibility for a causal association between exposure to iAs-contaminated drinking water and the spontaneous loss of clinically recognized pregnancy. In spite of numerous methodologic limitations resulting from circumstance or design, a consistent pattern of increased risk for loss is suggested by the epidemiologic literature. Moreover, these study results are corroborated by a large number of experimental studies, albeit usually conducted at concentrations exceeding that to which humans are exposed via contaminated drinking water. In this review, we discuss sources of human iAs exposure, highlight several experimental studies pertinent to a possible causal link between iAs and spontaneous pregnancy loss in humans, and provide a critical review of published epidemiologic studies of pregnancy loss and drinking water iAs exposures, and their limitations. Based on a review of the published literature, we recommend the future conduct of a two-stage comprehensive prospective study of low-moderate iAs drinking water exposure and spontaneous pregnancy loss.

  12. Unhappy endings: a feminist reappraisal of the women's health movement from the vantage of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Layne, Linda L

    2003-05-01

    This essay contrasts the rosy birth scenarios of the natural childbirth movement with reproductive disaster stories of members of pregnancy loss support groups and women from toxically assaulted communities in the US who have suffered pregnancy loss. I argue that both biomedical obstetrics and the women's health movement critique of it share a belief in the ability to control reproduction so that there will be a positive outcome. I show that this emphasis on happy endings (whether believed to be the result of medical intervention, or women's natural inborn powers to reproduce) exacerbates the experience of those whose pregnancies do not end happily. I show how the women's health movement's emphasis on the importance of women being in control of their own bodies is related to a broader "culture of meritocracy" which contributes to maternal blame (and self-blame) when pregnancies are not perfect.

  13. Vitamin D status in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Madonna; Dodds, Linda; Giguère, Yves; Forest, Jean-Claude; Armson, B. Anthony; Woolcott, Christy; Agellon, Sherry; Spencer, Anne; Weiler, Hope A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in early pregnancy and the subsequent diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE). STUDY DESIGN This was a nested case-control study from 2 prospective Canadian cohorts conducted in Quebec City, Quebec, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 2002 through 2010. Participants were pregnant women (n=169 cases with PE and 1975 controls). Maternal serum was drawn <20 weeks of gestation, and 25(OH)D measurement was performed. Cases were ascertained from medical records. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Women who developed PE had a significantly lower 25(OH)D concentration at a mean gestational age of 14 weeks compared with women in the control group (mean ± SD 25[OH]D 47.2 ± 17.7 vs 52.3 ± 17.2 nmol/L, P < .0001). Women with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L compared to those with at least 50 nmol/L had a greater risk of developing PE (adjusted odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–3.83) after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, maternal age, smoking, parity, season and year of blood collection, gestational week at blood collection, and cohort site. Exploratory analysis with cubic splines demonstrated a dose-response relationship between maternal 25(OH)D and risk of PE, up to levels around 50 nmol/L, where the association appeared to plateau. CONCLUSION Maternal vitamin D deficiency early in pregnancy defined as 25(OH)D<30 nmol/L may be an independent risk factor for PE. The relevance of vitamin D supplementation for women of child-bearing age should be explored as a strategy for reducing PE and for promoting a healthier pregnancy. PMID:25446694

  14. Association of genetic variants in the 3'UTR of HLA-G with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Giada; Canti, Valentina; Maggio, Luana; Rosa, Susanna; Castiglioni, Maria Teresa; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Gregori, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G is involved in reprogramming immune responses at fetal-maternal interface during pregnancy. We evaluated the genetic diversity of the 3' Un-Translated Region (UTR) of HLA-G, previously associated with HLA-G mRNA post-transcriptional regulation, in women with unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL), with 2 pregnancy losses (RPL-2, n=28), or 3 or more pregnancy losses (RPL-3, n=24), and in 30 women with a history of successful pregnancy. Results showed in RPL-2, but not in RPL-3, women compared to controls: i) higher frequency of the 14bp Ins allele, in single and in double copy; ii) significantly lower frequency of DelG/X genotype, iii) reduced frequency of the UTR-2, and UTR-3 haplotypes; iv) higher frequencies of the UTR-5, UTR-7, and UTR-8 haplotypes. This pilot study supports the relevance of performing 3'UTR HLA-G genetic screening, not limited to a specific polymorphism, but considering the extended haplotypes, as a possible predictor of pregnancy outcome.

  15. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erin L; Kersey, David C; Durrant, Barbara S; Kouba, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  16. ‘Miscarriage or abortion?’ Understanding the medical language of pregnancy loss in Britain; a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Moscrop, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term ‘miscarriage’ instead of ‘abortion’ to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is better understood in the context of these historical developments, rather than as the consequence of more empathic medical care for women who experience miscarriage. PMID:23429567

  17. Luteal phase HCG support for unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss - a low hanging fruit?

    PubMed

    Fox, Chelsea; Azores-Gococo, Denise; Swart, Linda; Holoch, Kristin; Savaris, Ricardo F; Likes, Creighton E; Miller, Paul B; Forstein, David A; Lessey, Bruce A

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined by two or more failed pregnancies and accounts for only 1-5% of pregnancy failures. Treatment options for unexplained RPL (uRPL) are limited. Previous studies suggest a link between delayed implantation and pregnancy loss. Based on this, a timely signal for rescue of the corpus luteum (CL) using human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) could improve outcomes in women with uRPL. This retrospective cohort study included 98 subjects with uRPL: 45 underwent 135 monitored cycles without HCG support; and 53 underwent 142 cycles with a single mid-luteal HCG injection. Based on Log-rank Mantel-Cox survival curves, miscarriage rate and time to pregnancy decreased in the HCG group (P = 0.0005). Women receiving luteal HCG support had an increased chance of an ongoing pregnancy compared with those not receiving it (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-3.6; number need to treat (NNT) = 7; 95% CI 4-18). Subjects receiving HCG support had a significant absolute risk reduction (ARR) of miscarriage (P < 0.001; ARR = 11.5%; 95% CI 3.6-19.5; NNT = 9(5-27). These data suggest restoration of synchrony and CL support improves outcomes in women with RPL. Further randomized controlled trials of luteal-phase HCG in women with RPL appears warranted.

  18. Association between Pregnancy Loss and Urinary Phthalate Levels around the Time of Conception

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hjollund, Niels H.; Vested, Anne; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal studies indicate that some phthalate metabolites may harm female reproductive function. Objectives: We assessed the associations between exposure to phthalate metabolites and pregnancy loss. Methods: Using a previously established cohort of couples planning their first pregnancy, we analyzed four primary and two oxidized secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected on day 10 after the first day of the last menstrual period before conception occurred (n = 128) and during the previous cycle (if any, n = 111). Subclinical embryonal loss was identified by repeated measurement of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin, and information on clinical spontaneous abortions was obtained by telephone interview with the mother. Results: Pregnancy loss (n = 48) was increased among women with urinary concentration of monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in the upper tertile in the conception sample compared with women in the lowest tertile [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 7.6]. The corresponding OR for subclinical embryonal loss (n = 32) was 40.7 (95% CI: 4.5, 369.5). Conclusions: The phthalate metabolite MEHP was associated with higher occurrence of pregnancy loss. Because this is the first human study to show this association and the sample size is small, the findings need to be corroborated in independent studies. PMID:22113848

  19. Psychosocial stress related to the loss of a close relative the year before or during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    László, Krisztina D; Liu, Xiao Qin; Svensson, Tobias; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven

    2013-07-01

    The role of stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has only been investigated in a few studies, and the findings are not conclusive. We analyzed whether maternal bereavement shortly before or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. We conducted a cohort study of singleton births in Denmark during 1978-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 (n=4 122 490) by linking national population-based registers. Mothers were considered exposed to bereavement if they lost a parent, a sibling, a partner, or a child the year before or during pregnancy (n=124 553). The risk of preeclampsia was slightly increased for women who lost a close relative during the 6 months before conception (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.23) or during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29). Exposure during these periods tended to be more closely related to early preeclampsia (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation; OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67) than to late preeclampsia (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.20). The strongest association was observed between loss of a child and early preeclampsia when the exposure window was from 6 months before pregnancy until start of second trimester (OR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.46-6.61). Our results related to timing of exposure suggest that severe stress may influence early placentation. However, the public health implications of our findings are limited in populations with a low prevalence of severe stress exposures.

  20. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  1. What is new in recurrent pregnancy loss?: best articles from the past year.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nathan S

    2015-06-01

    This month we focus on current research in recurrent pregnancy loss. Dr. Fox discusses five recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts.

  2. PREGNANCY LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnancy loss in the mouse due to perfluorooctanoic acids (PFOA) was investigated in this present study. Daily administration of PFOA (20 or 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage to pregnant CD-1 mice from GD 1-17 led to 75% and 100% incidence respectively, of total resorption at term with c...

  3. Preconception perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and incident pregnancy loss, LIFE Study.

    PubMed

    Louis, Germaine M Buck; Sapra, Katherine J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Lu, Zhaohui; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    Equivocal findings are reported for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and self-reported pregnancy loss. We prospectively assessed PFASs and pregnancy loss in a cohort comprising 501 couples recruited preconception and followed daily through 7 post-conception weeks. Seven PFASs were quantified: 2-N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH); 2-N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH); perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA); perfluorononanoate (PFNA); perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Women used home pregnancy test kits. Loss denoted conversion from a positive to a negative pregnancy test, onset of menses or clinical confirmation (n=98; 28%). Chemicals were log transformed and rescaled by their standard deviations to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. No significantly elevated HRs were observed for any PFASs suggesting no association with loss: Et-PFOSA-AcOH (1.04; 0.87, 1.23), Me-PFOSA-AcOH (0.79; 0.61, 1.00; p<0.05), PFDeA (0.83; 0.66, 1.04), PFNA (0.86; 0.70, 1.06), PFOSA (0.74; 0.50, 1.09), PFOS (0.81; 0.65, 1.00), and PFOA (0.93; 0.75, 1.16).

  4. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS
    Bielmeier1, S.R., D.S. Best2, and M.G. Narotsky2; 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Curriculum in Toxicology, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Enviro...

  5. DOSE ADDITIVITY OF ATRAZINE AND BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN CAUSING PREGNANCY LOSS IN F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DOSE ADDITIVITY OF ATRAZINE AND BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN CAUSING
    PREGNANCY LOSS IN F344 RATS.

    AUTHORS (ALL): Narotsky, Michael G1; Best, Deborah S1; Bielmeier, Susan R2; Cooper, Ralph L1
    SPONSOR NAME: James E Andrews

    INSTITUTIONS (ALL):
    1. Reproductive Toxi...

  6. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Henry; Castañeda, Serguei A.; Cardona Maya, Wálter; Alvarez, Leonor; Gómez, Joaquín; Gómez, Jorge; Torres, José; Tobón, Luis; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cadavid, Ángela P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases) and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls) in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population. PMID:22577540

  7. PREGNANCY LOSS AND DELAYED PARTURITION CAUSED BY ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITES IN F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that atrazine (ATR), a widely used herbicide, caused pregnancy loss (i.e., full-litter resorption) and, in surviving litters, delayed parturition in the rat. In this study we compared the dose-response relationships for ATR and four metabolites. Hydroxyatr...

  8. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Angela Catania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  9. Ultrasound imaging in the management of bleeding and pain in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Knez, Jure; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2014-07-01

    Bleeding and pain are experienced by 20% of women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Although most pregnancies complicated by pain and bleeding tend to progress normally, these symptoms are distressing for woman, and they are also associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first and often the only diagnostic modality that is used to determine location of early pregnancy and to assess its health. Ultrasound is an accurate, safe, painless and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool, which all contributed to its widespread use in early pregnancy. Pain and bleeding in early pregnancy are sometimes caused by concomitant gynaecological, gastrointestinal, and urological problems, which could also be detected on ultrasound scan. In women with suspected intra-abdominal bleeding, ultrasound scan can be used to detect the presence of blood and provide information about the extent of bleeding. In this chapter, we comprehensively review the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of early pregnancy complications. We include information about the diagnosis of gynaecological and other pelvic abnormalities, which could cause pain or bleeding in pregnancy. We also provide a summary of the current views on the safety of ultrasound in early pregnancy.

  10. The pattern of embryonic fixation and its relationship to pregnancy loss in thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Davies Morel, M C G; Dhaliwal, G S; Dadarwal, D

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasonographic pregnancy records of 195 mares from six Thoroughbred stud farms, over a period of 7 years were retrospectively analysed to assess the effect of various factors on embryonic vesicle (EV) fixation pattern and pregnancy outcome. Of the total of 746 pregnancies analysed, significantly (p < 0.01) more EV fixations were evident in the right uterine horn than in the left (53.35% vs 46.65% respectively). There was no significant effect of either, the side of ovulation, or age of the mare, on the side of EV fixation. However, EV fixation, was significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to occur in the right uterine horn in maiden and barren mares (65.75% vs 57.45% respectively). The age and reproductive status of the mare as well as foal heat breeding failed to demonstrate a consistent effect on pregnancy loss relative to the side of EV fixation. In lactating and foal heat bred mares, EVs were significantly (p < 0.0001) more frequently established in the contralateral horn to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal. In lactating mares, significantly (p < 0.05) higher embryonic and pregnancy losses were observed in the ipsilateral horn. In conclusion, (a) side of EV fixation was (i) independent of the side of ovulation and mare age (ii) significantly (p < 0.001) affected by reproductive status, (b) neither age of mare nor reproductive status had any effect on pregnancy loss rates relative to the side of EV fixation and (c) in lactating mares the EV had a greater chance of fixation and survival in the horn contralateral to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal.

  11. Early solar mass loss, element diffusion, and solar oscillation frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.; Cox, A.N.

    1994-07-01

    Swenson and Faulkner, and Boothroyd et al. investigated the possibility that early main-sequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depiction. This depletion requires a total mass loss of {approximately}0.1 M{circle_dot}, nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We have calculated the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including helium and element diffusion, and such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 M{circle_dot} is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 M{circle_dot} and exponentially-decreasing mass loss irate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: The early mass loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and the extent of the diffusion produced composition gradient just below the convection zone, deteriorating the agreement with observed frequencies for these modes. Thus it appears that oscillations can also rule out this smaller amount of gradual early main-sequence mass loss in the young Sun. The mass loss phase must be confined to substantially under a billion years, probably 0.5 Gyr or less, to simultaneously solve the solar Li/Be problem and avoid discrepancies with solar oscillation frequencies.

  12. Mefloquine gap junction blockade and risk of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Remington Lee

    2012-09-01

    Obstetric use of the antimalarial drug mefloquine has historically been discouraged during the first trimester and immediately before conception owing to concerns of potential fetal harm. With the rise of resistance to the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), mefloquine is now being considered as a replacement for SP for universal antenatal administration to women from malaria-endemic regions. Recent recommendations have also suggested that mefloquine may be used cautiously among pregnant travelers who cannot otherwise avoid visiting these areas. Mefloquine has been demonstrated to cause blockade of gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1) gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), and recent evidence suggests that GJA1 GJIC is critical to successful embryonic implantation and early placental development. During routine use, mefloquine accumulates in organ and peripheral tissue, crosses the blood-placental barrier, and may plausibly accumulate in developing decidua and trophoblast at concentrations sufficient to interfere with GJA1 GJIC and, thus, cause deleterious effects on fetal outcomes. This conclusion is supported by epidemiological evidence that demonstrates use of the drug during early development is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Confirmatory studies are pending, but the available experimental and epidemiological evidence support renewed adherence, where feasible, to existing mefloquine package insert guidance that women avoid the drug during the periconceptional period.

  13. Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

  14. Testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy: relation to method of conception in an infertile population.

    PubMed

    Lathi, Ruth B; Moayeri, Sharon E; Reddy, Charitha D; Gebhardt, Janice; Behr, Barry; Westphal, Lynn M

    2012-03-01

    This prospective cohort study of infertility patients compared testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy in infertility patients who conceived naturally or after treatment. Although all groups demonstrated some increase in pregnancy testosterone from baseline concentrations, subjects who conceived following ovulation induction showed a significantly increased rise in testosterone as compared with controls (P<0.01).

  15. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  16. Lymph Region in the Female Internal Reproductive Organs during the Early Postpartum Period after Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Borodin, Yu I; Gorchakov, V N; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    The structural and functional changes in the lymph region of the female internal reproductive organs in rats were studied during the early postpartum period after normal pregnancy. The results indicated that the main role of the lymph region in pregnancy consisted in supporting sufficient lymph production and drainage in the hypertrophic uterus.

  17. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  18. Vancomycin during pregnancy: does it cause hearing loss or nephrotoxicity in the infant?

    PubMed

    Reyes, M P; Ostrea, E M; Cabinian, A E; Schmitt, C; Rintelmann, W

    1989-10-01

    Vancomycin was administered intravenously to 10 pregnant women for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Auditory brainstem response testing and renal function studies were performed on the 10 babies in the experimental group and 10 babies in each of two control groups to determine the safety of vancomycin use during pregnancy. Auditory brainstem responses were not normal at birth in six infants from the three different groups studied (N = 30) but were normal at 3 months in five. The sixth infant had conductive hearing loss unrelated to vancomycin use that spontaneously disappeared at 12 months of age. Renal function was normal in all infants. Vancomycin was detected in cord blood in two patients and in breast milk in one. Adequate serum levels were achieved with routine doses in eight mothers tested; no adverse reactions occurred. It appears that vancomycin use during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy does not produce sensorineural hearing loss or nephrotoxicity in the infant.

  19. Aplastic anemia induced disc edema and visual loss in pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shailesh K; Brar, Vikram S; Keshavamurthy, Ravi; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2008-01-01

    Introduction A case of aplastic anemia diagnosed during pregnancy, which developed bilateral disc edema and acute pre-retinal hemorrhage leading to vision loss. Case Presentation A 20 year old primagravid female developed acute vision loss in her right eye, during hospitalization for treatment of aplastic anemia diagnosed during her pregnancy. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motions and fundus evaluation revealed a large pre-macular hemorrhage in the right eye (OD) and bilateral disc edema. Neuro-imaging studies did not reveal any signs of intracranial mass lesion or edema. Conclusion There was resolution of the disc edema with improvement in the pre-macular hemorrhage resulting in 20/50 vision in the right eye, following supportive transfusions. Ophthalmic manifestations developing in a pregnant patient with aplastic anemia can be successfully managed with supportive care including red blood cell and platelet transfusions. PMID:19017378

  20. Evaluation of the effects of methanol during early pregnancy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent attention to methanol (MeOH) as a potential alternative fuel prompted an evaluation of the chemical's effects during very early pregnancy. Rats were dosed by gavage during Days 1-8 of pregnancy at 0, 1.6, 2.4 or 3.2 g MeOH/kg/day. Groups of animals were killed on Days 9, 11 or 20 of pregnancy, and maternal, embryonic, or fetal parameters were assessed, depending on the stage of pregnancy. The decidual cell response (DCR) technique was also applied to rats treated with MeOH during pseudopregnancy. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.).

  1. Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Relation to Pregnancy Loss among Women Conceiving with Medically Assisted Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Messerlian, Carmen; Wylie, Blair J.; Minguez-Alarcon, Lidia; Williams, Paige L.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Souter, Irene C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2017-01-01

    Background Animal studies demonstrate that several phthalates are embryofetotoxic and are associated with increased pregnancy loss and malformations. Results from human studies on phthalates and pregnancy loss are inconsistent. Methods We examined pregnancy loss prospectively in relation to urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among women undergoing medically assisted reproduction. We used data from 256 women conceiving 303 pregnancies recruited between 2004 and 2012 from the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center. We quantified eleven phthalate metabolite concentrations and calculated the molar sum of four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (ΣDEHP). We estimated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for biochemical loss and total pregnancy loss (<20 weeks’ gestation) across quartiles using repeated measures log-binomial models, adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and infertility diagnosis. Results Of the 303 pregnancies, 83 (27%) ended in loss less than 20 weeks’ gestation and among these, 31 (10%) ended in biochemical loss. Although imprecise, the RRs for biochemical loss increased across quartiles of ∑DEHP and three individual DEHP metabolites. For ∑DEHP, the RRs (CIs) were: 2.3 (0.63, 8.5), 2.0 (0.58, 7.2), and 3.4 (0.97, 11.7) for quartiles two, three and four, compared to one, respectively (p-trend=0.04). RRs for total pregnancy loss were elevated in the highest quartiles of ΣDEHP and three DEHP metabolites. The remaining seven phthalate metabolite concentrations evaluated were not associated with either outcome. Conclusions We found a suggestive pattern of association between conception cycle-specific urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and biochemical and total pregnancy loss among women undergoing medically assisted reproduction. PMID:27299194

  2. Surgical management of early pregnancy failure: history, politics, and safe, cost-effective care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H; Dalton, Vanessa K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2007-05-01

    Early pregnancy failure and induced abortion are often managed differently, even though safe uterine evacuation is the goal in both. Early pregnancy failure is commonly treated by curettage in operating room settings in anesthetized patients. Induced abortion is most commonly managed by office vacuum aspiration in awake or sedated patients. Medical evidence does not support routine operating room management of early pregnancy failure. This commentary reviews historical origins of these different care standards, explores political factors responsible for their perpetuation, and uses experience at University of Michigan to dramatize the ways in which history, politics, and biomedicine intersect to produce patient care. The University of Michigan initiated office uterine evacuations for early pregnancy failure treatment. Patients previously went to the operating room. These changes required faculty, staff, and resident education. Our efforts blurred the lines between spontaneous and induced abortion management, improved patient care and better utilized hospital resources.

  3. Bacterial vaginosis in association with spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses

    PubMed Central

    Işik, Gözde; Demirezen, Şayeste; Dönmez, Hanife Güler; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30.5%) of 200 women had the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last six months (N = 30) and at least three recurrent pregnancy losses (N = 31). BV was diagnosed either by using Papanicolaou staining, Gram staining, or by culturing with BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis. Results: The presence of BV was statistically associated with the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last 6 months (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant relationship between BV and recurrent pregnancy losses (P > 0.05). These women were also evaluated in view of periods of gestation. Forty-seven (77%) of 61 women had first trimester miscarriage (≤12 weeks) and 14 (23%) of 61 women had second trimester miscarriage (>12 weeks). There was a statistically significant relationship between BV and second trimester miscarriage (P < 0.05). Positive BV findings were not associated with discharge, itching, and pain (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BV may contribute to spontaneous abortion and second trimester miscarriage. PMID:27756985

  4. [Loss and grieving: the experiences of women who terminate a pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformations].

    PubMed

    Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Petean, Eucia Beatriz Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the grieving experiences of women who terminated pregnancies under judicial authorization, due to life-incompatible fetal malformation. Ten women attended in the Fetal Medicine Department of Botucatu Clinical Hospital participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews forty days after termination. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full, with the data analyzed from the thematic content analysis perspective. The results revealed that the mothers sought explanations and meanings for the loss, with religious responses and self-blame being very frequent. The reports were marked by feelings of sadness, longing and sensations of emptiness due to the loss of the child, revealing the need of the mothers to dwell on the issue. The mothers were and continued to be linked to their children; the termination of the pregnancy, although being a choice to minimize the pain of an inevitable loss, did not spare the women from experiences of great suffering.>The study includes input for the discussion and planning of health approaches and care for women who terminate their pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformation, by means of judicial authorization.

  5. The Effects of Interpregnancy Intervals and Previous Pregnancy Outcome on Fetal Loss in Rwanda (1996–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Habimana-Kabano, Ignace; Broekhuis, Annelet; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, a WHO consultation meeting on pregnancy intervals recommended a minimum interval of 6 months after a pregnancy disruption and an interval of two years after a live birth before attempting another pregnancy. Since then, studies have found contradictory evidence on the effect of shorter intervals after a pregnancy disruption. A binary regression analysis on 21532 last pregnancy outcomes from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys was done to assess the combined effects of the preceding pregnancy outcome and the interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) on fetal mortality in Rwanda. Risks of pregnancy loss are higher for primigravida and for mothers who lost the previous pregnancy and conceived again within 24 months. After a live birth, interpregnancy intervals less than two years do not increase the risk of a pregnancy loss. This study also confirms higher risks of fetal death when IPIs are beyond 5 years. An IPI of longer than 12 months after a fetal death is recommended in Rwanda. Particular attention needs to be directed to postpregnancy abortion care and family planning programs geared to spacing pregnancies should also include spacing after a fetal death. PMID:26613103

  6. Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

  7. Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Termination of Pregnancy and Reproductive Loss: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Daugirdaitė, Viltė; van den Akker, Olga; Purewal, Satvinder

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aims of this systematic review were to integrate the research on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after termination of pregnancy (TOP), miscarriage, perinatal death, stillbirth, neonatal death, and failed in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Methods. Electronic databases (AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, PubMEd, ScienceDirect) were searched for articles using PRISMA guidelines. Results. Data from 48 studies were included. Quality of the research was generally good. PTS/PTSD has been investigated in TOP and miscarriage more than perinatal loss, stillbirth, and neonatal death. In all reproductive losses and TOPs, the prevalence of PTS was greater than PTSD, both decreased over time, and longer gestational age is associated with higher levels of PTS/PTSD. Women have generally reported more PTS or PTSD than men. Sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, lower education, and history of previous traumas or mental health problems) and psychsocial factors influence PTS and PTSD after TOP and reproductive loss. Conclusions. This systematic review is the first to investigate PTS/PTSD after reproductive loss. Patients with advanced pregnancies, a history of previous traumas, mental health problems, and adverse psychosocial profiles should be considered as high risk for developing PTS or PTSD following reproductive loss. PMID:25734016

  8. Antihistamine Use in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Birth Defects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.; Yau, Wai-Ping; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between use of specific antihistamines in early pregnancy and certain specific birth defects. Objective To test 16 previously-hypothesized associations between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects, and identify possible new associations. Methods We used 1998-2010 data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, a multicenter case-control surveillance program of birth defects in North America. Mothers were interviewed within six months of delivery about demographic, reproductive, medical, and behavioral factors, and details on use of prescription and non-prescription medications. We compared 1st trimester exposure to specific antihistamines between 13,213 infants with specific malformations and 6,982 non-malformed controls, using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for potential confounders, including indication for use. Results Overall, 13.7% of controls were exposed to antihistamines during the 1st trimester. The most commonly-used medications were diphenhydramine (4.2%), loratadine (3.1%), doxylamine (1.9%), and chlorpheniramine (1.7%). Where estimates were stable, none supported the previously-hypothesized associations. Among over 100 exploratory comparisons of other specific antihistamine/defect pairs, 14 had ORs ≥1.5 of which 6 had 95% CI bounds excluding 1.0 before but not after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusion Our findings do not provide meaningful support for previously-posited associations between antihistamines and major congenital anomalies; at the same time, we identified associations that had not been previously suggested. We suspect that previous associations may be chance findings in the context of multiple comparisons, a situation which may also apply to our new findings. PMID:24565715

  9. Maternal thyroid hormones early in pregnancy and fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    de Escobar, Gabriella Morreale; Obregón, María Jesús; del Rey, Francisco Escobar

    2004-06-01

    During the last few decades our understanding of the possible role of thyroid hormones during brain development has increased and contributed to resolve previously discordant hypotheses, although much remains to be clarified. Thyroid hormones of maternal origin are present in the fetal compartment, despite the very efficient uterine-placental 'barrier', necessary to avoid potentially toxic concentrations of free T4 and T3 from reaching fetal tissues before they are required for development. T3 remains low throughout pregnancy, whereas FT4 in fetal fluids increases rapidly to adult levels, and is determined by the maternal availability of T4. It is present in embryonic fluids 4 weeks after conception, with FT4 steadily increasing to biologically relevant values. T3, generated from T4 in the cerebral cortex, reaches adult values by mid-gestation and is partly bound to specific nuclear receptor isoforms. Iodothyronine deioidinases are important for the spatial and temporal regulation of T3 bioavailability, tailored to the differing and changing requirements of thyroid hormone-sensitive genes in different brain structures, but other regulatory mechanism(s) are likely to be involved. Maternal transfer constitutes a major fraction of fetal serum T4, even after onset of fetal thyroid secretion, and continues to have an important protective role in fetal neurodevelopment until birth. Prompt treatment of maternal hypothyroidism, identified by increased TSH, is being advocated to mitigate a negative effect on the woman and her child. However, even a moderate transient period of maternal hypothyroxinemia at the beginning of rat neurogenesis disrupts neuronal migration into cortical layers. These findings reinforce the epidemiological evidence that early maternal hypothyroxinemia-when neuronal migratory waves are starting-is potentially damaging for the child. Detection of an inappropiate first trimester FT4 surge that may not result in increased TSH, may be crucial for the

  10. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  11. Plasma homocysteine levels correlated to interactions between folate status and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K S D; Govindaiah, V; Naushad, S E; Devi, R R; Jyothy, A

    2003-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia, a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss, is related either to a hereditary defect within the methionine-homocysteine pathway or it might be acquired as a result of deficiencies of vitamin B(12) and folate (B(9)). Because hyperhomocysteinaemia seems to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, the current study was undertaken to find out the interactions between folate status and MTHFR mutation on the homocysteine concentration in 24 women experiencing unexplained three or more consecutive recurrent pregnancy losses. The median fasting total plasma homocysteine concentration in the study group was 10.23 micro mol/l compared to 8.95 micro mol/l; P = 0.096 in the controls. Elevated homocysteine levels > 18 micro mol/l, which was considered to be a risk factor for recurrent early pregnancy loss, was found in four women in the study group and none among the controls. Lower red cell folate levels (normal range >/= 160 ng/ml) were observed in nine (37.5%) women among the study group, compared to five (20.84%) women among controls. The mean +/- SD red cell folate levels in the study group was found to be 154.37 +/- 37.07, while in the controls it was 159.0 +/- 28.97. In the present study six women in the study group and two among controls were found to be carriers for the C677T MTHFR mutation. None were homozygous for the mutant (TT) allele. The highest values of homocysteine concentration were found in women experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss with both the CT genotype and folate deficiency. Identification of hyperhomocysteinaemia in women with recurrent pregnancy loss may help in therapeutic normalisation and might permit a normal birth.

  12. Inherited and acquired thrombophilia in Indian women experiencing unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rucha; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vora, Sonal; Shetty, Shrimati

    2015-10-01

    The most frequently hypothesized cause of unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) refers to a defective maternal haemostatic response leading to uteroplacental thrombosis. Approximately 20% women suffering from pregnancy loss (PL) are associated with autoimmune disorders and more than 50% remain idiopathic after common traditional investigations. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of different genetic and acquired thrombophilia markers in a large series of Indian women with RPL. Such studies will help analyze the markers which pose maximum risk and help in the appropriate treatment in subsequent pregnancies. The study comprised of 587 women with no apparent etiological causes of RPL and 115 healthy women controls. p values were calculated with two tailed Fisher's exact test; statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05, 95% confidence interval. Relative risks were also calculated. Among genetic thrombophilia, the risk of PL was highest with protein S deficiency (16%, p=0.006) followed by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/4G (23%, p=0.007) polymorphism. Among acquired markers, the risk of PL was the highest in women with anti-cardiolipin antibodies (24%, p=0.0001), followed by anti-annexin V antibodies (23%, p=0.0009) and lupus anticoagulants (8%, p=0.02). Thrombophilia, inherited and acquired, is an important contributing factor in unexplained RPL and should be screened in the order of its prevalence.

  13. Prevention of Defective Placentation and Pregnancy Loss by Blocking Innate Immune Pathways in a Syngeneic Model of Placental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gelber, Shari E; Brent, Elyssa; Redecha, Patricia; Perino, Giorgio; Tomlinson, Stephen; Davisson, Robin L; Salmon, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    Defective placentation and subsequent placental insufficiency lead to maternal and fetal adverse pregnancy outcome, but their pathologic mechanisms are unclear, and treatment remains elusive. The mildly hypertensive BPH/5 mouse recapitulates many features of human adverse pregnancy outcome, with pregnancies characterized by fetal loss, growth restriction, abnormal placental development, and defects in maternal decidual arteries. Using this model, we show that recruitment of neutrophils triggered by complement activation at the maternal/fetal interface leads to elevation in local TNF-α levels, reduction of the essential angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, and, ultimately, abnormal placentation and fetal death. Blockade of complement with inhibitors specifically targeted to sites of complement activation, depletion of neutrophils, or blockade of TNF-α improves spiral artery remodeling and rescues pregnancies. These data underscore the importance of innate immune system activation in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and identify novel methods for treatment of pregnancy loss mediated by abnormal placentation.

  14. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  15. Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

  16. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  17. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  18. Antipsychotic Therapy During Early and Late Pregnancy. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Both first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are routinely used in treating severe and persistent psychiatric disorders. However, until now no articles have analyzed systematically the safety of both classes of psychotropics during pregnancy. Data sources and search strategy: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, TOXNET, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of published articles. Bibliographical information, including contributory unpublished data, was also requested from companies developing drugs. Search terms were pregnancy, psychotropic drugs, (a)typical-first-second-generation antipsychotics, and neuroleptics. A separate search was also conducted to complete the safety profile of each reviewed medication. Searches were last updated on July 2008. Data selection: All articles reporting primary data on the outcome of pregnancies exposed to antipsychotics were acquired, without methodological limitations. Conclusions: Reviewed information was too limited to draw definite conclusions on structural teratogenicity of FGAs and SGAs. Both classes of drugs seem to be associated with an increased risk of neonatal complications. However, most SGAs appear to increase risk of gestational metabolic complications and babies large for gestational age and with mean birth weight significantly heavier as compared with those exposed to FGAs. These risks have been reported rarely with FGAs. Hence, the choice of the less harmful option in pregnancy should be limited to FGAs in drug-naive patients. When pregnancy occurs during antipsychotic treatment, the choice to continue the previous therapy should be preferred. PMID:18787227

  19. Sex ratio following preconception low-dose aspirin in women with prior pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Rose G.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Silver, Robert M.; Lesher, Laurie L.; Galai, Noya; Faraggi, David; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Townsend, Janet M.; Lynch, Anne M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Schliep, Karen C.; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Several lines of evidence suggest that male embryos may have greater vulnerability than female embryos to disordered inflammation; therefore, antiinflammatory drugs, such as low-dose aspirin (LDA), may alter the sex ratio. Here, we assessed the effect of LDA on male live birth and male offspring, incorporating pregnancy losses (n = 56) via genetic assessment, as part of a parallel-design, block-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of preconception LDA. METHODS. Participants (615 treated with LDA, 613 treated with placebo) ranged in age from 18 to 40 years of age, with 1 to 2 prior pregnancy losses. We estimated the intention-to-treat (ITT) risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI and assessed interaction with baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum concentration — a marker of systemic inflammation. RESULTS. Among the 1,078 women who completed follow-up (535 treated with LDA, 543 treated with placebo), the male live birth ITT RR equaled 1.31 (95% CI: 1.07–1.59). With increasing tertile of hsCRP, the proportion of males at birth decreased in the placebo group, and the effect of LDA on male live birth increased (first tertile: 48% male in LDA vs. 52% in placebo, ITT RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.70–1.35; second tertile: 57% male in LDA vs. 43% in placebo, ITT RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.98–1.90; third tertile: 53% male in LDA vs. 35% in placebo, ITT RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13–2.57; P interaction = 0.03). Analysis of pregnancy with male offspring yielded similar results. CONCLUSION. Initiation of LDA prior to conception restored numbers of male live births and pregnancy with male offspring among women with 1 to 2 prior pregnancy losses. Moreover, our data suggest that LDA modulates inflammation that would otherwise reduce the conception or survival of male embryos. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00467363. FUNDING. Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of

  20. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-11-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E/sub 3/G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P/sub 2/G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit.

  1. miRNA Regulation of Immune Tolerance in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schjenken, John E; Zhang, Bihong; Chan, Hon Y; Sharkey, David J; Fullston, Tod; Robertson, Sarah A

    2016-03-01

    To support embryo implantation, the female reproductive tract must provide a tolerogenic immune environment. Seminal fluid contact at conception contributes to activating the endometrial gene expression and immune cell changes required for robust implantation, influencing not only the quality of the ensuing pregnancy but also the health of offspring. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in biological processes, including regulation of the immune environment. miRNAs are known to contribute to gene regulation in pregnancy and are altered in pregnancy pathologies. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs participate in establishing immune tolerance at conception, and may contribute to the regulatory effects of seminal fluid in generating tolerogenic dendritic cells and T regulatory cells. This review highlights those miRNAs implicated in programming immune cells that are critical during the peri-conception period and explores how seminal fluid may regulate female tract miRNA expression following coitus.

  2. Pregnancy and infant loss support: a new, feminist, American, patient movement?

    PubMed

    Layne, Linda L

    2006-02-01

    Using as examples three of the earliest pregnancy and infant loss organizations and multiple recent initiatives, I argue this is a unique patient movement, in part due to the particularities of pregnant patienthood. Although during the first 20 years of this distinctively US movement, pregnancy and infant loss support was hospital-based, there was remarkably little attention to the "medical" dimensions of these losses, e.g. etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The thrust was instead on changing ideas and feelings. It is only since the turn of the century that bereaved parents have started to forge collaborations with physicians to work toward prevention. During the first phase (mid-1970s to mid-1990s), it was a women's movement, though it did not present itself as such, and although it was indebted to the feminist movement and included some feminist initiatives, the movement was dominated by a traditionally feminine ethos and included pro-life elements. During the second phase, as physicians and researchers have become more involved, leadership has become somewhat less female-centric while at the same time, more initiatives are explicitly feminist.

  3. Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Pettit, Gregory S; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    The impact of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy was investigated in longitudinal studies in the United States (N = 242) and New Zealand (N = 520), in which community samples of girls were followed prospectively from early in life (5 years) to approximately age 18. Greater exposure to father absence was strongly associated with elevated risk for early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. This elevated risk was either not explained (in the US. study) or only partly explained (in the New Zealand study) by familial, ecological, and personal disadvantages associated with father absence. After controlling for covariates, there was stronger and more consistent evidence of effects of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy than on other behavioral or mental health problems or academic achievement. Effects of father absence are discussed in terms of life-course adversity, evolutionary psychology, social learning, and behavior genetic models.

  4. Polymorphisms in antithrombin and in tissue factor pathway inhibitor genes are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M; Bertinato, Juliano Felix; Tosin Bueno, Carolina; Cordeiro da Silva, Kelma; Burlacchini de Carvalho, Mário Henrique; Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Rossana; Zugaib, Marcelo; Cerda, Alvaro; Morelli, Vânia Maris

    2012-10-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial condition. The effect of antithrombin (SERPINC1), protein C (PROC), thrombomodulin (THBD) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of RPL is thus far unknown. Our objective was to determine the association of SNPs in the above mentioned genes with RPL. We included 117 non-pregnant women with three or more consecutive losses prior to 20 weeks of pregnancy without a previous history of carrying a fetus to viability, and 264 healthy fertile non-pregnant women who had at least two term deliveries and no known pregnancy losses. The PROC (rs1799809 and rs1799808), SERPINC1 (rs2227589), THBD (rs1042579) and TFPI (rs10931292, rs8176592 and rs10153820) SNPs were analysed by Real Time PCR. Genotype frequencies for PROC 2418A>G, PROC 2405C>T, THBD 1418C>T, TFPI (T-33C and TFPI C-399T) SNPs were similar in cases and controls. The carriers of SERPINC1 786A allele (GA + AA genotypes) had an increased risk for RPL (odds ratio [OR]: 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.00, p= 0.034) while women carrying the TFPI -287C allele (TC + CC genotypes) had a protection effect on having RPL (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.83, p= 0.009). The TCC haplotype for TFPI T-33C/ TFPI T-287C/ TFPI C-399T SNPs was less frequent in cases (5.7%) than in controls (11.6%) (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.90, p= 0.025). In conclusion, our data indicate that SERPINC1 786G>A variant increases the risk for RPL, while TFPI T-287C variant is protective; however, further studies are required to confirm our findings.

  5. Endometrial Gene Expression in Early Pregnancy: Lessons From Human Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Savaris, Ricardo F.; Hamilton, Amy E.; Lessey, Bruce A.; Giudice, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Human endometrium undergoes modifications in preparation for embryonic implantation. This study investigated in vivo the endocrine effects of pregnancy on the endometrium, using the model of ectopic pregnancy. Endometrial biopsies from 9 subjects with ectopic pregnancy (Preg) were compared with 8 and 6 samples of mid and late secretory endometrium, respectively. After hybridizing with Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2 chips, data were analyzed using GeneSpring GX and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. From 54 675 genes, 3021 genes were significantly differentiated when mid-secretory endometrium was compared with the Preg (Volcano plot; P < .05, ≥2-fold change). The complement and coagulation cascade, phospholid degradation, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis (globoseries), retinol metabolism, antigen presentation pathway, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, and O-glycan biosynthesis were main significant canonical pathways found in Preg samples. Validation was done with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, the ectopic embryo has a significant impact, by an endocrine mechanism, on endometrium, when compared with the window of implantation. PMID:18591649

  6. Mitochondrial DNA variations associated with recurrent pregnancy loss among Indian women.

    PubMed

    Vanniarajan, Ayyasamy; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Carlus, S Justin; Aruna, Meka; Aruna, P; Kumar, Ajay; Jayakar, Richard Issac; Lionel, Anath C; Gupta, Sandeep; Rao, Lakshmi; Gupta, Nalini J; Chakravarthy, Baidyanath; Deenadayal, Mamatha; Selvaraj, Kamala; Andal, Sadaranga; Reddy, B Mohan; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2011-05-01

    Several genetic factors have been found to be associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). However, not many attempts have been made to associate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations with RPL. Therefore, we have analyzed the complete mtDNA of 100 women with RPL and 12 aborted fetal tissues. Our analysis revealed a total of 681 variations, most of which were in NADH Dehydrogenase (ND) genes that encode mitochondrial enzyme Complex I. Presence of T4216C variation (ND1 gene) in 9% of the RPL women and several pathogenic, and novel mutations suggest the role of mtDNA variations in RPL.

  7. Beneficial effect of supplemental lipoic acid on diabetes-induced pregnancy loss in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Rengasamy; Mohamed, Shafiullah; Singh, Sarabjit

    2006-11-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) is an etiological factor for recurrent pregnancy loss, fetal growth disorders, and major congenital malformations in the offspring. Antioxidant therapy has been advocated to overcome the oxidant-antioxidant disequilibrium inherent in diabetes. The objective of this article was to evaluate the beneficial effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on fetal outcome in a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM. Timed pregnant mice were made diabetic by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of a single dose of STZ (200 mg/kg) on gestation day (GD) 2. Diabetic animals were supplemented daily with an IP injection of 15 mg/kg of LA starting on GD 4 and continued through GD 12. Fetuses were examined on GD 18 for malformations and growth restriction. Some diabetic mice injected with Evans blue were examined on GD 3.5 and GD 6.5 to evaluate frequency of implantations. STZ-treated mice had all cardinal signs of DM. LA treatment did not normalize blood glucose levels of DM mice. Rates of pregnancy in saline control, DM, and DM + LA groups were 90%, 28%, and 64%, respectively, indicating that LA promotes pregnancy in DM animals. However, postimplantation resorption showed a threefold increase in the DM + LA group. Rates of intrauterine growth restriction and major congenital malformations were also augmented thus indicating that the interaction between DM and LA has deleterious effects on postimplantation embryos.

  8. Copy number variation profile in the placental and parental genomes of recurrent pregnancy loss families

    PubMed Central

    Kasak, Laura; Rull, Kristiina; Sõber, Siim; Laan, Maris

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown an extensive load of somatic copy number variations (CNVs) in the human placental genome with the highest fraction detected in normal term pregnancies. Hereby, we hypothesized that insufficient promotion of CNVs may impair placental development and lead to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). RPL affects ~3% of couples aiming at childbirth and idiopathic RPL represents ~50% of cases. We analysed placental and parental CNV profiles of idiopathic RPL trios (mother-father-placenta) and duos (mother-placenta). Consistent with the hypothesis, the placental genomes of RPL cases exhibited 2-fold less CNVs compared to uncomplicated 1st trimester pregnancies (P = 0.02). This difference mainly arose from lower number of duplications. Overall, 1st trimester control placentas shared only 5.3% of identified CNV regions with RPL cases, whereas the respective fraction with term placentas was 35.1% (P = 1.1 × 10−9). Disruption of the genes NUP98 (embryonic stem cell development) and MTRR (folate metabolism) was detected exclusively in RPL placentas, potentially indicative to novel loci implicated in RPL. Interestingly, genes with higher overall expression were prone to deletions (>3-fold higher median expression compared to genes unaffected by CNVs, P = 6.69 × 10−20). Additionally, large pericentromeric and subtelomeric CNVs in parental genomes emerged as a risk factor for RPL. PMID:28345611

  9. Self-reported Vitamin Supplementation in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy. PMID:19372214

  10. Early pregnancy prediction of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, combining clinical risk and biomarkers: the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) international cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Louise C; Black, Michael A; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Rennae; Myers, Jenny E; Baker, Philip N; McCowan, Lesley M; Simpson, Nigel A B; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T; Rodems, Kelline; Noland, Brian; Raymundo, Michael; Walker, James J; North, Robyn A

    2014-09-01

    More than half of all cases of preeclampsia occur in healthy first-time pregnant women. Our aim was to develop a method to predict those at risk by combining clinical factors and measurements of biomarkers in women recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study of low-risk nulliparous women. Forty-seven biomarkers identified on the basis of (1) association with preeclampsia, (2) a biological role in placentation, or (3) a role in cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia were measured in plasma sampled at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation from 5623 women. The cohort was randomly divided into training (n=3747) and validation (n=1876) cohorts. Preeclampsia developed in 278 (4.9%) women, of whom 28 (0.5%) developed early-onset preeclampsia. The final model for the prediction of preeclampsia included placental growth factor, mean arterial pressure, and body mass index at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation, the consumption of ≥3 pieces of fruit per day, and mean uterine artery resistance index. The area under the receiver operator curve (95% confidence interval) for this model in training and validation cohorts was 0.73 (0.70-0.77) and 0.68 (0.63-0.74), respectively. A predictive model of early-onset preeclampsia included angiogenin/placental growth factor as a ratio, mean arterial pressure, any pregnancy loss <10 weeks, and mean uterine artery resistance index (area under the receiver operator curve [95% confidence interval] in training and validation cohorts, 0.89 [0.78-1.0] and 0.78 [0.58-0.99], respectively). Neither model included pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, previously reported to predict preeclampsia in populations of mixed parity and risk. In nulliparous women, combining multiple biomarkers and clinical data provided modest prediction of preeclampsia.

  11. Early Impact of Fontan Operation on Enteric Protein Loss

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jyoti K.; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Goldberg, David J.; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Dodds, Kathryn; Rychik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) is a challenging complication after Fontan operation. Subclinical enteric protein loss may precede development of overt PLE. We evaluated the acute effects of Fontan circulation on enteric protein loss and mesenteric vascular resistance. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed evaluating enteric protein loss in children undergoing Fontan operation. Stool alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) concentration was measured in the pre-operative, early post-operative, and intermediate post-operative (3–9 months) periods. The intestinal circulation was characterized by Doppler-derived resistance indices of the superior mesenteric artery, and serum albumin and protein levels were obtained. Results We enrolled 33 subjects at a median age at operation of 3.0 (2.5–3.3) years. No clinical PLE was observed. Six of the 93 stool A1AT samples obtained were elevated (>54 mg/dl), with two abnormal samples at each of the three time points. Two of the five subjects with elevated stool A1AT values had significant hemodynamic disturbances requiring intervention (junctional bradycardia or tricuspid stenosis). There was no difference in superior mesenteric artery resistance in the pre-operative versus early post-operative period (p=0.9). Serum albumin levels were lower in the early post-operative period compared to the pre-operative period (3.2 mg/dl [IQR 2.9–3.5] vs. 4.1 mg/dl [IQR 3.4–4.5], p=0.01) but did not correlate with abnormal stool A1AT concentration or superior mesenteric artery resistance indices. Conclusions The Fontan operation does not commonly result in acute development of increased enteric protein loss. However, increased enteric protein loss may occur in children before or after Fontan operation, particularly when hemodynamic disturbances are present. PMID:26652137

  12. Vasopressin in preeclampsia: a novel very early human pregnancy biomarker and clinically relevant mouse model.

    PubMed

    Santillan, Mark K; Santillan, Donna A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Min, James Y; Sandgren, Jeremy A; Pearson, Nicole A; Leslie, Kimberly K; Hunter, Stephen K; Zamba, Gideon K D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Grobe, Justin L

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. Because other nonpregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent on elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert prosegment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life compared with AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, body mass index, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes mellitus, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the sixth week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng per hour) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans.

  13. Prevalence of anticardiolipin antibody in Bangladeshi patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Giasuddin, A S M; Mazhar, Ishrat; Haq, A M Mujibul

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to see the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in Bangladeshi patients (35) with recurrent pregnancy loss. Thirty-seven women with normal pregnancy were included as control. Serum levels (mean +/- SD) of ACA (u/mL) was significantly higher, whereas ANA (Ab-index) and anti-dsDNA (Ab-index) were similar in cases compared to controls (Cases vs Controls --> ACA: 31.8 +/- 24.3 vs 10.5 +/- 3.4, p < 0.001; ANA: 1.07 +/- 0.34 vs 0.92 +/- 0.15, p > 0.5; A-dsDNA: 0.53 +/- 0.16 vs 0.52 +/- 0.18, p > 0.5). The cases positive for ACA, ANA and anti-dsDNA were 37.1% (p < 0.001), 20% (p > 0.05) and 2.8% (p > 0.1) respectively. Among the seropositive cases 4/35 (11.4%) and 4/13 (30.8%) were positive for both ACA and ANA. In controls only 2/37 (5.4%) and 2/37 (5.4%) were positive for ACA and ANA respectively and none were positive for both ACA and ANA together simultaneously. Significantly high proportion of cases had O positive blood group (23/35: 65.7%, 10/13: 76.9%) (p < 0.01). The prevalence of ACA varies according to population being 37.1% (13/35) in our patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and 5.4% in controls.

  14. Loudness perception affected by early age hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Chao; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Kumaraguru, Anand; Li, Ji

    2014-07-01

    Tinnitus and hyperacusis, commonly seen in adults, are also reported in children. Although clinical studies found children with tinnitus and hyperacusis often suffered from recurrent otitis media, there is no direct study on how temporary hearing loss in the early age affects the sound loudness perception. In this study, sound loudness changes in rats affected by perforation of the tympanic membranes (TM) have been studied using an operant conditioning based behavioral task. We detected significant increases of sound loudness and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rats with bilateral TM damage at postnatal 16 days. As increase to sound sensitivity is commonly seen in hyperacusis and tinnitus patients, these results suggest that early age hearing loss is a high risk factor to induce tinnitus and hyperacusis in children. In the TM damaged rats, we also detected a reduced expression of GABA receptor δ and α6 subunits in the inferior colliculus (IC) compared to the controls. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 7-14 days), an anti-seizure drug that inhibits the catabolism of GABA, not only blocked AGS, but also significantly attenuated the loudness response. Administration of vigabatrin following the early age TM damage could even prevent rats from developing AGS. These results suggest that TM damage at an early age may cause a permanent reduction of GABA tonic inhibition which is critical towards the maintenance of normal loudness processing of the IC. Increasing GABA concentration during the critical period may alleviate the impairment in the brain induced by early age hearing loss.

  15. Cumulative Chemical Exposures During Pregnancy and Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Zota, Ami R.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and consumer product chemicals are widely used, leading to ubiquitous human exposure to the most common classes. Because these chemicals may affect developmental milestones, exposures in pregnant women and developing fetuses are of particular interest. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of chemical exposures in pregnant women, the chemical class-specific relationships between maternal and fetal exposures, and the major sources of exposures for six chemical classes of concern: phthalates, phenols, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCs). Additionally, we describe the current efforts to characterize cumulative exposures to synthetic chemicals during pregnancy. We conclude by highlighting gaps in the literature and discussing possible applications of the findings to reduce the prevalence of cumulative exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26341623

  16. Are women in early pregnancy following the national pyramid recommendations?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J L; Keaveney, E M; O'Connor, N; Cox, M; Regan, A; Shannon, E; Turner, M J

    2011-10-01

    Appropriate nutrition in pregnancy is fundamental for maternal and fetal health, and the long-term physiological wellbeing of the offspring. We aimed to determine whether a sample of pregnant women met the national guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy, and to examine if compliance differs when analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Subjects completed a 24-hr dietary recall, and had their BMI calculated. The mean age was 27.8 years. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg/m2, with 32 (31.7%) subjects overweight and 14 (13.9%) obese based on BMI category. Although the majority of subjects thought that they had a healthy diet, less than half met the recommended guidelines for each individual food group with achievement of the dairy group being particularly low. Achievement of food group recommendations was not influenced by BMI category. Public health messages on healthy eating guidelines need to be clearly communicated to pregnant women.

  17. Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), α-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

  18. Trophoblastin, an antiluteolytic protein present in early pregnancy in sheep.

    PubMed

    Martal, J; Lacroix, M C; Loudes, C; Saunier, M; Wintenberger-Torrès, S

    1979-05-01

    Trophoblastin, an antiluteolytic component from the embryo, was identified in the ewe by the means of intrauterine injections of homogenates from trophoblasts at 14--16 days pregnancy. Homogenates from embryos and their membranes at 21--23 days pregnancy did not extend the life of the corpus luteum, suggesting that trophoblastin synthesis occurs for only a short period. The trophoblastin was thermolabile (80 degrees C for 30 min) and inactivated by pronase. Treatment of ewes with oCS, hCG, and extracts of 120-day placentae did not affect the time of luteolysis. The protein appears to be insoluble at pH 7 or 8, but to dissolve readily at pH 9.6. After injection of homogenates or extracts from 15--16-day-old trophoblasts, the initial CL were maintained for more than 1 month in most cyclic recipient ewes. Surgical removal of embryos at 21--23 days resulted in luteal maintenace for more than 1 month in over 50% of the operated animals. All the maintained CL were secretory although their average weight was about one-half of that CL of normal pregnancy, suggesting the existence of complementary luteotrophic placental factors. The uteri of most of these pseudopregnant ewes were distended with a clear, sterile fluid.

  19. Therapeutic drugs in early pregnancy and congenital defects.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A D

    1994-01-01

    In a study of occupation and pregnancy outcome, information was collected on certain non-occupational factors including therapeutic drugs taken in the first trimester, reported by some 17% of women. A case-referent analysis was made of data from pregnancies leading to 787 major (class 1) and 2386 miscellaneous minor (class 2) congenital defects compared with pregnancies without defects, matched for hospital, maternal age and educational level. In pairs discordant for one of seven drug groups, ratios of positive pairs (case with drug) to negative pairs (referent with drug) were for class 1 defects 164:148, relative risk (RR) 1.11 and for class 2 defects 433:383, RR 1.13. Only anti-infective drugs showed an increased RR: 1.70 (p = 0.06). This was mainly with nervous/sensory defects (10:2; RR 5.0, p = 0.04) but no one type of defect or type of drug was identified; the infections for which the drugs were given might have been responsible. For class 1 defects two pairs were positive for anti-convulsant drugs and two negative; no increase in risk was found for any specific drugs including doxylamine succinate (Bendectin).

  20. The Lin28/Let-7 system in early human embryonic tissue and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lozoya, Teresa; Domínguez, Francisco; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7-9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤ 6-weeks) and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤ 6-weeks) of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (de)regulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans.

  1. The Impact of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy on Early Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Kaitlin; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Early child neurodevelopment has major impacts on future human capital and health. However, not much is known about the impacts of prenatal risk factors on child neurodevelopment. This study evaluates the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment between 3 and 24 months of age and interactions with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from a unique sample of children from South America are employed. Smoking has large adverse effects on neurodevelopment, with larger effects in the low SES sample. The study results highlight the importance of early interventions beginning before and during pregnancy for enhancing child development and future human capital attainment. PMID:22272363

  2. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Early Pregnancy-Specific Genes Expressed in Peripheral Blood of Pregnant Sows

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shien; Shi, Wenqing; Hu, Maishun; Fu, Xiangwei; Wang, Chuduan; Wang, Yachun; Zhang, Qin; Yu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of pregnancy is important for effective management of an economical pig farm. Besides the currently available methods used in early diagnosis of sows, circulating nucleic acids in peripheral blood may contain some early pregnancy-specific molecular markers. For the first time, microarray analysis of peripheral blood from pregnant sows versus non-pregnant sows identified 127 up-regulated and 56 down-regulated genes at day 14 post-insemination. Gene Ontology annotation grouped the total differently expressed genes into 3 significantly enriched terms, cell surface receptor linked signal transduction, G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway and regulation of vesicle-mediated transport. Signaling pathway analysis revealed the only one significantly changed pathway was arachidonic acid metabolism. Of the differently expressed genes, nine (including LPAR3, RXFP4, GALP, CBR1, CBR2, GPX6, USP18, LHB and NR5A1) were found to exert function related to early pregnancy processes. This study provides a clue that differentially abundant RNAs in maternal peripheral blood can help to identify the molecular markers of early pregnancy in pigs. PMID:25479131

  4. Prenatal stress programming of offspring feeding behavior and energy balance begins early in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pankevich, Diana E; Mueller, Bridget R; Brockel, Becky; Bale, Tracy L

    2009-08-04

    To examine the long-term effects of stress experienced early in gestation on the programming of offspring feeding behaviors and energy balance, pregnant mice were exposed to stress during early pregnancy (days 1-7) and adult offspring examined on chow and high fat diets for long-term outcomes. Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) expression was measured to determine the possible sex-specific contribution of prenatal stress (PNS) on fetal programming of embryo growth and development during early pregnancy. PNS mice showed a basal hyperphagia when on chow diet. Prenatal treatment differences were ameliorated when adult mice were on a high fat diet. Interestingly, PNS male mice also had significantly reduced body weights compared to control males on both chow and high fat diets. Body composition analyses revealed reduced body fat and increased lean mass in PNS mice on the high fat diet, but no differences were detected in plasma leptin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Mechanistic examination of gene expression in embryonic day 12 placentas found that early PNS was associated with increased IGF-2 expression and sex-dependent effects of stress on 11 beta-HSD2, supporting specific aspects of early pregnancy. These studies suggest that the long-term effects of stress during pregnancy on programming of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis begin much earlier in development than previously thought.

  5. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Mitchel, Edward F.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Hartert, Tina V.; Cooper, William O.; Dupont, William D; Dorris, Stacy L.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Carroll, Kecia N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. While folic acid supplementation around conception helps prevent neural tube defects, an animal model suggests it may be a risk factor for respiratory diseases; although epidemiologic studies have had conflicting results. We investigated the timing of folic acid-containing prescription filling during pregnancy and child asthma. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of 104,428 children, born 1996–2005, and their mothers enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid, we investigated the association of filling folic acid-containing prescriptions during pregnancy and childhood asthma at age 4.5–6 years. We categorized women into exposure groups based on prescription-filling centered around the first trimester: no folic acid prescription exposure, exposure in first trimester only, exposure after first trimester, and exposure in first trimester and beyond. We defined asthma using asthma-specific healthcare visits and medication fills. Using logistic regression models, we investigated the relationship adjusting for potential confounders. Results Overall 15% of children had asthma. Compared with children born to women with no folic acid prescription exposure, children born to women with exposures in the first trimester only or first trimester and later had increased relative odds of asthma [adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.3] and 1.2, 95% CI 1.2–1.3]; no association was seen in children born to women exposed after the first trimester. Conclusion Timing of folic acid-containing prescription filling during pregnancy was associated with childhood asthma. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of prenatal nutritional supplements on child respiratory health. PMID:26360371

  6. Does adenosine deaminase activity play a role in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Turkmen, G G; Karçaaltıncaba, D; Isık, H; Fidancı, V; Kaayalp, D; Tımur, H; Batıoglu, S

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is important due to life-threatening consequences in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the prediction of EP. Forty-one patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancy comprised the case group and forty-two first trimester pregnant women with shown foetal heart beating in ultrasound comprised the control group. The mean ADA level in EP (10.9 ± 3.0 IU/L) was higher than that in control group (9.2 ± 3.6 IU/L) (p = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristics or ROC curve identified ADA value of 10.95 IU/L as optimal threshold for the prediction of EP with 56% sensitivity and 67% specificity. High ADA levels are valuable in the early diagnosis of EP. However more comprehensive studies are required.

  7. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN FERTILIZATION FAILURE AND EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS WHEN IDENTIFYING MALE-MEDIATED ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful reproduction depends upon the precise orchestration of many physiological processes. With respect to male reproductive performance, normal copulatory behavior and ejaculatory function are required to insure that semen is deposited in the female tract. Then, a suffici...

  8. Early neurone loss in Alzheimer's disease: cortical or subcortical?

    PubMed

    Arendt, Thomas; Brückner, Martina K; Morawski, Markus; Jäger, Carsten; Gertz, Hermann-Josef

    2015-02-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disorder where the distribution of pathology throughout the brain is not random but follows a predictive pattern used for pathological staging. While the involvement of defined functional systems is fairly well established for more advanced stages, the initial sites of degeneration are still ill defined. The prevailing concept suggests an origin within the transentorhinal and entorhinal cortex (EC) from where pathology spreads to other areas. Still, this concept has been challenged recently suggesting a potential origin of degeneration in nonthalamic subcortical nuclei giving rise to cortical innervation such as locus coeruleus (LC) and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). To contribute to the identification of the early site of degeneration, here, we address the question whether cortical or subcortical degeneration occurs more early and develops more quickly during progression of AD. To this end, we stereologically assessed neurone counts in the NbM, LC and EC layer-II in the same AD patients ranging from preclinical stages to severe dementia. In all three areas, neurone loss becomes detectable already at preclinical stages and is clearly manifest at prodromal AD/MCI. At more advanced AD, cell loss is most pronounced in the NbM > LC > layer-II EC. During early AD, however, the extent of cell loss is fairly balanced between all three areas without clear indications for a preference of one area. We can thus not rule out that there is more than one way of spreading from its site of origin or that degeneration even occurs independently at several sites in parallel.

  9. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  10. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  11. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... each trimester are described below. 1 First Trimester (Week 1 to Week 12) The events that lead to pregnancy begin ... and oxygen to the fetus. 2 Second Trimester (Week 13 to Week 28) At 16 weeks, and ...

  12. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  13. A case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in early pregnancy managed by PCI.

    PubMed

    Magarkar, Vilas; Lathi, Pravir

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome in pregnant and peripartum women. This report presents a rare case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in early pregnancy managed by coronary angioplasty and, combined obstetric and cardiac care, resulting in the delivery of a normal infant through cesarean section.

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  15. High rates of pregnancy loss by subordinates leads to high reproductive skew in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)

    PubMed Central

    Henry, MaLinda D.; Hankerson, Sarah J.; Siani, Jennifer M.; French, Jeffrey A.; Dietz, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Across taxa, cooperative breeding has been associated with high reproductive skew. Cooperatively breeding golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) were long thought to have a monogynous mating system in which reproduction was limited to a single dominant female. Subordinates with few reproductive opportunities delayed dispersal and remained in the natal group to provide alloparental care to siblings, thus allowing dominant reproductive females to meet the energetic needs associated with high rates of reproduction and successful infant rearing. The goal of this study was to re-assess monogyny in wild golden lion tamarin groups based upon pregnancy diagnoses that used non-invasive enzyme immunoassay for progesterone and cortisol, combined with weekly data on individual weight gain, bi-annual physical examinations noting pregnancy and lactation status and daily behavioral observations. We established quantitative and qualitative criteria to detect and determine the timing of pregnancies that did not result in the birth of infants. Pregnancy polygyny occurred in 83% of golden lion tamarin groups studied. The loss of 64% of subordinate pregnancies compared to only 15% by dominant females limited reproductive success mainly to dominant females, thus maintaining high reproductive skew in female golden lion tamarins. Pregnancy loss by subordinate adults did not appear to result from dominant interference in subordinate hormonal mechanisms, but more likely resulted from subordinate abandonment of newborn infants to mitigate dominant aggression. PMID:23454002

  16. Progesterone regulates secretin expression in mouse uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhu; Wang, Tong-Song; Qi, Qian-Rong; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Liang, Xiao-Huan; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Secretin, a classical gastrointestinal and neuroendocrine peptide, plays an important role in maintaining the body fluid balance. However, the expression and regulation of secretin in the reproductive system are still unknown. In our study, secretin is specifically expressed in the decidua on days 5 to 8 of pregnancy. Secretin expression is not detected under delayed implantation but is stimulated after estrogen activation and under artificial decidualization. Progesterone induces secretin expression in ovariectomized mice and cultured stromal cells, which is abrogated by specific LY294002. Because secretin is mainly localized in the decidua and also strongly expressed during in vitro decidualization, secretin may play a role during mouse decidualization through regulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate level.

  17. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J.; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A.; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. Methods A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Results Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52–2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01–4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27–3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13–7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12–8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46–22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25–3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03–2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05–1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14–1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53–2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28–2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35–2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56–2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12–3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01–1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62–8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50–8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41–8.54). Conclusion Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote

  18. Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization Detects Increased Sperm Aneuploidy in Men with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Scovell, Jason M.; Kovac, Jason R.; Cook, Peter J.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate, in men presenting with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the prevalence of sperm autosome and sex chromosome aneuploidy. Design Retrospective Study. Setting Male infertility clinic at a tertiary referral center. Patients 140 men with recurrent pregnancy loss provided semen samples and five normozoospermic controls provided 140 semen samples for comparison. RPL, documented in the female partners, was defined as a prior miscarriage and/or recurrent IVF/ICSI failure. Interventions Fluorescent In situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect numerical abnormalities in sex chromosomes (X,Y) and autosomes (13, 18, 21) in ejaculated sperm. Main Outcome Measures Sperm aneuploidy in men with RPL and normozoospermic controls. Results Men with RPL had a greater percentage of sperm aneuploidy within the sex chromosomes, chromosomes 18 and 13/21 (1.04% vs. 0.38%; 0.18% vs. 0.03%; 0.26% vs. 0.08%). In total, 40% of men with normal sperm density and motility had abnormal sperm aneuploidy in the all the chromosomes analyzed. Men with abnormal sperm density and motility had a higher proportion of sperm sex chromosome aneuploidy than men with normal density/motility (62% vs. 45%). Men with normal strict morphology (>4%) had lower rates of sex chromosome and sperm aneuploidy than men with abnormal strict morphology (28% vs. 57%). There was no association between sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm aneuploidy. Conclusions Men with RPL have increased sperm aneuploidy compared to controls. A total of 40% of men with RPL and normal sperm density/motility had abnormal sperm aneuploidy. Men with oligoasthenozoospermia and abnormal strict morphology had greater percentage of sperm aneuploidy compared to men with normal semen parameters. PMID:25707335

  19. RNA binding protein, tristetraprolin in a murine model of recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de França, Maria Eduarda; de Oliveira, Wilma Helena; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss is a major reproductive pathology affecting 1-5% of pregnant women worldwide. A distinct feature of this reproductive pathology is involvement of key inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB). Special classes of RNA-binding proteins regulate the transcripts of many of these important cytokines and regulatory factors via binding to the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) and/or poly(A) tail and destabilizing/stabilizing the transcript. The tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36) family have been found to be potent destabilizers of the aforementioned inflammatory and cellular response cytokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tristetraprolin is expressed in the placenta and involved in modulating inflammation in mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fetal loss. In this study, Swiss-albino mice were injected with LPS at gestational day 15.5 and placental tissues were harvested 6 hours post-LPS injection. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry analyses clearly revealed cellular stress and death in LPS treated placentas compared to controls. TTP protein was downregulated, while targets TNF-α and IL-6 were upregulated in LPS group compared to controls. We observed increased TTP nuclear immunolocalization corresponding with higher NF-κB nuclear localization in trophoblasts from LPS treated placentas. Our results suggest that RNA-binding proteins such as TTP are expressed and perhaps involved in the modulation of inflammation-induced pregnancy pathologies. PMID:27732963

  20. Differential expression of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP2 in rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shi, J J; Ma, X H; Diao, H L; Ni, H; Xu, L B; Zhu, H; Yang, Z M

    2005-10-01

    PGE2 is essential for mammalian female reproduction. This study was to examine the expression of EP2 gene in the rat uterus during early pregnancy, delayed implantation and artificial decidualization by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. There was no detectable EP2 mRNA expression in the uterus from days 1 to 4 of pregnancy (day 1 = day of vaginal sperm). A low level of EP2 immunostaining was observed in the luminal and glandular epithelium from days 1 to 4 of pregnancy. Both EP2 mRNA and protein expression were highly detected in the luminal epithelium at implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy. EP2 expression decreased from day 7 of pregnancy and was undetectable on days 8 and 9 of pregnancy. After delayed implantation was terminated by estrogen treatment and the embryo implanted, both EP2 mRNA and protein expression were strongly observed in the luminal epithelium at the implantation site. There was no detectable EP2 expression in both control and decidualized uteri. In conclusion, these data suggest that EP2 expression at implantation site may play an important role during embryo implantation in rats.

  1. Changes in renal function in early pregnancy in women with one kidney.

    PubMed

    Davison, J M

    1978-01-01

    In healthy women the 24-hour endogenous creatinine clearance is elevated by some 50 percent within 6 weeks of conception and an analogous increase of the 24-hour glucose excretion occurs. 24-hour glucose excretion later reverts to normal, reflecting a delayed onset of increased tubular reabsorption.Following unilateral nephrectomy there are marked increases in RPF and GFR in the contralateral kidney. Single hypertrophied kidneys apparently can adapt still further as in normal pregnancy. We have studied 5 women, in satisfactory general health prior to the pregnancy, each with only one kidney, before conception and during early pregnancy. Three had had unilateral nephrectomy for renal trauma 6-9 years earlier. two had received renal allografts 3 years earlier. In all cases the endogenous creatinine clearance began to rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle and when pregnancy supervened it rose rapidly to a peak value of 30-40 percent above the midcycle level within 7-10 weeks of the last menstrual period. That early peak was not always sustained and GFR subsequently fell to a level of 25-30 percent above the midcycle level. These changes in renal function were slower and smaller than in healthy women with 2 kidneys but were compatible with a successful outcome of pregnancy in these five cases.

  2. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (<140 days gestation) serum estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age <40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 1.60 (1.07-2.39); Ptrend = 0.01], and inversely associated with breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age <40 at diagnosis. We observed no association between steroid hormones and ER(+)/PR(+) disease. These data suggest a positive association between high concentrations of early pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age <40, and an inverse association for overall breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association.

  3. The sheep conceptus modulates proteome profiles in caruncular endometrium during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Arianmanesh, Mitra; Fowler, Paul A; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H

    2016-12-01

    The stage-specific expression of functional proteins within the endometrium, and their regulation by conceptus-derived signals, are crucial for conceptus development and successful establishment of pregnancy. Accurate knowledge of endometrium-conceptus interactions is key for the development of effective strategies to improve conceptus implantation rates both following natural conception and/or assisted reproductive technologies. The unilateral pregnant ewe provides a powerful experimental model for the study of endometrial function in the presence or absence of conceptuses during the peri-implantation period. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based proteomics were used to compare and identify differentially expressed proteins in caruncular endometrium collected from the gravid uterine horns and the non-gravid uterine horns at the time of conceptus attachment (day 16 of pregnancy) and early post-implantation period (day 20 of pregnancy). Fifty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 16 of pregnancy and twenty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 20 of pregnancy. Sixteen proteins with different functions such as protein metabolism, cholesterol and ion transport and cell adhesion were identified. In conclusion, the use of the unilaterally pregnant ewe model provides evidence that the early implantation and post-implanting conceptus-derived signals up-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA-II) and apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1) and down-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY) and heat shock 60kDa protein 1 (HSP60). These regulated proteins are likely involved in providing a suitable intra-uterine environment required for conceptus attachment, implantation, early post-implantation development and the successful establishment of pregnancy in sheep.

  4. Secretion of estradiol-17beta by porcine endometrium and myometrium during early pregnancy and luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Franczak, A; Kotwica, G

    2008-02-01

    Past studies of the source of estrogens secreted during maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs have focused on embryonic rather than uterine origin of these steroids. The present study documents: (1) the expression of the gene CYP 17, encoding cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C(17-20) lyase and (2) the synthesis and secretion of estradiol-17 beta (E(2)) in endometrial and myometrial tissues in gilts. The expression of CYP 17 gene was shown in porcine endometrium and myometrium. Basal endometrial secretion of E(2) was higher in pregnant gilts than in cyclic gilts (days 14-16). The myometrium secreted more E(2) during the expected time of luteolysis compared to early pregnancy. Basal secretion of E(2) during pregnancy was higher from the endometrium than from the myometrium. Conversely, during luteolysis E(2) secretion was higher from the myometrium and lower from the endometrium. In pregnant and cyclic gilts (days 14-16), progesterone (P(4), 10(-5)M) in vitro significantly increased E(2) secretion regardless of reproductive status. Oxytocin (OT, 10(-7)M) had no influence on E(2) secretion and did not change the stimulatory effect of P(4) in both tissues examined. In conclusions: (1) the CYP 17 gene transcript is present in porcine endometrium and myometrium; (2) porcine endometrium and myometrium release E(2) in vitro; (3) the endometrium releases more E(2) than the myometrium during early pregnancy; (4) the myometrium releases E(2) mainly during luteolysis; (5) the endometrium and myometrium can increase E(2) release in vitro if substrate (P(4)) is provided during early pregnancy and luteolysis. These data suggest active estrogen production by the myometrium and endometrium as an alternative source for this signal for recognition of pregnancy in the pig.

  5. A case of painless thyroiditis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shiori; Endo, Kei; Iizaka, Toru; Saiki, Ryo; Iwaku, Kenji; Sato, Shotaro; Takahashi, Yasuyoshi; Otsuka, Fumiko; Taniyama, Matsuo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of painless thyroiditis detected during the first trimester of pregnancy. A 29-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized because of thyrotoxicosis and she was confirmed to be pregnant. The gestational age was 4 weeks. Blood examinations revealed negative TSH receptor antibodies, however, we started potassium iodide because we were unable to rule out Graves' disease. Thyroid hormone levels were normalized in 3 weeks and remained low even after discontinuation of medication. She received replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium hydrate till 3 months after delivery. Painless thyroiditis can be one of the differential diagnoses of thyrotoxicosis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

  6. Metabolite Profile of Cervicovaginal Fluids from Early Pregnancy Is Not Predictive of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melinda M.; Sulek, Karolina; McKenzie, Elizabeth J.; Jones, Beatrix; Han, Ting-Li; Villas-Boas, Silas G.; Kenny, Louise C.; McCowan, Lesley M. E.; Baker, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we used a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to search for biomarkers that may act as early indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Samples were selected as a nested case-control study from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) biobank in Auckland, New Zealand. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected at 20 weeks from women who were originally assessed as being at low risk of sPTB. Samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Despite the low amount of biomass (16–23 mg), 112 compounds were detected. Statistical analysis showed no significant correlations with sPTB. Comparison of reported infection and plasma inflammatory markers from early pregnancy showed two inflammatory markers were correlated with reported infection, but no correlation with any compounds in the metabolite profile was observed. We hypothesise that the lack of biomarkers of sPTB in the cervicovaginal fluid metabolome is simply because it lacks such markers in early pregnancy. We propose alternative biofluids be investigated for markers of sPTB. Our results lead us to call for greater scrutiny of previously published metabolomic data relating to biomarkers of sPTB in cervicovaginal fluids, as the use of small, high risk, or late pregnancy cohorts may identify metabolite biomarkers that are irrelevant for predicting risk in normal populations. PMID:26610472

  7. Devaki syndrome: a culture-bound psychological reaction in Indian Hindu women in response to repeated pregnancy loss?

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Sinha, Prakriti; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are observed in pregnant women with previous foetal loss due to spontaneous abortions. Culture has important influence on the expression of psychopathology. We report two Hindu women during second trimester of pregnancy with symptoms of depression and anxiety along with identification with a mythological figure - Devaki, with extreme preoccupations with child Krishna and expecting a male child, which precipitated after a series of unfortunate foetal losses.

  8. RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT BY EXOGENOUS PROGESTERONE AND HCG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rescue of bromodichloromethane-induced pregnancy loss in the F344 rat by exogenous progesterone and hCG.

    Susan R. Bielmeier1, Deborah S. Best2 and Michael G. Narotsky2

    1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    2 Reproductive Toxico...

  9. Virginity Loss and Pregnancy in U.S. and Dutch Teen Girl Magazines: A Content-Analytic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Suchi P.; Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2014-01-01

    Using Hofstede's cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature stories from all issues of three U.S. and three…

  10. SERUM HORMONE CHARACTERIZATION AND EXOGENEOUS HORMONE RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SERUM HORMONE CHARACTERIZATION AND EXOGENEOUS HORMONE RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED
    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT
    Susan R. Bielmeier*, Deborah S. Best^, and Michael G. Narotsky^

    ABSTRACT
    Previously, we demonstrated that bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a d...

  11. [Ultrasonic observation on early pregnancy in patients using IUD].

    PubMed

    Han, Z M

    1987-05-01

    The paper is a report of ultrasonic examinations of IUD positions in women who became pregnant with IUD in situ. 61 pregnant women aged 23 to 41 wearing stainless steel single ring IUD were examined between 1983 and 1985. The duration between the IUD insertion and pregnancy of these women ranged from one month to 5 years with 67.2% under 1 year. This indicated that the first year after IUD insertion is a critical period for method failure. Extra care should be taken in the follow-up of insertion. Among the cases studied, the IUD position of 42 women was below the embryo in the uterine cavity, including some around the cervix. The position change of IUD apparently lost its contraceptive effect. The declined position of IUD in the uterus could be associated with the skill of inserter, and the compatibility of the shape and the size of IUD with the uterine cavity. It was suggested that both the length and width of uterine cavity should be measured before the insertion, and IUD's of all sizes should be made available in the clinics where the insertions are conducted. IUD different shapes should also be kept too fit those women with irregularly shaped uteri.

  12. Biochemical and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) uterine horn fluid during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, M E; Apichela, S A; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Stelletta, C

    2015-02-01

    South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non-pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5-week-pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non-pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone-treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate.

  13. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Louise E; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A

    2015-11-30

    There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question.

  14. Can milk cell or skim milk miRNAs be used as biomarkers for early pregnancy detection in cattle?

    PubMed Central

    Schanzenbach, Corina I.; Kirchner, Benedikt; Ulbrich, Susanne E.; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    The most critical phase of pregnancy is the first three weeks following insemination. During this period about 50% of high yielding lactating cows suffer embryonic loss prior to implantation, which poses a high economic burden on dairy farmers. Early diagnosis of pregnancy in cattle is therefore essential for monitoring breeding outcome and efficient production intervals. Regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) that reach easily accessible body fluids via a ‘liquid biopsy’ could be a new class of pregnancy predicting biomarkers. As milk is obtained regularly twice daily and non-invasively from the animal, it represents an ideal sample material. Our aim was to establish a pregnancy test system based on the discovery of small RNA biomarkers derived from the bovine milk cellular fraction and skim milk of cows. Milk samples were taken on days 4, 12 and 18 of cyclic cows and after artificial insemination, respectively, of the same animals (n = 6). miRNAs were analysed using small RNA sequencing (small RNA Seq). The miRNA profiles of milk cells and skim milk displayed similar profiles despite the presence of immune cell related miRNAs in milk cells. Trends in regulation of miRNAs between the oestrous cycle and pregnancy were found in miR-cluster 25~106b and its paralog cluster 17~92, miR-125 family, miR-200 family, miR-29 family, miR-15a, miR-21, miR-26b, miR-100, miR-140, 193a-5p, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-652, miR-2898 and let-7i. A separation of cyclic and pregnant animals was achieved in a principal component analysis. Bta-miRs-29b, -221, -125b and -200b were successfully technically validated using quantitative real-time PCR, however biological validation failed. Therefore we cannot recommend the diagnostic use of these miRNAs in milk as biomarkers for detection of bovine pregnancy for now. PMID:28234939

  15. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. Design, Setting, Participants, and Outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Results: Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Conclusion: Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA. PMID:26406292

  16. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B.; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H.; Latka, Mary H.; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A.; Price, Matt A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. Methods: From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Results: Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. Conclusions: In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted. PMID:27893488

  17. Mechanisms compensating for dopamine loss in early Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Brotchie, Jonathan; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl

    2009-02-17

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a disorder with a substantive period before the emergence of motor symptoms, during which significant dopaminergic neuronal loss is counterbalanced by endogenous compensatory mechanisms. Many potential compensatory mechanisms have now been proposed; these are both dopaminergic, focused on enhancing effects or exposure to existing dopamine, and nondopaminergic, being focused on reducing activity of the indirect striatal output pathway. Compensatory mechanisms can potentially postpone and reduce the severity of parkinsonian symptoms, and contribute to the benefit provided by a symptomatic therapy, thus offering targets for novel therapeutics. However, enhancement of certain compensatory mechanisms may produce problems when subsequent therapies are initiated, e.g., the development of motor complications with levodopa. Supporting endogenous compensatory mechanisms, to delay or reverse apparent disease progression, is a novel and attractive "disease-modifying" approach to PD. Such actions may contribute to the apparent disease-modifying benefit of initiating early treatment with levodopa or rasagiline, as suggested by the ELLDOPA and TEMPO studies.

  18. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be tired and need more rest. Your body will change as your baby grows during the nine months of your pregnancy. Don't hesitate to call your health care provider if you think you have a problem or something is bothering or worrying you.

  19. Efficacy of progesterone supplementation during early pregnancy in cows: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Leyan; Robinson, Robert; Shi, Zhendan; Mann, George

    2016-05-01

    Progesterone is a critical hormone during early pregnancy in the cow. As a result, a number of studies have investigated the effects of progesterone supplementation on pregnancy rates. In this study, a meta-analysis using a univariate binary random effects model was carried out on 84 specific treatments reported in 53 publications involving control (n = 9905) and progesterone-treated (n = 9135) cows. Although the results of individual studies showed wide variations (-40% to +50% point changes), progesterone treatment resulted in an overall increase in pregnancy rate odds ratio (OR = 1.12; P < 0.01). Improvements in pregnancy rate were only observed in cows treated at natural estrus (OR = 1.41, P < 0.01) and not following synchronization of estrus or ovulation. Although treatment between Days 3 to 7 postinsemination was beneficial (OR = 1.15; P < 0.01), treatment earlier or later than this was not. Progesterone supplementation was beneficial in cows of lower fertility (<45% control pregnancy rate) but not in cows with higher fertility. These results indicated that the benefit of progesterone supplementation on fertility of cows required exogenous progesterone supplementation to start between Day 3 to 7 and the appropriate reproductive status (i.e., lower fertility, natural estrus) of the treated cows.

  20. Multiple Extrauterine Pregnancy with Early and Near Full-Term Mummified Fetuses in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo; Tena-Betancourt, Carlos A; Zúniga-Muñoz, Alejandra M; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Extrauterine pregnancy (EP) is infrequent in mammalian species and occurs when fertilized ova implant and develop outside the uterus. A common outcome is abdominal pregnancy resulting in mummified fetuses (lithopedia). Here we describe an unusual case of abdominal pregnancy with early and near full-term lithopedia. Macroscopic findings supported the diagnosis of lithopedia with distinct age differences and facilitated further characterization of primary ectopia and risk factors leading to this occurrence. PMID:24602549

  1. Recurrent thrombosis prevention with intravenous immunoglobulin and hydroxychloroquine during pregnancy in a patient with history of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome and pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Mar, Nataliya; Kosowicz, Rebecca; Hook, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 36-year old patient with prior history of thrombosis in a setting of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) as well as pregnancy-associated catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), resulting in multi-organ infarction and pregnancy loss. The episode of CAPS occurred while she was receiving antepartum low-dose aspirin and therapeutic-dose enoxaparin. This patient presented again at 6 weeks gestation and ultrasounds were consistent with fetal growth restriction, concerning for placental insufficiency and thrombosis. This time, hydroxychloroquine and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions were added to her prophylaxis regimen, resulting in a successful delivery. Platelet count and antiphospholipid antibody titers were routinely monitored throughout pregnancy as markers of disease activity for APS. Current thromboprophylaxis guidelines do not address therapeutic options to prevent further pregnancy morbidity in women who develop recurrent episodes of thrombosis or CAPS despite receiving adequate anti-thrombotic treatment. Use of hydroxychloroquine and IVIG has been associated with good outcomes in this subset of patients.

  2. [Screening of early color vision loss in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Peduzzi, M; Longanesi, L; Ascari, A; Cascione, S; Galletti, M; Roncaia, R; Pacchioni, C; Maione, M

    1989-01-01

    Colour vision defects have been claimed to appear in diabetes before any retinopathy is visible. In the present study diabetic patients and non diabetic control subjects were screened with two different colour vision tests which include both red-green and blue-yellow parts, and are suitable for quantitative analysis of scores. The Lanthony 40 Hue test and the Tokyo Medical College--T.M.C. tables were used to assess colour vision in 106 diabetic (50 insulin dependent and 56 non insulin dependent) patients and in 99 non diabetic control subjects. Diabetic patients without visible retinopathy, familiar colour vision defects and/or lens changes, had significantly higher scores than control subjects in both eyes. The differences were more evident in non insulin dependent patients. Statistical analysis showed that early loss of colour vision was correlated with age and duration of diabetes for older patients, while correlation with glycosylated hemoglobin was moderately positive only for younger patients. Both tests (especially the Lanthony 40 Hue) resulted to be highly specific and could be used for the clinical study of colour vision losses in diabetic patients.

  3. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  4. Unpredicted ovulations and conceptions during early pregnancy: an explanatory mechanism of human superfetation.

    PubMed

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Cano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this bioessay, a literature review on human superfetation was performed in order to find epidemiological variables associated with this phenomenon. Thereafter, an explanatory mechanism of superfetation compatible with the endocrinological, histological and physiological changes undergone by women during early pregnancy is proposed. Superfetation can be defined as the ovulation, fertilisation and implantation of a second or additional embryo(s) during pregnancy. The literature review evidences a small discordance in gestational age between dizygotic twins in humans (range: 2-4 weeks; mean ± s.e.m.: 3.3 ± 0.3 weeks). This difference is compatible with a luteal out-of-phase (LOOP; i.e. atypical increase in E2 levels in the mid-luteal phase)-like event occurring between 1 and 3 weeks after the ovulation that allowed the first pregnancy to take place. The LOOP-like event may allow passive sperm transport from the vaginal fornix to the Fallopian tube ipsilateral to the ovulatory ovary and trigger a LH peak and ovulation. Furthermore, during very early pregnancy, the decidual reaction is not yet completed and at least one proximal Fallopian ostium may be opened, allowing the passage of the spermatozoa ascending to the fertilisation site and the extra embryo(s) descending to the implantation site(s).

  5. Expression and regulation of androgen receptor in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy and decidualization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjie; Li, Mo; Zhang, Lu; Xiong, Hao; Lai, Lidan; Guo, Meijun; Zong, Teng; Zhang, Dalei; Yang, Bei; Wu, Lei; Tang, Min; Kuang, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is important for both the male and female reproductive systems. The expression and regulation of AR in the uterine endometrium during early pregnancy and decidualization remain relatively under-investigated, so we sought to immunohistochemically examine the spatiotemporal expression of AR in mouse uteri during the peri-implantation period as well as in response to specific steroid hormones. AR protein was found in the nuclei of uterine stromal cells starting on pregnancy Days 1 and 2, with its abundance increasing on Days 3 and 4. From pregnancy Days 5 to 9, however, the expression of AR markedly declined in stromal zones of uteri. No signal was detected in the decidualized cells surrounding the site of embryo implantation; moreover, no AR immunostaining was observed in decidualized uterine cells in an artificial oil-induced model of decidualization. Progesterone significantly inhibited AR protein expression, whereas estrogen dramatically elevated AR abundance in the stroma of ovariectomized mouse uteri. Taken together, our results are the first to demonstrate that decidualization and progesterone significantly inhibited the AR protein expression in vivo, whereas estrogen increased AR protein levels in the stromal cells of mouse uteri. These responses might be advantageous for the proliferation and differentiation of uterine stroma and for embryo implantation during early pregnancy.

  6. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  7. Maternal Nutritional Status in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Body Water and Plasma Volume Changes in a Pregnancy Cohort in Rural Bangladesh12

    PubMed Central

    Gernand, Alison D.; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J.; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B.; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m2). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.01) at ~10, ~20, and ~32 wk. Height was also positively associated with ECW and TBW at each time point. Early pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (−0.06 and −0.14 kg per kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.01) from 10 to 20 wk, but not with 20- to 32-wk gains after accounting for weight gain. BMI was positively associated with percentage changes in plasma volume from 20 to 32 wk (0.57% per kg/m2; P < 0.05). Height was not associated with changes in body water or plasma volume. Women with low BMI and height in early pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction. PMID:22535759

  8. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P < 0.01) at ~10, ~20, and ~32 wk. Height was also positively associated with ECW and TBW at each time point. Early pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P < 0.01) from 10 to 20 wk, but not with 20- to 32-wk gains after accounting for weight gain. BMI was positively associated with percentage changes in plasma volume from 20 to 32 wk (0.57% per kg/m(2); P < 0.05). Height was not associated with changes in body water or plasma volume. Women with low BMI and height in early pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  9. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555

  10. Embryo selection with preimplantation chromosomal screening in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Shahine, Lora K; Lathi, Ruth B

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder which is often challenging for both patients and providers. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of patients with RPL include screening for uterine abnormalities, parental chromosomes, and antiphospholipid antibodies, but approximately half of RPL patients remain unexplained. The current recommendation for patients with unexplained RPL is expectant management which offers most patients a 60 to 80% success rate over time. Genetic imbalances in the embryo, including inherited unbalanced translocations and de novo aneuploidy, are frequent causes of miscarriage. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been proposed as an effective method for selecting viable embryos for transfer that may result lower risk of miscarriage for patients with unexplained RPL and carriers of balanced translocations. The current evidence examining the use of in vitro fertilization with PGS in patients with RPL reveals variable results, due to differences in technologies used and variable patient populations. Newer approaches, which include blastocyst biopsy and the ability to screen for all 24 chromosomes, show the most promise in reducing miscarriage rates. Studies that identify which patients are most likely to benefit from PGS and include live birth rates per initiated cycles are needed before universally recommending this treatment to couples with RPL.

  11. Much more than thrombosis and pregnancy loss: the antiphospholipid syndrome as a 'systemic disease'.

    PubMed

    Taraborelli, Mara; Andreoli, Laura; Tincani, Angela

    2012-02-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an auto-immune disorder characterised by recurrent thrombosis, pregnancy losses and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Although it was initially considered an auto-immune coagulopathy, it is now clear that it is a complex and systemic disease. A large number of manifestations in different organs and tissues (cardiac, pulmonary, neurological, renal, cutaneous, haematologic, gastrointestinal, ocular, skeletal and endocrinologic) have been described in these patients. A small group of patients can have a microvascular involvement, which is the most common pathological finding in patients affected by the catastrophic variant of the syndrome. A strong relationship exists between the antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, as demonstrated by common clinical, serological and genetic features and by the few but possible cases evolving from the first disease into the second one over years. Finally, the systemic nature of the antiphospholipid syndrome and the understanding of the mechanisms of antiphospholipid-mediated damage suggest a role of immunomodulation beyond anticoagulation in the therapeutic approach to the disease.

  12. Hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders, pregnancy losses and risk of autoimmune diseases in a Danish population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Jacobsen, Søren; Frisch, Morten

    2012-05-01

    The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences and the subsequent risk of female predominant and other ADs. Our study cohort comprised 1.6 million Danish women born since 1955 for whom we had information about hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and pregnancy losses and subsequent hospital contacts for 31 ADs between 1982 and 2008. Ratios of first hospitalization rates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, birth cohort, calendar period, marital status and childbirths. During 27.0 million person-years of follow-up 51,732 women were hospitalized with one or more ADs. Overall, compared with women without the specific pregnancy experiences, the risk of any AD was significantly increased for women with hyperemesis (RR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.30-1.51), gestational hypertensive disorders (1.21; 1.16-1.26), spontaneous abortions (1.10; 1.07-1.14), missed abortions (1.09; 1.04-1.13), stillbirths (1.25; 1.12-1.40), ectopic pregnancies (1.08; 1.02-1.14) and induced abortions (1.07; 1.04-1.09). Associations with female predominant ADs (i.e., ADs with a female:male ratio >2:1) were strongest in the first five years after the studied pregnancy experiences, but overall there was little difference between the RRs for groups of female predominant ADs and other ADs. Strong and potentially biological associations were observed for a number of specific ADs; including systemic lupus erythematosus, Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and pernicious anemia, and for some specific ADs associations persisted even more than five years after the abnormal pregnancy experience. Abnormal pregnancies are associated with increased risk of certain ADs, possibly because of underlying

  13. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: effects of embryo origin on vascularization.

    PubMed

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P; Bilski, Jerzy J; Cymbaluk, Taylor; Norberg, Spencer; Redmer, Dale A; Reynolds, Lawrence P

    2014-05-01

    Utero-placental growth and vascular development are critical for pregnancy establishment that may be altered by various factors including assisted reproductive technologies (ART), nutrition, or others, leading to compromised pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental vascularization and expression of angiogenic factors are altered early in pregnancies after transfer of embryos created using selected ART methods. Pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos from NAT (NAT-ET), or IVF or in vitro activation (IVA). Placental tissues were collected on day 22 of pregnancy. In maternal caruncles (CAR), vascular cell proliferation was less (P<0.05) for IVA than other groups. Compared with NAT, density of blood vessels was less (P<0.05) for IVF and IVA in fetal membranes (FM) and for NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA in CAR. In FM, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01-0.08) in NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA compared with NAT for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor FLT1, placental growth factor (PGF), neuropilin 1 (NP1) and NP2, angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and ANGPT2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and its receptor FGFR2. In CAR, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01-0.05) in NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA compared with NAT for VEGF, FLT1, PGF, ANGPT1, and TEK. Decreased mRNA expression for 12 of 14 angiogenic factors across FM and CAR in NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA pregnancies was associated with reduced placental vascular development, which would lead to poor placental function and compromised fetal and placental growth and development.

  14. Loss of immune escape mutations during persistent HCV infection in pregnancy enhances replication of vertically transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Honegger, Jonathan R; Kim, Seungtaek; Price, Aryn A; Kohout, Jennifer A; McKnight, Kevin L; Prasad, Mona R; Lemon, Stanley M; Grakoui, Arash; Walker, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Globally, about 1% of pregnant women are persistently infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Mother-to-child transmission of HCV occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies and accounts for most new childhood infections. HCV-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the clearance of acute HCV infections, but in the 60-80% of infections that persist, these cells become functionally exhausted or select for mutant viruses that escape T cell recognition. Increased HCV replication during pregnancy suggests that maternofetal immune tolerance mechanisms may further impair HCV-specific CTLs, limiting their selective pressure on persistent viruses. To assess this possibility, we characterized circulating viral quasispecies during and after consecutive pregnancies in two women. This revealed a loss of some escape mutations in HLA class I epitopes during pregnancy that was associated with emergence of more fit viruses. CTL selective pressure was reimposed after childbirth, at which point escape mutations in these epitopes again predominated in the quasispecies and viral load dropped sharply. Importantly, the viruses transmitted perinatally were those with enhanced fitness due to reversion of escape mutations. Our findings indicate that the immunoregulatory changes of pregnancy reduce CTL selective pressure on HCV class I epitopes, thereby facilitating vertical transmission of viruses with optimized replicative fitness.

  15. Early-onset sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, T S; Okokhere, P O; Asogun, D; Blackie, F F; Nwegbu, M M; Wahab, K W; Omilabu, S A; Akpede, G O

    2011-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease which affects one-fourth to two million people annually with the fatality rate of about 10,000. It is associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) usually at the convalescent stage. Recently, cases of SNHL at the acute phase have been reported. This study was done to further investigate the incidence and features of SNHL in acute phase of LF. It is a prospective case-control study of LF patients seen with acute SNHL conducted between July 2007 and April 2009 at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital Nigeria. The diagnosis of acute LF was based on the clinical features and detection of IgM antibodies and/or positive Lassa virus-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers S36+ and LVS 339 while SNHL was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with PTA and speech discrimination tests. Patients with other acute febrile illnesses were used as control. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 11 and Fisher's exact test while level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Out of the 37 confirmed cases of LF, 5 (13.5%) and none (0%) of the control developed early-onset SNHL (p = 0.03). Forty percent of the cases studied had negative IgM. The audiograms showed involvement at all frequency groups with pure tone average 65-85 dB and the speech discrimination 20-40%. The overall case fatality rate was 27.0%, and for early SNHL cases 60.0% (p > 0.05). The incidence of SNHL in LF infection is about 13.5% and could be a reflection of a worse disease process. There is possibility of direct viral invasion aside immunological reaction as a causative mechanism.

  16. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8

  17. The effects of bromocriptine treatment during early pregnancy on postpartum maternal behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Price, Anya K; Bridges, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Prolactin, a hormone of the anterior pituitary, is involved in initiating maternal behavior, alleviating postpartum anxiety, and stimulating lactogenesis. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, inhibits prolactin secretion. Bromocriptine administration represses postpartum maternal behaviors (pup retrieval) in mice, and causes elevated anxiety in the elevated plus maze [Larsen & Grattan (2010). Endocrinology 151(8): 3805-3814]. Whether similar effects exist in other species is unknown. The present study examined the possible involvement of prolactin during early gestation on maternal behavior and anxiety in rats. Bromocriptine given on days 2-4 of pregnancy resulted in impaired postpartum maternal behaviors in a novel environment during early lactation. However, compared to controls, bromocriptine-treated subjects did not exhibit increased postpartum anxiety in the elevated plus maze. These findings support work in mice that bromocriptine treatment during early gestation impedes postpartum maternal care, and indicate that early gestational hormonal status affects postpartum behavior more broadly in other mammals.

  18. Use of Antihistamine Medications During Early Pregnancy and Isolated Major Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Werler, Martha M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Antihistamines are commonly used during pregnancy. There is little evidence that they have teratogenic effects, but there are knowledge gaps with respect to newer products, as well as the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. METHODS Using the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2003), the authors examined associations between maternal use of 14 antihistamines during early pregnancy and 26 isolated major birth defects. A Bayesian analysis incorporating prior knowledge about the relationships between the antihistamines, birth defects, and measured covariates was conducted. RESULTS Of the 364 associations investigated, 24 had 95% posterior intervals excluding 1.0. All 24 associations were positive; 23 associations were of weak to moderate magnitude (posterior odds ratio [OR] < 3.0) and one was strong (OR > 6.0) but very imprecise. Of the 24 associations, 20 were with non-cardiac defects. Eight associations involved the antihistamine diphenhydramine. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study generally were consistent with no association between birth defects and antihistamine use during early pregnancy. Several of the findings might warrant further investigation, although the observed elevated associations should be interpreted in the context of the number of associations investigated and the analysis of retrospective, self-reported data. PMID:19161158

  19. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999–2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3–4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4–6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS–outcome associations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:26333069

  20. Marked changes in olfactory perception during early pregnancy: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Gokce; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Arikan, Osman Kursat; Ozcan Dag, Zeynep; Simsek, Yavuz; Dag, Ersel

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy seems to be related with a significant change in olfaction. Here, we investigate this theory by testing the odor identification abilities of uncomplicated pregnant women and compare the results with non-pregnant controls. The study included 31 healthy pregnant women in the first trimester (Group 1), 30 in the second trimester (Group 2), 31 in the third trimester, and 30 non-pregnant healthy controls (Group 4). In order to measure odor identification abilities, each subject completed the 12-item Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT). Next, the demographic characteristics and BSIT scores of the groups were compared. The total BSIT scores of the subjects in Group 1 were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p < 0.001). This reduction in odor identification abilities was particularly noticeable for leather, pine, and soot. Pregnant women in the second and third trimesters had similar odor identification abilities to the healthy controls (p > 0.05). Early pregnancy might be related to significant changes in olfactory performance. The distortion of odor identification in the first trimester might be a causative factor for the development of pregnancy-specific conditions, such as morning sickness and hyperemesis gravidarum, which are both common complaints during the early phase of parturition.

  1. Expression of the orexin system in the porcine uterus, conceptus and trophoblast during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, N; Kiezun, M; Dobrzyn, K; Szeszko, K; Maleszka, A; Kaminski, T

    2015-11-01

    Orexin A and B are hypothalamic peptides derived from the prepro-orexin (PPO) precursor. Orexins stimulate food intake and arousal. Those peptides bind and activate two G protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Numerous authors have suggested that orexins play an important role in the regulation of the reproductive functions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the presence of and changes in the gene and protein expression pattern of the orexin system in the porcine uterus, conceptus and trophoblast (chorioallantois) during early pregnancy. In the endometrium, the highest PPO and OX1R gene expression was detected on days 15 to 16 of gestation. The OX2R mRNA content in the endometrium was higher on days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 than on days 12 to 13 and 27 to 28. In the trophoblasts, PPO gene expression was higher on days 30 to 32 than on days 27 to 28. The highest PPO protein content in the endometrium was noted on days 12 to 13. The highest OX1R protein content in the endometrium was detected on days 10 to 11, whereas OX2R protein on days 15 to 16. In the trophoblasts, PPO and OX1R protein levels were more pronounced on days 27 to 28 than on days 30 to 32, but OX2R expression was higher on days 30 to 32. The expression of PPO, OX1R and OX2R was different in the conceptuses and trophoblasts during early pregnancy. Local orexin production and the presence of the specific orexin receptors suggest that the orexin system may participate in the control of porcine reproductive functions by exerting endocrine and auto/paracrine effects on the uterus, conceptuses and trophoblasts during early pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of orexins and their receptors in the uteri, conceptuses and trophoblasts in pigs during early pregnancy. The local orexin system is dependent on the stage of pregnancy.

  2. Polymorphisms in factor V and antithrombin III gene in recurrent pregnancy loss: a case-control study in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Bhakuni, Teena; Ranjan, Ravi; Kumar, Ravi; Kishor, Kamal; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman; Saxena, Renu

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) can be caused due to diverse factors with thrombophilia being one of them. The association of various thrombophilic risk factors with RPL is inconsistent in different studies and the frequency of these risk factors in Indian population is obscure. Five hundred and eighty patients with either recurrent early miscarriage or a history of at least one late miscarriage were screened for deficiency of protein C (PC), protein S (PS), antithrombin III (AT), APC resistance and prothrombin 20210G > A mutation. APC resistance positive patients were typed for the factor V Leiden, factor V Hong Kong/Cambridge mutations, and HR2 haplotype. PstI and rs2227589 AT mutations were detected by direct sequencing. APC resistance (13.4 %) was detected to be most common in Indian RPL patients followed by PS (10.6 %), PC (9.8 %) and AT deficiency (4.31 %.). FV Leiden was shown to be associated with APC resistance while HR2 haplotype was not associated with APC resistance (p values: 0.0001 and 0.327 respectively) and the increased risk of RPL. PstI and rs2227589 polymorphisms were similar in patients and controls and not associated with AT deficiency in RPL. Our study emphasizes the presence of other contributory factors towards APC resistance rather than FV Leiden alone. This is the first Indian study where HR2 haplotype and rs2227589 are observed to be present in RPL population. Although not significant, occurrence of rs2227589 and FV HR2 in homozygous condition necessitates the study of these polymorphisms in a larger sample size.

  3. Biomonitoring of human fetal exposure to environmental chemicals in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M

    2014-01-01

    The first trimester of human fetal life, a period of extremely rapid development of physiological systems, represents the most rapid growth phase in human life. Interference in the establishment of organ systems may result in abnormal development that may be manifest immediately or programmed for later abnormal function. Exposure to environmental chemicals may be affecting development at these early stages, and yet there is limited knowledge of the quantities and identities of the chemicals to which the fetus is exposed during early pregnancy. Clearly, opportunities for assessing fetal chemical exposure directly are extremely limited. Hence, this review describes indirect means of assessing fetal exposure in early pregnancy to chemicals that are considered disrupters of development. Consideration is given to such matrices as maternal hair, fingernails, urine, saliva, sweat, breast milk, amniotic fluid and blood, and fetal matrices such as cord blood, cord tissue, meconium, placenta, and fetal liver. More than 150 articles that presented data from chemical analysis of human maternal and fetal tissues and fluids were reviewed. Priority was given to articles where chemical analysis was conducted in more than one matrix. Where correlations between maternal and fetal matrices were determined, these articles were included and are highlighted, as these may provide the basis for future investigations of early fetal exposure. The determination of fetal chemical exposure, at the time of rapid human growth and development, will greatly assist regulatory agencies in risk assessments and establishment of advisories for risk management concerning environmental chemicals.

  4. Suppression of decidual cell response induced by dibutyltin dichloride in pseudopregnant rats: as a cause of early embryonic loss.

    PubMed

    Harazono, Akira; Ema, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    In our previous study, dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl) caused preimplantation embryonic loss and postimplantation embryonic loss in rats following administration at 7.6 mg/kg and above on Days 0-3 and at 3.8 mg/kg and above on Days 4-7 of pregnancy, respectively. This study was designed to assess the effects of DBTCl on uterine function as a cause of early embryonic loss using pseudopregnant rats. DBTCl was given orally to pseudopregnant rats at 3.8, 7.6 or 15.2 mg/kg on pseudopregnant day (PPD) 0-3 or on PPD 4-7. The decidual cell response was induced by bilateral uterine scratch on PPD 4. The uterine weight on PPD 9 served as an index of uterine decidualization. Uterine weight and serum progesterone levels on PPD 9 were significantly decreased after administration of DBTCl at 7.6 mg/kg and above on PPD 0-3 and PPD 4-7. DBTCl had no effect on the serum estradiol levels and number of corpora lutea. Administration of progesterone reversed the suppression of uterine decidualization in rats given DBTCl on PPD 0-3. It can be concluded that DBTCl suppresses the uterine decidual cell response and decreases progesterone levels, and these effects are responsible for early embryonic loss due to DBTCl exposure.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the alterations in the transcriptome of the endometrium in pigs during the beginning of implantation (days 15-16 of pregnancy) compared to cyclic pigs during the onset of luteolysis (days 15-16 of the estrous cycle). The global expression of genes in porcine gravid and non-gravid endometria was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that, of 589 accurately annotated genes, the expression of 266 genes was up-regulated and expression of 323 was down-regulated in the endometrium harvested during early pregnancy compared with the endometrium during the estrous cycle. In pregnant pigs, genes with the most significantly altered expression were involved in the following biological processes: the metabolic process, cellular process, cell communication, immune system process, developmental process, cell adhesion, antigen processing and presentation, antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, immune response, and the polysaccharide metabolic process. In the pregnant endometrium, cell adhesion molecules and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched biological pathways. Analysis of the interaction network among selected genes showed that androgen receptor (AR) encoding genes interact with genes involved in important processes occurring during early pregnancy. The bioinformatic analysis revealed information about the meaning of differentially expressed genes. The data provided new insight into the dynamic changes of the endometrial gene expression profile during days 15-16 of pregnancy.

  6. TH17 cells in human recurrent pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Binqing; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2014-11-01

    T helper 17 (TH17) cells have been identified as a new lineage of helper T cells and have been shown to be important in host defense against extracellular infectious agents, autoimmune disease and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, TH17 cells have also been shown to participate in successful pregnancy, as well as in the pathogenesis of diseases of pregnancy, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and pre-eclampsia (PE). Here, we review our current knowledge of TH17 cells in human RSA and PE. We also discuss how the local uterine microenvironment affects the differentiation of TH17 cells and the mechanisms that regulate TH17 cells during pregnancy. Research into TH17 cells will not only advance our understanding of TH17-related pregnancy complications, but will also facilitate the design of novel therapies for reproductive diseases.

  7. High maternal serum ferritin in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Khambalia, Amina Z; Collins, Clare E; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan M; Powell, Katie L; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

    2015-08-14

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between maternal serum ferritin concentrations and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Fe biomarkers, including serum ferritin concentrations, and the risk of total ( 75th percentile ( ≥ 43 μg/l) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.06, 2.10) and >90th percentile ( ≥ 68 μg/l) (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.25, 2.96). Increased odds of early and moderate-to-late sPTB were associated with ferritin levels >90th percentile (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.32, 4.73) and >75th percentile (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03, 2.37), respectively. No association was found between the risk of sPTB and elevated sTfR levels or Fe deficiency. In conclusion, elevated maternal serum ferritin levels in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of sPTB from 34 weeks of gestation. The usefulness of early pregnancy ferritin levels in identifying women at risk of sPTB warrants further investigation.

  8. Analysis of the Expression of Tachykinins and Tachykinin Receptors in the Rat Uterus During Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Francisco M; Bello, Aixa R; Gallardo-Castro, Manuel; Valladares, Francisco; Almeida, Teresa A; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Candenas, Luz

    2015-08-01

    The peptides of the tachykinin family participate in the regulation of reproductive function acting at both central and peripheral levels. Our previous data showed that treatment of rats with a tachykinin NK3R antagonist caused a reduction of litter size. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in the rat uterus during early pregnancy. Uterine samples were obtained from early pregnant rats (Days 1-9 of pregnancy) and from nonpregnant rats during the proestrus stage of the ovarian cycle, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot studies were used to investigate the pattern of expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors. We found that all tachykinins and tachykinin receptors were locally synthesized in the uterus of early pregnant rats. The expression of substance P, neurokinin B, and the tachykinin receptors NK1R and NK3R mRNAs and proteins underwent major changes during the days around implantation and they were widely distributed in implantation sites, being particularly abundant in decidual cells. These findings support the involvement of the tachykinin system in the series of uterine events that occur around embryo implantation in the rat.

  9. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. PMID:26272398

  10. Porencephaly and transverse limb defects following severe maternal trauma in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, D L

    1995-01-01

    A 13 year old boy with mental retardation, hemiatrophy and left hemiplegia, right hemifacial microsomia and transverse digital amputations is reported. He is moderately mentally retarded, experiences grand mal seizures and has evidence of a porencephalic cyst in the right frontotemporal region on CT scan. At 52 days post conception his mother was involved in a road traffic accident and suffered extensive bruising of the abdomen and concussion. It is suggested that the patient's congenital anomalies are a consequence of hypoxia and thrombo-embolic events sustained during early pregnancy.

  11. Maintenance of the corpus luteum of early pregnancy in the ewe. IV. Changes in luteal sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha throughout early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silvia, W J; Niswender, G D

    1986-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the temporal aspects of luteal resistance to the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha during early pregnancy. In Exp. 1, 14 pregnant and 12 nonpregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha either on d 10 or 13 post-estrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -30 min, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h post-injection for quantification of progesterone. The difference (delta P) between pre-treatment and post-treatment concentrations of progesterone was calculated for each ewe. There was a significant interaction between pregnancy status and day of treatment on delta P (P less than .05). Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes treated on d 10 showed a large delta P. A large delta P also was observed in nonpregnant ewes treated on d 13 post-estrus. However, delta P in pregnant ewes treated on d 13 was smaller than in the other three groups (P less than .05). The temporal patterns of concentrations of progesterone in serum were different among treatment groups (P less than .05). A suppression in the concentration of progesterone was observed by 24 h post-injection in all four treatment groups. Progesterone returned to pre-treatment levels only in pregnant ewes treated on d 13. In Exp. 2, 47 pregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha on d 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 26 or 30 postestrus. Blood samples were collected and data were analyzed as described for Exp. 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p < 0.05 for all) were lower while total n-6 fatty acids were higher (p < 0.05) at 16-20th weeks of gestation in preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05 for all) were also lower in preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p < 0.05 for both) in preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  13. Immunohistochemical distribution of early pregnancy factor in ovary, oviduct and placenta of pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, M C; Bellingeri, R V; Motta, C E; Alustiza, F E; Picco, N Y; Vivas, A B

    2015-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressant that promotes maternal immune system tolerance of the allogenic fetus. Little is known about localization of this factor in different tissues and nothing has been reported about localization in swine reproductive and placental tissues. We determined the concentration of EPF in serum of gilts and porcine placenta conditioned medium (PPCM). We also analyzed the expression of EPF in different reproductive tissues of pregnant gilts at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. EPF concentration in serum and PPCM was determined by western blot and densitometry. EPF expression in reproductive tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The highest concentration of EPF was observed at 30 days in serum and PPCM; the concentration was higher in PPCM than in serum at the stages we evaluated. All reproductive tissues from the gestational stages analyzed showed specific labeling of EPF, but this labeling did not appear in non-pregnant gilts. At 30 days pregnancy, the EPF expression in the ovary was predominantly in follicular lutein cells, probably owing to its function as a luteotrophic factor. In the oviduct, EPF was expressed in unciliated secretory epithelial cells and in the cilia of ciliated cells. In the placenta, EPF was expressed in the fetal portion (mesoderm chorioallantois and epithelium of endoderm). EPF acts as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for the trophoblast during the peri-implantation period.

  14. Risk Factors and Early Predictors for Heterotopic Pregnancy after In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ling; Xia, Mingdi; Zhai, Junyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yuchao; Sun, Yinhua; Zhang, Jiangtao; Zhu, Dongyi; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the risk factors and early predictors for heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). From January 2008 to January 2013, 41 cases of HP and 72 cases of intrauterine twin pregnancy after IVF-ET were recruited and retrospectively analyzed. Compared with intrauterine twin pregnancy group, the HP group had a lower basal luteinizing hormone (LH) level (P = 0.005) and more cases had a history of hydrosalpinx (P = 0.008). After 14 days of IVF-ET, the serum β-HCG (β-human chorionic gonadotropin), E2 (Estradiol) and P (Progesterone) levels were lower in HP group (P<0.001, respectively). Moreover, vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain were the significant features of HP before diagnosis (P<0.001, respectively). Further by logistic regression, serum β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding were identified as the independent factors of HP. These results indicate that when two or more embryos transferred in IVF procedure, β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding could be taken as predictors for HP. PMID:26510008

  15. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  16. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, Candace A.; Mendola, Pauline; Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-02-15

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased

  17. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of

  18. Extra and intracellular calcium signaling pathway(s) differentially regulate histamine-induced myometrial contractions during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Choudhury, Soumen; Yadav, Rajkumar Singh; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca(2+) channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9.38±0.96% contraction in Ca(2+) free-RLS compared to 21.60±1.45% in uteri of early pregnancy stage. Intracellular calcium plays major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction during early pregnancy as compared to mid pregnancy, as in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Ca(2+)-free RLS, histamine produced significantly higher contraction in myometrial strips of early-pregancy in comparison to mid-pregnancy (10.59±1.58% and 3.13±0.46%, respectively). In the presence of U-73122, the DRC of histamine was significantly shifted towards right with decrease in maximal effect (Emax) only in early pregnancy suggesting the predominant role of phospholipase-C (PL-C) in this stage of pregnancy.

  19. Allopregnanolone and social stress: regulation of the stress response in early pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Plush, Kate; Yawno, Tamara; Langendijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid metabolite from progesterone, modulates the stress response during early pregnancy. Twenty-five nulliparous sows (Sus scrofa) were allocated to one of three treatments: pregnant, ovariectomized or ovariectomized administered daily intravenously with alfaxalone as a synthetic allopregnanolone analog. On days 5, 12 and 19 of pregnancy, all sows were subjected to social stress by submitting them individually to a resident-intruder test, acting as the intruder. Blood samples were collected to analyze plasma progesterone, allopregnanolone, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations. On day 26, 10 sows across the three treatments were subjected to a dexamethasone suppression test followed by a corticotrophin-releasing hormone administration to test the functionality of their hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through cortisol release. Pregnant sows returned more rapidly to baseline cortisol concentrations following the resident-intruder test (p = 0.006). However, there were no other differences in cortisol or ACTH concentrations according to treatment or day, or to the HPA responsivity test on day 26. Allopregnanolone concentration in pregnant sows was higher than in ovariectomized sows (p < 0.001), but stable during the first third of pregnancy. Allopregnanolone concentration was correlated with longer resident-intruder test duration (pregnant: r = 0.66, p = 0.0003; ovariectomized: r = 0.47, p = 0.03), reflecting lower aggressiveness, and with progesterone concentration (r = 0.25, p = 0.03). Alfaxalone administration raised plasma allopregnanolone concentration in alfaxalone-administered sows but resulted in little behavioral and physiological effects. These findings did not support the hypothesis that the stress response of the female pig changes in the first third of pregnancy. Allopregnanolone was associated with lower aggression in social

  20. Inability to have children caused by recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancies - implications for a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, Małgorzata; Karmowski, Andrzej; Karmowski, Mikołaj; Krzemieniewska, Joanna; Kulczycka, Aleksandra; Gabryś, Marian Stanisław; Koryś, Jerzy; Gworys, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    This review is inspired by a case of two pregnancies of the same patient complicated by HELLP syndrome, which suggests that there is a predisposition for the occurrence of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy. HELLP syndrome, uncommon below the 20th week and rarer still in two consecutive pregnancies, appeared in two pregnancies of the same woman. The aim of our work is to try to understand the cause of heterogeneity of HELLP syndrome and help find a way of prolonging such pregnancies. Recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy is a form of severe, fulminant preeclampsia. The preceding symptom is a surge in blood pressure. The hypertension becomes resistant to antihypertensive drugs, which indicates that preexisting hypertension is later accompanied by other factors contributing to the rise in blood pressure. Different effects of high dosage of corticosteroids on liver and platelets show that there are different factors responsible for liver damage and for thrombocytopenia. It seems that the symptoms have various origins, so the therapy with one drug only is not sufficiently effective. Nicotine analogues or a plant extract (from rootstock of Eriosema kraussianum) used by South African traditional healers for erectile dysfunction seem to give a chance of prolonging pregnancy and, consequently, having children.

  1. Engaging pregnant and parenting teens: early challenges and lessons learned from the Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Asheer, Subuhi; Berger, Amanda; Meckstroth, Alicia; Kisker, Ellen; Keating, Betsy

    2014-03-01

    This article draws on data from the ongoing federal Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches to discuss the early implementation experiences of two new and innovative programs intended to delay rapid repeat pregnancy among teen mothers: (1) AIM 4 Teen Moms, in Los Angeles County, California; and (2) Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy (T.O.P.P.), in Columbus, Ohio. Program staff report common challenges in working with teen mothers, particularly concerning recruitment and retention, staff capacity and training, barriers to participation, and participants' overarching service needs. Lessons learned in addressing these challenges provide useful guidance to program developers, providers, policy makers, and stakeholders working with similar populations.

  2. Drug use during early pregnancy: Cross-sectional analysis from the Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Emil L.; Gudmundsdottir, Anna M.; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To analyse drug use in early pregnancy with special focus on socio-demographic factors associated with psychotropic and analgesic drug use. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects. A total of 1765 women were invited via their local health care centres, and 1111 participated at 11–16 weeks of pregnancy by filling out a postal questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and obstetric background, stressful life events, and drug use. Main outcome measures. Drug use prior to and early on in pregnancy, socio-demographic factors, smoking, and adverse life events were investigated. Drug categories screened for were psychotropics (collective term for antidepressants, relaxants, and sleep medication), analgesics, hormones, nicotine, vitamins/minerals, and homeopathic medicine. Results. Drug use from the aforementioned drug categories, excluding vitamins/minerals and homeopathic medicine, was reduced by 18% during early pregnancy, compared with six months prior to conception (49% vs. 60%). Psychotropic drug use during early pregnancy was associated with elementary maternal education (p < 0.5), being unemployed (p < 0.001), being single/divorced/separated (p < 0.01), smoking prior to or during pregnancy (p < 0.01), forced to change job/move house (p < 0.001), and psychotropic drug use six months prior to pregnancy (p < 0.001). No items on the stressful life events scale were associated with increased analgesic use, which increased only with multiparity. Conclusions. Use of analgesics and psychotropic drugs seems common in pregnancy. Our results indicate that lack of a support network, stressful life events, and lower status in society may predispose women to more drug use. GPs and midwives responsible for maternity care could take this into account when evaluating risk and gain for women and foetuses in the primary care setting. PMID:25299613

  3. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p < 0.001), and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001). Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant. PMID:27916904

  4. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-11-30

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p < 0.001), and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001). Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  5. Interferon stimulated genes as peripheral diagnostic markers of early pregnancy in sheep: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Mauffré, V; Grimard, B; Eozenou, C; Inghels, S; Silva, L; Giraud-Delville, C; Capo, D; Sandra, O; Constant, F

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the diagnostic reliability of pregnancy detection using changes in interferon stimulated gene (ISG) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in circulating immune cells in ewes. Two different groups of ewes (an experimental group, experiment 1 and a farm group, experiment 2) were oestrus-synchronized and blood sampled on day 14 (D0=day of insemination in control animals, experiment 1) and day 15 (experiment 2). Real-time PCR were performed to evaluate the abundance of different ISG mRNAs. In the experimental group, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 29 ewes born and bred in experimental facilities were isolated using a Percoll gradient method. Gene expression for Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) mRNA were, respectively, 8.3-fold, 6.1-fold and 2.7-fold higher (P0.10) in CXCL10, STAT1, MX1, Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2 (MX2) and ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) mRNA expression were found between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. The ROC curves and the hierarchical classification generated from the real-time PCR data failed to discriminate between pregnant and non-pregnant animals. In this group of animals, our results show a strong variability in ISG expression patterns: 17% of animals identified as non-pregnant by the five tests were in fact pregnant, only 52% of pregnant animals had at least two positive results (two genes above threshold), whereas up to five positive results (five genes above threshold) were needed to avoid misclassification. In conclusion, this study illustrates the high variability in ISG expression levels in immune circulating cells during early pregnancy and, therefore, highlights the limits of using ISG expression levels in blood samples, collected on PAXgene® tubes on farms, for early pregnancy detection in sheep.

  6. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene impairs decidualization and decidual angiogenesis in mice during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyan; Shen, Cha; Liu, Xueqing; He, Junlin; Ding, Yubin; Gao, Rufei; Mu, Xinyi; Geng, Yanqing; Wang, Yingxiong; Chen, Xuemei

    2017-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental persistent organic pollutant and a well-known endocrine disruptor. BaP exposure could alter the steroid balance in females. Endometrium decidualization and decidual angiogenesis are critical events for embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance during early pregnancy and are modulated by steroids. However, the effect of BaP on decidualization is not clear. This study aimed to explore the effects of BaP on decidualization and decidual angiogenesis in pregnant mice. The result showed that the uteri in the BaP-treated groups were smaller and exhibited an uneven size compared with those in the control group. Artificial decidualization was detected in the uteri of the controls, but weakened decidualization response was observed in the BaP-treated groups. BaP significantly reduced the levels of estradiol, progesterone, and their cognate receptors ER and PR, respectively. The expression of several decidualization-related factors, including FOXO1, HoxA10, and BMP2, were altered after BaP treatment. BaP reduced the expression of cluster designation 34 (CD34), which indicated that the decidual angiogenesis was inhibited by BaP treatment. In addition, BaP induced the downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A. These data suggest that oral BaP ingestion compromised decidualization and decidual angiogenesis. Our results provide experimental data for the maternal reproductive toxicity of BaP during early pregnancy, which is very important for a comprehensive risk assessment of BaP on human reproductive health.

  7. Maternal Early Pregnancy Serum Metabolomics Profile and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding as Predictors of Placental Abruption: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Sumner, Susan J.; McRitchie, Susan; Carlson, James E.; Ananth, Cande V.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Qiu, Chunfang; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Placental abruption, an ischemic placental disorder, complicates about 1 in 100 pregnancies, and is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolomics holds promise for improving the phenotyping, prediction and understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms of complex clinical disorders including abruption. We sought to evaluate maternal early pregnancy pre-diagnostic serum metabolic profiles and abnormal vaginal bleeding as predictors of abruption later in pregnancy. Methods Maternal serum was collected in early pregnancy (mean 16 weeks, range 15 to 22 weeks) from 51 abruption cases and 51 controls. Quantitative targeted metabolic profiles of serum were acquired using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) and the Absolute IDQ® p180 kit. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history were abstracted from medical records. Stepwise logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the extent to which metabolites aid in the prediction of abruption. We evaluated the predictive performance of the set of selected metabolites using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and area under the curve (AUC). Results Early pregnancy vaginal bleeding, dodecanoylcarnitine/dodecenoylcarnitine (C12 / C12:1), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C 38:1 (PC ae C38:1) strongly predict abruption risk. The AUC for these metabolites alone was 0.68, for early pregnancy vaginal bleeding alone was 0.65, and combined the AUC improved to 0.75 with the addition of quantitative metabolite data (P = 0.003). Conclusion Metabolomic profiles of early pregnancy maternal serum samples in addition to the clinical symptom, vaginal bleeding, may serve as important markers for the prediction of abruption. Larger studies are necessary to corroborate and validate these findings in other cohorts. PMID:27300725

  8. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    PubMed

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising/internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.02, CI 1.00-1.05) than for late binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.21, CI 1.04-1.42). No associations were observed for any of the above cutoff outcomes. Exposure to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy is associated with elevated externalising scores, particularly so in late pregnancy. No increased risk for any of the above cutoff scale scores was observed.

  9. Early Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in a Neonate Associated with Maternal Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shreyas; Richardson, Carol J; Jain, Sunil; Swischuck, Leonard E

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare but potentially fatal condition occurring in the third trimester or early postpartum period. It is characterized by microvesicular fatty infiltration of the liver. Clinically, the three most prominent derangements in women with AFLP are hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency, and impaired coagulation. AFLP is associated with an increased incidence of morbidity and mortality in neonates, though the exact cause for this remains unclear. Deficiency of vitamin K in patients with liver disease has been widely reported. Case Description We present a unique case of severe intracranial bleeding because of the early vitamin K deficiency in a neonate whose mother had AFLP along with accompanying renal insufficiency. Conclusion We suggest that monitoring infants born to mothers with AFLP, for vitamin K deficiency bleeding will help reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants.

  10. Early Onset of Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Disease after Full-Term Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Fatemeh; Zarchi, Mojgan Karimi

    2008-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a curable malignancy that occurred approximately 50% after term pregnancies, and prognosis in this form of gestational trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is Poor. The earliest onset choriocarcinoma after term pregnancy in one study was reported 3 weeks after delivery, but in current study, choriocarcinoma was diagnosed 2 weeks after delivery. 28 years-old women gravidity 2, parity 2 delivered a healthy infant at term. Frequent episodes of vaginal bleeding occurred after 10 days of delivery. On admission to hospital, she had lesions in the lungs. The pretreatment human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level was 84,000 mIU/ml and her FIGO risk factor score was 8 (high risk group). The EMA/CO regimen was administered as first line chemotherapy and the patient achieved complete remission after 7 courses. Although early onset postpartum hemorrhage is due to complication of delivery, but gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) may be occurred and assessment of human chorionic gonadotropin could be help to early diagnose of GTD. PMID:23675070

  11. Elevated endometrial natural killer cell activity during early porcine pregnancy is conceptus-mediated.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Croy, B A; Chapeau, C; King, G J

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated an extended time course of endometrial NK cell activity during gestation and the mechanisms underlying changes in uterine NK cell activity in pigs. Endometrial tissues were collected from cyclic, pseudopregnant and pregnant nulliparous pigs on various days post-estrus, and from pigs 10 days after insemination with seminal plasma or killed spermatozoa. NK effector cells were isolated from each endometrial sample, size fractionated and tested for cytolytic activity against NK target cells (K562) using chromium release assays and immunocytochemically for the frequency of perforin-positive cells. Various cell fractions showed different levels of NK activity and had different proportions of cells expressing perforin. Morphologically, cells in the fraction with maximal NK activity almost all showed typical lymphocyte size and shape. Substantially elevated NK cell activity was recorded in pregnant pigs on days 10 and 20 of gestation. By day 30, the cytolytic activity declined dramatically to an almost undetectable level. Very little activity was found in uterine cells isolated from cyclic, pseudopregnant, and seminal plasma or killed spermatozoa inseminated animals, and no differences were detected either between follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle or between different days of pseudopregnancy. These results indicate that elevated NK cell activity during early porcine pregnancy cannot be attributed to contributions from either the maternal systemic endocrine status or from components of boar semen. The changes in NK cell activity observed in porcine endometrial tissues during early pregnancy must therefore be associated with the actual presence of conceptuses.

  12. Early pancreatic panniculitis associated with HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Eugene B; Sachdev, Reena; Kim, Jinah; Peng, David

    2011-10-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis represents a rare cutaneous disorder most commonly associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma. We describe a case of a 17-year-old woman who presented with a 2-day history of erythematous patches involving her bilateral knees and tender, scattered red-brown nodules involving her bilateral anterior shins. She was seen during a hospitalization for emergent cesarean section and her hospital course was complicated by HELLP syndrome (defined by the presence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count), acute fatty liver of pregnancy and pancreatitis. The characteristic histopathologic findings, including ghost cells, fat necrosis and granular basophilic material with dystrophic calcification, appear in later lesions. In early lesions, as was shown in this case, a neutrophilic subcutaneous infiltrate raises a differential diagnosis including infection, subcutaneous Sweet's syndrome or atypical erythema nodosum. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of pancreatic panniculitis in association with HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Early recognition is critical, as skin lesions may precede the development of pancreatitis. Often, as in our case, the effects of pancreatitis may be life threatening.

  13. Temporal and spatial expression of AIF in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Ying; Hua, Yu-Ping; An, Tie-Zhu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Nie, Wei-Tian; Wang, Lian-Bang; Shan, Chun-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a phylogenetically old, bifunctional protein with a pro-apoptotic function and redox activity. AIF regulates apoptosis and also plays a role in the defense against stress depending on its subcellular localization. Embryo implantation is a complicated process, in which an activated blastocyst interacts with a receptive uterus. The expression and regulation of AIF were investigated in this study in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation, artificial decidualization and under hormonal treatment using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. During early pregnancy, temporally and spatially regulated patterns of AIF expression were found in the mouse uterus; AIF expression in the luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium is regulated by steroid hormones; AIF mRNA expression in the stroma is influenced by the active blastocyst; and AIF protein was found to be located in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus through confocal microscope. Our data suggest that AIF might play an important role during mouse embryo implantation and that the role of AIF might be implemented through its physiological activity rather than through its pro-apoptotic function in the mouse uterus during this period.

  14. Influence of mefloquine administration during early pregnancy on rat embryonic development.

    PubMed

    El-Dakdoky, Mai Helmy

    2015-02-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) is a potent effective antimalarial drug against multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It has been proved that MQ can be given safely during the second and third trimesters. However, there is very limited information on the drug safety during the first trimester. The aim of the present work was to investigate the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of MQ during critical periods of early development. Wistar rats were orally administered with a single dose of MQ (45 mg/kg bwt or 187 mg/kg bwt) on the 1st, 6th or 13th days of pregnancy. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) was chosen as a positive control. On the 21st day of gestation, standard parameters of reproductive performance and fetal examination were estimated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione reductase activity and glutathione (GSH) content were evaluated in placenta and liver homogenates of mothers and fetuses. The results indicated that MQ did not adversely affect the number of implantation, resorption, litter size and fetal body weight and length. Only groups treated with MQ on the 1st day of gestation exhibited significant decrease in fetal body weight. Examination of fetuses for external, visceral and skeletal changes showed minimal variations involving extension of lateral brain ventricles and renal pelvis and signs of delayed ossification. These variations were accompanied with significant elevation of MDA level and reduction of GSH content of fetal liver. Prenatal exposure to MQ at early pregnancy did not cause any embryolethal or teratogenic effect. It could slightly exacerbate minor variations.

  15. Effects of Maternal Dexamethasone Treatment Early in Pregnancy on Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Ovine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Shang, H.; Meng, W.; Sloboda, D. M.; Li, S.; Ehrlich, L.; Plagemann, A.; Dudenhausen, J. W.; Henrich, W.; Newnham, J. P.; Challis, J. R. G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous cortisol on binucleate cells (BNCs), which promote fetal growth, may be mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy stages of placental development might modify this response. In this article, we have investigated the expression of GR as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 119) were randomized to control (2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX-treated groups (intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placental tissue was collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. Total glucocorticoid receptor protein (GRt) was increased significantly by DEX at 50 and 125 dG in females only, but decreased in males at 125 dG as compared to controls. Glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) protein was not changed after DEX treatment. Three BNC phenotypes were detected regarding GRα expression (++, +−, −−), DEX increased the proportion of (++) and decreased (−−) BNC at 140 dG. Effects were sex- and cell type dependent, modifying the responsiveness of the placenta to endogenous cortisol. We speculate that 3 maturational stages of BNCs exist and that the overall activity of BNCs is determined by the distribution of these 3 cell types, which may become altered through early pregnancy exposure to elevated glucocorticoids. PMID:25332218

  16. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.

  17. Adiponectin, orexin A and orexin B concentrations in the serum and uterine luminal fluid during early pregnancy of pigs.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Nina; Kiezun, Marta; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Maleszka, Anna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-released protein that circulates in human plasma at high concentrations. The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are derived from a common precursor peptide, prepro-orexin and are produced mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. It has been demonstrated that the peptides such as adiponectin and orexins have an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine functions. These hormones appear to be implicated in both normal and disturbed pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to determine adiponectin and orexin concentrations in the plasma and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of pigs during early gestation and to explore the relationships between hormone concentrations and stages of pregnancy. The greatest plasma concentrations of adiponectin were observed on days 15-16 and 27-28 of pregnancy, and the least concentrations were on days 30-32 of gestation and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. In ULF, adiponectin concentrations were greater on days 15-16 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle than on days 10-11 and days 12-13 of pregnancy. The greatest OXA concentrations in the blood plasma were noted on days 10-16 of gestation, and the least OXA concentrations were on days 27-32 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. Orexin A concentrations in ULF were greater on days 10-11 of the cycle than throughout pregnancy. Serum OXB concentrations were greatest on days 10-11 and 30-32 of pregnancy, and least on days 12-28 of gestation. The greatest OXB concentrations in ULF were on days 10-13 of gestation, and the least OXB concentrations were on days 15-16 of pregnancy. This is first study to demonstrate the presence of adiponectin and orexins in the serum and ULF during early pregnancy of pigs as well as the relationships between adiponectin and orexin concentrations and the stage of pregnancy. The fluctuations in adiponectin

  18. Vasopressin in Preeclampsia: A Novel Very-Early Human Pregnancy Biomarker and Clinically-Relevant Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Santillan, Mark K.; Santillan, Donna A.; Scroggins, Sabrina M.; Min, James Y.; Sandgren, Jeremy A.; Pearson, Nicole A.; Leslie, Kimberly K.; Hunter, Stephen K.; Zamba, Gideon K.D.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. As other non-pregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent upon elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert pro-segment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life than AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, BMI, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the 6th week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng/hr) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data (1) implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, (2) identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically-relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are (3) consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans. PMID:25001273

  19. Changes in circulating microRNA levels can be identified as early as day 8 of pregnancy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Jason; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Poor reproductive performance remains a major issue in the dairy industry, with low conception rates having a significant impact on milk production through extended calving intervals. A major limiting factor is the lack of reliable methods for early pregnancy diagnosis. Identification of animals within a herd that fail to conceive within 3 weeks after insemination would allow early re-insemination and shorten calving intervals. In a previous study, we found an increase in plasma miR-26a levels in Day 16-pregnant relative to non-pregnant heifers, however changes in miRNA levels that early during pregnancy were very small which likely prevented the identification of robust biomarkers. In this study, we extended our analyses to a wider interval during pregnancy (Days 8 to 60, n = 11 heifers) with the rationale that this may facilitate the identification of additional early pregnancy miRNA biomarkers. Using small RNA sequencing we identified a total of 77 miRNAs that were differentially expressed on Day 60 relative to Day 0 of pregnancy. We selected 14 miRNAs for validation by RT-qPCR and confirmed significant differences in the expression of let-7f, let-7c, miR-30c, miR-101, miR-26a, miR-205 and miR-143 between Days 0 and 60. RT-qPCR profiling throughout Days 0, 8, 16 and 60 of pregnancy showed a distinct increase in circulating levels of miR-26a (3.1-fold, P = 0.046) as early as Day 8 of pregnancy. In summary, in contrast to earlier stages of pregnancy (≤ Day 24), marked differences in the levels of multiple miRNAs can be detected in circulation by Day 60 in cattle. Retrospective analyses showed miR-26a levels to be increased in circulation as early as Day 8, sooner than previously reported in any species, suggesting a biological role for this miRNA in the very early events of pregnancy.

  20. Recurrent pregnancy loss: evaluation and discussion of the causes and their management.

    PubMed

    Kiwi, Robert

    2006-10-01

    Women who miscarry two or more consecutive pregnancies deserve an evaluation to look for the cause, which sometimes can be treated. They can also be reassured that approximately 70% of women in this situation ultimately succeed in having a baby, even though the cause of recurrent miscarriage can be determined in only about half of cases.

  1. Parents' Grief Following Pregnancy Loss: A Comparison of Mothers and Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Kandi M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined gender differences in bereavement following miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Interviewed 56 couples using Perinatal Grief Scale. Women scored significantly higher than men on most dimensions of grief at two months, one year, and two years postloss, except on dimension indicating most serious consequences of…

  2. Changes in feeding level during early pregnancy affect fertility in gilts.

    PubMed

    Virolainen, J V; Tast, A; Sorsa, A; Love, R J; Peltoniemi, O A T

    2004-02-01

    Modified feeding combining the benefits of restricted feeding after ovulation and abundant feeding during implantation in autumn was tested. Three groups of eight gilts were housed with individual feeding stalls and fed 40 MJ per day of a commercial ration. Following insemination gilts were fed 27 MJ per day (LLL) or 54 MJ per day (HHH) for 34 days or 27 MJ per day for 10 days, 54 MJ per day for 7 days followed by 27 MJ per day until day 34 (LHL). Blood for progesterone analysis was collected daily during the week of ovulation and then twice a week until the end of the study. For LH assay, blood was collected from five gilts from each group at 15 min interval for 10 h on the day 15 of pregnancy. Gilts were weighed three times at intervals of 4 weeks. The effect of dietary treatment was significant (P<0.05) on body weight gain from days 0 to 30 of pregnancy, 1201, 287 and 438 g per day for groups HHH, LLL and LHL respectively. The pregnancy rate at day 34 was significantly higher (P<0.005) in HHH-group (100%) compared with LLL (25%) and LHL (38%) although HHH group had significantly lower (P<0.05) progesterone concentration on days 9 and 12. The basal LH level was significantly higher (P<0.01) in HHH group compared to LHL group (mean +/- S.D.) (0.98 +/- 0.22 and 0.60 +/- 0.08, respectively). Gilts in HHH group had a significantly higher mean LH concentration (1.18 +/- 0.24) than those in group LHL (0.7 +/- 0.07) (P<0.05), but not in group LLL (0.93 +/- 0.15) (P=0.09). There was a tendency (P=0.058) for amplitude to be higher for gilts in HHH group. The LHL feeding strategy did not provide the benefits anticipated. Instead, it was the HHH feeding strategy that provided a distinct advantage in pregnancy rate. The mechanism mediating supportive effect of high feeding level on the maintenance of early pregnancy is yet to be determined.

  3. Antioxidant adaptive responses of extraembryonic tissues from cloned and non-cloned bovine conceptuses to oxidative stress during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Garrel, Catherine; Delatouche, Laurent; Heyman, Yvan; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2010-07-01

    Placental oxidative stress has been suggested as a key factor in early pregnancy failure. Abnormal placental development limits success in pregnancies obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, an index of oxidative stress, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were determined in bovine extraembryonic tissues of SCNT or artificial insemination (AI) conceptuses. Chorionic tissues of SCNT and AI conceptuses show no difference in MDA content at day 32 of pregnancy. MDA content in chorionic tissues of SCNT and AI conceptuses decreased from day 32 to 62 of pregnancy. MDA content was lower in chorionic tissues of SCNT conceptuses than that in chorionic tissues of AI conceptuses at day 62 of pregnancy. SOD1, SOD2 and GPX activities in chorionic tissues of SCNT conceptuses were not different from those in chorionic tissues of AI conceptuses at both gestational ages. CAT activity in chorionic tissues of SCNT conceptuses was lower at day 32, and it was higher at day 62 of pregnancy than that in chorionic tissues of AI conceptuses. CAT and GPX activities increased in chorionic tissues of SCNT conceptuses with gestational age. SOD1 activity decreased while that of SOD2 and GPX increased in chorionic tissues of AI conceptuses with gestational age. At day 62 of pregnancy, MDA content and enzyme activities in cotyledonary tissues were not different between AI and SCNT conceptuses. Different antioxidant mechanisms may operate within the chorion of AI and SCNT conceptuses. Further experiments are required to elucidate this point.

  4. Minor malformations characteristic of the retinoic acid embryopathy and other birth outcomes in children of women exposed to topical tretinoin during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Kirsten D; Kao, Kelly K; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Alvarado, Sonia; Chavez, Carmen; Dick, Lyn; Felix, Robert; Johnson, Diana; Chambers, Christina D

    2005-07-15

    Topical tretinoin (Retin-A) is used to treat acne and photodamaged skin. Its teratogenic potential is of concern due to its similarity to isotretinoin (Accutane), a recognized human teratogen. Through the California Teratogen Information Service and Clinical Research Program, between 1983 and 2003, 106 pregnant women with first-trimester exposure to topical tretinoin were prospectively ascertained and followed. Birth outcomes, including pregnancy loss, major structural defects, and pre- and postnatal growth were compared to 389 similarly and prospectively ascertained women with no topical tretinoin exposure during pregnancy. Because a distinct pattern of malformation had already been described for isotretinoin, we also compared exposed (n = 62) and unexposed (n = 191) infants on the prevalence of a specific subset of minor malformations selected to represent the spectrum of defects comprising the retinoic acid embyopathy. There were no significant differences between groups in the proportion of pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortion (6.6% in exposed vs. 8.5% in unexposed; P = 0.53), or infants with major structural defects (2.2% in exposed vs. 1.2% in unexposed; P = 0.62). In addition, the groups were similar in birth weight, length and head circumference, and there were no significant differences between groups in length of gestation. Furthermore, the prevalence of one or more retinoic acid-specific minor malformations did not differ significantly between groups (12.9% in exposed vs. 9.9% in unexposed; P = 0.51). First-trimester topical tretinoin exposure in this study was not associated with an increased risk of any adverse pregnancy outcome evaluated. Specifically, there was no indication that topical tretinoin is associated with an increased risk for minor malformations that are consistent with the retinoic acid embryopathy. Although it is impossible to exclude the possibility that some women/infants may be uniquely susceptible to topical tretinoin exposure

  5. Quantifying renal allograft loss following early antibody-mediated rejection.

    PubMed

    Orandi, B J; Chow, E H K; Hsu, A; Gupta, N; Van Arendonk, K J; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, J R; Wickliffe, C; Lonze, B E; Bagnasco, S M; Alachkar, N; Kraus, E S; Jackson, A M; Montgomery, R A; Segev, D L

    2015-02-01

    Unlike antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) with clinical features, it remains unclear whether subclinical AMR should be treated, as its effect on allograft loss is unknown. It is also uncertain if AMR's effect is homogeneous across donor (deceased/live) and (HLA/ABO) antibody types. We compared 219 patients with AMR (77 subclinical, 142 clinical) to controls matched on HLA/ABO-compatibility, donor type, prior transplant, panel reactive antibody (PRA), age and year. One and 5-year graft survival in subclinical AMR was 95.9% and 75.7%, compared to 96.8% and 88.4% in matched controls (p = 0.0097). Subclinical AMR was independently associated with a 2.15-fold increased risk of graft loss (95% CI: 1.19-3.91; p = 0.012) compared to matched controls, but not different from clinical AMR (p = 0.13). Fifty three point two percent of subclinical AMR patients were treated with plasmapheresis within 3 days of their AMR-defining biopsy. Treated subclinical AMR patients had no difference in graft loss compared to matched controls (HR 1.73; 95% CI: 0.73-4.05; p = 0.21), but untreated subclinical AMR patients did (HR 3.34; 95% CI: 1.37-8.11; p = 0.008). AMR's effect on graft loss was heterogeneous when stratified by compatible deceased donor (HR = 4.73; 95% CI: 1.57-14.26; p = 0.006), HLA-incompatible deceased donor (HR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.10-5.19; p = 0.028), compatible live donor (no AMR patients experienced graft loss), ABO-incompatible live donor (HR = 6.13; 95% CI: 0.55-67.70; p = 0.14) and HLA-incompatible live donor (HR = 6.29; 95% CI: 3.81-10.39; p < 0.001) transplant. Subclinical AMR substantially increases graft loss, and treatment seems warranted.

  6. Promoting the "3Rs" principle in developmental biology with early and convenient diagnosis of pregnancy in mice.

    PubMed

    Seaborn, Tommy; Moulin, Julie-Alexandra; Côté, Mélissa; Tremblay, Yves

    2011-10-01

    The 3Rs stand for Replacement of animals in experiments, Reduction in the number of experimental animals, and Refinement of experiments to minimize animal pain and stress. We propose to address Reduction and Refinement in the use of mice as experimental models in developmental research. This study focuses on the maternal percentage of weight increase at gestational day 8 (%WI(GD8)) to diagnose pregnancy early in BALB/c mice. We documented sensitivity, specificity, false positive and negative rates and probability of pregnancy associated with %WI(GD8). This predictive model of pregnancy allows for significant reduction in the number of mice to be sacrificed in developmental research. Reported observations and literature suggest that this model is independent of litter size and should be applicable to other mice strains. This procedure allows mice pregnancy detection before midgestation and proposes an ethically sound approach to experimental animal use by optimizing the number of mice used and refining animal manipulation.

  7. Pregnancy loss and maternal methemoglobin levels: an indirect explanation of the association of environmental toxics and their adverse effects on the mother and the fetus.

    PubMed

    Mohorovic, Lucijan; Petrovic, Oleg; Haller, Herman; Micovic, Vladimir

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this epidemiologic study was to point out a relationship between the exposure to products of coal combustion, and complications in pregnancy where one third of causes of stillbirth are still unknown. In the town of Labin (Croatia) a coal-powered thermoelectric power plant is the single major air polluter. We compared the records of miscarriages, premature births and stillbirths in two periods: the control and the exposure period. Data on reproductive loss was based on the records of pregnant women visiting for regular monthly pregnancy checkups. At the time of the epidemiological prospective study, 260 women (n = 138 in the clean period and n = 122 in the dirty period) were considered representative. The data were processed using Chi square and correlation tests. The frequencies of miscarriages and stillbirths were significantly lower in the control than in the exposure period (p < 0.05). Methemoglobinemia and stillbirths recorded over the "exposure" period are significantly higher than in the "control" period (p = 0.0205). The level of methemoglobin in the bloodstream is an worthy biomarker, predictor and precursor of environmental toxics' adverse effects on the mother and fetus, and can indirectly explain the unrecognized level of fetal methemoglobin. Methemoglobin and heme, having prooxidant properties, also cause the early and late endothelial dysfunction of vital organs. Despite our retrospective epidemiological study findings, we emphasize that the rate of reproductive loss represents a hypothetical risk, which needs to be confirmed with further fetal clinical and anatomopatholgical researches about the effects of methemoglobin catabolism products on the fetal CNS.

  8. Prevalence and Patterns of Nitrosatable Drug Use among U.S. Women during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jean D; Kelley, Katherine E; Werler, Martha M; Langlois, Peter H; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    BACKROUND Experimental evidence indicates that certain drugs, that are secondary or tertiary amines or amides, form N-nitroso compounds in the presence of nitrite in an acidic environment. Nitrosatable drugs have been associated with birth defects in a few epidemiologic studies. This study describes the prevalence and patterns of nitrosatable drug use among U.S. women during early pregnancy and examines maternal factors associated with such use. METHODS Data were analyzed from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and included 6807 mothers who gave birth to babies without major congenital malformations during 1997 to 2005. Information was collected by telephone interview about medication use, demographic factors, and maternal health. Drugs taken during the first trimester were classified according to nitrosatability, amine and amide functional groups, and primary indication of use. RESULTS Approximately 24% of the women took one or more nitrosatable drugs during the first trimester, including 12.4%, 12.2%, and 7.6% who respectively took secondary amines, tertiary amines, or amides. Five of the ten most commonly taken drugs were available over the counter. Women who were non-Hispanic white (29.5%), with 1 year or more college education (27.3%) or 40 years or older (28.8%) had the highest prevalence of use. Supplemental vitamin C, an inhibitor of nitrosation, was not taken by 41.6% and 19.3% of nitrosatable drug users during the first and second months of pregnancy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In this U.S. population, ingestion of drugs classified as nitrosatable was common during the first trimester of pregnancy, especially among non-Hispanic white, more educated, and older mothers. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21472845

  9. Rapid one step urine test for human chorionic gonadotrophin in evaluating suspected complications of early pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, J C; Kelly, T; MacLean, A B; McAllister, E J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the ability of a sensitive one step urine test to detect human chorionic gonadotrophin in women with suspected complications of early pregnancy. DESIGN--Test on women presenting to accident and emergency department with gynaecological problems over six months. Results were validated using a quantitative assay for human chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. SETTING--Accident and emergency department and gynaecology wards of a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--130 unselected women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin by one step test, presence of ectopic pregnancy, and results of quantitative analysis of chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. RESULTS--79 women had a positive urine test result and 51 a negative result. All 12 women with ectopic pregnancy had a positive test result, although urinary concentration varied from 191 IU/l to 47,800 IU/l. Only one woman, who had a faintly positive result, was found not to be pregnant on subsequent examination. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of the urine test were 100% respectively. 33 women were sent home from the accident and emergency department with normal clinical findings after a negative urine test result. All these women had undetectable concentrations of chorionic gonadotrophin in matched samples of urine and serum. CONCLUSIONS--A simple, rapid one step test for chorionic gonadotrophin should be available for the initial evaluation of emergency gynaecological problems. The additional cost of the test is offset by not admitting those patients whose clinical findings are normal and who have a negative urine test result and by reducing the number of women requiring quantitative assays of chorionic gonadotrophin. Images FIG 1 PMID:2059687

  10. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding

  11. High Body Mass Index Is an Indicator of Maternal Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroxinemia, and Thyroid-Peroxidase Antibody Positivity during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy complications and neurocognitive deficiencies in the developing fetus. Currently, some researchers demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) is associated with thyroid function in nonpregnant population. Hence, the American Thyroid Association recommended screening thyroid function in obese pregnant women; however, the evidence for this is weak. For this purpose, our study investigated the relationship between high BMI and thyroid functions during early pregnancy in Liaoning province, an iodine-sufficient region of China. Methods. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and BMI were determined in 6303 pregnant women. Results. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 may act as an indicator of hypothyroxinemia and TPOAb positivity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with increases in the odds of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia, and TPOAb positivity. The prevalence of isolated hypothyroxinemia increased among pregnant women with BMI > 24 kg/m2. Conclusions. High BMI during early pregnancy may be an indicator of maternal thyroid dysfunction; for Asian women whose BMI > 24 kg/m2 and who are within 8 weeks of pregnancy, thyroid functions should be assessed especially. PMID:26273610

  12. Pregnancy increases urinary loss of carnitine and reduces plasma carnitine in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Woon; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2005-05-01

    This study compared plasma and urinary carnitine concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant Korean women. The subjects were fifty pregnant women and thirty non-pregnant women aged 24-28 years. During the first trimester, dietary carnitine intakes in the pregnant women were much lower than in non-pregnant women (70.00 (SD 29.22) micromol/d), but over the course of pregnancy carnitine intake increased from 44.64 (SD 24.84) micromol/d during the first trimester to 96.11 (SD 36.56) micromol/d during the third trimester. Pregnant women had a significantly lower plasma carnitine concentration than non-pregnant women. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine were significantly lower during the second and third trimesters than the first. Plasma acid-insoluble acylcarnitine levels, which tended to be higher in the non-pregnant women compared with the pregnant women, increased significantly as gestation proceeded. The urinary excretion of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine was significantly higher in the pregnant women during the first and second trimesters than in non-pregnant women and decreased significantly as gestation proceeded. We found that there was a significant decrease in plasma carnitine level even though dietary carnitine intake increased as gestation proceeded. The low urinary excretion of carnitine in late pregnancy may be caused by an increased demand during pregnancy.

  13. Evidence of Placental Autophagy during Early Pregnancy after Transfer of In Vitro Produced (IVP) Sheep Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Paola; Czernik, Marta; Zacchini, Federica; Fidanza, Antonella; Loi, Pasqualino; Ptak, Grażyna Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancies obtained by Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) are associated with limited maternal nutrient uptake. Our previous studies shown that in vitro culture of sheep embryos is associated with vascularization defects in their placentae and consequent reduction of embryo growth. Autophagy is a pro-survival cellular mechanism triggered by nutrient insufficiency. Therefore, the goal of our present study was to determine if autophagy is involved in early placental development after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. To do this, placentae obtained following transfer of IVP sheep embryos were compared with placentae obtained after natural mating (control—CTR). The placentae were collected on day 20 post-fertilization and post-mating, respectively, and were analyzed using molecular (qPCR), ultrastructural and histological/immunological approaches. Our results show drastically increased autophagy in IVP placentae: high levels of expression (p<0.05) of canonical markers of cellular autophagy and a high proportion of autophagic cells (35.08%; p<0.001) were observed. We conclude that high autophagic activity in IVP placentae can be a successful temporary counterbalance to the retarded vasculogenesis and the reduction of foetal growth observed in pregnancies after transfer of IVP embryos. PMID:27326761

  14. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Swift, J. A.; Pearce, J.; Jethwa, P. H.; Taylor, M. A.; Ellis, S.; McMullen, S.

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue. PMID:27843648

  15. Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.R.; Julian, J.; Munir, M.I.; Soares, M.J.

    1987-10-01

    The peri-implantation period extends from the time the blastocyst is free in the uterus, through the processes of recognition and attachment, to the beginning of trophoblast differentiation and the interactions between the embryo and the uterine endometrium which initiate establishment of the hemochorial placenta. It is during the peri-implantation period that the embryo and hormonally regulated endometrial cells appear to be most sensitive to factors which introduce risk into the intrauterine environment. There are no markers which can be used practically to assess pregnancy risk during the peri-implantation period of either human or laboratory rodents. Experimental studies, using in vitro laboratory models of differentiating trophoblasst cells, have identified peptide hormone markers of pivotal developmental processes. Exposure of trophoblast during the expression of these processes could have severe and far-reaching effects individually and societally. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used extensively as a marker to assess risk during the early stages of pregnancy. Extrapolation of experimental data indicates how hCG could be used more effectively in analyses of possible cause and effect relationships. The limitations of hCG as a marker for risk during the human peri-implantation period are discussed. Peptide hormones which could serve to assess risk during this critical period of extraordinary sensitivity to toxic factors are introduced.

  16. Application of Carnegie stages of development to unify human and baboon ultrasound findings early in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; De Leon-Luis, Juan; Friel, Lara A; Wolf, Roman

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons. Mean gestational age at ultrasonographic studies was significantly different for humans and baboons (50.4 vs. 41 days, respectively; p>0.01). Significant correlations (p>0.01) were noted between ultrasonographic measurements and Carnegie stages of development in both humans and baboons. Only the gestational and the yolk sacs were significantly smaller in baboons than in humans (p>0.05). The findings that embryonic CRL, extra-embryonic space and heart rate are very similar between the 17th and 23rd Carnegie developmental stages make the baboon a promising surrogate of human pregnancy for investigations using celocentesis.

  17. Warburg-like Glycolysis and Lactate Shuttle in Mouse Decidua during Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ru-Juan; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Qi, Qian-Rong; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-08-28

    Decidualization is an essential process of maternal endometrial stromal cells to support pregnancy. Although it is known that enhanced glucose influx is critical for decidualization, the underlying mechanism in regulating glucose metabolism in decidua remains insufficiently understood. Here, we demonstrate that aerobic glycolysis-related genes and factors are all substantially induced during decidualization, indicating the existence of Warburg-like glycolysis in decidua. In vitro, progesterone activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) and c-Myc through Pi3k-Akt signaling pathway to maintain aerobic glycolysis in decidualizing cells. Knocking down of pyruvate kinase M2 (Pkm2) attenuates the induction of decidual marker gene. Decidual formation in vivo is also impaired by glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate. Besides, lactate exporter monocarboxylate transporter 4 (Mct4) is induced in newly formed decidual cells, whereas lactate importer Mct1 and proliferation marker Ki-67 are complementarily located in the surrounding undifferentiated cells, which are supposed to consume lactate for proliferation. Hif1α activation is required for lactate-dependent proliferation of the undifferentiated cells. Inhibition of lactate flux leads to compromised decidualization and decelerated lactate-dependent proliferation. In summary, we reveal that Warburg-like glycolysis and local lactate shuttle are activated in decidua and play important roles for supporting early pregnancy.

  18. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Mendes, Roberta Hack; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-02-13

    Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2) was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0) or excessive weight (≥25.0). Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454), as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018). Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610) and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266). Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.Fundamento: O sistema cardiovascular materno sofre adaptações progressivas durante a gestação, acarretando flutuações da pressão arterial. Entretanto, não há consenso sobre a variação pressórica normal na gravidez saudável. Objetivo: Descrever a variação da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  20. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and vitamin B12 status in a cohort of Chinese early pregnancy women with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Gu, Yan; Wei, Xiaoping; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tingyu

    2017-01-01

    Maternal folate and vitamin B12 deficiency predict poor pregnancy outcome. To improve pregnancy outcomes in rural area of China, we investigate rural women’s folic acid supplementation (FAS) status and the associations between maternal vitamin B status during the first trimester and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. We collected the questionnaire information and drew 5 ml of blood from 309 early pregnant rural women. The birth outcomes were retrieved from medical records after delivery. Out of the total, 257 had taken FAS, including 50 before conception (group A) and 207 during the first trimester (group B). The concentration of plasma folate and the RBC folate supplementation groups were obviously higher than that of no-supplementation group (group N, p<0.01). The mean vitamin B12 levels in FAS group were significantly higher than those in groups N and B (p<0.05). Women who delivered SGA or premature infants had reduced plasma folate levels (p<0.05) compared with controls. The multiple linear regression models revealed that RBC folate levels affected the infant birth weight (p<0.01) and birth length (p<0.05). In conclusion, FAS can significantly improve plasma folate and RBC folate levels in childbearing-age women and reduce the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:28366994

  1. [Ultrasound echographic imaging and measurement of the amniotic cavity and yolk sac in early pregnancy: comparative study of intact and disordered pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    The chorionic cavity, vertex-breech length, yolk sac, and amnion were systematically demonstrated and measured in 50 early pregnancies, i.e., between the end of the sixth and the tenth week of gestation post menstruationem (p.m.). This was done in 23 cases with clinically and sonographically intact pregnancies without symptoms of abortion, in 12 cases with living embryos with symptoms of abortion, and in 15 cases of retained miscarriage. The thin amniotic membrane is sonographically demonstrated as a narrow, sharply defined reflected band in the chorionic cavity. In addition to direct demonstration of the amniotic membrane, the amniotic cavity can be demonstrated by a density difference in the echogenicity of the chorionic and amniotic fluids. While there are delicate, homogenously distributed inner echoes in the chorionic cavity, the amniotic cavity is empty save for the embryo structure. Sonographically, therefore, the amniotic cavity stands out as a spherical structure within the chorionic cavity. In all pregnancies with a living embryo it was possible to demonstrate the yolk sac sonographically as a sharply defined ring structure in the chorionic cavity. In 10 of the 15 cases of retained miscarriage only a rudimentary remnant of the yolk sac could be detected. The development of the amniotic and chorionic cavities and vertex-breech length was constant in the pregnancies with living embryos, the amnion developing synchronously with the vertex-breech length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Water loss from Venus: Implications for the Earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The atmosphere of Venus outgassed rapidly as a result of planetary heating during accretion, resulting in massive water loss. The processes affecting atmospheric chemistry following accretion have consisted largely of hydrogen escape and internal re-equilibrium. The initial bulk composition of Venus and Earth are assumed to have been roughly similar. Chemical speciation on Venus was controlled by the temperature and oxygen buffering capacity of the surface magma. It is also assumed that the surfaces of planetary bodies of the inner solar system were partly or wholly molten during accretion with a temperature estimated at 1273 to 1573 K. To investigate the range of reasonable initial atmospheric compositions on Venus, limits have to be set for the proportion of total hydrogen and the buffered fugacity of oxygen. Using the C/H ratio of 0.033 set for Earth, virtually all of the water generated during outgassing must later have been lost in order to bring the current CO2/H2O ratio for Venus up to its observed value of 10 sup 4 to 10 sup 5. The proportion of H2O decreases in model atmospheres with successfully higher C/H values, ultimately approaching the depleted values currently observed on Venus. Increasing C/H also results in a rapid increase in CO/H2O and provides an efficient mechanism for water loss by the reaction CO+H2O = CO2 + H2. This reaction, plus water loss mechanisms involving crustal iron, could have removed a very large volume of water from the Venusian atmosphere, even at a low C/H value.

  3. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  4. Planetological implications of mass loss from the early Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Matese, J. J.; Doyle, L. R.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The element lithium is observed to be underabundant in the Sun by a factor of approx. equal to 100. To account for this depletion, Boothroyd et al. (Ap. J., in press 1991) proposed a model in which the Sun's zero-age-main-sequence mass was approx. 1.1 solar magnitude. If this is the explanation for the lithium depletion, then astronomical observations of F/G dwarfs in clusters suggest that the timescale for mass loss is approx. equal to 0.6 Gyr. Assuming this approximate timescale, the authors investigated several planetological implications of the astrophysical model.

  5. Mechanisms of uterine estrogen signaling during early pregnancy in mice: an update

    PubMed Central

    Robertshaw, I; Bian, F; Das, S K

    2016-01-01

    Adherence of an embryo to the uterus represents the most critical step of the reproductive process. Implantation is a synchronized event between the blastocyst and uterine luminal epithelium leading to structural and functional changes for further embryonic growth and development. The milieu comprising the complex process of implantation is mediated by estrogen through diverse but interdependent signaling pathways. Mouse models have demonstrated the relevance of the expression of estrogen modulated paracrine factors to uterine receptivity and implantation window. More importantly, some factors seem to serve as molecular links between different estrogen pathways promoting cell growth, acting as molecular chaperones or amplifying estrogenic effects. Abnormal expression of these factors can lead to implantation failure and infertility. This review provides an overview of several well characterized signaling pathways that elucidates molecular cross-talk involved in the uterus during early pregnancy. PMID:26887389

  6. Health Resources and Strategies among Employed Women in Norway during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood.

    PubMed

    Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2015-01-01

    The number of women in paid employment is increasing. However, when becoming a mother for the first time, many seem unprepared for the challenge of balancing motherhood and work as well as for the impact on their health. The aim of this study was to investigate the health resources and strategies of employed women in Norway during pregnancy and early motherhood by means of salutogenic theory. A hypothetical-deductive interpretive approach based on Antonovsky's salutogenic theory was applied in a secondary analysis. A total of six themes were identified; three were classified as health resources when experiencing tension and three as health strategies. Salutogenic theory seems to be a useful framework for illuminating the health resources and strategies adopted by employed women who become mothers. The identified health resources when experiencing tension and the health strategies applied may have implications for maternity care professionals and employers in promoting the health of such women and supporting them to combine work and family life.

  7. Human Extravillous Trophoblasts Penetrate Decidual Veins and Lymphatics before Remodeling Spiral Arteries during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    He, Nannan; van Iperen, Liesbeth; de Jong, Danielle; Szuhai, Karoly; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; van der Westerlaken, Lucette A. J.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, the defective invasion of the maternal endometrium by fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) can lead to insufficient perfusion of the placenta, resulting in pregnancy complications that can put both mother and baby at risk. To study the invasion of maternal endometrium between (W)5.5–12 weeks of gestation by EVTs, we combined fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry to determine the presence of (male) EVTs in the vasculature of the maternal decidua. We observed that interstitial mononuclear EVTs directly entered decidual veins and lymphatics from W5.5. This invasion of decidual veins and lymphatics occurred long before endovascular EVTs remodelled decidual spiral arteries. This unexpected early entrance of interstitial mononuclear EVTs in the maternal circulation does not seem to contribute to the materno-placental vascular connection directly, but rather to establish (and expand) the materno-fetal interface through an alternative vascular route. PMID:28081266

  8. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  9. Consumption of Distinct Dietary Lipids during Early Pregnancy Differentially Modulates the Expression of microRNAs in Mothers and Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Fernandes, Flavia S.; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G.; Visioli, Francesco; Herrera, Emilio; Dávalos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Diet during pregnancy and lactation influences the offspring’s health in the long-term. Indeed, human epidemiological studies and animal experiments suggest that different type of fatty acids consumption during pregnancy affect offspring development and susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Epigenetic changes are thought to be elicited by dietary factors during critical timing of development. microRNAs (miRNAs) are versatile regulators of gene expression. Thus, we aimed to determine the influence of different fatty acids on miRNA expression in offspring when given during early pregnancy. We fed pregnant either soybean (SO), olive (OO), fish (FO), linseed (LO), or palm-oil (PO) diets from conception to day 12 of gestation; and standard diet thereafter. miRNA expression was assessed in liver an adipose tissue of pregnant rats and their virgin counterparts. While liver concentrations of fatty acids in pregnant or virgin rats replicated those of the diets consumed during early pregnancy, their pups’ liver tissue marginally reflected those of the respective experimental feeds. By contrast, the liver fatty acid profile of adult offsprings was similar, regardless of the diet fed during gestation. Different parental miRNAs were modulated by the different type of fatty acid: in adult offspring, miR-215, miR-10b, miR-26, miR-377-3p, miR-21, and miR-192 among others, were differentially modulated by the different fatty acids fed during early pregnancy. Overall, our results show that maternal consumption of different types of fatty acids during early pregnancy influences miRNA expression in both maternal and offspring tissues, which may epigenetically explain the long-term phenotypic changes of the offspring. PMID:25671565

  10. Consumption of distinct dietary lipids during early pregnancy differentially modulates the expression of microRNAs in mothers and offspring.

    PubMed

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Fernandes, Flavia S; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G; Visioli, Francesco; Herrera, Emilio; Dávalos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Diet during pregnancy and lactation influences the offspring's health in the long-term. Indeed, human epidemiological studies and animal experiments suggest that different type of fatty acids consumption during pregnancy affect offspring development and susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Epigenetic changes are thought to be elicited by dietary factors during critical timing of development. microRNAs (miRNAs) are versatile regulators of gene expression. Thus, we aimed to determine the influence of different fatty acids on miRNA expression in offspring when given during early pregnancy. We fed pregnant either soybean (SO), olive (OO), fish (FO), linseed (LO), or palm-oil (PO) diets from conception to day 12 of gestation; and standard diet thereafter. miRNA expression was assessed in liver an adipose tissue of pregnant rats and their virgin counterparts. While liver concentrations of fatty acids in pregnant or virgin rats replicated those of the diets consumed during early pregnancy, their pups' liver tissue marginally reflected those of the respective experimental feeds. By contrast, the liver fatty acid profile of adult offsprings was similar, regardless of the diet fed during gestation. Different parental miRNAs were modulated by the different type of fatty acid: in adult offspring, miR-215, miR-10b, miR-26, miR-377-3p, miR-21, and miR-192 among others, were differentially modulated by the different fatty acids fed during early pregnancy. Overall, our results show that maternal consumption of different types of fatty acids during early pregnancy influences miRNA expression in both maternal and offspring tissues, which may epigenetically explain the long-term phenotypic changes of the offspring.

  11. Maternal TSH level and TPOAb status in early pregnancy and their relationship to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Bao, Yi-Rong; Su, Xiu-Juan; Cai, XueYa; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in pregnant women and often related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but its relationship with gestational diabetes remains controversial. In particular, the impact of thyroperoxidase antibodies status on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes is not clear. We investigated the association between combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroperoxidase antibodies status in early pregnancy (<20 weeks of gestation) and gestational diabetes mellitus. A total of 7084 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria, which included thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(+)] (n = 78), thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(-)] (n = 281), thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(+)] (n = 648), and thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(-)] (n = 6077). Of the 7084 cases included in our study, 1141 cases were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in TSH(N)TPOAb(-), TSH(H)TPOAb(-), TSH(N)TPOAb(+), and TSH(H)TPOAb(+) was 14.65, 19.57, 24.85, and 46.15 %, respectively. Compared with TSH(N)TPOAb(-) women, the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus was increased in all other groups of women in early pregnancy. After dividing early pregnancy into first and second trimesters, we found that TSH(H)TPOAb(-) women in the first trimester do not show this increase. Our study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  12. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake.

  13. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L on at least one sampling occasion. Plasma levels increased slightly over the gestation period and peaked in late pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake. PMID:26938997

  14. Technical note: A new surgical technique for ovariohysterectomy during early pregnancy in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    McLean, K J; Dahlen, C R; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Crosswhite, M R; Neville, B W; Walden, S D; Caton, J S

    2016-12-01

    We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance. Ovariectomy and cesarean section protocols are well established in research and veterinary medicine and were used as starting points for procedural development. Crossbred Angus heifers ( = 46; ∼ 15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7 kg) were used to develop this new surgical tissue collection technique. Heifers were subjected to the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrous synchronization protocol so ovariohysterectomy occurred at d 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, and 50 of gestation. Key aspects of the standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique included 1) use of local anesthetic for a standing flank incision, 2) locate the uterine and ovarian arteries via blind palpation and ligate them through the broad ligament via an improved clinch knot, 3) cut the ovaries and uterus free from the broad ligament, 4) ligate the cervix and uterine branch of the vaginal artery, and 5) cut through the cervix and remove the reproductive tract. Surgical times, from skin incision to placement of the last suture, were influenced ( = 0.04) by stage of gestation. In pregnant heifers, time decreased from d 22 (120.0 ± 12.0 min) of gestation to d 40 (79.5 ± 12.0 min) of gestation; then increased at d 50 (90.5 ± 14.7 min) of gestation. Using this procedure, we obtained uterine, placental, and embryo/fetal tissues that had experienced limited hypoxia, little or no trauma, and thus were excellent quality for scientific study. All heifers recovered

  15. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alison B.; Windham, Gayle C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one…

  16. Infants and Children with Hearing Loss Need Early Language Access

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J.; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing,1 who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the toss of a normally hearing child).2 Clinical research indicates that a deaf child’s poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression.3 Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents’ decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child.4 In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880.5 While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet,6 the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly.7 The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the

  17. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  18. The Role of Educators of the Deaf in the Early Identification of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that, as identification of hearing loss in infancy becomes increasingly common due to universal newborn screening, early interventionists will need to forge links to health-care providers, to have specialized training in deafness and hearing loss, and to have expertise in providing services to very young children and to children with mild…

  19. Identification of Hearing Loss after Age 18 Months Is Not Early Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Apuzzo, Mah-rya L.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the development (at 40 months) of 40 deaf and hard-of-hearing infants whose hearing loss was identified either before 6 months or after 18 months. Infants whose hearing loss was identified earlier scored significantly on tests of expressive language and comprehension/concepts. Results support early hearing screening for…

  20. Ending a Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Ending a Pregnancy Ending a PregnancyWhat is abortion?Abortion means ending a pregnancy early. In some cases, ... This is called a miscarriage, or a spontaneous abortion. In other cases, a woman chooses to end ...

  1. RNA sequencing of chorionic villi from recurrent pregnancy loss patients reveals impaired function of basic nuclear and cellular machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sõber, Siim; Rull, Kristiina; Reiman, Mario; Ilisson, Piret; Mattila, Pirkko; Laan, Maris

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) concerns ~3% of couples aiming at childbirth. In the current study, transcriptomes and miRNomes of 1st trimester placental chorionic villi were analysed for 2 RPL cases (≥6 miscarriages) and normal, but electively terminated pregnancies (ETP; n = 8). Sequencing was performed on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Differential expression analyses detected 51 (27%) transcripts with increased and 138 (73%) with decreased expression in RPL compared to ETP (DESeq: FDR P < 0.1 and DESeq2: <0.05). RPL samples had substantially decreased transcript levels of histones, regulatory RNAs and genes involved in telomere, spliceosome, ribosomal, mitochondrial and intra-cellular signalling functions. Downregulated expression of HIST1H1B and HIST1H4A (Wilcoxon test, fc≤0.372, P≤9.37 × 10−4) was validated in an extended sample by quantitative PCR (RPL, n = 14; ETP, n = 24). Several upregulated genes are linked to placental function and pregnancy complications: ATF4, C3, PHLDA2, GPX4, ICAM1, SLC16A2. Analysis of the miRNA-Seq dataset identified no large disturbances in RPL samples. Notably, nearly 2/3 of differentially expressed genes have binding sites for E2F transcription factors, coordinating mammalian endocycle and placental development. For a conceptus destined to miscarriage, the E2F TF-family represents a potential key coordinator in reprogramming the placental genome towards gradually stopping the maintenance of basic nuclear and cellular functions. PMID:27929073

  2. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  3. Relationships between Early Child Factors and School Readiness Skills in Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…

  4. The role of magnesium and thyroid function in early pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization (IVF): New aspects in endocrine physiology

    PubMed Central

    Stuefer, Sibilla; Moncayo, Helga; Moncayo, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background The initiation of a pregnancy is a process that requires adequate energetic support. Recent observations at our Institution suggest a central role of magnesium in this situation. The aim of this study was to evaluate magnesium, zinc, selenium and thyroid function as well as anti-Müllerian hormone in early pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization as compared to spontaneous successful pregnancies. Results A successful outcome of pregnancy after IVF treatment was associated with 2 parameters: higher levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as well as higher levels of magnesium in the pre-stimulation blood sample. These two parameters, however, showed no correlation. Spontaneous pregnancies as well as pregnancies after IVF show a fall of magnesium levels at 2–3 weeks of gestation. This drop of magnesium concentration is larger following IVF as compared to spontaneous pregnancies. Parallel to these changes TSH levels showed an increase in early IVF-pregnancy. At this time point we also observed a positive correlation between fT4 and TSH. This was not observed in spontaneous pregnancies. Thyroid antibodies showed no correlation to outcomes. Conclusions In connection with the initiation of pregnancy following ovarian stimulation dynamic changes of magnesium and TSH levels can be observed. A positive correlation was found between fT4 and TSH in IVF pregnancies. In spontaneous pregnancies smaller increases of TSH levels are related to higher magnesium levels. General significance We propose that magnesium plays a role in early pregnancy as well as in pregnancy success independently from anti-Müllerian hormone. Neither thyroid hormones nor thyroid antibodies were related to outcome. PMID:26675754

  5. Joint effects of pregnancy, sociocultural, and environmental factors on early life gut microbiome structure and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Albert M.; Sitarik, Alexandra R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Fujimura, Kei E.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Kim, Haejin; Zoratti, Edward M.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Boushey, Homer A.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Lynch, Susan V.; Johnson, Christine C.

    2016-01-01

    The joint impact of pregnancy, environmental, and sociocultural exposures on early life gut microbiome is not yet well-characterized, especially in racially and socioeconomically diverse populations. Gut microbiota of 298 children from a Detroit-based birth cohort were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing: 130 neonates (median age = 1.2 months) and 168 infants (median age = 6.6 months). Multiple factors were associated with neonatal gut microbiome composition in both single- and multi-factor models, with independent contributions of maternal race-ethnicity, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, marital status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and indoor pets. These findings were consistent in the infants, and networks demonstrating the shared impact of factors on gut microbial composition also showed notable topological similarity between neonates and infants. Further, latent groups defined by these factors explained additional variation, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects. Our findings also have implications for studies investigating the impact of the early life gut microbiota on disease. PMID:27558272

  6. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy. In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  7. Risk of Congenital Heart Defects after Ambient Heat Exposure Early in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Nathalie; Fraser, William D.; Sauve, Reg; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Kosatsky, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital heart defects may be environmentally related, but the association with elevated ambient temperature has received little attention. Objectives: We studied the relationship between outdoor heat during the first trimester of pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects. Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 704,209 fetuses between 2 and 8 weeks postconception from April to September in Quebec, Canada, 1988–2012. We calculated the prevalence of congenital heart defects at birth according to the number of days women were exposed to maximum temperature ≥ 30°C. In log-binomial regression models, we estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the relationship of temperature with seven critical and eight noncritical heart defects, adjusted for pregnancy characteristics. Results: Prevalence of congenital heart defects was 979.5 per 100,000 for 10 days or more of temperature ≥ 30°C compared with 878.9 per 100,000 for 0 days of exposure. Temperature was more precisely associated with noncritical than critical defects, which had lower prevalence. Fetuses exposed to 15 days of temperature ≥ 30°C between 2 and 8 weeks postconception had 1.06 times the risk of critical defects (95% CI: 0.67, 1.67) and 1.12 times the risk of noncritical defects (95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) relative to 0 days. Associations were higher for atrial septal defects (PR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.70) than for other noncritical defects. For atrial septal defects, associations with elevated temperatures began the 3rd week postconception. Conclusions: Extreme heat exposure during the first trimester may be associated with noncritical heart defects, especially of the atrial septum. Citation: Auger N, Fraser WD, Sauve R, Bilodeau-Bertrand M, Kosatsky T. 2017. Risk of congenital heart defects after ambient heat exposure early in pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 125:8–14; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP171 PMID:27494594

  8. The Complement System and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Regal, Jean F.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.; Burwick, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the feta allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  9. Estrogenicity of parabens revisited: impact of parabens on early pregnancy and an uterotrophic assay in mice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jordan; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2009-07-01

    Parabens, a class of preservatives routinely added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods, have estrogenic properties. Given that intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova in inseminated females can be disrupted by minute levels of exogenous estrogens, we assessed the impact of parabens upon early gestation. In Experiment 1, butylparaben was administered subcutaneously in several doses ranging from 0.05 to 35 mg/animal/day to inseminated CF-1 mice on days 1-4 of pregnancy. Butylparaben exposure did not affect litter size, the number of pups born, postnatal day 3 litter weights, or the number of pups surviving to postnatal day 5. In contrast, administration of 500 ng/animal/day 17beta-estradiol terminated all pregnancies. In Experiment 2, propylparaben was subcutaneously administered to inseminated CF-1 mice on gestational days 1-4. Dams were sacrificed on gestation day 6 and the number of implantation sites was counted. Propylparaben had no impact on the number of implantation sites observed. Since Experiments 1 and 2 did not yield the anticipated results, an uterotrophic assay was conducted in Experiment 3 to re-evaluate the in vivo estrogenicity of parabens. Ovariectomized CF-1 and CD-1 mice were administered butylparaben in doses ranging from 0.735 to 35 mg per animal for three consecutive days. Mice were sacrificed on the fourth day, and uterine mass was recorded. There was no effect of butylparaben on uterine wet or dry mass at any dose in either strain. In contrast, administration of 17beta-estradiol consistently increased uterine mass in both strains. These data indicate that the estrogen-sensitive period of implantation is not vulnerable to paraben exposure, and that the in vivo estrogenicity of parabens may not be as potent as previously reported.

  10. Increased oxidative stress from early pregnancy in women who develop preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Vandita; Rani, Alka; Patil, Vidya; Pisal, Hemlata; Randhir, Karuna; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder, defined as new onset of maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Our earlier study has shown increased maternal oxidative stress at delivery to be associated with poor birth outcome in PE. However, these results were observed when the pathology had progressed and may have been secondary to the effects of the disorder. To understand the role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in PE right from early pregnancy, in this prospective study, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in maternal blood at 3 time-points of gestation [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2), at delivery (T3)] and in cord blood. Gene expression of SOD and GPx and protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme were also analyzed in the placenta. MDA levels were higher at T1 (p < 0.01) and T2 (p < 0.01) in women with PE as compared with control. GPx levels were higher at T3 (p < 0.05) while SOD levels were lower at T2 (p < 0.05), T3 (p < 0.01) and in cord (p < 0.01) in PE. GSH levels at T1 (p < 0.05) and expression of GPx in the placenta were lower in PE as compared with control. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that women who develop PE exhibit increased oxidative stress right from 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. This may alter placental development and lead to fetal programming of adult non-communicable disease in the offspring.

  11. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children < age 6, and 19,209 controls from California birth records within 2km (1.3 miles) (ALL) and 6km (3.8 miles) (AML) of an air toxics monitoring station between 1990–2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3rd trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95%CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child’s first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children. PMID:24472648

  12. Characteristics related to early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy among women diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus: an analysis using the GOAL study

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jessica H; Howards, Penelope P; Spencer, Jessica B; Tsagaris, Katina C; Lim, Sam S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women and often develops during their reproductive years. Research suggests that some women who receive cyclophosphamide as treatment for SLE experience earlier decline in menstrual function, but reproductive health among women with SLE who have not taken this drug is less well understood. This study aims to better understand the relation between SLE and reproduction by assessing early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy in women treated with and without cyclophosphamide from a population-based cohort with large numbers of African-Americans. Methods Female patients with SLE, ages 20–40 at time of diagnosis, who were 40 years or older at the time of the survey were included in this analysis (N=147). Participants in the Georgians Organized Against Lupus (GOAL) study were asked about their reproductive histories including early secondary amenorrhoea, defined as loss of menstruation before age 40. Results Women who were cyclophosphamide naïve had an increased prevalence of early secondary amenorrhoea compared with population estimates, 13–17% compared with 1–5%. Factors associated with early secondary amenorrhoea in women not treated with cyclophosphamide were marital status and receipt of a kidney transplant. Treatment with cyclophosphamide doubled the prevalence after adjustment for patient characteristics. Over 88% of women reported being pregnant at least once, and about 83% of these had a child, but the majority of pregnancies occurred before diagnosis. Conclusions SLE diagnosed in early adulthood may affect women's reproductive health even if they are not treated with cyclophosphamide. Better understanding of other factors related to reproductive health in this population will improve clinicians' and patients' abilities to make treatment and family planning decisions. PMID:27752335

  13. Effect of early or late resynchronization based on different methods of pregnancy diagnosis on reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinedino, L D P; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Cerri, R L A; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of dairy cows subjected to early (ER) or late (LR) resynchronization programs after nonpregnancy diagnoses based on either pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) ELISA or transrectal palpation, respectively. In addition, the accuracy of the PAG ELISA for early pregnancy diagnosis was assessed. Lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with timed artificial insemination (AI) performed between 61 and 74 DIM. On the day of the first postpartum AI, 1,093 cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to treatments; however, because of attrition, 452 ER and 520 LR cows were considered for the statistical analyses. After the first postpartum AI, cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and inseminated on the same day of detected estrus. Cows from ER that were not reinseminated in estrus received the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization 2d before pregnancy diagnosis. On d 28 after the previous AI (d 27 to 34), pregnancy status was determined by PAG ELISA, and nonpregnant cows continued on the Ovsynch protocol for reinsemination. Pregnant cows had pregnancy status reconfirmed on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) by transrectal palpation, and those that lost the pregnancies were resynchronized. Cows assigned to LR had pregnancy diagnosed by transrectal palpation on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) and nonpregnant cows were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol. Blood was sampled on d 28 after AI (d 27 to 34) from cows in both treatments that had not been reinseminated on estrus and again on d 46 after AI (d 35 to 52) for assessment of PAG ELISA to determine the accuracy of the test. Cows were subjected to treatments for 72d after the first insemination. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at first postpartum timed AI did not differ between treatments and averaged 28.9%. The proportion of nonpregnant cows that were resynchronized and received timed AI was greater

  14. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  15. International standards for early fetal size and pregnancy dating based on ultrasound measurement of crown–rump length in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Papageorghiou, A T; Kennedy, S H; Salomon, L J; Ohuma, E O; Cheikh Ismail, L; Barros, F C; Lambert, A; Carvalho, M; Jaffer, Y A; Bertino, E; Gravett, M G; Altman, D G; Purwar, M; Noble, J A; Pang, R; Victora, C G; Bhutta, Z A; Villar, J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There are no international standards for relating fetal crown–rump length (CRL) to gestational age (GA), and most existing charts have considerable methodological limitations. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project aimed to produce the first international standards for early fetal size and ultrasound dating of pregnancy based on CRL measurement. Methods Urban areas in eight geographically diverse countries that met strict eligibility criteria were selected for the prospective, population-based recruitment, between 9 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks' gestation, of healthy well-nourished women with singleton pregnancies at low risk of fetal growth impairment. GA was calculated on the basis of a certain last menstrual period, regular menstrual cycle and lack of hormonal medication or breastfeeding in the preceding 2 months. CRL was measured using strict protocols and quality-control measures. All women were followed up throughout pregnancy until delivery and hospital discharge. Cases of neonatal and fetal death, severe pregnancy complications and congenital abnormalities were excluded from the study. Results A total of 4607 women were enrolled in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study, one of the three main components of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, of whom 4321 had a live singleton birth in the absence of severe maternal conditions or congenital abnormalities detected by ultrasound or at birth. The CRL was measured in 56 women at < 9 + 0 weeks' gestation; these were excluded, resulting in 4265 women who contributed data to the final analysis. The mean CRL and SD increased with GA almost linearly, and their relationship to GA is given by the following two equations (in which GA is in days and CRL in mm): mean CRL = −50.6562 + (0.815118 × GA) + (0.00535302 × GA2); and SD of CRL = −2.21626 + (0.0984894 × GA). GA estimation is carried out according to the two equations: GA = 40.9041 + (3.21585 × CRL0.5) + (0.348956

  16. Prenatal depression and young low-income mothers' perception of their children from pregnancy through early childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Helen Y; Hans, Sydney L

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the role of prenatal depression on young mothers' perception of difficulty in child behavior and parent-child interaction from pregnancy through the first two years of child development. 248 low-income, African American women aged between 13 and 21 years reported on their perceptions of child behavior, parent-child interaction, and on depressive symptoms at the third trimester of pregnancy and at 4-, 12- and 24-months postpartum. During pregnancy, a high percentage (47%) of the young mothers scored above the clinical level of prenatal depressive symptoms. These mothers anticipated and perceived significantly more child difficulty and parent-child interaction difficulty than did non-depressed mothers during pregnancy and over the first two years of the child's development. Moreover, prenatal depression uniquely predicted negative maternal perception throughout the early years of child development even after adjusting for postpartum depression history. The enduring association between prenatal depression and a mother's perception of her child is discussed with respect to the importance of pregnancy in mothers' developing mental schema about their children and the emerging parent-child relationship.

  17. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  18. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  19. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  20. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal exposure, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the exposures occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied.

  1. Pregnancy in the early stages following DIEP flap breast reconstruction--a review and case report.

    PubMed

    Bhat, W; Akhtar, S; Akali, A

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old lady who became pregnant 3 months after undergoing a DIEP breast reconstruction. There are reports of pregnancy following TRAM, DIEP flap breast reconstruction and abdominoplasty performed after breast reconstruction, however this is the only case in the literature of a pregnancy within 3 months of DIEP breast reconstruction. The literature on breast reconstruction and pregnancy is reviewed.

  2. Efficient fat storage in premenopausal women and in early pregnancy: a role for estrogen.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, A J; Martin, A; Brown, M A

    2001-10-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in body fat in humans. Adipose tissue increases with puberty and early pregnancy in women, suggesting gonadal steroids can influence body fat. Previously, we have observed that oral estrogen, compared with transdermal estrogen, reduced postprandial lipid oxidation and increased body fat, possibly due to suppressed hepatic lipid oxidation. If estrogen effects lipid oxidation, we predicted that subjects with significantly different endogenous estrogen production would oxidize lipids at different rates. The aim of this study was to compare energy metabolism in 12 pregnant (19 wk gestation, 29 +/- 1 yr, 1.66 +/- 0.02 m, 73.5 +/- 2.4 kg), 11 nonpregnant premenopausal (29 +/- 2 yr, 1.68 +/- 0.02 m, 63.1 +/- 1.8 kg), and 28 postmenopausal (58 +/- 1 yr, 1.62 +/- 0.01 m, 69.9 +/- 1.0 kg) women who were not receiving estrogen, and to relate these findings to endogenous estrogen concentrations. All women underwent indirect calorimetry under identical situations in the basal and postprandial state following a standard mixed meal. Basal (5998 +/- 184 vs. 5712 +/- 184 vs. 5800 +/- 121 kJ.24 h, respectively) and postprandial energy expenditure (7172 +/- 239 vs. 6964 +/- 210 vs. 6955 +/- 147 kJ.24 h) was similar among groups. However, basal lipid oxidation was reduced in pregnant (45.3 +/- 6.1 mg/min, P < 0.05) and nonpregnant women (44.5 +/- 6.3 mg/min, P < 0.05) compared with postmenopausal women (58.4 +/- 2.9 mg/min). Postprandial lipid oxidation differed among groups, being least in pregnant women (8.8 +/- 6.2 mg/min) compared with nonpregnant (28.9 +/- 6.4 mg/min, P < 0.04) and postmenopausal (48.1 +/- 4.0 mg/min, P = 0.0001) women. There was a significant reciprocal increase in postprandial carbohydrate oxidation. Mean postprandial glucose levels were slightly but nonsignificantly higher in pregnant women. Insulin levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal compared nonpregnant, but not pregnant, women. In a multiple regression analysis

  3. Health Resources and Strategies among Employed Women in Norway during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood

    PubMed Central

    Alstveit, Marit; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2015-01-01

    The number of women in paid employment is increasing. However, when becoming a mother for the first time, many seem unprepared for the challenge of balancing motherhood and work as well as for the impact on their health. The aim of this study was to investigate the health resources and strategies of employed women in Norway during pregnancy and early motherhood by means of salutogenic theory. A hypothetical-deductive interpretive approach based on Antonovsky's salutogenic theory was applied in a secondary analysis. A total of six themes were identified; three were classified as health resources when experiencing tension and three as health strategies. Salutogenic theory seems to be a useful framework for illuminating the health resources and strategies adopted by employed women who become mothers. The identified health resources when experiencing tension and the health strategies applied may have implications for maternity care professionals and employers in promoting the health of such women and supporting them to combine work and family life. PMID:25945258

  4. Migrant women's perceptions of healthcare during pregnancy and early motherhood: addressing the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Casanova, Catarina; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Dias, Sónia

    2014-08-01

    Recent guidelines from the World Health Organization emphasize the need to monitor the social determinants of health, with particular focus on the most vulnerable groups. With this in mind, we evaluated the access, use and perceived quality of care received by migrant women during pregnancy and early motherhood, in a large urban area in northern Portugal. We performed semi-structured interviews in 25 recent mothers, contacted through welfare institutions, who had immigrated from Eastern European countries, Brazil, or Portuguese-speaking African countries. Six native-Portuguese women of equal economic status were also interviewed for comparison. Misinformation about legal rights and inadequate clarification during medical appointments frequently interacted with social determinants, such as low social-economic status, unemployment, and poor living conditions, to result in lower perceived quality of healthcare. Special attention needs to be given to the most vulnerable populations in order to improve healthcare. Challenges reside not only in assuring access, but also in promoting equity in the quality of care.

  5. Influence of follicle characteristics at ovulation on early embryo survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive losses are significant in domestic animals and represent huge economic inefficiencies in livestock production. Across livestock species, embryonic mortality is the greatest contributor to reproductive losses. In most livestock species, early pregnancy diagnosis is an impediment to mak...

  6. Early parental loss and depression history: associations with recent life stress in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss.

  7. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  8. V-ATPase upregulation during early pregnancy: a possible link to establishment of an inflammatory response during preimplantation period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Mallers, Timothy M; Larsen, Benjamin; Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Chaouat, Gerard; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2012-05-01

    Various mechanisms exist to prevent a potentially deleterious maternal immune response that results in compromising survival of semiallogeneic fetus. In pregnancy, there is a necessary early preimplantation inflammatory stage followed by a postimplantation anti-inflammatory stage. Thus, there is a biphasic 'immune response' observed during the course of pregnancy. We provide the evidence that capacitation of sperm induced the expression of a2 isoform of V-ATPase (ATP6V0A2 referred to as a2V), leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif), Il1b, and Tnf in the sperm. Capacitated sperm also released cleaved N-terminal domain of a2V-ATPase (a2NTD), which upregulates the gene expression of Lif, Il1b, Tnf, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Ccl2 (Mcp1)) in the uterus. Unfertilized eggs had low a2V expression, but after fertilization, the expression of a2V increased in zygotes. This increased level of a2V expression was maintained in preimplantation embryos. Seminal plasma was necessary for upregulation of a2V expression in preimplantation embryos, as mating with seminal vesicle-deficient males failed to elicit an increase in a2V expression in preimplantation embryos. The infiltration of macrophages into the uterus was significantly increased after insemination of both sperm and seminal plasma during the preimplantation period of pregnancy. This dynamic infiltration into the uterus corresponded with the uterine a2V expression through the induction of Ccl2 expression. Furthermore, the polarization ratio of M1:M2 (pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory) macrophages in the uterus fluctuated from a ratio of 1.60 (day 1) to 1.45 (day 4) when female mice were inseminated with both sperm and seminal plasma. These data provide evidence that exposure to semen may initiate an inflammatory milieu by inducing a2V and cytokine/chemokine expression, which triggers the influx of macrophages into the preimplantation uterus during the onset of pregnancy and ultimately leads to successful pregnancy

  9. Role of Lactobacillus Species in the Intermediate Vaginal Flora in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Alex; Kiss, Herbert; Hagmann, Michael; Machal, Susanne; Holzer, Iris; Kueronya, Verena; Husslein, Peter Wolf; Petricevic, Ljubomir

    2015-01-01

    intermediate vaginal flora in early pregnancy. PMID:26658473

  10. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in pregnancy and the early postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Tooher, Rebecca; Gates, Simon; Dowswell, Therese; Davis, Lucy-Jane

    2014-01-01

    significant findings in this review are largely derived from trials which are not of high methodological quality. It was not possible to assess the effects of any of these interventions on most outcomes, and especially on rare outcomes such as death, TED and osteoporosis, because of small sample sizes and the small number of trials making the same comparisons.There was some evidence of side effects associated with thromboprophylaxis. Authors’ conclusions There is insufficient evidence on which to base recommendations for thromboprophylaxis during pregnancy and the early postnatal period. Large scale randomised trials of currently-used interventions should be conducted. PMID:20464719

  11. Expression of DROSHA in the Uterus of Mice in Early Pregnancy and Its Potential Significance During Embryo Implantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuizhen; Long, Xia; Ding, Yubin; Chen, Xuemei; He, Junlin; Liu, Shangjing; Geng, Yanqing; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microRNAs are involved in the process of implantation. They play an important role in cell growth and proliferation. DROSHA is the microRNA-processing enzyme and is required for the maturation of microRNAs. However, its expression and function during early pregnancy in mice still remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of DROSHA in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, artificially induced decidualization, and in the ovariectomized mouse uterus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting analyses, and immunohistochemistry. We found that DROSHA was spatiotemporally expressed in decidualizing stromal cells during early pregnancy and in pseudopregnant mice in which decidualization was artificially induced. In the ovariectomized mouse uterus, the expression of DROSHA was upregulated after progesterone treatment. In a stromal cell culture model, the expression of DROSHA gradually increased with the progression of stromal decidualization. Taken together, our findings suggest that DROSHA is involved in stromal decidualization and may play an important role in embryo implantation in mice.

  12. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  13. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingzhen; Shen, Chunzi; Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  14. Early Expression of Pregnancy-Specific Glycoprotein 22 (PSG22) by Trophoblast Cells Modulates Angiogenesis in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Sandra M.; Tirado-González, Irene; Wu, Julie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Johnson, Briana; Warren, James; Freitag, Nancy; Klapp, Burghard F.; Irmak, Ster; Ergun, Suleyman; Dveskler, Gabriela S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse and human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG) are known to exert immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy by inducing maternal leukocytes to secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines that promote a tolerogenic decidual microenvironment. Many such anti-inflammatory mediators also function as proangiogenic factors, which, along with the reported association of murine PSG with the uterine vasculature, suggest that PSG may contribute to the vascular adaptations necessary for successful implantation and placental development. We observed that PSG22 is strongly expressed around the embryonic crypt on Gestation Day 5.5, indicating that trophoblast giant cells are the main source of PSG22 during the early stages of pregnancy. PSG22 treatment up-regulated the secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in murine macrophages, uterine dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. A possible role of PSGs in uteroplacental angiogenesis is further supported by the finding that incubation of endothelial cells with PSG22 resulted in the formation of tubes in the presence and absence of VEGFA. We determined that PSG22, like human PSG1 and murine PSG17 and PSG23, binds to the heparan sulfate chains in syndecans. Therefore, our findings indicate that despite the independent evolution and expansion of human and rodent PSG, members in both families have conserved functions that include their ability to induce anti-inflammatory cytokines and proangiogenic factors as well as to induce the formation of capillary structures by endothelial cells. In summary, our results indicate that PSG22, the most abundant PSG expressed during mouse early pregnancy, is likely a major contributor to the establishment of a successful pregnancy. PMID:22423048

  15. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  16. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  17. Early loss of primary incisors due to parafunctional tendency. Case report.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Keith; Roy, Barnali; Yoon, Richard K

    2012-03-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth associated with a parafunctional habit in 30-month-old child is reported. Report details, clinically and radiographically, these effects in a very young child and reviews diagnostic possibilities. Early detection and scrutiny by the pediatric dentist is important to determine origin and to rule out periodontal disease as manifestation of underlying systemic disease.

  18. The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

  19. Early Intervention for Children with Permanent Hearing Loss: Finishing the EHDI Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl R.

    2006-01-01

    The value of identifying permanent hearing loss during the first few months of life and providing effective treatment to ameliorate or even eliminate the negative consequences has been recognized for many decades. Unfortunately, improvements in achieving this goal were very gradual until the early 1990s. At that time, the combination of…

  20. Defining the Developmental Parameters of Temper Loss in Early Childhood: Implications for Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Choi, Seung W.; Carter, Alice S.; Hullsiek, Heide; Burns, James; McCarthy, Kimberly; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Temper modulation problems are both a hallmark of early childhood and a common mental health concern. Thus, characterizing specific behavioral manifestations of temper loss along a dimension from normative misbehaviors to clinically significant problems is an important step toward identifying clinical thresholds. Methods:…

  1. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in a Mexican-American Cohort: Variability in Early and Late Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Nina; Huen, Karen; Tran, Vy; Street, Kelly; Nguyen, Brian; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    People are exposed to phthalates through their wide use as plasticizers and in personal care products. Many phthalates are endocrine disruptors and have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, knowledge gaps exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of exposure in early and late pregnancy. In this study, we examined the relationship of eleven urinary phthalate metabolites with isoprostane, an established marker of oxidative stress, among pregnant Mexican-American women from an agricultural cohort. Isoprostane levels were on average 20% higher at 26 weeks than at 13 weeks of pregnancy. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations suggested relatively consistent phthalate exposures over pregnancy. The relationship between phthalate metabolite concentrations and isoprostane levels was significant for the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and the sum of high molecular weight metabolites with the exception of monobenzyl phthalate, which was not associated with oxidative stress at either time point. In contrast, low molecular weight metabolite concentrations were not associated with isoprostane at 13 weeks, but this relationship became stronger later in pregnancy (p-value = 0.009 for the sum of low molecular weight metabolites). Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may influence oxidative stress, which is consistent with their relationship with obesity and other adverse health outcomes. PMID:28008399

  2. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) expression and activation in rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chun-Bo; Diao, Hong-Lu; Ma, Hong; Cong, Jing; Yu, Hao; Ma, Xing-Hong; Xu, Li-Bin; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2004-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a member of the Stat family, is specifically activated during mouse embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression, activation and regulation of Stat3 in rat uterus during early pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation and artificial decidualization. Stat3 mRNA was highly expressed in the luminal epithelium on day 5 and in the luminal epithelium and underlying stromal cells at implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy. There was a strong level of Stat3 protein expression and phosphorylation in the stromal cells near the lumen and in the luminal epithelium on day 5 of pregnancy, which was similar to day 5 of pseudopregnancy. In the afternoon of day 6, the strong level of Stat3 phosphorylation was detected only in the luminal epithelium. Stat3 was highly expressed and activated in the decidual cells from days 7 to 9 of pregnancy and under artificial decidualization in the present study. Our results suggest that the strong level of Stat3 activation in the luminal epithelium and underlying stromal cells during the pre-implantation period may be important for establishing uterine receptivity as in mice, and the high level of Stat3 expression and activation in decidual cells may play a role during decidualization.

  3. Excess pregnancy weight gain leads to early indications of metabolic syndrome in a swine model of fetal programming.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S

    2014-03-01

    Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P < .05) at age of 3 weeks (4.35 vs 5.24 ± 0.35 kg). At age of 12 weeks, offspring from MatHE mothers that were weaned onto a high-energy diet had elevated (P < .05) blood glucose (102 vs 64 mg/dL, confidence interval [CI]: 67-91), insulin (0.21 vs 0.10 ng/mL, CI: 0.011-0.019), and lower nonesterified fatty acid (0.31 vs 0.62 mmol/L, CI: 0.34-0.56) than offspring from the same MatHE sows weaned to the normal energy diet. These effects were not observed for offspring from sows fed a normal energy diet during pregnancy. These data indicate that excessive gestational weight gain during pregnancy in a pig model promotes early indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet.

  4. Chronic exposure to bisphenol a impairs progesterone receptor-mediated signaling in the uterus during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In a recent publication in Endocrinology, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA disrupts progesterone receptor-regulated uterine functions, thus affecting uterine receptivity for embryo implantation and decidua morphogenesis, two critical events for establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. In particular we reported a marked impairment of progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and its downstream effector HAND2 in the uterine stromal cells in response to chronic BPA exposure. In an earlier study we have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) expression and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, thus inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly we observed that downregulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with an enhanced activation of FGFR and MAPK signaling, aberrant proliferation, and lack of uterine receptivity in the epithelium. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. This research highlight will provide an overview of our findings and discuss the potential mechanisms by which chronic BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:28239613

  5. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document.

  6. Systems biology approaches to understanding conceptus elongation and early pregnancy loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infertility and subfertility represent major problems in domestic animals and humans. Selection for higher milk production in United States dairy cattle has been very successful during the past 50 years, however the modern lactating dairy cow exhibits a high incidence of subfertility and infertility...

  7. Effect of Menstrual Age on Failure of Medical Management in Women With Early Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Melissa; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2015-07-01

    Objectif : Les femmes qui connaissent une fausse couche précoce et qui présentent un âge gestationnel < 8 semaines sont considérées comme étant de bonnes candidates pour une prise en charge médicale. Notre étude avait pour objectif d’évaluer l’effet de l’âge menstruel sur l’issue de la prise en charge médicale des femmes qui connaissent une fausse couche à un âge gestationnel estimé à < 8 semaines par échographie. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude de cohorte rétrospective qui portait sur toutes les femmes qui ont, entre 2011 et 2013, obtenu leur congé du service des urgences en raison d’un diagnostic de fausse couche précoce, qui ont été traitées au moyen de misoprostol et chez qui l’échographie a déterminé que l’âge gestationnel était inférieur à huit semaines. Nous avons utilisé une régression logistique pour estimer l’effet de l’âge menstruel sur l’échec de la prise en charge médicale (lequel était défini par la nécessité de procéder à une dilatation-curetage [DC] ou d’effectuer un retour imprévu au service des urgences [RISU]). Résultats : Parmi 823 femmes enceintes s’étant présentées au service des urgences en raison de saignements au premier trimestre, 199 ont connu une fausse couche à < 8 semaines (âge gestationnel déterminé par échographie) et ont obtenu leur congé de l’hôpital à la suite de la mise en œuvre d’un traitement au misoprostol. Le risque de DC et de RISU était proportionnel à l’âge menstruel. Plus particulièrement, le risque de DC était de 11,8% à < 8 semaines, de 18,5 % à 8-9 semaines, de 25,3 % à 10-11 semaines et de 30,6 % à ≥ 12 semaines (P < 0,05). Le risque de RISU était de 14,7 % à < 8 semaines, de 27,8 % à 8-9 semaines, de 36,0 % à 10-11 semaines et de 41,7 % à ≥ 12 semaines (P < 0,05). Conclusion : La hausse de l’âge gestationnel (en fonction des dates menstruelles) est associée à une hausse du taux d’échec de la prise en charge médicale chez les femmes qui connaissent une fausse couche précoce, sans égard à l’âge gestationnel estimé par échographie. L’âge gestationnel déterminé en fonction des dates menstruelles devrait être pris en considération au moment de discuter des options de traitement avec les femmes qui connaissent une fausse couche précoce.

  8. Early pregnancy levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein a and the risk of intrauterine growth restriction, premature birth, preeclampsia, and stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon C S; Stenhouse, Emily J; Crossley, Jennifer A; Aitken, David A; Cameron, Alan D; Connor, J Michael

    2002-04-01

    The risk of adverse perinatal outcome among 8839 women recruited to a multicenter, prospective cohort study was related to maternal circulating concentrations of trophoblast-derived proteins at 8-14 wk gestation. Women with a pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in the lowest fifth percentile at 8-14 wk gestation had an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction [adjusted odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.0-4.1], extremely premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), moderately premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.5), preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.3), and stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.2-11.0). The strengths of the associations were similar when the test was performed before 13 wk gestation or between 13 and 14 wk gestation. In contrast, levels of free beta-human CG, another circulating protein synthesized by the syncytiotrophoblast, were not predictive of later outcome in multivariate analysis. PAPP-A has been identified as a protease specific for IGF binding proteins. We conclude that control of the IGF system in the first and early second trimester trophoblast may have a key role in determining subsequent pregnancy outcome.

  9. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho

    2016-01-01

    Background The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Methods A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. Results The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p < 0.0001). Similarly, high correlations for EPA and DHA in serum phospholipid composition were also observed in both early and late pregnancy (correlation coefficients ranged 0.27 to 0.34, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. PMID:28135195

  10. Tooth loss early in life accelerates age-related bone deterioration in mice.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Chen, Huayue; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Both osteoporosis and tooth loss are health concerns that affect many older people. Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease of the elderly, characterized by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue. Chronic mild stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many studies showed that tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone, in mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tooth loss early in life may accelerate age-related bone deterioration using a mouse model. Male senescence-accelerated mouse strain P8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly divided into control and toothless groups. Removal of the upper molar teeth was performed at one month of age. Bone response was evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 months of age. Tooth loss early in life caused a significant increase in circulating corticosterone level with age. Osteoblast bone formation was suppressed and osteoclast bone resorption was activated in the toothless mice. Trabecular bone volume fraction of the vertebra and femur was decreased in the toothless mice with age. The bone quality was reduced in the toothless mice at 5 and 9 months of age, compared with the age-matched control mice. These findings indicate that tooth loss early in life impairs the dynamic homeostasis of the bone formation and bone resorption, leading to reduced bone strength with age. Long-term tooth loss may have a cumulative detrimental effect on bone health. It is important to take appropriate measures to treat tooth loss in older people for preventing and/or treating senile osteoporosis.

  11. Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on early pregnancy and marriage of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Huang, Carolyn; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2015-09-01

    There is promising evidence that poverty-targeted cash transfer programs can have positive impacts on adolescent transitions to adulthood in resource poor settings, however existing research is typically from small scale programs in diverse geographic and cultural settings. We provide estimates of the impact of a national unconditional cash transfer program, the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, on pregnancy and early marriage among females aged 12 to 24, four years after program initiation. The evaluation was designed as a clustered randomized controlled trial and ran from 2007 to 2011, capitalizing on the existence of a control group, which was delayed entry to the program due to budget constraints. Findings indicate that, among 1549 females included in the study, while the program reduced the likelihood of pregnancy by five percentage points, there was no significant impact on likelihood of early marriage. Program impacts on pregnancy appear to work through increasing the enrollment of young women in school, financial stability of the household and delayed age at first sex. The Kenyan program is similar in design to most other major national cash transfer programs in Eastern and Southern Africa, suggesting a degree of generalizability of the results reported here. Although the objective of the program is primarily poverty alleviation, it appears to have an important impact on facilitating the successful transition of adolescent girls into adulthood.

  12. Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on early pregnancy and marriage of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Huang, Carolyn; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    There is promising evidence that poverty-targeted cash transfer programs can have positive impacts on adolescent transitions to adulthood in resource poor settings, however existing research is typically from small scale programs in diverse geographic and cultural settings. We provide estimates of the impact of a national unconditional cash transfer program, the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, on pregnancy and early marriage among females aged 12 to 24, four years after program initiation. The evaluation was designed as a clustered randomized controlled trial and ran from 2007 to 2011, capitalizing on the existence of a control group, which was delayed entry to the program due to budget constraints. Findings indicate that, among 1,549 females included in the study, while the program reduced the likelihood of pregnancy by five percentage points, there was no significant impact on likelihood of early marriage. Program impacts on pregnancy appear to work through increasing the enrollment of young women in school, financial stability of the household and delayed age at first sex. The Kenyan program is similar in design to most other major national cash transfer programs in Eastern and Southern Africa, suggesting a degree of generalizability of the results reported here. Although the objective of the program is primarily poverty alleviation, it appears to have an important impact on facilitating the successful transition of adolescent girls into adulthood. PMID:26246032

  13. Adolescent and adult first time mothers' health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. In order to get a better understanding of adolescent mothers'needs we compared health seeking practices of first time adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August, 2007 in Wakiso district. A total of 762 women (442 adolescents and 320 adult) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios with their 95% CI for antenatal and postnatal health care seeking, stigmatisation and violence experienced from parents comparing adolescents to adult first time mothers. STATA V.8 was used for data analysis. Results Adolescent mothers were significantly more disadvantaged in terms of health care seeking for reproductive health services and faced more challenges during pregnancy and early motherhood compared to adult mothers. Adolescent mothers were more likely to have dropped out of school due to pregnancy (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 2.40–5.44), less likely to earn a salary (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.24–0.76), and more likely to attend antenatal care visits less than four times compared to adult mothers (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.07). Adolescents were also more likely to experience violence from parents (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.39–3.08) and to be stigmatized by the community (CI = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.09–2.59). In early motherhood, adolescent mothers were less likely to seek for second and third vaccine doses for their infants [Polio2 (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98), Polio3 (OR = 0.70: 95% CI: 0.51–0.95), DPT2 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96), DPT3 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50–0.92)] compared to adult mothers. These results are compelling and call for urgent adolescent focused interventions. Conclusion Adolescents showed poorer health care seeking behaviour for themselves and their children, and experienced increased community

  14. Influence of early pregnancy on reproductive rate in lines of mice selected for litter size.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1980-09-01

    The influence of male-induced early puberty on female reproductive rate was determined in three lines of mice differing in litter size and body weight. The lines originated from a single base population and had undergone 20 generations of selection for the following criteria: large litter size at birth (L(+)), large litter size and small 6-week body weight (L(+)W(-)), or small litter size and large 6-week body weight (L(-)W(+)). Females were paired with a mature intact male of the same line at 3, 5 or 7 weeks of age. Mean mating age, averaged over lines, was 26.5 ± .3, 38.3 ± .3 and 52.7 ± .3 days. Exposure to a mature male accelerated female sexual maturation in each line. When contrasted with their sibs mated at a later age, early-pregnant females from each line exhibited a decline in one or more component of reproductive performance, suggesting that the physiological state of the very young female was not optimum for normal pregnancy. In comparisons of early and later mating ages, all three lines showed a decreased littering rate at first mating, number born alive, and individual birth weight of progeny adjusted for litter size; L(+) and L(+)W(-) mice showed an increased perinatal mortality rate; L(+) and L(-)W(+) had a reduction in litter size at birth. When the L(+), L(+)W(-) and L(-)W(+) lines were compared with an unselected strain and a line selected for high postweaning gain in similar experiments, a genotype by environment interaction was apparent since all lines did not respond in a similar manner to early mating. The line ranking for litter size at birth for each age at male-exposure was L(+)>L(+)W(-)>L(-)W(+), despite the significant line by age interaction. When litter size was adjusted by covariance for body weight at mating, the significant effects of age at male-exposure and line by age interaction were eliminated. All fertile females were remated after they had weaned their first litter to obtain information on litter size in parity two. Line

  15. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1‐Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Patrick M.; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C.W. Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P.H. Wilding, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Methods Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (<4% weight loss at week 16) completing 56 weeks’ treatment. Results Proportions of ERs/ENRs to liraglutide 3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. Conclusions The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. PMID:27804269

  16. 3D/4D sonographic evaluation of amniotic band syndrome in early pregnancy: a supplement to 2D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Noguchi, Junko

    2011-06-01

    We present two cases of amniotic band syndrome diagnosed using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound with three-dimensional (3D)/four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound in early pregnancy. In Case 1, at 13 weeks' gestation, multiple amniotic bands, acrania, the absence of fingers and amputation of the toes bilaterally were clearly shown using transvaginal 3D/4D ultrasound. In Case 2, at 15 weeks' gestation, several amniotic bands, acrania and a cleft lip were depicted with transabdominal 3D/4D ultrasound. The spatial relationship between the amniotic bands and the fetus was clearly visualized and easily discernible by 3D/4D ultrasound. The parents and families could readily understand the fetal conditions and undergo counseling; they then choose the option of termination of pregnancy. 3D/4D ultrasound has the potential to be a supplement to conventional 2D ultrasound in evaluating amniotic band syndrome.

  17. Small bowel volvulus in mid and late pregnancy: can early diagnosis be established to avoid catastrophic outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Qing; Li, Xilian; Ye, Xuping; Sun, Li; Jiang, Wei; Han, Zhigang; Lu, Weiqi; Xu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Volvulus in pregnancy is rare and difficult to diagnose. Delayed diagnosis would result in high maternal and fetal mortality. Here we present an unusual case of small bowel volvulus in late pregnancy timely managed by emergency Cesarean section and derotation with excellent maternal and fetal outcomes. Volvulus should be considered in patients complaining ongoing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation even diarrhea. Imaging is essential for early and precise diagnosis, including plain abdominal film, MRI and/or ultrasound. Once highly suspected or diagnosed of volvulus or ileus, emergency laparotomy should be performed immediately to avoid catastrophic outcomes, because the maternal and fetal prognosis is dependent on the interval from volvulus to operation apart from the degree of volvulus. PMID:25550984

  18. Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies.

  19. A randomized crossover trial on the effect of compression stockings on nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Erika; Amsler, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the impact of wearing compression stockings on women’s quality of life (QoL) associated with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP). Methods In this randomized, open, single-center, crossover study, 74 women were assigned 1:1 to 2 weeks with compression stockings followed by 2 weeks without or vice versa. The main outcomes were NVP-associated QoL, leg-related QoL, and dizziness, as assessed by the Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy Quality of Life (NVPQOL) questionnaire, Chronic Venous Disease Quality of Life (CIVIQ) questionnaire, and questions on dizziness at baseline and after each 2-week period, respectively. Daily NVP was assessed using the modified Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square and independent t-tests. Results Fifty-eight women completed the study. QoL scores improved with compression treatment; changes in mean total scores were as follows: NVPQOL, −36.7 with compression vs −21.7 without (P<0.0001); and CIVIQ, −4.5 with compression vs +1.4 without (P=0.001). Mean dizziness scores were −3.2 with compression vs −0.4 without (P<0.0001). PUQE mean total score (standard deviation) was 4.9 (2.3) with compression vs 5.5 (2.2) without (P=0.042). Discussion Wearing of compression stockings in early pregnancy may improve nausea and vomiting-associated symptoms in addition to improving QoL factors. PMID:28260949

  20. Rapid loss of phosphorus during early pedogenesis along a glacier retreat choronosequence, Gongga Mountain (SW China)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Bing, Haijian; Sun, Hongyang; Wang, Jipeng

    2015-01-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) during the early pedogenesis stage is important at the ecosystem level, and it also plays an important role in the global P cycle. The seasonal variation of total P (Pt) and its fractions along a young soil chronosequence (Hailuogou chronosequence) on the eastern slope of Gongga Mountain, SW China, was investigated based on the modified Hedley fractionation technique to understand P loss during the early pedogenesis stage. The results showed that the mineral P (mainly apatite) was the dominant fraction of Pt in the C horizon of the soil, and the seasonal difference in Pt and its fractions was insignificant. In the A horizon, Pt concentrations decreased markedly compared with those in the C horizon, and as the age of the soil increased, the inorganic P (Pi) significantly decreased and the organic P (Po) prominently increased. Seasonally, the P fractions exhibited various distributions in the A horizon. The variation of Pt and its fractions revealed that the P loss was rapid along the 120-year soil chronosequence. The P stocks in soils (0–30 cm) started to decrease at the 52 year site. And the P stock depletion reached almost 17.6% at the 120-year site. The loss of P from the soil of the Hailuogou chronosequence was mainly attributed to weathering, plant uptake, and transport by runoff. About 36% P loss was transported into plant biomass P at the 120 year site. The data obtained indicated that the glacier retreat chronosequence could be used to elucidate the fast rate of P loss during the early pedogenic stage. PMID:26557441

  1. Rapid loss of phosphorus during early pedogenesis along a glacier retreat choronosequence, Gongga Mountain (SW China).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Bing, Haijian; Sun, Hongyang; Wang, Jipeng

    2015-01-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) during the early pedogenesis stage is important at the ecosystem level, and it also plays an important role in the global P cycle. The seasonal variation of total P (Pt) and its fractions along a young soil chronosequence (Hailuogou chronosequence) on the eastern slope of Gongga Mountain, SW China, was investigated based on the modified Hedley fractionation technique to understand P loss during the early pedogenesis stage. The results showed that the mineral P (mainly apatite) was the dominant fraction of Pt in the C horizon of the soil, and the seasonal difference in Pt and its fractions was insignificant. In the A horizon, Pt concentrations decreased markedly compared with those in the C horizon, and as the age of the soil increased, the inorganic P (Pi) significantly decreased and the organic P (Po) prominently increased. Seasonally, the P fractions exhibited various distributions in the A horizon. The variation of Pt and its fractions revealed that the P loss was rapid along the 120-year soil chronosequence. The P stocks in soils (0-30 cm) started to decrease at the 52 year site. And the P stock depletion reached almost 17.6% at the 120-year site. The loss of P from the soil of the Hailuogou chronosequence was mainly attributed to weathering, plant uptake, and transport by runoff. About 36% P loss was transported into plant biomass P at the 120 year site. The data obtained indicated that the glacier retreat chronosequence could be used to elucidate the fast rate of P loss during the early pedogenic stage.

  2. Early embryo loss, morphology, and effect of previous immunization against androstenedione in the ewe.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Anne R; Demmers, Kristina J; Smaill, Bronwyn; Reader, Karen L; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-09-15

    In a naturally mated cycle, ova and viable embryo number as well as embryo size were assessed on Day 4, 10, 14, 18, and 30 of gestation in Romney ewes (n = 38-44 per gestational group). For Days 4-18 of gestation, embryos were recovered by flushing the reproductive tract after slaughtering of the ewe. Ovulation rate was determined by counting the number of corpora lutea present on both ovaries. For the Day 30 group, number of ovulations was measured by laparoscopic examination of the ovaries at Day 9-12 of the cycle, and number of embryos present was determined by ultrasound examination at approximately Day 30 of pregnancy. Most of embryo loss occurred before Day 14 of gestation with 6% loss before Day 4, and 12% loss between Day 4 and 14 of gestation. A similar proportion of viable embryos per number of ova ovulated were recovered on Day 14 and 18 (82%) and Day 30 (81%) of gestation. Fertilization failure was estimated at 1%. Conceptus and embryo size was most variable on Day 14, representing a period of rapid growth (conceptus length ± standard deviation); Day 4 (169 ± 8 μm), Day 10 (379 ± 93 μm), Day 14 (23 ± 32 mm), Day 18 (embryo length ± standard deviation; 5.0 ± 0.7 mm). Vaccination with commercially available fertility vaccines targeting androstenedione (Androvax and Ovastim) in previous seasons resulted in reduced conceptus size compared with controls. However, no difference in the proportion of viable embryos was observed between treatments, signifying maternal tolerance for considerable variation at this stage of development. Furthermore, the finding that most of loss occurs within the first 14 days of gestation highlights the importance of both oocyte quality and the uterine environment for the embryo to successfully overcome the challenges leading up to and including pregnancy recognition in the ewe.

  3. Loss of dystrophin staining in cardiomyocytes: a novel method for detection early myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Satwat; Al-Salam, Suhail

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most frequent diagnosis made in majority of sudden death cases subjected to clinical and medicolegal autopsies. When sudden death occurs at a very early stage of MI, traditional macroscopic examination, or histological stains cannot easily detect the myocardial changes. For this reason we propose a new method for detecting MI at an early stage. Murine model of MI was used to induce MI through permanent ligation of left anterior descending branch of left coronary artery. Five groups of C57B6/J mice were used for inducing MI, which includes 20 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, four hours and 24 hours post MI groups. One naïve group and sham-operated groups were used as controls. There is loss of dystrophin membranous staining in cardiac myocytes occurs as early as 20 minutes post myocardial infarction. This can be used as a novel method to diagnose early myocardial infarction in post mortem cases where diagnosis is unclear. In conclusion, evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of dystrophin represents a highly sensitive method for detecting early myocardial infarction due to the loss of staining in the infarcted areas. Dystrophin immunostaining can also be used to assess myocardial architecture. PMID:23330010

  4. Early drought detection, monitoring, and assessment of crop losses from space: global approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    2006-12-01

    With nearly 30 years of the accumulated AVHRR data which were collected from NOAA operational polar-orbiting environmental satellites, the area of their applications expanded in the direction of agricultural production modeling, understanding of climate and global change, resource management, and early and more efficient monitoring of the environmental impacts (especially droughts) on economy and society. This becomes possible due to development of Vegetation Health indices (VHI). This paper discusses utility of AVHRR-based VHI for modeling crop and pasture yield with specific emphasis on early drought warning and estimation of losses in agricultural production.

  5. Pregnancy hypertension and the risk for neuropsychological difficulties across early development: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Despite documented effects on fetal brain development, little is currently known about the relationship between maternal pregnancy hypertension and child neuropsychological outcomes. This brief report examined the association between maternal hypertension during pregnancy and children's social cognition and executive functioning when children were 18 months, 3 years, and 4.5 years. A community sample of 501 families (23 hypertensive mothers; 478 nonhypertensive) was recruited when children were newborns. Social cognition (including theory of mind [ToM]) and executive functioning (EF) were measured using a battery of age-appropriate standardized and/or observational tasks. Information on pregnancy and prenatal factors were measured via maternal report when children were newborns. After controlling for prenatal and demographic covariates, the presence of hypertension difficulties during pregnancy was associated with all measures of social cognition, ToM, and EF. A secondary analysis comparing the hypertension group (n = 23) to a nonhypertensive matched control group (n = 23) supported the effect of pregnancy hypertension on children's social-cognitive and EF development. Future studies using obstetrical records are encouraged based on these preliminary findings.

  6. Revisiting doxycycline in pregnancy and early childhood – time to rebuild its reputation?

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Ruby; Ling, Clare; Day, Nicholas P. J.; McGready, Rose; Paris, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Doxycycline is highly effective, inexpensive with a broad therapeutic spectrum and exceptional bioavailability. However these benefits have been overshadowed by its classification alongside the tetracyclines – class D drugs, contraindicated in pregnancy and in children under 8 years of age. Doxycycline-treatable diseases are emerging as leading causes of undifferentiated febrile illness in Southeast Asia. For example scrub typhus and murine typhus have an unusually severe impact on pregnancy outcomes, and current mortality rates for scrub typhus reach 12-13% in India and Thailand. The emerging evidence for these important doxycycline-treatable diseases prompted us to revisit doxycycline usage in pregnancy and childhood. Areas Covered: A systematic review of the available literature on doxycycline use in pregnant women and children revealed a safety profile of doxycycline that differed significantly from that of tetracycline; no correlation between the use of doxycycline and teratogenic effects during pregnancy or dental staining in children was found. Expert Opinion: The change of the US FDA pregnancy classification scheme to an evidence-based approach will enable adequate evaluation of doxycycline in common tropical illnesses and in vulnerable populations in clinical treatment trials, dosage-optimization pharmacokinetic studies and for the empirical treatment of undifferentiated febrile illnesses, especially in pregnant women and children. PMID:26680308

  7. Preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and promoting postpartum weight loss: A pilot lifestyle intervention for overweight and obese African American women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Whitaker, Kara; Blake, Christine; Addy, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the feasibility and acceptability of a theory-based lifestyle intervention designed to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and promote weight loss in the early postpartum period in overweight and obese African American women. Methods Sixteen pregnant women (≤18 weeks gestation) were recruited from prenatal clinics in Columbia, South Carolina in 2011 and assigned to a lifestyle intervention program. The intervention, guided by formative research, consisted of an individual counseling session followed by 8 group sessions alternated with telephone counseling contacts that continued through 36 weeks of gestation. At 6–8 weeks postpartum, participants received a home visit and up to three counseling calls through week 12. Medical charts were reviewed for 38 contemporary controls who met the same inclusion criteria and attended the same prenatal clinics. Results Compared to controls, study participants gained less total weight, had a smaller weekly rate of weight gain across the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (0.89 vs. 0.96 lbs), and were less likely to exceed weight gain recommendations (56.3 vs. 65.8%). At 12 weeks postpartum, study participants retained 2.6 lbs from their prepregnancy weight, half of study participants were at their prepregnancy weight or lower, and only 35% retained ≥5 lbs. The intervention also demonstrated success in promoting physical activity and reducing caloric intake, and was well-received by participants. Conclusions The initial results were promising. The lessons learned can help inform future studies. The efficacy of our intervention will be tested in a large randomized controlled trial. PMID:25051907

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Liver disorders Liver disorders Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... have blood on them (razors, toothbrushes). Acute fatty liver of pregnancy What is acute fatty liver of ...

  9. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; D.S. Darrow; D. Liu; A.L. Roquemore

    2005-03-25

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I{sub p} {approx} 0.5 MA) and electron density (n{sub e} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented.

  10. Estimating formation properties from early-time recovery in wells subject to turbulent head losses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, A.M.; Oki, D.S.; Greene, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to interpret the early-time recovering water level following the termination of pumping in wells subject to turbulent head losses. The model assumes that turbulent head losses dissipate immediately when pumping ends. In wells subject to both borehole storage and turbulent head losses, the early-time recovery exhibits a slope equal to 1/2 on log-log plots of the recovery versus time. This half-slope response should not be confused with the half-slope response associated with a linear flow regime during aquifer tests. The presence of a borehole skin due to formation damage or stimulation around the pumped well alters the early-time recovery in wells subject to turbulent head losses and gives the appearance of borehole storage, where the recovery exhibits a unit slope on log-log plots of recovery versus time. Type curves can be used to estimate the formation storafivity from the early-time recovery data. In wells that are suspected of having formation damage or stimulation, the type curves can be used to estimate the 'effective' radius of the pumped well, if an estimate of the formation storativity is available from observation wells or other information. Type curves for a homogeneous and isotropic dual-porosity aquifer are developed and applied to estimate formation properties and the effect of formation stimulation from a single-well test conducted in the Madison limestone near Rapid City, South Dakota.A mathematical model is developed to interpret the early-time recovering water level following the termination of pumping in wells subject to turbulent head losses. The model assumes that turbulent head losses dissipate immediately when pumping ends. In wells subject to both borehole storage and turbulent head losses, the early-time recovery exhibits a slope equal to 1/2 on log-log plots of the recovery versus time. This half-slope response should not be confused with the half-slope response associated with a linear flow regime during

  11. Maternal views on infant hearing loss and early intervention in a South African community.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Almec, Nizha

    2008-01-01

    Parental knowledge and attitudes regarding infant hearing loss are crucial to the successful implementation of EHDI programs, especially in developing countries where concerns have been raised of cultural-based ignorance and resistance towards childhood disabilities. This study investigated maternal knowledge and attitudes amongst 100 South African mothers accessing the public healthcare system using a face-to-face survey. The questionnaire (16 items) probed knowledge of infant hearing loss, superstitious cultural beliefs, and attitude towards early detection and intervention for hearing loss. Results indicate that more than 50% of the sample correctly identified three common etiological factors (ear discharge, medication, congenital) for infant hearing loss. At least one superstitious cultural belief regarding a possible cause of hearing loss was held by 57%. Maternal attitude was overwhelmingly positive with 99% indicating the desire to have their baby's hearing screened after birth and a high acceptance of hearing aids. The study demonstrates a need for increased maternal awareness regarding infant hearing loss but also a readiness for implementation of EHDI programs.

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Risk in Asian Population: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vandana

    2016-10-01

    The C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was implicated to be associated with thrombophilia due to its role in catalyzing the formation of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Several case-control studies were investigated MTHFR C677T polymorphism as risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). These studies rendered contradictory results, some indicating that the polymorphism is associated with the risk of RPL whereas others concluded there is no association. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, a meta-analysis of all available studies published from Asian population relating the C677T polymorphism to the risk of RPL was conducted. The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: PubMed, Google Scholars, Elsevier and Springer Link up to December, 2015. Meta-analysis was performed using MetaAnalyst and Mix version 1.7. Meta-analysis results suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributed to the increased RPL risk in Asian population using all five genetic models (for T vs. C: OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.09-1.68, p = 0.009; for TT + CT vs. CC: OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.14-1.82, p = 0.006; for CT vs. CC: OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.07-1.8, p = 0.01; for TT vs. CC: OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.23.2.6, p = 0.007; for TT vs. CT + CC: OR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.02-2.56, p = 0.04). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates a strong association between the MTHFR C677T variant and RPL in Asian population and raising the importance of the use of folate in its treatment and prevention.

  13. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms in Interleukin Genes and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiao; Niu, Wenbin; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Zhang, Nan; Sun, Yingpu

    2017-01-01

    Interleukins are a group of immunomodulatory proteins that mediate a variety of immune reactions in the human body. To investigate the association between interleukin gene polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), we reviewed 21 studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID SP and PubMed to evaluate RPL-related interleukin gene polymorphisms. Meta-analysis was performed on 12 of the polymorphisms, and a review included the others. Our integrated results indicated that IL-1β (-511C/T) (P = 0.02, 95% CI 0.77[0.62,0.96]), IL-6 (-634C/G) (P<0.001, 95% CI 2.91[2.01,4.22]), IL-10 (-1082G/A, –819T/C) (P = 0.01, 95% CI 0.80[0.67,0.96]; P<0.01, 95% CI 0.66[0.49,0.89]), and IL-18 (-137G/C, -105G/A) (P<0.01, 95% CI 1.69[1.24,2.31]; P = <0.01, 95% CI 1.41[1.17,1.70]) consistently associated with RPL after meta-analysis. IL-17A rs2275913 and IL-17F rs763780, IL-21 rs2055979 and rs13143866, IL-1β (-31C/T), IL-6 (-2954G/C), and IL-10 (-536A/G) were reported only once as having a significant association with RPL. The potential mechanism underlying miscarriage and these polymorphisms and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:28103273

  14. The IL-6 -634C/G polymorphism: a candidate genetic marker for the prediction of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Rasti, Zarnegar; Nasiri, Mahboobeh; Kohan, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20th week of gestation and its etiology is unknown in 50% of the cases. Interleukin 6 is an immune mediator, plays a regulatory role in embryo implantation and placental development. Objective: The purpose was to assess the association between IL-6 -634C/G polymorphism and, susceptibility to idiopathic RPL for the first time in Iran. Materials and Methods: In total 121 women with RPL and 121 healthy women as control group were enrolled in this case-control study. This study was performed from August 2013 to October 2014 in the Molecular Genetics Laboratory of Arsanjan University. Candidate polymorphism was evaluated by PCR-RFLP method on extracted genomic DNA. Data was analyzed using the statistical SPSS package. Results: Our results showed an increased risk of RPL in patients with GG + GC genotype (OR=5.1, 95%CI: 1.04-25.3, p=0.04) in comparison to CC genotype. The frequency of mutant allele G in patients and controls was 0.75 and 0.66 respectively. The mutant allele G predisposes women to miscarriage 1.5 times greater than controls (OR=1.5, 95%CI: 1.03-2.27, p=0.036). The mean number of live births in RPL women (1.3±2.3) was significantly lower compared to control women (4.8±2.3). Conclusion: This study indicated that the promoter polymorphism (-634C/G) of the IL-6 gene has likely influence on individual susceptibility to RPL. PMID:27200424

  15. Morphological evaluation of the placenta and fetal membranes during canine pregnancy from early implantation to term.

    PubMed

    Aralla, Marina; Groppetti, Debora; Caldarini, Laura; Cremonesi, Fausto; Arrighi, Silvana

    2013-08-01

    To describe the histological changes of fetal adnexa throughout the physiological pregnancy, canine samples were obtained during natural delivery and caesarean section, as well as during ovariohysterectomy performed at any stage of undesired pregnancies (N=12). The first period of pregnancy (multiple samples collected at 10, 12, 14 days) was consistent with pre- and peri-implantation events, i.e. apposition and initial invasion steps into the endometrium. The second period (multiple samples collected at 18, 38, 40, 45 days) was related to the development of extra-embryonic structures, placenta establishment and labyrinth formation. At the end of this period the maximum morphological complexity of the endotheliochorial placenta was achieved, characterized by complete erosion of the endometrial epithelium and underlying interstitium with exposure of maternal capillaries to the chorial cells. The third period of gestation (multiple samples collected at 50, 53, 57, 60, 63 days) was characterized by enhancement either of placental and extra-embryonic tissues.

  16. Association between Anaemia during Pregnancy and Blood Loss at and after Delivery among Women with Vaginal Births in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kavle, Justine A.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Witter, Frank; Tielsch, James M.; Khalfan, Sabra S.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    The study sought to identify determinants of blood loss at childbirth and 24 hours postpartum. The study was nested in a community-based randomized trial of treatments for anaemia during pregnancy in Wete Town, Pemba Island, Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania. Status of anaemia during pregnancy, nutritional information, obstetric history, and socioeconomic status were assessed at enrollment during routine antenatal care. Pregnant women presented for spontaneous vaginal delivery, and nurse-midwives collected information on labour and delivery via partograph. Blood-stained sanitary napkins and pads from childbirth and 24 hours postpartum were quantified using the alkaline hematin method. Moderate-to-severe anaemia (Hb <90 g/L) at enrollment was strongly associated with blood loss at delivery and the immediate postpartum period, after adjusting for maternal covariates and variables of biological relevance to blood loss. Greater blood loss was associated (p<0.10) with duration of the first stage of labour, placental weight, receipt of oxytocin, preterm birth, and grand multiparity. The findings provide unique evidence of a previously-suspected link between maternal anaemia and greater blood loss at childbirth and postpartum. Further research is needed to confirm these findings on a larger sample of women to determine whether women with moderate-to-severe anaemia are more likely to experience postpartum haemorrhage and whether appropriate antenatal or peripartum care can affect the relationships described here. PMID:18686556

  17. Effects of activation of maternal immune system at early stages of pregnancy on antitumor immunity of the progeny.

    PubMed

    Obernikhin, S S

    2013-11-01

    The effects of maternal immune system on the formation and functioning of the fetus is an important problem. Single stimulation of immune system of female C57Bl/6 mice with concanavalin A at the early stages of pregnancy before the formation of fetal immune organs was followed by impairment of antitumor immunity in the progeny by the time of puberty. These changes manifested in the increased survival rate of B16 melanoma, high rate of death of tumor-bearing animals, and low cytotoxic activity of spleen cells on L-929 fibrosarcoma cells.

  18. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme) was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period, future health promoting

  19. Synergistic effects of DL111-IT in combination with mifepristone and misoprostol on termination of early pregnancy in preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    He, Qiao-jun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Wei-fang; Wu, Hong-Hai; Fang, Rui-ying

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and acute toxicity of DL111-IT combined with mifepristone (RU486) and misoprostol (MISO) on early pregnancy termination. In the pregnant rats experiments, the ED(50) values of RU486 in two-drug combinations were 0.16 (combined with DL111-IT) and 0.40 (combined with MISO) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while in three-drug combination treatment group (DL111-IT 9.0 mg x kg(-1) (early pregnancy termination was only observed in three-drug combination treatment with MISO 0.10 mg x kg(-1) + RU486 0.05 mg x kg(-1) (early pregnancy termination without increasing acute toxicity compared to the treatment of DL111-IT alone, and this combination may be a promising

  20. Placental development during early pregnancy: Effects of embryo origin on expression of chemokine ligand twelve (CXCL12).

    PubMed

    Quinn, K E; Reynolds, L P; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Borowicz, P P; Ashley, R L

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to localize chemokine ligand twelve (CXCL12) in sheep placental tissues during early gestation and after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Uteri were collected from naturally (NAT) mated ewes and ewes receiving embryo transfer (ET), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or in vitro activation (IVA). CXCL12 was immunolocalized to endometrial stroma, glands, and trophoblast. Greater CXCL12 immunoreactivity was present in trophoblast on day 22 and 24 and in NAT ewes compared to IVF and IVA. Increased CXCL12 expression suggests CXCL12 promotes implantation and placentation. Decreased CXCL12 in IVF and IVA embryos, may compromise pregnancy establishment when utilizing ART methods.

  1. Characterization of the Th profile of the bovine endometrium during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lilian J; Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; Mansourri-Attia, Nadéra; Fahey, Alan G; Browne, John; Forde, Niamh; Roche, James F; Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Trudee

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research in the area of cow fertility, the extent to which the maternal immune system is modulated during pregnancy in cattle remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to characterize the presence and response profile of B, T-helper (LTh), T- cytotoxic (LTc), gamma delta-T (γδT) and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes in terms of cell number, distribution and cytokine expression in bovine endometrial tissue to pregnancy. Endometrial tissue samples were collected from beef heifers on Days 5, 7, 13 and 16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Samples were analysed by immunofluorescence to identify the presence and abundance of B-B7 (B-cells), CD4 (LTh), CD8 (LTc), γδT cell receptor (TCR) and CD335/NKp46 (NK cells) -positive immune cells. Quantitative real time PCR (QPCR) was carried out to analyse mRNA relative abundance of FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T (Treg) cells) and a panel of immune factors, including MHC-I, LIF, Interleukins 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11,12A, IFNa and IFNG. Results indicate that B-B7+ cells are quite populous in bovine endometrial tissue, CD4+ and CD8+ -cells are present in moderate numbers and γδTCR+ and CD335+ cells are present in low numbers. Pregnancy affected the total number and distribution pattern of the NK cell population, with the most significant variation observed on Day 16 of pregnancy. Neither B lymphocytes nor T lymphocyte subsets were regulated temporally during the oestrous cycle or by pregnancy prior to implantation. mRNA transcript abundance of the immune factors LIF, IL1b, IL8 and IL12A, IFNa and IFNG, expression was regulated temporally during the estrous cycle and LIF, IL1b, IL-10, IL11, IL12A were also temporally regulated during pregnancy. In conclusion, the endometrial immune profile of the oestrous cycle favours a Th2 environment in anticipation of pregnancy and the presence of an embryo acts to fine tune this environment.

  2. Characterization of the Th Profile of the Bovine Endometrium during the Oestrous Cycle and Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lilian J.; Mansourri-Attia, Nadéra; Fahey, Alan G.; Browne, John; Forde, Niamh; Roche, James F.; Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Trudee

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research in the area of cow fertility, the extent to which the maternal immune system is modulated during pregnancy in cattle remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to characterize the presence and response profile of B, T-helper (LTh), T- cytotoxic (LTc), gamma delta-T (γδT) and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes in terms of cell number, distribution and cytokine expression in bovine endometrial tissue to pregnancy. Endometrial tissue samples were collected from beef heifers on Days 5, 7, 13 and 16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Samples were analysed by immunofluorescence to identify the presence and abundance of B-B7 (B-cells), CD4 (LTh), CD8 (LTc), γδT cell receptor (TCR) and CD335/NKp46 (NK cells) -positive immune cells. Quantitative real time PCR (QPCR) was carried out to analyse mRNA relative abundance of FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T (Treg) cells) and a panel of immune factors, including MHC-I, LIF, Interleukins 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11,12A, IFNa and IFNG. Results indicate that B-B7+ cells are quite populous in bovine endometrial tissue, CD4+ and CD8+ -cells are present in moderate numbers and γδTCR+ and CD335+ cells are present in low numbers. Pregnancy affected the total number and distribution pattern of the NK cell population, with the most significant variation observed on Day 16 of pregnancy. Neither B lymphocytes nor T lymphocyte subsets were regulated temporally during the oestrous cycle or by pregnancy prior to implantation. mRNA transcript abundance of the immune factors LIF, IL1b, IL8 and IL12A, IFNa and IFNG, expression was regulated temporally during the estrous cycle and LIF, IL1b, IL-10, IL11, IL12A were also temporally regulated during pregnancy. In conclusion, the endometrial immune profile of the oestrous cycle favours a Th2 environment in anticipation of pregnancy and the presence of an embryo acts to fine tune this environment. PMID:24204576

  3. LPA receptor activity is basal specific and coincident with early pregnancy and involution during mammary gland postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Deanna; Bagchi, Susmita; Broin, Pilib Ó; Hollern, Daniel; Racedo, Silvia E.; Morrow, Bernice; Sellers, Rani S.; Greally, John M.; Golden, Aaron; Andrechek, Eran; Wood, Teresa; Montagna, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, luminal and basal epithelial cells of the adult mammary gland proliferate and differentiate resulting in remodeling of the adult gland. While pathways that control this process have been characterized in the gland as a whole, the contribution of specific cell subtypes, in particular the basal compartment, remains largely unknown. Basal cells provide structural and contractile support, however they also orchestrate the communication between the stroma and the luminal compartment at all developmental stages. Using RNA-seq, we show that basal cells are extraordinarily transcriptionally dynamic throughout pregnancy when compared to luminal cells. We identified gene expression changes that define specific basal functions acquired during development that led to the identification of novel markers. Enrichment analysis of gene sets from 24 mouse models for breast cancer pinpoint to a potential new function for insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1r) in the basal epithelium during lactogenesis. We establish that β-catenin signaling is activated in basal cells during early pregnancy, and demonstrate that this activity is mediated by lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 (Lpar3). These findings identify novel pathways active during functional maturation of the adult mammary gland. PMID:27808166

  4. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... example, babies with Down syndrome have 47 chromosomes. Chromosome abnormalities occur for no known reason in up to ... healthy people have differences in the way their chromosomes are ... abnormalities. Are there treatments available for RPL? With certain ...

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Sixto E.; Islam, Suhayla; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV) with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST]) and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during early pregnancy. Methods This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using logistic regression procedures. Results Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08–2.17) and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33–2.81). Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI) for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84–1.83), sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07–11.05), and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27–4.96). The corresponding aORs (95% CI) for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13–2.61), 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99–8.03), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30–4.81), respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17–3.67) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30–3.97) during pregnancy. Conclusion Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health. PMID:27023005

  6. Early maternal loss affects social integration of chimpanzees throughout their lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Crailsheim, Karl; Massen, Jorg J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of early adverse experiences on later psychosocial functioning are well described in humans, but sparsely documented for chimpanzees. In our earlier studies, we investigated the effects of maternal and social deprivation on three groups of ex-laboratory chimpanzees who experienced either an early or later onset of long-term deprivation. Here we expand our research by adding data on subjects that came from two stable zoo groups. The groups comprised of early maternally deprived wild-caught chimpanzees and non-deprived zoo-born chimpanzees. We found that compared to zoo chimpanzees, ex-laboratory chimpanzees were more restricted regarding their association partners in the newly formed groups, but not during their second year of group-life, indicating that social stability has an important influence on the toleration of association partners close-by. Social grooming activity, however, was impaired in early long-term deprived ex-laboratory chimpanzees as well as in early maternally deprived zoo chimpanzees compared to non-deprived zoo chimpanzees. Thus, we conclude that early maternal loss has lifelong effects on the social integration of chimpanzees which becomes evident in their grooming networks. Although the retrospective nature of our study prevents a clear causal explanation, our results are of importance for understanding the development of social competence in chimpanzees. PMID:26552576

  7. Early hippocampal volume loss as a marker of eventual memory deficits caused by repeated stress

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammed Mostafizur; Callaghan, Charlotte K.; Kerskens, Christian M.; Chattarji, Sumantra; O’Mara, Shane M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to severe and prolonged stress has detrimental effects on the hippocampus. However, relatively little is known about the gradual changes in hippocampal structure, and its behavioral consequences, over the course of repeated stress. Behavioral analyses during 10 days of chronic stress pointed to a delayed decline in spatial memory, the full impact of which is evident only after the end of stress. In contrast, concurrent volumetric measurements in the same animals revealed significant reduction in hippocampal volumes in stressed animals relative to their unstressed counterparts, as early as the third day of stress. Notably, animals that were behaviorally the worst affected at the end of chronic stress suffered the most pronounced early loss in hippocampal volume. Together, these findings support the view that not only is smaller hippocampal volume linked to stress-induced memory deficits, but it may also act as an early risk factor for the eventual development of cognitive impairments seen in stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27374165

  8. Transcriptome studies of bovine endometrium reveal molecular profiles characteristic for specific stages of estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, S; Mitko, K; Ulbrich, S E; Blum, H; Wolf, E

    2008-07-01

    The endometrium undergoes marked functional changes during estrous cycle and pregnancy. As the adjacent environment of the conceptus, it represents the maternal interface for embryo-maternal communication, which is essential to maintain pregnancy. Transcriptome studies provide the unique opportunity to assess molecular profiles changing in response to endocrine or metabolic stimuli or to embryonic pregnancy recognition signals. Here we review the current state of transcriptome profiling techniques and the results of a series of transciptome studies comparing bovine endometrium samples during the estrous cycle or endometrium samples from pregnant vs. non-pregnant animals. These studies revealed specific mRNA profiles which are characteristic for the functional status of the endometrium. Transcriptome studies of endometrial samples recovered during the pre-attachment period identified many interferon-stimulated genes, genes that are possibly involved in embryo-maternal immune modulation ( C1S, C1R, C4, SERPING1, UTMP, CD81, IFITM1, BST2), as well as genes affecting cell adhesion ( AGRN, CD81, LGALS3BP, LGALS9, GPLD1, MFGE8, and TGM2) and remodeling of the endometrium ( CLDN4, MEP1B, LGMN, MMP19, TIMP2, TGM2, MET, and EPSTI1). The results of these transcriptome studies were compared to those of similar microarray analyses in human, mouse and Rhesus monkey to identify similarities in endometrial biology between mammalian species and species-specific differences. Future studies will cover dynamic transcriptome changes between different stages of early pregnancy, the relationship between metabolic problems in dairy cows and the functionality of reproductive tissues as well as endometrium transcriptome profiles in recipients of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

  9. Intrauterine growth retardation in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice is established from early stages of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pallares, Pilar; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    The current study aimed to determine effects of deficiencies in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3 on embryo and fetal development by in vivo, noninvasive, real-time ultrasonographic assessment of phenotypic changes in Nos3-knockout pregnant mice and their wild-type counterparts. From Day 4.5 of pregnancy onwards, embryonic vesicle diameters, crown-rump lengths, and trunk diameters were obtained by serial scanning of seven adult pregnant female mice, strain B6.129P2-Nos3(tm1Unc)/J, N9 generation backcrossing with C57BL/6J mice, homozygous for the disruption of the endothelial NOS gene (group Nos3(-/-)), and 12 pregnant, wild-type C57BL/6J mice (group Nos3(+/+)). All the measurements increased in both genotypes throughout gestation. However, embryo length and width were significantly larger in Nos3(+/+) than in Nos3(-/-) mice from Day 8.5, and both longitudinal and transverse diameters of the entire gestational sacs were larger in Nos3(+/+) mice from Day 10.5. Assessment of the relative growth of embryos/fetuses and gestational annexes showed different patterns among Nos3(-/-) and Nos3(+/+) mice. Throughout pregnancy, the distance between the external limit of the gestational sac and the embryo in Nos3(+/+) mice diminished in longitudinal sections, or remained unaffected in transverse sections. In Nos3(-/-) mice, there were significant increases (P < 0.005) in the differences between embryo and gestational vesicle measurements in both longitudinal and transversal curves from Days 5.5 to 14.5, but from Day 14.5 of pregnancy onward, the changes were not significant. The results demonstrate that the processes of fetal growth retardation in the Nos3(-/-) mice are established from early pregnancy stages.

  10. Expression of receptors for ovarian steroids and prostaglandin E2 in the endometrium and myometrium of mares during estrus, diestrus and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silva, E S M; Scoggin, K E; Canisso, I F; Troedsson, M H T; Squires, E L; Ball, B A

    2014-12-30

    The objective of this study was to compare expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), β (ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR), as well as prostaglandin E2 type 2 (EP2) and 4 (EP4) receptors in the equine myometrium and endometrium during estrus, diestrus and early pregnancy. Tissues were collected during estrus, diestrus, and early pregnancy. Transcripts for ER-α (ESR1), ER-β (ESR2), PR (PGR), EP2 (PTGER2) and EP4 (PTGER4) were quantified by qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize ER-α, ER-β, PR, EP2 and EP4. Differences in transcript in endometrium and myometrium were compared by the ΔΔCT method. Expression for ESR1 (P<0.05) tended to be higher during estrus than diestrus in the endometrium (P=0.1) and myometrium (P=0.06). In addition, ESR1 expression was greater during estrus than pregnancy (P<0.05) in the endometrium and tended to be higher in estrus compared to pregnancy in the myometrium (P=0.1). Expression for PGR was greater (P<0.05) in the endometrium during estrus and diestrus than during pregnancy. In the myometrium, PGR expression was greater in estrus than pregnancy (P=0.05) and tended to be higher during diestrus in relation to pregnancy (P=0.07). There were no differences among reproductive stages in ESR2, PTGER2 and PTGER4 mRNA expression (P>0.05). Immunolabeling in the endometrium appeared to be more intense for ER-α during estrus than diestrus and pregnancy. In addition, immunostaining for PR during pregnancy appeared to be more intense in the stroma and less intense in glands and epithelium compared to estrus and diestrus. EP2 immunoreactivity appeared to be more intense during early pregnancy in both endometrium and myometrium, whereas weak immunolabeling for EP4 was noted across reproductive stages. This study demonstrates differential regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) and PR in the myometrium and endometrium during the reproductive cycle and pregnancy as well as abundant protein expression of EP2 in the endometrium and

  11. Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire for assessing vitamin intake of Japanese women in early and late pregnancy with and without nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Morisaki, Naho; Sago, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy is crucial for pregnancy outcomes and the child's subsequent health. However, there are few valid instruments for assessing vitamin intake that address the effects of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). This study aimed to investigate the validity of a FFQ concerning vitamin intake during early and late pregnancy with and without NVP. The participants comprised 200 Japanese pregnant women who completed the FFQ and from whom blood samples were taken in early and late pregnancy. Energy-adjusted dietary vitamin intakes (vitamin C, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin D) from FFQ were compared with their blood concentrations. A subgroup of women with NVP was investigated. In early pregnancy, significant correlations between FFQ and biomarkers were observed for vitamin C (r 0·27), folate (r 0·18) and vitamin D (r 0·26) in women with NVP and for vitamin A (r 0·18), vitamin B12 (r 0·24) and vitamin D (r 0·23) in women without NVP. No significant correlations were observed in either group for vitamins B6 or E. In late pregnancy, similar significant associations were observed for vitamin C (r 0·27), folate (r 0·22), vitamin B6 (r 0·18), vitamin B12 (r 0·27) and vitamin A (r 0·15); coefficients were higher among women without NVP. Our study demonstrates that the FFQ is a useful tool for assessing intake of several important vitamins in early and late pregnancy regardless of NVP status.

  12. Early Fatherhood: A Mapping of the Evidence Base Relating to Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivedi, D.; Brooks, F.; Bunn, F.; Graham, M.

    2009-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual…

  13. Association of osteoprotegerin and bone loss after adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Drew R.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Reinbolt, Raquel E.; Pan, Xueliang; Wesolowski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure (CIOF) results in rapid bone loss. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANK-L) signaling balances bone resorption and formation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a decoy receptor for RANK, interrupting osteoclast activation and bone resorption. This study examined the relationship between OPG and bone loss in women with CIOF. Methods Premenopausal women with stage I/II breast cancers receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated at chemotherapy initiation, 6 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ionized calcium, osteocalcin, and OPG were serially measured. CIOF was defined as a negative pregnancy test, FSH levels >30 MIU/mL, and ≥3 months of amenorrhea. Results Forty women were enrolled; 31 (77.5%) met CIOF criteria. BMD significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the CIOF group at both time points: LS BMD decreased from a median of 0.993 g/cm2 to 0.976 g/cm2 and 0.937 g/cm2 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. OPG was significantly elevated at 6 months (median increase 0.30 pmol/L, p = 0.015) and then decreased at 12 months to levels still above baseline (median difference 0.2 pmol/L, p = 0.70). Conclusions In what was likely a compensatory response to rapid bone loss, CIOF patients’ OPG levels increased at 6 months and then decreased at 12 months to values greater than baseline assessments. This phenomenon is described in other diseases, but never before in CIOF. PMID:25575458

  14. The Effects of Pregnancy-Adaptation Training on Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Adaptation in Pregnant Women With a History of Baby Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baghdari, Nasrin; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Azmoude, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that educating mothers can improve their adaptation to pregnancy and motherhood roles. There are also studies that have investigated the effects of certain interventions on maternal-fetal attachment. However, studies on the effects of maternal adaptation training on maternal-fetal attachment in mothers with a history of fetal or baby loss are rare. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a pregnancy adaptation training package on maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women with a history of baby loss. Patients and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 pregnant women with previous fetal or neonatal death in 2014. The women were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30). The pregnant women in the experimental group received routine prenatal education in addition to four sessions of a pregnancy adaption training package. The control group received only routine prenatal education. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Cranley’s maternal-fetal attachment scale, and a prenatal self-evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the study. The data analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results Before the intervention, there were no statistically significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of maternal-fetal attachment (P = 0.280) and adaptation to pregnancy (P = 0.883). However, following the intervention, the mean score of the maternal-fetal attachment was significantly higher in the experimental group, when compared with the control (77.57 ± 7.23 vs. 61.53 ± 2.62; P = 0.001). In addition, the mean post-intervention adaptation to pregnancy score was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (118.89 ± 8.12 vs. 126.38 ± 4.17; P = 0.001). Conclusions The pregnancy adaptation

  15. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials

  16. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Keady, John; Kilcrease, David

    2009-01-01

    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  17. Early Solar Mass Loss, Opacity Uncertainties, and the Solar Abundance Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Keady, J. J.; Kilcrease, D. P.

    2009-09-01

    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the `faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances; however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions; we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z = 92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  18. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  19. Serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychological distress in early pregnancy: Adjunct Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, K; Harauma, A; Otaka, Y; Moriguchi, T; Inadera, H

    2016-02-16

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially long-chain types such as docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients in pregnancy, but the relationship between n-3 PUFA levels and perinatal and postnatal depression remains controversial. This study examined the possible relationship between serum n-3 PUFA levels and psychological distress among expectant mothers in early pregnancy. Data and specimen samples were obtained in a birth cohort study started at Toyama Regional Center in July 2012 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Blood samples were collected at 9-14 weeks' gestation (75% of samples) or after 15 weeks (25%). Subjects with a Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score (K6) ⩾ 9 were assigned to the psychological distress group (n=283). The control group (n=283) was matched for age, educational level and family income. Fatty acid composition was determined from serum samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident psychological distress were evaluated by logistic regression. After adjusting for possible confounders, eicosapentaenoic acid showed an inverse association with risk of psychological distress, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.73) for the highest tertile. This inverse association remained even after applying a higher cutoff score (K6 ⩾ 13) indicating severe psychological distress (74 pairs). We believe this is the first study to reveal the associations between serum n-3 PUFAs and risk of psychological distress in early pregnancy. Further research is required to verify the causality of these associations.

  20. MicroRNA Profiles in Spontaneous Decidualized Menstrual Endometrium and Early Pregnancy Decidua with Successfully Implanted Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shujun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jiajia; Gong, Chunling; Chen, Xiujuan; Li, Guangpeng

    2016-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the human microRNA (miRNA) profiles between spontaneous decidualized menstrual endometrium and early pregnancy decidua by an in-depth sequencing of miRNAs. The specific miRNAs expressed at conception might be involved in pregnancy establishment and expression of let-7f-5p and let-7g-5p was experimentally up-regulated or inhibited to assess the effect on the expression of IGF2BP-1 and IGF2R in vitro, respectively. Samples of endometria and deciduas were obtained from 25 women who suffered from tubal or male factor subfertility and from 35 early pregnant women who underwent pregnancy termination at 6–8 weeks gestation were irrespectively collected and comparatively analyzed by miRNA sequencing and differential expression of known and novel miRNAs was analyzed using bioinformatics. The 2042 miRNA expression was analyzed in the study and the differential expression of six miRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. The expression of four miRNAs in decidua samples was down-regulated (miR-34c, miR-92a, miR-181a-5p, and miR-191), whereas the expression of miR-10a-5p and let-7f-5p was significantly up-regulated. The expression of IGF2BP-1 and IGF2R declined and increased with overexpression and inhibition of let-7f-5p and let-7g-5p, respectively. Changes in the expression of particular miRNAs might play a role in the physiology of decidualization following successful embryo implantation, ultimately resulting in continuous decidualization. PMID:26735129

  1. Serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychological distress in early pregnancy: Adjunct Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamazaki, K; Harauma, A; Otaka, Y; Moriguchi, T; Inadera, H

    2016-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially long-chain types such as docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients in pregnancy, but the relationship between n-3 PUFA levels and perinatal and postnatal depression remains controversial. This study examined the possible relationship between serum n-3 PUFA levels and psychological distress among expectant mothers in early pregnancy. Data and specimen samples were obtained in a birth cohort study started at Toyama Regional Center in July 2012 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Blood samples were collected at 9–14 weeks' gestation (75% of samples) or after 15 weeks (25%). Subjects with a Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score (K6) ⩾9 were assigned to the psychological distress group (n=283). The control group (n=283) was matched for age, educational level and family income. Fatty acid composition was determined from serum samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident psychological distress were evaluated by logistic regression. After adjusting for possible confounders, eicosapentaenoic acid showed an inverse association with risk of psychological distress, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.73) for the highest tertile. This inverse association remained even after applying a higher cutoff score (K6 ⩾13) indicating severe psychological distress (74 pairs). We believe this is the first study to reveal the associations between serum n-3 PUFAs and risk of psychological distress in early pregnancy. Further research is required to verify the causality of these associations. PMID:26882037

  2. Early pregnancy termination: a comparison between vacuum aspiration and medical abortion using prostaglandin (16,16 dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester) or the antiprogestogen RU 486.

    PubMed

    Cameron, I T; Baird, D T

    1988-03-01

    Three different regimens for termination of early pregnancy by medical means were compared to vacuum aspiration. Women seeking therapeutic abortion of pregnancy (less than or equal to 56 days amenorrhoea) were allocated to one of four treatment groups: (1) vacuum aspiration (n = 28); (2) 1 mg vaginal pessary of a prostaglandin analogue (gemeprost) every 3 h for up to 5 pessaries (n = 30); (3) the antigestogen (RU 486--mefipristone) 150 mg per day for 4 days by mouth (n = 20); (4) RU 486 in the same dose as group 3 together with 1 mg gemeprost on day 3 (n = 19). Complete abortion occurred more often in women treated with vacuum aspiration (96%), gemeprost alone (97%) and RU 486 plus gemeprost (95%) than in those treated with RU 486 alone (60%). In women receiving up to five gemeprost pessaries alone vomiting occurred in 7 (23%) and diarrhoea in 10 (33%); 16 (53%) required parenteral opiates for relief of pain. Side-effects and analgesic requirements were much reduced in the women who received RU 486 alone or in combination with a single gemeprost pessary. There was no difference in the number of days of vaginal bleeding after abortion between the four groups although there was wide individual variation (mean 10 days, range 1-34). These results confirm that medical induction of abortion in early pregnancy with prostaglandin vaginal pessaries is as effective as vacuum aspiration and that the dose can be reduced five-fold without loss of efficacy when used in combination with RU 486.

  3. Partial prediction of postpartum Graves' thyrotoxicosis by sensitive bioassay for thyroid-stimulating antibody measured in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ide, Akane; Amino, Nobuyuki; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Kimura, Yukiko; Tatsumi, Nobuya; Yamazaki, Mineo; Miyauchi, Akira

    2016-10-29

    Graves' disease often occurs after delivery. However, it has been difficult to predict who will develop Graves' hyperthyroidism. We attempted to predict postpartum onset of Graves' disease by measuring anti-TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) and thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) in early pregnancy. TRAb was measured by a third generation assay and TSAb was measured by a newly developed sensitive bioassay. In 690 early pregnant women, 2 showed borderline TRAb positive reactions. However, none of them developed Graves' disease after delivery. Thirty-eight of 690 pregnant women were positive for anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and 4 were positive for TSAb. Two of these 4 women developed postpartum Graves' hyperthyroidism. These findings indicate that the third generation TRAb assay was not useful, but that the sensitive TSAb bioassay was moderately useful for predicting the postpartum onset of Graves' hyperthyroidism.

  4. Expression and hormonal regulation of calcyclin-binding protein (CacyBP) in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jun; Liu, Wei-Min; Zhou, Jia-Xi; Cao, Yu-Jing; Li, Jing; Peng, Sha; Wang, Li; Yuan, Jiang-Gang; Duan, En-Kui

    2006-01-11

    Calcyclin-binding protein (Siah-1-Interacting Protein, CacyBP/SIP), is a calcium signaling protein involved in the degradation of beta-catenin, however, little is known about its role in reproductive biology. The present study was to character its temporospatial expression pattern and regulation in mouse uterus and to investigate whether it plays a role in the regulation of normal endometrial events. While prominently expressed in both luminal and glandular epithelia, CacyBP underwent dynamic changes during early pregnancy. CacyBP expression was observed weakly from days 1-4. An intense accumulation in luminal and glandular epithelia as well as decidua surrounding the embryo at later stages (days 5-7) was observed. Most notably, CacyBP accumulation in trophoblast was pronounced at day 7. Using ovariectomized and pseudopregnant mice, we found that progesterone (P(4)) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) led to increased expression of CacyBP gene and this could be abolished by Ru486 and tamoxifen, respectively. Antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) against CacyBP significantly inhibited cultured endometrial stromal cells' (ESCs) apoptosis induced by UV irradiation. Injection of antisense ODNs into mouse uterine horn severely impaired the number of implanted blastocysts. Taken together, our results suggested that CacyBP expression was positively regulated by P(4) and E(2). CacyBP may be involved in the regulation of endometrial cell apoptosis during early pregnancy and play an important role in mouse endometrial events such as pregrancy establishment.

  5. Atmosphere and water loss from early Mars under extreme solar wind and extreme ultraviolet conditions.

    PubMed

    Terada, Naoki; Kulikov, Yuri N; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Tielong

    2009-01-01

    The upper limits of the ion pickup and cold ion outflow loss rates from the early martian atmosphere shortly after the Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS) were investigated. We applied a comprehensive 3-D multi-species magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to an early martian CO(2)-rich atmosphere, which was assumed to have been exposed to a solar XUV [X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] flux that was 100 times higher than today and a solar wind that was about 300 times denser. We also assumed the late onset of a planetary magnetic dynamo, so that Mars had no strong intrinsic magnetic field at that early period. We found that, due to such extreme solar wind-atmosphere interaction, a strong magnetic field of about approximately 4000 nT was induced in the entire dayside ionosphere, which could efficiently protect the upper atmosphere from sputtering loss. A planetary obstacle ( approximately ionopause) was formed at an altitude of about 1000 km above the surface due to the drag force and the mass loading by newly created ions in the highly extended upper atmosphere. We obtained an O(+) loss rate by the ion pickup process, which takes place above the ionopause, of about 1.5 x 10(28) ions/s during the first < or =150 million years, which is about 10(4) times greater than today and corresponds to a water loss equivalent to a global martian ocean with a depth of approximately 8 m. Consequently, even if the magnetic protection due to the expected early martian magnetic dynamo is neglected, ion pickup and sputtering were most likely not the dominant loss processes for the planet's initial atmosphere and water inventory. However, it appears that the cold ion outflow into the martian tail, due to the transfer of momentum from the solar wind to the ionospheric plasma, could have removed a global ocean with a depth of 10-70 m during the first < or =150 million years after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS.

  6. A simple formulation and solution to the replacement problem: a practical tool to assess the economic cow value, the value of a new pregnancy, and the cost of a pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2012-08-01

    This study contributes to the research literature by providing a new formulation for the cow replacement problem, and it also contributes to the Extension deliverables by providing a user-friendly decision support system tool that would more likely be adopted and applied for practical decision making. The cow value, its related values of a new pregnancy and a pregnancy loss, and their associated replacement policies determine profitability in dairy farming. One objective of this study was to present a simple, interactive, dynamic, and robust formulation of the cow value and the replacement problem, including expectancy of the future production of the cow and the genetic gain of the replacement. The proven hypothesis of this study was that all the above requirements could be achieved by using a Markov chain algorithm. The Markov chain model allowed (1) calculation of a forward expected value of a studied cow and its replacement; (2) use of a single model (the Markov chain) to calculate both the replacement policies and the herd statistics; (3) use of a predefined, preestablished farm reproductive replacement policy; (4) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of the expected future performance of a cow; (5) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of genetic gain with a replacement; and (6) use of a simple spreadsheet or an online system to implement the decision support system. Results clearly demonstrated that the decision policies found with the Markov chain model were consistent with more complex dynamic programming models. The final user-friendly decision support tool is available at http://dairymgt.info/ → Tools → The Economic Value of a Dairy Cow. This tool calculates the cow value instantaneously and is highly interactive, dynamic, and robust. When a Wisconsin dairy farm was studied using the model, the solution policy called for replacing nonpregnant cows 11 mo after calving or months in milk (MIM) if in the first lactation and 9 MIM if in later lactations. The

  7. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement

  8. Soluble complement receptor 1 protects the peripheral nerve from early axon loss after injury.

    PubMed

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Wolterman, Ruud; de Kok, Maryla; Vigar, Miriam Ann; Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke; King, Rosalind Helen Mary; Morgan, Brian Paul; Baas, Frank

    2008-04-01

    Complement activation is a crucial early event in Wallerian degeneration. In this study we show that treatment of rats with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1), an inhibitor of all complement pathways, blocked both systemic and local complement activation after crush injury of the sciatic nerve. Deposition of membrane attack complex (MAC) in the nerve was inhibited, the nerve was protected from axonal and myelin breakdown at 3 days after injury, and macrophage infiltration and activation was strongly reduced. We show that both classical and alternative complement pathways are activated after acute nerve trauma. Inhibition of the classical pathway by C1 inhibitor (Cetor) diminished, but did not completely block, MAC deposition in the injured nerve, blocked myelin breakdown, inhibited macrophage infiltration, and prevented macrophage activation at 3 days after injury. However, in contrast to sCR1 treatment, early signs of axonal degradation were visible in the nerve, linking MAC deposition to axonal damage. We conclude that sCR1 protects the nerve from early axon loss after injury and propose complement inhibition as a potential therapy for the treatment of diseases in which axon loss is the main cause of disabilities.

  9. [Prenatal genetic counseling in pregnancy: the importance of (early) timely referral ].

    PubMed

    Aalfs, C M; Smets, E M; de Haes, J C; Leschot, N J

    2001-08-18

    Three women aged 34, 23 and 39 years, who were respectively, 14, 12 and 8 weeks pregnant, requested genetic counselling due to grave genetic diseases in their families. The first woman chiefly wanted to be prepared; an investigation revealed no abnormalities and a healthy child was born. The second needed time to assimilate the information provided and terminated the pregnancy. For the third woman genetic screening was not possible in the short term and furthermore acceptation of the pregnancy was the biggest problem; she gave birth to a healthy child. In the Netherlands, about 800 to 1600 women every year request prenatal genetic counselling when they are already pregnant. The disadvantages of this late timing are the disquiet and uneasiness, the lost options and the time pressure under which difficult decisions have to be taken. Causes of this are a lack of genetic knowledge and psychosocial aspects. Ideally, genetic counselling that deals with reproductive issues should take place prior to conception.

  10. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment among Women in Early Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad…

  11. Brain somatostatinergic system at late pregnancy, parturition and the early postpartum period in the rat.

    PubMed

    Barrios, V; Puebla, L; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M N; Arilla, E

    1993-11-03

    During pregnancy and postpartum rats experience a wide variety of behavioural changes. Since the somatostatinergic system has been implicated in the control of some of these changes, the present study examined somatostatin (SS) content and specific binding in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus of non-pregnant, pregnant (17 to 18 days), parturition and postpartum (10 and 30 days) rats as well as in ovariectomized rats which were or were not treated with estradiol valerianate. The content of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SSLI) was increased at 17 days of pregnancy in frontoparietal cortex and decreased at parturition and 10 days postpartum in that region and the hippocampus under study when compared with SSLI levels in non-pregnant rats. At 30 days postpartum the SSLI content returned to non-pregnant values in both brain regions. Scatchard analysis showed that the decrease in [125I]Tyr11-SS binding observed at 17 days of pregnancy in the frontoparietal cortex was due to the decrease in the number of SS receptors. In contrast, on the day of delivery the number of SS receptors in the same brain region increased. The affinity of the SS receptors was consistently unchanged in pregnant and non-pregnant rats in both regions. At 10 days postpartum the value of specific binding of the tracer to SS receptors in the frontoparietal cortex was not significantly different from that in the non-pregnant rats, although the actual number of receptors was slightly higher. Pregnancy did not change SS binding in the hippocampus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Quantifying the Benefit of Early Climate Change Mitigation in Avoiding Biodiversity Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R.; Vanderwal, J.; Price, J.; Welbergen, J.; Atkinson, I. M.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Osborn, T.; Shoo, L.; Jarvis, A.; Williams, S.; Lowe, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative simulations of the global-scale benefits of climate change mitigation in avoiding biodiversity loss are presented. Previous studies have projected widespread global and regional impacts of climate change on biodiversity. However, these have focused on analysis of business-as-usual scenarios, with no explicit mitigation policy included. This study finds that early, stringent mitigation would avoid a large proportion of the impacts of climate change induced biodiversity loss projected for the 2080s. Furthermore, despite the large number of studies addressing extinction risks in particular species groups, few studies have explored the issue of potential range loss in common and widespread species. Our study is a comprehensive global scale analysis of 48,786 common and widespread species. We show that without climate change mitigation, 57+/-6% of the plants and 34+/-7% of the animals studied are likely to lose over 50% of their present climatic range by the 2080s. This estimate incorporates realistic, taxon-specific dispersal rates. With stringent mitigation, in which emissions peak in 2016 and are reduced by 5% annually thereafter, these losses are reduced by 60%. Furthermore, with stringent mitigation, global temperature rises more slowly, allowing an additional three decades for biodiversity to adapt to a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels. The work also shows that even with mitigation not all the impacts can now be avoided, and ecosystems and biodiversity generally has a very limited capacity to adapt. Delay in mitigation substantially reduces the percentage of impacts that can be avoided, for example if emissions do not peak until 2030, the percentage of losses that can be avoided declines to 40%. Since even small declines in common and widespread species can disrupt ecosystem function and services, these results indicate that without mitigation, globally widespread losses in ecosystem service provision are to be expected.

  13. Could High Volume of Physical Activities in Early Pregnancy Interfere with Deep Placentation?

    PubMed Central

    Vachon-Marceau, Chantale; Girard, Mario; Bisson, Michèle; Demers, Suzanne; Marc, Isabelle; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy on obstetrical outcomes remains controversial. We followed pregnant women who reported more than 3 hours of sustained PA per week during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cases Total five eligible women were followed. We observed small placenta from the first trimester (median: 0.68; interquartile [IQ]: 0.62–0.97 multiples of median [MoM]) to delivery (median: 0.82; IQ: 0.71–0.94 MoM), high uterine artery pulsatility index in the first (median: 1.82; IQ: 1.68–1.99 MoM) and second trimesters (median: 1.33; IQ: 1.11–1.56 MoM) of pregnancy. Placenta pathology revealed deep vasculopathy in three (60%) cases. However, all participants delivered at term and none of them experienced preeclampsia. Conclusion This small case series suggest that high PA volume in first trimester could interfere with deep placentation. PMID:27924247

  14. Immunohistochemical studies on the progesterone receptor (PR) in the sow uterus during the oestrous cycle and in inseminated sows at oestrus and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sukjumlong, S; Dalin, A-M; Sahlin, L; Persson, E

    2005-03-01

    Physiological changes in the sow uterus involve the regulation by progesterone and its receptor proteins (PR). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the localization of PR during different stages of the oestrous cycle and in inseminated sows during early pregnancy by use of immunohistochemistry. Uterine samples were collected from cyclic and inseminated sows at different stages of the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. The samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was done by use of a mouse monoclonal antibody to PR. The highest PR immunostaining in the surface epithelium was observed at oestrus/5-6 h after artificial insemination (AI) and early dioestrus/70 h after AI. In the glandular epithelium, the highest level of PR was found at oestrus with the lowest at late dioestrus/d 19. Higher levels of PR were observed in inseminated groups compared with cyclic sows. In the myometrium, a high level of PR was found at oestrus, while stromal PR cells were constantly present throughout the oestrous cycle and at different stages of early pregnancy. In conclusion, this study shows that the immunopresence of PR in the sow uterus differed between uterine compartments at the same reproductive stage. Differences were also found for some uterine compartments between cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sows. The relatively consistent immunostaining of PR in the stroma strengthens a stromal role in the regulation of physiological activities in the sow uterus during the oestrous cycle as well as early pregnancy.

  15. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation.

  16. Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example.

  17. Loss of Water in Early Earth's Atmosphere and Its Effects on Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Glocer, Alex; Khazanov, George

    2015-08-01

    The short wavelength emission from the Sun has a profound impact on the Earth’s atmosphere. High energy photons ionize the atmosphere and produce photoelectrons. This process provides a major contribution to the acceleration of atmospheric ions due to the vertical separation of ions and electrons, and the formation of the resulting ambipolar electric field. Observations and theory suggest that even a relatively small fraction of super-thermal electrons (photoelectrons) produced due to photoionization can drive the ”polar wind” that is responsible for the transport of ionospheric constituents to the Earth’s magnetosphere.The young Sun was a magnetically active star generating powerful radiative output from its chromosphere, transition region and corona which was a few hundred times greater than that observed today. What effects would the photoionization processes due to the X-ray-UV solar flux from early Sun have on the loss of water from the early Earth?We use the Fokker-Plank code coupled with 1D hydrodynamic code to model the effect of intensive short-wavelength (X-rays to UV band) emission from the young Sun (3.8 and 4.4 Ga) on Earth's atmosphere. Our simulations include the photoionization processes of the Earth’s atmosphere forming a population of photoelectrons (E<600 eV), the kinetic effects of their propagation associated and their contribution in ionosphere - magnetosphere energy redistribution. Our coupled simulations show that the ambipolar electric field can drag atmospheric ions of oxygen and hydrogen to the magnetosphere and produce significant mass loss that can affect the loss of water from the early Earth in the first half a billion years. This process became less efficient in the next 0.2-0.3 Ga that could have provided a window of opportunity for origin of life.

  18. Complement activation and choriocapillaris loss in early AMD: Implications for pathophysiology and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, S.Scott; Sohn, Elliott H.; Chirco, Kathleen R.; Drack, Arlene V.; Stone, Edwin M.; Tucker, Budd A.; Mullins, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common and devastating disease that can result in severe visual dysfunction. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in identifying genetic variants that contribute to AMD, many of which lie in genes involved in the complement cascade. In this review we discuss the significance of complement activation in AMD, particularly with respect to the formation of the membrane attack complex in the aging choriocapillaris. We review the clinical, histological and biochemical data that indicate that vascular loss in the choroid occurs very early in the pathogenesis of AMD, and discuss the potential impact of vascular dropout on the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and the photoreceptor cells. Finally, we present a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of early AMD and consider the implications of this model on the development of new therapies. PMID:25486088

  19. [2 cases of malformations of a limb in infants of mothers treated with an antiemetic in a very early phase of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Soverchia, G; Perri, P F

    1981-01-01

    Two cases of fetal malformation of a limb are described. The mothers of our patients took an antiemetic, Debendox (dicyclomine hydrochloride 10 mg, doxylamine succinate 10 mg, pyridoxine hydrochloride 10 mg), in early pregnancy, five-six weeks after the last menstrual period. The drug was administered during limbs-buds development period which is thought to occur at 43-46 days after conception. The fetal malformation described, are confronted with congenital abnormalities reported by other authors who suspect that, in early pregnancy, Debendox may have teratogenic properties. Nevertheless, prospective studies of gravidas and their offspring have found no evidence to suggest that Debendox is teratogenic in humans.

  20. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-07

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life.

  1. Field use of ultrasonography to characterize the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in a phocid, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Adams, Gregg P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    The utility of transrectal ultrasonography was tested in a field setting to characterize the reproductive tract and detect early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles < 3 mm in diameter) in 17 multiparous female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Female Weddell seals give birth in October/November each year, followed by the breeding season (December) and embryonic diapause. Transrectal ultrasonography was attempted in January/February 2014 to examine the entire reproductive tract (uterine horns and body, ovaries with follicles and corpora lutea) using a 5-10 MHz linear-array probe with a 70 cm-long extension. A single pregnancy was detected in 14 of 17 seals (82.4%) as a circular or guitar-pick shaped nonechogenic (black) vesicle with a clearly visible echogenic border within the lumen of the uterus. The stage of embryonic development (ostensibly the gestational age) varied markedly among individuals, ranging from a vesicle with no embryo proper to a large fetus with an ocular orbit, nose/mouth, limb buds, spinal column, umbilical cord, and prominent vasculature. Two of the pregnant seals were re-examined 3-6 days after the initial examination to obtain longitudinal growth rates. Images of one or both ovaries were obtained in nine and seven of the 19 examinations, respectively. Numerous ovarian follicles (3 to 12 mm diameter) were detected and animals typically had a single well-perfused corpus luteum (determined by Doppler color-flow) ipsilateral to the uterine horn containing the pregnancy. We conclude that real-time transrectal ultrasonography is an effective tool for characterizing reproductive events in phocids including ovarian dynamics, and for elucidating the nature of embryonic diapause.